WorldWideScience

Sample records for vasopressin concentrations increased

  1. COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten Morill; Hansen, Pernille Bl

    2011-01-01

    It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP m...... osmolality in COX-2(-/-) mice irrespective of gender. Hypothalamic AVP mRNA level increased and was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. AVP peptide content was higher in COX-2(-/-) compared with WT. At baseline, plasma AVP concentration was elevated in conscious chronically catheterized COX-2......(-/-) mice, but after WD plasma AVP was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT mice (43 ± 11 vs. 70 ± 16 pg/ml). Renal V2 receptor abundance was downregulated in COX-2(-/-) mice. Medullary interstitial osmolality increased and did not differ between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2; cortex...

  2. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  3. Increased plasma concentrations of vasopressin, oxytocin, cortisol and the prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite during labour in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, K; Bergström, A; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2003-11-01

    This study investigated if the plasma vasopressin concentration increases during labour in the dog and whether the change in vasopressin correlates with that of oxytocin, 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha and cortisol. Five beagle dogs each delivered three to seven puppies. Blood samples were taken from a catheter inserted into the cephalic vein during labour and by venepuncture during the other periods. Vasopressin concentration increased from 2 +/- 0 pmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 26 +/- 11 pmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy, remained high at the birth of the second puppy and then decreased. Oxytocin increased from 63 +/- 5 pmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 166 +/- 19 pmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy and remained elevated throughout labour. The PGF2alpha metabolite concentration increased from 0.2 +/- 0.0 nmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 66 +/- 17 nmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy and remained elevated 1 h after the completion of parturition. The cortisol concentration increased from 49 +/- 9 nmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 242 +/- 35 nmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy, remained high during the birth of the second puppy and then declined. The plasma level of vasopressin was strongly correlated with that of cortisol but less with that of the PGF2alpha metabolite, and not significantly with the concentration of oxytocin. This indicates that the four hormones play different roles during labour in the dog.

  4. The increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood during vagal afferents stimulation or after angiotensin II infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraca, A.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z.

    1996-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that the cardiodepressant activity is present in the bovine hypothalamic extract and in the fluid incubating the posterior pituitary lobe i n situ . The present study was an attempt to reveal if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin were simultaneously released from the pituitary into blood. The samples of venous blood flowing from the sella turcica and, for comparison, from the posterior paw were collected in anesthetized rats. Blood from the sella turcica was collected with a fine cannula inserted into the internal maxillary vein. The concentration of vasopressin in blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay and cardiodepressant activity-using a biological test on a spontaneously discharged pacemaker tissue of the right auricle of the right heart atrium. Stimulation of the central ends of the cut vagus nerves or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II simultaneously caused an increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood. The cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration was also enhanced to some degree in blood outflowing from the posterior paw. Present results indicate that both vasopressin and the cardiodepressant factor are released into blood from the posterior pituitary lobe. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs

  5. The increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood during vagal afferents stimulation or after angiotensin II infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraca, A.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    It has previously been demonstrated that the cardiodepressant activity is present in the bovine hypothalamic extract and in the fluid incubating the posterior pituitary lobe {sup i}n situ{sup .} The present study was an attempt to reveal if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin were simultaneously released from the pituitary into blood. The samples of venous blood flowing from the sella turcica and, for comparison, from the posterior paw were collected in anesthetized rats. Blood from the sella turcica was collected with a fine cannula inserted into the internal maxillary vein. The concentration of vasopressin in blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay and cardiodepressant activity-using a biological test on a spontaneously discharged pacemaker tissue of the right auricle of the right heart atrium. Stimulation of the central ends of the cut vagus nerves or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II simultaneously caused an increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood. The cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration was also enhanced to some degree in blood outflowing from the posterior paw. Present results indicate that both vasopressin and the cardiodepressant factor are released into blood from the posterior pituitary lobe. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs.

  6. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-01-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased [Ca2+] significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of [Ca2+]i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased 45 Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells

  7. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  8. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  9. Weak 24-h periodicity of body temperature and increased plasma vasopressin in melancholic depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Londen, L.; Goekoop, J.G.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Zwindeman, K.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; de Wied, D.

    2001-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that plasma vasopressin levels of depressed patients were higher than those of healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to determine whether plasma vasopressin levels were correlated to parameters of the circadian rhythm. 41 patients with major depression (aged 22-77

  10. Oxytocin, vasopressin, prostaglandin F(2alpha), luteinizing hormone, testosterone, estrone sulfate, and cortisol plasma concentrations after sexual stimulation in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Tosi, U; Villani, M; Govoni, N; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; Madej, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-03-01

    This experiment was designed to determine the effects of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PG-metabolite), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estrone sulfate (ES), and cortisol (C) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 14 light horse stallions (Equus caballus) of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. Blood samples were collected at 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 min before estrous mare exposure, at erection, at ejaculation, and at 3, 6, and 9 min after ejaculation. Afterwards, blood sampling was performed every 10 min for the following 60 min. Sexual activity determined an increase in plasma concentrations of OT, VP, C, PG-metabolite, and ES and caused no changes in LH and T concentrations. The finding of a negative correlation between C and VP at erection, and between C and T before erection and at the time of erection, could be explained by a possible inhibitory role exerted by C in the mechanism of sexual arousal described for men. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dialysis Hypotension : A Role for Inadequate Increase in Arginine Vasopressin Levels? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Esmee M.; Zittema, Debbie; Kuipers, Johanna; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Vart, Priya; de Jong, Paul E.; Westerhuis, Ralf; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intradialytic hypotension is a common complication of hemodialysis (HD). Some studies have suggested that inadequate arginine vasopressin (AVP) increase could play a role in the pathogenesis of intradialytic hypotension. However, AVP levels during HD and its relation to hypotension has

  12. Urinary concentration does not exclusively rely on plasma vasopressin. A study between genders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard-Jensen, Charlotte; Hvistendahl, Gitte M; Frøkiaer, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    AimWe investigated the influence of gender on the diurnal regulation of urine production with special focus on vasopressin, oxytocin and prostaglandin E2. MethodsFifteen young women in mid-follicular phase and 22 young men (20-33years) were included. All participants underwent a 24-h circadian in...

  13. Mechanisms involved in dual vasopressin/apelin neuron dysfunction during aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sauvant

    Full Text Available Normal aging is associated with vasopressin neuron adaptation, but little is known about its effects on the release of apelin, an aquaretic peptide colocalized with vasopressin. We found that plasma vasopressin concentrations were higher and plasma apelin concentrations lower in aged rats than in younger adults. The response of AVP/apelin neurons to osmotic challenge was impaired in aged rats. The overactivity of vasopressin neurons was sustained partly by the increased expression of Transient receptor potential vanilloid2 (Trpv2, because central Trpv blocker injection reversed the age-induced increase in plasma vasopressin concentration without modifying plasma apelin concentration. The morphofunctional plasticity of the supraoptic nucleus neuron-astrocyte network normally observed during chronic dehydration in adults appeared to be impaired in aged rats as well. IL-6 overproduction by astrocytes and low-grade microglial neuroinflammation may contribute to the modification of neuronal functioning during aging. Indeed, central treatment with antibodies against IL-6 decreased plasma vasopressin levels and increased plasma apelin concentration toward the values observed in younger adults. Conversely, minocycline treatment (inhibiting microglial metabolism did not affect plasma vasopressin concentration, but increased plasma apelin concentration toward control values for younger adults. This study is the first to demonstrate dual vasopressin/apelin adaptation mediated by inflammatory molecules and neuronal Trpv2, during aging.

  14. Vasopressin and angiotensin II stimulate oxygen uptake in the perfused rat hindlimb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colquhoun, E Q; Hettiarachchi, M; Ye, J M

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin and angiotensin II markedly stimulated oxygen uptake in the perfused rat hindlimb. The increase due to each agent approached 70% of the basal rate, and was greater than that produced by a maximal concentration of norepinephrine. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 60 pM vasopressin, 0...

  15. Role of fructose and fructokinase in acute dehydration-induced vasopressin gene expression and secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song 宋志林, Zhilin; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Lanaspa-Garcia, Miguel A; Oppelt, Sarah A; Kuwabara, Masanari; Jensen, Thomas; Milagres, Tamara; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Ishimoto, Takuji; Garcia, Gabriela E; Johnson, Ginger; MacLean, Paul S; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela; Tolan, Dean R; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Fructose stimulates vasopressin in humans and can be generated endogenously by activation of the polyol pathway with hyperosmolarity. We hypothesized that fructose metabolism in the hypothalamus might partly control vasopressin responses after acute dehydration. Wild-type and fructokinase-knockout mice were deprived of water for 24 h. The supraoptic nucleus was evaluated for vasopressin and markers of the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway. The posterior pituitary vasopressin and serum copeptin levels were examined. Hypothalamic explants were evaluated for vasopressin secretion in response to exogenous fructose. Water restriction increased serum and urine osmolality and serum copeptin in both groups of mice, although the increase in copeptin in wild-type mice was larger than that in fructokinase-knockout mice. Water-restricted, wild-type mice showed an increase in vasopressin and aldose reductase mRNA, sorbitol, fructose and uric acid in the supraoptic nucleus. In contrast, fructokinase-knockout mice showed no change in vasopressin or aldose reductase mRNA, and no changes in sorbitol or uric acid, although fructose levels increased. With water restriction, vasopressin in the pituitary of wild-type mice was significantly less than that of fructokinase-knockout mice, indicating that fructokinase-driven vasopressin secretion overrode synthesis. Fructose increased vasopressin release in hypothalamic explants that was not observed in fructokinase-knockout mice. In situ hybridization documented fructokinase mRNA in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Acute dehydration activates the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway in the hypothalamus and partly drives the vasopressin response. Exogenous fructose increases vasopressin release in hypothalamic explants dependent on fructokinase. Nevertheless, circulating vasopressin is maintained and urinary concentrating is not impaired. This study increases our understanding of the

  16. Population dynamics in vasopressin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Gareth; Brown, Colin; Sabatier, Nancy; Scott, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Most neurons sense and code change, and when presented with a constant stimulus they adapt, so as to be able to detect a fresh change. However, for some things it is important to know their absolute level; to encode such information, neurons must sustain their response to an unchanging stimulus while remaining able to respond to a change in that stimulus. One system that encodes the absolute level of a stimulus is the vasopressin system, which generates a hormonal signal that is proportional to plasma osmolality. Vasopressin cells sense plasma osmolality and secrete appropriate levels of vasopressin from the neurohypophysis as needed to control water excretion; this requires sustained secretion under basal conditions and the ability to increase (or decrease) secretion should plasma osmolality change. Here we explore the mechanisms that enable vasopressin cells to fulfill this function, and consider how coordination between the cells might distribute the secretory load across the population of vasopressin cells. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effect of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration and anxiety behaviors in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjiri, Elnaz; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Rasmi, Yousef; Khalafkhani, Davod

    2017-03-01

    Stressful events and exposure to opiates during gestation have important effects on the later mental health of the offspring. Anxiety is among the most common mental disorders. The present study aimed to identify effects of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration (PVC) and anxiety behaviors in rats. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, each): saline, morphine, stress + saline and stress + morphine treatment. The stress procedure consisted of restraint twice per day, two hours per session, for three consecutive days starting on day 15 of pregnancy. Rats in the saline and morphine groups received either 0.9% saline or morphine intraperitoneally on the same days. In the morphine/saline + stress groups, rats were exposed to restraint stress and received either morphine or saline intraperitoneally. All offspring were tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM) on postnatal day 90 (n = 6, each sex), and anxiety behaviors of each rat were recorded. Finally, blood samples were collected to determine PVC. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Co-administration of prenatal stress and morphine increased locomotor activity (LA) and PVC. PVC was significantly lower in female offspring of the morphine and morphine + stress groups compared with males in the same group, but the opposite was seen in the saline + stress group. These data emphasize the impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine development, with long-term changes in anxiety-like behaviors and vasopressin secretion. These changes are sex specific, indicating differential impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine system development. Lay Summary Pregnant women are sometimes exposed to stressful and painful conditions which may lead to poor outcomes for offspring. Opiates may provide pain and stress relief to these mothers. In this study, we used an experimental model of

  18. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  19. Prolonged fasting increases the response of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but not vasopressin levels, in postweaned northern elephant seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    The 8- to 12-week postweaning fast exhibited by northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) occurs without any apparent deleterious effects on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. However, during the fast the role of vasopressin (AVP) has been shown to be inconclusive and the involvement of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has yet to be examined. To examine the effects of prolonged fasting on these osmoregulatory hormones, 15 postweaned pups were serially blood-sampled during the first 49 days of their fast. Fasting did not induce significant changes in ionic or osmotic concentrations, suggesting electrolyte homeostasis. Total proteins were reduced by day 21 of fasting and remained depressed, suggesting a lack of dehydration. Aldosterone and plasma renin activity exhibited a correlated, linear increase over the first 49 days of the fast, suggesting an active RAAS. Aldosterone exhibited a parabolic trend over the fast with a peak at day 35, suggesting a shift in the sensitivity of the kidney to aldosterone later in the fast. AVP was elevated at day 49 only, but concentrations were relatively low. RAAS was modified during the postweaning fast in pups and appears to play a significant role in the regulation of electrolyte and, most likely, water homeostasis during this period. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. High Salt Intake Increases Blood Pressure via BDNF-Mediated Downregulation of KCC2 and Impaired Baroreflex Inhibition of Vasopressin Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Katrina Y.; Han, Su Y.; Gaub, Perrine; Shell, Brent; Voisin, Daniel L.; Knapp, Blayne A.; Barker, Philip A.; Brown, Colin H.; Cunningham, J. Thomas; Bourque, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which dietary salt promotes hypertension are unknown. Previous work established that plasma [Na+] and osmolality rise in proportion with salt intake and thus promote release of vasopressin (VP) from the neurohypophysis. Although high levels of circulating VP can increase blood pressure, this effect is normally prevented by a potent GABAergic inhibition of VP neurons by aortic baroreceptors. Here we show that chronic high salt intake impairs baroreceptor inhibition of rat VP ...

  1. Polyuria due to vasopressin V2 receptor antagonism is not associated with increased ureter diameter in ADPKD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; Messchendorp, A. Lianne; Bae, Kyong T.; Higashihara, Eiji; Kappert, Peter; Torres, Vicente; Meijer, Esther; Leliveld, Anna M.

    Tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, has been shown to reduce the rates of growth in total kidney volume (TKV) and renal function loss in ADPKD patients, but also leads to polyuria because of its aquaretic effect. Prolonged polyuria can result in ureter dilatation with consequently renal

  2. Vasopressin increases S261 phosphorylation in AQP2-P262L, a mutant in recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimpert, C.; van den Berg, D.T.; Fenton, R.A.; Klussmann, E.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a renal disorder characterized by polyuria due to a lacking antidiuretic response to vasopressin. While most AQP2 mutants in recessive NDI are misfolded and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum,

  3. Polyuria due to vasopressin V2 receptor antagonism is not associated with increased ureter diameter in ADPKD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleijn, Niek F; Messchendorp, A Lianne; Bae, Kyong T; Higashihara, Eiji; Kappert, Peter; Torres, Vicente; Meijer, Esther; Leliveld, Anna M

    2017-06-01

    Tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, has been shown to reduce the rates of growth in total kidney volume (TKV) and renal function loss in ADPKD patients, but also leads to polyuria because of its aquaretic effect. Prolonged polyuria can result in ureter dilatation with consequently renal function loss. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of tolvaptan-induced polyuria on ureter diameter in ADPKD patients. 70 ADPKD patients were included (51 were randomized to tolvaptan and 19 to placebo). At baseline and after 3 years of treatment renal function was measured (mGFR) and MRI was performed to measure TKV and ureter diameter at the levels of renal pelvis and fifth lumbar vertebral body (L5). In these patients [65.7 % male, age 41 ± 9 years, mGFR 74 ± 27 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and TKV 1.92 (1.27-2.67) L], no differences were found between tolvaptan and placebo-treated patients in 24-h urine volume at baseline (2.5 vs. 2.5 L, p = 0.8), nor in ureter diameter at renal pelvis and L5 (4.0 vs. 4.2 mm, p = 0.4 and 3.0 vs. 3.1 mm, p = 0.3). After 3 years of treatment 24-h urine volume was higher in tolvaptan-treated patients when compared to placebo (4.7 vs. 2.3 L, p polyuria did not lead to an increase in ureter diameter, suggesting that tolvaptan is a safe therapy from a urological point of view.

  4. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  5. Comparison of ex vivo stability of copeptin and vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Judith E; Boesten, Lianne S M; Ettema, Esmée M; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Franssen, Casper F M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Zittema, Debbie

    BACKGROUND: Copeptin, part of the vasopressin precursor, is increasingly used as marker for vasopressin and is claimed to have better ex vivo stability. However, no study has directly compared the ex vivo stability of copeptin and vasopressin. METHODS: Blood of ten healthy volunteers was collected

  6. Vasopressin facilitates excitatory transmission in slices of the rat dorso-lateral septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Hooff, P; Urban, I J

    1990-01-01

    The effect of vasopressin on neurons of the rat dorso-lateral septum (DLS) was studied in brain slices with intracellular microelectrodes. Two out of 13 neurons showed a small depolarization, spontaneous activity, and increased input resistances following a 15 min exposure to 10(-6) to 10(-8) M vasopressin (VP). These membrane effects disappeared completely within 3-5 min after the application. The remaining DLS neurons treated with these vasopressin concentrations showed an increase in glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), evoked by stimulation of the fimbria fibers. As little as 10(-12) MVP increased these EPSPs markedly in nearly 80% of the cells studied. This increase in most of the cells disappeared within 15 min after the application period, whereas the increase in EPSPs induced by 10(-10) M VP outlasted the peptide application period for more than 30 min. Neither the blockade of GABA-ergic synaptic inhibition nor the pre-treatment of the neurons with d(CH2)5-Tyr(Me)-arginine vasopressin or 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (2-APV), antagonists for the V1 type of vasopressin receptor and NMDA receptors, respectively, interfered with the EPSPs potentiating effect of the peptide. It is concluded that a type of vasopressin receptor other then the V1 type is involved in the long-lasting potentiation of the primarily non-NMDA receptor mediated transmission in DLS neurons.

  7. Vasopressin, Copeptin, and Renal Concentrating Capacity in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease without Renal Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; Boertien, Wendy E.; van Beek, Andre P.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Meijer, Esther; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background and objectives Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent hereditary renal disease, characterized by cyst formation in the kidneys leading to end stage kidney failure. It is clinically acknowledged that ADPKD patients have impaired urine concentrating

  8. Osmosensation in vasopressin neurons: changing actin density to optimize function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager-Khoutorsky, Masha; Bourque, Charles W

    2010-02-01

    The proportional relation between circulating vasopressin concentration and plasma osmolality is fundamental for body fluid homeostasis. Although changes in the sensitivity of this relation are associated with pathophysiological conditions, central mechanisms modulating osmoregulatory gain are unknown. Here, we review recent data that sheds important light on this process. The cell autonomous osmosensitivity of vasopressin neurons depends on cation channels comprising a variant of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel. Hyperosmotic activation is mediated by a mechanical process where sensitivity increases in proportion with actin filament density. Moreover, angiotensin II amplifies osmotic activation by a rapid stimulation of actin polymerization, suggesting that neurotransmitter-induced changes in cytoskeletal organization in osmosensory neurons can mediate central changes in osmoregulatory gain. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of vasopressin on hormone secretion and blood flow from the thyroid vein in sheep with exteriorized thyroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, I R

    1968-12-01

    1. Vasopressin has been shown to activate the thyroid in some species, and also to be released into the bloodstream after emotional and other stresses.2. Emotional stimuli applied to sheep have previously been shown to increase thyroid secretion and the possible influence of vasopressin in this process has been investigated. Sheep bearing exteriorized thyroid glands were used, so that thyroid vein blood could be collected in undisturbed conscious animals.3. (125)I or (131)I (50 muc) was injected I.M. into the sheep; 4-7 days later, samples of thyroid vein blood were collected at 10 min intervals for 4 hr, and the concentration of total and protein bound (125)I or (131)I was measured. Intravenous infusions of 0.3, 3.0 or 31 m-u./min arginine or lysine vasopressin, or close arterial infusions of 3.0 or 31 m-u./min arginine vasopressin were administered 1.5 hr after commencement of blood sampling. Blood flow from the thyroid was measured by a plethysmographic technique during similar experiments.4. No significant changes in thyroid hormone secretion were observed as a result of vasopressin infusion, and it was concluded that vasopressin release does not play a part in the activation of the thyroid resulting from emotional stimulus in the sheep.

  10. Interstitial adenosine concentration is increased by dipyridamole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, M.W.; Wangler, R.D.; DeWitt, D.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Sparks, H.V.

    1986-01-01

    The authors used the multiple indicator dilution technique to observe the capillary transport of adenosine (ADO) in isolated guinea pig hearts. Radiolabelled albumin, sucrose and ADO were injected on the arterial side and measured in venous samples collected during the following 20 seconds. Transport parameters calculated from these data include permeability-surface area products (PS) for transendothelial diffusion, endothelial cell (EC) uptake at the lumenal and ablumenal membranes, and EC metabolism. With simultaneous measurements of arterial and venous ADO concentrations and flow, the authors calculated the steady-state interstitial fluid (ISF) ADO concentration. Under control conditions the venous ADO concentration was 7.1 +/- 2.8 nM. The calculated ISF concentration depends on whether they assume the venous ADO comes from the ISF, or directly from ECs. These ISF concentrations are 25 +/- 12 nM and 9.8 +/- 4.0 nM, respectively. During dipyridamole infusion (10 uM) the EC transport parameters became nearly zero. Venous and ISF ADO concentrations increased to 33 +/- 8.9 nM and 169 +/- 42 nM, respectively. The authors conclude that the ISF ADO concentration is 1.5-4 fold higher than the venous concentration at rest, and the ISF concentration increases greatly with dipyridamole

  11. A radioimmunoassay for vasopressin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaenzer, K.

    1989-01-01

    Described are the development and RIA experimental clinical use of determination for an antidiuretic hormone, 8-arginine vasopressin. The lower limits of detection for this RIA were 0.3 pg/ml in the plasma and 0.6 pg/ml in the urine. For purposes of reference, plasma AVP levels were determined in 50 normal volunteers and found to average 1.2 ± 0.6 pg/ml in females and 1.7 ± 0.7 pg/ml in males. The average AVP excretion with the urine ws 73 ± 43 ng/day. AVP levels determined in urine and plasma samples from patients showing diabetes insipidus centralis or healthy subjects that had not been offered any drink for 24 hours provided evidence in confirmation of supposed physiological interactions. The plasma AVP concentrations of subjects, in which the osmotic processes were impaired by the effects of contrast media used for X-ray examinations, proved to be far above the maximum antidiuretic concentrations and were also very likely to be within the effective range for cardiovascular influences. A series of further examinations was to throw some light on the question whether dramatic surges in ADH during and after surgical replacement of the mitral valve would be accompagnied by the occurrence of a hypoosmolar syndrome. Other examinations were to give insights into the particular role of AVP in the regulation of blood pressure. The last series of examinations had the aim to elucidate the interactions between the angiotensin-renin system and AVP secretion, which were studied in healthy volunteers using the tilting table test both before and during suppression of angiotensin II formation by captopril. There was no conclusive evidence from these examinations that angiotensin II mediates the stimulation of plasma AVP under the conditions of passive orthostatism. (orig./MG) With 24 figs., 8 tabs [de

  12. The Vasopressin Type-2 Receptor and Prostaglandin Receptors EP2 and EP4 can Increase Aquaporin-2 Plasma Membrane Targeting Through a cAMP Independent Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma Tina Bisgaard; Moeller, Hanne Bjerregaard; Assentoft, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Apical membrane targeting of the collecting duct water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is essential for body water balance. As this event is regulated by Gs coupled 7-transmembrane receptors such as the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) and the prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP4, it is believed to be c...

  13. Vasopressin and Vasopressin Antagonists in Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram-Nielsen, Julie K; Gustafsson, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Despite the introduction of multiple new pharmacological agents over the past three decades in the field of heart failure (HF), overall prognosis remains poor. Hyponatremia is prevalent in HF patients and has been suggested as a contributor to poor response to standard therapy. Elevated levels...... by the V2 receptors in the renal collecting tubules. The optimal use of VRAs is yet to be determined, especially in patients with congestive HF. Although long-term effects on improvement in mortality have not been shown in the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan...

  14. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for arginine vasopressin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, K.; Murase, T.; Yamaji, T.

    1976-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for arginine vasopressin (AVP) was developed utilizing the antisera against lysine vasopressin (LVP) in combination with a labeled AVP. The assay employs an acetone extraction procedure and detects as little as 0.8 pg. per millimeter of AVP in human plasma. In normal subjects, the mean (+- S.D.) plasma concentration of AVP was 4.9 +- 1.2 pg. per milliliter after fluid deprivation and 1.2 +- 0.4 pg. per milliliter after water loading. Plasma AVP levels correlated significantly with plasma osmolalities. In four patients with diabetes insipidus, plasma AVP concentrations ranged from less than 0.8 to 1.2 pg. per milliliter, whereas six patients with the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion showed plasma levels of AVP which correspond to those of the dehydrated state in normal subjects or greater, although plasma osmolalities were low in all cases. It was concluded that the present radioimmunoassay method for AVP provides a useful way of assessing neurohypophyseal function in man

  15. Neonatal oxytocin and vasopressin manipulation alter social behavior during the juvenile period in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jack H; Cavanaugh, Jon; French, Jeffrey A

    2017-07-01

    Oxytocin and vasopressin are important modulators of a wide variety of social behaviors, and increasing evidence is showing that these neuropeptides are important organizational effectors of later-life behavior as well. We treated day-old gerbil pups with oxytocin, vasopressin, an oxytocin receptor antagonist, a vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist, or saline control, and then measured received parental responsiveness during the early postnatal period and juvenile social behavior during weaning. Neonatal vasopressin treatment enhanced sociality in males, but not females, at both developmental time points. When pups were individually placed outside the nest, parents were more responsive to male pups treated with vasopressin compared with littermates, and vasopressin treated male pups exhibited increased play with littermates as juveniles. These results show that vasopressin during very early life can enhance social interactions throughout early development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. In mpkCCD cells, long-term regulation of aquaporin-2 by vasopressin occurs independent of protein kinase A and CREB but may involve Epac.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortenoeven, M.L.A.; Trimpert, C.; Brand, M. van den; Li, Y.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Urine concentration involves the hormone vasopressin (AVP), which stimulates cAMP production in renal principal cells, resulting in translocation and transcription of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels, greatly increasing the water permeability, leading to a concentrated urine. As cAMP levels

  17. Induction of hypertension blunts baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su Young; Bouwer, Gregory T; Seymour, Alexander J; Korpal, Aaron K; Schwenke, Daryl O; Brown, Colin H

    2015-11-01

    Vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland is determined by action potential discharge of hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells. Vasopressin is a potent vasoconstrictor, but vasopressin levels are paradoxically elevated in some patients with established hypertension. To determine whether vasopressin neurons are excited in hypertension, extracellular single-unit recordings of vasopressin neurons from urethane-anaesthetized Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats with inducible angiotensin-dependent hypertension were made. The basal firing rate of vasopressin neurons was higher in hypertensive Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats than in non-hypertensive Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats. The increase in firing rate was specific to vasopressin neurons because oxytocin neuron firing rate was unaffected by the induction of hypertension. Intravenous injection of the α1-adrenoreceptor agonist, phenylephrine (2.5 μg/kg), transiently increased mean arterial blood pressure to cause a baroreflex-induced inhibition of heart rate and vasopressin neuron firing rate (by 52 ± 9%) in non-hypertensive rats. By contrast, intravenous phenylephrine did not inhibit vasopressin neurons in hypertensive rats, despite a similar increase in mean arterial blood pressure and inhibition of heart rate. Circulating angiotensin II can excite vasopressin neurons via activation of afferent inputs from the subfornical organ. However, the increase in vasopressin neuron firing rate and the loss of inhibition by intravenous phenylephrine were not blocked by intra-subfornical organ infusion of the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan. It can be concluded that increased vasopressin neuron activity at the onset of hypertension is driven, at least in part, by reduced baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons and that this might exacerbate the increase in blood pressure at the onset of hypertension. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-hui TANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database for Chinese Technical Periodical (VIP, Chinese Journal Full-Text Database (CNKI, and Wan Fang Digital Journal Full-text Database were retrieved to collect clinical randomized controlled trials of hepatic cirrhosis with ascites treated by selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists. Meta analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.0. Results Nine randomized controlled trials including 1884 patients met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that: 1 The selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists were associated with a significant reduction in body weight compared with placebo (WMD=–1.98kg, 95%CI:–3.24-–0.72kg, P=0.002. Treatment with selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists was associated with an improvement of low serum sodium concentration compared to placebo (WMD=3.74mmol/L, 95%CI: 0.91-6.58mmol/L, P=0.01. The percentage of patients with worsening ascites was higher in the group of patients treated with placebo (RR=0.51, 95%CI: 0.34-0.77, P=0.001. 2 The amplitude of increased urine volume was obviously higher in selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group than in placebo group (WMD=1437.65ml, 95%CI: 649.01-2226.30ml, P=0.0004. The difference of serum creatinine in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group was not statistically significant compared with the control group (WMD=–3.49μmol/L, 95%CI: –12.54¬5.56μmol/L, P=0.45. 3 There was no statistical significance between the two groups in the heart rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and mortality (P>0.05. The rate of other adverse reactions was higher in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group compared with that of placebo group (P=0.003. Conclusion

  19. Aged mice have increased inflammatory monocyte concentration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monocytes from old as compared with those from young mice. The increased classic .... several instances where the isotype control antibodies stained in a similar position but at a ..... responses in young and older adults. J. Infect. Dis. 195.

  20. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...... treated with an intermittent very-low-calorie formula diet sufficient in respect to protein, minerals and vitamins. They were investigated in weight-stable states. Before weight reduction, 14 patients (61%, 95% confidence limits 39-80%) had elevated plasma fibronectin levels. Plasma fibronectin decreased...... (medians 1.22 and 0.59 mumol/l before and after weight loss, p less than 0.01) and was after weight loss within the normal range in 14 patients. The change in plasma fibronectin was unassociated with the magnitude of the weight loss as well as with the reduction of overweight. The resulting plasma...

  1. Vasopressin and Oxytocin Reduce Food Sharing Behavior in Male, but Not Female Marmosets in Family Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack H. Taylor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT is critical for lactation and maternal care, but OT and the related nonapeptide vasopressin are important for caregiving behaviors in fathers and alloparents as well. This experiment tested the effects of vasopressin and OT on food sharing in marmoset families. We treated caregivers (parents, siblings with intranasal vasopressin, OT, or saline, and then paired them with the youngest marmoset in the family. Caregivers were given preferred food, and then observed for food sharing and aggressive behavior with young marmosets. OT reduced food sharing from male alloparents to youngest siblings, and fathers that received vasopressin refused to share food with their youngest offspring more often than when treated with OT. Vasopressin increased aggressive vocalizations directed toward potential food recipients in all classes of caregivers. These results indicate that vasopressin and OT do not always enhance prosocial behavior: modulation of food sharing depends on both sex and parental status.

  2. Do building wakes increase ground level concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.J.; Melbourne, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the EPRI Plume Rise and Downwash Project to develop and evaluate new mathematical algorithms representing plume rise and downwash, physical model studies were performed on the plume dispersion from Combustion Turbine Unit 4, (CT 4), at the Jersey Central Power and Light Sayreville Generating Station, Sayreville, New Jersey. Studies were performed both in neutral and stably stratified model atmospheric boundary layer conditions with the primary objective being to determine the behavior of the combustion turbine plume under high and low ambient wind speed conditions within the wake region produced by the combustion turbine itself. Field measurements were also performed at the site and to this end a base case wind direction of β = 335 degree was chosen for both the field and model studies in an attempt to minimize the effects of other building wakes on the plume. This paper looks at the flow and dispersion characteristics with and without these large structures in the model in an attempt to explain why the differences in concentration levels occurred

  3. Radioimmunoassay measurement of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin in cows during machine milking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R; Wehowsky, G; Schulz, J; Schulze, H; Bothur, D [Forschungsinstitut fuer Koerperkultur und Sport, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic); Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin)

    1982-07-01

    The response of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin to machine milking in cows was studied by radioimmunoassay. Depending on the method of machine milking used, plasma oxytocin increased to a greater or lesser degree after teat cup application. Plasma vasopressin was not affected by the milking procedures.

  4. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

  5. Involvement of arginine-vasopressin in the diuretic and hypotensive effects of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Caroline Calixto; Uchida, Denise Thiemi; Canzi, Karina Natally; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; Gasparotto, Arquimedes; Laverde, Antonio

    2012-10-31

    Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), popularly known as "ora-pro-nobis" is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine as a diuretic agent, although no scientific data have been published to support this effect. The aim of this work is to evaluate the diuretic and hypotensive activities of the infusion (INFPG) and the ethanol extract (HEPG) of Pereskia grandifolia and possible mechanism of action. The infusions (2.5-10%) and the HEPG (3-100 mg/kg) were orally administered in a single dose or daily (for seven days) to rats. The urine excretion rate, pH, density, conductivity and content of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. In collected serum samples the concentration of electrolytes, urea, creatinine, aldosterone, vasopressin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity were evaluated. The involvement of V(2) vasopressin receptor in the diuretic activity and the hypotensive effect of HEPG were also determined. Water excretion rate was significantly increased by HEPG, while the urinary K(+) and Cl(-) excretion was significantly reduced in acute and prolonged treatment. The oral administration of the HEPG (30mg/kg) significantly reduced serum levels of vasopressin and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in normotensive rats. All other evaluated parameters have not been affected by any treatment. The results showed that HEPG could present compound(s) responsible for aquaretic activities with no signs of toxicity, and this effect could involve a reduction in the arginine-vasopressin release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dehydration-induced modulation of κ-opioid inhibition of vasopressin neurone activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victoria; Bishop, Valerie R; Leng, Gareth; Brown, Colin H

    2009-01-01

    Dehydration increases vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) secretion from the posterior pituitary gland to reduce water loss in the urine. Vasopressin secretion is determined by action potential firing in vasopressin neurones, which can exhibit continuous, phasic (alternating periods of activity and silence), or irregular activity. Autocrine κ-opioid inhibition contributes to the generation of activity patterning of vasopressin neurones under basal conditions and so we used in vivo extracellular single unit recording to test the hypothesis that changes in autocrine κ-opioid inhibition drive changes in activity patterning of vasopressin neurones during dehydration. Dehydration increased the firing rate of rat vasopressin neurones displaying continuous activity (from 7.1 ± 0.5 to 9.0 ± 0.6 spikes s−1) and phasic activity (from 4.2 ± 0.7 to 7.8 ± 0.9 spikes s−1), but not those displaying irregular activity. The dehydration-induced increase in phasic activity was via an increase in intraburst firing rate. The selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine increased the firing rate of phasic neurones in non-dehydrated rats (from 3.4 ± 0.8 to 5.3 ± 0.6 spikes s−1) and dehydrated rats (from 6.4 ± 0.5 to 9.1 ± 1.2 spikes s−1), indicating that κ-opioid feedback inhibition of phasic bursts is maintained during dehydration. In a separate series of experiments, prodynorphin mRNA expression was increased in vasopressin neurones of hyperosmotic rats, compared to hypo-osmotic rats. Hence, it appears that dynorphin expression in vasopressin neurones undergoes dynamic changes in proportion to the required secretion of vasopressin so that, even under stimulated conditions, autocrine feedback inhibition of vasopressin neurones prevents over-excitation. PMID:19822541

  7. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, is associated with higher glucose and insulin concentrations but not higher blood pressure in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, C L; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    distribution. METHODS: In 103 obese men (mean age ± standard deviation: 49.4 ± 10.2 years) and 27 normal weight control men (mean age: 51.5 ± 8.4 years), taking no medication, we measured 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, fasting blood concentrations of copeptin, lipids, glucose and insulin, and determined body...... blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.29), 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.28), BMI (r = 0.09, P = 0.37), total body fatness percentage (r = 0.10, P = 0.33), android fat mass percentage (r = 0.04, P = 0.66) or serum triglyceride concentrations (r = 0.04; P = 0.68). In contrast, plasma copeptin......, and is associated with abnormalities in glucose and insulin metabolism, but not with higher blood pressure or an android fat distribution in obese men....

  8. Vasopressin differentially modulates aggression and anxiety in adolescent hamsters administered anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) treated with anabolic/androgenic steroids display increased offensive aggression and decreased anxiety correlated with an increase in vasopressin afferent development, synthesis, and neural signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Upon withdrawal from anabolic/androgenic steroids, this neurobehavioral relationship shifts as hamsters display decreased offensive aggression and increased anxiety correlated with a decrease in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin. This study investigated the hypothesis that alterations in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin neural signaling modulate behavioral shifting between adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced offensive aggression and anxiety. To test this, adolescent male hamsters were administered anabolic/androgenic steroids and tested for offensive aggression or anxiety following direct pharmacological manipulation of vasopressin V1A receptor signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Blockade of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling suppressed offensive aggression and enhanced general and social anxiety in hamsters administered anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence, effectively reversing the pattern of behavioral response pattern normally observed during the adolescent exposure period. Conversely, activation of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling enhanced offensive aggression in hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence. Together, these findings suggest that the state of vasopressin neural development and signaling in the anterior hypothalamus plays an important role in behavioral shifting between aggression and anxiety following adolescent exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Medial Amygdala and Aggressive Behavior : Interaction Between Testosterone and Vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Roozendaal, B.; Boorsma, F.; Van Den Brink, T.H.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers the functional significance of the testosterone-dependent vasopressinergic neurons of the medial amygdala (Ame) in intermale aggressive behavior of rats. Local microinfusion of vasopressin into the medial amygdala causes an increase in offensive behavior both in gonadally intact

  10. In vivo somatostatin, vasopressin, and oxytocin synthesis in diabetic rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernstrom, J.D.; Fernstrom, M.H.; Kwok, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo labeling of somatostatin-14, somatostatin-28, arginine vasopressin, and oxytocin was studied in rat hypothalamus after third ventricular administration of [35S]cysteine to streptozotocin-diabetic and normal rats. Immunoreactive somatostatin levels in hypothalamus were unaffected by diabetes, as was the incorporation of [35S]cysteine into hypothalamic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. In contrast, immunoreactive vasopressin levels in hypothalamus and posterior pituitary (and oxytocin levels in posterior pituitary) were below normal in diabetic rats. Moreover, [35S]cysteine incorporation into hypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin (probably mainly in the paraventricular nucleus because of its proximity to the third ventricular site of label injection) was significantly above normal. The increments in vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were reversed by insulin administration. In vivo cysteine specific activity and the labeling of acid-precipitable protein did not differ between normal and diabetic animals; effects of diabetes on vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were therefore not caused by simple differences in cysteine specific activity. These results suggest that diabetes (1) does not influence the production of somatostatin peptides in hypothalamus but (2) stimulates the synthesis of vasopressin and oxytocin. For vasopressin at least, the increase in synthesis may be a compensatory response to the known increase in its secretion that occurs in uncontrolled diabetes

  11. A Two-Year Randomized Trial of Interventions to Decrease Stress Hormone Vasopressin Production in Patients with Meniere's Disease-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Tadashi; Okamoto, Hidehiko; Fukushima, Munehisa; Sakagami, Masaharu; Ito, Taeko; Yamashita, Akinori; Ota, Ichiro; Yamanaka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Meniere's disease, a common inner ear condition, has an incidence of 15-50 per 100,000. Because mental/physical stress and subsequent increase in the stress hormone vasopressin supposedly trigger Meniere's disease, we set a pilot study to seek new therapeutic interventions, namely management of vasopressin secretion, to treat this disease. We enrolled 297 definite Meniere's patients from 2010 to 2012 in a randomized-controlled and open-label trial, assigning Group-I (control) traditional oral medication, Group-II abundant water intake, Group-III tympanic ventilation tubes and Group-IV sleeping in darkness. Two hundred sixty-three patients completed the planned 2-year-follow-up, which included assessment of vertigo, hearing, plasma vasopressin concentrations and changes in stress/psychological factors. At 2 years, vertigo was completely controlled in 54.3% of patients in Group-I, 81.4% in Group-II, 84.1% in Group-III, and 80.0% in Group-IV (statistically I management for Meniere's disease. However, avoidance of stress is unrealistic for patients who live in demanding social environments. Our findings in this pilot study suggest that interventions to decrease vasopressin secretion by abundant water intake, tympanic ventilation tubes and sleeping in darkness is feasible in treating Meniere's disease, even though these therapies did not alter reported mental/physical stress levels. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01099046.

  12. Compensation of self-absorption losses in luminescent solar concentrators by increasing luminophore concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumer, Zachar; van Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M.; Schropp, Ruud E.I.; de Mello Donegá, Celso

    2017-01-01

    Self-absorption in luminophores is considered a major obstacle on the way towards efficient luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). It is commonly expected that upon increasing luminophore concentration in an LSC the absorption of the luminophores increases as well and therefore self-absorption

  13. MCS precipitation and downburst intensity response to increased aerosol concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, M.; Cotton, W. R.; van den Heever, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to rainfall in the High Plains of the United States as well as producers of severe weather such as hail, tornados and straight-line wind events known as derechos. Past studies have shown that changes in aerosol concentrations serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) alter the MCS hydrometeor characteristics which in turn modify precipitation yield, downdraft velocity, cold-pool strength, storm propagation and the potential for severe weather to occur. In this study, the sensitivity of MCS precipitation characteristics and convective downburst velocities associated with a derecho to changes in CCN concentrations were examined by simulating a case study using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The case study of the 8 May 2009 "Super-Derecho" MCS was chosen since it produced a swath of widespread wind damage in association with an embedded large-scale bow echo, over a broad region from the High Plains of western Kansas to the foothills of the Appalachians. The sensitivity of the storm to changes in CCN concentrations was examined by conducting a set of three simulations which differed in the initial aerosol concentration based on output from the 3D chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem. Results from this study indicate that while increasing CCN concentrations led to an increase in precipitation rates, the changes to the derecho strength were not linear. A moderate increase in aerosol concentration reduced the derecho strength, while the simulation with the highest aerosol concentrations increased the derecho intensity. These changes are attributed to the impact of enhanced CCN concentration on the production of convective downbursts. An analysis of aerosol loading impacts on these MCS features will be presented.

  14. Improved method and its clinical application of a radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.; Maier, V.; Franz, H.W.; Ulm Univ.; Ulm Univ.

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double-antibody radioimmunoassay for measuring circulating levels of arginine vasopressin in human serum is described. It is possible to detect arginine vasopressin levels of 1 μU/ml serum without extraction procedure. Normal subjects were found to have 5.7 +- 4.4 μU/ml after a dehydration period of 12 hours. Water loading diminished arginine vasopressin concentrations while dehydration incrased it. Application of furosemide over a period of 14 days brought forth constant but not significant decreases. Subjects suffering from psychogenic polydipsia showed normal levels in spite of drinking 8-12 liters of water per day. Patients suffering from liver cirrhosis with ascites showed significantly higher arginine vasopressin levels, approaching normal values when ascites was under control. (orig.) [de

  15. Improved method and its clinical application of a radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H; Maier, V; Franz, H W [Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel; Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Zentrum fuer Innere Medizin und Kinderheilkunde; Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Sektion Nephrologie)

    1977-05-01

    A sensitive and specific double-antibody radioimmunoassay for measuring circulating levels of arginine vasopressin in human serum is described. It is possible to detect arginine vasopressin levels of 1 ..mu..U/ml serum without extraction procedure. Normal subjects were found to have 5.7 +- 4.4 ..mu..U/ml after a dehydration period of 12 hours. Water loading diminished arginine vasopressin concentrations while dehydration incrased it. Application of furosemide over a period of 14 days brought forth constant but not significant decreases. Subjects suffering from psychogenic polydipsia showed normal levels in spite of drinking 8-12 liters of water per day. Patients suffering from liver cirrhosis with ascites showed significantly higher arginine vasopressin levels, approaching normal values when ascites was under control.

  16. Experimental cardiac arrest treatment with adrenaline, vasopressin, or placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palácio, Manoel Ângelo Gomes; Paiva, Edison Ferreira de; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes de; Timerman, Ari

    2013-12-01

    The effect of vasoconstrictors in prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has not been fully clarified. To evaluate adrenaline and vasopressin pressure effect, and observe the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). A prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled study. After seven minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation, pigs received two minutes cycles of CPR. Defibrillation was attempted (4 J/kg) once at 9 minutes, and after every cycle if a shockable rhythm was present, after what CPR was immediately resumed. At 9 minutes and every five minutes intervals, 0.02 mg/kg (n = 12 pigs) adrenaline, or 0.4 U/kg (n = 12) vasopressin, or 0.2 mL/kg (n = 8) 0.9% saline solution was administered. CPR continued for 30 minutes or until the ROSC. Coronary perfusion pressure increased to about 20 mmHg in the three groups. Following vasoconstrictors doses, pressure level reached 35 mmHg versus 15 mmHg with placebo (p < 0.001). Vasopressin effect remained at 15-20 mmHg after three doses versus zero with adrenaline or placebo. ROSC rate differed (p = 0.031) among adrenaline (10/12), vasopressin (6/12), and placebo (2/8). Time-to-ROSC did not differ (16 minutes), nor the number of doses previously received (one or two). There was no difference between vasoconstrictors, but against placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate (p = 0.019). The vasoconstrictors initial pressure effect was equivalent and vasopressin maintained a late effect at prolonged resuscitation. Nevertheless, when compared with placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate.

  17. Estimation of Plasma Arginine Vasopressin Concentration Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    affected by glucose and urea may be inappropriate. Keywords: ... antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is a nine amino acid peptide with a ... in sodium and water homeostasis (Mckenna and ... study were any history of diabetes and cardiovascular.

  18. Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Parry, David L.; McGuinness, Keith A.; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S.

    2013-01-01

    As a key part of water management at the Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia), stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water was applied to natural woodland on the mine lease in accordance with regulatory requirements. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium concentrations. Soil samples were collected from LAAs with different concentrations of uranium and extracts were plated onto LB media containing no (0 ppm), low (3 ppm), medium (250 ppm), high (600 ppm) and very high (1500 ppm) uranium concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the range of measured uranium concentrations in the LAAs soils. Bacteria grew on all plates except for the very high uranium concentrations, where only fungi were recovered. Identifications based on bacterial 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus. Members of the genera Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Klebsiella, Microbacterium and Chryseobacterium were also isolated from the LAAs soil samples. Fungi were identified by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and members of the genera Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Penicillium and Curvularia were dominant on plates with very high uranium concentrations. Members of the Paecilomyces and Alternaria were also present but in lower numbers. These findings indicate that fungi can tolerate very high concentrations of uranium and are more resistant than bacteria. Bacteria and fungi isolated at the Ranger LAAs from soils with high concentrations of uranium may have uranium binding capability and hence the potential for uranium bioremediation. -- Highlights: ► Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media. ► Soil microorganisms isolated from the Ranger Land Application Areas (LAAs) were resistant to uranium. ► Bacillus was the most abundant cultivable genus retrieved from the Ranger LAAs soils. ► Uranium in LAAs soils is

  19. Protein- and diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration: role of glucagon, vasopressin, and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankir, Lise; Roussel, Ronan; Bouby, Nadine

    2015-07-01

    A single protein-rich meal (or an infusion of amino acids) is known to increase the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for a few hours, a phenomenon known as "hyperfiltration." It is important to understand the factors that initiate this upregulation because it becomes maladaptive in the long term. Several mediators and paracrine factors have been shown to participate in this upregulation, but they are not directly triggered by protein intake. Here, we explain how a rise in glucagon and in vasopressin secretion, directly induced by protein ingestion, might be the initial factors triggering the hepatic and renal events leading to an increase in the GFR. Their effects include metabolic actions in the liver and stimulation of sodium chloride reabsorption in the thick ascending limb. Glucagon is not only a glucoregulatory hormone. It is also important for the excretion of nitrogen end products by stimulating both urea synthesis in the liver (along with gluconeogenesis from amino acids) and urea excretion by the kidney. Vasopressin allows the concentration of nitrogenous end products (urea, ammonia, etc.) and other protein-associated wastes in a hyperosmotic urine, thus allowing a very significant water economy characteristic of all terrestrial mammals. No hyperfiltration occurs in the absence of one or the other hormone. Experimental results suggest that the combined actions of these two hormones, along with the complex intrarenal handling of urea, lead to alter the composition of the tubular fluid at the macula densa and to reduce the intensity of the signal activating the tubuloglomerular feedback control of GFR, thus allowing GFR to raise. Altogether, glucagon, vasopressin, and urea contribute to set up the best compromise between efficient urea excretion and water economy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Theoretical basis for convective invigoration due to increased aerosol concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Lebo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential effects of increased aerosol loading on the development of deep convective clouds and resulting precipitation amounts are studied by employing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model as a detailed high-resolution cloud resolving model (CRM with both detailed bulk and bin microphysics schemes. Both models include a physically-based activation scheme that incorporates a size-resolved aerosol population. We demonstrate that the aerosol-induced effect is controlled by the balance between latent heating and the increase in condensed water aloft, each having opposing effects on buoyancy. It is also shown that under polluted conditions, increases in the CCN number concentration reduce the cumulative precipitation due to the competition between the sedimentation and evaporation/sublimation timescales. The effect of an increase in the IN number concentration on the dynamics of deep convective clouds is small and the resulting decrease in domain-averaged cumulative precipitation is shown not to be statistically significant, but may act to suppress precipitation. It is also shown that even in the presence of a decrease in the domain-averaged cumulative precipitation, an increase in the precipitation variance, or in other words, andincrease in rainfall intensity, may be expected in more polluted environments, especially in moist environments.

    A significant difference exists between the predictions based on the bin and bulk microphysics schemes of precipitation and the influence of aerosol perturbations on updraft velocity within the convective core. The bulk microphysics scheme shows little change in the latent heating rates due to an increase in the CCN number concentration, while the bin microphysics scheme demonstrates significant increases in the latent heating aloft with increasing CCN number concentration. This suggests that even a detailed two-bulk microphysics scheme, coupled to a detailed activation scheme, may not be

  1. [Vasopressin V2 receptor-related pathologies: congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic syndrome of inappropiate antidiuresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Denis

    2014-12-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare hereditary disease with mainly an X-linked inheritance (90% of the cases) but there are also autosomal recessive and dominant forms. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is characterized by a resistance of the renal collecting duct to the action of the arginine vasopressin hormone responsible for the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. The X-linked form is due to inactivating mutations of the vasopressin 2 receptor gene leading to a loss of function of the mutated receptors. Affected males are often symptomatic in the neonatal period with a lack of weight gain, dehydration and hypernatremia but mild phenotypes may also occur. Females carrying the mutation may be asymptomatic but, sometimes, severe polyuria is found due to the random X chromosome inactivation. The autosomal recessive and dominant forms, occurring in both genders, are linked to mutations in the aquaporin-2 gene. The treatment remains difficult, especially in infants, and is based on a low osmotic diet with increased water intake and the use of thiazides and indomethacin. The main goal is to avoid hypernatremic episodes and maintain a good hydration state. Potentially, specific treatment, in some cases of X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, with pharmacological chaperones such as non-peptide vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists will be available in the future. Conversely, the nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is linked to a constitutive activation of the V(2)-receptor due to activating mutations with clinical and biological features of inappropriate antidiuresis but with low or undetectable plasma arginine vasopressin hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma procalcitonin concentrations are increased in dogs with sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Milloway, Matthew; Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis, the life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is difficult to identify and to prognosticate for. In people with sepsis, procalcitonin (PCT) measurement aids diagnosis, enables therapeutic monitoring and improves prognostic accuracy. This study used a commercial canine PCT assay to measure plasma PCT concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) syndrome and in dogs with sepsis. It was hypothesised that dogs with GDV syndrome and with sepsis have greater plasma PCT concentrations than healthy dogs and that dogs with sepsis have greater PCT concentrations than dogs with GDV syndrome. Before analysing canine plasma samples, the ability of the assay to identify canine PCT, in addition to assay imprecision and the lower limit of detection were established. The assay had low imprecision with coefficients of variation ≤4.5 per cent. The lower limit of detection was 3.4 pg/ml. Plasma PCT concentrations were measured in 20 dogs with sepsis, in 32 dogs with GDV syndrome and in 52 healthy dogs. Median (IQR) PCT concentration in dogs with sepsis 78.7 pg/ml (39.1–164.7) was significantly greater than in healthy dogs 49.8 pg/ml (36.2–63.7) (P=0.019), but there were no significant differences between PCT concentrations in dogs with GDV syndrome and controls (P=0.072) or between dogs with sepsis and GDV syndrome (P=1.000). Dogs with sepsis have significantly increased plasma PCT concentrations compared with healthy dogs, although considerable overlap between these populations was identified. Future investigations should confirm this finding in other populations and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of PCT in dogs with sepsis. PMID:29682292

  3. Stimulation of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Increased Extracellular Phosphate Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Voelkl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Anemia in renal insufficiency results in part from impaired erythrocyte formation due to erythropoietin and iron deficiency. Beyond that, renal insufficiency enhances eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be stimulated by increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i. Several uremic toxins have previously been shown to stimulate eryptosis. Renal insufficiency is further paralleled by increase of plasma phosphate concentration. The present study thus explored the effect of phosphate on erythrocyte death. Methods: Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, and [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence. Results: Following a 48 hours incubation, the percentage of phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes markedly increased as a function of extracellular phosphate concentration (from 0-5 mM. The exposure to 2 mM or 5 mM phosphate was followed by slight but significant hemolysis. [Ca2+]i did not change significantly up to 2 mM phosphate but significantly decreased at 5 mM phosphate. The effect of 2 mM phosphate on phosphatidylserine exposure was significantly augmented by increase of extracellular Ca2+ to 1.7 mM, and significantly blunted by nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+, by additional presence of pyrophosphate as well as by presence of p38 inhibitor SB203580. Conclusion: Increasing phosphate concentration stimulates erythrocyte membrane scrambling, an effect depending on extracellular but not intracellular Ca2+ concentration. It is hypothesized that suicidal erythrocyte death is triggered by complexed CaHPO4.

  4. Glacier Melting Increases the Solute Concentrations of Himalayan Glacial Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Rogora, Michela; Balestrini, Raffaella; Lami, Andrea; Tartari, Gabriele A; Thakuri, Sudeep; Godone, Danilo; Freppaz, Michele; Tartari, Gianni

    2016-09-06

    Over the past two decades, we observed a substantial rise in ionic content that was mainly determined by the sulfate concentration at 20 remote high elevation lakes located in central southern Himalaya. At LCN9, which was monitored on an annual basis for the last 20 years, the sulfate concentrations increased over 4-fold. Among the main causes, we exclude a change in the composition of wet atmospheric deposition, as well as a possible influence of decrease in seasonal snow cover duration, which could have exposed larger basin surfaces to alteration processes. Glacier retreat likely was the main factor responsible for the observed increase of sulfate concentrations. We attribute this chemical changes mainly to the sulfide oxidation processes that occur in subglacial environments. Moreover, we observe that the weakened monsoon of the past two decades has only partially contributed to the lakes enrichment through runoff waters that are more concentrated in solutes or lowering the water table, resulting in more rock exposed to air and enhanced mineral oxidation.

  5. Plasma vasopressin levels in patients with right-sided heart dysfunction and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Liem; Banks, Dalia; Manecke, Gerard; Shurter, Jesse; Schilling, Jan M; Patel, Hemal H; Madani, Michael M; Roth, David M

    2014-06-01

    Patients with left-sided heart dysfunction and volume overload often have associated elevations in vasopressin from neuroendocrine activation. The authors investigated perioperative levels of vasopressin in patients with isolated right-sided heart dysfunction from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Prospective, observational study. Single center, tertiary hospital. Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension undergoing pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Vasopressin levels were measured in 22 patients during the perioperative period. Vasopressin was undetectable in 8/22 patients at baseline. As a group, vasopressin levels at baseline and after induction of anesthesia were 0.8 pg/mL (median; 0.5-1.5, interquartile range of 25% and 75%) and 0.7 pg/mL (median; 0.5-1.4, interquartile range of 25% and 75%), respectively. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), vasopressin increased to 13.9 pg/mL (median; 6.7-19.9, interquartile range of 25% and 75%). Vasopressin remained elevated after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) at 10.5 pg/mL (median; 6.5-19.9 interquartile range of 25% and 75%) and after CPB at 19.9 pg/mL (median; 11.1-19.9 interquartile range of 25% and 75%). Vasopressin levels in PTE patients are in the low-to-normal range at baseline and may be a clinically relevant issue in the hemodynamic management of PTE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitive radioimmunoassay for plasma arginine vasopressin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibonnier, M.; Soto, M.E.; Corvol, P.; Milliez, P.; Marchetti, J.; Menard, J.

    1980-01-01

    Using an ion exchange resin, a sensitive radioimmunoassay for plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) was developed. This assay was characterized by the absence of blank values, an excellent recovery rate, great sensitivity (0.1 pg of AVP was significantly detected) and reproducibility. In 8 normal men, plasma AVP after overnight dehydration was 1.57+-0.17 pg/ml, and dropped to 0.58+-0.11 pg/ml after 20 ml/kg oral water loading. Significant correlations between plasma AVP levels and plasma or urinary osmolality confirm the validity of this assay. In complete pituitary diabetes insipidus (n=4) plasma AVP was undetectable whereas it was frankly increased in Schwartz-Bartter syndrome (3 to 33 pg/ml, n=8) [fr

  7. Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and increased mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Bojesen, Stig E

    2014-01-01

    adjusted hazard ratios for a 20 nmol/L lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration were 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.25) for all cause mortality, 1.18 (1.09 to 1.28) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.12 (1.03 to 1.22) for cancer mortality, and 1.27 (1.15 to 1.40) for other mortality. Each...... increase in DHCR7/CYP2R1 allele score was associated with a 1.9 nmol/L lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and with increased all cause, cancer, and other mortality but not with cardiovascular mortality. The odds ratio for a genetically determined 20 nmol/L lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  8. IMPACT OF INCREASED ALUMINATE CONCENTRATIONS ON PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE MIXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Erich Hansen, E; Vickie Williams, V

    2007-01-01

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. The protocols developed in this variability study are ideally suited as a tool to assess the impact of proposed changes to the processing flow sheet for Liquid Waste Operations (LWO). One such proposal that is currently under consideration is to introduce a leaching step in the treatment of the High Level Waste (HLW) sludge to remove aluminum prior to vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This leachate would significantly increase the soluble aluminate concentrations as well as the free hydroxide ion concentration in the salt feed that will be processed at the Saltstone Processing Facility (SPF). Consequently, an initial study of the impact of increased aluminate concentration on the Saltstone grout properties was performed. The projected compositions and ranges of the aluminate rich salt stream (which includes the blending strategy) are not yet available and consequently, in this initial report, two separate salt stream compositions were investigated. The first stream starts with the previously projected baseline composition of the salt solution that will be fed to SPF from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The second stream is the solution that results from washing of the current Tank 51 sludge and subsequent transfer of the salt solution to Tank 11. The SWPF simulant has higher nitrate and lower free hydroxide than the Tank 11 simulant. In both of these cases, the aluminate was varied up to a maximum of 0.40 to 0.45M aluminate in order to evaluate the impact of increasing aluminate ion concentration on the grout properties. In general, the fresh grout properties of mixes made with SWPF and Tank 11 simulants were relatively insensitive to an increase in aluminate concentration in the salt solutions. However, the overall

  9. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughner, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past several years, much attention has been focused on the destruction of ozone by anthropogenic pollutants such as the nitrogen oxides and chlorofluoromethane. Little or no attention has been given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration for which a measurable growth has been observed. Increased carbon dioxide can directly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO 2 concentration is twice its ambient level which account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO 2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2--2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km. In this region the relation variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10--30 km). Ozone decreases in the lower stratosphere because of a reduction in ozone-producing solar radiation, which results in smaller downward ozone fluxes from the region at 25--30 km relative to the flux values for the ambient atmosphere. These offsetting changes occurring in the upper and lower stratosphere act to minimize the variation in total ozone

  10. Increase in tiagabine serum concentration with coadministration of gemfibrozil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Aaron H; Boudreau, Eilis A; Theodore, William H

    2009-02-01

    To report a case of possible acute tiagabine toxicity secondary to administration of gemfibrozil. A 39-year-old male was taking tiagabine 16 mg orally 3 times per day and carbamazepine 500 mg orally twice per day for complex partial seizures secondary to mesial temporal sclerosis. He was found to have type IV hypertriglyceridemia and was prescribed gemfibrozil. Because he reported severe confusion and altered consciousness shortly after a single 600-mg dose of gemfibrozil, he was admitted for controlled challenge with that drug. A single 300-mg dose of gemfibrozil resulted in lightheadedness and led to a 59% and 75% increase in total tiagabine serum concentrations at 2 and 5 hours, respectively, without significant change in baseline carbamazepine concentrations. This is the first report of an interaction between the widely used antihyperlipidemic drug gemfibrozil and tiagabine. Since tiagabine, which was originally developed as an antiepileptic medication, is now being used widely for a variety of other indications such as anxiety and depression, there is an increased risk for clinically significant interactions with gemfibrozil. Increased total and unbound tiagabine concentrations following a single 300-mg dose of gemfibrozil and reproduction of clinical symptoms with gemfibrozil rechallenge suggests the toxicity our patient experienced was due to a pharmacokinetic drug interaction. Use of the Horn Drug Interaction Probability Scale showed a probable interaction between gemfibrozil and tiagabine.

  11. Vasopressin-induced changes in splanchnic blood flow and hepatic and portal venous pressures in liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, L Sand; Ricksten, S-E; Houltz, E; Einarsson, H; Söndergaard, S; Rizell, M; Lundin, S

    2016-05-01

    To minimize blood loss during hepatic surgery, various methods are used to reduce pressure and flow within the hepato-splanchnic circulation. In this study, the effect of low- to moderate doses of vasopressin, a potent splanchnic vasoconstrictor, on changes in portal and hepatic venous pressures and splanchnic and hepato-splanchnic blood flows were assessed in elective liver resection surgery. Twelve patients were studied. Cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), mean arterial (MAP), central venous (CVP), portal venous (PVP) and hepatic venous pressures (HVP) were measured, intraoperatively, at baseline and during vasopressin infusion at two infusion rates (2.4 and 4.8 U/h). From arterial and venous blood gases, the portal (splanchnic) and hepato-splanchnic blood flow changes were calculated, using Fick's equation. CO, SV, MAP and CVP increased slightly, but significantly, while systemic vascular resistance and heart rate remained unchanged at the highest infusion rate of vasopressin. PVP was not affected by vasopressin, while HVP increased slightly. Vasopressin infusion at 2.4 and 4.8 U/h reduced portal blood flow (-26% and -37%, respectively) and to a lesser extent hepato-splanchnic blood flow (-9% and -14%, respectively). The arterial-portal vein lactate gradient was not significantly affected by vasopressin. Postoperative serum creatinine was not affected by vasopressin. Short-term low to moderate infusion rates of vasopressin induced a splanchnic vasoconstriction without metabolic signs of splanchnic hypoperfusion or subsequent renal impairment. Vasopressin caused a centralization of blood volume and increased cardiac output. Vasopressin does not lower portal or hepatic venous pressures in this clinical setting. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Reasons for increasing radon concentrations in radon remediated houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, B.

    1997-01-01

    The study comprises 31 single-dwelling houses where remedial actions were carried out in the 1980s. In all of them the radon concentrations have increased more than 30% according to recent control measurements. Radon sources are building material as well as the soil. The remedial actions dealt with ventilation systems, leakage through the basement floor, air cushions, sub-slab suction or radon wells according to the original problems. Causes for the increase varied: In many houses with soil radon problems, the installation of a normal mechanical ventilation system is not a good remedial action. In some houses on a ground with high permeability and high radon content in the soil air, the radon concentration may increase by the lowering of the indoor air pressure. In other houses the increase was a measurement effect, where sites/rooms were confused. Living related causes were identified in a number of cases, where fan speeds were reduced for energy conservation/noise reduction purposes or different use of windows airing had occurred. Extension of the dwelling space without changing the ventilation system caused the increase in one house. 23 refs

  13. Control of sodium excretion in patients with cranial diabetes insipidus maintained on desamino-[8-D-arginine]vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutters, M; Brace, C; Hatfield, E; Whitehurst, A; Lightman, S L; Peart, W S

    1993-11-01

    1. We have studied the response of six patients with cranial diabetes insipidus and six age-matched control subjects to dietary sodium restriction during constant administration of the synthetic vasopressin analogue desamino-[8-D-arginine]vasopressin. 2. Urine flow increased on the first low salt day in the normal control subjects but not in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. Body weight fell 1.35 kg in the control subjects but was constant in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 3. Urinary sodium excretion fell at the same rate in both groups. Diurnal variation of urinary sodium excretion and creatinine clearance was present in the control subjects but not in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 4. Changes in plasma sodium concentration and osmolality were similar. Plasma protein concentration increased more in the control subjects (from 69.1 +/- 1.5 to 73 +/- 1.2 versus from 71.7 +/- 1 to 73.2 +/- 1.1 milligrams). The responses of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, plasma renin activity and salivary aldosterone concentration were similar between the two groups. Salivary aldosterone concentration levels were consistently higher in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 5. We confirm that the low salt diuresis is triggered by release from the antidiuretic activity of arginine vasopressin. In the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus extracellular fluid osmoregulation appeared to be achieved by the movement of water out of and sodium into the extracellular fluid. 6. Absent posterior pituitary function and hypothalamic disturbances did not alter renal sodium conservation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The Septic Shock 3.0 Definition and Trials: A Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James A; Lee, Terry; Singer, Joel; Boyd, John H; Walley, Keith R

    2017-06-01

    The Septic Shock 3.0 definition could alter treatment comparisons in randomized controlled trials in septic shock. Our first hypothesis was that the vasopressin versus norepinephrine comparison and 28-day mortality of patients with Septic Shock 3.0 definition (lactate > 2 mmol/L) differ from vasopressin versus norepinephrine and mortality in Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial. Our second hypothesis was that there are differences in plasma cytokine levels in Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial for lactate less than or equal to 2 versus greater than 2 mmol/L. Retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial. Multicenter ICUs. We compared vasopressin-to-norepinephrine group 28- and 90-day mortality in Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial in lactate subgroups. We measured 39 cytokines to compare patients with lactate less than or equal to 2 versus greater than 2 mmol/L. Patients with septic shock with lactate greater than 2 mmol/L or less than or equal to 2 mmol/L, randomized to vasopressin or norepinephrine. Concealed vasopressin (0.03 U/min.) or norepinephrine infusions. The Septic Shock 3.0 definition would have decreased sample size by about half. The 28- and 90-day mortality rates were 10-12 % higher than the original Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial mortality. There was a significantly (p = 0.028) lower mortality with vasopressin versus norepinephrine in lactate less than or equal to 2 mmol/L but no difference between treatment groups in lactate greater than 2 mmol/L. Nearly all cytokine levels were significantly higher in patients with lactate greater than 2 versus less than or equal to 2 mmol/L. The Septic Shock 3.0 definition decreased sample size by half and increased 28-day mortality rates by about 10%. Vasopressin lowered mortality versus norepinephrine if lactate was less than or equal to 2 mmol/L. Patients had higher plasma cytokines in lactate greater than 2 versus less than or equal to 2 mmol/L, a brisker cytokine response to infection. The Septic

  15. Controlled long-term release of small peptide hormones using a new microporous polypropylene polymer: its application for vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat and potential perinatal use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisbrink, J.; Boer, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Based on drug release by microporous hollow fibers and the recent introduction of microporous polymers, a new technique was developed for controlled delivery of peptides. Small-diameter microporous polypropylene tubing, lumen-loaded with microgram quantities of vasopressin, and coated with collodion, releases vasopressin after in vitro immersion slowly (1-100 ng/d) and constantly for months. The mechanism of pseudo-zero-order delivery is based on high adsorption of vasopressin, keeping the void volume concentration of dissolved vasopressin constant, which is consequently a constant driving force of outward diffusion. The collodion coating prevents the entry of proteinaceous compounds which would result in rapid desorption of vasopressin. The present delivery module provides a lasting release for other peptides as well (lysine-vasopressin, oxytocin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and, to a lesser extent, Met-enkephalin). The microporous polymer-collodion device is biocompatible and, loaded with vasopressin, successfully alleviates the diabetes insipidus of Brattleboro rats deficient for vasopressin. Subcutaneous implantation normalized diuresis for a period of 60 d and constant urine vasopressin excretion is observed. When the commercially available osmotic minipump is too large for implantation, the small size of the present controlled-delivery system allows peptide treatment of young and immature laboratory rats, even if located in utero

  16. The radioimmunological determination of vasopressin in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, M.J. van der.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin, which can be used for the quantitative measurement of the urinary excretion of the hormone in man during physiological and pathological conditions. The final RIA method, using approximately 5 pg 125 I-AVP diluted (1 : 50,000) antiserum 121 and charcoal-dextran separation of the antibody-bound and free fractions, is found to be specific for vasopressin and closely related substances; the sensitivity is 9 pg. The validity is demonstrated and the results of measurements of vasopressin excretion in urine from 39 normal subjects, including 4 children are presented. (Auth.)

  17. Method of increased bioethanol concentration with reduced heat consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremers, G.; Blija, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol dehydration applying method of non-reflux saline distillation was conduced on a laboratory scale and in bigger pilot equipment. Results make possible recommend new method for the increased of ethanol concentration. Heat consumption reduced by 50% and cooling water consumption by 90 % when the non-reflux distillation was applied. Reflux flow in the column is replacing with contact mass, which consist from saline layer and seclude medium. Basis diagram of ethanol non-reflux saline distillation was established. Distillation equipment and number of plates in the column can calculate using basis diagram. Absolute ethanol can obtain with non-reflux saline distillation. Absolute ethanol use in produce of biofuel (author)

  18. Modifiable Factors Associated With Copeptin Concentration : A General Population Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, Maatje D. A.; Meijer, Esther; Scheven, Lieneke E.; Struck, Joachim; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background: Vasopressin plays an important role in maintaining volume homeostasis. However, recent studies suggest that vasopressin also may play a detrimental role in the progression of chronic kidney disease. It therefore is of interest to identify factors that influence vasopressin concentration,

  19. Experimental Cardiac Arrest Treatment with Adrenaline, Vasopressin, or Placebo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palácio, Manoel Ângelo Gomes; de Paiva, Edison Ferreira; de Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Timerman, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of vasoconstrictors in prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has not been fully clarified. Objectives To evaluate adrenaline and vasopressin pressure effect, and observe the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Methods A prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled study. After seven minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation, pigs received two minutes cycles of CPR. Defibrillation was attempted (4 J/kg) once at 9 minutes, and after every cycle if a shockable rhythm was present, after what CPR was immediately resumed. At 9 minutes and every five minutes intervals, 0.02 mg/kg (n = 12 pigs) adrenaline, or 0.4 U/kg (n = 12) vasopressin, or 0.2 mL/kg (n = 8) 0.9% saline solution was administered. CPR continued for 30 minutes or until the ROSC. Results Coronary perfusion pressure increased to about 20 mmHg in the three groups. Following vasoconstrictors doses, pressure level reached 35 mmHg versus 15 mmHg with placebo (p adrenaline or placebo. ROSC rate differed (p = 0.031) among adrenaline (10/12), vasopressin (6/12), and placebo (2/8). Time-to-ROSC did not differ (16 minutes), nor the number of doses previously received (one or two). There was no difference between vasoconstrictors, but against placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate (p = 0.019). Conclusion The vasoconstrictors initial pressure effect was equivalent and vasopressin maintained a late effect at prolonged resuscitation. Nevertheless, when compared with placebo, only adrenaline significantly increased the ROSC rate. PMID:24173134

  20. Effects of vasopressin on the isolated perfused human collecting tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, N; Trizna, W; Bar-Khayim, Y; Fine, L G

    1981-05-01

    Cortical collecting tubules (CCT) were dissected from the surviving normal tissue of human kidneys removed at operation for either carcinoma or calculus. These CCT's were perfused in vitro shortly after the nephrectomy was performed. Transtubular potential differences in different tubules varied from +3.2 to -2.0 mV and were reduced towards zero by lowering the temperature or by adding ouabain to the bath. In the absence of vasopressin, tubules were essentially impermeable to water with extremely low net water fluxes even in the presence of a transtubular osmotic gradient. Addition of vasopressin to the bath caused the transtubular osmotic water permeability coefficient to increase to values of 125, 175, and 155 X 10(-4) cm/sec in three tubules thus studied. These results demonstrate close similarities between the human CCT and the more extensively studied rabbit CCT.

  1. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9 ng/ml; standard error of the mean [SEM] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0 ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad's shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These differences may be attributed to differences in puffing behavior

  2. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulation of urinary concentrating ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena

    2012-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is an enzyme that is gaining prominence as a critical signaling molecule in the epithelial cells of renal tubules. This review will focus on recent findings exploring the role of GSK3 in renal collecting ducts, especially its role in urine concentration involving vasopressin signaling. Recent studies using inhibition or tissue-specific gene deletion of GSK3 revealed the mechanism by which GSK3 regulates aquaporin 2 water channels via adenylate cyclase or the prostaglandin-E2 pathway. In other studies, postnatal treatment with lithium, an inhibitor of GSK3, increased cell proliferation and led to microcyst formation in rat kidneys. These studies suggest that loss of GSK3 activity could interfere with renal water transport at two levels. In the short term, it could disrupt vasopressin signaling in collecting duct cells and in the long term it could alter the structure of the collecting ducts, making them less responsive to the hydro-osmotic effects of vasopressin. Ongoing studies reveal the crucial role played by GSK3 in the regulation of vasopressin action in the renal collecting ducts and suggest a possible use of GSK3 inhibitors in disease conditions associated with disrupted vasopressin signaling.

  3. Effect of the addition of vasopressin or vasopressin plus nitroglycerin to epinephrine on arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducros, Laurent; Vicaut, Eric; Soleil, Christian; Le Guen, Morgan; Gueye, Papa; Poussant, Thomas; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Payen, Didier; Plaisance, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    Infusion of a vasopressor during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in humans increases end decompression (diastolic) arterial blood pressure, and consequently increases vital organ perfusion pressure and survival. Several vasoactive drugs have been tested alone or in combination, but their hemodynamic effects have not been investigated clinically in humans. We tested the hypothesis that epinephrine (1 mg) co-administered with vasopressin (40 IU) ± nitroglycerin (300 μg) results in higher diastolic blood pressure than epinephrine alone. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled trial in the prehospital setting. The study included 48 patients with witnessed cardiac arrest. Patients received either epinephrine alone (E alone) or epinephrine plus vasopressin (E+V) or epinephrine plus vasopressin plus nitroglycerin (E+V+N). A femoral arterial catheter was inserted for arterial pressure measurement. The primary end point was diastolic blood pressure during CPR, 15 min after the first drug administration (T = 15 min). After exclusions, a total of 44 patients were enrolled. Diastolic blood pressures (mm Hg) at T = 15 min were not statistically different between groups (median [interquartile range]: 20 [10], 15 [6], and 15 [13] for E alone, E+V, and E+V+N, respectively. The rate of return of spontaneous circulation was 63% (n = 10) in the epinephrine group, 43% (n = 6) in the epinephrine plus vasopressin group, and 36% (n = 5) in the triple therapy group (NS). Addition of vasopressin or vasopressin plus nitroglycerin to epinephrine did not increase perfusion blood pressure compared to epinephrine alone in humans in cardiac arrest, suggesting the absence of benefit in using these drug combination(s). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioimmunological detection of vasopressin in urine extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buengner, R.

    1983-01-01

    After initial measures had been taken to ensure that ion exchange chromatography would yield a sufficiently high recovery of labelled and non-labelled hormone as well as to eliminate all intervening factors it was possible to use the described extraction procedure in connection with the RIA introduced by Freisenhausen et al. At the clinical level, the technique was employed to assess the post-operative release of AVP (argenine vasopressin) in 24-hour urine samples obtained from patients subjected to hypophysectomy. In a total of 10 patients, where hypophysectomy had been performed for different clinical reasons, the AVP values were seen to be significantly decreased for the first three hours after surgical intervention. They recovered slightly during the following three hours to remain at an average level of 2 pg / 400 μl urine. The extraction procedure described can be used to determine levels of AVP approaching the limit of detection - either due to large volumes of urine or very low concentrations of AVP. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Glycogen synthase kinase 3α regulates urine concentrating mechanism in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Rikke; Tao, Shixin; Nilsson, Line

    2015-01-01

    vasopressin. When water deprived, they failed to concentrate their urine to the same level as WT littermates. The addition of 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin to isolated inner medullary collecting ducts increased the cAMP response in WT mice, but this response was reduced in GSK3αKO mice, suggesting......KO mice, the polyuric response was markedly reduced. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that GSK3α could play a crucial role in renal urine concentration and suggest that GSK3α might be one of the initial targets of Li(+) in LiCl-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus....

  6. Vasopressin and nitroglycerin decrease portal and hepatic venous pressure and hepato-splanchnic blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisén, E; Svennerholm, K; Bown, L S; Houltz, E; Rizell, M; Lundin, S; Ricksten, S-E

    2018-03-26

    Various methods are used to reduce venous blood pressure in the hepato-splanchnic circulation, and hence minimise blood loss during liver surgery. Previous studies show that combination of vasopressin and nitroglycerin reduces portal pressure and flow in patients with portal hypertension, and in this study we investigated this combination in patients with normal portal pressure. In all, 13 patients were studied. Measurements were made twice to confirm baseline (C1 and BL), during vasopressin infusion 4.8 U/h (V), and during vasopressin infusion combined with nitroglycerin infusion (V + N). Portal venous pressure (PVP), hepatic venous pressure (HVP), central haemodynamics and arterial and venous blood gases were obtained at each measuring point, and portal (splanchnic) and hepato-splanchnic blood flow changes were calculated. Vasopressin alone did not affect PVP, whereas HVP increased slightly. In combination with nitroglycerin, PVP decreased from 10.1 ± 1.6 to 8.9 ± 1.3 mmHg (P HVP decreased from 7.9 ± 1.9 to 6.2 ± 1.3 mmHg (P = 0.001). Vasopressin reduced portal blood flow by 47 ± 19% and hepatic venous flow by 11 ± 18%, respectively. Addition of nitroglycerin further reduced portal- and hepatic flow by 55 ± 13% and 30 ± 13%, respectively. Vasopressin alone had minor effects on central haemodynamics, whereas addition of nitroglycerin reduced cardiac index (3.2 ± 0.7 to 2.7 ± 0.5; P < 0.0001). The arterial-portal vein lactate gradient was unaffected. The combination of vasopressin and nitroglycerin decreases portal pressure and hepato-splanchnic blood flow, and could be a potential treatment to reduce bleeding in liver resection surgery. © 2018 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Supraoptic oxytocin and vasopressin neurons function as glucose and metabolic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhilin; Levin, Barry E; Stevens, Wanida; Sladek, Celia D

    2014-04-01

    Neurons in the supraoptic nuclei (SON) produce oxytocin and vasopressin and express insulin receptors (InsR) and glucokinase. Since oxytocin is an anorexigenic agent and glucokinase and InsR are hallmarks of cells that function as glucose and/or metabolic sensors, we evaluated the effect of glucose, insulin, and their downstream effector ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels on calcium signaling in SON neurons and on oxytocin and vasopressin release from explants of the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. We also evaluated the effect of blocking glucokinase and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K; mediates insulin-induced mobilization of glucose transporter, GLUT4) on responses to glucose and insulin. Glucose and insulin increased intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i). The responses were glucokinase and PI3K dependent, respectively. Insulin and glucose alone increased vasopressin release (P glucose in the presence of insulin. The oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) responses to insulin+glucose were blocked by the glucokinase inhibitor alloxan (4 mM; P ≤ 0.002) and the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (50 nM; OT: P = 0.03; VP: P ≤ 0.002). Inactivating K ATP channels with 200 nM glibenclamide increased oxytocin and vasopressin release (OT: P neurons functioning as glucose and "metabolic" sensors to participate in appetite regulation.

  8. Supraoptic oxytocin and vasopressin neurons function as glucose and metabolic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhilin; Levin, Barry E.; Stevens, Wanida

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the supraoptic nuclei (SON) produce oxytocin and vasopressin and express insulin receptors (InsR) and glucokinase. Since oxytocin is an anorexigenic agent and glucokinase and InsR are hallmarks of cells that function as glucose and/or metabolic sensors, we evaluated the effect of glucose, insulin, and their downstream effector ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels on calcium signaling in SON neurons and on oxytocin and vasopressin release from explants of the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. We also evaluated the effect of blocking glucokinase and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K; mediates insulin-induced mobilization of glucose transporter, GLUT4) on responses to glucose and insulin. Glucose and insulin increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). The responses were glucokinase and PI3K dependent, respectively. Insulin and glucose alone increased vasopressin release (P glucose in the presence of insulin. The oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) responses to insulin+glucose were blocked by the glucokinase inhibitor alloxan (4 mM; P ≤ 0.002) and the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (50 nM; OT: P = 0.03; VP: P ≤ 0.002). Inactivating KATP channels with 200 nM glibenclamide increased oxytocin and vasopressin release (OT: P neurons functioning as glucose and “metabolic” sensors to participate in appetite regulation. PMID:24477542

  9. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: MarcAndre.Weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hildebrandt, Wulf [Immunochemistry, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Schroeder, Leif [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kinscherf, Ralf [Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krix, Martin [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Bachert, Peter [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krakowski-Roosen, Holger [National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 {+-} 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P < 0.001) increase in CSA (60 {+-} 16 before vs. 64 {+-} 15 cm{sup 2} after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 {+-} 44 vs. 174 {+-} 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 {+-} 53 vs. 174 {+-} 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 {+-} 75 vs. 326 {+-} 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 {+-} 1.2 vs. 1.1 {+-} 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 {+-} 0.44 vs. 0.52 {+-} 0.74 mm s{sup -1}). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and {beta}-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest ({beta}-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 {+-} 0.06 vs. 0.28 {+-} 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric

  10. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Salivary cortisol concentrations in PD patients were increased in the morning compared with the reference group, and were not influenced by motor dysfunction, duration of disease, or coexistence of chronic or acute pain.Keywords: cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Parkinson's disease

  11. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Marc-Andre; Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schroeder, Leif; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krix, Martin; Bachert, Peter; Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 ± 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P 2 after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 ± 44 vs. 174 ± 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 ± 53 vs. 174 ± 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 ± 75 vs. 326 ± 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 ± 1.2 vs. 1.1 ± 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 ± 0.44 vs. 0.52 ± 0.74 mm s -1 ). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and β-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest (β-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 ± 0.06 vs. 0.28 ± 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric resistance training occurs without an increase in the in vivo microcirculation of the skeletal muscles at

  12. Effect of arginine vasopressin in the nucleus raphe magnus on antinociception in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Jian-Min; Liu, Wen-Yan; Song, Cao-You; Wang, Cheng-Hai; Lin, Bao-Cheng

    2006-09-01

    Previous work has shown that arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulates antinociception through brain nuclei rather than the spinal cord and peripheral organs. The present study investigated the nociceptive effect of AVP in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) of the rat. Microinjection of AVP into the NRM increased pain threshold in a dose-dependent manner, while local administration of AVP-receptor antagonist-d(CH2)5Tyr(Et)DAVP decreased the pain threshold. Pain stimulation elevated AVP concentration in the NRM perfuse liquid. NRM pretreatment with AVP-receptor antagonist completely reversed AVP's effect on pain threshold in the NRM. The data suggest that AVP in the NRM is involved in antinociception.

  13. Decrease of extracellular taurine in the rat dorsal hippocampus after central nervous administration of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brust, P; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1992-01-01

    of the composition of the extracellular fluid. The concentrations of 16 amino acids were measured by HPLC in the perfusate samples. The level of taurine declined 20% in the right hippocampus during perfusion with vasopressin, whereas o-phosphoethanolamine decreased in both sides, the left 20% and the right 24...

  14. GABAergic inhibition through synergistic astrocytic neuronal interaction transiently decreases vasopressin neuronal activity during hypoosmotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Min-Yu; Hou, Qiuling; Hamilton, Kathryn A

    2013-04-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is crucial to mammalian osmotic regulation. Local hypoosmotic challenge transiently decreases and then increases vasopressin secretion. To investigate mechanisms underlying this transient response, we examined the effects of hypoosmotic challenge on the electrical activity of rat hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) vasopressin neurons using patch-clamp recordings. We found that 5 min exposure of hypothalamic slices to hypoosmotic solution transiently increased inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) frequency and reduced the firing rate of vasopressin neurons. Recovery occurred by 10 min of exposure, even though the osmolality remained low. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor blocker, gabazine, blocked the IPSCs and the hypoosmotic suppression of firing. The gliotoxin l-aminoadipic acid blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min and the recovery of firing at 10 min, indicating astrocytic involvement in hypoosmotic modulation of vasopressin neuronal activity. Moreover, β-alanine, an osmolyte of astrocytes and GABA transporter (GAT) inhibitor, blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min of hypoosmotic challenge. Confocal microscopy of immunostained SON sections revealed that astrocytes and magnocellular neurons both showed positive staining of vesicular GATs (VGAT). Hypoosmotic stimulation in vivo reduced the number of VGAT-expressing neurons, and increased co-localisation and molecular association of VGAT with glial fibrillary acidic protein that increased significantly by 10 min. By 30 min, neuronal VGAT labelling was partially restored, and astrocytic VGAT was relocated to the ventral portion while it decreased in the somatic zone of the SON. Thus, synergistic astrocytic and neuronal GABAergic inhibition could ensure that vasopressin neuron firing is only transiently suppressed under hypoosmotic conditions. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Increased reverse T3 concentration in patients with anorexia nerrosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowska, B.; Kaniewski, M.; Zgliczynski, S.

    1980-01-01

    In 20 female patients with anorexia nervosa, aging 16 - 26 years, the thyroid function was estimated by +- determining TSH secretion in response to TRH, and serum thyroxine (T 4 ), 3,5,3'L-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and 3,3',5'L-triiodothyronine (reverse T 3 ) concentrations. 14 healthy women of the same age were included into the control group. If compared with control group, a marked supression of TRH stimulated TSH secretion and a lowering of serum T 3 concentration was found in patients with anorexia nervosa. On the other hand, serum reverse T 3 concentration was markedly higher in patients with anorexia nervosa than in control ones. Gain of body weight leads to normalization of thyroid hormones level in the serum. Obtained results show for peripheral mechanism of described hormonal disorders. (author)

  16. Arginine vasopressin stimulates phosphoinositide turnover in an enriched rat Leydig cell preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl......An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol...

  17. Increased Circulating Betatrophin Concentrations in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Espes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betatrophin has recently been described as a key hormone to stimulate beta-cell mass expansion in response to insulin resistance and obesity in mice. The finding has generated an interest in the development of antidiabetic drugs with betatrophin as the active component. However, the circulating levels of betatrophin in patients with type 2 diabetes are not well known. Betatrophin concentrations in plasma of 27 type 2 diabetes patients and 18 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched controls were measured. Study participants were characterized with regard to BMI, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma blood lipids, creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, and C-peptide. HOMA2 indices were calculated. Betatrophin was 40% higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (893±80 versus 639±66 pg/mL. Betatrophin positively correlated with age in the controls and with HbA1c in the type 2 diabetes patients. All study participants were insulin resistant with mean HOMA2B IR in both groups exceeding 2 and HOMA2%S<50%. Control individuals had impaired fasting glucose concentrations. In this report on betatrophin concentrations in type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance, elevated betatrophin levels were measured in the patients with type 2 diabetes. Future studies are clearly needed to delineate the exact role, if any, of betatrophin in regulating human beta-cell mass.

  18. Amniotic oxytocin and vasopressin in relation to human fetal development and labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbaan, H. P.; Swaab, D. F.

    1989-01-01

    Previous experiments in rats revealed increased amniotic oxytocin (OXT) levels in the course of normal development and increased vasopressin (AVP) levels in retarded fetal growth. In order to see whether similar changes would also occur in human, OXT and AVP levels were determined in amniotic fluid,

  19. Vasopressin and the Neurogenetics of Parental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Tung, Jenny

    2017-07-05

    Making robust connections between genetic variation, neurophysiology, and social behavior remains a challenge. A study by Bendesky et al. (2017) tackles this challenge by dissecting the genetic architecture of parental care in deer mice to discover an important contribution of vasopressin signaling to the evolution of nest building. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuous vasopressin replacement in diabetes insipidus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, C; Butt, W

    1990-01-01

    Five children who developed diabetes insipidus as a manifestation of severe brain injury received continuous intravenous treatment with a solution containing both aqueous vasopressin and appropriate crystalloid replacement. Polyuria, hypernatraemia, and decreased urine osmolalities were safely corrected in all patients within eight to 28 hours.

  1. Vasopressin in perioperative management of congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perioperative care of infants with diaphragmatic hernias can be a challenge because of pulmonary hypertension and systemic hypotension. The objective of this study was to report the usefulness of vasopressin infusion in improving pulmonary and systemic haemodynamics in an infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

  2. Concentrative meditation influences creativity by increasing cognitive flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.C.N.; Gerasimova, A.; Ritter, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the great importance of creativity in society, it is worth investigating how creative thinking can be enhanced. The link between meditation and enhanced creativity has been proposed by a number of authors; however, the reason why meditation leads to an increase in creativity is not clear. The

  3. Differential effects of vasopressin and phenylephrine on protein kinase C-mediated protein phosphorylations in isolated hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H.; Johanson, R.A.; Wiliamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Receptor-mediated breakdown of inositol lipids produces two intracellular signals, diacylglycerol, which activates protein kinase C, and inositol trisphosphate, which causes release of intracellular vesicular Ca 2+ . This study examined the effects of Ca 2+ -ionophores, vasopressin, phenylephrine, and phorbol ester (PMA) on hepatocyte protein phosphorylations. [ 32 P] Phosphoproteins from hepatocytes prelabeled with 32 P were resolved by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE and corresponding autoradiographs were quantitated by densitometric analysis. The phosphorylation of five proteins, a plasma membrane bound 16 kDa protein with pI 6.4, a cytosolic 16 kDa protein with pI 5.8, and proteins with Mr's of 36 kDa, 52 kDa, and 68 kDa, could be attributed to phosphorylation by protein kinase C since the phosphorylation was stimulated by PMA. When the vasopressin concentration was varied, low vasopressin stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein of the above set of proteins, while higher vasopressin concentrations were required to stimulate the phosphorylation of all five proteins. Phenylephrine, even at supramaximal concentrations, stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein. These results suggest that phenylephrine is a less potent activator of protein kinase C than vasopressin by virtue of limited or localized diacylglycerol production

  4. Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz M. Saraiva-Romanholo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group, 12 asthmatics (Asthma group and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group. All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion, spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05. The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.45-6.83] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (0-1.26] or the Control group [0.0 (0] (p <0.05; exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.6-86.85], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.0 -62.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.0-24.7] (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide.

  5. Arginine-vasopressin stimulates the formation of phosphatidic acid in rat Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) stimulated the formation of labelled phosphatidic acid (PA) in [C]arachidonic acid-prelabelled rat Leydig cells. After addition of 10 M AVP [C]arachidonoylphosphatidic acid reached a maximum within 2 min. The increase was dose-dependent (10-10 M). No change in labelling...

  6. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kotwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS.

  7. Cellular plasticity in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei after prolonged dehydration in the desert rodent Meriones shawi: Vasopressin and GFAP immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamrani, Halima; Elgot, Abdeljalil; El Hiba, Omar; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle

    2011-02-23

    Supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei are part of the hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system, they constitute the main source for vasopressin and they represent also obvious examples of activity-dependent neuroglial plasticity. Certain physiological conditions such as dehydration are accompanied by a structural remodeling of the neurons, their synaptic inputs and their surrounding glia. In the present work, an adult Meriones shawi (a rodent adapted to desert life) is used as an animal model. Using GFAP and vasopressin expressions as indicators successively of astrocytes and neuronal activations, the effect of a prolonged episode of water deprivation on the SON and PVN, hypothalamus nuclei were examined. We studied the immunoreactivity of GFAP and vasopressin in various hydration states (total deprivation of drinking water for 1 and 2months compared to hydrated animals). Prolonged dehydration produces an important decrease of GFAP immunoreactivity in both SON and PVN after 1 and 2months of water restriction. This decrease is accompanied by increased vasopressin immunoreactivity following the same periods of water deprivation. These findings may explain a real communication between vasopressin neurons and their surrounding astrocytes, thus the retraction of astrocytes and their processes is accompanied by an enhancement of vasopressin neuron density and their projecting fibers in response to this osmotic stress situation. Furthermore, these data could open further investigations concerning the possible involvement of the communication between astrocytes and vasopressin neurons in both PVN and SON in the regulation of Meriones hydrous balance and resistance to dehydration. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Increased Baseline C-Reactive Protein Concentrations Are Associated with Increased Risk of Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Jeppe; Benfield, Thomas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) increases rapidly during an infection. We tested the hypothesis that chronic low-level increases in CRP are associated with an increased risk of infectious disease. METHODS: We studied 9660 individuals from a prospective general...... population cohort, including 3592 in whom infectious disease developed, and another 60 896 individuals from a cross-sectional general population study, of whom 13 332 developed infectious disease; 55% were women, and the mean age was 57 years. Hospital diagnoses of infections in 1977-2010 were based....... RESULTS: Individuals with CRP >3 mg/L had 1.2 and 1.7 times increased risk of infectious disease, in the prospective general population cohort and the cross-sectional general population study, respectively, compared with individuals with CRP

  9. Radioimmunoassay of arginine-vasopressin in human plasma: Development and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummerich, W.; Konrads, A.; Roesch, R.; Sofroniew, M.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for the measurement of arg-vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma is described. Recovery of added AVP from plasma was about 65-70%. An acetone extraction step was necessary to prevent unspecific blank effects. Sensitivity of the assay in 0.5 pg AVP/ml plasma. In normally hydrated subjects AVP-concentration ranged from 0.7 pg/ml to 5.8 pg/ml and showed a good correlation with plasma osmolality. In patients with complete diabetes insipidus (D.i.) AVP-values were below the sensitivity limit of the method and they were subnormal when D.i. was incomplete. There was no increase of AVP-concentration during fluid restriction in patients with complete or incomplete D.i. In subjects with psychogenic polydipsia AVP-values were normal and dehydration produced adequate rises of plasma AVP. In patients with SIADH (Schwartz-Bartter-syndrome) AVP-values were greatly enhanced (> 10 pg/ml) when correlated to plasma osmolality ( 2 O). (orig.)

  10. Radioimmunoassay of arginine-vasopressin in human plasma: Development and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummerich, W.; Konrads, A.; Roesch, R.; Sofroniew, M.

    1983-02-15

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for the measurement of arg-vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma is described. Recovery of added AVP from plasma was about 65-70%. An acetone extraction step was necessary to prevent unspecific blank effects. Sensitivity of the assay in 0.5 pg AVP/ml plasma. In normally hydrated subjects AVP-concentration ranged from 0.7 pg/ml to 5.8 pg/ml and showed a good correlation with plasma osmolality. In patients with complete diabetes insipidus (D.i.) AVP-values were below the sensitivity limit of the method and they were subnormal when D.i. was incomplete. There was no increase of AVP-concentration during fluid restriction in patients with complete or incomplete D.i. In subjects with psychogenic polydipsia AVP-values were normal and dehydration produced adequate rises of plasma AVP. In patients with SIADH (Schwartz-Bartter-syndrome) AVP-values were greatly enhanced (> 10 pg/ml) when correlated to plasma osmolality (< 170 mosmol/kg H/sub 2/O).

  11. Combined sodium ion sensitivity in agonist binding and internalization of vasopressin V1b receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Taka-Aki; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Taniguchi, Junichi

    2016-05-03

    Reducing Na(+) in the extracellular environment may lead to two beneficial effects for increasing agonist binding to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): reduction of Na(+)-mediated binding block and reduce of receptor internalization. However, such combined effects have not been explored. We used Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing vasopressin V1b receptors as a model to explore Na(+) sensitivity in agonist binding and receptor internalization. Under basal conditions, a large fraction of V1b receptors is located intracellularly, and a small fraction is in the plasma membrane. Decreases in external Na(+) increased cell surface [(3)H]AVP binding and decreased receptor internalization. Substitution of Na(+) by Cs(+) or NH4(+) inhibited agonist binding. To suppress receptor internalization, the concentration of NaCl, but not of CsCl, had to be less than 50 mM, due to the high sensitivity of the internalization machinery to Na(+) over Cs(+). Iso-osmotic supplementation of glucose or NH4Cl maintained internalization of the V1b receptor, even in a low-NaCl environment. Moreover, iodide ions, which acted as a counter anion, inhibited V1b agonist binding. In summary, we found external ionic conditions that could increase the presence of high-affinity state receptors at the cell surface with minimum internalization during agonist stimulations.

  12. Increasing tetracycline concentrations on the performance and communities of mixed microalgae-bacteria photo-bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yanghui; Hozic, Dzenan; Goncalves, Ana L.; Simõ es, Manuel; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-01-01

    , however, increased in relative abundance, which correlated with an increase in the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes associated with efflux pump mechanism. Overall, the findings demonstrate that antibiotic concentrations in municipal wastewaters

  13. Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renin and Vasopressin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian A.

    1994-01-01

    Research during recent years has established nitric oxide as a unique signaling molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and other systems. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the control of the secretion of hormones by the pancreas, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, and evidence is accumulating that it contributes to the regulation of the secretion of renin and vasopressin, hormones that play key roles in the control of sodium and water balance. Several lines of evidence have implicated nitric oxide in the control of renin secretion. The enzyme nitric oxide synthase is present in vascular and tubular elements of the kidney, particularly in cells of the macula densa, a structure that plays an important role in the control of renin secretion. Guanylyl cyclase, a major target for nitric oxide, is also present in the kidney. Drugs that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis generally suppress renin release in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a stimulatory role for the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the control of renin secretion. Under some conditions, however, blockade of nitric oxide synthesis increases renin secretion. Recent studies indicate that nitric oxide not only contributes to the regulation of basal renin secretion, but also participates in the renin secretory responses to activation of the renal baroreceptor, macula densa, and beta adrenoceptor mechanisms that regulate renin secretion. Histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have revealed the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary gland. Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and vasopressin has been demonstrated in some hypothalamic neurons. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the hypothalamus and pituitary is increased by maneuvers known to stimulate vasopressin secretion, including salt loading and dehydration, Administration of L-arginine and nitric

  14. Hemodynamic Effects of Phenylephrine, Vasopressin, and Epinephrine in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siehr, Stephanie L; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Yang, Weiguang; Peng, Lynn F; Ogawa, Michelle T; Ramamoorthy, Chandra

    2016-05-01

    During a pulmonary hypertensive crisis, the marked increase in pulmonary vascular resistance can result in acute right ventricular failure and death. Currently, there are no therapeutic guidelines for managing an acute crisis. This pilot study examined the hemodynamic effects of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension. In this prospective, open-label, nonrandomized pilot study, we enrolled pediatric patients previously diagnosed with pulmonary hypertensive who were scheduled electively for cardiac catheterization. Primary outcome was a change in the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance. Baseline hemodynamic data were collected before and after the study drug was administered. Eleven of 15 participants were women, median age was 9.2 years (range, 1.7-14.9 yr), and median weight was 26.8 kg (range, 8.5-55.2 kg). Baseline mean pulmonary artery pressure was 49 ± 19 mm Hg, and mean indexed pulmonary vascular resistance was 10 ± 5.4 Wood units. Etiology of pulmonary hypertensive varied, and all were on systemic pulmonary hypertensive medications. Patients 1-5 received phenylephrine 1 μg/kg; patients 6-10 received arginine vasopressin 0.03 U/kg; and patients 11-15 received epinephrine 1 μg/kg. Hemodynamics was measured continuously for up to 10 minutes following study drug administration. After study drug administration, the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance decreased in three of five patients receiving phenylephrine, five of five patients receiving arginine vasopressin, and three of five patients receiving epinephrine. Although all three medications resulted in an increase in aortic pressure, only arginine vasopressin consistently resulted in a decrease in the ratio of systolic pulmonary artery-to-aortic pressure. This prospective pilot study of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertensive showed an increase in aortic

  15. Total and cause-specific mortality by moderately and markedly increased ferritin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Marott, Jacob Louis; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    . Stepwise increasing concentrations of ferritin were associated with a stepwise increased risk of premature death overall (log rank, P = 2 × 10(-22)), with median survival of 55 years at ferritin concentrations ≥600 μg/L, 72 years at 400-599 μg/L, 76 years at 200-399 μg/L, and 79 years at ferritin

  16. The effect of acute heat exposure on rat pituitary corticotroph activation: the role of vasopressin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Djurasevic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased ambient temperature affects the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Since the correlation among vasopressin (VP, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT responses to various stressors have been long recognized, the aim of this study was to reveal the aforementioned hormones production and morphology of the pituitary gland after exposure to acute heat. Rats were exposed to high ambient temperature (38 °C for 20 or 60 minutes. The circulating hormones were determined by an ELISA test or chemiluminescence's method. The results obtained show the elevation in ACTH and CORT secretion depending on the duration of heat exposure. The VP concentration increased only after prolonged exposure to heat (60 min. The pituitary morphology was examined by routine and fluorescent immunohistochemistry as well as electron microscopy. Observed changes in the anterior and posterior pituitary well corresponded to circulating hormones, regarding the volume density of ACTH-immunopositive cells, percentage of ACTH immunopositive area v. total area and number of VP-immunopositive containing varicose fibers per total area. Acute heat exposure also induced changes in shapes of ACTH-immunopositive cells. Cells appeared stellate with numerous slender cytoplasmic processes and degranulated, which is the most obvious after 20 min. In addition, immunopositivity of endothelial and anterior pituitary cells for VP suggests its influence on ACTH secretion.

  17. Dehydration-induced release of vasopressin involves activation of hypothalamic histaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, A; Knigge, U; Rouleau, A; Garbarg, M; Warberg, J

    1994-08-01

    The hypothalamic neurotransmitter histamine (HA) induces arginine vasopressin (AVP) release when administered centrally. We studied and characterized this effect of HA with respect to receptor involvement. In addition, we studied the possible role of hypothalamic histaminergic neurons in the mediation of a physiological stimulus (dehydration) for AVP secretion. Intracerebroventricular administration of HA, the H1-receptor agonists 2(3-bromophenyl)HA and 2-thiazolylethylamine, or the H2-receptor agonists amthamine or 4-methyl-HA stimulated AVP secretion. The stimulatory action of HA on AVP was inhibited by pretreatment with the H1-receptor antagonist mepyramine or the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine. Twenty-four hours of dehydration elevated the plasma osmolality from 298 +/- 3 to 310 +/- 3 mmol/liter and increased the plasma AVP concentration 4-fold. The hypothalamic content of HA and its metabolite tele-methyl-HA was elevated in response to dehydration, indicating an increased synthesis and release of hypothalamic HA. Dehydration-induced AVP secretion was lowered when neuronal HA synthesis was inhibited by the administration of (S) alpha-fluoromethylhistidine or when the animals were pretreated with the H3-receptor agonist R(alpha)methylhistamine, which inhibits the release and synthesis of HA, the H1-receptor antagonists mepyramine and cetirizine, or the H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine. We conclude that HA, via activation of both H1- and H2-receptors, stimulates AVP release and that HA is a physiological regulator of AVP secretion.

  18. New benzylureas as a novel series of potent, nonpeptidic vasopressin V2 receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yea, Christopher M; Allan, Christine E; Ashworth, Doreen M; Barnett, James; Baxter, Andy J; Broadbridge, Janice D; Franklin, Richard J; Hampton, Sally L; Hudson, Peter; Horton, John A; Jenkins, Paul D; Penson, Andy M; Pitt, Gary R W; Rivière, Pierre; Robson, Peter A; Rooker, David P; Semple, Graeme; Sheppard, Andy; Haigh, Robert M; Roe, Michael B

    2008-12-25

    Vasopressin (AVP) is a hormone that stimulates an increase in water permeability through activation of V2 receptors in the kidney. The analogue of AVP, desmopressin, has proven an effective drug for diseases where a reduction of urine output is desired. However, its peptidic nature limits its bioavailability. We report herein the discovery of potent, nonpeptidic, benzylurea derived agonists of the vasopressin V2 receptor. We describe substitutions on the benzyl group to give improvements in potency and subsequent modifications to the urea end group to provide improvements in solubility and increased oral efficacy in a rat model of diuresis. The lead compound 20e (VA106483) is reported for the first time and has been selected for clinical development.

  19. Contribution of Co2+ in increasing chlorophyll a concentration of Nannochloropsis salina in controlled Conwy medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, Y.; Taba, P.; Suryati, E.; Kasih, P.; Firman, N. F.

    2018-03-01

    A research in determining the contribution of Co2+ on the increase of chlorophyll a concentration of Nannochloropsis salina has been caried out. The cultivation of N. salina was conducted in the Conwy medium with a salinity of 5%o and 25%o and various Co2+ concentration (2, 4, and 8 ppm). In this research, Co2+ was exposed early in the cultivation of N. salina. The growth of N. salina was observed daily by counting the number of populations using a haemocytometer while the chlorophyll a concentration was determined by a Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that the growth of N. salina in the control was higher than that in the medium containing Co2+. The optimum growth time was achieved on 15th days (5%) and 8th days (25%). In the cultivation medium with a salinity of 5%, Co2+ with a concentration of 2 ppm increased the chlorophyll a level while Co2+ with concentrations of 4 and 8 ppm decreased it. In the medium of cultivation with a salinity of 25%, the increase in chlorophyll a level was observed at Co2+ concentrations of 2 and 4 ppm whereas the decrease in chlorophyl a level was given at a concentration of 8 ppm. It can be concluded that at low concentrations, Co2+ increased the concentration of chlorophyll a in N. salina.

  20. New immunogenic form for vasopressin: production of high-affinity antiserum and RIA for plasmatic AVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougon-Rappuzi, G.; Delaage, M.A.; Conte-Devolx, B.; Millet, Y.

    1977-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for arginine-vasopressin (AVP) was developped and applied to the measurement of AVP in human plasma. High-affinity antivasopressin antibodies with limited association constant heterogeneity have been induced by immunizing rabbits with Lysine-vasopressine (LVP) coupled to a human immunoglobulin (IgA). Replacing air drying of acetone-petroleum ether extracts by lyophilisation increased significantly the yields of AVP. Equilibrium dialysis was used for separating bound and free antigen, thus reducing the total time required for the assay to 48 hours. Only 1 ml of plasma was required for routine determinations due to a sensitivity threshold better than 0.5 pg/ml. Plasma AVP levels of normal subjects and of patients with inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) were determined during different hydratation states and following nicotin of ethanol infusions. (orig.) [de

  1. Training increases the concentration of [3H]ouabain-binding sites in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K; Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    ]ouabain-binding-site concentration in the diaphragm, but in the heart ventricles, the K+-dependent 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity increased by 20% (P less than 0.001). Muscle inactivity induced by denervation, plaster immobilisation or tenotomy reduced the [3H]ouabain-binding-site concentration by 20-30% (P less than 0...

  2. Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass...... and faeces, respectively, were collected over 94 h to cover the diurnal variation, pooled, and subsequently analysed. Rumen fluid was collected in same sampling procedure. To estimate the duodenal flow of microbial protein, microbes were isolated from the rumen and analysed for amino acids (AA) and purines...... flow of AA. The higher duodenal flow of AA derived from a lower rumen degradation of feed protein and a tendency towards a higher microbial synthesis in the rumen. Fibre digestibility and CH4 production were not affected by silage DM concentration. In conclusion, MP concentration in grass-clover silage...

  3. Radio-immunoassay of plasma arginine vasopressin in man. Comparison of two methods of extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.P.; Dumoulin, G.; Henriet, M.T.; Baulay, A.; Berthelay, S.

    1987-01-01

    Two methods of extraction, prior to radio-immunoassay (RIA) of human plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) were tested: ethanol extraction (ETH), chromatography with ODS-Silice (ODS-Sil). Recovery of 125 I AVP was higher when using ODS-Sil than when using ETH. Recovery of standard AVP was found to be more efficient and reproducible for ODS-Sil. However, the RIA used, performed after chromatography with ODS-Sil, is not enough sensitive to detect low concentrations but is able to detect high concentrations and physiological variations of plasma AVP [fr

  4. The vasopressin receptor of the blood-brain barrier in the rat hippocampus is linked to calcium signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, J.; Jensen, Claus V.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, vasopressin receptor, VI subtype, blood-brain barrier, cerebral endothelium, hippocampus, Fura-2......Neuropathology, vasopressin receptor, VI subtype, blood-brain barrier, cerebral endothelium, hippocampus, Fura-2...

  5. Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin concentration in healthy overweight and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Rosenzweig, Mary; Dela, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    -) plasma concentration did not change during exercise in any of the groups, but SCAAT TNF- mRNA increased after exercise in both groups. Furthermore, exercise decreased SCAAT leptin mRNA with no change in resistin mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin...

  6. Storage in high-barrier pouches increases the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Makino

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that is usually found in cruciferous vegetables and is known to have a depressive effect on gastric cancer. Preliminary investigations showed that the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica florets increased under anoxia. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of different atmospheric conditions on the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli and also tested whether there are concurrent effects on the concentration of ethanol, which is an unfavorable byproduct of fermentation. The sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets was significantly elevated by 1.9- to 2.8-fold after 2 d of storage under hypoxia at ca. 0% O2 and ca. 24% CO2 at 20°C, whereas no such increase was observed following storage under normoxia at ca. 0% O2 without CO2 at 20°C. Furthermore, after 2 d, the sulforaphane concentration under hypoxia was 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher than that under normoxia. These results suggest that storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels can elevate the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets. However, the elevated sulforaphane concentration could not be maintained beyond 2 d. There was no significant difference in the concentration of ethanol between florets that were stored under hypoxia with/without CO2 or normoxia at 2 d. However, the ethanol concentrations inside the pouches significantly increased between 2 d and 7 d. These findings indicate that the quality of broccoli florets can be improved through storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels at 20°C for 2 d.

  7. Storage in high-barrier pouches increases the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Yoshio; Nishimura, Yuto; Oshita, Seiichi; Mizosoe, Takaharu; Akihiro, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that is usually found in cruciferous vegetables and is known to have a depressive effect on gastric cancer. Preliminary investigations showed that the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets increased under anoxia. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of different atmospheric conditions on the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli and also tested whether there are concurrent effects on the concentration of ethanol, which is an unfavorable byproduct of fermentation. The sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets was significantly elevated by 1.9- to 2.8-fold after 2 d of storage under hypoxia at ca. 0% O2 and ca. 24% CO2 at 20°C, whereas no such increase was observed following storage under normoxia at ca. 0% O2 without CO2 at 20°C. Furthermore, after 2 d, the sulforaphane concentration under hypoxia was 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher than that under normoxia. These results suggest that storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels can elevate the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets. However, the elevated sulforaphane concentration could not be maintained beyond 2 d. There was no significant difference in the concentration of ethanol between florets that were stored under hypoxia with/without CO2 or normoxia at 2 d. However, the ethanol concentrations inside the pouches significantly increased between 2 d and 7 d. These findings indicate that the quality of broccoli florets can be improved through storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels at 20°C for 2 d.

  8. Results of fuel elements fabrication on the basis of increased concentration dioxide fuel for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.B.; Afanasiev, V.L.; Enin, A.A.; Suprun, V.B.

    1996-01-01

    According to the Russian Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, that were constructed under the Russian projects, at the Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant the pilot series of different configuration (WR-M2, MR, IRT-4M) fuel elements, based on increased concentration uranium dioxide fuel, have been fabricated for reactor tests. Comprehensive fabricated fuel elements quality estimation has been carried out. (author)

  9. Increased serum concentrations of soluble ST2 predict mortality after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Stefan; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Werba, Gregor; Nickl, Stefanie; Roth, Georg A; Krenn, Claus G; Mueller, Thomas; Ankersmit, Hendrik J; Haider, Thomas

    2018-06-27

    Large burn injuries induce a systemic response in affected patients. Soluble ST2 (sST2) acts as a decoy receptor for interleukin-33 (IL-33) and has immunosuppressive effects. sST2 has been described previously as a prognostic serum marker. Our aim was to evaluate serum concentrations of sST2 and IL-33 after thermal injury and elucidate whether sST2 is associated with mortality in these patients. We included 32 burn patients (total body surface area [TBSA] >10%) admitted to our burn intensive care unit and compared them to eight healthy probands. Serum concentrations of sST2 and IL-33 were measured serially using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The mean TBSA was 32.5%±19.6%. Six patients (18.8%) died during the hospital stay. Serum analyses showed significantly increased concentrations of sST2 and reduced concentrations of IL-33 in burn patients compared to healthy controls. In our study cohort, higher serum concentrations of sST2 were a strong independent predictor of mortality. Burn injuries cause an increment of sST2 serum concentrations with a concomitant reduction of IL-33. Higher concentrations of sST2 are associated with increased in-hospital mortality in burn patients.

  10. Performance and microbial community variations of anaerobic digesters under increasing tetracycline concentrations

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yanghui; Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-01-01

    The impact of different concentrations of tetracycline on the performance of anaerobic treatment was evaluated. Results revealed that for all of the tested tetracycline concentrations, no major sustained impact on methane production was observed. Instead, a significant increase in propionic acid was observed in the reactor subjected to the highest concentration of tetracycline (20 mg/L). Microbial community analyses suggest that an alternative methanogenic pathway, specifically that of methanol-utilizing methanogens, may be important for ensuring the stability of methane production in the presence of high tetracycline concentrations. In addition, the accumulation of propionate was due to an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA)-producing bacteria coupled with a reduction in propionate utilizers. An increase in the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes associated with ribosomal protection proteins was observed after 30 days of exposure to high concentrations of tetracycline, while other targeted resistance genes showed no significant changes. These findings suggest that anaerobic treatment processes can robustly treat wastewater with varying concentrations of antibiotics while also deriving value-added products and minimizing the dissemination of associated antibiotic resistance genes.

  11. Performance and microbial community variations of anaerobic digesters under increasing tetracycline concentrations

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yanghui

    2017-04-01

    The impact of different concentrations of tetracycline on the performance of anaerobic treatment was evaluated. Results revealed that for all of the tested tetracycline concentrations, no major sustained impact on methane production was observed. Instead, a significant increase in propionic acid was observed in the reactor subjected to the highest concentration of tetracycline (20 mg/L). Microbial community analyses suggest that an alternative methanogenic pathway, specifically that of methanol-utilizing methanogens, may be important for ensuring the stability of methane production in the presence of high tetracycline concentrations. In addition, the accumulation of propionate was due to an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA)-producing bacteria coupled with a reduction in propionate utilizers. An increase in the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes associated with ribosomal protection proteins was observed after 30 days of exposure to high concentrations of tetracycline, while other targeted resistance genes showed no significant changes. These findings suggest that anaerobic treatment processes can robustly treat wastewater with varying concentrations of antibiotics while also deriving value-added products and minimizing the dissemination of associated antibiotic resistance genes.

  12. Performance and microbial community variations of anaerobic digesters under increasing tetracycline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanghui; Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-07-01

    The impact of different concentrations of tetracycline on the performance of anaerobic treatment was evaluated. Results revealed that for all of the tested tetracycline concentrations, no major sustained impact on methane production was observed. Instead, a significant increase in propionic acid was observed in the reactor subjected to the highest concentration of tetracycline (20 mg/L). Microbial community analyses suggest that an alternative methanogenic pathway, specifically that of methanol-utilizing methanogens, may be important for ensuring the stability of methane production in the presence of high tetracycline concentrations. In addition, the accumulation of propionate was due to an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA)-producing bacteria coupled with a reduction in propionate utilizers. An increase in the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes associated with ribosomal protection proteins was observed after 30 days of exposure to high concentrations of tetracycline, while other targeted resistance genes showed no significant changes. These findings suggest that anaerobic treatment processes can robustly treat wastewater with varying concentrations of antibiotics while also deriving value-added products and minimizing the dissemination of associated antibiotic resistance genes.

  13. Increased nutrient concentrations in Lake Erie tributaries influenced by greenhouse agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J; Wellen, Christopher; Stammler, Katie L; Mundle, Scott O C

    2018-08-15

    Greenhouse production of vegetables is a growing global trade. While greenhouses are typically captured under regulations aimed at farmland, they may also function as a point source of effluent. In this study, the cumulative impacts greenhouse effluents have on riverine macronutrient and trace metal concentrations were examined. Water samples were collected Bi-weekly for five years from 14 rivers in agriculturally dominated watersheds in southwestern Ontario. Nine of the watersheds contained greenhouses with their boundaries. Greenhouse influenced rivers had significantly higher concentrations of macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and trace metals (copper, molybdenum, and zinc). Concentrations within greenhouse influenced rivers appeared to decrease over the 5-year study while concentrations within non-greenhouse influenced river remained constant. The different temporal pattern between river types was attributed to increased precipitation during the study period. Increases in precipitation diluted concentrations in greenhouse influenced rivers; however, non-influenced river runoff proportionally increased nutrient mobility and flow, stabilizing the observed concentrations of non-point sources. Understanding the dynamic nature of environmental releases of point and non-point sources of nutrients and trace metals in mixed agricultural systems using riverine water chemistry is complicated by changes in climatic conditions, highlighting the need for long-term monitoring of nutrients, river flows and weather data in assessing these agricultural sectors. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fabrication of fuel elements on the basis of increased concentration fuel composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.B.; Afanasiev, V.L.; Enin, A.A.; Suprun, V.B.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of Russian Program RERTR Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors), at NCCP, Inc. jointly with the State Scientific Centre VNIINM the mastering in industrial environment of design and fabrication process of fuel elements (FE) with increased concentration fuel compositions is performed. Fuel elements with fuel composition on the basis of dioxide uranium with nearly 4 g/cm 3 fuel concentration have been produced thus confirming the principal possibility of fuel enrichment reduction down to 20% for research reactors which were built up according to the projects of the former USSR, by increasing the oxide fuel concentration in fuel assemblies (FAs). The form and geometrical dimensions of FEs and FAs shall remain unchanged, only uranium mass in FA shall be increased. (author)

  15. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is associated with increased uric acid concentrations: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Iftach; Salman, Amjad Abu; Kezerle, Louise; Erez, Offer; Yoel, Idan; Barski, Leonid

    Peri-partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a clinical heart failure that usually develops during the final stage of pregnancy or the first months following delivery. High maternal serum uric acid concentrations have been previous associated with heart failure and preeclampsia. 1) To explored the clinical characteristics of PPCM patients; and 2) to determine the association between maternal serum uric acid concentrations and PPCM. This is a retrospective population based case control study. Cases and controls were matched 1:4 (for gestational age, medical history of cardiac conditions and creatinine); conditional logistic regression was used to identify clinical parameters that were associated with PPCM. The prevalence of peripartum cardiomyopathy at our institution was 1-3832 deliveries (42/160,964). In a matched multivariate analysis high maternal serum uric acid concentrations were associated with PPCM (O.R 1.336, 95% C.I 1.003-1.778). Uric acid concentrations were higher within the Non-Jewish patients and mothers of male infant with PPCM in compare to those without PPCM (p value 0.003 and 0.01 respectively). PPCM patients had increased maternal serum uric acid concentrations. This observation aligns with previous report regarding the increased uric acid concentration in women with preeclampsia and congestive heart failure, suggestive of a common underlying mechanism that mediates the myocardial damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment with cinacalcet increases plasma sclerostin concentration in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Więcek, Andrzej

    2016-11-15

    Sclerostin is a paracrine acting factor, which is expressed in the osteocytes and articular chondrocytes. Sclerostin decreases the osteoblast-related bone formation through the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Osteocytes also express the Calcium sensing receptor which is a target for cinacalcet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month cinacalcet treatment on plasma sclerostin concentration in hemodialysed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT). In 58 hemodialysed patients with sHPT (PTH > 300 pg/ml) plasma sclerostin and serum PTH, calcium and phosphate concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Serum PTH concentration decreased after 3 and 6 month of treatment from 1138 (931-1345) pg/ml to 772 (551-992) pg/ml and to 635 (430-839) pg/ml, respectively. Mean serum calcium and phosphate concentrations remained stable. Plasma sclerostin concentration increased after 3 and 6 months of treatment from 1.66 (1.35-1.96) ng/ml, to 1.77 (1.43-2.12) ng/ml and to 1.87 (1.50-2.25) ng/ml, respectively. In 42 patients with cinacalcet induced serum PTH decrease plasma sclerostin concentration increased after 3 and 6 months of treatment from 1.51 (1.19-1.84) ng/ml to 1.59 (1.29-1.89) ng/ml and to 1.75 (1.42-2.01) ng/ml, respectively. Contrary, in the 16 patients without cinacalcet induced serum PTH decrease plasma sclerostin concentration was stable. Plasma sclerostin concentrations correlated inversely with serum PTH concentrations at the baseline and also after 6 months of treatment. 1. In hemodialysed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism treatment with cinacalcet increases plasma sclerostin concentration 2. This effect seems to be related to decrease of serum PTH concentration.

  17. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  18. Increasing Fuel Efficiency of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems with Feedforward Control of the Operating Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseung Na

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the R&D on fuel cells for portable applications concentrates on increasing efficiencies and energy densities to compete with other energy storage devices, especially batteries. To improve the efficiency of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC systems, several modifications to system layouts and operating strategies are considered in this paper, rather than modifications to the fuel cell itself. Two modified DMFC systems are presented, one with an additional inline mixer and a further modification of it with a separate tank to recover condensed water. The set point for methanol concentration control in the solution is determined by fuel efficiency and varies with the current and other process variables. Feedforward concentration control enables variable concentration for dynamic loads. Simulation results were validated experimentally with fuel cell systems.

  19. Cerebral glucose utilization after vasopressin barrel rotation or bicuculline seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurpel, J.; Dundore, R.; Bryan, R.; Keil, L.; Severs, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    Intraventricular (ivt) arginine vasopressin (AVP) causes a violent motor behavior termed barrel rotation (BR). AVP-BR is affected by visual/vestibular sensory input and may be related to other CNS motor disorders (seizures). Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was compared in SD rats during AVP-BR and bicuculline (BIC) seizures. Three groups were used: saline-ivt; AVP-ivt 0.5 μg; BIC-5.5 mg/kg,sc. 14 C-glucose (40 μCI iv) was injected 15 sec. after ivt-saline or AVP or onset of BIC seizures. Rats were decapitated 10 min. after 14 C-glucose. Brains were removed and dissected into 19 regions which were digested and glucose uptake quantified by liquid scintillation counting. LCGU was significantly increased in all CNS areas during BIC seizures vs controls (21-92%; p < 0.05 ANOVA). LCGU exhibits variable (upward arrow, downward arrow) changes in discrete areas during AVP-BR (p < .05). Glucose uptake increased in: cortex-olfactory (21%), sensory (9%), motor (8%) cerebellum-rt (13%) and 1t (17%) hemispheres, vermis (6%); pyramidal tract (6%); mesencephalon (5%); and pons (8%). Two areas decreased LCGU during AVP-BR: auditory cortex (-8%) and hippocampus (-11%). AVP-BR exhibits distinct changes in LCGU vs BIC seizures

  20. Ingestive behavior of grazing steers fed increasing levels of concentrate supplementation with different crude protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Fabiano Ferreira; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D Almeida; da Silva, Anderson Luiz Nascimento; Macedo, Venício; Abreu Filho, George; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Guimarães, Joanderson Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of steers on Brachiaria brizantha pasture fed diets with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Thirty-two crossbred steers in the finishing phase with average weight of 420 ± 8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment. Their behavior was assessed every 5 min for 24 h, in the middle of the experimental period. Variance and regression analyses at 0.05 % probability were adopted. The times spent grazing and ruminating reduced linearly (P <0.05), whereas the times spent at the trough (eating) and on other activities increased linearly (P <0.05) as the supplementation levels were elevated. The total feeding and chewing times decreased linearly (P <0.05) as the concentrate levels in the diet were elevated. By increasing the supplementation levels, the number of bites per day decreased linearly (P <0.05), and the feed efficiency of dry matter increased quadratically. Rumination efficiency of dry matter increased linearly (P <0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Grazing and rumination activities are reduced when the time devoted to other activities and at the trough are increased, as a result of the substitution effect.

  1. Biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janaky, T.; Laczi, F.; Laszlo, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin were determined in R-Amsterdam rats and in homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary central diabetes insipidus. It was found that the biological half-lives of [ 3 H]LVP and [ 3 H]dDAVP in the Brattleboro rats did not differ significantly from that found in the control R-Amsterdam rats. The half-life of [ 3 H]dDAVP proved longer than that of [ 3 H]LVP in all three groups of animals. In the case of [ 3 H]LVP the highest radioactivities were observed in the neurohypophyses, adenohypophyses, and kidneys of both the R-Amsterdam and Brattleboro rats. The accumulation of tritiated material was higher in the small intestine of the Brattleboro rats than in that of the R-Amsterdam animals. In all three groups of rats, [ 3 H]dDAVP was accumulated to the greatest extent in the kidney and the small intestine. The kidney and small intestine contained less radioactivity in homozygous Brattleboro rats than in the controls. There was only a slight radioactivity accumulation in the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. From the results it was concluded that the decrease in the rate of enzymatic decomposition may play a role in the increased duration of antidiuretic action of dDAVP. The results have led to the conclusion that the accelerated elimination of vasopressin and its pathologic organ accumulation are probably not involved in the water metabolism disturbance of Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus

  2. Radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlich, E.; Weber, P.; Groeschel-Stewart, U.; Roeschlau, T.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1975-01-01

    Antibodies for the radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin (AVP) described here were produced in rabbits using synthetic AVP coupled to rabbit γ-globulin with carbodiimide. In three out of six rabbits, significant antibody titres were obtained. Using the best antisera produced, 40% of labelled AVP was bound at a final dilution of 1 : 50,000. After iodination of synthetic AVP with 125 I using the chloramin-T method, a gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 was performed to purify the iodinated AVP. For separation of antibody bound and free hormone, a second antibody precipitation was used. There was no crossreactivity with oxytocin. AVP was extracted from plasma after ammoniumsulfate precipitation of the proteins by adsorption to Florisil. The recovery of AVP added to plasma in amounts of 5-25 pg/ml was 60 +- 15% (n = 6). The minimum amount of AVP detectable was 1 pg per ml plasma. The plasma level in normal adults under standard conditions was 3.4 +- 2.2 pg/ml. This is in agreement with data recently published by other researchers. The applicability and reproducibility was further tested in measurements of samples taken hourly during the entire day under water diuresis and after hormonal stimulation of AVP. (orig.) [de

  3. Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kristin A.; Halterman, Jill S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Fagnano, Maria; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increased air pollutant concentrations have been linked to several asthma-related outcomes in children, including respiratory symptoms, medication use, and hospital visits. However, few studies have examined effects of ultrafine particles in a pediatric population. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles on asthma exacerbation among urban children and determine whether consistent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids could attenuate these effects. We also explored the relationship between asthma exacerbation and ambient concentrations of accumulation mode particles, fine particles (≤ 2.5 micrograms [μm]; PM2.5), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. We hypothesized that increased 1 to 7 day concentrations of ultrafine particles and other pollutants would be associated with increases in the relative odds of an asthma exacerbation, but that this increase in risk would be attenuated among children receiving school-based corticosteroid therapy. Methods We conducted a pilot study using data from 3–10 year-old children participating in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit treated with prednisone (n=96 visits among 74 children) associated with increased pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 days. We re-ran these analyses separately for children receiving medications through the school-based intervention and children in a usual care control group. Results Interquartile range increases in ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations in the previous 7 days were associated with increases in the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit, with the largest increases observed for 4-day mean ultrafine particles (interquartile range=2088 p/cm3; OR=1.27; 95% CI=0.90–1.79) and 7-day mean carbon monoxide (interquartile range=0.17 ppm; OR=1.63; 95

  4. Response of Sphagnum mosses to increased CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauhiainen, J.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to study the effects of different CO 2 concentration and N deposition rates on Sphagna adapted to grow along a nutrient availability gradient (i.e. ombrotrophy-mesotrophy-eutrophy). The study investigated: (i) the effects of various longterm CO 2 concentrations on the rate of net photosynthesis in Sphagna, (ii) the effects of the CO 2 and N treatments on the moss density, shoot dry masses, length increment and dry mass production in Sphagna, (iii) the concentrations of the major nutrients in Sphagna after prolonged exposure to the CO 2 and N treatments, and (iv) species dependent differences in potential NH 4 + and NO 3 - uptake rates. The internal nutrient concentration of the capitulum and the production of biomass were effected less by the elevated CO 2 concentrations because the availability of N was a controlling factor. In addition responses to the N treatments were related to ecological differences between the Sphagna species. Species with a high tolerance of N availability were able to acclimatise to the increased N deposition rates. The data suggests a high nutrient status is less significant than the adaptation of the Sphagna to their ecological niche (e.g. low tolerance of meso-eutrophic S. warnstorfii to high N deposition rate). At the highest N deposition rate the ombrotrophic S. fuscum had the highest increase in tissue N concentration among the Sphagna studied. S. fuscum almost died at the highest N deposition rate because of the damaging effects of N to the plant's metabolism. Ombrotrophic hummock species such as S. fuscum, were also found to have the highest potential N uptake rate (on density of dry mass basis) compared to lawn species. The rate of net photosynthesis was initially increased with elevated CO 2 concentrations, but photosynthesis was down regulated with prolonged exposure to CO 2 . The water use efficiency in Sphagna appeared not to be coupled with exposure to the long-term CO 2 concentration. The

  5. Response of Sphagnum mosses to increased CO{sub 2} concentration and nitrogen deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhiainen, J.

    1998-12-31

    The main objective of this work was to study the effects of different CO{sub 2} concentration and N deposition rates on Sphagna adapted to grow along a nutrient availability gradient (i.e. ombrotrophy-mesotrophy-eutrophy). The study investigated: (i) the effects of various longterm CO{sub 2} concentrations on the rate of net photosynthesis in Sphagna, (ii) the effects of the CO{sub 2} and N treatments on the moss density, shoot dry masses, length increment and dry mass production in Sphagna, (iii) the concentrations of the major nutrients in Sphagna after prolonged exposure to the CO{sub 2} and N treatments, and (iv) species dependent differences in potential NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake rates. The internal nutrient concentration of the capitulum and the production of biomass were effected less by the elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations because the availability of N was a controlling factor. In addition responses to the N treatments were related to ecological differences between the Sphagna species. Species with a high tolerance of N availability were able to acclimatise to the increased N deposition rates. The data suggests a high nutrient status is less significant than the adaptation of the Sphagna to their ecological niche (e.g. low tolerance of meso-eutrophic S. warnstorfii to high N deposition rate). At the highest N deposition rate the ombrotrophic S. fuscum had the highest increase in tissue N concentration among the Sphagna studied. S. fuscum almost died at the highest N deposition rate because of the damaging effects of N to the plant`s metabolism. Ombrotrophic hummock species such as S. fuscum, were also found to have the highest potential N uptake rate (on density of dry mass basis) compared to lawn species. The rate of net photosynthesis was initially increased with elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, but photosynthesis was down regulated with prolonged exposure to CO{sub 2}. The water use efficiency in Sphagna appeared not to be coupled

  6. Persistent increase of plasma butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine concentrations as marker of SCAD defect and ethylmalonic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merinero, B; Perez-Cerda, C; Ruiz Sala, P

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine (C(4)-carnitine) in plasma with increase of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) in urine point to different genetic entities, and further investigations are required to differentiate the possible underlying defect. Here we report three unrelated cases, two n...

  7. Blockade of central vasopressin receptors reduces the cardiovascular response to acute stress in freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojicić, S; Milutinović-Smiljanić, S; Sarenac, O; Milosavljević, S; Paton, J F R; Murphy, D; Japundzić-Zigon, N

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the contribution of central vasopressin receptors to blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) response to stress we injected non-peptide selective V(1a) (SR49059), V(1b) (SSR149415), V(2) (SR121463) receptor antagonists, diazepam or vehicle in the lateral cerebral ventricle of conscious freely moving rats stressed by blowing air on their heads for 2 min. Cardiovascular effects of stress were evaluated by analyzing maximum increase of BP and HR (MAX), latency of maximum response (LAT), integral under BP and HR curve (integral), duration of their recovery and spectral parameters of BP and HR indicative of increased sympathetic outflow (LF(BP) and LF/HF(HR)). Moreover, the increase of serum corticosterone was measured. Exposure to air-jet stress induced simultaneous increase in BP and HR followed by gradual decline during recovery while LF(BP) oscillation remained increased as well as serum corticosterone level. Rats pre-treated with vasopressin receptor antagonists were not sedated while diazepam induced sedation that persisted during exposure to stress. V(1a), V(1b) and V(2) receptor antagonists applied separately did not modify basal values of cardiovascular parameters but prevented the increase in integral(BP). In addition, V(1b) and V(2) receptor antagonists reduced BP(MAX) whereas V(1a), V(1b) antagonist and diazepam reduced HR(MAX) induced by exposure to air-jet stress. All drugs shortened the recovery period, prevented the increase of LF(BP) without affecting the increase in serum corticosterone levels. Results indicate that vasopressin receptors located within the central nervous system mediate, in part, the cardiovascular response to air-jet stress without affecting either the neuroendocrine component or inducing sedation. They support the view that the V(1b) receptor antagonist may be of potential therapeutic value in reducing arterial pressure induced by stress-related disorders.

  8. Vasopressin in chronic kidney disease, in particular ADPKD : Causal factor or innocent bystander?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Vasopressin is an important hormone for water regulation of the body. When dehydration occurs, vasopressin secretion leads to water reabsorption in the kidney to prevent water loss. However, vasopressin seems to have deleterious effects on the kidney as well. In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney

  9. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of

  10. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased....... Increased water consumption and increased urinary iAVP excretion seem to be early symptoms (after 4 weeks) of EFA deficiency, whereas decreased urine output and decreased urinary PGE excretion occur much later (after 10 weeks). Two energy% linolenate supplementation to a fat-free diet did not change...

  11. Increasing tetracycline concentrations on the performance and communities of mixed microalgae-bacteria photo-bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yanghui

    2017-12-11

    This study investigated the impact of varying concentrations of tetracycline on the performance of mixed microalgae-bacteria photo-bioreactors. Photo-bioreactors were assessed for their ability to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the biogas of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (anMBR), and nutrients from the anaerobic effluent. The varying concentrations of tetracycline had no impact on the removal of CO2 from biogas. 29% v/v of CO2 was completely removed to generate >20% v/v of oxygen (O2) in all reactors. Removal of nutrients and biomass was not affected at low concentrations of tetracycline (≤150μg/L), but 20mg/L of tetracycline lowered the biomass generation and removal efficiencies of phosphate. Conversely, high chlorophyll a and b content was observed at 20mg/L of tetracycline. High tetracycline level had no impact on the diversity of 18S rRNA gene-based microalgal communities but adversely affected the 16S rRNA gene-based microbial communities. Specifically, both Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla decreased in relative abundance but not phylum Chloroplast. Additionally, both nitrogen-fixing (e.g. Flavobacterium, unclassified Burkholderiales and unclassified Rhizobiaceae) and denitrifying groups (e.g. Hydrogenophaga spp.) were significantly reduced in relative abundance at high tetracycline concentration. Phosphate-accumulating microorganisms, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were similarly reduced upon exposure to high tetracycline concentration. Unclassified Comamonadaceae, however, increased in relative abundance, which correlated with an increase in the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes associated with efflux pump mechanism. Overall, the findings demonstrate that antibiotic concentrations in municipal wastewaters will not significantly affect the removal of nutrients by the mixed microalgae-bacteria photo-bioreactors. However, utilizing such photo-bioreactors as a polishing step for anMBRs that treat wastewaters with high tetracycline

  12. Solute concentration affects bradykinin-mediated increases in renal prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenser, T.V.; Davis, E.S.; Rapp, N.S.; Davis, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of solute concentration on the bradykinin-mediated increase in inner medullary slice prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis were investigated. PG content was determined by specific RIA. Bradykinin stimulation was prevented by the addition of the following solutes to Krebs buffer: 1.0 M urea, 0.5 or 1.0 M NaCl, 0.5 or 1.0 M mannitol, 1.0 M urea plus 0.5 M NaCl, or 1.0 M mannitol plus 0.5 M NaCl. By contrast, basal PGE2 synthesis was increased by 1.0 M mannitol or by 1.0 M mannitol plus 0.5 M NaCl, but decreased by 1.0 M urea. Urea elicited a concentration-dependent, reversible inhibition of bradykinin stimulation, with 0.01 M urea being the lowest effective concentration. By contrast, basal PGE2 synthesis was only reduced at a urea concentration greater than 0.6 M. Arachidonic acid-mediated increases in both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha synthesis were not prevented by 1.0 M urea. The latter suggests that neither PG endoperoxide synthetase nor PG endoperoxide E isomerase are inhibited by urea. The data indicate that different hypertonic solutions have different effects on basal PG production, but all inhibit bradykinin stimulation

  13. Less-studied TCE: are their environmental concentrations increasing due to their use in new technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filella, M; Rodríguez-Murillo, J C

    2017-09-01

    The possible environmental impact of the recent increase in use of a group of technology-critical elements (Nb, Ta, Ga, In, Ge and Te) is analysed by reviewing published concentration profiles in environmental archives (ice cores, ombrotrophic peat bogs, freshwater sediments and moss surveys) and evaluating temporal trends in surface waters. No increase has so far been recorded. The low potential direct emissions of these elements, resulting from their absolute low production levels, make it unlikely that the increasing use of these elements in modern technology has any noticeable effect on their environmental concentrations on a global scale. This holds particularly true for those of these elements that are probably emitted in relatively high amounts from other human activities (i.e., coal combustion and non-ferrous smelting), such as In, the most studied element of the group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Renal excretion of prostaglandin metabolites, arginine vasopressin, and sodium during endotoxin and endogenous pyrogen induced fever in the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónasson, H; Basu, S; Andersson, B; Kindahl, H

    1984-04-01

    Responses to intravenous injections of an endotoxin (E. coli-lipopolysaccharide, 1 microgram/kg b.wt.) and endogenous pyrogen were studied in euhydrated and hyperhydrated goats. The biphasic febrile response to the endotoxin was associated with a pronounced increase in the renal excretion of measured prostaglandin (PG) metabolites (11-ketotetranor PGF metabolites). This increase was time-correlated with the elevation of the rectal temperature, and (in hyperhydrated animals) with an inhibition of the water diuresis and an increase in renal excretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Other effects of the endotoxin were an immediate depression of renal Na and K excretion followed by the development of pronounced natriuresis, and a reduction of plasma Fe and Zn concentrations. The appearance of the febrile reactions (peripheral vasoconstriction and shivering) was accompanied by miosis. The maximum elevation of the rectal temperature was significantly greater during euhydration than during hyperhydration. Also endogenous pyrogen elicited miosis concomitant with febrile reactions, and an elevation of the renal excretion of PG metabolites which was closely correlated in time with the monophasic febrile response, and (during hyperhydration) with temporary inhibition of the water diuresis and an increase in the renal AVP excretion. However, the responses were much weaker than the corresponding endotoxin effects. No appreciable changes in renal excretion of Na and K were observed in response to the endogenous pyrogen. It is concluded that the observed effects on renal cation excretion were manifestations of direct endotoxin influences on kidney function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The role of arginine vasopressin in electroacupuncture treatment of primary sciatica in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Qi-Shun; Yang, Jun; Sun, Fang-Jie; Wang, Da-Xin; Wang, Chang-Hong; He, Wei-Ya

    2015-08-01

    It has been implicated that electroacupuncture can relieve the symptoms of sciatica with the increase of pain threshold in human, and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the brain rather than the spinal cord and blood circulation participates in antinociception. Our previous study has proven that AVP in the brain played a role in the process of electroacupuncture analgesia in rat. The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of AVP in electroacupuncture in treating primary sciatica in human. The results showed that (1) AVP concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (7.5 ± 2.5 pg/ml), not plasma (13.2 ± 4.2 pg/ml) in primary sciatica patients was lower than that in health volunteers (16.1 ± 3.8 pg/ml and 12.3 ± 3.4 pg/ml), although the osmotic pressure in CSF and plasma did not change; (2) electroacupuncture of the bilateral "Zusanli" points (St. 36) for 60 min relieved the pain sensation in primary sciatica patients; (3) electroacupuncture increased the AVP level of CSF, not plasma in primary sciatica patients; and (4) there was the positive correlation between the effect of electroacupuncture relieving the pain and the AVP level of CSF in the primary sciatica patients. The data suggested that central AVP, not peripheral AVP might improve the effect of electroacupuncture treatment of primary sciatica in human, i.e., central AVP might take part in the electroacupuncture relieving the pain sensation in primary sciatica patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrate concentrations in drainage water in marine clay areas : exploratory research of the causes of increased nitrate concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van E.M.P.M.; Roelsma, J.; Massop, H.T.L.; Hendriks, R.F.A.; Goedhart, P.W.; Jansen, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The nitrate concentrations measured in drainage water and groundwater at LMM farms (farms participating in the National Manure Policy Effects Measurement Network (LLM)) in marine clay areas have decreased with 50% since the mid-nineties. The nitrate concentrations in marine clay areas are on average

  17. CSF neurofilament light concentration is increased in presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Nina; Roos, Peter; Portelius, Erik

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A rare cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a mutation in the CHMP2B gene on chromosome 3 (FTD-3), described in a Danish family. Here we examine whether CSF biomarkers change in the preclinical phase of the disease. METHODS: In this cross-sectional explorative study, we...... analyzed CSF samples from 16 mutation carriers and 14 noncarriers from the Danish FTD-3 family. CSF biomarkers included total tau (t-tau) and neurofilament light chain (NfL) as a marker for neurodegeneration, phosphorylated tau (p-tau) as a marker for tau pathology, β-amyloid (Aβ) 38, 40, and 42 (Aβ38, Aβ......40, and Aβ42) to monitor Aβ metabolism, and YKL-40 as a marker of neuroinflammation. Aβ isoform concentrations were measured using a multiplexed immunoassay; t-tau, p-tau, NfL, and YKL-40 concentrations were measured using sandwich ELISAs. RESULTS: CSF NfL concentration was significantly increased...

  18. A modeling study of effective radiative forcing and climate response due to increased methane concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An atmospheric general circulation model BCC_AGCM2.0 and observation data from ARIS were used to calculate the effective radiative forcing (ERF due to increased methane concentration since pre-industrial times and its impacts on climate. The ERF of methane from 1750 to 2011 was 0.46 W m−2 by taking it as a well-mixed greenhouse gas, and the inhomogeneity of methane increased its ERF by about 0.02 W m−2. The change of methane concentration since pre-industrial led to an increase of 0.31 °C in global mean surface air temperature and 0.02 mm d−1 in global mean precipitation. The warming was prominent over the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (with a maximum increase exceeding 1.4 °C. The precipitation notably increased (maximum increase of 1.8 mm d−1 over the ocean between 10°N and 20°N and significantly decreased (maximum decrease >–0.6 mm d−1 between 10°S and 10°N. These changes caused a northward movement of precipitation cell in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ. Cloud cover significantly increased (by approximately 4% in the high latitudes in both hemispheres, and sharply decreased (by approximately 3% in tropical areas.

  19. MR imaging of the small bowel with increasing concentrations of an oral osmotic agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borthne, Arne S. [Ullevaal University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Ullevaal University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Abdelnoor, Michael [Ullevaal University Hospital, Unit of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Centre of Clinical Research, Oslo (Norway); Hellund, Johan C.; Geitung, Jonn T.; Kloew, Nils-E. [Ullevaal University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Storaas, Trygve; Gjesdal, Kjell I. [Ullevaal University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Oslo (Norway)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of MR imaging and level of adverse effects with increasing concentrations of gastrografin. This is a prospective study with 24 healthy volunteers which were randomised into four groups receiving 50%, 25%, 10% and 0% gastrografin. The endpoint was bowel image quality based on distension, signal homogeneity and wall delineation evaluated by three independent radiologists, and the maximum bowel diameter at three different levels. The subjects also scored any adverse events on a 1-5 scale. The interradiologist agreement was relatively good, with kappa values varying between 0.81 and 0.41. Improved bowel distension and image quality were achieved with increasing concentrations. But significant dose-response effects were found between increasing osmolalities and the bowel diameters and also versus the score of adverse events. The most frequent adverse reactions were diarrhea, nausea and lack of palatability. There is a gradient relationship between increasing osmolality of gastrografin and improved image quality and the score of adverse effects. The optimum concentration of gastrografin is dependent of the tolerance of the adverse events. (orig.)

  20. MR imaging of the small bowel with increasing concentrations of an oral osmotic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borthne, Arne S.; Abdelnoor, Michael; Hellund, Johan C.; Geitung, Jonn T.; Kloew, Nils-E.; Storaas, Trygve; Gjesdal, Kjell I.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of MR imaging and level of adverse effects with increasing concentrations of gastrografin. This is a prospective study with 24 healthy volunteers which were randomised into four groups receiving 50%, 25%, 10% and 0% gastrografin. The endpoint was bowel image quality based on distension, signal homogeneity and wall delineation evaluated by three independent radiologists, and the maximum bowel diameter at three different levels. The subjects also scored any adverse events on a 1-5 scale. The interradiologist agreement was relatively good, with kappa values varying between 0.81 and 0.41. Improved bowel distension and image quality were achieved with increasing concentrations. But significant dose-response effects were found between increasing osmolalities and the bowel diameters and also versus the score of adverse events. The most frequent adverse reactions were diarrhea, nausea and lack of palatability. There is a gradient relationship between increasing osmolality of gastrografin and improved image quality and the score of adverse effects. The optimum concentration of gastrografin is dependent of the tolerance of the adverse events. (orig.)

  1. Thermodynamic balance of photosynthesis and transpiration at increasing CO2 concentrations and rapid light fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Dolores; Martín, Mercedes; Serrot, Patricia H; Sabater, Bartolomé

    2014-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical flux models have been developed to reveal the influence of sun flecks and increasing CO2 concentrations on the energy and entropy balances of the leaf. The rapid and wide range of fluctuations in light intensity under field conditions were simulated in a climatic gas exchange chamber and we determined the energy and entropy balance of the leaf based on radiation and gas exchange measurements. It was estimated that the energy of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) accounts for half of transpiration, which is the main factor responsible for the exportation of the entropy generated in photosynthesis (Sg) out of the leaf in order to maintain functional the photosynthetic machinery. Although the response of net photosynthetic production to increasing concentrations of CO2 under fluctuating light is similar to that under continuous light, rates of transpiration respond slowly to changes of light intensity and are barely affected by the concentration of CO2 in the range of 260-495 ppm, in which net photosynthesis increases by more than 100%. The analysis of the results confirms that future increases of CO2 will improve the efficiency of the conversion of radiant energy into biomass, but will not reduce the contribution of plant transpiration to the leaf thermal balance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease treated with diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Martínez-Gallardo, Rocío; Ferreira-Morong, Flavio; Luna, Enrique; Alvarado, Raúl; Ruiz-Donoso, Enrique; Chávez, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Serum phosphate concentrations usually show great variability in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) not on dialysis. Diuretics treatment can have an influence over the severity of mineral-bone metabolism alterations related to ACKD, but their effect on serum phosphate levels is less known. This study aims to determine whether diuretics are independently associated with serum phosphate levels, and to investigate the mechanisms by which diuretics may affect phosphate metabolism. 429 Caucasian patients with CKD not on dialysis were included in this cross-sectional study. In addition to conventional serum biochemical measures, the following parameters of renal phosphate excretion were assessed: 24-hours urinary phosphate excretion, tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption (TmP), and fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP). 58% of patients were on treatment with diuretics. Patients on diuretics showed significantly higher mean serum phosphate concentration (4.78 ± 1.23 vs. 4.24 ± 1.04 mg/dl; Pdiuretics. By multivariate linear and logistic regression, significant associations between diuretics and serum phosphate concentrations or hyperphosphataemia remained after adjustment for potential confounding variables. In patients with the highest phosphate load adjusted to kidney function, those treated with diuretics showed significantly lower FEP than those untreated with diuretics. Treatment with diuretics is associated with increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with ACKD. Diuretics may indirectly interfere with the maximum renal compensatory capacity to excrete phosphate. Diuretics should be considered in the studies linking the relationship between serum phosphate concentrations and cardiovascular alterations in patients with CKD.

  3. Increase in the amount of evaporator concentrate from nuclear power plants in cemented products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Bruna S.; Tello, Clédola C.O.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear power plants, research centers and other nuclear facilities are sources of radioactive liquid waste generation. These wastes can come from cooling of the primary reactor system, cleaning spent pool of fuel, washing contaminated clothing, among others. One of the most used methods for the treatment of these aqueous flows is the evaporation, which generates the concentrate of the evaporator, waste classified as low and medium level of radiation. Norms determine that radioactive waste must be minimized, and that to be accepted in repositories, they must be solidified. The work sought to reduce the volume of the evaporated concentrate waste and its subsequent solidification in cement. In order to carry out the tests, the evaporator concentrate (CE) simulation solution was prepared and then dried in an oven. Subsequently, cementation of the dry material was made using cement, fluidizer, NaOH and water. After a curing time of 28 days, the compressive strength tests were made for all specimens obtained, and for the samples that obtained resistance above that required by the norm, which is 10MPa, the percentages of reject incorporated and volume reduction. The results showed that, by drying the evaporator concentrate, it was possible to reduce the volume of the waste generated by up to 27% in relation to the waste without drying, which shows that drying is an effective way to increase the incorporation of the evaporator concentrate in packaged waste

  4. Reduced blood flow increases the in vivo ammonium ion concentration in the RIF-1 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinidis, Ioannis; Gamcsik, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies from our laboratory have suggested that pooling of ammonium in tumor tissues may be caused by its inefficient removal due to the poor vasculature commonly found in tumors. The purpose of these experiments was to validate the relationship between tumor ammonium ion concentration and tumor blood flow, and to determine whether large concentrations of ammonium ion detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are either produced within the tumor or simply imported into the tumor through the blood stream. Methods and Materials: To test this hypothesis, we reduced blood flow in subcutaneously grown Radiation Induced Fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) tumors, either by creating partial ischemia with a bolus injection of hydralazine or by occlusion with surgical sutures. 14 N and 31 P NMR spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of ammonium, and to assess the bioenergetic status of the tumors, respectively. Results: A correlation between ammonium ion concentration and (PCr(P i )) ratio was established for untreated tumors. An increase in the in vivo tumor ammonium ion concentration was observed for every tumor that experienced a reduction in blood flow caused by either hydralazine injection or suture ligation. Changes in ammonium ion concentration paralleled changes in the bioenergetics of hydralazine-treated tumors. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that a reduction in tumor blood flow is responsible for the accumulation of ammonium in tumors, and that detected ammonium originated from within the tumor

  5. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  6. Increased concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus sp. in small animals exposed to aerospace environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS in the total bacterial flora of small animals exposed to simulated spacecraft environments were evaluated. Tests to detect changes in infectivity, effects of antibiotic treatments, immune responses to bacterial antigens, and effectiveness of immune responses in the experimental environment were conducted. The most significant results appear to be the differences in immune responses at simulated altitudes and the production of infection in the presence of a specific antibody.

  7. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  8. Genetic forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): Vasopressin receptor defect (X-linked) and aquaporin defect (autosomal recessive and dominant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Daniel G; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked NDI who have mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor (AVPR2) gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor. In less than 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene. When studied in vitro, most AVPR2 and AQP2 mutations lead to proteins trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum and are unable to reach the plasma membrane. Prior knowledge of AVPR2 or AQP2 mutations in NDI families and perinatal mutation testing is of direct clinical value and can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with repeated episodes of dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of land fires on increase of heavy metal concentrations in river wasters of Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatavičius, Gytautas; Sakalauskienė, Gaudenta; Oškinis, Vytautas

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of long-term environmental monitoring data show that in August and September 2002 heavy metal (Cu, Pb and Zn) concentrations increased in Lithuanian rivers. Resent investigation has indicated that increase of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) by 60–81 % in all the rivers that are subject to the State River Monitoring and could be correlative with land fires. Fires of forests and peat bogs have outspread all over Lithuania in the summer and the first half of autumn of 2002. This paper at...

  10. Endurance training of moderate intensity increases testosterone concentration in young, healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Kulpa, J; Zoladz, J A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training on gonadal hormone profile in untrained men. Fifteen young, healthy men performed an endurance training of 5-week duration on a cycle ergometer. Before and after the exercise program all participants completed a maximal incremental test. Concentration of testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and cortisol (C) as well as blood morphology were determined in venous blood samples at rest both before and after the training. The training program resulted in 3.7% improvement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and 8.2% improvement of power output reached at VO(2max) (PO (max)). This was accompanied by significant increase in T (from 18.84+/-5.73 nmol.l(-1) to 22.03+/-6.61 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.0004) and calculated fT concentration (from 374+/-116 pmol.l(-1) to 470+/-153 pmol.l(-1), p = 0.00005). Moreover, the training caused a significant decrease in SHBG concentration (from 34.45+/-11.26 nmol.l(-1) to 31.95+/-10.40 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.01), whereas no significant changes were found in the cortisol concentration (334+/-138 nmol.l(-1) vs. 367+/-135 nmol.l(-1) for pre- and post-training measures, respectively, p = 0.50) and T/C and fT/C ratios. We have concluded that short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training can significantly increase testosterone concentration in previously untrained men.

  11. Increased Concentrations of Interleukin-33 in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Interleukin (IL-33 is a cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects involved in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-33 concentrations in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Blood specimens were obtained from 140 patients with MS (46 males and 94 females with various disease patterns and treatment plans and 140 healthy subjects (47 males and 93 females, who acted as a control group. CSF samples were collected from 20 MS group and 20 sex- and age-matched patients with other neurological diseases of nonautoimmune etiology. The serum and CSF concentrations of IL-33 were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The serum and CSF IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the MS group compared to the control group (p<0.001 and p<0.050, respectively. The serum IL-33 concentrations were also significantly higher in newly diagnosed (untreated patients and patients treated with methylprednisolone or with interferon-β and methylprednisolone compared to the healthy patient group (p<0.007, p<0.002, and p<0.010, respectively. Moreover, the serum IL-33 concentrations in patients with relapsing-remitting (RRMS, primary progressive (PPMS, and secondary progressive (SPMS forms of the disease were significantly higher than in the healthy control group (p<0.006, p<0.001, and p<0.020, respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed increased concentrations of IL-33 in patients with MS including both untreated and treated MS patients and patients with the RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS forms. This suggests that IL-33 may be involved in the pathogenesis of all MS forms and treatment with methylprednisolone or both interferon-β plus methylprednisolone has no influence on IL-33 concentrations.

  12. Increased concentrations of plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M; Hirota, M; Nozawa, F; Okabe, A; Kurimoto, M; Ogawa, M

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the dynamic aspects of circulatory IL-18 and other inflammatory cytokines in patients who underwent a hepatectomy. In patients with post-operative hepatic dysfunction, plasma concentrations of these cytokines increased, reflecting severe surgical trauma. IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-gamma increased in the early phase, while IL-18 increased in the later phase after 1 week. Interestingly, the increase in the plasma IL-18 concentration was correlated with that in serum bilirubin levels in hepatectomized patients. Hence, the decrease in the hepatic metabolism of IL-18 may cause the plasma accumulation of IL-18. This mechanism was confirmed using rat experiments. Intravenously administered human IL-18 was excreted into bile. Furthermore, the plasma clearance of human IL-18 was prolonged in bile duct-ligated rats. These results suggest that IL-18 is metabolized in the liver and excreted into bile, and an increase in plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction reflects the decreased metabolism in the liver. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Immunohistochemical evaluation of vasopressin expression in breast fibrocystic disease and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, William G; Wells, Wendy; Fay, Michael J; Mathew, Rennie S; Donnelly, Edward M; Memoli, Vincent A

    2003-01-01

    We previously found that expression of the vasopressin gene is a common feature of human breast cancer. In the present study we first examined 21 different cases of benign fibrocystic breast disease for vasopressin expression using immunohistochemistry and antibodies directed against vasopressin (anti-VP) and against vasopressin-associated glycopeptide (anti-VAG). All cases examined were negative for vasopressin gene expression using these antibodies. Alternatively, we examined 16 cases of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) using the second of these antibodies (anti-VAG), and all of these cases were positive for vasopressin gene expression. Our results suggest that products of vasopressin gene expression are not markers of cellular proliferation in the breast, and might rather represent an early part of the carcinogenic process in this tissue.

  14. A Volumetric and Functional Connectivity MRI Study of Brain Arginine-Vasopressin Pathways in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Zeng, Xiang-Zhu; Liu, Ying; Yuan, Hui-Shu; Xing, Yan; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Wei, Qing-Yun; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Dysfunction of brain-derived arginine-vasopressin (AVP) systems may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Certain regions such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus are known to contain either AVP neurons or terminals and may play an important role in regulating complex social behaviors. The present study was designed to investigate the concomitant changes in autistic behaviors, circulating AVP levels, and the structure and functional connectivity (FC) of specific brain regions in autistic children compared with typically developing children (TDC) aged from 3 to 5 years. The results showed: (1) children with ASD had a significantly increased volume in the left amygdala and left hippocampus, and a significantly decreased volume in the bilateral hypothalamus compared to TDC, and these were positively correlated with plasma AVP level. (2) Autistic children had a negative FC between the left amygdala and the bilateral supramarginal gyri compared to TDC. The degree of the negative FC between amygdala and supramarginal gyrus was associated with a higher score on the clinical autism behavior checklist. (3) The degree of negative FC between left amygdala and left supramarginal gyrus was associated with a lowering of the circulating AVP concentration in boys with ASD. (4) Autistic children showed a higher FC between left hippocampus and right subcortical area compared to TDC. (5) The circulating AVP was negatively correlated with the visual and listening response score of the childhood autism rating scale. These results strongly suggest that changes in structure and FC in brain regions containing AVP may be involved in the etiology of autism.

  15. Endogenous Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Aggression in Domestic Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. MacLean

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior in dogs poses public health and animal welfare concerns, however the biological mechanisms regulating dog aggression are not well understood. We investigated the relationships between endogenous plasma oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP—neuropeptides that have been linked to affiliative and aggressive behavior in other mammalian species—and aggression in domestic dogs. We first validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for the measurement of free (unbound and total (free + bound OT and AVP in dog plasma. In Experiment 1 we evaluated behavioral and neuroendocrine differences between a population of pet dogs with a history of chronic aggression toward conspecifics and a matched control group. Dogs with a history of aggression exhibited more aggressive behavior during simulated encounters with conspecifics, and had lower free, but higher total plasma AVP than matched controls, but there were no group differences for OT. In Experiment 2 we compared OT and AVP concentrations between pet dogs and a population of assistance dogs that have been bred for affiliative and non-aggressive temperaments, and investigated neuroendocrine predictors of individual differences in social behavior within the assistance dog population. Compared to pet dogs, assistance dogs had higher free and total OT, but there were no differences in either measure for AVP. Within the assistance dog population, dogs who behaved more aggressively toward a threatening stranger had higher total AVP than dogs who did not. Collectively these data suggest that endogenous OT and AVP may play critical roles in shaping dog social behavior, including aspects of both affiliation and aggression.

  16. D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, increases blood uric acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Bibby, B M; Astrup, A

    2000-08-01

    D-Fructose has been found to increase uric acid production by accelerating the degradation of purine nucleotides, probably due to hepatocellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) by an accumulation of ketohexose-1-phosphate. The hyperuricemic effect of D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, may be greater than that of D-fructose, as the subsequent degradation of D-tagatose-1-phosphate is slower than the degradation of D-fructose-1-phosphate. We tested the effect of 30 g oral D-tagatose versus D-fructose on plasma uric acid and other metabolic parameters in 8 male subjects by a double-blind crossover design. Both the peak concentration and 4-hour area under the curve (AUC) of serum uric acid were significantly higher after D-tagatose compared with either 30 g D-fructose or plain water. The decline in serum Pi concentration was greater at 50 minutes after D-tagatose versus D-fructose. The thermogenic and lactacidemic responses to D-tagatose were blunted compared with D-fructose. D-Tagatose attenuated the glycemic and insulinemic responses to a meal that was consumed 255 minutes after its administration. Moreover, both fructose and D-tagatose increased plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The metabolic effects of D-tagatose occurred despite its putative poor absorption.

  17. Short-term molecular acclimation processes of legume nodules to increased external oxygen concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eAvenhaus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the oxygen diffusion barrier is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30 % oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about two minutes of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about eight minutes later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency towards upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 minutes, corresponding to approximately 90 % of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050 showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased

  18. The increased concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in red blood cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, J; Skotnicka-Fedorowicz, B; Lisiecka, A; Siński, M; Abramczyk, P

    1997-12-01

    It has been recognised that high haemoglobin oxygen capacity is essential for the development of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In the present study we have found increased concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in red blood cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of Okamoto-Aoki strain. As 2,3-DPG is the major factor decreasing haemoglobin affinity to oxygen, our finding suggests that at given value of pO2 oxygen delivery to the tissue of SHR would be increased. Therefore increased concentration of 2,3-DPG in red blood cells of SHR would be of the pathophysiological meaning by promoting autoregulatory increase in total vascular resistance in this strain of rats. The mechanism responsible for enhanced synthesis of 2,3-DPG in SHR remains unclear. Intracellular alkalosis due to either hypocapnia and/or an enhanced activity of Na+/H+ antiporter occurring in SHR are the most plausible explanations for the above finding.

  19. Prevalence of increased canine pancreas-specific lipase concentrations in young dogs with parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalli, Irida V; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Patsika, Michael N; Pardali, Dimitra; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Menexes, George; Brellou, Georgia D; Rallis, Timoleon S

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic abnormalities during canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis have not been studied prospectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of canine serum pancreas-specific lipase (Spec cPL) concentration in dogs with CPV enteritis for the presence of acute pancreatitis (AP). Puppies with naturally occurring CPV enteritis were recruited and prospectively allocated into 2 groups according to normal or increased serum Spec cPL concentration. Clinical signs, laboratory findings, and pancreas-associated variables were compared between groups, and the impact of possible AP on disease course, duration of hospitalization, and outcome was assessed. Serum Spec cPL concentration in 35 puppies was above the upper limit of the RI in 17/35 (48.6%) dogs (Group A) and within the RI in 18 dogs (Group B). An increased serum lipase activity was present in 29/35 (82.9%) dogs, and Group A dogs had a higher serum lipase activity than Group B (P = .006). Serum Spec cPL in Group A dogs was positively correlated with serum lipase activity at the day of presentation (r = .667; P = .003) and day of discharge (r = .628; P = .007). No statistically significant difference was found between groups (P = .233) for the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (6/17 or 35.3% dogs Group A, and 8/18 or 44.4% dogs Group B), the disease course, duration of hospitalization, or outcome between groups. Increased serum Spec cPL is relatively common in dogs with CPV enteritis. However, such increases do not seem to correlate with the outcome of disease. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. Aerobic Biofilms Grown from Athabasca Watershed Sediments Are Inhibited by Increasing Concentrations of Bituminous Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, John R.; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Roy, Julie L.; Swerhone, George D. W.; Korber, Darren R.; Greer, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Sediments from the Athabasca River and its tributaries naturally contain bitumen at various concentrations, but the impacts of this variation on the ecology of the river are unknown. Here, we used controlled rotating biofilm reactors in which we recirculated diluted sediments containing various concentrations of bituminous compounds taken from the Athabasca River and three tributaries. Biofilms exposed to sediments having low and high concentrations of bituminous compounds were compared. The latter were 29% thinner, had a different extracellular polysaccharide composition, 67% less bacterial biomass per μm2, 68% less cyanobacterial biomass per μm2, 64% less algal biomass per μm2, 13% fewer protozoa per cm2, were 21% less productive, and had a 33% reduced content in chlorophyll a per mm2 and a 20% reduction in the expression of photosynthetic genes, but they had a 23% increase in the expression of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes. Within the Bacteria, differences in community composition were also observed, with relatively more Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and less Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in biofilms exposed to high concentrations of bituminous compounds. Altogether, our results suggest that biofilms that develop in the presence of higher concentrations of bituminous compounds are less productive and have lower biomass, linked to a decrease in the activities and abundance of photosynthetic organisms likely due to inhibitory effects. However, within this general inhibition, some specific microbial taxa and functional genes are stimulated because they are less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of bituminous compounds or can degrade and utilize some bitumen-associated compounds. PMID:24056457

  1. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phasic firing in vasopressin cells: understanding its functional significance through computational models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J MacGregor

    Full Text Available Vasopressin neurons, responding to input generated by osmotic pressure, use an intrinsic mechanism to shift from slow irregular firing to a distinct phasic pattern, consisting of long bursts and silences lasting tens of seconds. With increased input, bursts lengthen, eventually shifting to continuous firing. The phasic activity remains asynchronous across the cells and is not reflected in the population output signal. Here we have used a computational vasopressin neuron model to investigate the functional significance of the phasic firing pattern. We generated a concise model of the synaptic input driven spike firing mechanism that gives a close quantitative match to vasopressin neuron spike activity recorded in vivo, tested against endogenous activity and experimental interventions. The integrate-and-fire based model provides a simple physiological explanation of the phasic firing mechanism involving an activity-dependent slow depolarising afterpotential (DAP generated by a calcium-inactivated potassium leak current. This is modulated by the slower, opposing, action of activity-dependent dendritic dynorphin release, which inactivates the DAP, the opposing effects generating successive periods of bursting and silence. Model cells are not spontaneously active, but fire when perturbed by random perturbations mimicking synaptic input. We constructed one population of such phasic neurons, and another population of similar cells but which lacked the ability to fire phasically. We then studied how these two populations differed in the way that they encoded changes in afferent inputs. By comparison with the non-phasic population, the phasic population responds linearly to increases in tonic synaptic input. Non-phasic cells respond to transient elevations in synaptic input in a way that strongly depends on background activity levels, phasic cells in a way that is independent of background levels, and show a similar strong linearization of the response

  3. Rhabdomyolysis and Artifactual Increase in Plasma Bicarbonate Concentration in an Amazon Parrot (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissinger, Mary K; Johnson, James G; Tully, Thomas N; Gaunt, Stephen D

    2017-09-01

    A 7-year-old male Amazon parrot housed outdoors presented with acute collapse, marked lethargy, and open-mouth breathing. The patient had stiffness of the pectoral muscles, and petechiation and ecchymosis noted around the eyes and beneath the mandible. Laboratory data revealed markedly increased aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase activity consistent with rhabdomyolysis, as well as markedly increased plasma bicarbonate concentration. Marked clinical improvement and resolution of laboratory abnormalities occurred with fluid therapy, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and husbandry modifications, including indoor housing and dietary alteration. A spurious increase in bicarbonate measurement as documented in equine and bovine cases of rhabdomyolysis also occurred in this avian patient and must be considered for accurate interpretation of acid-base status in exotic species presenting with consistent clinical signs.

  4. Human platelet vasopressin receptor identification by direct ultraviolet photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibonnier, M.

    1987-01-01

    Tritiated vasopressin ([ 3 H]AVP) was directly crosslinked to its human platelet receptor by using an ultraviolet irradiation procedure. After preincubation with [ 3 H]AVP, the hydrodynamic parameters of the hormone-receptor complexes solubilized with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate were derived from Sephacryl S-300 superfine gel filtration and from sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation experiments. The following values were obtained: Stoke's radius = 5.48 +/- 0.1 nm, apparent sedimentation coefficient = 5.55 +/- 0.1 S, and calculated molecular weight = 132,000. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-8% polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, [ 3 H]AVP preferentially and specifically labeled a 125,000-dalton protein. The labeling of this protein was suppressed by addition of excess cold vasopressin, whereas angiotensin II did not inhibit incorporation of tritiated vasopressin in this protein. These results suggest that direct UV-photoaffinity labelling with [ 3 H]AVP is a suitable tool for the purification of the human platelet vasopressin receptor

  5. Testosterone supplementation restores vasopressin innervation in the senescent rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, E.; Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The vasopressin (AVP) innervation in the male rat brain is decreased in senescence. This decrease is particularly pronounced in brain regions where AVP fiber density is dependent on plasma levels of sex steroids. Since plasma testosterone levels decrease progressively with age in the rat, the

  6. Vasopressin – Emerging Importance in Sepsis | Skowno | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Vasopressin – Emerging ...

  7. Lysine-vasopressin analogues with glycoconjugates in position 8

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcinkowska, A.; Borovičková, Lenka; Slaninová, Jiřina; Grzonka, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2006), s. 759-766 ISSN 0137- 5083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : glycoconjugates * glycopeptides * lysine-vasopressin analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006

  8. Damage Control Resuscitation Supplemented with Vasopressin in a Severe Polytrauma Model with Traumatic Brain Injury and Uncontrolled Internal Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, J Michael; Wang, Xu; St John, Alexander E; Lim, Esther B; Stern, Susan A; White, Nathan J

    2018-03-14

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model. We used a swine polytrauma model with simultaneous TBI, femur fracture, and HS with uncontrolled noncompressible internal bleeding from an aortic tear injury. Five animals were assigned to each of three experimental groups (hydroxyethyl starch only [HES], HES + 0.4 U/kg vasopressin, and no fluid resuscitation [No Fluids]). Fluids were given as two 10 mL/kg boluses according to tactical field care guidelines. Primary outcomes were mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and brain blood flow at 60 min. Secondary outcomes were blood flows in the heart, intestine, and kidney; arterial blood lactate level; and survival at 6 hr. Organ blood flow was measured using injection of colored microspheres. Five animals were tested in each of the three groups. There was a statistically significant increase in MAP with vasopressin compared with other experimental groups, but no significant increase in brain blood flow during the first 60 min of resuscitation. The vasopressin group also exhibited greater total internal hemorrhage volume and rate. There was no difference in survival at 6 hours. In this experimental swine polytrauma model, increasing blood pressure with vasopressin did not improve brain perfusion, likely due to increased internal hemorrhage. Effective hemostasis should remain the top priority for field treatment of the polytrauma casualty with TBI.

  9. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774-775

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z.; Krąpiec, Marek; Huels, Mathias; Pawlyta, Jacek; Dreves, Alexander; Meadows, John

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) content in AD 774-775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the 14C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar 14C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in 14C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765-796, were collected and their 14C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the 14C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ14C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  10. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774–775

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z.; Krąpiec, Marek; Huels, Mathias; Pawlyta, Jacek; Dreves, Alexander; Meadows, John

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon ( 14 C) content in AD 774–775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the 14 C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar 14 C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in 14 C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765–796, were collected and their 14 C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the 14 C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ 14 C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  11. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774–775

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z., E-mail: arakowski@polsl.pl [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Institute of Physics – Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego Str. 22B, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Krąpiec, Marek [AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza Av. 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Huels, Mathias [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Pawlyta, Jacek [Institute of Physics – Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego Str. 22B, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Dreves, Alexander [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Meadows, John [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Centre for Baltic and Scandinavian Archaeology, Schleswig-Holstein State Museums Foundation, Schloss Gottorf, Schloßinsel, 24837 Schleswig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) content in AD 774–775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the {sup 14}C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar {sup 14}C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in {sup 14}C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765–796, were collected and their {sup 14}C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the {sup 14}C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ{sup 14}C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  12. Northern European trees show a progressively diminishing response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waterhouse, JS

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Reviews 23 (2004) 803?810 Northern European trees show a progressively diminishing response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations J.S. Waterhousea,*, V.R. Switsura,b, A.C. Barkera, A.H.C. Cartera,b,{, D.L. Hemmingc, N.J. Loaderd, I..., V.R., Waterhouse, J.S., Heaton, T.H.E., Carter, A.H.C., 1998. Climatic variation andthe stable carbon isotope composition of tree ring cellulose: an intercomparison of Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus silvestris. Tellus 50B, 25?33. J.ggi, M...

  13. Increasing serotonin concentrations alter calcium and energy metabolism in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Jimena; Moore, Spencer A E; Weaver, Samantha R; Cronick, Callyssa M; Olsen, Megan; Prichard, Austin P; Schnell, Brian P; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2015-07-01

    A 4×4 Latin square design in which varied doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/kg) of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP, a serotonin precursor) were intravenously infused into late-lactation, non-pregnant Holstein dairy cows was used to determine the effects of serotonin on calcium and energy metabolism. Infusion periods lasted 4 days, with a 5-day washout between periods. Cows were infused at a constant rate for 1 h each day. Blood was collected pre- and 5, 10, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min post-infusion, urine was collected pre- and post-infusion, and milk was collected daily. All of the 5-HTP doses increased systemic serotonin as compared to the 0 mg/kg dose, and the 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg doses increased circulating glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHBA) concentrations. Treatment of cows with either 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg 5-HTP doses decreased urine calcium elimination, and the 1.5 mg/kg dose increased milk calcium concentrations. No differences were detected in the heart rates, respiration rates, or body temperatures of the cows; however, manure scores and defecation frequency were affected. Indeed, cows that received 5-HTP defecated more, and the consistency of their manure was softer. Treatment of late-lactation dairy cows with 5-HTP improved energy metabolism, decreased loss of calcium into urine, and increased calcium secretion into milk. Further research should target the effects of increasing serotonin during the transition period to determine any benefits for post-parturient calcium and glucose metabolism. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Tian

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05, respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05 higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  15. Increase The Sugar Concentration of The Solution Sugar by Reverse Osmotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redjeki, S.; Hapsari, N.; Iriani

    2018-01-01

    Sugar is one of the basic needs of people and food and drink industry. As technology advances and the demand for efficient usage of sugar rises, crystal sugar is seen as less advantageous than liquid sugar. If sugar is always dissolved in water before use, then it will be more efficient and practical for consumers to use sugar in liquid form than in crystal form. Other than that, liquid sugar is also attractive to consumers because it is economical, hygienic, instantly soluble in hot and cold water, fresher and longer-lasting, able to thicken and enrich the texture of foods and drinks, and functions as sweetener, syrup, and flavor enhancer. Liquid sugar is also more beneficial for sugar producers because of simpler production process, cheaper production cost, and similar yield with no extra cost. In sugar production, separation process is found in most of its stages and therefore the use of membrane technology for separating solute and water content has a good potential. In this research, water content reduction of sugar solution was done in order to increase the sugar concentration of the solution. The parameters of this research were 4%, 5%, and 6% starting concentration of sugar solution; 20, 40, and 60 minutes of process time; and 85 and 60 PSI ΔP. The best result was acquired on 4% starting concentration, 60 PSI ΔP, and 60 minutes process time.

  16. RESPONSE OF Cattleya forbesii ORCHID TO INCREASING SILICON CONCENTRATIONS IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONAN CARLOS COLOMBO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of Silicon (Si to culture media has been shown to improve the development of seedlings grown in vitro , and to reduce losses during the acclimatization phase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro growth of Cattleya forbesii (Orchidaceae in MS medium containing five different concentrations of SiO 2 (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g·L −1 . At day 200, the following variables were measured: number of roots, average length of the root system, leaf area, number of leaves and shoots, shoot height, fresh and dry masses of roots and shoots, water content of roots and shoots, and pH of the culture medium. Most variables decreased as the concentration of Si increased, reducing the in vitro vegetative growth of C. forbesii . Accumulation of Si in leaf tissues was detected by scanning electron microscopy, confirming uptake by plants. The Si source and concentrations tested showed no beneficial effect on in vitro growth of C. forbesii .

  17. Association of Increased Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations with Agro-morphological Traits of Biofortified Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tatiana Moreno-Moyano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L. with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe and zinc (Zn deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC2F2 transgenic progeny carrying OsNAS1 or OsNAS2 overexpression constructs under indica/japonica and japonica/japonica genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC2F2 transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of 8 mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC2F2 transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 µg Fe g-1 and 40 µg Zn g-1 in BC2F2 indica/japonica progeny, and 36 µg Fe g-1 and 56 µg Zn g1 in BC2F2 japonica/japonica progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the indica/japonica and japonica/japonica progeny, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high

  18. In contrast to matrix metalloproteinases, serum adiponectin concentrations increase after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, together with their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, remodel extracellular matrix under physiological and pathological conditions and are implicated in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and in chronic inflammation. We have endeavoured to assess whether concentrations of MMPs, TIMPs, and anti-inflammatory adiponectin are altered by pharmacological treatment of acute thyrotoxicosis or by radioiodine therapy (RIT. Material and methods We measured serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and adiponectin, TSH, free T4 (FT4 and free T3 (FT3 in 15 patients (4 males, age (years 51.8±15.3 (mean±SD with hyperthyroidism treated with thiamazole (Group 1 and in 20 subjects (2 males, treated for thyrotoxicosis with radioiodine, age 52.3±12.4 (Group 2, where blood samples were taken before RIT, visit 1 (V1, seven days post RIT, visit 2 (V2, and two to three months post RIT, visit 3 (V3. Results In Group 1 there was no significant change in concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 or adiponectin, despite a fall in FT4 and FT3 (8.74±4.79 pg/ml vs 3.54±2.40 pg/ml, for FT3, and 4.48 ±2.21 ng/ml vs 1.02±1.07 ng/ml, for FT4, p4 and FT3 from 24.4±15.4 pmol/l (V1 to 14.7±10.6 pmol/l (V3, and from 10.0±5.65 (V1 to 6.1±4.8 pmol/l (V2, p4 and FT3, respectively. Conclusions Radioiodine therapy of thyrotoxicosis does not alter serum MMP-2, MMP-9 or TIMP-1 concentrations either acutely or after about three months of observation. An increase in serum adiponectin might reflect favourable effects of radioiodine administration on cardiovascular risk factors, while an increase in TIMP-2 (principal MMP-2 inhibitor might lead to a decrease in free MMP-2 concentrations.

  19. Increased Serum and Urinary Oxytocin Concentrations after Nasal Administration in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Temesi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more and more studies have revealed the effect of extraneous oxytocin on the social behavior of dogs. The distribution of administered oxytocin in different physiologically relevant compartments is important because this knowledge forms the basis for the timing of behavior tests after the administration. Most behavioral studies rely on the non-invasive intranasal application of oxytocin. The aim of this study was to determine the time course of intranasal administered oxytocin secretion into blood and urine and also establish a connection between intranasal received oxytocin and urinary cortisol in dogs. In our experiment, four dogs received three puffs, 12 IU intranasal oxytocin treatment, two dogs received three puffs intranasal placebo treatment. Blood and urine samples were collected immediately prior to the administration then regularly during 4 h. After nasal oxytocin application, the serum oxytocin concentration increased, reached a maximum 15 min after the treatment and then rapidly returned to baseline levels 45 min later. The peak urinary oxytocin concentration occurred between 45 and 60 min after administration and returned to baseline levels slowly. We found considerable differences among individuals in the secretion of oxytocin in both the serum and the urinary oxytocin concentration measurements. Our results confirm that intranasally administered oxytocin passes into the blood stream. The time course of intranasally administered oxytocin secretion is similar to the time course of intravenously administered oxytocin secretion, and the peak values are also similar in both the serum and the urinary oxytocin concentration measurements, although there are large individual differences.

  20. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  1. The vasopressin deficient Brattleboro rats: A natural knockout model used in the search for CNS effects of vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B; de Wied, David; Urban, I.J.A.; Burbach, J.P.H.; De Wied, D.

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral neuroscience is using mon and more gene knockout techniques to produce animals with a specific deletion. These studies have their precedent in nature. A mutation may result in a limited genetic defect, as seen in the vasopressin (VP) deficiency in the Brattleboro rat. The mutation is in a

  2. Extrahypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin in the human brain; presence of vasopressin cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Guldenaar, S. E.; van de Wal, N.; Swaab, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of extrahypothalamic vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OXT) in the human brain was investigated by means of immunocytochemistry. In the septum verum, few VP fibers were found in the nucleus septalis lateralis and medialis (NSL and NSM), and in the bed nucleus of

  3. Inflammaging and Frailty Status Do Not Result in an Increased Extracellular Vesicle Concentration in Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Alberro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades extracellular vesicles (EVs have emerged as key players for intercellular communication. In the case of inflammation, several studies have reported that EV levels are increased in circulation during inflammatory episodes. Based on this, we investigated whether aging results in elevated EV number, as a basal proinflammatory status termed “inflammaging” has been described in aged individuals. Moreover, we also hypothesized that frailty and dependence conditions of the elderly could affect EV concentration in plasma. Results showed that inflammaging, frailty or dependence status do not result in EV increase, at least in the total number of EVs in circulation. These results open a new perspective for investigating the role of EVs in human aging and in the inflammaging process.

  4. Inflammaging and Frailty Status Do Not Result in an Increased Extracellular Vesicle Concentration in Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberro, Ainhoa; Sáenz-Cuesta, Matías; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Mateo-Abad, Maider; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Matheu, Ander; Vergara, Itziar; Otaegui, David

    2016-07-20

    In the last decades extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key players for intercellular communication. In the case of inflammation, several studies have reported that EV levels are increased in circulation during inflammatory episodes. Based on this, we investigated whether aging results in elevated EV number, as a basal proinflammatory status termed "inflammaging" has been described in aged individuals. Moreover, we also hypothesized that frailty and dependence conditions of the elderly could affect EV concentration in plasma. Results showed that inflammaging, frailty or dependence status do not result in EV increase, at least in the total number of EVs in circulation. These results open a new perspective for investigating the role of EVs in human aging and in the inflammaging process.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of the vasopressin antagonist, SK and F 101926, a synthetic octapeptide, in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, R.K.; Straub, K.M.; Landvatter, S.W.; Garvie, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    SK and F 101926 is a synthetic analogue of vasopressin which antagonizes vasopressin induced antidiuresis. Radiolabeled SK and F 101926 ( 3 H-3,3-D-TYR) was administered i.v. as a single bolus to male Sprague Dawley rats. Serial plasma samples were analyzed for SK and F 101926 by HPLC/LSC. The plasma concentration time curve for SK and F 101926 displayed three disposition phases. However, 80% of the total area under the curve was represented in one phase which displayed a half-life (t 1/2) of 20 min. The total systematic clearance (Cl) and the steady state volume of distribution (Vdss) were 15 ml/min/kg and 450 ml/kg, respectively. The t 1/2, Cl and Vdss were identical following doses of 10 and 100 μg/kg. 3 H-SK and F 101926 accounted for > 80% of the plasma radiolabel 0-30 min after dosing. However, by 12 hr, 3 H-SK and F 101926 represented only 6% of the plasma radiolabel. Following oral administration of 3 H-SK and F 101926, < 5% of the administered radiolabel reached the systematic circulation; however, no parent compound was detectable in plasma. These studies demonstrate that although SK and F 101926 has a relatively low systematic clearance, it also displays a relatively small volume of distribution which together result in a moderate beta elimination half-life

  6. Vasopressin-induced constriction of the isolated rat occipital artery is segment dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelko, Stephen P; Schmiedt, Chad W; Lewis, Tristan H; Lewis, Stephen J; Robertson, Tom P

    2013-01-01

    Circulating factors delivered to the nodose ganglion (NG) by the occipital artery (OA) have been shown to affect vagal afferent activity, and thus the contractile state of the OA may influence blood flow to the NG. OA were isolated and bisected into proximal and distal segments relative to the external carotid artery. Bisection highlighted stark differences between maximal contractile responses and OA sensitivity. Specifically, maximum responses to vasopressin and the V1 receptor agonist were significantly higher in distal than proximal segments. Distal segments were significantly more sensitive to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the 5-HT2 receptor agonist than proximal segments. Angiotensin II (AT)2, V2 and 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists did not elicit vascular responses. Additionally, AT1 receptor agonists elicited mild, yet not significantly different maximal responses between segments. The results of this study are consistent with contractile properties of rat OA being mediated via AT1, V1 and 5-HT2 receptors and dependent upon the OA segment. Furthermore, vasopressin-induced constriction of the OA, regardless of a bolus dose or a first and second concentration-response curve, retained this unique segmental difference. We hypothesize that these segmental differences may be important in the regulation of blood flow through the OA in health and disease. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Vasopressin-induced constriction of the isolated rat occipital artery is segment-dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelko, Stephen P.; Schmiedt, Chad W.; Lewis, Tristan H.; Lewis, Stephen J.; Robertson, Tom P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Circulating factors delivered to the nodose ganglion (NG) by the occipital artery (OA) have shown to affect vagal afferent activity, and thus the contractile state of the OA may influence blood flow to the NG. Methods OA were isolated and bisected into proximal and distal segments, relative to the external carotid artery. Results Bisection, highlighted stark differences between maximal contractile responses and OA sensitivity. Specifically, maximum responses to vasopressin and the V1 receptor agonist, were significantly higher in distal than proximal segments. Distal segments were significantly more sensitive to 5-HT and the 5-HT2 receptor agonist than proximal segments. AT2, V2 and 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists did not elicit vascular responses. Additionally, AT1 receptor agonists elicited mild, yet not significantly different maximal responses between segments. Conclusion The results of this study are consistent with contractile properties of rat OA being mediated via AT1, V1 and 5-HT2 receptors, and are dependent upon the OA segment. Furthermore, vasopressin-induced constriction of the OA, regardless of a bolus dose or a first and second concentration response curve retained this unique segmental difference and therefore we hypothesize this may be a pathophysiological response in the regulation of blood flow through the OA. PMID:24192548

  8. Increase in local protein concentration by field-inversion gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Aran

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins that migrate through cross-linked polyacrylamide gels (PAGs under the influence of a constant electric field experience negative factors, such as diffusion and non-specific trapping in the gel matrix. These negative factors reduce protein concentrations within a defined gel volume with increasing migration distance and, therefore, decrease protein separation efficiency. Enhancement of protein separation efficiency was investigated by implementing pulsed field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE. Results Separation of model protein species and large protein complexes was compared between FIGE and constant field electrophoresis (CFE in different percentages of PAGs. Band intensities of proteins in FIGE with appropriate ratios of forward and backward pulse times were superior to CFE despite longer running times. These results revealed an increase in band intensity per defined gel volume. A biphasic protein relative mobility shift was observed in percentages of PAGs up to 14%. However, the effect of FIGE on protein separation was stochastic at higher PAG percentage. Rat liver lysates subjected to FIGE in the second-dimension separation of two-dimensional polyarcylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE showed a 20% increase in the number of discernible spots compared with CFE. Nine common spots from both FIGE and CFE were selected for peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS, which revealed higher final ion scores of all nine protein spots from FIGE. Native protein complexes ranging from 800 kDa to larger than 2000 kDa became apparent using FIGE compared with CFE. Conclusion The present investigation suggests that FIGE under appropriate conditions improves protein separation efficiency during PAGE as a result of increased local protein concentration. FIGE can be implemented with minimal additional instrumentation in any laboratory setting. Despite the tradeoff of longer running times, FIGE can be a powerful protein

  9. Increase in local protein concentration by field-inversion gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Henghang; Low, Teck Yew; Freeby, Steve; Paulus, Aran; Ramnarayanan, Kalpana; Cheng, Chung-Pui Paul; Leung, Hon-Chiu Eastwood

    2007-09-26

    Proteins that migrate through cross-linked polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) under the influence of a constant electric field experience negative factors, such as diffusion and non-specific trapping in the gel matrix. These negative factors reduce protein concentrations within a defined gel volume with increasing migration distance and, therefore, decrease protein separation efficiency. Enhancement of protein separation efficiency was investigated by implementing pulsed field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE). Separation of model protein species and large protein complexes was compared between FIGE and constant field electrophoresis (CFE) in different percentages of PAGs. Band intensities of proteins in FIGE with appropriate ratios of forward and backward pulse times were superior to CFE despite longer running times. These results revealed an increase in band intensity per defined gel volume. A biphasic protein relative mobility shift was observed in percentages of PAGs up to 14%. However, the effect of FIGE on protein separation was stochastic at higher PAG percentage. Rat liver lysates subjected to FIGE in the second-dimension separation of two-dimensional polyarcylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) showed a 20% increase in the number of discernible spots compared with CFE. Nine common spots from both FIGE and CFE were selected for peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS), which revealed higher final ion scores of all nine protein spots from FIGE. Native protein complexes ranging from 800 kDa to larger than 2000 kDa became apparent using FIGE compared with CFE. The present investigation suggests that FIGE under appropriate conditions improves protein separation efficiency during PAGE as a result of increased local protein concentration. FIGE can be implemented with minimal additional instrumentation in any laboratory setting. Despite the tradeoff of longer running times, FIGE can be a powerful protein separation tool.

  10. Intraileal casein infusion increases plasma concentrations of amino acids in humans: A randomized cross over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripken, Dina; van Avesaat, Mark; Troost, Freddy J; Masclee, Ad A; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F

    2017-02-01

    Activation of the ileal brake by casein induces satiety signals and reduces energy intake. However, adverse effects of intraileal casein administration have not been studied before. These adverse effects may include impaired amino acid digestion, absorption and immune activation. To investigate the effects of intraileal infusion of native casein on plasma amino acid appearance, immune activation and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A randomized single-blind cross over study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26 ± 2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8 ± 0.4 kg/m -2 ), who were intubated with a naso-ileal feeding catheter. Thirty minutes after intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing either control (C) consisting of saline, a low-dose (17.2 kcal) casein (LP) or a high-dose (51.7 kcal) of casein (HP) over a period of 90 min. Blood samples were collected for analysis of amino acids (AAs), C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxylipins at regular intervals. Furthermore, GI symptom questionnaires were collected before, during and after ileal infusion. None of the subjects reported any GI symptoms before, during or after ileal infusion of C, LP and HP. Plasma concentrations of all AAs analyzed were significantly increased after infusion of HP as compared to C (p casein, respectively. Ileal casein infusion did not affect plasma concentrations of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α. Infusion of HP resulted in a decreased concentration of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid whereas none of the other oxylipins analyzed were affected. A single intraileal infusion of native casein results in a concentration and time dependent increase of AAs in plasma, suggesting an effective digestion and absorption of AAs present in casein. Also, ileal infusion did not result in immune activation nor in GI symptoms. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01509469. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  11. Long-lasting enhancement of synaptic excitability of CA1/subiculum neurons of the rat ventral hippocampus by vasopressin and vasopressin(4-8)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Chepkova, A.N.; French, P.; Wied, D. de; Ontskul, A.H.; Ramakers, G.M.J.; Skrebitski, V.G.; Urban, I.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) is axonally distributed in many brain structures, including the ventral hippocampus. Picogram quantities of VP injected into the hippocampus improve the passive avoidance response of rats, presumably by enhancing memory processes. Vasopressin is metabolized by the brain tissue into

  12. Increase of ozone concentrations, its temperature sensitivity and the precursor factor in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the possible connections between the local and regional photochemical problem and global warming. The current study assesses the trend of ozone in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD in South China and investigates the interannual changes of sensitivity of ozone to air temperature, as well as the trends in regional precursors. Results reveal, at the three monitoring sites from the mid-1990s to 2010, an increase in the mean ozone concentrations from 1.0 to 1.6 µg m−3 per year. The increase occurred in all seasons, with the highest rate in autumn. This is consistent with trends and temperature anomalies in the region. The increase in the sensitivity of ozone to temperature is clearly evident from the correlation between ozone (OMI [Ozone Monitoring Instrument] column amount and surface air temperature (from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder displayed in the correlation maps for the PRD during the prominently high ozone period of July–September. It is observed to have increased from 2005 to 2010, the latter being the hottest year on record globally. To verify this temporal change in sensitivity, the ground-level trends of correlation coefficients/regression slopes are analysed. As expected, results reveal a statistically significant upward trend over a 14-year period (1997–2010. While the correlation revealed in the correlation maps is in agreement with the corresponding OMI ozone maps when juxtaposed, temperature sensitivity of surface ozone also shows an association with ozone concentration, with R=0.5. These characteristics of ozone sensitivity are believed to have adverse implications for the region. As shown by ground measurements and/or satellite analyses, the decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx in Hong Kong is not statistically significant while NO2 of the PRD has only very slightly changed. However, carbon dioxide has remarkably declined in the whole region. While these observations concerning

  13. Effect of Rehydration Fluid Osmolality on Plasma Volume and Vasopressin in Resting Dehydrated Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Elevated plasma vasopressin concentration [PVP], which may act as a dipsogen, decreases promptly following the ingestion of fluids in many mammals including humans. The purpose for this study was to determine whether fluids of varied electrolyte and carbohydrate composition and osmolality (Osm] would modify post-drinking decreases in [PVP] which could be attributed to interaction with plasma volume (PV)- or fluid-electrolyte interactive hormones. Five men (23-41 yr, 78.0 +/- SD 8.2 kg), water deprived for 24 h, drank six fluids (12 ml/kg, at 16.5C in 4.0-6.2 min): water (30 m0sm/kg), NaCl (70 mOsm/kg), NaCl + NaCitrate (270 mOsm/kg), NaCl + 9.7% glucose (650 mOsm/kg), and two commercial drinks containing various ionic and carbohydrate contents (380 and 390 mOsm/kg). Blood (20 ml/sample) was drawn at -5 min before and at +3, +9, +15, +30, and +70 min after drinking. Heart rate, blood pressures, and plasma renin activity, {Na+], [K+], [Osm], aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, and epinephrine concentrations were unchanged after drinking. Post-drinking [PVP] decreased from 1.7 - 3.7 pg/ml within 3 min with all fluids independently of their composition, [Osm], or delta PV; with maximal depression to 0.1-0.7 pg/ml (p<0.05) by 15 min. The continued [PVP] depression with all fluids from 15 to 70 min was accompanied by unchanged plasma (Osm] but 1.8-7.6% increases (p<0.05) in PV with 3) fluids (2 commercial and NaCitrate) and no change with the others. Percent changes in mean [PVP] and plasma norepinephrine concentrations [PNE] at 15 min correlated -0.70 (P<0.10) suggesting that about half the variability in [PVP I I depression was associated with [PNE]. Thus, part of the mechanism for post-drinking [PVP] depression may involve a drinking stimulated norepinephrine (neural) factor.

  14. Increasing phosphorus concentration in the extraradical hyphae of Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198 leads to a concomitant increase in metal minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Caiyun; Zhou, Jiachao; Declerck, Stéphane; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu

    2016-11-01

    Plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) acquire phosphorus via roots and extraradical hyphae. How soil P level affects P accumulation within hyphae and how P in hyphae influences the accumulation of metal minerals remains little explored. A bi-compartmented in vitro cultivation system separating a root compartment (RC), containing a Ri T-DNA transformed carrot root associated to the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198, from a hyphal compartment (HC), containing only the extraradical hyphae, was used. The HC contained a liquid growth medium (i.e., the modified Strullu-Romand medium containing P in the form of KH 2 PO 4 ) without (0 μM) or adjusted to 35, 100, and 700 μM of KH 2 PO 4 . The accumulation of P and metal minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn) within extraradical hyphae and AMF-colonized roots, and the expression of the phosphate transporter gene GintPT were assessed. The expression of GintPT in the extraradical hyphae did not differ in absence of KH 2 PO 4 or in presence of 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC but was markedly reduced in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 . Hyphal P concentration was significantly lowest in absence of KH 2 PO 4 , intermediate at 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 and significantly highest in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC. The concentrations of K, Mg, and Na were positively associated with the concentration of P in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC. Similarly, P concentration in extraradical hyphae in the HC was related to P concentration in the growth medium and influenced the concentration of K, Mg, and Na. The accumulation of the metal mineral K, Mg, and Na in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC was possibly related to their function in neutralizing the negative charges of PolyP accumulated in the hyphae.

  15. Colostral whey concentrate supplement increases complement activity in the sera of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, S; Korhonen, B H; Nousiainen, J; Marnila, P

    2001-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of a commercial bovine colostral whey on the complement-mediated immune responses of calves. Two groups of neonatal calves were fed, in addition to whole milk (WM) and pooled colostrum (PC), different amounts of a commercial immunoglobulin concentrate made from pooled colostral whey (Ig-C) for the first two feedings post natum. The control group was fed WM and PC only. Serum samples were obtained at the ages of 2, 7, 14 and 30 d. Bacteriolytic activity against complement-sensitive Escherichia coli JM103 and opsonic activity against complement-lysis-resistant E. coli IH3080 strains were studied, as well as the levels of C3 complement component and E. coli JM103 specific antibodies in the sera. Groups fed Ig-C had 2-3 times higher bacteriolytic activity than the control group of both the classic (P complement activities of serum can be increased substantially by feeding colostral whey concentrate to calves during their first days of life.

  16. Effect of vasopressin on rabbit hepatic energy metabolism evaluated using in vivo P-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shigeki; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Tamada, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Changes in metabolic state of rabbit livers after administration of vasopressin (10 mU/kg/min d.i.v.) were evaluated using in vivo P-31 magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. Targets were nine normal control rabbits and eight with chronically carbontetrachloride-damaged livers. A 2.0 Tesla whole-body MR imager was used for measurement. After administration of vasopressin, liver spectroscopy showed a mild ischemic pattern. The inorganic phosphate peak increased statistically significantly (p<0.05) both in the normal control group and in the damaged-liver group (20% and 16% above base line value respectively). In the normal control group, there was a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in the ATP peak to 18% below the base line value while the PME (phosphomonoester) peak increased slightly (about 10%); there was little change in the damaged-liver group. It was thought that the difference between the two groups was due to differences in blood flow mechanism and liver metabolism. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was considered to be useful in studying the detailed changes in metabolic state of rabbit liver after administration of vasopressin. (author)

  17. Tyrosine nitration in blood vessels occurs with increasing nitric oxide concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Amirmansour, Charles; Vallance, Patrick; Bogle, Richard G

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were designed to explore the effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors on generation of superoxide (O2.−) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) in rabbit aortic rings.Following inhibition of endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant basal release of O2.− was revealed (0.9±0.01×10−12 mol min−1 mg−1 tissue). Generation of O2.− increased in a concentration-dependent manner in response to NADH or NADPH (EC50=2.34±1.18×10−4 and 6.21±1.79×10−3 M respectively, n=4). NADH-stimulated O2.− chemilumi...

  18. Sources for increased DOC-concentrations in the groundwater downstream of the landfill Hohne (DEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlmann, E.; Seifert, R.; Eschenbach, A.; Kleinschmidt, V.

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste together with drilling mud and oil-contaminated soil had been deposited in the landfill Hohne from 1971. Four groundwater monitoring sites had been installed: one monitoring site upstream and three sites downstream of the landfill in three different directions. Downstream of the landfill increased concentrations of chloride, sulphate, sodium and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) had been measured over a period of years. Particularly the source of the DOC has remained unclear. Assumptions were (i) leaking of contaminants from the landfill and degradation under the landfill by microbes or plants or (ii) leaching of DOC from the soil under the landfill caused by a change in the redox potential. The determination of the DOC source was the major subject of this study.

  19. Modulation of mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis through a specific arginine-vasopressin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahri-Joutei, A.; Pointis, G.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of specific vasopressin binding sites was investigated in purified mouse Leydig cells using tritiated arginine-vasopressin. Binding of radioligand was saturable, time- and temperature-dependent and reversible. ( 3 H)-AVP was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity and low capacity. Binding displacements with specific selection analogs of AVP indicated the presence of V 1 subtype receptors on Leydig cells. The ability of AVP to displace ( 3 H)-AVP binding was greater than LVP and oxytocin. The unrelated peptides, somatostatin and substance P, were less potent, while neurotensin and LHRH did not displace ( 3 H)-AVP binding. The time-course effects of AVP-pretreatment on basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone and cAMP accumulations were studied in primary culture of Leydig cells. Basal testosterone accumulation was significantly increased by a 24 h AVP-pretreatment of Leydig cells. This effect was potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor (MIX) and was concomitantly accompanied by a slight but significant increase in cAMP accumulation. AVP-pretreatment of the cells for 72 h had no effect on basal testosterone accumulation, but exerted a marked inhibitory effect on the hCG-stimulated testosterone accumulation. This reduction of testosterone accumulation occurred even in the presence of MIX and was not accompanied by any significant change of cAMP levels

  20. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p < or = 0.001) but not in the low-flavonoid group (17.5 +/- 9 nmol/L, p = 0.99). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  1. Increasing in-stream nitrogen concentrations under different bioenergy crop management practices in central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Thraen, Daniela; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how nitrogen fluxes respond to changes in land use and agriculture practices is crucial for improving instream water quality prediction. In central Germany, expansion of bioenergy crops such as maize and rape for ethanol production during the last decade led to increasing of fertilizer application rates. To examine the effect of these changes, surface water quality of a drinking water reservoir catchment was investigated for more than 30 years. The Weida catchment (99.5 km2) is part of the Elbe river basin and has a share of 67% agricultural land use with significant changes in agricultural practices within the investigation period. For the period 2004-2012, the share of maize and rape has been increased by 52% and 20%, respectively, for enhancing bioenergy production. To achieve our gaols, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was calibrated for discharge and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (IN) during the period 1997-2000.The model was validated successfully (with lowest performance of NSE = 0.78 and PBIAS = 3.74% for discharge) for three different periods 1983-1987, 1989-1996 and 2000-2003, which are charaterized by different fertilizer application rates. Results showed that the HYPE model reproduced reasonably well discharge and IN daily loads (with lowest NSE = 0.64 for IN-load). In addition, the HYPE model was evaluated successfully to predict the discharge and IN concentrations for the period 2004-2012, where detailed input data in terms of crops management (field-specific survey) have been considered. Land use and crop rotations scenarios, with high hypothetical percentage of acceptance by the farmers, revealed that continuous conversion of agricultural land into bioenergy crops, will most likely, lead to an enrichment of in-stream nitrogen, especially after spring storms.

  2. Increasing surface ozone concentrations in the background atmosphere of Southern China, 1994–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone is of great importance with regard to air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. In this paper we report the first continuous record of surface ozone in the background atmosphere of South China. The data were obtained from 1994 to 2007 at a coastal site in Hong Kong, which is strongly influenced by the outflow of Asian continental air during the winter and the inflow of maritime air from the subtropics in the summer. Three methods are used to derive the rate of change in ozone. A linear fit to the 14-year record shows that the ozone concentration increased by 0.58 ppbv/yr, whereas comparing means in years 1994–2000 and 2001–2007 gives an increase of 0.87 ppbv/yr for a 7-year period. The ozone changes in air masses from various source regions are also examined. Using local wind and carbon monoxide (CO data to filter out local influence, we find that ozone increased by 0.94 ppbv/yr from 1994–2000 to 2001–2007 in air masses from Eastern China, with similar changes in the other two continent-influenced air-mass groups, but no statistically significant change in the marine air. An examination of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2 column obtained from GOME and SCIAMACHY reveals an increase in atmospheric NO2 in China's three fastest developing coastal regions, whereas NO2 in other parts of Asia decreased during the same period, and no obvious trend over the main shipping routes in the South China Sea was indicated. Thus the observed increase in background ozone in Hong Kong is most likely due to the increased emissions of NO2 (and possibly volatile organic compounds (VOCs as well in the upwind coastal regions of mainland China. The CO data at Hok Tsui showed less definitive changes compared to the satellite NO2 column. The increase in background ozone likely made a strong contribution (81% to the rate of increase in "total ozone" at an urban site in Hong Kong

  3. Elevated endogenous erythropoietin concentrations are associated with increased risk of brain damage in extremely preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Korzeniewski

    Full Text Available We sought to determine, in very preterm infants, whether elevated perinatal erythropoietin (EPO concentrations are associated with increased risks of indicators of brain damage, and whether this risk differs by the co-occurrence or absence of intermittent or sustained systemic inflammation (ISSI.Protein concentrations were measured in blood collected from 786 infants born before the 28th week of gestation. EPO was measured on postnatal day 14, and 25 inflammation-related proteins were measured weekly during the first 2 postnatal weeks. We defined ISSI as a concentration in the top quartile of each of 25 inflammation-related proteins on two separate days a week apart. Hypererythropoietinemia (hyperEPO was defined as the highest quartile for gestational age on postnatal day 14. Using logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models, we compared risks of brain damage among neonates with hyperEPO only, ISSI only, and hyperEPO+ISSI, to those who had neither hyperEPO nor ISSI, adjusting for gestational age.Newborns with hyperEPO, regardless of ISSI, were more than twice as likely as those without to have very low (< 55 Mental (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.5-3.5 and/or Psychomotor (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.6-3.7 Development Indices (MDI, PDI, and microcephaly at age two years (OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.5-3.8. Newborns with both hyperEPO and ISSI had significantly increased risks of ventriculomegaly, hemiparetic cerebral palsy, microcephaly, and MDI and PDI < 55 (ORs ranged from 2.2-6.3, but not hypoechoic lesions or other forms of cerebral palsy, relative to newborns with neither hyperEPO nor ISSI.hyperEPO, regardless of ISSI, is associated with elevated risks of very low MDI and PDI, and microcephaly, but not with any form of cerebral palsy. Children with both hyperEPO and ISSI are at higher risk than others of very low MDI and PDI, ventriculomegaly, hemiparetic cerebral palsy, and microcephaly.

  4. Does the increase in ambient CO2 concentration elevate allergy risks posed by oak pollen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu Rang; Oh, Jae-Won; Woo, Su-Young; Seo, Yun Am; Choi, Young-Jin; Kim, Hyun Seok; Lee, Wi Young; Kim, Baek-Jo

    2018-05-01

    Oak pollen is a major respiratory allergen in Korea, and the distribution of oak trees is expected to increase by ecological succession and climate change. One of the drivers of climate change is increasing CO2, which is also known to amplify the allergy risk of weed pollen by inducing elevated allergenic protein content. However, the impact of CO2 concentration on tree pollen is not clearly understood due to the experimental difficulties in carrying out extended CO2 treatment. To study the response of pollen production of sawtooth oak trees (Quercus acutissima) to elevated levels of ambient CO2, three open-top chambers at the National Institute of Forest Science in Suwon, Korea were utilized with daytime (8 am-6 pm) CO2 concentrations of ambient (× 1.0, 400 ppm), × 1.4 ( 560 ppm), and × 1.8 ( 720 ppm) treatments. Each chamber had three sawtooth oak trees planted in September 2009. One or two trees per chamber matured to bloom in 2016. Five to six catkins were selected per tree and polyethylene bags were attached to collect pollen grains. The total number of catkins per tree was counted and the number and weight of pollen grains per catkin were measured. Oak allergen—Que a 1 (Allergon Co., Uppsala, Sweden)—was extracted and purified to make an ELISA kit by which the antigen levels in the pollen samples were quantified. Total pollen counts per tree of the × 1.4 and × 1.8 treatments showed significant increase of 353 and 1299%, respectively, from the × 1.0 treatment (p < 0.001). Allergenic protein contents at the × 1.4 and × 1.8 treatments also showed significant increase of 12 and 11%, respectively (p = 0.011). The × 1.8 treatment induced significant difference from the × 1.0 treatment in terms of pollen production and allergenic protein content, whereas the × 1.4 treatment showed mixed significance. In summary, the oak trees under the elevated CO2 levels, which are expected in the changing climate, produced significantly higher amount of pollen and

  5. Effects of Intraosseous Tibial vs. Intravenous Vasopressin in a Hypovolemic Cardiac Arrest Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Fulkerson, MSN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study compared the effects of vasopressin via tibial intraosseous (IO and intravenous (IV routes on maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, the time to maximum concentration (Tmax, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, and time to ROSC in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model. Methods: This study was a randomized prospective, between-subjects experimental design. A computer program randomly assigned 28 Yorkshire swine to one of four groups: IV (n=7, IO tibia (n=7, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR + defibrillation (n=7, and a control group that received just CPR (n=7. Ventricular fibrillation was induced, and subjects remained in arrest for two minutes. CPR was initiated and 40 units of vasopressin were administered via IO or IV routes. Blood samples were collected at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 minutes. CPR and defibrillation were initiated for 20 minutes or until ROSC was achieved. We measured vasopressin concentrations using highperformance liquid chromatography. Results: There was no significant difference between the IO and IV groups relative to achieving ROSC (p=1.0 but a significant difference between the IV compared to the CPR+ defibrillation group (p=0.031 and IV compared to the CPR-only group (p=0.001. There was a significant difference between the IO group compared to the CPR+ defibrillation group (p=0.031 and IO compared to the CPR-only group (p=0.001. There was no significant difference between the CPR + defibrillation group and the CPR group (p=0.127. There was no significant difference in Cmax between the IO and IV groups (p=0.079. The mean ± standard deviation of Cmax of the IO group was 58,709±25,463pg/mL compared to the IV group, which was 106,198±62,135pg/mL. There was no significant difference in mean Tmax between the groups (p=0.084. There were no significant differences in odds of ROSC between the tibial IO and IV groups. Conclusion: Prompt access to the vascular system using the IO route can circumvent

  6. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.; Boers, G.H.; Blom, H.J.; Broekhuizen, R.; Jong, de R.; Rijt, van L.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Objective: We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma

  7. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M. J.; Boers, G. H.; Blom, H. J.; Broekhuizen, R.; de Jong, R.; van Rijt, L.; de Ruijter, E.; Swinkels, D. W.; Nagengast, F. M.; Katan, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma homocysteine in a crossover

  8. Diquafosol Tetrasodium Increases the Concentration of Mucin-like Substances in Tears of Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeyasu, Chika; Hirano, Shinichiro; Akune, Yoko; Yamada, Masakazu

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of topical application of diquafosol tetrasodium on proteins and mucin-like substances from tears of clinically healthy subjects. Tears were collected from both the eyes of 10 healthy volunteers. Diquafosol tetrasodium solution (3%) was applied once to the right eye and 0.9% sodium chloride solution (saline) once to the left eye. Tear samples were collected by Schirmer test strips before application and 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after application. Sialic acid, a marker of mucin-like substances, and major tear proteins including secretory IgA, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, and lysozyme were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Levels of total protein, sIgA and lysozyme were transiently decreased in both groups but returned to baseline levels within 15 min after application. The concentration of lactoferrin and lipocalin-1 did not change significantly in both groups. Sialic acid in tears was significantly decreased 5 min after saline application, but significantly increased 5 min after diquafosol application. No significant difference in sialic acid was seen after 15 min in both groups. Topical application of saline and diquafosol resulted in transient decrease of tear proteins possibly due to wash out or dilution effects. In contrast, diquafosol application significantly increased sialic acid, although the effect was transient. This suggests diquafosol stimulates the secretion of mucins from ocular tissues of healthy human subjects.

  9. Growth of Cyanobacterium aponinum influenced by increasing salt concentrations and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckelmann, Dominik; Bleeke, Franziska; Bergmann, Peter; Klöck, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    The increasing requirement of food neutral biofuels demands the detection of alternative sources. The use of non-arable land and waste water streams is widely discussed in this regard. A Cyanobacterium was isolated on the area of a possible algae production side near a water treatment plant in the arid desert region al-Wusta. It was identified as Cyanobacterium aponinum PB1 and is a possible lipid source. To determine its suitability of a production process using this organism, a set of laboratory experiments were performed. Its growth behavior was examined in regard to high temperatures and increasing NaCl concentrations. A productivity of 0.1 g L -1 per day was measured at an alga density below 0.75 g L -1 . C. aponinum PB1 showed no sign of altered growth behavior in media containing 70 g L -1 NaCl or less. Detection of a negative effect of NaCl on the growth using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation chlorophyll fluorescence analysis was not more sensitive than optical density measurement.

  10. Recent negative life events increase hair cortisol concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Koenders, Manja A; Giltay, Erik J; Elzinga, Bernet M; Manenschijn, Laura; Hoencamp, Erik; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Spijker, Anne T

    2014-12-01

    Life events induce stress, which is considered to negatively impact the course of disease in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), its effects being predominantly mediated by cortisol. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a biomarker for assessing long-term cortisol levels, and allows clarifying the relation between life events, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and clinical course over time. In 71 BD patients, we analyzed the proximal 3 cm of hair, reflecting 3 months of cortisol production, and investigated the association between HCC, the number of life events, the amount of social support, and mood in the 3 months prior to the hair assessment and between HCC and mood in the subsequent 3 months. Although the total number of life events was not associated with HCC (p > 0.05), the number of negative life events was associated with increased HCC (r(2)( )= 0.04, p = 0.02). Social support showed an inverse association with HCC in patients reporting negative life events (r(2)( )= 0.07, p = 0.03). HCC and mood were not associated in the 3 months prior to hair sampling or in the subsequent 3 months. This study indicates that patients who experienced recent negative life events have increased hair cortisol levels, which seem to be attenuated by social support.

  11. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired powerplants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. W...

  12. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired power plants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. ...

  13. Radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.; Haeberle, M.; Franz, H.E.; Maier, V.

    1977-01-01

    The low circulating levels of vasopressin required an initial extraction procedure. The extraction method itself presented problems with the specificity and the reproducibility of the extracted hormone from serum. The presented paper describes the developement of a radioimmunoassay without an extraction procedure. The AVP was coupled with rabbit-albumin by gluteraldehyde condensation for the immunization of rabbits. Synthetic AVP was iodinated by the method of GREENWOOD and HUNTER (1963) and purified by the addition of Dowex. The antibody cannot differentiate between lysine- and arginine-, ornithine-, glycerine - vasopressin and oxytocin. 1 - 24 ACTH and gastrin did not crosscreact. Normal subjects were found to have 5.7 +- 4.4/uU/ml after a dehydration period of 12 hours. Subjects suffering from psychogenic polydipsia showed normal levels, however, different forms of stress yielded higher levels in normal subjects. In patients suffering from liver cirrhosis the values normalized when ascites was under control. (orig.) [de

  14. Endothelial Lipase Concentrations Are Increased in Metabolic Syndrome and Associated with Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial lipase (EL, a new member of the lipase family, has been shown to modulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C metabolism and atherosclerosis in mouse models. We hypothesized that EL concentrations would be associated with decreased HDL-C and increased atherosclerosis in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Healthy individuals with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (n = 858 were recruited as part of the Study of the Inherited Risk of Atherosclerosis. Blood was drawn in the fasting state before and, in a subgroup (n = 510, after administration of a single dose of intravenous heparin. Plasma lipids were measured enzymatically, lipoprotein subclasses were assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and coronary artery calcification (CAC was quantified by electron beam computed tomography. Plasma EL mass was measured using a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median EL mass in pre-heparin plasma was 442 (interquartile range = 324-617 ng/ml. Median post-heparin mass was approximately 3-fold higher, 1,313 (888-1,927 ng/ml. The correlation between pre-heparin EL mass and post-heparin EL mass was 0.46 (p < 0.001. EL mass concentrations in both pre- and post-heparin plasma significantly correlated with all NCEP ATPIII-defined metabolic syndrome factors: waist circumference (r = 0.28 and 0.22, respectively, p < 0.001 for each, blood pressure (r = 0.18 and 0.24, p < 0.001 for each, triglycerides (r = 0.22, p < 0.001; and 0.13, p = 0.004, HDL cholesterol (r = -0.11, p = 0.002; and -0.18, p < 0.001, and fasting glucose (r = 0.11 and 0.16, p = 0.001 for both. EL mass in both routine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, p = 0.01 and post-heparin (OR = 2.42, p = 0.003 plasma was associated with CAC as determined by ordinal regression after adjustment for age, gender, waist circumference, vasoactive medications, hormone replacement therapy (women, and established cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We report, to our knowledge

  15. Predictors and outcomes of increases in creatine phosphokinase concentrations or rhabdomyolysis risk during statin treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staa, Tjeerd P; Carr, Daniel F; O’Meara, Helen; McCann, Gerry; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim was to evaluate clinical risk factors associated with myotoxicity in statin users. Methods This was a cohort study of patients prescribed a statin in UK primary care practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Outcomes of interest were creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations and clinical records of rhabdomyolysis. Results The cohort comprised 641 703 statin users. Simvastatin was most frequently prescribed (66.3%), followed by atorvastatin (24.4%). CPK was measured in 127 209 patients: 81.4% within normal range and 0.7% above Rhabdomyolysis was recorded in 59 patients. Patients with concomitant prescribing of CYP3A4-interacting drugs had an increased odds ratio (OR) of rhabdomyolysis compared with controls (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.18, 11.61) and >four times ULN CPK compared with normal CPK (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01, 1.60). Rosuvastatin users had higher risk of >four times ULN CPK (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.22, 2.15) as did patients with larger daily doses of other statin types. A recent clinical record of myalgia was associated with an increased OR of >four times ULN CPK (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.37, 2.18). In patients who were rechallenged to statins and had repeat CPK measurements after >four times ULN CPK abnormalities, 54.8% of the repeat CPK values were within normal range, 32.1% between one to three times and 13.0% >four times ULN. Conclusions The frequencies of substantive CPK increases and rhabdomyolysis during statin treatment were low, with highest risks seen in those on large daily doses or interacting drugs and on rosuvastatin. CPK measurements appeared to have been done in a haphazard manner and better guidance is needed. PMID:24602118

  16. A cascadable circular concentrator with parallel compressed structure for increasing the energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Nai-Lun; Chen, Yi-Yung; Hsieh, Wei-Che; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei

    2012-02-01

    Due to the energy crisis, the principle of green energy gains popularity. This leads the increasing interest in renewable energy such as solar energy. Thus, how to collect the sunlight for indoor illumination becomes our ultimate target. With the environmental awareness increasing, we use the nature light as the light source. Then we start to devote the development of solar collecting system. The Natural Light Guiding System includes three parts, collecting, transmitting and lighting part. The idea of our solar collecting system design is a concept for combining the buildings with a combination of collecting modules. Therefore, we can use it anyplace where the sunlight can directly impinges on buildings with collecting elements. In the meantime, while collecting the sunlight with high efficiency, we can transmit the sunlight into indoor through shorter distance zone by light pipe where we needs the light. We proposed a novel design including disk-type collective lens module. With the design, we can let the incident light and exit light be parallel and compressed. By the parallel and compressed design, we make every output light become compressed in the proposed optical structure. In this way, we can increase the ratio about light compression, get the better efficiency and let the energy distribution more uniform for indoor illumination. By the definition of "KPI" as an performance index about light density as following: lm/(mm)2, the simulation results show that the proposed Concentrator is 40,000,000 KPI much better than the 800,000 KPI measured from the traditional ones.

  17. Endurance training increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Pilc, A; Majerczak, J; Grandys, M; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Duda, K

    2008-12-01

    It is believed that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal growth, transmission, modulation and plasticity. Single bout of exercise can increase plasma BDNF concentration [BDNF](p) in humans. It was recently reported however, that elevated [BDNF](p) positively correlated with risk factors for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle age group of subjects. On the other hand it is well established that endurance training decreases the risk of diabetes and development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we have examined the effect of 5 weeks of moderate intensity endurance training on the basal and the exercise induced changes in [BDNF](p) in humans. Thirteen young, healthy and physically active men (mean +/- S.E: age 22.7 +/- 0.5 yr, body height 180.2 +/- 1.7 cm, body weight 77.0 +/- 2.5 kg, V(O2max) 45.29 +/- 0.93 ml x kg-1 x min(-1)) performed a five week endurance cycling training program, composed mainly of moderate intensity bouts. Before training [BDNF]p at rest have amounted to 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1). No effect of a single maximal incremental cycling up to V(O2max) on its concentration was found (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1), P=0.74). The training resulted in a significant (P=0.01) increase in [BDNF]p at rest to 16.8 +/- 2.1 pg x ml(-1), as well as in significant (P=0.0002) exercise induced increase in the [BDNF](p) (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1) before training vs. 68.4 +/- 16.0 pg x ml(-1) after training). The training induced increase in resting [BDNF](p) was accompanied by a slight decrease in insulin resistance (P=0.25), calculated using the homeostatic model assessment version 2 (HOMA2-IR), amounting to 1.40 +/- 0.13 before and 1.15 +/- 0.13 after the training. Moreover, we have found that the basal [BDNF](p) in athletes (n=16) was significantly higher than in untrained subjects (n=13) (29.5 +/- 9.5 pg x ml(-1) vs. 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1), P=0.013). We have concluded that endurance training of

  18. Diabetes insipidus: celebrating a century of vasopressin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sana; Galiveeti, Sneha; Bichet, Daniel G; Roth, Jesse

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus, widely known to the ancients for polyuria and glycosuria, budded off diabetes insipidus (DI) about 200 years ago, based on the glucose-free polyuria that characterized a subset of patients. In the late 19th century, clinicians identified the posterior pituitary as the site of pathology, and pharmacologists found multiple bioactivities there. Early in the 20th century, the amelioration of the polyuria with extracts of the posterior pituitary inaugurated a new era in therapy and advanced the hypothesis that DI was due to a hormone deficiency. Decades later, a subset of patients with polyuria unresponsive to therapy were recognized, leading to the distinction between central DI and nephrogenic DI, an early example of a hormone-resistant condition. Recognition that the posterior pituitary had 2 hormones was followed by du Vigneaud's Nobel Prize winning isolation, sequencing, and chemical synthesis of oxytocin and vasopressin. The pure hormones accelerated the development of bioassays and immunoassays that confirmed the hormone deficiency in vasopressin-sensitive DI and abundant levels of hormone in patients with the nephrogenic disorder. With both forms of the disease, acquired and inborn defects were recognized. Emerging concepts of receptors and of genetic analysis led to the recognition of patients with mutations in the genes for 1) arginine vasopressin (AVP), 2) the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2), and 3) the aquaporin 2 water channel (AQP2). We recount here the multiple skeins of clinical and laboratory research that intersected frequently over the centuries since the first recognition of DI.

  19. Beaver ponds increase methylmercury concentrations in Canadian shield streams along vegetation and pond-age gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Virginie; Amyot, Marc; Carignan, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Beaver impoundments flood forested areas and may be important production sites for methylmercury (MeHg) because of the resulting enhanced microbial activity and oxygen depletion. The influence of 17 beaver impoundments on streamwater chemistry (total mercury (THg), MeHg, nutrients, cations, and anions)] was investigated by sampling sites located along vegetation and pond-age gradients in southwestern Quebec (Canada). Recently inundated beaver ponds (beaver ponds as suggested by depletions of dissolved oxygen, sulfate and nitrite-nitrate concentrations, and increases in nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) in outlets compared to inlets. Acidic waters at coniferous sites may have stimulated more MeHg production than in mixed woodland regions. Lower methylation efficiencies in older ponds (> 20 years old) may be due to the degradation of less labile organic matter as ponds age. Beavers actively alter watersheds by building impoundments, and our findings indicate that this landscape disturbance may be a significant source of MeHg to downstream water bodies.

  20. Increases in both acute and chronic temperature potentiate tocotrienol concentrations in wild barley at 'Evolution Canyon'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Lansky, Ephraim; Traber, Maret; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-09-01

    Biosynthesis of tocols (vitamin E isoforms) is linked to response to temperature in plants. 'Evolution Canyon', an ecogeographical microcosm extending over an average of 200 meters (range 100-400) wide area in the Carmel Mountains of northern Israel, has been suggested as a model for studying global warming. Both domestic (Hordeum vulgare) and wild (Hordeum spontaneum) barley compared with wheat, oat, corn, rice, and rye show high tocotrienol/tocopherol ratios. Therefore, we hypothesized that tocol distribution might change in response to global warming. α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol concentrations were measured in wild barley (H. spontaneum) seeds harvested from the xeric (African) and mesic (European) slopes of Evolution Canyon over a six-year period from 2005-2011. Additionally, we examined seeds from areas contiguous to and distant from the part of the Canyon severely burned during the Carmel Fire of December 2010. Increased α-tocotrienol (pslope in contrast to the cooler 'European' slope, and 3) to propinquity to the fire. The study illustrates the role of α-tocotrienol in both chronic and acute temperature adaptation in wild barley and suggests future research into thermoregulatory mechanisms in plants. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  1. MILK WITH INCREASED CONCENTRATION OF MELATONIN PACKAGING FACTORS ON CONSUMER PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Milagres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conjoint analysis of factors was used employed to develop a label for the packaging of milk with increased concentration of melatonin. Three factors were selected with three or two levels for the assembly of packaging: packaging design (“blue design with stars and pouring milk”, “white without drawing” and “blue stars with and without drawing”, name (“milk night “and” melatonin “ and informative text about getting natural melatonin by night milking, and the benefits of this compound (“with” and “without”. Twelve packaging designs were created based on a complete factorial arrangement. The designs were presented to 144 consumers who were asked to assess purchase intent of each package. For the joint analysis of factors, the ideal product or more likely to purchase for the most consumers would be blue with stars and packaging design of milk pouring, named milk night and in the presence of informational text, demonstrating that consumers like a package that brings the product and that contains information described. Therefore, the packaging has a major influence on consumer choice and can contribute positively or negatively to the acceptance of food.

  2. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.

  3. Transient increase in neuronal chloride concentration by neuroactive amino acids released from glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBertollini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal chloride concentration ([Cl-]i is known to be dynamically modulated and alterations in Cl- homeostasis may occur in the brain at physiological and pathological conditions, being also likely involved in glioma-related seizures. However, the mechanism leading to changes in neuronal [Cl-]i during glioma invasion are still unclear. To characterize the potential effect of glioma released soluble factors on neuronal [Cl-]i, we used genetically encoded CFP/YFP-based ratiometric Cl-Sensor transiently expressed in cultured hippocampal neurons. Exposition of neurons to glioma conditioned medium (GCM caused rapid and transient elevation of [Cl-]i, resulting in the increase of fluorescence ratio, which was strongly reduced by blockers of ionotropic glutamate receptors APV and NBQX. Furthermore, in HEK cells expressing GluR1-AMPA receptors, GCM activated ionic current with efficacy similar to those caused by glutamate, supporting the notion that GCM contains glutamate or glutamatergic agonists, which cause neuronal depolarization, activation of NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors leading to elevation of [Cl-]i. Chromatographic analysis of the GCM showed that it contained several aminoacids, including glutamate, whose release from glioma cells did not occur via the most common glial mechanisms of transport, or in response to hypoosmotic stress. GCM also contained glycine, whose action contrasted the glutamate effect. Indeed, strychnine application significantly increased GCM-induced depolarization and [Cl-]i rise. GCM-evoked [Cl-]i elevation was not inhibited by antagonists of Cl- transporters and significantly reduced in the presence of anion channels blocker NPPB, suggesting that Cl-selective channels are a major route for GCM-induced Cl- influx. Altogether, these data show that glioma released aminoacids may dynamically alter Cl- equilibrium in surrounding neurons, deeply interfering with their inhibitory balance, likely leading to physiological and

  4. Low maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration increases the risk of severe and mild preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Katharyn M; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Platt, Robert W; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this case-cohort study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and preeclampsia overall and by severity. From an eligible cohort of 12,861 women who had serum banked from aneuploidy screening in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1999 to 2010, we randomly sampled a subcohort of 2327 pregnancies and all remaining preeclampsia cases (n = 650 cases). Preeclampsia (defined as new-onset hypertension and proteinuria) and its mild and severe forms were identified using ICD-9 codes. Maternal serum collected at 20 weeks or less gestation was measured for 25(OH)D. We used log-binomial regression with restricted cubic splines to estimate the association between 25(OH)D and preeclampsia after adjusting for confounders. Approximately 21% of the randomly selected sample had 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol per L. We found that the adjusted risk of preeclampsia declined as serum 25(OH)D increased to 50 nmol per L and then plateaued (test of nonlinearity P preeclampsia risk ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 25(OH)D less than 25 nmol per L, 25 to 49.9 nmol per L, and 50 to 74.9 nmol per L were 2.4 (1.2-4.8), 1.1 (0.69-1.7), and 1.3 (0.89-1.8), respectively, compared with those with 25(OH)D 75 nmol per L and over. Similar associations were observed with severe and mild preeclampsia. Vitamin D deficiency increases risks of severe and mild forms of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ebselen increases cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, stimulates glutamate release and increases GFAP content in rat hippocampal astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Miguel; Pariente, Jose Antonio; Salido, Gines Maria; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of the seleno-organic compound and radical scavenger ebselen on rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture. Throughout our study we carried out determinations of [Ca 2+ ] c in fura-2-loaded cells by single cell imaging, glutamate secretion employing an enzymatic-based assay and GFAP expression, which was monitorized by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Our results show that ebselen (1-20 μM) dose dependently increases [Ca 2+ ] c , stimulates glutamate release and increases GFAP content, a hallmark of astrocyte reactivity. Ebselen did not alter significantly cell viability as assayed by determination of LDH release into the extracellular medium. Ebselen-evoked glutamate release and increase in GFAP content were Ca 2+ -dependent, because incubation of astrocytes in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ (medium containing 0.5 mM EGTA) and in the presence of the intracellular Ca 2+ chelator BAPTA (10 μM) significantly reduced ebselen-evoked changes in these parameters. The effects of ebselen we have observed may underline various signalling pathways which are important for cell proliferation, differentiation and function. However, aberrations in astroglial physiology could significantly compromise brain function, due to their role as modulators of neuron activity. Therefore, we consider that careful attention should be paid when employing ebselen as a prophylactic agent against brain damage

  6. Diabetes diminishes the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to vasopressin via vasopressin receptor and Gα proteins regulations in cirrhotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis may lead to portal-systemic collateral formation and bleeding. The hemostatic effect is influenced by the response of collateral vessels to vasoconstrictors. Diabetes and glucose also influence vasoresponsiveness, but their net effect on collaterals remains unexplored. This study investigated the impact of diabetes or glucose application on portal-systemic collateral vasoresponsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP in cirrhosis. Spraque-Dawley rats with bile duct ligation (BDL-induced cirrhosis received vehicle (citrate buffer or streptozotocin (diabetic, BDL/STZ. The in situ collateral perfusion was done after hemodynamic measurements: Both were perfused with Krebs solution, D-glucose, or D-glucose and NaF, with additional OPC-31260 for the BDL/STZ group. Splenorenal shunt vasopressin receptors and Gα proteins mRNA expressions were evaluated. The survival rate of cirrhotic rats was decreased by STZ injection. The collateral perfusion pressure changes to AVP were lower in STZ-injected groups, which were reversed by OPC-31260 (a V2R antagonist and overcome by NaF (a G protein activator. The splenorenal shunt V2R mRNA expression was increased while Gα proteins mRNA expressions were decreased in BDL/STZ rats compared to BDL rats. The Gαq and Gα11 mRNA expressions also correlated with the maximal perfusion pressure changes to AVP. Diabetes diminished the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to AVP in rats with BDL-induced cirrhosis, probably via V2 receptor up-regulation and Gα proteins down-regulation.

  7. Increased chemerin concentrations in fetuses of obese mothers and correlation with maternal insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gillian; Lim, Ratana; Rice, Gregory E; Lappas, Martha

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on (i) the circulating concentrations of chemerin in cord and maternal plasma, and (ii) gene expression and release of chemerin from human placenta and adipose tissue. Chemerin concentrations were measured in maternal and cord plasma from 62 normal glucose tolerant women (NGT) and 69 women with GDM at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Placenta and adipose tissue expression and release of chemerin was measured from 22 NGT and 22 GDM women. There was no effect of maternal obesity or GDM on maternal chemerin concentrations. Chemerin concentrations were significantly higher in cord plasma from women with maternal obesity. Cord chemerin concentrations in NGT women negatively correlated with the concentrations of maternal insulin sensitivity. There was no effect of GDM on maternal and cord chemerin concentrations, and on the release of chemerin from placenta and adipose tissue. At the time of term Caesarean section, preexisting maternal obesity, and its associated insulin resistance, is associated with higher cord plasma chemerin concentrations.

  8. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The product of the biological sulphate reduction is sulphide. High concentrations of molecular H2S(g) can be inhibitory for microbial activity, especially at a reactor pH of 6 to 7. This paper focuses on the effect of high sulphide concentrations...

  9. Hypotonicity-induced reduction of aquaporin-2 transcription in mpkCCD cells is independent of the tonicity responsive element, vasopressin, and cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; van den Brand, Michiel; Wetzels, Jack F M; Deen, Peter M T

    2011-04-15

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is characterized by excessive water uptake and hyponatremia. The extent of hyponatremia, however, is less than anticipated, which is ascribed to a defense mechanism, the vasopressin-escape, and is suggested to involve a tonicity-determined down-regulation of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2). The underlying mechanism, however, is poorly understood. To study this, we used the mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cell line. MpkCCD cells, transfected with an AQP2-promoter luciferase construct showed a reduced and increased AQP2 abundance and transcription following culture in hypotonic and hypertonic medium, respectively. This depended on tonicity rather than osmolality and occurred independently of the vasopressin analog dDAVP, cAMP levels, or protein kinase A activity. Although prostaglandins and nitric oxide reduced AQP2 abundance, inhibition of their synthesis did not influence tonicity-induced AQP2 transcription. Also, cells in which the cAMP or tonicity-responsive element (CRE/TonE) in the AQP2-promoter were mutated showed a similar response to hypotonicity. Instead, the tonicity-responsive elements were pin-pointed to nucleotides -283 to -252 and -157 to -126 bp. In conclusion, our data indicate that hypotonicity reduces AQP2 abundance and transcription, which occurs independently of vasopressin, cAMP, and the known TonE and CRE in the AQP2-promoter. Increased prostaglandin and nitric oxide, as found in vivo, may contribute to reduced AQP2 in vasopressin-escape, but do not mediate the effect of hypotonicity on AQP2 transcription. Our data suggest that two novel segments (-283 to -252 and -157 to -126 bp) in the AQP2-promoter mediate the hypotonicity-induced AQP2 down-regulation during vasopressin-escape.

  10. Permanent atrial fibrillation in heart failure patients as another condition with increased reverse triiodothyronine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowczuk, Maciej; Zalas, Dominika; Owecki, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    To fully investigate the thyroid hormonal function in patients with the most common arrhythmia - atrial fibrillation. 120 patients (aged 55-85 yrs) with symptoms of congestive heart failure exacerbation and no other concomitant disorders (inclusion criteria: normal cardiac troponin T at admission and 12 hours after, normal renal, hepatic and respiratory function; exclusion criteria: inflammatory state, history of myocardial infarction). Depending on the presence of permanent atrial fibrillation (PAF), patients were divided into two groups: PAF (34 females, 26 males) and regular sinus heart rhythm (43 females, 17 males), the groups did not differ in terms of heart rate, blood pressure, presence of overt/subclinical thyroid dysfunction, and medical therapy used. In all subjects thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine were measured; echocardiography was performed. PAF group showed higher FT4 and rT3 (1.41 vs. 1.27 ng/dl, p=0.0007; 0.61 vs. 0.32 ng/ml, p<0.0001, respectively). With ROC curve analysis the biochemical thyroid related factor of the highest prognostic value for PAF occurrence (with the highest sensitivity and specificity: 77% and 72%, respectively) was rT3 with the cut-off of above 0.3 ng/ml. Also, a positive correlation between rT3 levels and left ventricular posterior wall diameter was observed (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.33, p=0.0093). PAF is another condition where an increase in rT3 is observed. rT3 concentration above 0.3 ng/ml may be a novel biochemical sign associated with the presence of PAF in patients with chronic heart failure.

  11. Increased cell-free DNA concentrations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chol; Kim, Jin K; Kim, Je H; Jung, Ki H; Cho, Kyung J; Lee, Chang K; Lee, Seung G

    2008-12-01

    Blood concentrations of cell-free DNA, which is considered to be released during apoptosis, are elevated under some pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cell-free DNA concentrations has not been reported so far. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between OSA and plasma DNA concentrations. A case-control study was conducted using a total of 164 men aged 39-67 years, who were free of coronary heart disease and cancer. Laboratory-based overnight polysomnography was performed for all participants. On the basis of polysomnography, patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 5-30 events/h were defined as having mild-moderate OSA (n = 33) and those with >30 events/h were defined as having severe OSA (n = 49). All 82 controls had AHI DNA concentrations from all participants were analyzed for the beta-globin gene using fluorescence-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients with severe OSA had significantly higher plasma DNA concentrations than persons with mild-moderate OSA and those without OSA (P DNA concentration (P DNA concentrations (>8 microg/L) had approximately fourfold higher odds of OSA than those with low DNA levels. Further data are warranted to confirm the association for men and to evaluate the association for women.

  12. Does multigenerational exposure to hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid precondition aphids for increased insecticide tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Rachel R; Cutler, G Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Hormetic preconditioning, whereby exposure to mild stress primes an organism to better tolerate subsequent stress, is well documented. It is unknown if exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can trans-generationally prime insects to better tolerate insecticide exposure, or whether exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can induce mutations in genes responsible for insecticide resistance. Using the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and the insecticide imidacloprid as a model, we examined if exposure to mildly toxic and hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid reduced aphid susceptibility to insecticides across four generations, and whether such exposures induced mutations in the imidacloprid binding site in post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Chronic, multigenerational exposure of aphids to hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid primed offspring to better survive exposure to certain concentrations of imidacloprid, but not exposure to spirotetramat, an insecticide with a different mode of action. Exposure to hormetic and mildly toxic concentrations of imidacloprid did not result in mutations in any of the examined nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits. Our findings demonstrate that exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can prime insects to better withstand subsequent chemical stress, but this is dependent upon the insecticide exposure scenario, and may be subtle over generations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Increase in salivary cysteinyl-leukotriene concentration in patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Emiko; Taniguchi, Masami; Higashi, Noritaka; Mita, Haruhisa; Yamaguchi, Hiromichi; Tatsuno, Sayaka; Fukutomi, Yuma; Tanimoto, Hidenori; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Oshikata, Chiyako; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Otomo, Mamoru; Maeda, Yuji; Hasegawa, Maki; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kumamoto, Toshihide; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (CysLTs; LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) play a considerable role in the pathophysiology of aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA). Saliva has recently been validated as novel, simple, and noninvasive method for investigating inflammation in patients with asthma. The aim of this study is to clarify the molecular species of CysLT in saliva and to evaluate the CysLT and LTB4 concentrations in saliva in AIA patients. We also examined how the CysLT concentration in saliva reflects that of their corresponding urinary metabolite. We preformed an analytical cross-sectional study. CysLT and LTB4 concentrations in saliva were quantified by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) following purification by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 1. When analyzed by EIA in combination with HPLC, saliva was found to consist of LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4 in similar amounts. 2. In saliva analysis among the three groups (AIA patients, aspirin-tolerant asthma [ATA] patients, and healthy subjects), both the concentrations of CysLTs and LTB4 were significantly higher in AIA patients than in ATA patients and healthy subjects. 3. We found significant correlations between CysLT concentration and LTB4 concentration in saliva in each group. 4. No significant correlation was found between the concentration of LTE4 in urine and that of CysLTs in saliva. In this study, we found higher concentrations of CysLTs and LTB4 in saliva from AIA patients than in saliva from ATA patients, suggesting that the quantification of CysLT and LTB4 concentrations in saliva may be another diagnostic strategy for AIA.

  14. Enkephalin inhibition of angiotensin-stimulated release of oxytocin and vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Chee, O.; Rosella-Dampman, L. M.; Emmert, S.; Summy-Long, J. Y.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) pretreatment with 100 ng/5 microliter leucine(5)-enkephalin (LE) on the increase in plasma oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) caused by ICV injection of 10, 50, or 100 ng/5 microliter of angiotensin II (AII) is investigated experimentally in conscious adult male Sprague-Dawley rats; the effects of water-deprivation dehydration and lactation/suckling (in female rats) are also studied. An OT radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a sensitivity of 800 fg/ml (described in detail) and the VP RIA technique of Keil and Severs (1977) are employed. Administration of AII or dehydration for 48 or 72 h cause a significant increase in OT and VP without affecting the ratio, while lactation and suckling increase OT only. LE pretreatment inhibits significantly but does not suppress the AII-stimulated OT-VP response.

  15. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  16. Inhibitory effect of high [Mg2+] on the vasopressin-stimulated hydroosmotic permeability of the isolated perfused cortical collecting duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkenstein D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available High magnesium concentration inhibits the effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP on smooth muscle contraction and platelet aggregation and also influences hepatocyte AVP receptor binding. The aim of this study was to determine the role of magnesium concentration [Mg2+] in AVP-stimulated water transport in the kidney collecting duct. The effect of low and high peritubular [Mg2+] on the AVP-stimulated osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf was evaluated in the isolated perfused rabbit cortical collecting duct (CCD. Control tubules bathed and perfused with standard Ringer bicarbonate solution containing 1 mM Mg2+ presented a Pf of 223.9 ± 27.2 µm/s. When Mg2+ was not added to the bathing solution, an increase in the AVP-stimulated Pf to 363.1 ± 57.2 µm/s (P<0.05 was observed. An elevation of Mg2+ to 5 mM resulted in a decrease in Pf to 202.9 ± 12.6 µm/s (P<0.05. This decrease in the AVP-stimulated Pf at 5 mM Mg2+ persisted when the CCDs were returned to 1 mM Mg2+, Pf = 130.2 ± 20.3 µm/s, and was not normalized by the addition of 8-[4-chlorophenylthio]-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, a cAMP analogue, to the preparation. These data indicate that magnesium may play a modulatory role in the action of AVP on CCD osmotic water permeability, as observed in other tissues.

  17. PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-11-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU patients (median age 8.5, range 0-35 years) participated (median phenylalanine concentration in total sample 277 (range 89-1171) μmol/l; and in patients introvert or extravert behavior. The interviewer as well as the respondents were blinded with regard to the phenylalanine concentration. Patients reported less deviant behavior compared to close environment. Mood swings were positively associated with phenylalanine concentrations in the total group (P=0.039) and patients introvert and extravert behavior were not statistically significant. there is a positive association between phenylalanine concentrations and mood swings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated CO2 concentration around alfalfa nodules increases N2 fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Fischinger, Stephanie A.; Hristozkova, Marieta; Mainassara, Zaman-Allah; Schulze, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation via PEPC provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for N assimilation. The process is therefore of central importance for efficient nitrogen fixation. Nodule CO2 fixation is known to depend on external CO2 concentration. The hypothesis of the present paper was that nitrogen fixation in alfalfa plants is enhanced when the nodules are exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. Therefore nodulated plants of alfalfa were grown in a hydroponic system that allowed separate ae...

  19. Radioimmunoassay of 1-Deamino-8-D-Arginine Vasopressin and related peptides with special condsideration to their gastrointestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, S.

    1986-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimminoassy for 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) was developed. Measurements of the analogue in extracted and non-extracted plasma yielded indentical results, the sensitivity was reduced with non-extracted samples. The assay was validated by correlating DDAVP blood levels to a biologic response (antidiuretic). Dilutions of plasma extracts containing DDAVP were parallel with the standard curve. Fractionations of extracted plasma DDAVP samples on HPLC revealed that immunoreactivity eluted as standard DDAVP. Prolonged infusion of DDAVP in rats did not alter pituitary secretion of oxytocin and vasopressin and urine osmolatity and volume changes were modest. DDAVP was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of humans, rats, rabbits and dogs in quantities sufficient to induce a biological response. Peak plasma concentrations were reached between 30-90 min after peptide administration. By the use of an in vitro model, the everted rat intestine, the transmucosal passage of a number of vasopressin analogues were tested. There was no clear-cut correlation between hydrophobicity and intestinal transport rates. Metabolic inhibitors and N/sub2/ did not decrease DDAVP transport. No transport maximum could be demonstrated over a 10/sup4/ fold concentration range. The distribution volume of /sup3/H-polyethyleneglycol was greater. then that of DDAVP in mucosal flakes. There was a close correlation between immunoassayable DDAVP levels and those found after HPLC analyses. It is proposed that DDAVP absorption occurs mainly by passive diffusion. The bioavailability of perorally ingested DDAVP in humans was about 1 percent. Minor amounts were excreted in urine

  20. Radioimmunoassay of [8-D-arginine] deamino-vasopressin (dDAVP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaninova, J.; Barth, T.

    1978-01-01

    Specific antibodies to [8-D-arginine] deamino-vasopressin (dDAVP) were prepared by immunizing pigs with the conjugate of [8-D-arginine] vasopressin (DVAP) and rabbit immunoglobulin. The specificity of the antibodies was studied by comparing their cross-reactivity with 20 analogues of neurohypophysial hormones. The sensitivity of the developed radioimmunoassay was 30 pg/ml. (authors)

  1. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Kenji; Nakamura, Marie; Adachi, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Akira; Hakamada, Tomomi; Abe, Yasuko; Kaneko, Eiji; Takahashi, Soiciro; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles. A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years) were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids. Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia. The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  2. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Toyoshima

    Full Text Available Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles.A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids.Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia.The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  3. CO₂ enrichment can produce high red leaf lettuce yield while increasing most flavonoid glycoside and some caffeic acid derivative concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter

    2016-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment is a common practice in greenhouses to increase crop yields up to 30%. Yet, reports on the effect on foliar phenolic compounds vary. We studied the effect on two red leaf lettuce cultivars, grown for 25 days in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 200 or 1,000 ppm, with some plants exchanged between treatments after 11 days. As expected, head mass increased with higher CO2 concentration. Regression analysis, corrected for head mass, showed increased concentrations of most flavonoid glycosides at high CO2 concentrations while only some caffeic acid derivatives were increased, and not uniformly in both cultivars. Sugar concentrations increased with CO2 concentration. Generally, conditions in the 10 days before harvest determined concentrations. We suspect that phenolic compounds were mainly accumulated because plenty of precursors were available. The results indicate that CO2 enrichment can result in high yields of red leaf lettuce rich in phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Yanosky, Thomas M.; Siegel, Frederic R.

    1992-03-01

    The wood of tuliptrees ( Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination.

  5. Increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid P component in centenarians with impaired cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Olsen, H; Jeune, B

    1998-01-01

    these to the cognitive performance evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We observed a significantly (p gender-matched controls (32.8+/-11.4 microg/ml). Six severely demented centenarians had an even......Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds to all amyloid fibrils including those in the plaques and tangles of Alzheimer patients. To investigate whether the plasma SAP concentration correlated to cognitive impairment, we measured SAP levels in blood samples from 41 centenarians and compared...... higher SAP concentration (60.2 microg/ml), while the subgroup of cognitive intact centenarians (MMSE score >24) showed a normal SAP concentration (38.4+/-9.3 microg/ml). No dehydration or hepatic dysfunction was demonstrable in the centenarians. We conclude that the centenarians with impaired cognitive...

  6. Increased reverse T/sub 3/ concentration in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowska, B.; Kaniewski, M.; Zgliczynski, S. (Centrum Medyczne Ksztalcenia Podyplomowego, Warsaw (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    In 20 female patients with anorexia nervosa, aging 16 - 26 years, the thyroid function was estimated by +- determining TSH secretion in response to TRH, and serum thyroxine (T/sub 4/), 3,5,3'L-triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) and 3,3',5'L-triiodothyronine (reverse T/sub 3/) concentrations. 14 healthy women of the same age were included into the control group. If compared with control group, a marked supression of TRH stimulated TSH secretion and a lowering of serum T/sub 3/ concentration was found in patients with anorexia nervosa. On the other hand, serum reverse T/sub 3/ concentration was markedly higher in patients with anorexia nervosa than in control ones. Gain of body weight leads to normalization of thyroid hormones level in the serum. Obtained results show for peripheral mechanism of described hormonal disorders.

  7. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Yanosky, T.M.; Siegel, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The wood of tuliptrees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Increases in aerosol concentrations over eastern China due to the decadal-scale weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianlei; Liao, Hong; Li, Jianping

    2012-05-01

    China has been experiencing increased concentrations of aerosols, commonly attributed to the large increases in emissions associated with the rapid economic development. We show by using a chemical transport model driven by the assimilated meteorological fields that the observed decadal-scale weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon also contributed to the increases in aerosols in China. We find that the simulated aerosol concentrations have strong negative correlations with the strength of the East Asian Summer monsoon. Accounting for sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon aerosols, the summer surface-layer PM2.5 concentration averaged over eastern China (110°-125°E, 20°-45°N) can be 17.7% higher in the weakest monsoon years than in the strongest monsoon years. The weakening of the East Asian Summer monsoon increases aerosol concentrations mainly by the changes in atmospheric circulation (the convergence of air pollutants) in eastern China.

  9. Increased concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand platelet in patients with primary antiphospholipidic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia López, Aida; Olguín Ortega, Lourdes; Saavedra, Miguel A; Méndez Cruz, René; Jimenez Flores, Rafael; García de la Peña, Maximiliano

    2013-01-01

    To determine the concentrations of sCD40L in patients with PAPS, and establish its association with the number of thrombosis. We included patients with PAPS and healthy controls of the same age and sex. For analysis, patients with PAPS were divided into 2 groups: 1) patients with 1 thrombosis, and 2) patients with >1 thrombosis. Soluble CD40L concentrations were determined by ELISA method. sCD40L concentrations were significantly higher in patients with PAPS compared with the controls (9.72 ng ± 11.23 ng/ml vs. 4.69 ± 4.04 ng/ml) (P=.04) There was no association between serum levels of sCD40L and the number of thrombosis (1 thrombosis: 9.81 ± 9.87 ng/ml vs 9.63 ± 12.75 ng/ml in ≥ 1thrombosis (P=.13). In women with pregnancy and abortions, (13 patients) concentrations of sCD40L were higher than in those patients without a history of abortion (26 patients) but without statically significant difference (12.11 ± 16.46 ng/ml vs. 8.80 ± 8.61 ng/ml) (P=.33). There was no correlation between levels of sCD40L and the total number of thrombosis. Patients with PAPS have higher concentrations of sCD40L compared with healthy subjects, although this is not associated with a greater number of thrombosis. Among patients with PAPS, there is a tendency to higher concentrations of sCD40L in women with pregnancy and history of abortion. Since the platelet is the main cellular source of sCD40L, is possible that this pathway plays a pathogenic role in patients with PAPS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. P2Y12 Receptor Localizes in the Renal Collecting Duct and Its Blockade Augments Arginine Vasopressin Action and Alleviates Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Müller, Christa E; Carlson, Noel G; Baqi, Younis; Strasburg, David L; Heiney, Kristina M; Villanueva, Karie; Kohan, Donald E; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Correlation between neurohypophyseal vasopressin content and signal intensity on T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images. An experimental study of vasopressin depletion model using dehydrated rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Hiroaki; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Ikeda, Koshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan); Fujisawa, Ichiro

    1998-06-01

    We investigated the correlation between the signal intensity on T{sub 1}-weighted MR images and vasopressin (VP) content in the posterior pituitary lobe. Fourteen rabbits were studied. There were 12 water-deprived rabbits (48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours: 2 each) and 2 controls. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted SE (spin-echo) MR images were obtained before and after dehydration. The signal intensity ratio of the posterior pituitary lobe to the pons was correlated with the VP content in the posterior lobe as measured by radioimmunoassay. Before water deprivation, high signal intensity in the posterior lobe was demonstrated clearly in all 14 rabbits. After water deprivation, the hyperintense signal gradually decreased and became indistinguishable from anterior lobe in four animals. The mean signal intensity ratio before water deprivation was 1.55{+-}0.12 (mean{+-}SD) and after water deprivation, gradually decreased over time and reached to 1.19 after 168 hours of water deprivation. Pituitary VP content and concentration decreased in parallel with the signal intensity ratio of the posterior pituitary. Significantly correlation was observed between the signal intensity ratio and VP concentration of posterior pituitary (r=0.809, p<0.001) . In conclusion, the results indicate that the signal intensity ratio on T{sub 1}-weighted image may reflect a indicator of pituitary VP content and thus may enable evaluation of disorders of water metabolism. (author)

  12. Correlation between neurohypophyseal vasopressin content and signal intensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. An experimental study of vasopressin depletion model using dehydrated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hiroaki; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Ikeda, Koshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Fujisawa, Ichiro

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the signal intensity on T 1 -weighted MR images and vasopressin (VP) content in the posterior pituitary lobe. Fourteen rabbits were studied. There were 12 water-deprived rabbits (48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours: 2 each) and 2 controls. Sagittal T 1 -weighted SE (spin-echo) MR images were obtained before and after dehydration. The signal intensity ratio of the posterior pituitary lobe to the pons was correlated with the VP content in the posterior lobe as measured by radioimmunoassay. Before water deprivation, high signal intensity in the posterior lobe was demonstrated clearly in all 14 rabbits. After water deprivation, the hyperintense signal gradually decreased and became indistinguishable from anterior lobe in four animals. The mean signal intensity ratio before water deprivation was 1.55±0.12 (mean±SD) and after water deprivation, gradually decreased over time and reached to 1.19 after 168 hours of water deprivation. Pituitary VP content and concentration decreased in parallel with the signal intensity ratio of the posterior pituitary. Significantly correlation was observed between the signal intensity ratio and VP concentration of posterior pituitary (r=0.809, p 1 -weighted image may reflect a indicator of pituitary VP content and thus may enable evaluation of disorders of water metabolism. (author)

  13. Increased melanin concentrating hormone receptor type I in the human hypothalamic infundibular nucleus in cachexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unmehopa, Unga A.; van Heerikhuize, Joop J.; Spijkstra, Wenda; Woods, John W.; Howard, Andrew D.; Zycband, Emanuel; Feighner, Scott D.; Hreniuk, Donna L.; Palyha, Oksana C.; Guan, Xiao-Ming; Macneil, Douglas J.; van der Ploeg, Lex H. T.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2005-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) exerts a positive regulation on appetite and binds to the G protein-coupled receptors, MCH1R and MCH2R. In rodents, MCH is produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamus with projections to various hypothalamic and other brain sites. In the present study, MCH1R

  14. Increased melanin concentrating hormone receptor type I in the human hypothalamic infundibular nucleus in cachexia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unmehopa, U.A.; Heerikhuize, J.J. van; Spijkstra, W.; Woods, J.W.; Howard, A.D.; Zycband, E.; Feighner, S.D.; Hreniuk, D.L.; Palyha, O.C.; Guan, X.-M.; MacNeil, D.J.; Ploeg, L.H.T.; Swaab, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) exerts a positive regulation on appetite and binds to the G protein-coupled receptors, MCH1R and MCH2R. In rodents, MCH is produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamus with projections to various hypothalamic and other brain sites. In the present study, MCH1R

  15. Increased jejunal prostaglandin E2 concentrations in patients with acute cholera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; Rabbani, G. H.; Bukhave, K.; Rask-Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Supraphysiologic doses of prostaglandins (PGs) mimic the effect of cholera toxin and cAMP in the small intestine, but not all observations are explicable in terms of the theory that links PGs to cAMP. Because no data exist on endogenous PGs in human cholera we measured PGE2 concentrations in jejunal

  16. Increased concentrations of L-lactate in the rectal lumen in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Jørgensen, V L; Poulsen, T D

    2005-01-01

    Gut ischaemia may contribute to morbidity in patients after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), but little is known about the metabolic state of the large bowel in such patients. Therefore we estimated the concentrations of L-lactate and Pco(2) in rectal mucosa in patients undergoing cardiac surgery...

  17. Increased serum neuron specific enolase concentrations in patients with hyperglycemic cortical ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, JW; De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    1998-01-01

    A detrimental effect of hyperglycemia in ischemic brain has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments and it has been found that hyperglycemia in ischemic stroke is a predictor of poor outcome. We determined serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) concentrations in 41 consecutive patients with a

  18. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based...... by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis...

  19. A novel splicing mutation in the V2 vasopressin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Siggaard, C; Herlin, Troels

    2000-01-01

    as clinical investigations comprising a fluid deprivation test and a 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin (dDAVP) infusion test in the study subject and his mother. We found a highly unusual, novel, de novo 1447A-->C point mutation (gDNA), involving the invariable splice acceptor of the second intron...... of the gene in both the affected male (hemizygous) and his mother (heterozygous). This mutation is likely to cause aberrant splicing of the terminal intron of the gene, leading to a non-functional AVP receptor. The clinical studies were consistent with such a hypothesis, as the affected subject had a severe...

  20. Radioimmunoassay of arginine-vasopressin in human urine and its use in physiological and pathological states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, A.M.; Ramaga, C.M.; Slater, J.D.H.

    1978-01-01

    A highly specific radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in human urine has been developed with a detection limit of 2.2 fmol/ml. The mean recovery of added AVP was 99.5 +- 3.1 (S.D.) % when correction was made for the fact that an inverse relationship was observed between the recovery of AVP and the osmolarity of the urine. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 3.5 - 7 and 2.5 - 10% respectively. Arginine-vasopressin remains stable in urine after repeated freezing and thawing after storage at 4 or 20 0 C for up to 7 days and at 20 0 C for more than 3 months. During unrestricted fluid intake in normal people, the mean rate of renal excretion of AVP was 95 +- 68 (SD) fmol/min. An osmotic reduction of 9% in the plasma volume increased the excretion of AVP to 259 +- 147 (SD) fmol/min. Fluid deprivation for 18 h produced a moderate but significant increase in mean excretion of AVP, to a value of 116 +- 67 (SD) fmol/min. Patients with compulsive water drinking showed a normal relationship between urine osmolarity and the rate of excretion of AVP. In pituitary diabetes insipidus, AVP was undetectable, whereas in hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus a progressive increase in the rate of excretion was observed in response to dehydration. There was a wide variation in the rate of excretion of AVP (range 126 - 8704 fmol/min) in patients with unexplained hyponatraemia, presumed to be due to an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Despite this variation, the relationship between urine osmolarity and the rate of excretion of AVP differed from that observed in normal people. (author)

  1. Increased cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of the chemokine CXCL13 in active MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Börnsen, L; Khademi, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence supports a major role of B cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. How B cells are recruited to the CNS is incompletely understood. Our objective was to study B-cell chemokine concentrations in MS, their relationship with disease activity, and how treatment...... the chemokine receptor CXCR5 to the CNS in multiple sclerosis (MS), and may be a useful biomarker for treatment effects in MS. Furthermore, CXCL13 or its receptor CXCR5 should be considered as therapeutic targets in MS....... with methylprednisolone and natalizumab affected the concentration in CSF. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, CSF and blood samples were obtained from cohorts of patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS), or secondary progressive MS (SPMS...

  2. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: II. QTL and genes that increase oil concentration without decreasing protein or with increased seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed oil is the primary global source of edible oil and a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, increasing the relative oil concentration in soybean is desirable; however, that goal is complex due to the quantitative nature of the oil concentration trait and possible effects on major agronomic traits such as seed yield or protein concentration. The objectives of the present study were to study the relationship between seed oil concentration and important agronomic and seed quality traits, including seed yield, 100-seed weight, protein concentration, plant height, and days to maturity, and to identify oil quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are co-localized with the traits evaluated. A population of 203 F4:6 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between moderately high oil soybean genotypes OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, was developed and grown across multiple environments in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. Among the 11 QTL associated with seed oil concentration in the population, which were detected using either single-factor ANOVA or multiple QTL mapping methods, the number of QTL that were co-localized with other important traits QTL were six for protein concentration, four for seed yield, two for 100-seed weight, one for days to maturity, and one for plant height. The oil-beneficial allele of the QTL tagged by marker Sat_020 was positively associated with seed protein concentration. The oil favorable alleles of markers Satt001 and GmDGAT2B were positively correlated with seed yield. In addition, significant two-way epistatic interactions, where one of the interacting markers was solely associated with seed oil concentration, were identified for the selected traits in this study. The number of significant epistatic interactions was seven for yield, four for days to maturity, two for 100-seed weight, one for protein concentration, and one for plant height. The identified molecular

  3. Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, Shawn D.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Namkoong, Gon; Look, David C.; Clafin, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The metal modulated epitaxy (MME) growth technique is reported as a reliable approach to obtain reproducible large hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire substrates. An extremely Ga-rich flux was used, and modulated with the Mg source according to the MME growth technique. The shutter modulation approach of the MME technique allows optimal Mg surface coverage to build between MME cycles and Mg to incorporate at efficient levels in GaN films. The maximum sustained concentration of Mg obtained in GaN films using the MME technique was above 7x10 20 cm -3 , leading to a hole concentration as high as 4.5x10 18 cm -3 at room temperature, with a mobility of 1.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and a resistivity of 1.3 Ω cm. At 580 K, the corresponding values were 2.6x10 19 cm -3 , 1.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , and 0.21 Ω cm, respectively. Even under strong white light, the sample remained p-type with little change in the electrical parameters

  4. Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Shawn D.; Namkoong, Gon; Look, David C.; Clafin, Bruce; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2008-07-01

    The metal modulated epitaxy (MME) growth technique is reported as a reliable approach to obtain reproducible large hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire substrates. An extremely Ga-rich flux was used, and modulated with the Mg source according to the MME growth technique. The shutter modulation approach of the MME technique allows optimal Mg surface coverage to build between MME cycles and Mg to incorporate at efficient levels in GaN films. The maximum sustained concentration of Mg obtained in GaN films using the MME technique was above 7×1020cm-3, leading to a hole concentration as high as 4.5×1018cm-3 at room temperature, with a mobility of 1.1cm2V-1s-1 and a resistivity of 1.3Ωcm. At 580K, the corresponding values were 2.6×1019cm-3, 1.2cm2V-1s-1, and 0.21Ωcm, respectively. Even under strong white light, the sample remained p-type with little change in the electrical parameters.

  5. Concentration-dependent toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles mediated by increased oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naqvi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Saba Naqvi1, Mohammad Samim2, MZ Abdin3, Farhan Jalees Ahmed4, AN Maitra5, CK Prashant6, Amit K Dinda61Faculty of Engineering and Interdisciplinary Sciences, 2Department of Chemistry, 3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, 6Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles with unique magnetic properties have a high potential for use in several biomedical, bioengineering and in vivo applications, including tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassay, drug delivery, detoxification of biologic fluids, cell sorting, and hyperthermia. Although various surface modifications are being done for making these nonbiodegradable nanoparticles more biocompatible, their toxic potential is still a major concern. The current in vitro study of the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of mean diameter 30 nm coated with Tween 80 and murine macrophage (J774 cells was undertaken to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent toxic potential, as well as investigate the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity. A 15–30 nm size range of spherical nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. MTT assay showed >95% viability of cells in lower concentrations (25–200 µg/mL and up to three hours of exposure, whereas at higher concentrations (300–500 µg/mL and prolonged (six hours exposure viability reduced to 55%–65%. Necrosis-apoptosis assay by propidium iodide and Hoechst-33342 staining revealed loss of the majority of the cells by apoptosis. H2DCFDDA assay to quantify generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS indicated that exposure to a higher concentration of nanoparticles resulted in enhanced ROS generation, leading to cell injury and death. The cell membrane injury

  6. Ketamine coadministration attenuates morphine tolerance and leads to increased brain concentrations of both drugs in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilius, T O; Jokinen, V; Neuvonen, M S; Niemi, M; Kalso, E A; Rauhala, P V

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The effects of ketamine in attenuating morphine tolerance have been suggested to result from a pharmacodynamic interaction. We studied whether ketamine might increase brain morphine concentrations in acute coadministration, in morphine tolerance and morphine withdrawal. Experimental Approach Morphine minipumps (6 mg·day–1) induced tolerance during 5 days in Sprague–Dawley rats, after which s.c. ketamine (10 mg·kg–1) was administered. Tail flick, hot plate and rotarod tests were used for behavioural testing. Serum levels and whole tissue brain and liver concentrations of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, ketamine and norketamine were measured using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Key Results In morphine-naïve rats, ketamine caused no antinociception whereas in morphine-tolerant rats there was significant antinociception (57% maximum possible effect in the tail flick test 90 min after administration) lasting up to 150 min. In the brain of morphine-tolerant ketamine-treated rats, the morphine, ketamine and norketamine concentrations were 2.1-, 1.4- and 3.4-fold, respectively, compared with the rats treated with morphine or ketamine only. In the liver of morphine-tolerant ketamine-treated rats, ketamine concentration was sixfold compared with morphine-naïve rats. After a 2 day morphine withdrawal period, smaller but parallel concentration changes were observed. In acute coadministration, ketamine increased the brain morphine concentration by 20%, but no increase in ketamine concentrations or increased antinociception was observed. Conclusions and Implications The ability of ketamine to induce antinociception in rats made tolerant to morphine may also be due to increased brain concentrations of morphine, ketamine and norketamine. The relevance of these findings needs to be assessed in humans. PMID:25297798

  7. Increased zooplankton PAH concentrations across hydrographic fronts in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Ko, Fung-Chi; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Wu, Jian-Ming; Chiang, Hsin-Lun; Peng, Sen-Chueh; Santschi, Peter H

    2014-06-15

    The Changjiang has transported large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the East China Sea (ECS), but information of these pollutants in zooplankton is limited. To understand PAHs pollution in zooplankton in the ECS, total concentrations of PAHs in zooplankton from surface waters were measured. Values of PAHs ranged from 2 to 3500 ng m(-3) in the ECS, with highest PAHs levels located at the salinity front between the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) and the mid-shelf waters. In contrast, concentrations of zooplankton PAHs in the mid-shelf and outer-shelf waters were significantly lower (2-23 ng m(-3)) than those in the CDW. These results demonstrate that PAHs are conspicuously accumulated in zooplankton at the salinity front between the CDW and the mid-shelf waters. These higher levels of PAHs in zooplankton at the salinity front may be further biomagnified in marine organisms of higher trophic levels through their feeding activities. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilizing Diffuse Reflection to Increase the Efficiency of Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Seth; Weible, Seth; Solomon, Joel; Schrecengost, Jonathan; Wittmershaus, Bruce

    A luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) consists of a high index solid plate containing a fluorescent material that converts sunlight into fluorescence. Utilizing total internal reflection, the LSC collects and concentrates the fluorescence at the plate's edges where it is converted into electricity via photovoltaic solar cells. The lower production costs of LSCs make them an attractive alternative to photovoltaic solar cells. To optimize an LSC's efficiency, a white diffusive surface (background) is positioned behind it. The background allows sunlight transmitted in the first pass to be reflected back through the LSC providing a second chance for absorption. Our research examines how the LSC's performance is affected by changing the distance between the white background and the LSC. An automated linear motion apparatus was engineered to precisely measure this distance and the LSC's electrical current, simultaneously. LSC plates, with and without the presence of fluorescent material and in an isolated environment, showed a maximum current at a distance greater than zero. Further experimentation has proved that the optimal distance results from the background's optical properties and how the reflected light enters the LSC. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number NSF-ECCS-1306157.

  9. Effects of arginine vasopressin on musical working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roni Y; Uzefovsky, Florina; Bogopolsky, Helena; Ebstein, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Previous genetic studies showed an association between variations in the gene coding for the 1a receptor of the neuro-hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) and musical working memory (WM). The current study set out to test the influence of intranasal administration (INA) of AVP on musical as compared to verbal WM using a double blind crossover (AVP-placebo) design. Two groups of 25 males were exposed to 20 IU of AVP in one session, and 20 IU of saline water (placebo) in a second session, 1 week apart. In each session subjects completed the tonal subtest from Gordon's "Musical Aptitude Profile," the interval subtest from the "Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA)," and the forward and backward digit span tests. Scores in the digit span tests were not influenced by AVP. In contrast, in the music tests there was an AVP effect. In the MBEA test, scores for the group receiving placebo in the first session (PV) were higher than for the group receiving vasopressin in the first session (VP) (p music test these scores were significantly correlated with memory scores. Together the results reflect a complex interaction between AVP, musical memory, arousal, and contextual effects such as session, and base levels of memory. The results are interpreted in light of music's universal use as a means to modulate arousal on the one hand, and AVP's influence on mood, arousal, and social interactions on the other.

  10. Increasing platelet concentrations in leukocyte-reduced platelet-rich plasma decrease collagen gene synthesis in tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Stacie G; Schnabel, Lauren V; Mohammed, Hussni O; Sundman, Emily A; Minas, Tom; Fortier, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is used for the treatment of tendinopathy. There are numerous PRP preparations, and the optimal combination of platelets and leukocytes is not known. Within leukocyte-reduced PRP (lrPRP), there is a plateau effect of platelet concentration, with increasing platelet concentrations being detrimental to extracellular matrix synthesis. Controlled laboratory study. Different formulations of lrPRP with respect to the platelet:leukocyte ratio were generated from venous blood of 8 horses. Explants of the superficial digital flexor tendon were cultured in lrPRP products for 96 hours. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations were determined in the media by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gene expression in tendon tissue for collagen type I and III (COL1A1 and COL3A1, respectively), matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -13 (MMP-3 and MMP-13, respectively), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and IL-1β was determined. Data were divided into 3 groups of lrPRP based on the ratio of platelets:leukocytes and evaluated to determine the effect of platelet concentration. Complete blood counts verified leukocyte reduction and platelet enrichment in all PRP preparations. In the lrPRP preparation, the anabolic growth factors PDGF-BB and TGF-β1 were increased with increasing platelet concentrations, and the catabolic cytokine IL-1β was decreased with increasing platelet concentrations. Increasing the platelet concentration resulted in a significant reduction in COL1A1 and COL3A1 synthesis in tendons. Increasing the platelet concentration within lrPRP preparations results in the delivery of more anabolic growth factors and less proinflammatory cytokines, but the biological effect on tendons is diminished metabolism as indicated by a decrease in the synthesis of both COL1A1 and COL3A1. Together, this information suggests that

  11. Increases in cellular calcium concentration stimulate pepsinogen secretion from dispersed chief cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raufman, J.P.; Berger, S.; Cosowsky, L.; Straus, E.

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i) and pepsinogen secretion from dispersed chief cells from guinea pig stomach were determined before and after stimulation with calcium ionophores. [Ca]i was measured using the fluorescent probe quin2. Basal [Ca]i was 105 +/- 4 nM. Pepsinogen secretion was measured with a new assay using 125 I-albumin substrate. This assay is 1000-fold more sensitive than the widely-used spectrophotometric assay, technically easy to perform, rapid, and relatively inexpensive. The kinetics and stoichiometry of ionophore-induced changes in [Ca]i and pepsinogen secretion were similar. These data support a role for calcium as a cellular mediator of pepsinogen secretion

  12. The effect of increased ozone concentrations in the air on selected aspects of rat reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlińska-Krakowska, M; Gizejewski, Z; Dietrich, G J; Jakubowski, K; Glogowski, J; Penkowski, A

    2006-01-01

    Five-month-old male rates were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone for 50 days, 5 hours a day. A week before the completion of ozone exposure, a biological test was performed to determine the fertilization rate and the survival rate of newborns in both ozone-exposed and control animals. After 50 days, the rats were sacrificed with an overdose of halotane, and testes were collected to assess the morphology and motility of spermatozoa. Neither the morphology of spermatozoa nor motility parameters determined by the CASA (computer-assisted sperm analysis) system showed statistically significant differences between ozone-exposed and control males. The number of successful matings and the survival rate of newborns per litter within one year postpartum were also similar in both groups. However, sperm concentration was by 17% lower in ozone-exposed rats, compared with the control animals.

  13. [Influence, in normal subjects, of an isocaloric hyperprotein diet on cortisol, ACTH, GH and PRL response to lysine-8-vasopressin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, C; Sellini, M; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Scavo, D

    1981-12-30

    The Lysin-8-Vasopressin test has been experimented in ten healthy subjects during normocaloric balanced diet and after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet. The levels of ACTH, Cortisol and GH are significantly more elevated after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet than in basal conditions. The levels of Prolactin do not show any remarkable change. These results can indicate the increased reactivity of the diencephalon-hypophysis-adrenal axis and of the hormones connected with the mechanisms of homeostasis and stress, probably correlated to more disposable proteic material and to the metabolic effects which follow.

  14. Functionality of promoter microsatellites of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A): implications for autism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tansey, Katherine E

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5\\'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour. Methods We examined four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3803107, rs1042615, rs3741865, rs11174815) and three microsatellites (RS3, RS1 and AVR) at the AVPR1A gene for association in an autism cohort from Ireland. Two 5\\'-flanking region polymorphisms in the human AVPR1A, RS3 and RS1, were also tested for their effect on relative promoter activity. Results The short alleles of RS1 and the SNP rs11174815 show weak association with autism in the Irish population (P = 0.036 and P = 0.008, respectively). Both RS1 and RS3 showed differences in relative promoter activity by length. Shorter repeat alleles of RS1 and RS3 decreased relative promoter activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Conclusions These aligning results can be interpreted as a functional route for this association, namely that shorter alleles of RS1 lead to decreased AVPR1A transcription, which may proffer increased susceptibility to the autism phenotype.

  15. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  16. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  17. Remote ischemic preconditioning does not increase circulating or effector organ concentrations of proopiomelanocortin derivates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Thomas; Obad, Damir; Matejec, Reginald

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to compare changes in circulating levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derivates and lactate after remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and physical exercise. Introduction. Remote IPC (rIPC) is cardioprotective following acute myocardial infarction....... Results. While rIPC was not associated with any significant increase in circulating POMC derivates or lactate, exercise induced significant elevation of both compared with baseline. Conclusions. We were not able to demonstrate a detectable increase in circulating POMC derivates by a standard rIPC stimulus...

  18. Increased ratio of peritoneal effusion-to-serum potassium concentration in a dog with gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Oz, Jennifer; Aroch, Itamar; Segev, Gilad

    2016-11-01

    To describe the clinical and laboratory findings of a dog with gastric perforation, resulting in a markedly increased peritoneal effusion-to-serum potassium ratio. A 6-year-old mixed breed neutered male dog presented with a right femoral fracture after being hit by car. The fracture was repaired surgically. Four days postoperatively, the dog developed peritoneal effusion, confirmed with ultrasonography. Peritoneal effusion analysis and serum biochemistry, performed concurrently, showed blood-to-effusion glucose difference >1.1 mmol/L [>20 mg/dL], suggesting the effusion was septic. The effusion-to-serum creatinine ratio was mildly increased (1.36) and the effusion-to-serum potassium ratio was markedly increased (>2.67). Combined, these findings were suggestive of a septic uroabdomen. A positive contrast retrograde urethrocystography did not reveal urine leakage from the lower urinary tract. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a gastric perforation in the pyloric area and an intact urinary tract. Gastric perforation should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an increased peritoneal effusion to serum potassium ratio. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  19. Exercise induced hypercoagulability, increased von Willebrand factor and decreased thyroid hormone concentrations in sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Legind, Pernille; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Sled dogs performing endurance races have been reported to have a high incidence of gastric erosions or ulcerations and an increased risk of gastro intestinal bleeding leading to death in some cases. In addition, these dogs also become hypothyroid during training and exercise. Canine hypothyroidi...

  20. Oral contraceptives increase insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 concentration in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suikkari, A M; Tiitinen, A; Stenman, U H; Seppälä, M; Laatikainen, T

    1991-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates ovarian androgen production. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) inhibits IGF actions in vitro. To investigate the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) pills, given for 3 months, on serum gonadotropin, androgen, IGF-I, and IGFBP-1 concentrations, and glucose tolerance in seven women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and in five healthy control subjects. Seven women with PCOD and five healthy control subjects. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and after treatment with OC. After treatment with OC, serum luteinizing hormone, androstenedione, and free testosterone levels decreased, and sex hormone-binding globulin concentration increased in the women with PCOD as well as in the control subjects. The cumulative response of serum insulin to OGTT was larger in the women with PCOD than in the control subjects both before and after treatment. Serum IGF-I concentration, which was unchanged during OGTT, decreased from basal level of 326 +/- 70 micrograms/L to 199 +/- 28 micrograms/L after treatment with OC in the women with PCOD, whereas no change was found in the control subjects (from 235 +/- 11 micrograms/L to 226 +/- 11 micrograms/L). Treatment with OC caused an increase of the mean basal IGFBP-1 concentration from 24 +/- 7 micrograms/L to 73 +/- 14 micrograms/L in the women with PCOD. This increase was constant during the OGTT. In the control subjects, treatment with OC did not result in any significant change in IGFBP-1 concentrations (from 44 +/- 11 micrograms/L to 61 +/- 9 micrograms/L). The combination of decreased total IGF-I concentration and increased IGFBP-1 concentration induced by OC may decrease ovarian androgen production in PCOD.

  1. Mineral composition of durum wheat grain and pasta under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Miglietta, Franco; Cattivelli, Luigi; Menga, Valeria; Nigro, Franca; Pecchioni, Nicola; Fares, Clara

    2018-03-01

    The concentrations of 10 minerals were investigated in the grain of 12 durum wheat genotypes grown under free air CO 2 enrichment conditions, and in four of their derived pasta samples, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to ambient CO 2 (400ppm; AMB), under elevated CO 2 (570ppm; ELE), the micro-element and macro-element contents showed strong and significant decreases in the grain: Mn, -28.3%; Fe, -26.7%; Zn, -21.9%; Mg, -22.7%; Mo, -40.4%; K, -22.4%; and Ca, -19.5%. These variations defined the 12 genotypes as sensitive or non-sensitive to ELE. The pasta samples under AMB and ELE showed decreased mineral contents compared to the grain. Nevertheless, the contributions of the pasta to the recommended daily allowances remained relevant, also for the micro-elements under ELE conditions (range, from 18% of the recommended daily allowance for Zn, to 70% for Mn and Mo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased Hair Cortisol Concentrations and BMI in Patients With Pituitary-Adrenal Disease on Hydrocortisone Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Andela, Cornelie D; Manenschijn, Laura; Pereira, Alberto M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2015-06-01

    Intrinsic imperfections and lack of reliable biomarkers preclude optimal individual dosing of hydrocortisone replacement in adrenal insufficiency (AI). However, the clinical relevance of optimal dosing is exemplified by frequently occurring side effects of overreplacement and the dangers of underreplacement. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a retrospective biomarker for long-term cortisol exposure. We compared hair cortisol concentrations (CORT(hair)) of patients with primary or secondary AI on replacement therapy with those of patient controls with a pituitary disease without AI (PCs) and of healthy controls (HCs). In this cross-sectional study, hair samples and anthropometric data were collected in 132 AI patients (52 males), 42 PCs (11 males), and 195 HCs (90 males). The proximal 3 cm of hair were used. CORT(hair) were measured using an ELISA. CORT(hair) were higher in AI patients than in HCs and PCs (P AI patients demonstrated higher CORT(hair) than female patients (P AI patients had higher body mass index (BMI) than HCs (P AI.

  3. Concentrated fed-batch cell culture increases manufacturing capacity without additional volumetric capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William C; Minkler, Daniel F; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-10

    Biomanufacturing factories of the future are transitioning from large, single-product facilities toward smaller, multi-product, flexible facilities. Flexible capacity allows companies to adapt to ever-changing pipeline and market demands. Concentrated fed-batch (CFB) cell culture enables flexible manufacturing capacity with limited volumetric capacity; it intensifies cell culture titers such that the output of a smaller facility can rival that of a larger facility. We tested this hypothesis at bench scale by developing a feeding strategy for CFB and applying it to two cell lines. CFB improved cell line A output by 105% and cell line B output by 70% compared to traditional fed-batch (TFB) processes. CFB did not greatly change cell line A product quality, but it improved cell line B charge heterogeneity, suggesting that CFB has both process and product quality benefits. We projected CFB output gains in the context of a 2000-L small-scale facility, but the output was lower than that of a 15,000-L large-scale TFB facility. CFB's high cell mass also complicated operations, eroded volumetric productivity, and showed our current processes require significant improvements in specific productivity in order to realize their full potential and savings in manufacturing. Thus, improving specific productivity can resolve CFB's cost, scale-up, and operability challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Facility for studying the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and increased temperature on crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, D.W.; Mitchell, R.A.C.; Franklin, J.; Mitchell, V.J.; Driscoll, S.P.; Delgado, E. (Institute of Arable Crops Research, Harpenden (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry and Physiology)

    1993-06-01

    The requirements for the experimental study of the effects of global climate change conditions on plants are outlined. A semi-controlled plant growth facility is described which allows the study of elevated CO[sub 2] and temperature, and their interaction on the growth of plants under radiation and temperature conditions similar to the field. During an experiment on winter wheat (cv. Mercia), which ran from December 1990 through to August 1991, the facility maintained mean daytime CO[sub 2] concentrations of 363 and 692 cm[sup 3] m[sup -3] for targets of 350 and 700 cm[sup 3] m[sup 3] respectively. Temperatures were set to follow outside ambient or outside ambient +4[degree]C, and hourly means were within 0.5[degree]C of the target for 92% of the time for target temperatures greater than 6[degree]C. Total photosynthetically active radiation incident on the crop (solar radiation supplemented by artificial light with natural photoperiod) was 2% greater than the total measured outside over the same period.

  5. Sleep restriction is associated with increased morning plasma leptin concentrations, especially in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Norah S; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of sleep restriction on leptin levels in a large, diverse sample of healthy participants, while allowing free access to food. Prospective experimental design. After 2 nights of baseline sleep, 136 participants (49% women, 56% African Americans) received 5 consecutive nights of 4 hours time in bed (TIB). Additionally, one subset of participants received 2 additional nights of either further sleep restriction (n = 27) or increased sleep opportunity (n = 37). Control participants (n = 9) received 10 hr TIB on all study nights. Plasma leptin was measured between 10:30 a.m. and 12:00 noon following baseline sleep, after the initial sleep-restriction period, and after 2 nights of further sleep restriction or recovery sleep. Leptin levels increased significantly among sleep-restricted participants after 5 nights of 4 hr TIB (Z = -8.43, p women compared to men (Z = -4.77, p restriction (p restriction with ad libitum access to food significantly increases morning plasma leptin levels, particularly among women.

  6. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Increasing precision of turbidity-based suspended sediment concentration and load estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D; Zipper, Carl E; Zelazny, Lucian W; Hyer, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Turbidity is an effective tool for estimating and monitoring suspended sediments in aquatic systems. Turbidity can be measured in situ remotely and at fine temporal scales as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentration (SSC), providing opportunity for a more complete record of SSC than is possible with physical sampling approaches. However, there is variability in turbidity-based SSC estimates and in sediment loadings calculated from those estimates. This study investigated the potential to improve turbidity-based SSC, and by extension the resulting sediment loading estimates, by incorporating hydrologic variables that can be monitored remotely and continuously (typically 15-min intervals) into the SSC estimation procedure. On the Roanoke River in southwestern Virginia, hydrologic stage, turbidity, and other water-quality parameters were monitored with in situ instrumentation; suspended sediments were sampled manually during elevated turbidity events; samples were analyzed for SSC and physical properties including particle-size distribution and organic C content; and rainfall was quantified by geologic source area. The study identified physical properties of the suspended-sediment samples that contribute to SSC estimation variance and hydrologic variables that explained variability of those physical properties. Results indicated that the inclusion of any of the measured physical properties in turbidity-based SSC estimation models reduces unexplained variance. Further, the use of hydrologic variables to represent these physical properties, along with turbidity, resulted in a model, relying solely on data collected remotely and continuously, that estimated SSC with less variance than a conventional turbidity-based univariate model, allowing a more precise estimate of sediment loading, Modeling results are consistent with known mechanisms governing sediment transport in hydrologic systems.

  8. Increase in serum albumin concentration is associated with prediabetes development and progression to overt diabetes independently of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ji Eun; Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, You-Bin; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration is associated with both type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We sought to investigate whether baseline serum albumin and change in serum albumin could be independent risk factors for prediabetes in subjects without MetS. We further examined the effect of serum albumin on progression to overt diabetes in subjects who developed prediabetes. Among 10,792 participants without diabetes and MetS who consecutively underwent yearly health check-ups over six years, 9,807 subjects without incident MetS were enrolled in this longitudinal retrospective study. The risk of developing prediabetes (impared fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c) was analyzed according to baseline and percent change in serum albumin concentration using Cox regression analysis. Serial changes in serum albumin concentration were measured from baseline to one year before prediabetes diagnosis, and then from the time of prediabetes diagnosis to progression to overt diabetes or final follow-up. A total of 4,398 incident cases of prediabetes developed during 35,807 person-years (median 3.8 years). The hazard ratio for incident prediabetes decreased as percent change in serum albumin concentration (quartiles and per 1%) increased in a crude and fully adjusted model. However, baseline serum albumin concentration itself was not associated with prediabetic risk. Serum albumin levels kept increasing until the end of follow-up in prediabetic subjects who returned to normal glycemic status, whereas these measures did not change in prediabetic subjects who developed type 2 diabetes. Serum albumin concentration measured at the end of follow-up was the highest in the regression group, compared to the stationary (p = 0.014) or progression groups (p = 0.009). Increase in serum albumin concentration might protect against early glycemic deterioration and progression to type 2 diabetes even in subjects without MetS.

  9. Sub-lethal cadmium exposure increases phytochelatin concentrations in the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SF, Gonçalves [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); SK, Davies [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bennett, M. [Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Raab, A.; Feldmann, J. [TESLA, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kille, P. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3US (United Kingdom); Loureiro, S. [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); DJ, Spurgeon [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); JG, Bundy, E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Phytochelatins are metal-binding metabolites found in almost all plant species and some animal groups, including nematodes and annelids, where they can play an important role in detoxifying metals such as cadmium. Species from several other taxa contain a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene orthologue, including molluscs, indicating they may have the potential to synthesize phytochelatins. However, the presence of a gene alone does not demonstrate that it plays a functional role in metal detoxification. In the present study, we show that the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis produced both penta- and heptapeptide phytochelatins (i.e. phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3), and their levels increased in response to sub-lethal levels of cadmium. - Highlights: • Little is known about the role of phytochelatins in metal detoxification in animals. • We detected phytochelatins (PC{sub 2} and PC{sub 3}) in a mollusc species, Lymnaea stagnalis. • Phytochelatins increased in Lymnaea stagnalis when exposed to cadmium. • Future research on phytochelatin responses in molluscs would be valuable.

  10. Is improved lane keeping during cognitive load caused by increased physical arousal or gaze concentration toward the road center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Markkula, Gustav; Li, Yibing; Merat, Natasha

    2018-08-01

    Driver distraction is one of the main causes of motor-vehicle accidents. However, the impact on traffic safety of tasks that impose cognitive (non-visual) distraction remains debated. One particularly intriguing finding is that cognitive load seems to improve lane keeping performance, most often quantified as reduced standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The main competing hypotheses, supported by current empirical evidence, suggest that cognitive load improves lane keeping via either increased physical arousal, or higher gaze concentration toward the road center, but views are mixed regarding if, and how, these possible mediators influence lane keeping performance. Hence, a simulator study was conducted, with participants driving on a straight city road section whilst completing a cognitive task at different levels of difficulty. In line with previous studies, cognitive load led to increased physical arousal, higher gaze concentration toward the road center, and higher levels of micro-steering activity, accompanied by improved lane keeping performance. More importantly, during the high cognitive task, both physical arousal and gaze concentration changed earlier in time than micro-steering activity, which in turn changed earlier than lane keeping performance. In addition, our results did not show a significant correlation between gaze concentration and physical arousal on the level of individual task recordings. Based on these findings, various multilevel models for micro-steering activity and lane keeping performance were conducted and compared, and the results suggest that all of the mechanisms proposed by existing hypotheses could be simultaneously involved. In other words, it is suggested that cognitive load leads to: (i) an increase in arousal, causing increased micro-steering activity, which in turn improves lane keeping performance, and (ii) an increase in gaze concentration, causing lane keeping improvement through both (a) further increased micro

  11. Sudden increase in atmospheric concentration reveals strong coupling between shoot carbon uptake and root nutrient uptake in young walnut trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaire, M.; Sigogne, M.; Beaujard, F.; Frak, E.; Adam, B.; Le Roux, X.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term effects of a sudden increase in carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient uptake by roots during vegetative growth was studied in young walnut trees. Rates of carbon dioxide uptake and water loss by individual trees were determined by a branch bag method from three days before and six days after carbon dioxide concentration was increased. Nutrient uptake rates were measured concurrently by a hydroponic recirculating nutrient solution system. Carbon dioxide uptake rates increased greatly with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide; nutrient uptake rates were proportional to carbon dioxide uptake rates, except for the phosphorus ion. Daily water loss rates were only slightly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Overall, it was concluded that in the presence of non-limiting supplies of water and nutrients, root nutrient uptake and shoot carbon assimilation are strongly coupled in the short term in young walnut trees despite the important carbon and nutrient storage capacities od woody species. 45 refs., 7 figs

  12. Prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements increase cord leptin concentration in pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Meda, Nicolas; Taes, Youri; Valea, Innocent; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2013-05-01

    In developing countries, prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) were shown to increase birth size; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Cord blood hormone concentrations are strongly associated with birth size. Therefore, we hypothesize that LNSs increase birth size through a change in the endocrine regulation of fetal development. We compared the effect of daily prenatal LNSs with multiple micronutrient tablets on cord blood hormone concentrations using a randomized, controlled design including 197 pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II, their binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3, leptin, cortisol, and insulin were quantified in cord sera using immunoassays. LNS was associated with higher cord blood leptin mainly in primigravidae (+57%; P = 0.02) and women from the highest tertile of BMI at study inclusion (+41%; P = 0.02). We did not find any significant LNS effects on other measured cord hormones. The observed increase in cord leptin was associated with a significantly higher birth weight. Cord sera from small-for-gestational age newborns had lower median IGF-I (-9 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGF-II (-79 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGFBP-3 (-0.7 μg/L; P = 0.007), and leptin (-1.0 μg/L; P = 0.016) concentrations but higher median cortisol (+18 μg/L; P = 0.037) concentrations compared with normally grown newborns. Prenatal LNS resulted in increased cord leptin concentrations in primigravidae and mothers with higher BMI at study inclusion. The elevated leptin concentrations could point toward a higher neonatal fat mass.

  13. Nitrogen fertilisation increases biogenic amines and amino acid concentrations in Vitis vinifera var. Riesling musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Inga; Pfliehinger, Marco; Binner, Antonie; Großmann, Manfred; Horst, Walter J; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2014-08-01

    Wines rich in biogenic amines can cause adverse health effects to the consumer. Being nitrogen-containing substances, the amount of amines in wines might be strongly influenced by the rate of nitrogen fertiliser application during grape production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation in the vineyard on the formation of biogenic amines in musts and wines. In a field experiment which compared unfertilised and fertilised (60 and 150 kg N ha(-1)) vines over two separate years, the total amine concentrations in must and wine increased. The latter was due to an increase of individual amines such as ethylamine, histamine, isopentylamine, phenylethylamine and spermidine in the musts and wines with the nitrogen application. Furthermore, the fermentation process increased the concentration of histamine and ethylamine in most of the treatments, while spermidine, spermine and isopentylamine concentrations generally decreased. Throughout both vintages, the concentrations of tyramine and histamine of the investigated musts and wines never reached detrimental levels to the health of non-allergenic people. Nitrogen fertilisation has a significant effect on amines formation in musts and wines. Furthermore, during fermentation, ethylamine and histamine increased while other amines were presumably serving as N sources during fermentation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Low mercury concentration produces vasoconstriction, decreases nitric oxide bioavailability and increases oxidative stress in rat conductance artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Belem Lemos

    Full Text Available Mercury is an environmental pollutant that reduces nitric oxide (NO bioavailability and increases oxidative stress, having a close link with cardiovascular diseases, as carotid atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease and hypertension. One of the main sites affected by oxidative stress, which develops atherosclerosis, is the aorta. Under acute exposure to low mercury concentrations reactive oxygen species (ROS production were only reported for resistance vessels but if low concentrations of mercury also affect conductance arteries it is still unclear. We investigated the acute effects of 6 nM HgCl(2 on endothelial function of aortic rings measuring the reactivity to phenylephrine in rings incubated, or not, with HgCl(2 for 45 min, the protein expression for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 and the AT1 receptor. HgCl(2 increased Rmax and pD2 to phenylephrine without changing the vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Endothelial damage abolished the increased reactivity to phenylephrine. The increase of Rmax and pD2 produced by L-NAME was smaller in the presence of HgCl(2. Enalapril, losartan, indomethacin, furegrelate, the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS 398, superoxide dismutase and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin reverted HgCl(2 effects on the reactivity to phenylephrine, COX-2 protein expression was increased, and AT1 expression reduced. At low concentration, below the reference values, HgCl(2 increased vasoconstrictor activity by reducing NO bioavailability due to increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase activity. Results suggest that this is due to local release of angiotensin II and prostanoid vasoconstrictors. Results also suggest that acute low concentration mercury exposure, occurring time to time could induce vascular injury due to endothelial oxidative stress and contributing to increase peripheral resistance, being a high risk factor for public health.

  15. Intravenous infusion of docosahexaenoic acid increases serum concentrations in a dose-dependent manner and increases seizure latency in the maximal PTZ model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Kwong, Kei-Man; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Chen, Chuck T; Bazinet, Richard P; Burnham, W M

    2015-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) that has been shown to raise seizure thresholds in the maximal pentylenetetrazole model following acute subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in rats. Following s.c. administration, however, the dose-response relationship for DHA has shown an inverted U-pattern. The purposes of the present experiment were as follows: (1) to determine the pattern of serum unesterified concentrations resulting from the intravenous (i.v.) infusions of various doses of DHA, (2) to determine the time course of these concentrations following the discontinuation of the infusions, and (3) to determine whether seizure protection in the maximal PTZ model would correlate with serum unesterified DHA levels. Animals received 5-minute i.v. infusions of saline or 25, 50, 100, or 200mg/kg of DHA via a cannula inserted into one of the tail veins. Blood was collected during and after the infusions by means of a second cannula inserted into the other tail vein (Experiment 1). A separate group of animals received saline or 12.5-, 25-, 50-, 100-, or 200 mg/kg DHA i.v. via a cannula inserted into one of the tail veins and were then seizure-tested in the maximal PTZ model either during infusion or after the discontinuation of the infusions. Slow infusions of DHA increased serum unesterified DHA concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, with the 200-mg/kg dose increasing the concentration approximately 260-fold compared with saline-infused animals. Following discontinuation of the infusions, serum concentrations rapidly dropped toward baseline, with half-lives of approximately 40 and 11s for the 25-mg/kg dose and 100-mg/kg dose, respectively. In the seizure-tested animals, DHA significantly increased latency to seizure onset in a dose-dependent manner. Following the discontinuation of infusion, seizure latency rapidly decreased toward baseline. Overall, our study suggests that i.v. infusion of unesterified DHA results in

  16. Low concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa are associated with increased severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempértegui, Fernando; Díaz, Myriam; Mejía, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Mora, Oswaldo G; Rentería, Edgar; Guarderas, Carlos; Estrella, Bertha; Recalde, Ramiro; Hamer, Davidson H; Reeves, Philip G

    2007-02-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is the most common cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori induces oxidative stress while zinc deficiency results in increased sensitivity to it. In Ecuador, the prevalence of gastric cancer and zinc deficiency are high. We hypothesized that zinc deficiency in Ecuadorian people would cause increased H. pylori-induced inflammation in the gastric mucosa associated with lower tissue zinc concentrations. Three hundred and fifty-two patients with dyspepsia underwent endoscopy to obtain gastric mucosa biopsies. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection and its severity, histopathology, mucosal zinc concentration, and inflammation intensity were determined. H. pylori-infected patients with non-atrophic chronic gastritis had lower concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa than uninfected patients with the same type of gastritis (251.3 +/- 225.3 vs. 426.2 +/- 279.9 ng/mg of protein; p = .016). Considering all patients, the more severe the H. pylori infection, the higher the percentage of subjects with infiltration by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells (p = .0001). Patients with high PMN infiltration had lower mucosal zinc concentrations than patients with low PMN infiltration (35.2 +/- 20.7 vs. 242.9 +/- 191.8 ng/mg of protein; p = .021). The degree of inflammation in H. pylori-induced gastritis appears to be modulated by gastric tissue zinc concentrations.

  17. Pivotal Role of Mediterranean Dietary Regimen in the Increase of Serum Magnesium Concentration in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimah Bahreini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies confirmed cardioprotective role of intravenous magnesium for the prevention of cardiac events, but effect of dietary intake of this mineral via recommended dietary regimens on control and inhibition of coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors has been questioned. The aim of the present study was to determine effect of Mediterranean dietary approach on serum magnesium concentration among Iranian patients with CAD. Method. Baseline characteristics and clinical data of 102 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of CAD and candidates for isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were entered into the study. Laboratory parameters especially serum magnesium concentration were measured after 12–14 h of overnight fasting and before operation. Nutritional status was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and the diet score was calculated on the basis of Mediterranean diet quality index (Med-DQI. Results. No significant differences were found in the concentrations of albumin, last fasting blood sugar, last creatinine, and lipid profiles between the groups with Mediterranean dietary score < 5 and the group with higher dietary score; however, serum magnesium concentration in the first group was higher than that in the group with higher dietary score. Linear multivariate regression analysis showed that the lower Mediterranean dietary score was a predictor for serum magnesium concentration after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion. Taking Mediterranean dietary regimen can be associated with increased level of serum magnesium concentration, and thus this regimen can be cardioprotective because of its effects on serum magnesium.

  18. Modifiable factors associated with copeptin concentration: a general population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastel, Maatje D A; Meijer, Esther; Scheven, Lieneke E; Struck, Joachim; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2015-05-01

    Vasopressin plays an important role in maintaining volume homeostasis. However, recent studies suggest that vasopressin also may play a detrimental role in the progression of chronic kidney disease. It therefore is of interest to identify factors that influence vasopressin concentration, particularly modifiable ones. Cross-sectional analyses. Data used are from participants in a large general-population cohort study (Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease [PREVEND]). Patients with a missing copeptin value (n=888), nonfasting blood sample (n=495), missing or assumed incorrect 24-hour urine collection (n=388), or heart failure (n=20) were excluded, leaving 6,801 participants for analysis. Identification of lifestyle- and diet-related factors that are associated with copeptin concentration. Copeptin concentration as surrogate for vasopressin. Copeptin was measured by an immunoluminometric assay as a surrogate for vasopressin. Associations were assessed in uni- and multivariable linear regression analyses. Median copeptin concentration was 4.7 (IQR, 2.9-7.6) pmol/L. When copeptin was studied as a dependent variable, the final stepwise backward model revealed associations with higher copeptin concentrations for lower 24-hour urine volume (P firm conclusions on cause-effect relationships. Important lifestyle- and diet-related factors associated with copeptin concentration are current smoking, alcohol use, protein and potassium intake, and particularly fluid and sodium intake. These data form a rationale to investigate whether intervening on these factors results in a lower vasopressin concentration with concomitant beneficial renal effects. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Future climate change drives increases in forest fires and summertime OC concentrations in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Logan, J. A.; Mickley, L. J.; Park, R. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Westerling, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Increased forest fire activity in the Western United States appears to be driven by increasing spring and summer temperatures. Here we make a first estimate of how climate-driven changes in fire activity will influence summertime organic carbon (OC) concentrations in the Western US. We use output from a general circulation model (GCM) combined with area burned regressions to predict how area burned will change between present day and 2050. Calculated area burned is used to create future emission estimates for the Western U.S. and we use a global chemical transport model (CTM) to predict future changes in OC concentrations. Stepwise linear regression is used to determine the best relationships between observed area burned for 1980- 2004 and variables chosen from temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, rainfall and drought indices from the Candaian Fire Weather Index Model. Best predictors are ecosytem dependent but typically include mean summer temperature and mean drought code. In forest ecosystems of the Western U.S. our regressions explain 50-60% of the variance in annual area burned. Between 2000 and 2050 increases in temperature and reductions in precipitation, as predicted by the GISS GCM, cause mean area burned in the western U.S. to increase by 30-55%. We use the GEOS-Chem CTM to show that these increased emissions result in an increase in summertime western U.S. OC concentrations by 55% over current concentrations. Our results show that the predicted increase in future wild fires will have important consequences for western US air quality and visibility.

  20. Skim Milk, Whey, and Casein Increase Body Weight and Whey and Casein Increase the Plasma C-Peptide Concentration in Overweight Adolescents12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2012-01-01

    insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12–15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein....... Outcomes were BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZs), waist circumference, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and plasma C-peptide. We found no change in BAZ in the pretest control and water groups, whereas it was greater at 12 wk in the skim milk, whey, and casein groups compared with baseline...... and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P

  1. A non-equilibrium 24-hour vasopressin radioimmunoassay: development and basal levels in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinton, R.E.; Deshmukh, P.P.; Chen, A.; Davis, T.P.; Hsiao, S.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the authors report a highly-sensitive non-equilibrium RIA which can be performed within 24 h. To demonstrate the sensitivity of this RIA, brain regions from rat were examined for vasopressin content. (Auth.)

  2. Vasopressin Gene-Related Products in the Management of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    North, William

    1999-01-01

    ...), and this information coupled with an absence of vasopressin gene-related products from fibrocystic disease potentially provides us with a new screening test for distinguishing both breast cancer...

  3. Oxytocin and vasopressin neural networks: Implications for social behavioral diversity and translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zachary V; Young, Larry J

    2017-05-01

    Oxytocin- and vasopressin-related systems are present in invertebrate and vertebrate bilaterian animals, including humans, and exhibit conserved neuroanatomical and functional properties. In vertebrates, these systems innervate conserved neural networks that regulate social learning and behavior, including conspecific recognition, social attachment, and parental behavior. Individual and species-level variation in central organization of oxytocin and vasopressin systems has been linked to individual and species variation in social learning and behavior. In humans, genetic polymorphisms in the genes encoding oxytocin and vasopressin peptides and/or their respective target receptors have been associated with individual variation in social recognition, social attachment phenotypes, parental behavior, and psychiatric phenotypes such as autism. Here we describe both conserved and variable features of central oxytocin and vasopressin systems in the context of social behavioral diversity, with a particular focus on neural networks that modulate social learning, behavior, and salience of sociosensory stimuli during species-typical social contexts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; Pinckaers, Philippe Jm; Senden, Joan Mg; van Loon, Luc Jc; Verdijk, Lex B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is receiving increased attention due to its reported ergogenic and cardioprotective properties. The extent to which ingestion of various nitrate-rich vegetables increases postprandial plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure is currently unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of ingesting different nitrate-rich vegetables on subsequent plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals. With the use of a semirandomized crossover design, 11 men and 7 women [mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1; exercise: 1-10 h/wk] ingested 4 different beverages, each containing 800 mg (∼12.9 mmol) nitrate: sodium nitrate (NaNO3), concentrated beetroot juice, a rocket salad beverage, and a spinach beverage. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and blood pressure were determined before and up to 300 min after beverage ingestion. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased after ingestion of all 4 beverages (P nitrate concentrations were similar for all treatments (all values presented as means ± SEMs: NaNO3: 583 ± 29 μmol/L; beetroot juice: 597 ± 23 μmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 584 ± 24 μmol/L; spinach beverage: 584 ± 23 μmol/L). Peak plasma nitrite concentrations were different between treatments (NaNO3: 580 ± 58 nmol/L; beetroot juice: 557 ± 57 nmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 643 ± 63 nmol/L; spinach beverage: 980 ± 160 nmol/L; P = 0.016). When compared with baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of beetroot juice (from 118 ± 2 to 113 ± 2 mm Hg; P nitrate-rich beetroot juice, rocket salad beverage, and spinach beverage effectively increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure to a greater extent than sodium nitrate. These findings show that nitrate-rich vegetables can be used as dietary nitrate

  5. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  6. Sources of increase in lowermost stratospheric sulphurous and carbonaceous aerosol background concentrations during 1999–2008 derived from CARIBIC flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Friberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on sulphurous and carbonaceous aerosol, the major constituents of particulate matter in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS, based on in situ measurements from 1999 to 2008. Aerosol particles in the size range of 0.08–2 µm were collected monthly during intercontinental flights with the CARIBIC passenger aircraft, presenting the first long-term study on carbonaceous aerosol in the LMS. Elemental concentrations were derived via subsequent laboratory-based ion beam analysis. The stoichiometry indicates that the sulphurous fraction is sulphate, while an O/C ratio of 0.2 indicates that the carbonaceous aerosol is organic. The concentration of the carbonaceous component corresponded on average to approximately 25% of that of the sulphurous, and could not be explained by forest fires or biomass burning, since the average mass ratio of Fe to K was 16 times higher than typical ratios in effluents from biomass burning. The data reveal increasing concentrations of particulate sulphur and carbon with a doubling of particulate sulphur from 1999 to 2008 in the northern hemisphere LMS. Periods of elevated concentrations of particulate sulphur in the LMS are linked to downward transport of aerosol from higher altitudes, using ozone as a tracer for stratospheric air. Tropical volcanic eruptions penetrating the tropical tropopause are identified as the likely cause of the particulate sulphur and carbon increase in the LMS, where entrainment of lower tropospheric air into volcanic jets and plumes could be the cause of the carbon increase.

  7. Circulating asprosin concentrations are increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus and independently associated with fasting glucose and triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Nan; Fu, Yuming; Cheng, Xingbo

    2017-11-03

    Asprosin has been identified as a novel hormone enriched in white adipose tissue and is pathologically increased in insulin-resistant mice and humans. However, information regarding the role of asprosin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains unavailable. Via conducting a hospital-based study, we purposed to ascertain the potential relationship between circulating asprosin concentrations and T2DM. The study recruited 84 adults with T2DM and 86 controls with normal glucose tolerance. They matched in age, body mass index (BMI), and sex. Serum asprosin concentrations were measured via ELISA method. Compared to the controls, serum asprosin concentrations were significantly increased in the T2DM adults (Pglucose and triglyceride were independently associated with serum asprosin in T2DM. Asprosin concentrations are increased in adults with T2DM. The results suggest that asprosin might serve as a risk factor associated with the pathogenesis of T2DM, but not an ideal biomarker for predicting T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-05-13

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8 mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1 h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4 N m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5 N m, P = 0.004), 22.5 N m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0 N m, P = 0.025) and 22.5 N m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7 N m, P = 0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode.

  9. Radioimmunoassay for human plasma 8-arginine-vasopressin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte-Devolx, B.; Rougon-Rapuzzi, G.; Millet, Y.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for human plasma vasopressin (AVP) which permits the estimation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) level as low as 0.8pg/ml, was developed. The average plasma level of AVP after overnight water restriction was found to be 14.3pg/ml (sd=4.4pg/ml) in normal subjects. They provoked a hypersecretion of ADH by the intravenous injection of 1-2mg of nicotine. In 11 volunteer normal subjects this stimulation by nicotine provoked ADH hypersecretion which reached a maximum between 2nd and 15th minutes after injection. In 3 cases of diabetes insipidus, nicotine injection did not induce ADH hypersecretion: in 1 case of potomania this response was weak; in 2 cases of syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, AVP plasma levels were elevated and the response after nicotine stimulation was exaggerated [fr

  10. Radioimmunoassay for human plasma 8-arginine-vasopressin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte-Devolx, B [Hopital de la Conception, 13 - Marseille (France); Rougon-Rapuzzi, G [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France); Millet, Y [Aix-Marseille-2 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for human plasma vasopressin (AVP) which permits the estimation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) level as low as 0.8pg/ml, was developed. The average plasma level of AVP after overnight water restriction was found to be 14.3pg/ml (sd=4.4pg/ml) in normal subjects. They provoked a hypersecretion of ADH by the intravenous injection of 1-2mg of nicotine. In 11 volunteer normal subjects this stimulation by nicotine provoked ADH hypersecretion which reached a maximum between 2nd and 15th minutes after injection. In 3 cases of diabetes insipidus, nicotine injection did not induce ADH hypersecretion: in 1 case of potomania this response was weak; in 2 cases of syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, AVP plasma levels were elevated and the response after nicotine stimulation was exaggerated.

  11. Endocrine Disruption of Vasopressin Systems and Related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B. Patisaul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are chemicals that interfere with the organizational or activational effects of hormones. Although the vast majority of the EDC literature focuses on steroid hormone signaling related impacts, growing evidence from a myriad of species reveals that the nonapeptide hormones vasopressin (AVP and oxytocin (OT may also be EDC targets. EDCs shown to alter pathways and behaviors coordinated by AVP and/or OT include the plastics component bisphenol A (BPA, the soy phytoestrogen genistein (GEN, and various flame retardants. Many effects are sex specific and likely involve action at nuclear estrogen receptors. Effects include the elimination or reversal of well-characterized sexually dimorphic aspects of the AVP system, including innervation of the lateral septum and other brain regions critical for social and other non-reproductive behaviors. Disruption of magnocellular AVP function has also been reported in rats, suggesting possible effects on hemodynamics and cardiovascular function.

  12. Anticipation and consumption of food each increase the concentration of neuroactive steroids in rat brain and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Floris, Ivan; Maciocco, Elisabetta; Serra, Mariangela; Biggio, Giovanni

    2006-09-01

    Stressful stimuli and anxiogenic drugs increase the plasma and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids. Moreover, in rats trained to consume their daily meal during a fixed period, the anticipation of food is associated with changes in the function of various neurotransmitter systems. We have now evaluated the effects of anticipation and consumption of food in such trained rats on the plasma and brain concentrations of 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG) and 3alpha,21-dihydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC), two potent endogenous positive modulators of type A receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The abundance of these neuroactive steroids was increased in both the cerebral cortex and plasma of the rats during both food anticipation and consumption. In contrast, the concentration of their precursor, progesterone, was increased in the brain only during food consumption, whereas it was increased in plasma only during food anticipation. Intraperitoneal administration of the selective agonist abecarnil (0.1 mg/kg) 40 min before food presentation prevented the increase in the brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC during food anticipation but not that associated with consumption. The change in emotional state associated with food anticipation may thus result in an increase in the plasma and brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC in a manner sensitive to the activation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated neurotransmission. A different mechanism, insensitive to activation of such transmission, may underlie the changes in the concentrations of these neuroactive steroids during food consumption.

  13. Effects of Arginine Vasopressin on musical short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Y. Granot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies showed an association between variations in the gene coding for the 1a receptor of the neuro-hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP and musical working memory (WM. The current study set out to test the influence of intranasal administration (INA of AVP on musical as compared to verbal WM using a double blind crossover (AVP – placebo design. Two groups of 25 males were exposed to 20 IU of AVP in one session, and 20 IU of saline water (placebo in a second session, one week apart. In each session subjects completed the tonal subtest from Gordon's Musical Aptitude Profile, the interval subtest from the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA, and the forward and backward digit span tests. Scores in the digit span tests were not influenced by AVP. In contrast, in the music tests there was an AVP effect. In the MBEA test, scores for the group receiving placebo in the first session (PV were higher than for the group receiving vasopressin in the first session (VP (p < .05 with no main Session effect nor Group * Session interaction. In the Gordon test there was a main Session effect (p < .05 with scores higher in the second as compared to the first session, a marginal main Group effect (p = .093 and a marginal Group X Session interaction (p = 0.88. In addition we found that the group that received AVP in the first session scored higher on scales indicative of happiness, and alertness on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, (PANAS. Only in this group and only in the music test these scores were significantly correlated with memory scores. Together the results reflect a complex interaction between AVP, musical memory, arousal, and contextual effects such as session, and base levels of memory. The results are interpreted in light of music's universal use as a means to modulate arousal on the one hand, and AVP's influence on mood, arousal, and social interactions on the other.

  14. Arginine Vasopressin Is a Blood-Based Biomarker of Social Functioning in Children with Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean S Carson

    Full Text Available Brain arginine vasopressin (AVP critically regulates normative social behavior in mammals, and experimental disruption of the AVP signaling pathway produces social impairments in rodent models. We therefore hypothesized that AVP signaling deficits may contribute to social impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Since blood measures (which are far easier to obtain than brain measures of AVP are most meaningful if they are related to brain AVP activity, Study 1 tested the relationship between AVP concentrations in concomitantly collected blood and CSF samples from children and adults (N = 28 undergoing clinical procedures. Study 2 tested whether blood AVP concentrations: 1 differed between children with ASD (N = 57, their ASD discordant siblings (N = 47, and neurotypical controls (N = 55; and 2 predicted social functioning (using the NEPSY-II Theory of Mind and Affect Recognition tasks and the Social Responsiveness Scale in this large, well-characterized child cohort. Blood AVP concentrations significantly and positively predicted CSF AVP concentrations (F1,26 = 7.17, r = 0.46, p = 0.0127 in Study 1. In Study 2, blood AVP concentrations did not differ between groups or by sex, but significantly and positively predicted Theory of Mind performance, specifically in children with ASD, but not in non-ASD children (F1,144 = 5.83, p = 0.017. Blood AVP concentrations can be used: 1 as a surrogate for brain AVP activity in humans; and 2 as a robust biomarker of theory of mind ability in children with ASD. These findings also suggest that AVP biology may be a promising therapeutic target by which to improve social cognition in individuals with ASD.

  15. Increase of extracellular glutamate concentration increases its oxidation and diminishes glucose oxidation in isolated mouse hippocampus: reversible by TFB-TBOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Felipe Vasconcelos; Hansen, Fernanda; Locks-Coelho, Lucas Doridio

    2013-08-01

    Glutamate concentration at the synaptic level must be kept low in order to prevent excitotoxicity. Astrocytes play a key role in brain energetics, and also astrocytic glutamate transporters are responsible for the vast majority of glutamate uptake in CNS. Experiments with primary astrocytic cultures suggest that increased influx of glutamate cotransported with sodium at astrocytes favors its flux to the tricarboxylic acid cycle instead of the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Although metabolic coupling can be considered an emergent field of research with important recent discoveries, some basic aspects of glutamate metabolism still have not been characterized in brain tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of extracellular glutamate is able to modulate the use of glutamate and glucose as energetic substrates. For this purpose, isolated hippocampi of mice were incubated with radiolabeled substrates, and CO2 radioactivity and extracellular lactate were measured. Our results point to a diminished oxidation of glucose with increasing extracellular glutamate concentration, glutamate presumably being the fuel, and might suggest that oxidation of glutamate could buffer excitotoxic conditions by high glutamate concentrations. In addition, these findings were reversed when glutamate uptake by astrocytes was impaired by the presence of (3S)-3-[[3-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]-L-aspartic acid (TFB-TBOA). Taken together, our findings argue against the lactate shuttle theory, because glutamate did not cause any detectable increase in extracellular lactate content (or, presumably, in glycolysis), because the glutamate is being used as fuel instead of going to glutamine and back to neurons. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Increasing Selenium and Yellow Pigment Concentrations in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) Grain with Foliar Application of Selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Dong, Shu-Qi; Wen, Yin-Yuan; Gao, Zhen-Pan; Guo, Mei-Jun; Guo, Ping-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Although addition of selenium (Se) is known to increase Se in crops, it is unclear whether exogenous Se is linked to nutritional and functional components in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In this study, we examined the potential of increasing Se and yellow pigment (YP) in foxtail millet grain by foliar application of Se. Field experiments were conducted during the growing season of foxtail millet in 2013 and 2014 to assess the effects of foliar spray of sodium selenite (10-210 g Se ha(-1)) on the yield, Se uptake and accumulation, total YP, and microminerals in the grain. Average grain yields with Se application were 5.60 and 4.53 t ha(-1) in the 2 years, showing no significant differences from the unfertilized control. However, grain Se concentration increased linearly with Se application rate, by 8.92 and 6.09 μg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1) (maximum grain recovery rates of Se fertilizer, 52 and 28 %). Likewise, total grain YP concentration markedly increased by 0.038 and 0.031 mg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1). Grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by Se application. This study indicated that foliar application of Se effectively and reliably increased the concentrations of Se and YP in foxtail millet grain without affecting the yield or mineral micronutrient concentrations. Thus, foliar-applied selenite has a significant potential to increase the concentrations of selenium and YP (putative lutein (Shen, J Cereal Sci 61:86-93, 2015; Abdel-Aal, Cereal Chem 79:455-457, 2002; Abdel-Aal, J Agric Food Chem 55:787-794, 2007)) of foxtail millet and, thus, the health benefits of this crop.

  17. Protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate water flow in vasopressin-stimulated toad urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch, B.S.; Ast, M.B.; Fusco, M.J.; Jacoby, M.; Levine, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin stimulates the introduction of aggregated particles, which may represent pathways for water flow, into the luminal membrane of toad urinary bladder. It is not known whether water transport pathways are degraded on removal from membrane or whether they are recycled. The authors examined the effect of the protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and puromycin using repeated 30-min cycles of vasopressin followed by washout of vasopressin, all in the presence of an osmotic gradient, a protocol that maximizes aggregate turnover. High dose cycloheximide inhibited flow immediately. Low dose cycloheximide did not affect initial flow. In the absence of vasopressin, inhibition did not develop. Despite the inhibition of flow in vasopressin-treated tissues, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase ratio was elevated in cycloheximide-treated tissues, suggesting modulation at a distal site in the stimulatory cascade. [ 14 C]urea permeability was not inhibited by cycloheximide. Puromycin also inhibited water flow by the fourth challenge with vasopressin. The data suggest that protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate flow at a site that is distal to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, the reversal of inhibition in MIX-treated tissues suggests that the water pathway can be fully manifested given suitable stimulation. They conclude that either large stores of the transport system are available or that the transport system is extensively recycled on retrieval from the membrane

  18. Changes in social functioning and circulating oxytocin and vasopressin following the migration to a new country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Carter, C Sue

    2015-02-01

    Prior studies have reported associations between plasma oxytocin and vasopressin and markers of social functioning. However, because most human studies have used cross-sectional designs, it is unclear whether plasma oxytocin and vasopressin influences social functioning or whether social functioning modulates the production and peripheral release of these peptides. In order to address this question, we followed individuals who experienced major changes in social functioning subsequent to the migration to a new country. In this study, 59 new international students were recruited shortly after arrival in the host country and reassessed 2 and 5 months later. At each assessment participants provided information on their current social functioning and blood samples for oxytocin and vasopressin analysis. Results indicated that changes in social functioning were not related to changes in plasma oxytocin. Instead, baseline oxytocin predicted changes in social relationship satisfaction, social support, and loneliness over time. In contrast, plasma vasopressin changed as a function of social integration. Baseline vasopressin was not related to changes in social functioning over time. These results emphasize the different roles of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin in responses to changes in social functioning in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants are increased by feeding a milk-based infant formula supplemented with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amy D; Albrecht, Daniel; Oliver, Jeffery; Williams, Timberly; Long, Amy C; Price, Pamela T

    2013-06-01

    Human milk is the gold standard of infant nutrition and is a source of important substances, including carotenoids. Infant formulas are designed to mimic the composition and/or performance of human milk, although currently carotenoids are not routinely added to US infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess plasma concentrations of β-carotene, lutein and lycopene 56 days after feeding infants milk-based infant formula without (CTRL) or with different concentrations of added carotenoids (L1 and L2). Plasma carotenoid concentrations increased in infants fed carotenoid-supplemented formulas as compared with the control formula with no added carotenoids. At study day 56, infants fed the supplemented formulas (L1 and L2) had mean plasma lutein, β-carotene and lycopene concentrations that were within the range of a concurrent group of human milk-fed infants (HM). Anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants fed the supplemented formulas were within the range of the HM group and are consistent with reported plasma carotenoid ranges in human milk-fed infants. The experimental formulas were well tolerated and anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Modeling of steroid estrogen contamination in UK and South Australian rivers predicts modest increases in concentrations in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher; Williams, Richard; Kanda, Rakesh; Churchley, John; He, Ying; Thomas, Shaun; Goonan, Peter; Kumar, Anu; Jobling, Susan

    2013-07-02

    The prediction of risks posed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment now and in the future is one of the top 20 research questions regarding these contaminants following growing concern for their biological effects on fish and other animals. To this end it is important that areas experiencing the greatest risk are identified, particularly in countries experiencing water stress, where dilution of pollutants entering river networks is more limited. This study is the first to use hydrological models to estimate concentrations of pharmaceutical and natural steroid estrogens in a water stressed catchment in South Australia alongside a UK catchment and to forecast their concentrations in 2050 based on demographic and climate change predictions. The results show that despite their differing climates and demographics, modeled concentrations of steroid estrogens in effluents from Australian sewage treatment works and a receiving river were predicted (simulated) to be similar to those observed in the UK and Europe, exceeding the combined estradiol equivalent's predicted no effect concentration for feminization in wild fish. Furthermore, by 2050 a moderate increase in estrogenic contamination and the potential risk to wildlife was predicted with up to a 2-fold rise in concentrations.

  1. The physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae with the increase of N and P concentrations in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Jin-Qi; Gao, Yong-Xia; Xie, Xue-Jian

    2015-06-01

    To reveal the mechanism of submerged plants decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters, physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae were studied in simulation lab by measuring plant physiological indexes of chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity based on a 2 × 4 factorial design with two epiphytic conditions (with epiphytic algae and without) and four levels of N and P concentrations in water (N-P[mg.L(-1)]: 0.5, 0.05; 2.5, 0.25; 4.5, 0.45; 12.5, 1.25). Compared with control (non-presence of epiphytic algae), chlorophyll contents of V. natans were significantly decreased (p algae under any concentrations of N and P in water bodies. While the presence of epiphytic algae induced peroxidation of membrane lipids, MDA contents of V. natans had significantly increased (p algae in the treatments of T2 and T3 in the whole culture process by comparing with control, sometimes reaching an extremely significant level (p algae (p algae on chlorophyll content and SOD activity in the leaves of V. natans were increased at first and then decreased with the concentrations of N and P in water, and MDA content became higher with the increase of N and P. concentrations. Repeated measurement data testing showed that the effects of epiphytic algae on the chlorophyll content and MDA content and SOD activity were significant, respectively (p algae were combining with effects of concentrations of N and P (p algae directly produced adverse effects on physiology of V. natans and epiphytic algal biomass were positively correlated with nutrient available in the water column.

  2. Exercise-induced increase in interstitial bradykinin and adenosine concentrations in skeletal muscle and peritendinous tissue in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, H; Bjørn, C; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2002-01-01

    been established. Microdialysis (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa) was performed simultaneously in calf muscle and peritendinous Achilles tissue at rest and during 10 min periods of incremental (0.75 W, 2 W, 3.5 W and 4.75 W) dynamic plantar flexion exercise in 10 healthy individuals (mean age 27 years...... increased both in muscle (from 0.48 +/- 0.07 micromol l(-1) to 1.59 +/- 0.35 micromol l(-1); P increases the interstitial concentrations......Bradykinin is known to cause vasodilatation in resistance vessels and may, together with adenosine, be an important regulator of tissue blood flow during exercise. Whether tissue concentrations of bradykinin change with exercise in skeletal muscle and tendon-related connective tissue has not yet...

  3. Increasing synthetic serum substitute (SSS) concentrations in P1 glucose/phosphate-free medium improves implantation rate: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, D; Yovel, I; Schwartz, T; Azem, F; Lessing, J B; Amit, A

    2001-11-01

    To assess the comparative efficacy of IVF medium (MediCult, with 5.2 mM glucose) and a glucose/phosphate-free medium, P1 (Irvine Scientific), and to investigate the influence of increasing the serum supplementation (synthetic serum substitute; SSS; Irvine Scientific) to P1 on embryo development and implantation. Patients were randomly assigned to IVF medium (Group 1, cycles n = 172) or P1 supplemented with 10% SSS (Group 2, cycles n = 229) according to the medium scheduled for use on the day of oocyte retrieval. Another 555 IVF consequent cycles (Group 3) were performed using increased SSS concentrations (20%) in P1 medium. In this large series of IVF cycles, we herein demonstrate that significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates were found when embryos were cultured in glucose/phosphate-free medium P1 supplemented with 20% SSS compared to supplementation with the lower SSS concentration and with IVF medium.

  4. Subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem induce increased resistance to methicillin and imipenem in vitro in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, B A; McClatchey, K D; Schaberg, D R

    1984-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus that was susceptible to less than 0.75 micrograms of imipenem per ml demonstrated inducible resistance. MR S. aureus preincubated with 0.05 microgram of imipenem per ml grew in medium with an imipenem concentration of 32 micrograms/ml, and methicillin MICs increased 20-fold. Non-MR S. aureus exhibited no induction. Preincubation with methicillin produced no effect. Induction appeared to be a unique interaction of imipenem with MR S. aureus.

  5. Improved optical properties and detectivity of an uncooled silicon carbide mid-wave infrared optical detector with increased dopant concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Geunsik; Kar, Aravinda; Manzur, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    An n-type 4H-SiC substrate is doped with gallium using a laser doping technique and its optical response is investigated at the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) wavelength 4.21 μm as a function of the dopant concentration. The dopant creates a p-type energy level of 0.3 eV, which is the energy of a photon corresponding to the MWIR wavelength 4.21 μm. Therefore, Ga-doped SiC can be used as an uncooled MWIR detector because an optical signal was obtained at this wavelength when the sample was at room temperature. The energy level of the Ga dopant in the substrate was confirmed by optical absorption spectroscopy. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) of the doped samples revealed an enhancement in the solid solubility of Ga in the substrate when doping is carried out by increasing the number of laser scans. A higher dopant concentration increases the number of holes in the dopant energy level, enabling photoexcitation of more electrons from the valence band by the incident MWIR photons. The detector performance improves as the dopant concentration increases from 1.15 × 10 19 to 6.25 × 10 20 cm −3 . The detectivity of the optical photodetector is found to be 1.07 × 10 10 cm Hz 1/2 W −1 for the case of doping with four laser passes. (paper)

  6. Increased serum chemerin concentrations in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: Relationship between insulin resistance and ovarian volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Yue, Jiang; Sun, Yun; Zheng, Jun; Tao, Tao; Li, Shengxian; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-23

    Chemerin has been linked to adiposity, and insulin resistance (IR) which are the common characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Chemerin also shows inhibitory action on follicular steroidogenesis. We investigated the associations between chemerin and IR or polycystic ovary morphology in patients with PCOS. A total of 148 women with newly diagnosed PCOS using Rotterdam criteria and 88 healthy individuals were enrolled. The recruited patients with PCOS were further stratified by tertiles of serum chemerin concentrations as follows: Group 1 ( 30.27 ng/ml). Compared to controls, women with PCOS in each tertile had higher serum chemerin concentrations. By linear regression analysis, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and ovarian volume showed significant associations with chemerin after adjusting for confounding factors (β = 0.257, P = 0.028; β = 0.276, P = 0.005, respectively). The odds ratios (ORs) for ovarian volume excess gradually increased across increasing tertiles of chemerin in the adjusted model [Group 1: reference; Group 2: OR 1.602; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.170–2.194; Group 3: OR 1.857; 95% CI: 1.335-2.583]. Patients with PCOS showed increased serum chemerin concentrations as compared to healthy women. Individuals with higher chemerin tended to have higher risk for ovarian volume excess in patients with PCOS, regardless of adiposity.

  7. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Increase the Phenolic Compounds Concentration in the Bark of the Stem of Libidibia Ferrea in Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Emanuela Lima; Alves da Silva, Francineyde; Barbosa da Silva, Fábio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea is a species particular to the caatinga presenting medicinal properties for containing bioactive compounds. The use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) can increase the production of biomolecules in the legume leaves; however, no light has been shed on the role of symbiosis in maximizing metabolites production in the bark of L. ferrea stem. The aim was to select AMF that are efficient at increasing the production of phenolic compounds with medicinal properties in the bark of the L. ferrea stem. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four inoculation treatments (plants pre-inoculated with Claroideoglomus etunicatum , with Gigaspora albida , with Acaulospora longula , and non-inoculated plants - control) with six repetitions. Thirteen months after the transplanting, the plants were pruned and the bark of the stem was collected; subsequently, this plant material was dried in a chamber. After the drying process, fractions of the bark of the stem were macerated in methanol. The extracts were further used for analyses of the biomolecules. The flavonoids concentration had an increase of, respectively, 236% and 186% in relation to the control for the treatments with A. longula and C. etunicatum ; plants inoculated with A. longula had an increase of 47% in total tannins concentration compared with the non-inoculated control - a benefit that the proanthocyanidins did not present. Applying inoculation with A. longula may be an alternative to increase the production of biomolecules of the secondary metabolism in the bark of the L. ferrea stem in field conditions.

  8. Paradoxical effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on basal prolactin secretion and the estrogen-induced prolactin surge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Leemin; Pan, Jenntser

    1990-01-01

    The roles of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on both basal and estrogen-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion were examined. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats that were ovariectomized for 3 weeks and received estrogen treatment for 1 week were used. Intravenous administration of hormones and serial blood sampling were accomplished through indwelling intraatrial catheters which were implanted two days before. Plasma PRL levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Oxytocin at a dose of 20 μg/rat stimulated a moderate PRL release in the morning and lower doses were without effect. Vasopressin was most effective at a dose of 5 μg/rat in stimulating PRL release, while consecutive injections of higher doses were less effective. In contrast, TRH, ranging from 1 to 8 μg/rat, induced a dose-dependent increases in PRL secretion. Using the effective dosages determined from the morning studies, repeated injections of either OT, AVP or their specific antagonists MPOMeOVT were given hourly between 1300 to 1800h and blood samples were obtained hourly from 1100 to 1900h. It was found that either OT or AVP significantly reduced the afternoon PRL surge, while their antagonists were not as effective

  9. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to increasing concentrations of trivalent chromium in the Andean crop species Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoccianti, Valeria; Bucchini, Anahi E; Iacobucci, Marta; Ruiz, Karina B; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), an ancient Andean seed crop, exhibits exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to abiotic stress. The species' tolerance to heavy metals has, however, not yet been investigated nor its ability to take up and translocate chromium (Cr). This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments occurring upon exposure of quinoa to several concentrations (0.01-5mM) of CrCl3. Young hydroponically grown plants were used to evaluate Cr uptake, growth, oxidative stress, and other biochemical parameters three and/or seven days after treatment. Leaves accumulated the lowest amounts of Cr, while roots and stems accumulated the most at low and at high metal concentrations, respectively. Fresh weight and photosynthetic pigments were reduced only by the higher Cr(III) doses. Substantially increased lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and proline levels were observed only with 5mM Cr(III). Except for a significant decrease at day 7 with 5mM Cr(III), total polyphenols and flavonoids maintained control levels in Cr(III)-treated plants, whereas antioxidant activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum polyamine accumulation was observed in 1mM CrCl3-treated plants. Even though α- and γ-tocopherols also showed enhanced levels only with the 1mM concentration, tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, EC 2.6.1.5) activity increased under Cr(III) treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, results suggest that polyamines, tocopherols, and TAT activity could contribute to tolerance to 1mM Cr(III), but not to the highest concentration that, instead, generated oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of infliximab dose increase in rheumatoid arthritis at different trough concentrations: a cohort study in clinical practice conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamaida ePlasencia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence supporting treatment intensification in rheumatoid arthritis is limited and controversial. We explored outcomes of infliximab dose increases and accounted for pre-existing trough levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA.MethodsThis study was a retrospective study of 42 RA patients who received increased infliximab following an insufficient response (DAS28 > 3.2. Serum concentrations of infliximab and antibodies to infliximab (ATI and DAS28 and EULAR clinical response parameters were recorded for one year. Analyses were performed in three patient groups that were defined by infliximab serum concentration prior to treatment enhancement: No detectable, Low (< 1.1 µg/mL or High (≥ 1.1 µg/mL drug levels. Results No circulating infliximab was detected in 20 patients (47.6 %, but 13 (30.9 % and 9 (21.4 % patients exhibited Low and High levels, respectively. ATI were only detected in patients with No detectable drug levels because the drug interferes with ELISA. DAS28 disease activity globally showed a modest improvement after dose escalation, but this improvement did not persist after 6 and 12 months. Infliximab serum levels increased significantly in the High group (p=0.016, but no increase was achieved in the Low and No detectable groups. The three study groups exhibited similar disease activity over time, and no improvement was observed in the non-responder EULAR rates. ConclusionsThese results suggest that the efficacy of an infliximab dose increase is limited, and the response is independent of the infliximab trough serum concentration that is achieved prior to escalation.

  11. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  12. Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria from soil using Middlebrook 7H10 agar with increased malachite green concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuli; Yu, Xinglong; Zhao, Dun; Li, Runcheng; Liu, Yang; Ge, Meng; Hu, Huican

    2017-12-01

    Environmental exposure is considered to be responsible for nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in humans. To facilitate the isolation of mycobacteria from soil, Middlebrook 7H10 agar was optimized as an enhanced selective medium by increasing the concentration of malachite green. A series of modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar media with malachite green concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 2500 mg/L was evaluated using 20 soil samples decontaminated with 3% sodium dodecyl sulfate plus 2% NaOH for 30 min. Among these modified Middlebrook 7H10 media, the medium with malachite green at a concentration of 250 mg/L, i.e., at the same concentration as in Löwenstein-Jensen medium, was the most effective in terms of the number of plates with mycobacterial growth. This medium was further evaluated with 116 soil samples. The results showed that 87.1% (101/116) of the samples produced mycobacterial growth, and 15 samples (12.9%) produced no mycobacterial growth. Of the plates inoculated with the soil samples, each in duplicate, 5.2% (12/232) showed late contamination. In total, 19 mycobacterial species were isolated, including seven (36.8%) rapidly growing mycobacteria and 12 (63.2%) slowly growing mycobacteria. Our results demonstrate that the modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar with 250 mg/L malachite green is useful for the primary isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria from soil.

  13. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Castro Aguilar-Tablada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC and 53 with Crohn’s disease (CD and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001 and significantly lower in CD patients than in UC patients (p = 0.006. Se concentrations in patients were significantly influenced by sex, body mass index (BMI, the inflammatory biomarker α-1-antitrypsin, surgery, medical treatment, the severity, extent, and form of the disease and the length of time since onset (p < 0.05. Se concentrations in IBD patients were positively and linearly correlated with nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit parameters (p < 0.05. A greater impairment of serum Se and cardiovascular status was observed in CD than in UC patients. An adequate nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status.

  14. The effect of GlycoPEGylation on the physical stability of human rFVIIa with increasing calcium chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Bitten; Westh, Peter; Hvidt, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The effects of calcium chloride on the structural, kinetic and thermal stability of recombinant human factor VIIa (rFVIIa) were investigated using rFVIIa and two GlycoPEGylated recombinant human FVIIa derivatives, a linear 10 kDa PEG and a branched 40 kDa PEG, respectively. Three different CaCl(2......) concentrations were used: 10mM, 35 mM and 100mM. The secondary structure and tertiary structure of rFVIIa at 25C, measured by circular dichroism (CD), were maintained upon GlycoPEGylation as well as CaCl(2) content. In contrast, the thermal stability of the three rFVIIa compounds, measured by differential......FVIIa, whereas the concentration of CaCl(2) has to be raised to 100mM in order to see the same effect on the GlycoPEGylated rFVIIa compounds. The temperature of aggregation of rFVIIa, T(agg), increased as the CaCl(2) concentration increased from 35 mM to 100 mM, while T(agg) for the GlycoPEGylated r...

  15. Copeptin in the diagnosis of vasopressin-dependent disorders of fluid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Fenske, Wiebke

    2016-03-01

    Copeptin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are derived from a common precursor molecule and have equimolar secretion and response to osmotic, haemodynamic and stress-related stimuli. Plasma concentrations of copeptin and AVP in relation to serum osmolality are highly correlated. The physiological functions of AVP with respect to homeostasis of fluid balance, vascular tonus and regulation of the endocrine stress response are well known, but the exact function of copeptin is undetermined. Quantification of AVP can be difficult, but copeptin is stable in plasma and can be easily measured with a sandwich immunoassay. For this reason, copeptin has emerged as a promising marker for the diagnosis of AVP-dependent fluid disorders. Copeptin measurements can enable differentiation between various conditions within the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome. In the absence of prior fluid deprivation, baseline copeptin levels >20 pmol/l identify patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Conversely, copeptin levels measured upon osmotic stimulation differentiate primary polydipsia from partial central diabetes insipidus. In patients with hyponatraemia, low levels of copeptin together with low urine osmolality identify patients with primary polydipsia, and the ratio of copeptin to urinary sodium can distinguish the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion from other AVP-dependent forms of hyponatraemia.

  16. HBsAg carrier status and the association between gestational diabetes with increased serum ferritin concentration in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Terence T; Tse, Ka-Yu; Chan, Louis Y; Tam, Kar-Fai; Ho, Lai-Fong

    2003-11-01

    To determine whether the high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage in our population can explain the previous observation of an association between increased maternal serum ferritin concentration and gestational diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese women. A retrospective study was performed on 767 nonanemic women with singleton pregnancy who had iron status assessed at 28-30 weeks. The result of the routine antenatal HBsAg screening was retrieved from patient records. The HBsAg-positive and -negative groups were compared for maternal characteristics, prevalence of gestational diabetes in the third trimester, prevalence of high serum ferritin and iron concentrations, and transferrin saturation, which is defined as a value in the highest quartile established by the measurements obtained from the HBsAg-negative group. The incidences of oral glucose tolerance test and gestational diabetes were significantly increased in the HBsAg-positive group. The HBsAg-positive women with gestational diabetes had significantly increased prevalence of high serum ferritin compared with the HBsAg-negative women, irrespective of the latter's gestational diabetes status. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the independent association between HBsAg carrier status with gestational diabetes (relative risk 3.51, 95% CI 1.83-6.73) but excluded high ferritin as an independent factor. Our results indicate that maternal HBsAg carriage could explain in part the association between increased serum ferritin concentration with gestational diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese women, and that HBsAg carrier status is an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes.

  17. Hydroxyhydroquinone, a by-product of coffee bean roasting, increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat thymic lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Risa; Nojima, Shoko; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Setsu, Shoki; Honda, Sari; Masuda, Toshiya; Oyama, Yasuo

    2017-04-01

    Hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) is generated during coffee bean roasting. A cup of coffee contains 0.1-1.7 mg of HHQ. The actions of HHQ on mammalian DNA were examined because HHQ is a metabolite of benzene, which causes leukemia. Currently, information on the cellular actions of HHQ is limited. We examined the effects of sublethal levels of HHQ on the concentration of intracellular Ca 2+ in rat thymic lymphocytes by using a flow cytometric technique with fluorescent probes. HHQ at 10 μM or more significantly elevated intracellular Ca 2+ levels by increasing the membrane permeability of divalent cations, resulting in hyperpolarization via the activation of Ca 2+ -dependent K + channels. HHQ-induced changes in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and membrane potential may affect the cell functions of lymphocytes. HHQ-reduced coffee may be preferable in order to avoid the possible adverse effects of HHQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased serum C-reactive protein concentrations in dogs with congestive heart failure due to myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M. J.; Ljungvall, I.; Hillstrom, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease in humans and dogs is associated with mildly increased circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). Few studies have evaluated associations between circulating CRP and canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and the results reported have been divergent....... The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum concentrations of CRP, determined using a novel automated canine-specific high -sensitivity CRP assay (Gentian hsCRP), were associated with severity of MMVD and selected clinical variables in dogs. The study included 188 client-owned dogs...... with different severities of MMVD. Dogs were classified based on ACVIM consensus statement guidelines (group A, n = 58; group BI, n = 56; group B2, n = 38; group C, n = 36). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF; group C) had...

  19. The highest global concentrations and increased abundance of oceanic plastic debris in the North Pacific: Evidence from seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Gould, Patrick J.; Coe, James M.; Rogers, Donald B.

    1997-01-01

    Plastic pollution has risen dramatically with an increase in production of plastic resin during the past few decades. Plastic production in the United States increased from 2.9 million tons in I960 to 47.9 million tons in 1985 (Society of the Plastics Industry 1986). This has been paralleled by a significant increase in the concentration of plastic particles in oceanic surface waters of the North Pacific from the 1970s to the late 1980s (Day and Shaw 1987; Day et al. 1990a). Research during the past few decades has indicated two major interactions between marine life and oceanic plastic: entanglement and ingestion (Laist 1987). Studies in the last decade have documented the prevalence of plastic in the diets of many seabird species in the North Pacific and the need for further monitoring of those species and groups that ingest the most plastic (Day et al. 1985).

  20. Effect of hemorrhage on cardiac output, vasopressin, aldosterone, and diuresis during immersion in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Simanonok, K.; Bernauer, E. M.; Wade, C. E.; Keil, L. C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test the hypotesis that a reduction in blood volume would attenuate or eliminate immersion-induced increases in cardiac output (Q(sub co)) and urine excretion, and to investigate accompanying vasoactive and fluid-electrolyte hormonal responses. Eight men (19-23 yr) were supine during a 2-hr control period in air, and then sat for 5-hr test periods in air at 20 C (dry control, DC); water at 34.5 C (wet control, WC); and water (34.5 C) after hemorrhage (WH) of 14.8 plus or minus 0.3 percent of their blood volume. Blood volume was -11.6 plus or minus 0.6 percent at immersion (time 0). Mean (bar-X hrs 1-5) Q(sub co) was unchanged in WC (5.3 plus or minus 0.01 l/min) and in WH (4.5 plus or minus 0.1 l/min), but decreased (P less than 0.05) in DC to 3.6 plus or minus 0.1 l/min. Mean urine excretion rates were 1.0 plus or minus 0.2 ml/min for DC and 1.1 plus or minus 0.2 ml/min for WH; both were lower (P less than 0.05) than that for WC of 2.0 plus or minus 0.4 ml/min. Plasma (Na+) and (Osm) were unchanged in all experiments. Mean plasma vasopressin (PVP) (bar-X hrs 1-5) was 1.1 plus or minus 0.1 pg/ml in WC, and higher (P less than 0.05) in DC (2.1 plus or minus 0.2 pg/ml)and WH (2.1 plus or minus 0.1 pg/ml); it was unchanged during air and water test periods. Thus, hemorrhage attenuated the immersion-induced increase in Q(sub co), eliminated the WC diuresis, maintained plasma renin activity and PVP at DC levels and did not change immersion-induced aldosterone suppression; the osmotic diuresis during control immersion is apparently not due to either aldosterone suppression or vasopressin suppression.

  1. Oroxylin A, but Not Vasopressin, Ameliorates Cardiac Dysfunction of Endotoxemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hung Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mortality in septic patients with myocardial dysfunction is higher than those without it. Beneficial effects of flavonoid oroxylin A (Oro-A on endotoxemic hearts were evaluated and compared with that of arginine vasopressin (AVP which is used to reverse hypotension in septic patients. Endotoxemia in rats was induced by one-injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 10 mg/kg, i.p., and hearts were isolated 5-hrs or 16-hrs later. Isolated hearts with constant-pressure or constant-flow mode were examined by Langendorff technique. Rate and force of contractions of isolated atrial and ventricular strips were examined by tissue myography. Isolated endotoxemic hearts were characterized by decreased or increased coronary flow (CF in LPS-treated-for-5hr and LPS-treated-for-16-hr groups, respectively, with decreased inotropy in both groups. Oro-A-perfusion ameliorated while AVP-perfusion worsened the decreased CF and inotropy in both preparations. Oro-A and AVP, however, did not affect diminished force or rate of contraction of atrial and ventricular strips of endotoxemic hearts. Oro-A-induced CF increase was not affected following coronary endothelium-denudation with saponin. These results suggest that Oro-A ameliorates LPS-depressed cardiac functions by increasing CF, leading to positive inotropy. In contrast, AVP aggravates cardiac dysfunction by decreasing CF. Oro-A is a potentially useful candidate for treating endotoxemia complicated with myocardial dysfunction.

  2. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  3. How private vehicle use increases ambient air pollution concentrations at schools during the morning drop-off of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Requia, Weeberb J.

    2017-09-01

    A child's exposure to environmental pollutants can have life-long health effects. Thus it is critical to understand the potential exposure pathways. In this paper, we examine the increase in ambient PM2.5 concentrations at schools from private vehicle use for dropping children off at school. In North America, students are commonly driven to school in a private vehicle. Additionally, students walk or cycle, or take a school bus. Our vehicle surveys recorded between 23 and 116 personal vehicles at 25 schools, where enrolment ranged from 160 to 765 students. We fit a linear regression model to predict the number of vehicles at schools we did not observe within our study area, which explained 57% of the variation in our surveys. A microsimulation traffic model was created for each of the 86 schools we studied. Outputs from the traffic model were used to determine the emissions generated at each school. PM2.5 emissions varied from 0.14 to 6.38 g. Lastly, we dispersed the emissions produced by private vehicles dropping off students, which are emissions generated by unnecessary trips because students further than walking distance are provided transportation by the school board. At the drop-off location in front of the school, we found ambient concentration increases of at least 5 μg/m3, 10 μg/m3, 25 μg/m3 and 50 μg/m3 during 16.8%, 7.6%, 2.0% and 0.5% of the mornings, respectively. This research was conducted in a medium-sized North American city and should allow transferability to similar cities. We conclude that the use of private vehicles can significantly increase local concentrations, regardless of background conditions.

  4. A modeling analysis of the interaction between forest age and forest responsiveness to increasing CO2 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, M.U.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, both young forest plants and established forest stands were examined to gain insight into likely plant responses to increases in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), temperature and altered rainfall patterns. Forests have rotations of about 10 to 200 years, during which time anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and the associated changes in climate change can be substantial. The changes are most likely to influence the growth of established forest stands. The CenW forest growth model was used to examine the mechanisms that are responsible for the slowing of forest growth with age, including the response to increasing carbon dioxide. It was shown that inclusion of allocation shifts with tree height, individual tree mortality, changing respiration load and nutrient changes has only a small effect on the response to increasing carbon dioxide. When photosynthesis of mature trees decreases, growth response to increasing CO 2 is reduced. Since the number of interacting processes is so large, no simple and broad interaction between increased carbon dioxide and forest age were identified. It was concluded that it is not yet possible to predict the change in carbon dioxide response by forest age. 54 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  5. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Increase the Phenolic Compounds Concentration in the Bark of the Stem of Libidibia Ferrea in Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Emanuela Lima; Alves da Silva, Francineyde; Barbosa da Silva, Fábio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Libidibia ferrea is a species particular to the caatinga presenting medicinal properties for containing bioactive compounds. The use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) can increase the production of biomolecules in the legume leaves; however, no light has been shed on the role of symbiosis in maximizing metabolites production in the bark of L. ferrea stem. Objective: The aim was to select AMF that are efficient at increasing the production of phenolic compounds with medicinal properties in the bark of the L. ferrea stem. Methods: The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four inoculation treatments (plants pre-inoculated with Claroideoglomus etunicatum, with Gigaspora albida, with Acaulospora longula, and non-inoculated plants – control) with six repetitions. Thirteen months after the transplanting, the plants were pruned and the bark of the stem was collected; subsequently, this plant material was dried in a chamber. After the drying process, fractions of the bark of the stem were macerated in methanol. The extracts were further used for analyses of the biomolecules. Results: The flavonoids concentration had an increase of, respectively, 236% and 186% in relation to the control for the treatments with A. longula and C. etunicatum; plants inoculated with A. longula had an increase of 47% in total tannins concentration compared with the non-inoculated control – a benefit that the proanthocyanidins did not present. Conclusion: Applying inoculation with A. longula may be an alternative to increase the production of biomolecules of the secondary metabolism in the bark of the L. ferrea stem in field conditions. PMID:29204223

  6. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  7. The effect of increased centrifugation temperature on the quality of red-blood-cell concentrates of automated whole blood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, C; Rummler, S; Barz, D

    2013-10-01

    There are manual and automated methods to separate whole blood (WB) available. The Atreus whole blood processing system is an automated method, which combines centrifugation and expression of components into a single device. A major difference to conventional methods is that centrifugation temperature is not controlled at 22°C. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of increased centrifugation temperatures on the quality of red-blood-cell concentrates (RCC) after active cooling of WB prior to processing. A total of 28 WB were processed: 16 at centrifugation temperatures of up to 28°C (1st protocol) and 12 at 34°C (2nd protocol). RCC quality parameters were tested weekly for 42 days. Red-blood-cell concentrates (RCC) quality complied with the European and German guidelines. Haemolysis was not significantly different throughout storage. Significant statistical differences were detected between both protocols in potassium concentration at the end of storage and in ATP levels at the day of processing. Centrifugation temperatures of up to 34°C are well tolerated by the red blood cells with minimal interference with the RCC quality parameters. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. Increasing platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma inhibits anterior cruciate ligament cell function in three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryu; Cheng, Mingyu; Murray, Martha M

    2014-02-01

    Tissue engineering is one new strategy being developed to treat ACL ruptures. One such approach is bio-enhanced ACL repair, where a suture repair is supplemented with a bio-active scaffold containing platelets. However, the optimal concentration of platelets to stimulate ACL healing is not known. We hypothesized that increasing platelet concentrations in the scaffold would enhance critical cell behaviors. Porcine ACL fibroblasts were obtained from explant culture and suspended in platelet poor plasma (PPP), 1× platelet-rich plasma (PRP), 3× PRP, 5× PRP, or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The cell suspensions were cultured in a 3D collagen scaffold. Cellular metabolism (MTT assay), apoptosis (TUNEL assay), and gene expression for type I and type III collagen were measured. 1× PRP significantly outperformed 5× PRP in all parameters studied: Type I and III collagen gene expression, apoptosis prevention, and cell metabolism stimulation. ACL fibroblasts cultured with 1× PRP had the highest type I and type III collagen gene expression. 1× PRP and PPP groups had the highest cell metabolism and lowest apoptosis rates. Concentration of platelets had significant effects on the behavior of ACL fibroblasts; thus, it is an important parameter that should be specified in clinical or basic science studies. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Growth and {delta}{sup 13}C responses to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations for several crop species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanba, Y.T.; Wada, E. [Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osaki, M.; Nakamura, T. [Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    The responses of plant growth and carbon isotope discrimination ({Delta}) to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations for several crop species (lettuce: Lactuca sativa L.; corn: Zea Mays L. var. P3540, wheat: Triticum aestivum L. var Haruyutaka; and soybean: Glycine Max (L). Merr. var. Kitamusume) were investigated. Shoot relative growth rate was used to indicate plant growth, and {delta}{sup 13}C value of leaf materials in corn (C4 species) was used to calculate {Delta} for C3 species. Plant growth was stimulated by enriched CO{sub 2}, while {Delta} remained almost constant as CO{sub 2} concentration changed. {Delta} showed interspecific difference, and the plant species of larger {Delta} had larger relative growth rates. Relative growth rates of the plants of larger {Delta} were stimulated by CO{sub 2} enrichment more than those of the plants of smaller {Delta}. We propose that plant {Delta} could be a possible parameter to assess the interspecific difference of plant response to the increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. 3 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.

  10. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Lee, Anna W; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W; Choleris, Elena

    2012-02-28

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85-100%) and low (40-60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Progressive polyuria without vasopressin neuron loss in a mouse model for familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Arima, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Hiroi, Maiko; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Noriaki; Ueda, Masatsugu; Shiota, Akira; Oiso, Yutaka

    2009-05-01

    Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI), an autosomal dominant disorder, is mostly caused by mutations in the gene of neurophysin II (NPII), the carrier protein of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Previous studies suggest that loss of AVP neurons might be the cause of polyuria in FNDI. Here we analyzed knockin mice expressing mutant NPII that causes FNDI in humans. The heterozygous mice manifested progressive polyuria as do patients with FNDI. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that inclusion bodies that were not immunostained with antibodies for mutant NPII, normal NPII, or AVP were present in the AVP cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), and that the size of inclusion bodies gradually increased in parallel with the increases in urine volume. Electron microscopic analyses showed that aggregates existed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as in the nucleus of AVP neurons in 1-mo-old heterozygous mice. At 12 mo, dilated ER filled with aggregates occupied the cytoplasm of AVP cells, while few aggregates were found in the nucleus. Analyses with in situ hybridization revealed that expression of AVP mRNA was significantly decreased in the SON in the heterozygous mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Counting cells expressing AVP mRNA in the SON indicated that polyuria had progressed substantially in the absence of neuronal loss. These data suggest that cell death is not the primary cause of polyuria in FNDI, and that the aggregates accumulated in the ER might be involved in the dysfunction of AVP neurons that lead to the progressive polyuria.

  12. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige K. Berger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers (n = 41 were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p < 0.01. Post hoc comparisons showed the HFCS-sweetened beverage vs. control beverage increased breast milk fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL, 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL, 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL, and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL (all p < 0.05. The mean incremental area under the curve for breast milk fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. −2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p < 0.01. There was no treatment × time interaction for breast milk glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  13. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhi, Sunit; Parshad, Omkar

    1985-01-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P<0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P<0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P<0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor. (author)

  14. Serotonergic involvement in stress-induced vasopressin and oxytocin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjaer, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT) receptors in mediation of stress-induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion in male rats. DESIGN: Experiments on laboratory rats with control groups. METHODS: Different stress paradigms were...... the swim stress-induced OT response. CONCLUSION: 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C) and possibly 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) receptors, but not 5-HT(1A) receptors, are involved in the restraint stress-induced AVP secretion. 5-HT does not seem to be involved in the dehydration- or hemorrhage-induced AVP response. The restraint...... stress-induced OT response seems to be mediated via 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. The dehydration and hemorrhage-induced OT responses are at least mediated by the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. The 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) receptors are not involved in stress-induced OT secretion....

  15. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhi, S. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Child Health); Parshad, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Physiology)

    1985-02-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor.

  16. SOIL N, P AND K CONCENTRATIONS AND RICE YIELD INCREASED DUE TO THE APPLICATION OF Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arivin Rivaie*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies showed that application of Azolla pinnata as biofertilizer improved soil fertility some agricultural crops, including rice, whereas farmers in Lampung consider that A. pinnata suppresses growth of rice seedlings, so they throw it field by raising irrigation water surface. Information on effects A. pinnata application on changes in nutrient availability and rice yield obtained from paddy fields of regions still rare. A study was carried out to investigate effects of different rates of A. pinnata on changes in N, P, K concentrations in paddy soils, N uptake, and rice yield. A well-irrigated paddy field was incorporated with A. pinnata, and then rice seedlings of Ciherang variety had been grown from June up to December 2009. Results: application of A. pinnata at dose of five t per ha increased concentration of N, P and K as well as rice yield. A. pinnata had a relatively high N content, ie 2.43 percent. Application of A. pinnata of 7.5 t per ha increased significantly available soil P, indicated that A. pinnata requires a fairly high P to grow optimally. Application of A. pinnata of 7.5 t per ha gave highest dry grain yield, suggests that application A. pinnata did not suppress rice yield, even use of A. pinnata as organic matter source will help to conserve fossil fuels and foreign exchange as well as will allow more paddy fields that can be fertilized by N.

  17. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract increases plasma antioxidant status associated with reduced plasma malondialdehyde concentration without hypoglycemia in fasting healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Khannongpho, Teerawat; Siriwatanapaiboon, Marent; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Dahlan, Winai; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2016-12-29

    To investigate the effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on plasma glucose concentration and antioxidant status in healthy volunteers. A randomized crossover design was used in this study. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mL of warm water (10 cases) or 200 mL of MOLE (500 mg dried extract, 10 cases). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for measuring fasting plasma glucose (FPG), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FPG concentration was not signifificantly different between warm water and MOLE. The consumption of MOLE acutely improved both FRAP and TEAC, with increases after 30 min of 30 μmol/L FeSO 4 equivalents and 0.18 μmol/L Trolox equivalents, respectively. The change in MDA level from baseline was signifificantly lowered after the ingestion of MOLE at 30, 60, and 90 min. In addition, FRAP level was negatively correlated with plasma MDA level after an intake of MOLE. MOLE increased plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in human. The consumption of MOLE may reduce the risk factors associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  18. Modulation of sibutramine-induced increases in extracellular noradrenaline concentration in rat frontal cortex and hypothalamus by α2-adrenoceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, K E; Heal, D J; Stanford, S C

    1999-01-01

    The effects of sibutramine (0.25–10 mg kg−1 i.p.) on extracellular noradrenaline concentration in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus of freely-moving rats were investigated using microdialysis. The role of presynaptic α2-adrenoceptors in modulating the effects of sibutramine in these brain areas was also determined.Sibutramine induced an increase in extracellular noradrenaline concentration, the magnitude of which paralleled dose, in both brain areas. In the cortex, this increase was gradual and sustained, whereas in the hypothalamus it was more rapid and of shorter duration.In both the cortex and hypothalamus, pretreatment of rats with the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 (3 mg kg−1 i.p.) potentiated increases in the accumulation of extracellular noradrenaline induced by sibutramine (10 mg kg−1 i.p.), by 7 and 10 fold respectively. RX821002 also reduced the latency of sibutramine to reach its maximum effect in the cortex, but not in the hypothalamus.Infusion of RX821002 (1 μM) via the probe increased the accumulation of extracellular noradrenaline induced by sibutramine (10 mg kg−1 i.p.) in both brain areas. In the hypothalamus, the effects of RX821002 on the accumulation of noradrenaline induced by sibutramine were 2 fold greater than those in the cortex.These findings support evidence that sibutramine inhibits the reuptake of noradrenaline in vivo, but that the accumulation of extracellular noradrenaline is limited by noradrenergic activation of presynaptic α2-adrenoceptors. Furthermore, the data suggest that terminal α2-adrenoceptors in the hypothalamus exert a greater inhibitory effect over the control of extracellular noradrenaline accumulation than do those in the cortex. PMID:10516646

  19. Increasing pCO2 correlates with low concentrations of intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borell, Esther M; Steinke, Michael; Horwitz, Rael; Fine, Maoz

    2014-02-01

    Marine anthozoans maintain a mutualistic symbiosis with dinoflagellates that are prolific producers of the algal secondary metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of the climate-cooling trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Surprisingly, little is known about the physiological role of DMSP in anthozoans and the environmental factors that regulate its production. Here, we assessed the potential functional role of DMSP as an antioxidant and determined how future increases in seawater pCO2 may affect DMSP concentrations in the anemone Anemonia viridis along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. There was no significant difference in zooxanthellae genotype and characteristics (density of zooxanthellae, and chlorophyll a) as well as protein concentrations between anemones from three stations along the gradient, V1 (3232 μatm CO2), V2 (682 μatm) and control (463 μatm), which indicated that A. viridis can acclimate to various seawater pCO2. In contrast, DMSP concentrations in anemones from stations V1 (33.23 ± 8.30 fmol cell(-1)) and V2 (34.78 ± 8.69 fmol cell(-1)) were about 35% lower than concentrations in tentacles from the control station (51.85 ± 12.96 fmol cell(-1)). Furthermore, low tissue concentrations of DMSP coincided with low activities of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Superoxide dismutase activity for both host (7.84 ± 1.37 U·mg(-1) protein) and zooxanthellae (2.84 ± 0.41 U·mg(-1) protein) at V1 was 40% lower than at the control station (host: 13.19 ± 1.42; zooxanthellae: 4.72 ± 0.57 U·mg(-1) protein). Our results provide insight into coastal DMSP production under predicted environmental change and support the function of DMSP as an antioxidant in symbiotic anthozoans.

  20. The impact of maternal protein restriction during rat pregnancy upon renal expression of angiotensin receptors and vasopressin-related aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornock Ruth

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal protein restriction during rat pregnancy is known to impact upon fetal development, growth and risk of disease in later life. It is of interest to understand how protein undernutrition influences the normal maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Here we investigated the mechanisms regulating renal haemodynamics and plasma volume during pregnancy, in the context of both normal and reduced plasma volume expansion. The study focused on expression of renal angiotensin receptors (ATR and vasopressin-related aquaporins (AQP, hypothesising that an alteration in the balance of these proteins would be associated with pregnancy per se and with compromised plasma volume expansion in rats fed a low-protein diet. Methods Female Wistar rats were mated and fed a control (18% casein or low-protein (9% casein diet during pregnancy. Animals were anaesthetised on days 5, 10, 15 and 20 of gestation (n = 8/group/time-point for determination of plasma volume using Evans Blue dye, prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues. Expression of the ATR subtypes and AQP2, 3 and 4 were assessed in maternal kidneys by PCR and western blotting. 24 non-pregnant Wistar rats underwent the same procedure at defined points of the oestrous cycle. Results As expected, pregnancy was associated with an increase in blood volume and haemodilution impacted upon red blood cell counts and haemoglobin concentrations. Expression of angiotensin II receptors and aquaporins 2, 3 and 4 was stable across all stages of the oestrus cycle. Interesting patterns of intra-renal protein expression were observed in response to pregnancy, including a significant down-regulation of AQP2. In contrast to previous literature and despite an apparent delay in blood volume expansion in low-protein fed rats, blood volume did not differ significantly between groups of pregnant animals. However, a significant down-regulation of AT2R protein expression was observed in low-protein fed animals

  1. No increase in marine microplastic concentration over the last three decades - A case study from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Sabrina; Garm, Anders; Huwer, Bastian; Dierking, Jan; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2018-04-15

    Microplastic is considered a potential threat to marine life as it is ingested by a wide variety of species. Most studies on microplastic ingestion are short-term investigations and little is currently known about how this potential threat has developed over the last decades where global plastic production has increased exponentially. Here we present the first long-term study on microplastic in the marine environment, covering three decades from 1987 to 2015, based on a unique sample set originally collected and conserved for food web studies. We investigated the microplastic concentration in plankton samples and in digestive tracts of two economically and ecologically important planktivorous forage fish species, Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and European sprat (Sprattus sprattus), in the Baltic Sea, an ecosystem which is under high anthropogenic pressure and has undergone considerable changes over the past decades. Surprisingly, neither the concentration of microplastic in the plankton samples nor in the digestive tracts changed significantly over the investigated time period. Average microplastic concentration in the plankton samples was 0.21±0.15particlesm -3 . Of 814 fish examined, 20% contained plastic particles, of which 95% were characterized as microplastic (plastic content between species, locations, or time of day the fish were caught. However, fish size and microplastic in the digestive tracts were positively correlated, and the fish contained more plastic during summer than during spring, which may be explained by increased food uptake with size and seasonal differences in feeding activity. This study highlights that even though microplastic has been present in the Baltic environment and the digestive tracts of fishes for decades, the levels have not changed in this period. This underscores the need for greater understanding of how plastic is cycled through marine ecosystems. The stability of plastic concentration and contamination over time

  2. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in t...

  3. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of V...

  4. Association of Variants of Arginine Vasopressin and Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1A With Severe Acetaminophen Liver InjurySummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Randesi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Acetaminophen-related acute liver injury and liver failure (ALF result from ingestion of supratherapeutic quantities of this analgesic, frequently in association with other forms of substance abuse including alcohol, opioids, and cocaine. Thus, overdosing represents a unique high-risk behavior associated with other forms of drug use disorder. Methods: We examined a series of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 9 genes related to impulsivity and/or stress responsivity that may modify response to stress. Study subjects were 229 white patients admitted to tertiary care liver centers for ALF that was determined to be due to acetaminophen toxicity after careful review of historical and biochemical data. Identification of relevant SNPs used Sanger sequencing, TaqMan, or custom microarray. Association tests were carried out to compare genotype frequencies between patients and healthy white controls. Results: The mean age was 37 years, and 75.6% were female, with similar numbers classified as intentional overdose or unintentional (without suicidal intent, occurring for a period of several days, usually due to pain. There was concomitant alcohol abuse in 30%, opioid use in 33.6%, and use of other drugs of abuse in 30.6%. The genotype frequencies of 2 SNPs were found to be significantly different between the cases and controls, specifically SNP rs2282018 in the arginine vasopressin gene (AVP, odds ratio 1.64 and SNP rs11174811 in the AVP receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A, odds ratio 1.89, both of which have been previously linked to a drug use disorder diagnosis. Conclusions: Patients who develop acetaminophen-related ALF have increased frequency of gene variants that may cause altered stress responsivity, which has been shown to be associated with other unrelated substance use disorders. Keywords: Impulsivity, Stress Responsivity, Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Overdose

  5. Photosynthesis of C3 and C4 Species in Response to Increased CO2 Concentration and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMIM

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to increased carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2] and drought stress of two C3 (wheat and kale and two C4 species (Echinochloa crusgallii and Amaranthus caudatus were analysed. Plants were grown in controlled growth chambers with ambient (350 μmol mol−1 and doubled ambient [CO2]. Drought was given by withholding water until the plants severely wilted, whereas the control plants were watered daily. Even though stomatal conductance (Gs of C4 species either under ambient or double [CO2] was lower than those in C3, doubled [CO2] decreased Gs of all species under well watered conditions. As a result, the plants grown under doubled [CO2] transpired less water than those grown under ambient [CO2]. Photosynthesis (Pn of the C4 species was sustained during moderate drought when those of the C3 species decreased significantly. Doubled [CO2] increased photosynthesis of C3 but not of C4 species. Increased [CO2] was only able to delay Pn reduction of all species due to the drought, but not remove it completely. The positive effects of increased [CO2] during moderate drought and the disappearance of it under severe drought suggesting that metabolic effect may limit photosynthesis under severe drought.

  6. Photosynthesis of C3 and C4 Species in Response to Increased CO2 Concentration and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMIM

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to increased carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2] and drought stress of two C3 (wheat and kale and two C4 species (Echinochloa crusgallii and Amaranthus caudatus were analysed. Plants were grown in controlled growth chambers with ambient (350 mol mol-1 and doubled ambient [CO2]. Drought was given by withholding water until the plants severely wilted, whereas the control plants were watered daily. Even though stomatal conductance (Gs of C4 species either under ambient or double [CO2] was lower than those in C3, doubled [CO2] decreased Gs of all species under well watered conditions. As a result, the plants grown under doubled [CO2] transpired less water than those grown under ambient [CO2]. Photosynthesis (Pn of the C4 species was sustained during moderate drought when those of the C3 species decreased significantly. Doubled [CO2] increased photosynthesis of C3 but not of C4 species. Increased [CO2] was only able to delay Pn reduction of all species due to the drought, but not remove it completely. The positive effects of increased [CO2] during moderate drought and the disappearance of it under severe drought suggesting that metabolic effect may limit photosynthesis under severe drought.

  7. Yeast culture increased plasma niacin concentration, evaporative heat loss, and feed efficiency of dairy cows in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Julia D L; Silva, Rayana B; Fernandes, Tatiane; Barbosa, Eugenio F; Graças, Larissa E C; Araujo, Rafael C; Pereira, Renata A N; Pereira, Marcos N

    2018-04-04

    The supplementation of dairy cows with yeast culture may increase diet digestibility, plasma niacin concentration, heat dissipation, and lactation performance. Our objective was to evaluate the response of Holstein cows in late lactation (234 ± 131 d in milk) to dead yeast culture (YC, 15 g/d, Factor SC, GRASP, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during Brazilian summer (temperature-humidity index >68 for 92.2% of the time). Thirty-two cows were individually fed a standard total mixed ration for 14 d and control (CTL) or YC treatments for 35 d, in a covariate adjusted complete randomized block design. Response was evaluated in wk 5 or as repeated measures over time. Cows were milked 3 times per day and treatments (YC or placebo) were orally dosed to each cow before each milking. Plasma niacin was 1.50 for CTL and 1.66 µg/mL for YC. The YC reduced rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature, whereas it tended to increase sweating rate. The proportion of cows with rectal temperature ≥39.2°C on CTL and YC was, respectively, 8 and 0% at 0730 h, 52 and 25% at 1500 h, and 35 and 26% at 2200 h. Plasma glucose was increased by YC. The total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, plasma urea N concentration, molar proportion of ruminal VFA, and urinary allantoin excretion were not affected by YC. Cows fed YC were less selective against feed particles >19 mm in the morning, in the afternoon were more selective against long feed particles and in favor of particles loss, and feed efficiency of late lactation dairy cows by reducing intake at similar milk yield. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gene expression profiling of preovulatory follicle in the buffalo cow: effects of increased IGF-I concentration on periovulatory events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna U Rao

    Full Text Available The preovulatory follicle in response to gonadotropin surge undergoes dramatic biochemical, and morphological changes orchestrated by expression changes in hundreds of genes. Employing well characterized bovine preovulatory follicle model, granulosa cells (GCs and follicle wall were collected from the preovulatory follicle before, 1, 10 and 22 h post peak LH surge. Microarray analysis performed on GCs revealed that 450 and 111 genes were differentially expressed at 1 and 22 h post peak LH surge, respectively. For validation, qPCR and immunocytochemistry analyses were carried out for some of the differentially expressed genes. Expression analysis of many of these genes showed distinct expression patterns in GCs and the follicle wall. To study molecular functions and genetic networks, microarray data was analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis which revealed majority of the differentially expressed genes to cluster within processes like steroidogenesis, cell survival and cell differentiation. In the ovarian follicle, IGF-I is established to be an important regulator of the above mentioned molecular functions. Thus, further experiments were conducted to verify the effects of increased intrafollicular IGF-I levels on the expression of genes associated with the above mentioned processes. For this purpose, buffalo cows were administered with exogenous bGH to transiently increase circulating and intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I. The results indicated that increased intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I caused changes in expression of genes associated with steroidogenesis (StAR, SRF and apoptosis (BCL-2, FKHR, PAWR. These results taken together suggest that onset of gonadotropin surge triggers activation of various biological pathways and that the effects of growth factors and peptides on gonadotropin actions could be examined during preovulatory follicle development.

  9. Relationship between increasing concentrations of two carcinogens and statistical image descriptors of foci morphology in the cell transformation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, Giulia; Corvi, Raffaella; Salovaara, Susan; Urani, Chiara; Stefanini, Federico M

    2017-06-01

    Cell Transformation Assays (CTAs) have long been proposed for the identification of chemical carcinogenicity potential. The endpoint of these in vitro assays is represented by the phenotypic alterations in cultured cells, which are characterized by the change from the non-transformed to the transformed phenotype. Despite the wide fields of application and the numerous advantages of CTAs, their use in regulatory toxicology has been limited in part due to concerns about the subjective nature of visual scoring, i.e. the step in which transformed colonies or foci are evaluated through morphological features. An objective evaluation of morphological features has been previously obtained through automated digital processing of foci images to extract the value of three statistical image descriptors. In this study a further potential of the CTA using BALB/c 3T3 cells is addressed by analysing the effect of increasing concentrations of two known carcinogens, benzo[a]pyrene and NiCl 2 , with different modes of action on foci morphology. The main result of our quantitative evaluation shows that the concentration of the considered carcinogens has an effect on foci morphology that is statistically significant for the mean of two among the three selected descriptors. Statistical significance also corresponds to visual relevance. The statistical analysis of variations in foci morphology due to concentration allowed to quantify morphological changes that can be visually appreciated but not precisely determined. Therefore, it has the potential of providing new quantitative parameters in CTAs, and of exploiting all the information encoded in foci. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. High salt intake increases plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) concentration and produces gut dysbiosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska, Klaudia; Radkowski, Marek; Grochowska, Marta; Perlejewski, Karol; Huc, Tomasz; Jaworska, Kinga; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ufnal, Marcin

    2018-03-22

    A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk. Blood plasma, urine, and stool samples were analyzed for concentrations of trimethylamine (TMA; a TMAO precursor), TMAO, and indoxyl sulfate (indole metabolite). The gut-blood barrier permeability to TMA and TMA liver clearance were assessed at baseline and after TMA intracolonic challenge test. Gut bacterial flora was analyzed with a 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The isotonic and hypertonic groups showed a significantly higher plasma TMAO and significantly lower 24-hr TMAO urine excretion than the controls. However, the TMA stool level was similar between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in gut-blood barrier permeability and TMA liver clearance. Plasma indoxyl concentration and 24-hr urine indoxyl excretion were similar between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups in gut bacteria composition. High salt intake increases plasma TMAO concentration, which is associated with decreased TMAO urine excretion. Furthermore, high salt intake alters gut bacteria composition. These findings suggest that salt intake affects an interplay between gut bacteria and their host homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Paige K; Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W; Fujiwara, Hideji; Goran, Michael I

    2018-05-24

    This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers ( n = 41) were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL), 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL), 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL), and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL) (all p fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. -2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  12. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  13. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Glucose, fructose and sucrose increase the solubility of protein-tannin complexes and at high concentration, glucose and sucrose interfere with bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbertson, James F; Yuan, Chunlong; Mireles, Maria S; Hanlin, Rachel L; Downey, Mark O

    2013-05-01

    Wines were modified with increasing sugar concentrations and decreasing tannin concentrations and analysed by a combination of protein precipitation and bisulphite bleaching. Increasing sugar concentration decreased the precipitation of tannin and protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (PPP). The use of a hydrogen bond disruptor (urea) to reduce protein-tannin and protein-pigment complex formation showed that the effect of sugar concentration occurred by increasing the solubility of the tannin-protein complex, not by interfering with protein-tannin complex formation. By increasing the solubility of pigment-protein complexes, non-protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (nPPP) appeared to increase. There was also an increase in total polymeric pigments at each tannin concentration with increasing glucose and sucrose concentration, indicating that sugar concentration might also affect bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments. While a significant effect of sugar concentration on tannin-protein complex solubility was observed, these effects were greatest at sugar concentrations far in excess of normal wine making conditions. Under normal wine making conditions, sugar concentration will have a negligible effect on protein-precipitable tannin, PPP and nPPP concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vasopressin as a target for antidepressant development: an assessment of the available evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scott, Lucinda V

    2012-02-03

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the key biological abnormalities described in major depressive disorder, occurring in 30-50% of depressed subjects. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) are the main regulators of this stress system, with the two neuropeptides acting synergistically in bringing about adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release from the anterior pituitary and cortisol from the adrenal gland. Based on the demonstration of elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of CRH in depressives, and other evidence, it has been postulated that excess CRH and the resultant increased HPA forward drive form the basis of neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression. However, there is an accumulating body of evidence to support a significant role for AVP in the regulation of pituitary-adrenal activity in health and also in depressive disorder. This review, based on a Medline search from 1980 to 2001, focuses on the functional neuroanatomy, receptor pharmacology, VP synergism with CRH, and the data from clinical and pre-clinical studies that support an important role for AVP in the pathophysiology of major depression. We suggest that future antidepressants may target the vasopressinergic system.

  16. The effect of acute heat exposure on rat pituitary corticotroph activation: the role of vasopressin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Jasnic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased ambient temperature affects the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Since thecorrelation among vasopressin (VP, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT responses to variousstressors have been long recognized, the aim of this study was to reveal the aforementioned hormones production andmorphology of the pituitary gland after exposure to acute heat. Rats were exposed to high ambient temperature (38°C for20 or 60 minutes. The circulating hormones were determined by an ELISA test or chemiluminescence's method. The resultsobtained show the elevation in ACTH and CORT secretion depending on the duration of heat exposure. The VP concentrationincreased only after prolonged exposure to heat (60 min. The pituitary morphology was examined by routine and fluorescentimmunohistochemistry as well as electron microscopy. Observed changes in the anterior and posterior pituitarywell corresponded to circulating hormones, regarding the volume density of ACTH-immunopositive cells, percentage ofACTH immunopositive area v. total area and number of VP-immunopositive containing varicose fibers per total area. Acuteheat exposure also induced changes in shapes of ACTH-immunopositive cells. Cells appeared stellate with numerous slendercytoplasmic processes and degranulated, which is the most obvious after 20 min. In addition, immunopositivity ofendothelial and anterior pituitary cells for VP suggests its influence on ACTH secretion.

  17. Oxytocin and vasopressin flatten dominance hierarchy and enhance behavioral synchrony in part via anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaoguang; Platt, Michael L

    2018-05-29

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) influence social functions in many mammals. In humans and rhesus macaques, OT delivered intranasally can promote prosocial behavior in certain contexts. Yet the precise neural mechanisms mediating these behavioral effects remain unclear. Here we show that treating a group of male macaque monkeys intranasally with aerosolized OT relaxes their spontaneous social interactions with other monkeys. OT reduces differences in social behavior between dominant and subordinate monkeys, thereby flattening the status hierarchy. OT also increases behavioral synchrony within a pair. Intranasal delivery of aerosolized AVP reproduces the effects of OT with greater efficacy. Remarkably, all behavioral effects are replicated when OT or AVP is injected focally into the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACCg), a brain area linked to empathy and other-regarding behavior. ACCg lacks OT receptors but is rich in AVP receptors, suggesting exogenous OT may shape social behavior, in part, via nonspecific binding. Notably, OT and AVP alter behaviors of both the treated monkey and his untreated partner, consistent with enhanced feedback through reciprocal social interactions. These findings bear important implications for use of OT in both basic research and as a therapy for social impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  18. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Alexander J.; McCarthy, Megan; Bridges, Robert S.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP) as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3) and mid (day 10) lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing). AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress. PMID:24349762

  19. Effect of naftopidil on brain noradrenaline-induced decrease in arginine-vasopressin secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamamoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Naftopidil, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, has been shown to inhibit nocturnal polyuria in patients with lower urinary tract symptom. However, it remains unclear how naftopidil decreases nocturnal urine production. Here, we investigated the effects of naftopidil on arginine-vasopressin (AVP plasma level and urine production and osmolality in rats centrally administered with noradrenaline (NA. NA (3 or 30 μg/kg was administered into the left ventricle (i.c.v. of male Wistar rats 3 h after naftopidil pretreatment (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.. Blood samples were collected from the inferior vena cava 1 h after NA administration or 4 h after peritoneal administration of naftopidil; plasma levels of AVP were assessed by ELISA. Voiding behaviors of naftopidil (30 mg/kg, i.p.-administered male Wistar rats were observed during separate light- and dark cycles. Administration of NA decreased plasma AVP levels and elevated urine volume, which were suppressed by systemic pretreatment with naftopidil (30 mg/kg, i.p.. Urine osmolality decreased 1 h after NA administration. However, naftopidil by itself had no effect on plasma AVP levels or urodynamic parameters during light- and dark cycles. Our findings suggest that systemic administration of naftopidil could prevent central noradrenergic nervous system-mediated decline in AVP secretion and increase in urine production in rats.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophysis by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R [Deutsche Hochschule fuer Koerperkultur, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Forschungsinstitut Koerperkultur und Sport

    1981-12-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) were measured simultaneously in the same sample by specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs). The antibodies used did not cross-react to a variety of analogs and related peptides. The extraction procedure using Vycor glass powder resulted in mean recoveries of 84.4% (AVP) and 64.6% (OXT). In both assays, the sensitivity was 1 to 2 pg/ml plasma. A preincubation procedure that depresses plasma levels of both AVP and OXT selectively, provided specific blank values for a given plasma sample. To confirm the validity of the RIAs, dehydration experiments were performed. In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2,63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation. Relationships are presented between both neurohormones in the plasma and neurohypophyses of control and dehydrated animals. As shown in cows, a significant correlation exists between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality but not between plasma OXT and osmolality or plasma AVP and OXT. Basal levels as well as physiological changes in plasma and neurohypophyseal AVP and OXT can be measured by the RIAs described.

  1. The relationship of radioimmunoassay to bioassay: In vitro studies with synthetic lysine vasopressin in aqueous solution inactivated by heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeve Lemboel, H.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship of radioimmunoassay to pressor assay and antidiuretic assay was investigated in a simple in vitro system of synthetic lysine vasopressin in aqueous solution inactivated by heating at 100 deg C for 9, 18, 27, 36, 54 and 72 h. An apparent dissociation between radioimmunoassay and bioassay was demonstrated, with biological activity being lost more rapidly than immunological activity. The half-times were 32 h for radioimmunoassay, 23 h for antidiuretic assay and 22 h for pressor assay. However, ion-exchange chromatography showed immunological heterogeneity but biological homogeneity of the lysine vasopressin used, and indicated that the presence of impurities in the vasopressin might to some extent explain the discrepancy between assay results. Synthetic arginine vasopressin and arginine vasopressin of pituitary origin showed a similar immunological heterogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography. (author)

  2. Radioimmunoassay of plasma vasopressin. Technique and applicaton to some clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, Francoise.

    1978-01-01

    The object of this work was to develop a sensitive and reliable radioimmunological determination of plasma vasopressin for routine use. Part one is devoted to an outline of the physiological aspects of antidiuretic hormone with emphasis on the vasopressin regulation and secretion mechanisms, especially osmotic regulation. Part two describes our analysis technique by successive stages and gives, for each point considered, a comparative review of the methods described in the literature. Part three reports our results obtained on normal subjects during dehydration tests and in some pathological cases. Our radioimmunoassay is similar to that of Robertson. In 2 observations of diabetes insipidus no detectable amount of vasopressin was measured in contradiction with the results obtained by most authors. On the whole our purpose has been fulfilled. However this work contains inadequacies which are underlined and will have to be corrected in later studies [fr

  3. Cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes urinary bladder activity by plasma vasopressin release in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchio, Eduardo M; da Silva, Luiz A; Auresco, Luciana C; Ogihara, Cristiana A; Almeida, Roberto L; Giannocco, Gisele; Luz, Maria C B; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Sato, Monica A

    2016-04-05

    The central control of the micturition is dependent on cortical areas and other ascending and descending pathways in the brain stem. The descendent pathways from the pons to the urinary bladder (UB) can be direct or indirect through medullary neurons (MN). Chemical stimulation with l-glutamate of MN known for their involvement in cardiovascular regulation evokes changes in pelvic nerves activities, which innervate the urinary bladder. Different neurotransmitters have been found in medullary areas; nevertheless, their involvement in UB control is few understood. We focused to investigate if cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes the urinary bladder activity. Carbachol (cholinergic agonist) or atropine (cholinergic antagonist) was injected into the 4thV in anesthetized female Wistar rats and the intravesical pressure (IP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal conductance (RC) were recorded for 30 min. Carbachol injection into the 4thV increased IP with peak response at 30 min after carbachol and yielded no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Atropine injection into the 4thV decreased IP and elicited no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Plasma vasopressin levels evaluated by ELISA kit assay increased after carbachol into the 4th V. Intravenous blockade of V1 receptors prior to carbachol into the 4thV abolished the increase in IP evoked by carbachol. Therefore, our findings suggest that cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata by carbachol injections into the 4thV increases IP due to plasma vasopressin release, which acts in V1 receptors in the UB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. River chloride trends in snow-affected urban watersheds: increasing concentrations outpace urban growth rate and are common among all seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; De Cicco, Laura A; Lutz, Michelle A; Hirsch, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    Chloride concentrations in northern U.S. included in this study have increased substantially over time with average concentrations approximately doubling from 1990 to 2011, outpacing the rate of urbanization in the northern U.S. Historical data were examined for 30 monitoring sites on 19 streams that had chloride concentration and flow records of 18 to 49 years. Chloride concentrations in most studied streams increased in all seasons (13 of 19 in all seasons; 16 of 19 during winter); maximum concentrations occurred during winter. Increasing concentrations during non-deicing periods suggest that chloride was stored in hydrologic reservoirs, such as the shallow groundwater system, during the winter and slowly released in baseflow throughout the year. Streamflow dependency was also observed with chloride concentrations increasing as streamflow decreased, a result of dilution during rainfall- and snowmelt-induced high-flow periods. The influence of chloride on aquatic life increased with time; 29% of sites studied exceeded the concentration for the USEPA chronic water quality criteria of 230 mg/L by an average of more than 100 individual days per year during 2006-2011. The rapid rate of chloride concentration increase in these streams is likely due to a combination of possible increased road salt application rates, increased baseline concentrations, and greater snowfall in the Midwestern U.S. during the latter portion of the study period. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Concentrations of viable oil-degrading microorganisms are increased in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in petroleum oil dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-09-15

    Zooplankton are suggested to be biotic contributors to the transport and weathering of oil in marine environments due to their ingestion of oil. In the present experiment, feeding activity and microbial communities in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in oil dispersions were characterized. Feeding activity was significantly reduced in oil dispersions. The microbial communities in clean and oil-containing copepod feces were dominated by Rhodobacteraceae family bacteria (Lesingera, Phaeobacter, Rugeria, and Sulfitobacter), which were suggested to be indigenous to copepod feces. The results also indicated that these bacteria were metabolizing oil compounds, as a significant increase in the concentrations of viable oil degrading microorganisms was observed in oil-containing feces. This study shows that bacteria in feces from copepods feeding in dilute oil dispersions have capacity for degradation of oil. Zooplankton may therefore contribute to weathering of oil by excreting feces with microbial communities already adapted to degradation of oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute hyperinsulinemia is followed by increased serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian; Nybo, Mads; Vind, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Background. Phosphate homeostasis is connected to glucose metabolism and is influenced by insulin, but the role of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is unknown in this relation. Therefore, the levels of FGF23 and phosphate were investigated during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in healthy...... and type 2 diabetic individuals. Methods. The study population consisted of ten type 2 diabetic patients, ten weight-matched glucose-tolerant obese subjects, and ten healthy lean subjects. All subjects underwent a 4-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp using physiological hyperinsulinemia (40 mU/min per m(2...... the groups. Conclusions. Physiological hyperinsulinemia is under euglycemic conditions followed by a significant increase in serum FGF23 concentrations in diabetic individuals, which correlated with change in insulin level. The interplay between insulin effects and FGF23 may be important...

  7. Mice lacking melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 demonstrate increased heart rate associated with altered autonomic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrand, Annika; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Larsdotter, Sara; Mahlapuu, Margit; Andersén, Harriet; Tornell, Jan; Ohlsson, Claes; Snaith, Mike; Morgan, David G A

    2004-10-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) plays an important role in energy balance. The current studies were carried out on a new line of mice lacking the rodent MCH receptor (MCHR1(-/-) mice). These mice confirmed the previously reported lean phenotype characterized by increased energy expenditure and modestly increased caloric intake. Because MCH is expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area, which also has an important role in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, heart rate and blood pressure were measured by a telemetric method to investigate whether the increased energy expenditure in these mice might be due to altered autonomic nervous system activity. Male MCHR1(-/-) mice demonstrated a significantly increased heart rate [24-h period: wild type 495 +/- 4 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 561 +/- 8 beats/min (P dark phase: wild type 506 +/- 8 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 582 +/- 9 beats/min (P light phase: wild type 484 +/- 13 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 539 +/- 9 beats/min (P vs. MCHR1(-/-) 113 +/- 0.4 mmHg (P > 0.05)]. Locomotor activity and core body temperature were higher in the MCHR1(-/-) mice during the dark phase only and thus temporally dissociated from heart rate differences. On fasting, wild-type animals rapidly downregulated body temperature and heart rate. MCHR1(-/-) mice displayed a distinct delay in the onset of this downregulation. To investigate the mechanism underlying these differences, autonomic blockade experiments were carried out. Administration of the adrenergic antagonist metoprolol completely reversed the tachycardia seen in MCHR1(-/-) mice, suggesting an increased sympathetic tone.

  8. Modeling the response of forest isoprene emissions to future increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration and changes in climate (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, R. K.; Heald, C. L.; Guenther, A. B.; Wilkinson, M.

    2009-12-01

    Isoprene emissions from plants to the atmosphere are sensitive to changes in temperature, light and atmospheric CO2 concentration in both the short- (seconds-to-minutes) and long-term (hours-to-months). We now understand that the different time constants for these responses are due to controls by different sets of biochemical and physiological processes n leaves. Progress has been made in the past few years toward converting this process-level understanding into quantitative models. In this talk, we consider this progress with special emphasis on the short- and long-term responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. A new biochemically-based model is presented for describing the CO2 responses, and the model is deployed in a global context to predict interactions between the influences of temperature and CO2 on the global isoprene emission rate. The model is based on the theory of enzyme-substrate kinetics, particularly with regard to those reactions that produce puruvate or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, the two chloroplastic substrates for isoprene biosynthesis. In the global model, when we accounted for CO2 inhibition of isoprene emission in the long-term response, we observed little impact on present-day global isoprene emission (increase from 508 to 523 Tg C yr-1). However, the large increases in future isoprene emissions predicted from past models which are due to a projected warmer climate, were entirely offset by including the CO2 effects. The isoprene emission response to CO2 was dominated by the long-term growth environment effect, with modulations of 10% or less from the short-term effect. We use this analysis as a framework for grounding future global models of isoprene emission in biochemical and physiological observations.

  9. Restoration of peripheral V2 receptor vasopressin signaling fails to correct behavioral changes in Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázsfi, Diána; Pintér, Ottó; Klausz, Barbara; Kovács, Krisztina B; Fodor, Anna; Török, Bibiána; Engelmann, Mario; Zelena, Dóra

    2015-01-01

    Beside its hormonal function in salt and water homeostasis, vasopressin released into distinct brain areas plays a crucial role in stress-related behavior resulting in the enhancement of an anxious/depressive-like state. We aimed to investigate whether correction of the peripheral symptoms of congenital absence of AVP also corrects the behavioral alterations in AVP-deficient Brattleboro rats. Wild type (WT) and vasopressin-deficient (KO) male Brattleboro rats were tested. Half of the KO animals were treated by desmopressin (V2-receptor agonist) via osmotic minipump (subcutaneous) to eliminate the peripheral symptoms of vasopressin-deficiency. Anxiety was studied by elevated plus maze (EPM), defensive withdrawal (DW) and marble burying (MB) tests, while depressive-like changes were monitored in forced swimming (FS) and anhedonia by sucrose preference test. Cell activity was examined in septum and amygdala by c-Fos immunohistochemistry after 10 min FS. KO rats spent more time in the open arm of the EPM, spent less time at the periphery of DW and showed less burying behavior in MB suggesting a reduced anxiety state. KO animals showed less floating behavior during FS revealing a less depressive phenotype. Desmopressin treatment compensated the peripheral effects of vasopressin-deficiency without a significant influence on the behavior. The FS-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the medial amygdala was different in WT and KO rats, with almost identical levels in KO and desmopressin treated animals. There were no differences in central and basolateral amygdala as well as in lateral septum. Our data confirmed the role of vasopressin in the development of affective disorders through central mechanisms. The involvement of the medial amygdala in the behavioral alterations of vasopressin deficient animals deserves further attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural injury after use of vasopressin and adrenaline during porcine cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Peter; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Basu, Samar; Wiklund, Lars

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to investigate cerebral and cardiac tissue injury subsequent to use of vasopressin and adrenaline in combination compared with vasopressin alone during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In a randomized, prospective, laboratory animal study 28 anesthetized piglets were subject to a 12-min untreated cardiac arrest and subsequent CPR. After 1 min of CPR, 10 of the piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg(8)-vasopressin (V group), and 10 piglets received 0.4 U/kg of arg(8)-vasopressin, 1 min later followed by 20 µg/kg body weight of adrenaline, and another 1 min later continuous administration (10 µg/kg/min) of adrenaline (VA group). After 8 min of CPR, the piglets were defibrillated and monitored for another 3 h. Then they were killed and the brain immediately removed pending histological analysis. During CPR, the VA group had higher mean blood pressure and cerebral cortical blood flow (CCBF) but similar coronary perfusion pressure. After restoration of spontaneous circulation there was no difference in the pressure variables, but CCBF tended to be (36% ± 16%) higher in the V group. Neuronal injury and signs of a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) were greater, 20% ± 4% and 21% ± 4%, respectively, in the VA group. In a background study of repeated single doses of adrenaline every third minute after 5 min arrest but otherwise the same protocol, histological measurements showed even worse neural injury and disruption of the BBB. Combined use of vasopressin and adrenaline caused greater signs of cerebral and cardiac injury than use of vasopressin alone during experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  11. Domain structure of human complement C4b extends with increasing NaCl concentration: implications for its regulatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ka Wai; Wright, David W; Gor, Jayesh; Swann, Marcus J; Perkins, Stephen J

    2016-12-01

    During the activation of complement C4 to C4b, the exposure of its thioester domain (TED) is crucial for the attachment of C4b to activator surfaces. In the C4b crystal structure, TED forms an Arg 104 -Glu 1032 salt bridge to tether its neighbouring macroglobulin (MG1) domain. Here, we examined the C4b domain structure to test whether this salt bridge affects its conformation. Dual polarisation interferometry of C4b immobilised at a sensor surface showed that the maximum thickness of C4b increased by 0.46 nm with an increase in NaCl concentration from 50 to 175 mM NaCl. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that the sedimentation coefficient s 20,w of monomeric C4b of 8.41 S in 50 mM NaCl buffer decreased to 7.98 S in 137 mM NaCl buffer, indicating that C4b became more extended. Small angle X-ray scattering reported similar R G values of 4.89-4.90 nm for C4b in 137-250 mM NaCl. Atomistic scattering modelling of the C4b conformation showed that TED and the MG1 domain were separated by 4.7 nm in 137-250 mM NaCl and this is greater than that of 4.0 nm in the C4b crystal structure. Our data reveal that in low NaCl concentrations, both at surfaces and in solution, C4b forms compact TED-MG1 structures. In solution, physiologically relevant NaCl concentrations lead to the separation of the TED and MG1 domain, making C4b less capable of binding to its complement regulators. These conformational changes are similar to those seen previously for complement C3b, confirming the importance of this salt bridge for regulating both C4b and C3b. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Central vasopressin V1a receptors modulate neural processing in mothers facing intruder threat to pups

    OpenAIRE

    Caffrey, Martha K.; Nephew, Benjamin C.; Febo, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Vasopressin V1a receptors in the rat brain have been studied for their role in modulating aggression and anxiety. In the current study blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI was used to test whether V1a receptors modulate neural processing in the maternal brain when dams are exposed to a male intruder. Primiparous females were given an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of vehicle or V1a receptor antagonist ([deamino-Pen1, O-Me-Try, Arg8]-Vasopressin, 125 ng/10 μL) 90-120 min...

  13. ASD and genetic associations with receptors for oxytocin and vasopressin – AVPR1A, AVPR1B, and OXTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday M Francis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are limited treatments available for autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Studies have reported significant associations between the receptor genes of oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP and ASD diagnosis, as well as, ASD-related phenotypes. Researchers have also found the manipulation of these systems affect social and repetitive behaviors, core characteristics of ASD. Consequently, research involving the oxytocin/vasopressin pathways as intervention targets has increased. Therefore, further examination into the relationship between these neuropeptides and ASD was undertaken. In this study, we examined associations between variants in the receptor genes of vasopressin (AVPR1A, AVPR1B, oxytocin (OXTR and ASD diagnosis along with related subphenotypes.Methods: Probands were assessed using Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and clinical DSM-IV-TR criteria. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in AVPR1B and OXTR, and microsatellites in AVPR1A were genotyped in ~200 families with a proband with ASD. Family-based association testing (FBAT was utilized to determine associations between variants and ASD. Haplotypes composed of OXTR SNPs (i.e. rs53576-rs2254298-rs2268493 were also analyzed due to previously published associations.Results: Using the additive inheritance model in FBAT we found associations between AVPR1B SNPs (rs28632197, p=0.005, rs35369693, p=0.025 and diagnosis. As in other studies, OXTR rs2268493 (p=0.050 was associated with diagnosis. rs2268493 was also associated with ASD subphenotypes of social withdrawal (p=0.013 and insistence on sameness (p=0.039. Further analyses demonstrated that the haplotype, rs2254298-rs2268493 was found to be significantly associated with diagnosis (A-T; p=0.026. FBAT was also used to analyze AVPR1A microsatellites (RS1 and RS3. Both length variants were found to be associated with restrictive, repetitive behaviors, but not overall diagnosis. Correction

  14. ASD and Genetic Associations with Receptors for Oxytocin and Vasopressin-AVPR1A, AVPR1B, and OXTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sunday M; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Guter, Stephen; Cook, Edwin H; Jacob, Suma

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are limited treatments available for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have reported significant associations between the receptor genes of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) and ASD diagnosis, as well as ASD-related phenotypes. Researchers have also found the manipulation of these systems affects social and repetitive behaviors, core characteristics of ASD. Consequently, research involving the oxytocin/vasopressin pathways as intervention targets has increased. Therefore, further examination into the relationship between these neuropeptides and ASD was undertaken. In this study, we examined associations between variants in the receptor genes of vasopressin ( AVPR1A, AVPR1B ), oxytocin ( OXTR ), and ASD diagnosis along with related subphenotypes. Methods: Probands were assessed using Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and clinical DSM-IV-TR criteria. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AVPR1B and OXTR , and microsatellites in AVPR1A were genotyped in ~200 families with a proband with ASD. Family-based association testing (FBAT) was utilized to determine associations between variants and ASD. Haplotypes composed of OXTR SNPs (i.e., rs53576-rs2254298-rs2268493) were also analyzed due to previously published associations. Results: Using the additive inheritance model in FBAT we found associations between AVPR1B SNPs (rs28632197, p = 0.005, rs35369693, p = 0.025) and diagnosis. As in other studies, OXTR rs2268493 ( p = 0.050) was associated with diagnosis. rs2268493 was also associated with ASD subphenotypes of social withdrawal ( p = 0.013) and Insistence on Sameness ( p = 0.039). Further analyses demonstrated that the haplotype, rs2254298-rs2268493 was found to be significantly associated with diagnosis (A-T; p = 0.026). FBAT was also used to analyze AVPR1A microsatellites (RS1 and RS3). Both length variants were found to be associated with restrictive, repetitive behaviors, but not overall

  15. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  16. Mechanisms of nitric-oxide-induced increase of free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamotte, Olivier; Courtois, Cécile; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Besson, Angélique; Pugin, Alain; Wendehenne, David

    2006-04-15

    In this study, we investigated a role for nitric oxide (NO) in mediating the elevation of the free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) in plants using Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells expressing the Ca(2+) reporter apoaequorin. Hyperosmotic stress induced a fast increase of [Ca(2+)](cyt) which was strongly reduced by pretreating cell suspensions with the NO scavenger carboxy PTIO, indicating that NO mediates [Ca(2+)](cyt) changes in plant cells challenged by abiotic stress. Accordingly, treatment of transgenic N. plumbaginifolia cells with the NO donor diethylamine NONOate was followed by a transient increase of [Ca(2+)](cyt) sensitive to plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel inhibitors and antagonist of cyclic ADP ribose. We provided evidence that NO might activate plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels by inducing a rapid and transient plasma membrane depolarization. Furthermore, NO-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)](cyt) was suppressed by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine, suggesting that NO enhances [Ca(2+)](cyt) by promoting phosphorylation-dependent events. This result was further supported by the demonstration that the NO donor induced the activation of a 42-kDa protein kinase which belongs to SnRK2 families and corresponds to Nicotiana tabacum osmotic-stress-activated protein kinase (NtOSAK). Interestingly, NtOSAK was activated in response to hyperosmotic stress through a NO-dependent process, supporting the hypothesis that NO also promotes protein kinase activation during physiological processes.

  17. Impaired free water excretion in child C cirrhosis and ascites: relations to distal tubular function and the vasopressin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Møller, Søren; Pedersen, Erling B

    2010-01-01

    were studied during a 400 ml/h oral water load. Results: Child C patients had a lower baseline glomerular filtration rate (32 vs 63 ml/min, Pwater clearance () did not differ (-0......: In Child C cirrhosis, ascites and mild hyponatraemia, there is an impaired ability to excrete solute-free water. The patients are characterised by a low glomerular filtration rate, a low distal tubular flow and an inability to increase free water clearance during water loading. This may be related......Abstract Background: Water retention in advanced cirrhosis and ascites may involve disturbances in renal distal tubular function and in the vasopressin system. Methods: Twelve patients with Child B cirrhosis and ascites were compared with 11 patients with Child C cirrhosis and ascites. The subjects...

  18. Bauhinia bauhinioides cruzipain inhibitor reduces endothelial proliferation and induces an increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Mehmet; Neuhof, Christiane; Doerr, Oliver; Benscheid, Utz; Andrade, Sheila S; Most, Astrid; Abdallah, Yaser; Parahuleva, Mariana; Guenduez, Dursun; Oliva, Maria L; Erdogan, Ali

    2010-12-01

    Proteinase inhibitors, isolated from different types of Bauhinia, have an effect on apoptosis, angiogenesis and inflammation. The Bauhinia bauhinioides cruzipain inhibitor (BbCI) is a Kunitz-type inhibitor and inactivates the cysteine proteinases cruzipain and cruzain from Trypanosoma cruzi. Cruzipain and tissue kallikrein have similar biochemical properties, e.g. the proteolytic cleavage of the kininogen precursor of lys-bradykinin. Tissue kallikrein stimulation in endothelial cells causes migration and capillary tube formation. The aim of this study was to examine whether the antiproliferative effect of BbCI is dependent on changes of the intracellular calcium concentration and membrane hyperpolarization. Endothelial cells were isolated from human umbilical cord veins (HUVEC). For proliferation experiments, HUVEC were incubated with BbCI (10-100 μmol/L) for 48 h. The proliferation was detected by cell counting with a Neubauer chamber. The effect of BbCI (10-100 μM) on the membrane potential was measured with the fluorescence dye DiBAC4(3) and the effect on [Ca+2]i with the fluorescence probe Fluo-3 AM. The change of the fluorescence intensity was determined with a GENios plate reader (Tecan). The experiments showed that BbCI (10-100 μmol/L) reduces the endothelial cell proliferation significantly in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum effect at 100 μmol/L (35.1±1.8% as compared to control (p≤0.05; n=45)). As compared to the control, the addition of BbCI (100 μmol/L) caused a significant increase of systolic Ca2+ of 28.4±5.0% after 30 min incubation. HUVEC treatment with BbCI (100 μmol/L) showed a weak but significant decrease of the membrane potential of 9.5±0.9% as compared to control (p≤0.05; n=80). BbCI influenced significantly the endothelial proliferation, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and the membrane potential.

  19. Mindfulness training attenuates the increase in salivary cortisol concentration associated with competition in highly trained wheelchair-basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Luke A; Minahan, Clare L

    2018-02-01

    This study determined the effect of 8 wk of mindfulness training (MT) on salivary cortisol (sCort) and rate of salivary Immunoglobulin-A (sIgA) secretion in wheelchair-basketball players during a competition period. The mindful group completed 8 weeks of MT in addition to training and competition. sCort and rate of sIgA secretion were measured at baseline, at 2-week intervals, the end and 2 weeks following the intervention. A significant time and group interaction was observed for sCort (F = 3.297, P = 0.040, ES = 0.191); sCort increased in the control group from MT-BL to MT-2wk (P = 0.001) and remained significantly elevated at MT-4wk (P = 0.013) and MT-6wk (P = 0.002). sCort decreased from MT-6wk to MT-8wk (P  0.05). Mindful group sCort increased from MT-BL to MT-2wk (P = 0.042) but decreased to concentrations no different to MT-BL for the rest of the intervention period (P > 0.05). There were no group differences in rate of sIgA secretion during the intervention (P = 0.810). It was concluded that 8 weeks of MT attenuated the increase in sCort associated with the competition period.

  20. Oxytocin and vasopressin are dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a genetic disorder affecting social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS, a condition caused by deletion of ~28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music, and a negative physical stressor (cold. We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior.

  1. Dietary exposure to the PCB mixture aroclor 1254 may compromise osmoregulation by altering central vasopressin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coburn, C G [Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States); Gillard, E; Curras-Collazo, M [Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Despite the importance of systemic osmoregulation, the potential deleterious effects of persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on body fluid regulation has not been thoroughly investigated. In an effort to ameliorate this deficit, the current study explores the toxic effects of PCBs on osmoregulation, and in particular, on the activity of the magnocellular neuroendocrine cell (MNC) system of the hypothalamus. MNCs of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) release oxytocin (OXY) and vasopressin (VP) from terminals in the neurohypophysis in response to dehydration. The latter is released to effect water conservation in response to dehydration via its action upon the kidney and through extra-renal actions. MNCs also secrete VP from their cell bodies and dendrites locally i.e., into the extracellular space of the SON. Although it has been shown that both intranuclear and systemic release rise in response to dehydration the physiological significance of intranuclear release has not been fully elucidated. We chose to use voluntary ingestion as the route of PCB exposure since it is more reflective of natural exposure compared to ip injection. One unexpected observation that resulted from pilot studies using ip injection of PCBs was the deleterious effects of the vehicle (corn oil) resulting in pooling of lipid within the abdominal cavity, mottling of the liver, fatty liver and general discoloration of all abdominal viscera at time of sacrifice. Therefore, all work described in this series of experiments have employed voluntary ingestion of the toxin. Work described in this paper suggests that PCBs in concentrations reflecting realistic lifetime exposure levels may negatively impact homeostatic mechanisms responsible for body water balance by altering somatodendritic (intranuclear) VP secretion in response to dehydration in vivo. The downstream consequences of such influence is currently under investigation, and preliminary evidence suggests that the

  2. Sex differences in associations of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin with resting-state functional brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Yao, Li; Keedy, Sarah K; Reilly, James L; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Carter, C Sue; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Drogos, Lauren L; Tamminga, Carol A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Clementz, Brett A; Hill, Scot K; Liao, Wei; Ji, Gong-Jun; Lui, Su; Sweeney, John A

    2017-01-02

    Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) exert robust and sexually dimorphic influences on cognition and emotion. How these hormones regulate relevant functional brain systems is not well understood. OT and AVP serum concentrations were assayed in 60 healthy individuals (36 women). Brain functional networks assessed with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were constructed with graph theory-based approaches that characterize brain networks as connected nodes. Sex differences were demonstrated in rs-fMRI. Men showed higher nodal degree (connectedness) and efficiency (information propagation capacity) in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) and higher nodal degree in left rolandic operculum. Women showed higher nodal betweenness (being part of paths between nodes) in right putamen and left inferior parietal gyrus (IPG). Higher hormone levels were associated with less intrinsic connectivity. In men, higher AVP was associated with lower nodal degree and efficiency in left IFG (pars orbitalis) and left STG and less efficiency in left IFG (pars triangularis). In women, higher AVP was associated with lower betweenness in left IPG, and higher OT was associated with lower nodal degree in left IFG (pars orbitalis). Hormones differentially correlate with brain networks that are important for emotion processing and cognition in men and women. AVP in men and OT in women may regulate orbital frontal cortex connectivity, which is important in emotion processing. Hormone associations with STG and pars triangularis in men and parietal cortex in women may account for well-established sex differences in verbal and visuospatial abilities, respectively. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Slow Dynamics of Intracellular Sodium Concentration Increase the Time Window of Neuronal Integration: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i are rarely taken into account when neuronal activity is examined. As opposed to Ca2+, [Na+]i dynamics are strongly affected by longitudinal diffusion, and therefore they are governed by the morphological structure of the neurons, in addition to the localization of influx and efflux mechanisms. Here, we examined [Na+]i dynamics and their effects on neuronal computation in three multi-compartmental neuronal models, representing three distinct cell types: accessory olfactory bulb (AOB mitral cells, cortical layer V pyramidal cells, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. We added [Na+]i as a state variable to these models, and allowed it to modulate the Na+ Nernst potential, the Na+-K+ pump current, and the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger rate. Our results indicate that in most cases [Na+]i dynamics are significantly slower than [Ca2+]i dynamics, and thus may exert a prolonged influence on neuronal computation in a neuronal type specific manner. We show that [Na+]i dynamics affect neuronal activity via three main processes: reduction of EPSP amplitude in repeatedly active synapses due to reduction of the Na+ Nernst potential; activity-dependent hyperpolarization due to increased activity of the Na+-K+ pump; specific tagging of active synapses by extended Ca2+ elevation, intensified by concurrent back-propagating action potentials or complex spikes. Thus, we conclude that [Na+]i dynamics should be considered whenever synaptic plasticity, extensive synaptic input, or bursting activity are examined.

  4. Concentration of phenolic compounds is increased in lettuce grown under high light intensity and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Usue; Sgherri, Cristina; Miranda-Apodaca, Jon; Micaelli, Francesco; Lacuesta, Maite; Mena-Petite, Amaia; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Muñoz-Rueda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The present study was focused on lettuce, a widely consumed leafy vegetable for the large number of healthy phenolic compounds. Two differently-pigmented lettuce cultivars, i.e. an acyanic-green leaf cv. and an anthocyanic-red one, were grown under high light intensity or elevated CO 2 or both in order to evaluate how environmental conditions may affect the production of secondary phenolic metabolites and, thus, lettuce quality. Mild light stress imposed for a short time under ambient or elevated CO 2 concentration increased phenolics compounds as well as antioxidant capacity in both lettuce cvs, indicating how the cultivation practice could enhance the health-promoting benefits of lettuce. The phenolic profile depended on pigmentation and the anthocyanic-red cv. always maintained a higher phenolic amount as well as antioxidant capacity than the acyanic-green one. In particular, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, kaempferol, quercitrin and rutin accumulated under high light or high CO 2 in the anthocyanic-red cv., whereas cyanidin derivatives were responsive to mild light stress, both at ambient and elevated CO 2 . In both cvs total free and conjugated phenolic acids maintained higher values under all altered environmental conditions, whereas luteolin reached significant amounts when both stresses were administered together, indicating, in this last case, that the enzymatic regulation of the flavonoid synthesis could be differently affected, the synthesis of flavones being favored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Increase in serum noradrenaline concentration by short dives with bradycardia in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Miwa; Tomoshige, Mika; Ito, Miki; Koga, Sotaro; Yanagisawa, Makio; Bungo, Takashi; Makiguchi, Yuya

    2017-07-01

    In cetaceans, diving behavior immediately induces a change in blood circulation to favor flow to the brain and heart; this is achieved by intense vasoconstriction of the blood vessels that serve other organs. This blood circulation response is allied to a decrease in heart rate in order to optimize oxygen usage during diving. Vasoconstrictors are present in all mammals and stimulate the contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels. The most important of these vasoconstrictors are the hormones adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), and angiotensin II (ANG II). At present, the contribution of these hormones to vasoconstriction during diving in cetaceans is unclear. To elucidate their possible roles, changes in serum levels of A, NA and ANG II were monitored together with heart rate in the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus during 90 and 180s dives. Both brief diving periods induced an increase in serum NA concentration and a decrease in heart rate; however, no changes were detected in serum levels of A or ANG II. These data indicate that NA may play a role in diving-induced vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity predict PTSD symptom increase after trauma exposure during military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Schönfeld, Sabine; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence on endocrine risk markers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been inconclusive. Here, we report results of the first prospective study to investigate whether long-term hair cortisol levels and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity are predictive of the development of PTSD symptomatology in response to trauma during military deployment. Male soldiers were examined before deployment to Afghanistan and at a 12-month post-deployment follow-up using dimensional measures for psychopathological symptoms. The predictive value of baseline (i) hair cortisol concentrations (HCC, N=90) and (ii) salivary cortisol stress reactivity (measured by the Trier Social Stress Test, N=80) for the development of PTSD symptomatology after being exposed to new-onset traumatic events was analyzed. Baseline cortisol activity significantly predicted PTSD symptom change from baseline to follow-up upon trauma exposure. Specifically, our results consistently revealed that lower HCC and lower cortisol stress reactivity were predictive of a greater increase in PTSD symptomatology in soldiers who had experienced new-onset traumatic events (explaining 5% and 10.3% of variance, respectively). Longitudinal analyses revealed an increase in HCC from baseline to follow-up and a trend for a negative relationship between HCC changes and the number of new-onset traumatic events. Additional pre-deployment analyses revealed that trauma history was reflected in lower HCC (at trend level) and that HCC were negatively related to stressful load. Our data indicate that attenuated cortisol secretion is a risk marker for subsequent development of PTSD symptomatology upon trauma exposure. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Intranasal Vasopressin Administration Impairs Partner Preference in Adult Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton C. Simmons

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder. But, very little is known about the long-term effects of IN-AVP during early development. In this experiment, we explored whether a single week of early juvenile administration of IN-AVP (low = 0.05 IU/kg, medium = 0.5 IU/kg, high = 5.0 IU/kg could impact behavior across life in prairie voles. We found increases in fecal boli production during open field and novel object recognition testing for the medium dose in both males and females. Medium-dose females also had significantly more play bouts than control when exposed to novel conspecifics during the juvenile period. Following sexual maturity, the medium and high doses of IN-AVP blocked partner preference formation in males, while no such impairment was found for any of the experimental groups in females. Finally, the high-dose selectively increased adult male aggression with novel conspecifics, but only after extended cohabitation with a mate. Our findings confirm that a single week of early IN-AVP treatment can have organizational effects on behavior across life in prairie voles. Specifically, the impairments in pair-bonding behavior experienced by male prairie voles should raise caution when the prosocial effects of acute IN-AVP demonstrated in other studies are extrapolated to long-term treatment.

  8. Raffinose Induces Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans in Low Concentrations of Sucrose by Increasing Production of Extracellular DNA and Fructan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Ryo; Sato, Tsutomu; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2017-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries and causes tooth decay by forming a firmly attached biofilm on tooth surfaces. Biofilm formation is induced by the presence of sucrose, which is a substrate for the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides but not in the presence of oligosaccharides. Nonetheless, in this study, we found that raffinose, which is an oligosaccharide with an intestinal regulatory function and antiallergic effect, induced biofilm formation by S. mutans in a mixed culture with sucrose, which was at concentrations less than those required to induce biofilm formation directly. We analyzed the possible mechanism behind the small requirement for sucrose for biofilm formation in the presence of raffinose. Our results suggested that sucrose contributed to an increase in bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation. Next, we examined how the effects of raffinose interacted with the effects of sucrose for biofilm formation. We showed that the presence of raffinose induced fructan synthesis by fructosyltransferase and aggregated extracellular DNA (eDNA, which is probably genomic DNA released from dead cells) into the biofilm. eDNA seemed to be important for biofilm formation, because the degradation of DNA by DNase I resulted in a significant reduction in biofilm formation. When assessing the role of fructan in biofilm formation, we found that fructan enhanced eDNA-dependent cell aggregation. Therefore, our results show that raffinose and sucrose have cooperative effects and that this induction of biofilm formation depends on supportive elements that mainly consist of eDNA and fructan. IMPORTANCE The sucrose-dependent mechanism of biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans has been studied extensively. Nonetheless, the effects of carbohydrates other than sucrose are inadequately understood. Our findings concerning raffinose advance the understanding of the mechanism underlying the joint effects of sucrose and

  9. Diagnostic and Predictive Values of Thirst, Angiotensin II, and Vasopressin During Trauma Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    and plasma AVP and AT2 levels across a broader spectrum of hemorrhagic shock severity may be warranted. The authors wish to thank the medical, nursing ...301. 2. Olsson K. Central control of vasopressin release and thirst. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl. 1983;305:36–9. Pr eh os p E m er g C ar e D ow nl oa

  10. Lateral septal vasopressin in rats : Role in social and object recognition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, H.G J; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The capacity of male rats to remember familiar conspecifics is called social recognition. It is a form of short-term memory modulated by lateral septal (LS) vasopressin (VP). The specificity of this phenomenon was studied by examining whether recognition of previously investigated objects is also

  11. Salivary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels in Police Officers With and Without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijling, J. L.; van Zuiden, M.; Nawijn, L.; Koch, S. B. J.; Neumann, I. D.; Veltman, D. J.; Olff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by symptoms associated with maladaptive fear and stress responses, as well as with social detachment. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) have been associated with both regulating fear and neuroendocrine stress

  12. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Bales, KL; Plotsky, PM; Young, LJ; Lim, MM; Grotte, N; Ferrer, E; Carter, CS

    2007-01-01

    Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we examined the hypothesis that the lon...

  13. Mechanisms of inhibition of vasopressin release during moderate antiorthostatic posture change in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B.; Gabrielsen, A.; Christensen, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused by a posture change from upright seated with legs horizontal (Seat) to supine (Sup) participates in the suppression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. Ten healthy males underwent this posture change for 30 min without...... decreased from 0.9 +/- 0.2 to 0.5 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (P posture...

  14. Hypothalamic vasopressin response to stress and various physiological stimuli: Visualization in transgenic animal models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ueta, Y.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Murphy, D.; Fujihara, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 221-226 ISSN 0018-506X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : vasopressin * green fluorescent protein * red fluorescent protein Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.865, year: 2011

  15. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like immunoreactivity is present in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dierickx, K; Boer, G J

    1982-01-01

    Nerve cells have been found in hydra, which react with antisera to oxytocin, vasopressin and mesotocin. These nerve cells have a high density in the ectoderm of basal disk and tentacles and lower density in the ectoderm of peduncle, gastric region and hypostome. A very small number of nerve cells...

  16. Purification and characterization of the V1 vasopressin receptor from rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, J.B.; Dickey, B.F.; Attisano, C.; Fine, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The rat liver V1 vasopressin receptor was purified approximately 21,000-fold from rat liver microsomes. The receptor was solubilized from membranes using the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate). Since the V1 receptor loses its ability to bind ligand when solubilized, the authors devised a liposome reconstitution system to assay vasopressin binding activity during purification. The purified receptor exhibits a K/sub d/ of 6 nm, when, prior to solubilization, the membranes were exposed to 1 μm vasopressin. This resulted in the association of a pertussis-toxin insensitive guanine-nucleotide binding protein with the receptor during most of the purification procedure. The authors are further characterizing the V1-associated G-proteins. In the absence of this association, the receptor has a K/sub d/ of 30 nM. Crosslinking of 125 I-vasopressin to a partially purified preparation of receptor demonstrated that the receptor had a molecular weight of approximately 68,000 under reducing conditions, and 58,000 under non-reducing conditions. The purification procedure may prove useful in purifying a number of small peptide hormone receptors (e.g., bradykinin, angiotensin II) and perhaps their associated G-proteins as well

  17. Examination of the biological half-life and organ d;stribution of tritiated lysin-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laczi, F.; Laszlo, F.

    1980-01-01

    15 μCi tritiated lysin-vasopressin (spec. act. 3.5 Ci per mmol) was administered to control and Brattleboro rats, suffering from hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus. The biological half-life and the distribution of the labelled compound in the different organs were determined. The biological half-life demonstrated no significant difference, however, the vasopressin content of the small intestine was higher in the Brattleboro rats. In the other organs no significant difference was found. It can be concluded that the hereditary diabetes insipidus is not due to faster elimination of circulating vasopressin. (L.E.)

  18. [Influence of preventive use of vasopressin tannate on diabetes insipidus and serum sodium at the early postoperation of craniopharyngioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Wanggou, Siyi; Li, Xuejun; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Xingjun; Peng, Zefeng; Yuan, Xianrui

    2016-10-28

    To explore the influence of preventive use of vasopressin tannate on diabetes insipidus and serum sodium at the early postoperation of craniopharyngioma.
 Methods: The data of 83 patients, who underwent unilateral sub-frontal approach resection of craniopharyngioma between 2010 and 2014 by the same senior neurosurgeon, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into a vasopressin tannate group (used group) and a control group. The diabetes insipidus and serum sodium changes were compared between the two groups.
 Results: Compared with the control group, the incidence of diabetes insipidus decreased at the early postoperation in the vasopressin tannate group (Pcraniopharyngioma.

  19. Examination of the biological half-life and organ d; stribution of tritiated lysin-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laczi, F; Laszlo, F [Szegedi Orvostudomanyi Egyetem Szeged (Hungary). 1. Belgyogyaszati Klinika; Keri, Gy; Teplan, I [Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary)

    1980-04-01

    15 ..mu..Ci tritiated lysin-vasopressin (spec. act. 3.5 Ci per mmol) was administered to control and Brattleboro rats, suffering from hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus. The biological half-life and the distribution of the labelled compound in the different organs were determined. The biological half-life demonstrated no significant difference, however, the vasopressin content of the small intestine was higher in the Brattleboro rats. In the other organs no significant difference was found. It can be concluded that the hereditary diabetes insipidus is not due to faster elimination of circulating vasopressin.

  20. ACTHsub(1-24) and lysine vasopressin selectively activate dopamine synthesis in frontal cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delanoy, R L; Kramarcy, N R; Dunn, A J [Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Coll. of Medicine

    1982-01-07

    The accumulation of (/sup 3/H)catecholamines from (/sup 3/H)tyrosine in frontal cortical, septal, striatal and hippocampal slices was examined following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of ACTHsub(1-24), lysine vasopressin (LVP) and saline. Both ACTHsub(1-24) and LVP (1..mu..g) selectively increased the accumulation of (/sup 3/H)dopamine (DA) in frontal cortical slices, but did not affect that of (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine (NE). LVP but not ACTHsub(1-24) also inhibited the accumulation of (/sup 3/H)DA in striatal slices. ACTHsub(1-24) did not alter the accumulation of (/sup 3/H)NE in hippocampal slices, nor did LVP alter the accumulation of either catecholamine (CA) in septal slices. In vitro incubations with ACTH analogs or LVP failed to alter the rate of accumulation of (/sup 3/H)CAs in striatal, substantia nigral and frontal cortical slices, except for an inhibitory effect at high doses. This effect is believed to be an artifact of precursor dilution caused by release of tyrosine following degradation of the peptides. Neither peptide modified the increased (/sup 3/H)CA accumulation stimulated by 26 mM K/sup +/, nor did ACTHsub(1-24) modify the inhibition of (/sup 3/H)CA accumulation caused by 3 X 10/sup -6/ M Haloperidol or 3 X 10/sup -7/ M apomorphine. Selective activation of the mesocortical DA system has also been reported to occur in response to footshock, suggesting the possibility that endogenous ACTH and/or LVP might mediate the stress-induced activation of mesocortical DA synthesis. Alternatively, i.c.v. injections of these peptides may themselves be stressful and thus indirectly elicit the response.

  1. One versus five-days of exposure to varying concentrations of B100 soya biodiesel exhaust reveals a threshold concentration for increased sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although biodiesel (BD) is rapidly being considered as an alternative to diesel fuel, its health effects have not been thoroughly characterized. We previously used the aconitine challenge test to demonstrate that a single exposure to petroleum diesel exhaust (DE) increases the ri...

  2. Resveratrol Increases Serum BDNF Concentrations and Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Contractility via a NOS-3-Independent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wiciński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a polyphenol that presents both antineuroinflammatory properties and the ability to interact with NOS-3, what contributes to vasorelaxation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF, a molecule associated with neuroprotection in many neurodegenerative disorders, is considered as an important element of maintaining stable cerebral blood flow. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs are considered to be an important element in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and a potential preventative target by agents which reduce the contractility of the vessels. Our main objectives were to define the relationship between serum and long-term oral resveratrol administration in the rat model, as well as to assess the effect of resveratrol on phenylephrine- (PHE- induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Moreover, we attempt to define the dependence of contraction mechanisms on endothelial NO synthase. Experiments were performed on Wistar rats (n=17 pretreated with resveratrol (4 weeks; 10 mg/kg p.o. or placebo. Serum BDNF levels were quantified after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with ELISA. Contraction force was measured on isolated and perfused tail arteries as the increase of perfusion pressure with a constant flow. Values of serum BNDF in week 0 were 1.18±0.12 ng/mL (treated and 1.17±0.13 ng/mL (control (p = ns. After 2 weeks of treatment, BDNF in the treatment group was higher than in controls, 1.52±0.23 ng/mL and 1.24±0.13 ng/mL, respectively. (p=0.02 Following 4 weeks of treatment, BDNF values were higher in the resveratrol group compared to control 1.64±0.31 ng/mL and 1.32±0.26 ng/mL, respectively (p=0.031. EC50 values obtained for PHE in resveratrol pretreated arteries were significantly higher than controls (5.33±1.7 × 10−7 M/L versus 4.53±1.2 × 10−8 M/L, p<0.05. These results show a significant increase in BDNF concentration in the resveratrol pretreated group. The reactivity of resistant

  3. No increase in marine microplastic concentration over the last three decades – A case study from the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Sabrina; Garm, Anders; Huwer, Bastian; Dierking, Jan; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: • First long-term study on microplastic in the marine environment • Case study based on a unique sample set from the highly human impacted Baltic Sea • Water column microplastic concentration constant over past three decades • Microplastic concentration in forage fish constant over past three decades • We hypothesise that household waste is the dominant source of Baltic marine plastics. Abstract Microplastic is considered a potential threat to marine life as i...

  4. Plasma Progranulin Concentrations Are Increased in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity and Correlated with Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is considered to be one of the most important pathogenesis of glycolipid metabolism disorders. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for IR is not fully understood. Recently, the chronic inflammation has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of IR. In this study, we aim to investigate the concentrations of plasma progranulin in Chinese patients with obesity (OB and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and its relationship to IR. Plasma progranulin concentrations were significantly higher in the T2DM patients than in the normal glucose tolerant (NGT subjects (. Within the T2DM and the NGT patients, the concentrations of progranulin were significantly higher in obese subjects than that in the normal weight subjects (225.22 ± 34.39 ng/mL versus 195.59 ± 50.47 ng/mL and 183.79 ± 61.63 ng/mL versus 148.69 ± 55.27 ng/mL, . Plasma progranulin concentrations correlated positively with weight, waist circumferences, BMI, HbA1c, TG, IL-6, FINS and HOMA-IR (, while correlated negatively with HOMA-β (. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI, HbA1c, IL-6 and TG correlated independently with circulating progranulin concentrations (. These results suggested that Plasma progranulin concentrations were higher in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity and correlated closely with glycolipid metabolism, chronic inflammation and IR.

  5. Effect of maternal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation on social coping strategies and gene expression of oxytocin and vasopressin in the brain of rat offspring in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Tomáš; Svitok, Pavel; Kršková, Lucia

    2017-10-01

    The intrauterine condition in which the mammalian foetus develops has an important role in prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which activation of the maternal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) could influence social behaviour strategies in offspring via changes in social neurotransmitters in the brain. Pregnant female Wistar rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps which continually released angiotensin II for 14 days at concentration of 2 μg/kg/h. The adult offspring (angiotensin and control groups) underwent a social interaction test. The mRNA expression of vasopressin, oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor in selected brain areas was measured by in situ hybridisation. Prenatal exposure to higher levels of angiotensin II resulted in a strong trend toward decreased total social interaction time and significantly decreased time spent in close proximity and frequency of mutual sniffing. The angiotensin group showed no changes in oxytocin mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular or supraoptic nuclei, but this group had reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the same areas. We concluded that maternal activation of RAAS (via higher levels of angiotensin II) caused inhibition of some socio-cohesive indicators and decreased vasopressinergic activity of offspring. Taken together, these results suggest a reactive rather than proactive social coping strategy.

  6. Should unobstructed gasping be facilitated and confirmed before administering adrenaline, otherwise, give titrated vasopressin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Eric M

    2015-02-01

    A recent commentary, "Resuscitation That's (Un)Shockable: Time to Get the Adrenaline Flowing", published in the New England Journal of Medicine Journal Watch called attention to a relatively recent study showing that a large and increasing percentage of patients with in-hospital cardiac arrests exhibit initial nonshockable rhythms (asystole or pulseless electrical activity [PEA]; 82% in 2009 vs 69% in 2000) and a most recent study that concluded that neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrest was significantly more likely after earlier epinephrine administration. It was found that delayed administration of epinephrine was associated significantly with lower chance for survival to hospital discharge, in stepwise fashion (12%, 10%, 8%, and 7% survival, respectively, for patients receiving their first epinephrine dose≤3, 4-6, 7-9, and >9 minutes after arrest). Although early use of epinephrine to manage patients with nonshockable rhythms lacks strong evidence to support efficacy, focus on time to epinephrine administration-in addition to high-quality chest compressions-might be the best early intervention. However, evidence may strongly support the recommendation that adrenaline needs to be used very early because without effective-depth cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with complete recoil, epinephrine may only be effective when gasping is present, which is a time-limited phenomenon. However, because very few rescuers can perform effective-depth chest compressions with complete recoil, gasping is critically necessary for adequate ventilation and generation of adequate coronary and cerebral perfusion. However, under acidemic conditions and high catecholamine levels and/or absence of gasping, vasopressin should be administered instead. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: a dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, van T.; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine¿the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine¿may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  8. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  9. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations : A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Petra; Van Vliet, Trinette; Olthof, Margreet R.; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  10. The underlying physiological basis of the desert rodent Meriones shawi's survival to prolonged water deprivation: Central vasopressin regulation on peripheral kidney water channels AQPs-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgot, A; El Hiba, O; Belkouch, M; Gamrani, H

    2018-02-01

    Meriones shawi (M. shawi) is a particular semi-desert rodent known by its resistance to long periods of thirst. The aim of the present investigation is to clarify the underlying mechanisms allowing M. shawi to resist to hard conditions of dehydration. For this reason we used two different approaches: i) a morphometric study, which consists in measuring the effect of dehydration on body and kidneys weights as well as the report kidney weight/body weight, ii) By immunohistochemistry, we proceed to study the effect of dehydration on the immunoreactivity of central vasopressin (AVP) and the kidney aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) which is a channel protein that allows water to permeate across cell membranes. Our results showed both a body mass decrease accompanied by a remarkable kidneys hypertrophy. The immunohistochemical study showed a significant increase of AQP-2 immunoreactivity in the medullar part of Meriones kidneys allowing probably to Meriones a great ability to water retention. Consistently, we demonstrate that the increased AQP-2 expression occurred together with an increase in vasopressin (AVP) expression in both hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which are a major hub in the osmotic control circuitry. These various changes seen either in body weight and kidneys or at the cellular level might be the basis of peripheral control of body water homeostasis, providing to M. shawia strong resistance against chronic dehydration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial Transglutaminase Used in Bread Preparation at Standard Bakery Concentrations Does Not Increase Immunodetectable Amounts of Deamidated Gliadin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Andreas; Ohsam, Jürgen; van Genugten, Bernard; Diez, Oscar; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Kumazawa, Yoshiyuki; Pasternack, Ralf; Hils, Martin

    2017-08-16

    The effect of standard bakery concentrations of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) in wheat bread preparation on the immunoreactivity of sera of celiac disease (CD) patients was investigated. Immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific to unmodified and/or deamidated gliadin showed no differences between control bread and MTG bread. Deamidation of gliadin could not be detected at standard MTG concentrations. Sera of CD patients were characterized using anti-gliadin and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and grouped into DGP high- and low-titer pools. The recognition pattern obtained after using both CD sera pools for immunoblotting did not reveal differences between control and MTG-treated bread protein extracts. Our results indicate that MTG treatment of wheat bread prepared with typical MTG concentrations used in standard bakery processes does not lead to immunodetectable amounts of CD immunotoxic deamidated gliadins.

  12. Characterization and localization of 3H-arginine8-vasopressin binding to rat kidney and brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsa, D.M.; Majumdar, L.A.; Petracca, F.M.; Baskin, D.G.; Cornett, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    Anatomic, behavioral and pharmacologic evidence suggests that arginine8-vasopressin (AVP) serves as a CNS neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. AVP binding to membrane and tissue slice preparations from brain and kidney was characterized, and the anatomical distribution of these binding sites was examined. Conditions for the binding assay were optimized using kidney medullary tissue. Binding of 3 H-AVP (S.A. . 30-51 Ci/mmol, NEN) to brain and kidney membranes and tissue slices was saturable, temperature dependent, linearly related to protein concentration (or number of tissue slices), reversible, and specific since the ability of cold AVP to displace 3 H-AVP from binding was greater than oxytocin and other related peptide fragments. Autoradiographic localization of 3 H-AVP binding was restricted to kidney medullary tissue. In brain tissue, 3 H-AVP binding was found to occur in concentrated foci. Brainstem areas such as the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) showed a high density of AVP binding sites. Since local injections of AVP into the NTS have been shown to influence blood pressure, the present study presents the first anatomical evidence for the presence of AVP specific binding sites which might mediate this effect

  13. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: effects of increased carbon input in a Lolium perenne soil on microorganisms and decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van J.H.; Gorissen, A.; Polci, D.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 and 700 μl l-1) on net carbon input into soil, the production of root-derived material and the subsequent microbial transformation were investigated. Perennial ryegrass plants (L. perenne L.) were labelled in a continuously labelled

  14. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to 1 g chlorogenic acid/d. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether

  15. Bread fortified with cholecalciferol increases the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in women as effectively as a cholecalciferol supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natri, A. M.; Salo, P.; Vikstedt, T.

    2006-01-01

    content. In a single-blind bioavailability study, 41 healthy women, 25-45 y old, with mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration 29 nmol/L (range 12-45 nmol/L), were randomly assigned to 4 study groups. Each group consumed fortified wheat bread, fortified rye bread, regular wheat bread (control...

  16. High DMBT1 concentrations in breast milk correlate with increased risk of infection in preterm and term neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronellenfitsch, Sebastian; Weiß, Christel; Frommhold, David

    2012-01-01

    by Western blotting and its concentration was quantified by ELISA in 95 breast milk samples collected from mothers of preterm and term neonates during the first four weeks after delivery. Possible effects of maternal or neonatal parameters were analyzed by different statistical tests. Results: The mean DMBT1...

  17. Purification and Concentration of PCR Products Leads to Increased Signal intensities with Fewer Allelic Drop-Outs and Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria Irlund Pedersen, Line; Stangegaard, Michael; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2011-01-01

    and the quality of the DNA profiles without re-amplification of the sample. We have validated and implemented an automated method to purify and 2-fold concentrate PCR products resulting in allelic peaks with higher intensity (a median height across all loci from 130 to 404 RFU), fewer allelic dropouts...

  18. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  19. Utilization of roughages and concentrates relative to that of milk replacer increases strongly with age in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Mollenhorst, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the feeding values of milk replacer (MR), roughage, and concentrates for veal calves in a paired-gain setting, thus avoiding any prior assumptions in feeding values and major differences in nutrient intakes. One hundred sixty male Holstein-Friesian calves at 2 wk of age and

  20. Plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor are increased in patients with malaria and are associated with a poor clinical or a fatal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Ullum, Henrik; Goka, Bamenla Q

    2005-01-01

    PAR are associated with disease severity in malaria. METHODS: At admission to the hospital, plasma concentrations of suPAR were measured by ELISA in samples from 645 African children with clinical symptoms of malaria: 478 had malaria, and 167 had a blood film negative for Plasmodium parasites. Fourteen healthy......BACKGROUND: Blood concentrations of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are increased in conditions with immune activation, and high concentrations of suPAR often predict a poor clinical outcome. This study explored the hypothesis that high plasma concentrations of su......: If the plasma concentration of suPAR reflects the extent of parasite-induced immune activation, this may explain why a high concentration of suPAR is associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with malaria....

  1. Hair cortisol concentrations exhibit a positive association with salivary cortisol profiles and are increased in obese prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafotiou, Chrysanthe; Christaki, Eirini; van den Akker, Erica L T; Wester, Vincent L; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Pervanidou, Panagiota

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, a key mediator of the stress response, has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations as early as in childhood. Scalp hair cortisol has been proposed as a reliable index of long-term circulating cortisol. We aimed to investigate whether obese prepubertal girls have higher scalp hair cortisol than normal-weight controls and whether hair cortisol levels are correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations in these groups. In this cross-sectional study, 25 obese girls and 25 normal-weighted, age-matched girls were enrolled. Anthropometric evaluation, blood chemistry and salivary cortisol measurements were performed, and body mass index (BMI) and areas under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were calculated. Hair cortisol determination was performed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both hair cortisol concentrations and salivary cortisol AUCs were higher in the obese than the normal-weight girls (p cortisol and BMI Z-score was found (rho = .327, p = .025), while hair cortisol correlated positively with salivary cortisol AUCg (rho = .3, p = .048). We conclude that obese prepubertal girls have higher hair and salivary cortisol concentrations than their age-matched lean counterparts. Hair cortisol assessment seems to be a sensitive method of evaluating systemic cortisol exposure, which is supported by our finding that hair cortisol is associated with salivary concentrations of the hormone. Lay Summary: Cortisol is the key hormone of the stress response. Childhood obesity has been associated with cortisol production dysregulation. Our findings suggest a positive association between obesity in prepubertal girls and elevated cortisol concentrations, measured in saliva and hair.

  2. Increasing efficiency of human mesenchymal stromal cell culture by optimization of microcarrier concentration and design of medium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Chew, Yi Kong; Tan, Hong Yu; Reuveny, Shaul; Weng Oh, Steve Kah

    2015-02-01

    Large amounts of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are needed for clinical cellular therapy. In a previous publication, we described a microcarrier-based process for expansion of MSCs. The present study optimized this process by selecting suitable basal media, microcarrier concentration and feeding regime to achieve higher cell yields and more efficient medium utilization. MSCs were expanded in stirred cultures on Cytodex 3 microcarriers with media containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Process optimization was carried out in spinner flasks. A 2-L bioreactor with an automated feeding system was used to validate the optimized parameters explored in spinner flask cultures. Minimum essential medium-α-based medium supported faster MSC growth on microcarriers than did Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (doubling time, 31.6 ± 1.4 vs 42 ± 1.7 h) and shortened the process time. At microcarrier concentration of 8 mg/mL, a high cell concentration of 1.08 × 10(6) cells/mL with confluent cell concentration of 4.7 × 10(4)cells/cm(2) was achieved. Instead of 50% medium exchange every 2 days, we have designed a full medium feed that is based on glucose consumption rate. The optimal medium feed that consisted of 1.5 g/L glucose supported MSC growth to full confluency while achieving the low medium usage efficiency of 3.29 mL/10(6)cells. Finally, a controlled bioreactor with the optimized parameters achieved maximal confluent cell concentration with 16-fold expansion and a further improved medium usage efficiency of 1.68 mL/10(6)cells. We have optimized the microcarrier-based platform for expansion of MSCs that generated high cell yields in a more efficient and cost-effective manner. This study highlighted the critical parameters in the optimization of MSC production process. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Germolec, Dori R.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Contreras-Ruiz, Jose; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Razo, Luz M. del

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAs III , MAs V , DMAs III , DMAs V ). This study examines the relationship between TGF-α concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-α in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-α concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-α levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-α concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p < 0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-α than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p = 0.003). These results suggest that TGF-α in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas

  4. Increasing Polymer Solar Cell Fill Factor by Trap-Filling with F4-TCNQ at Parts Per Thousand Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Manion, Joseph G; Yuan, Mingjian; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; McKeown, George R; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Sargent, Edward H; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic traps in organic semiconductors can be eliminated by trap-filling with F4-TCNQ. Photovoltaic tests show that devices with F4-TCNQ at parts per thousand concentration outperform control devices due to an improved fill factor. Further studies confirm the trap-filling pathway and demonstrate the general nature of this finding. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Vasopressin-related peptides increase the hippocampal corticosterone receptor capacity of diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro) rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H D; de Kloet, E R

    The binding of [3H]corticosterone to receptors in cytosol of several brain regions and of [3H]dexamethasone to receptors in pituitary cytosol was measured after chronic treatment of homozygous diabetes insipidus rats (Ho-Di) with various neuropeptides. All rats were adrenalectomized 24 h before

  6. Anatomy of melancholia: focus on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and the role of vasopressin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, Timothy G

    2012-02-03

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis characterized by hypercortisolism, adrenal hyperplasia and abnormalities in negative feedback is the most consistently described biological abnormality in melancholic depression. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are the main secretagogues of the HPA\\/stress system. Produced in the parvicellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus the release of these peptides is influenced by inputs from monoaminergic neurones. In depression, anterior pituitary CRH1 receptors are down-regulated and response to CRH infusion is blunted. By contrast, vasopressin V3 receptors on the anterior pituitary show enhanced response to AVP stimulation and this enhancement plays a key role in maintaining HPA overactivity.

  7. Estrus, ovulation, and serum progesterone, estradiol, and LH concentrations in mares after an increased photoperiod during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxender, W D; Noden, P A; Hafs, H D

    1977-02-01

    On December 11, 1974, 15 seasonally anestrous mares were assigned at random to 1 of 3 experimental groups: outdoor-control, indoor-control, or indoor light-treated (a 16-hour photo-period). This experiment was terminated on April 21, 1975. The five mares in the indoor light-treated group ovulated 59.0+/-6.9 days later, which was 74 days earlier (P less than 0.01) than 2 of the 5 outdoor-controls (the other 3 ovulated after April 21 during a subsequent experiment) and 50 days earlier (P less than 0.05) than the indoor-controls. Durations of the 1st estrus for the 3 groups of mares were 13.3+/-3.6, 8.4+/-2.0, and 6.0+/-1.0 days for the indoor light-treated, indoor-control, and outdoor-control groups, respectively. The indoor light-treated mares averaged 4.2 estrous cycles before April 21, the indoor-control mares averaged 1.4 estrous cycles, and 2 of 5 outdoor-control mares ovulated 1 time during the experiment. The peripheral blood luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were minimal during winter anestrous. The hormone changes normally associated with estrous cycle activity in mares--maximal estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations near ovulation and maximal progesterone concentration during diestrus--were observed in all mares beginning at the 1st estrus. Hair loss was observed earlier in the light-treated mares, than in either of the other groups. In conclusion, a 16-hour photo-period initiated in early December for anestrous brood mares caused endocrinologically normal estrous cycles to begin within 2 months. This may allow breeding and foaling considerably earlier than normally expected.

  8. Vectorization efforts to increase Gram-negative intracellular drug concentration: a case study on HldE-K inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamanyuk, Dmytro; Faivre, Fabien; Oxoby, Mayalen; Ledoussal, Benoit; Drocourt, Elodie; Moreau, François; Gerusz, Vincent

    2013-03-14

    In this paper, we present different strategies to vectorize HldE kinase inhibitors with the goal to improve their gram-negative intracellular concentration. Syntheses and biological effects of siderophoric, aminoglycosidic, amphoteric, and polycationic vectors are discussed. While siderophoric and amphoteric vectorization efforts proved to be disappointing in this series, aminoglycosidic and polycationic vectors were able for the first time to achieve synergistic effects of our inhibitors with erythromycin. Although these effects proved to be nonspecific, this study provides information about the required stereoelectronic arrangement of the polycationic amines and their basicity requirements to fulfill outer membrane destabilization resulting in better erythromycin synergies.

  9. Magnitude of Increased Infliximab Clearance Imposed by Anti-infliximab Antibodies in Crohn's Disease Is Determined by Their Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Helena; Steenholdt, Casper; Ainsworth, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    in IFX clearance imposed by anti-IFX Abs has generally been evaluated using a binary classification, i.e., positive or negative. This analysis aimed to investigate if anti-IFX Ab concentrations provide a more adequate prediction of alterations in clearance. Data originated from a clinical trial on Crohn......'s disease patients with IFX treatment failure. The trial was not originally designed for pharmacokinetic analysis. Therefore, published pharmacokinetic models were utilized as priors to enable covariate investigation. The impact of anti-IFX Abs on clearance was assessed using different mathematical...

  10. A space-charge treatment of the increased concentration of reactive species at the surface of a ceria solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurhelle, Alexander F.; Souza, Roger A. de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Tong, Xiaorui; Mebane, David S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Klein, Andreas [Institute of Materials Science, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-11-13

    A space-charge theory applicable to concentrated solid solutions (Poisson-Cahn theory) was applied to describe quantitatively as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure published data obtained by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the concentration of Ce{sup 3+} (the reactive species) at the surface of the oxide catalyst Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}. In contrast to previous theoretical treatments, these calculations clearly indicate that the surface is positively charged and compensated by an attendant negative space-charge zone. The high space-charge potential that develops at the surface (>0.8 V) is demonstrated to be hardly detectable by XPS measurements because of the short extent of the space-charge layer. This approach emphasizes the need to take into account defect interactions and to allow deviations from local charge neutrality when considering the surfaces of oxide catalysts. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Increases in cerebrospinal fluid caffeine concentration are associated with favorable outcome after severe traumatic brain injury in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Kathleen T; Jackson, Edwin K; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Gillespie, Delbert G; Puccio, Ava M; Clark, Robert SB; Dixon, C Edward; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive drug and a weak adenosine receptor antagonist, can be neuroprotective or neurotoxic depending on the experimental model or neurologic disorder. However, its contribution to pathophysiology and outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans is undefined. We assessed serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites (theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline) by high-pressure liquid chromatography/ultraviolet in 97 ventricular CSF samples from an established bank, from 30 adults with severe TBI. We prospectively selected a threshold caffeine level of ≥1 μmol/L (194 ng/mL) as clinically significant. Demographics, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, admission blood alcohol level, and 6-month dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score were assessed. Mean time from injury to initial CSF sampling was 10.77±3.13 h. On initial sampling, caffeine was detected in 24 of 30 patients, and the threshold was achieved in 9 patients. Favorable GOS was seen more often in patients with CSF caffeine concentration ≥ versus theobromine and paraxanthine were also associated with favorable outcome (P = 0.018 and 0.056, respectively). Caffeine and its metabolites are commonly detected in CSF in patients with severe TBI and in an exploratory assessment are associated with favorable outcome. We speculate that caffeine may be neuroprotective by long-term upregulation of adenosine A1 receptors or acute inhibition of A2a receptors. PMID:17684518

  12. Increase Concentration of Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β in Breast Milk of Mothers With Psychological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamak Shariat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in depression and anxiety disorders. However, less attention has been paid to the role of cytokines in psychological disorder in mothers who breastfeed. This study looks at whether concentration levels of TGF-β2 are altered in anxious and depressive breastfeeding mothers. This study checked the concentration level of TGF-B2 in relation with psychological symptoms on 110 breastfeeding mothers; based on random sampling method with using of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Spielberger Stress Scale (STAI in 2015 also TGF-β2 was measured in breast milk using ELISA. We used of Pearson Correlation Method, independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to analyze the data. Psychological symptoms (Anxiety and depression showed positive correlation with TGF-Beta level in which relationships were significant (P=0.01. Psychological problems may be uniquely associated with the level of TGF-β in breast milk. More attention should be paid to the mental health of mothers during breastfeeding, and more research needs to be done in this subject to clarify the relationship between psychological variables with the level of TGF-β in breast milk.

  13. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  14. Association of arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene polymorphisms with hepatorenal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Luo, X.; Ye, J.; Liu, S.; Miu, L.; Bao, J.; Wang, F.; Yu, Z.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association of arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with type I hepatorenal syndrome. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Hangzhou City Xixi Hospital, Hangzhou, China, from January 2012 to June 2014, and comprised patients with type I hepatorenal syndrome and individuals with cirrhosis who acted as the control group. Arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene rs113481894 locus single nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed by high-resolution melting methods. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17. Results: Of the 60 participants, 28(46.7%) were in the hepatorenal syndrome group and 32(53.3%) were controls. The mean age was 42.21+-11.30years in the hepatorenal syndrome group and 43.69+-12.60 in the control group (p=0.64). Mean total bilirubin, albumin and prothrombin activity levels were 154.76+-51.58, 49.30+-24.67 and 33.42+-3.69 in the hepatorenal syndrome group compared to 181.26+-64.46, 41.78+-17.52 and 32.98+-4.81 among controls (p=0.09, p=0.18 and p=0.70). Statistically significant differences were found in the distributions of arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene rs113481894 locus T allele between type I hepatorenal syndrome patients and the control group (odds ratio= 2.230; p= 0.040). Conclusion: T allele located at arginine vasopressin receptor 1a receptor promoter rs113481894 locus may be associated with the pathogenesis of type I hepatorenal syndrome. (author)

  15. Isosorbide-Induced Decompression Effect on the Scala Media: Participation of Plasma Osmolality and Plasma Arginine Vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Taizo; Takeda, Setsuko; Uehara, Natsumi; Yanagisawa, Shungaku; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Nibu, Ken-Ichi; Kakigi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    The correlation between the isosorbide-induced decompression effect on the endolymphatic space and plasma osmolality (p-OSM) or plasma arginine vasopressin (p-AVP) was investigated on comparing two different dosages of isosorbide (2.8 and 1.4 g/kg) to elucidate why the decompression effect is delayed with a large dose of isosorbide. Two experiments were performed using 80 guinea pigs. Experiment 1 was designed to morphologically investigate the sequential influence of the oral intake of 1.4- and 2.8-g/kg doses of isosorbide on the endolymphatic volume. The animals used were 50 guinea pigs (control: 10, experimental: 40). All animals underwent surgical obliteration of the endolymphatic sac of the left ear. One month after the surgery, control animals were sacrificed 3 hours after the intake of distilled water, and experimental animals were sacrificed 3 and 6 hours after the isosorbide intake. All of the left temporal bone served for the quantitative assessment of changes in the endolymphatic space, and the cross-sectional area of the scala media was measured from the mid-modiolar sections of the cochlea.Experiment 2 was designed to investigate changes in p-OSM and p-AVP levels 3 hours after the oral intake of isosorbide. Animals used were 15 guinea pigs (control: 5, experimental: 10). The control group received the oral administration of distilled water (4 ml/kg), and the experimental animals were subdivided into two groups consisting of 10 animals each by the dosage of isosorbide (1.4 or 2.8 g/kg). All animals were sacrificed for the measurement of p-OSM and p-AVP concentrations 3 hours after the intake of water or 70% isosorbide solution. Morphologically, an isosorbide-induced decompression effect was noted in animals with both 1.4- and 2.8-g/kg doses of isosorbide. According to the regression analysis, however, the volumetric decrease of the endolymphatic space was more evident in cases with the small dose (1.4 g/kg) 3 hours after the intake

  16. Effect of melatonin supplementation on plasma vasopressin response to different conditions in rats with hyperthyroidism induced by L-thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2010-04-09

    The present study was performed to determine how basal, isotonic, hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions affect fluid-electrolyte balance and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in rats with experimental hyperthyroidism supplemented with melatonin. The rats were divided into four groups of twenty-four subjects each kept under the following treatments during one month: (1) Controls; (2) treated with L-thyroxine; (3) treated with L-thyroxine and sham melatonin and (4) treated with L-thyroxine and melatonin. After this each group was further subdivided into subgroups that were subject to normal, isotonic, hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions. The plasma AVP, total triiodothyronine (TT(3)), total thyroxine (TT(4)) and melatonin levels were measured in plasma by means of a Phoenix Pharmaceutical RIA test kit. Hematocrit and osmolality levels were also determined. There were significant increases of total T3 and T4 levels in the L-thyroxine treated groups, p<0.001. The AVP levels were also increased in groups 2 and 3, but not so in the rats treated with melatonin (p<0.001), which also showed increased plasma melatonin levels (p<0.001). These results indicate that treatment with L-thyroxine increases stimulated and non-stimulated AVP release that are inhibited by melatonin supplementation. It was also shown that AVP response to hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions was not affected by L-thyroxine treatment and/or L-thyroxine+melatonin treatment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Affiliative Human–Animal Interaction on Dog Salivary and Plasma Oxytocin and Vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. MacLean

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are neuropeptides with diverse effects on social behavior, cognition and stress responses. Recent studies suggest that OT facilitates and responds to affiliative forms of human–animal interaction (HAI. However, previous studies measuring OT and AVP in dogs have been limited to measures from blood or urine, which present concerns related to the invasiveness of sample collection, the potential for matrix interference in immunoassays, and whether samples can be collected at precise time points to assess event-linked endocrine responses. Previous studies from our laboratory validated salivary measures of OT and AVP in dogs, however, it is currently unknown whether these measures respond dynamically to aspects of HAI. Here, we investigated the effects of affiliative forms of HAI on both plasma and salivary OT and AVP in dogs. We employed a within- and between-subjects design with a group of Labrador retrievers and Labrador retriever × golden retriever crosses (23 females, 15 males. Half of the dogs engaged in 10 min of free-form friendly interaction with a human experimenter (HAI condition, and the other half rested quietly in the same environment, without human interaction (control condition. We collected blood and saliva samples before, and immediately following both experimental conditions, and all samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs following previously validated protocols. Dogs participating in HAI exhibited a significant increase in both salivary OT (+39% and plasma OT (+5.7% whereas dogs in the control group did not. Salivary AVP showed no change in the HAI group but increased significantly (+33% in the control group. Plasma AVP decreased significantly following HAI (-13% but did not change across time in the control condition. Within the dogs exposed to HAI, increases in salivary OT, and decreases in plasma AVP, were predicted by the extent of affiliative behavior between

  18. Vasopressin and oxytocin levels during normal pregnancy: effects of chronic dietary sodium restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Post, J A; van Buul, B J; Hart, A A; van Heerikhuize, J J; Pesman, G; Legros, J J; Steegers, E A; Swaab, D F; Boer, K

    1997-03-01

    Neurohypophysial hormones are thought to be involved in alterations in fluid balance during pregnancy and delivery. In the course of normal pregnancy intravascular volume is increased whereas sodium restriction is thought to reduce plasma volume and cardiac output. In the present study, we measured the effect of long-term severe sodium restriction on vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) levels during normal pregnancy and after delivery. Fifty-nine healthy nulliparous women were randomized either for a low sodium diet (20 mmol sodium daily) or for a normal diet from week 12 of pregnancy onwards. Circulating plasma levels and urinary excretion of AVP and OT, their neurophysins (Np-AVP and Np-OT) and AVP bound to platelets were determined at regular intervals during pregnancy and after delivery. After completion of the study, women on a sodium-restricted diet were compared with control women on a normal diet using repeated measurement ANOVA with adjustment for potentially confounding variables. After randomization, a reduction in urinary sodium excretion of, on average, 40-82% was found. In general, no effect of sodium restriction could be demonstrated on the various parameters (0.53 sodium restriction compared with non-smokers having a normal diet (P = 0.018). For all parameters, clear changes were found in the course of pregnancy and puerperium (P pregnancy. After birth, free plasma AVP, platelet-bound AVP, OT, osmolality, sodium and potassium increased, while Np-AVP and Np-OT decreased. Although elevated Np-AVP and Np-OT levels during pregnancy seem to indicate increased release of neurohypophysial hormones, pregnancy up to 36 weeks of gestation is accompanied by low circulating AVP and OT levels. Long-term severe sodium restriction diminishes urinary AVP excretion in (non-smoking) pregnant women, without changing circulating levels of AVP and OT, despite the known reduction in circulating volume. The reduced circulating (platelet-bound) AVP levels during pregnancy

  19. Current issues and ways to reduce the negative impact of environment increased concentrations of Radon (222Rn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, Liubov; Bahnarel, Ion; Apostol, Ion; Virlan, Serghei

    2012-01-01

    (This study was conducted to review the latest research in radon problem carried out by scientists of Moldova, the 13 EU countries and the USA, and relevant international organizations. Particular attention was paid to contradictions between energy efficiency measures and these of mitigation of 222 Rn negative impact on human health. The main proposals developed were focused on the need for a National Radon Strategy (NRS) and a National Action Plan (NAP) for NRS implementation. Both NRS and NAP has to be correlated with other national policies, such as Smoking Reducing or Energy Efficiency. Development of a Radon Database including a map of radon concentrations, as well as a set of requirements for new housing construction, would be among the main components of NAP. (authors)

  20. Effect of increasing concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, or zinc on lettuce grown in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Teicher, K.; Venter, F.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine concentrations at which excess symptoms could be expected, which kind of damage symptoms appear and in which amount the heavy metals are enriched in roots and leaves. The following results were revealed. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.) can tolerate amounts of Cd below 1 ppm, of Ni below 2 ppm and of Pb below 20 ppm in the nutrient solution without any symptoms of excess. The growth of lettuce was mostly influenced by Cd, least of all by Pb. Only Ni caused specific poisoning symptoms. Heavy metals were enriched in different amounts in roots and leaves. The contents of Cd and Ni were more than twice as high as those of Pb. The heavy metals influenced the uptake and distribution of macro-elements more (nitrogen) or less (potassium) vigorously.