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Sample records for vasoactive hormones blood

  1. Thrombospondin 1 and Vasoactive Agents Indirectly Alter Tumor Blood Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff S. Isenberg

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays important physiological roles in the vasculature to regulate angiogenesis, blood flow, and hemostasis. In solid tumors, NO is generally acknowledged to mediate angiogenic responses to several growth factors. This contrasts with conflicting evidence that NO can acutely increase tumor perfusion through local vasodilation or diminish perfusion by preferential relaxation of peripheral vascular beds outside the tumor. Because thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 is an important physiological antagonist of NO in vascular cells, we examined whether, in addition to inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, TSP1 can acutely regulate tumor blood flow. We assessed this activity of TSP1 in the context of perfusion responses to NO as a vasodilator and epinephrine as a vasoconstrictor. Nitric oxide treatment of wild type and TSP1 null mice decreased perfusion of a syngeneic melanoma, whereas epinephrine transiently increased tumor perfusion. Acute vasoactive responses were also independent of the level of tumor-expressed TSP1 in a melanoma xenograft, but recovery of basal perfusion was modulated by TSP1 expression. In contrast, overexpression of truncated TSP1 lacking part of its CD47 binding domain lacked this modulating activity. These data indicate that TSP1 primarily regulates long-term vascular responses in tumors, in part, because the tumor vasculature has a limited capacity to acutely respond to vasoactive agents.

  2. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  3. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

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    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  4. Regulation of Appetite, Body Composition, and Metabolic Hormones by Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, John P; Larauche, Muriel; Flores, Martin; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Oh, Suwan; Liang, Li-Jung; Waschek, James; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2015-06-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin-glucagon superfamily of peptides and has 68 % homology with PACAP. VIP is abundantly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract, where it exercises several physiological functions. Previously, it has been reported that VIP regulates feeding behavior centrally in different species of vertebrates such as goldfishes, chicken and rodents. Additional studies are necessary to analyze the role of endogenous VIP on the regulation of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, body mass composition and energy balance. The aim of the study was to elucidate the physiological pathways by which VIP regulates appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, and body mass composition. VIP deficient (VIP -/-) and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates were weekly monitored from 5 to 22 weeks of age using a whole body composition EchoMRI analyzer. Food intake and feeding behavior were analyzed using the BioDAQ automated monitoring system. Plasma levels of metabolic hormones including active-ghrelin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), adiponectin, and insulin were measured in fasting as well as in postprandial conditions. The genetic lack of VIP led to a significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and to an increase of lean mass as the mice aged. Additionally, VIP-/- mice had a disrupted pattern of circadian feeding behavior resulting in an abolished regular nocturnal/diurnal feeding. These changes were associated with an altered secretion of adiponectin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY and insulin in VIP-/- mice. Our data demonstrates that endogenous VIP is involved in the control of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, body mass composition and in the secretion of six different key regulatory metabolic hormones. VIP plays a key role in the regulation of body phenotype by significantly enhancing body weight and fat

  5. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003690.htm Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... to measure the amount of PTH in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  6. Regulation of Appetite, Body Composition, and Metabolic Hormones by Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, JP; LARAUCHE, M.; Flores, M; Luong, L.; Norris, J.; Oh, S.(Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States of America); Liang, LJ; Waschek, J; Pisegna, JR; Germano, PM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA). Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin-glucagon superfamily of peptides and has 68 % homology with PACAP. VIP is abundantly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract, where it exercises several physiological functions. Previously, it has been reported that VIP regulates feeding behavior centrally in different species of ve...

  7. The impact of vasoactive substances on intraosseous pressure and blood flow alterations in the femoral head: a study based on magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, T.; Drescher, W.; Becker, C.; Schlack, W.; Sager, M.; Assheuer, J.; Rüther, W.

    1998-01-01

    In beagle dogs, the alterations of intraosseous pressure and blood supply in the femoral head that result from the administration of vasoactive substances were examined, and the changes were documented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Vasoactive substance were infused into the medial and lateral

  8. [Expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide in peripheral blood of children with hand, foot and mouth disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jin-Song; Sun, Hao-Miao; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Jing-De; Wen, Cheng; Fang, Dai-Hua

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in peripheral blood of children with hand, foot and mouth disease and its significance. According to the condition of the disease, 86 children with hand, foot and mouth disease were classified into phase 1 group (19 children) and phase 2 group (67 children). ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of plasma VIP, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to measure CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets. RT-PCR was used for qualitative detection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) RNA in stool. Compared with the phase 1 group, the phase 2 group had a significantly higher positive rate of EV71-RNA (Phand, foot and mouth disease, the concentration of VIP in peripheral blood was positively correlated with the proportion of CD4+ T lymphocyte subset and CD4+/CD8+ ratio (r=0.533 and 0.532 respectively; Phand, foot and mouth disease.

  9. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP Rescues the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Middle-Aged Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eSun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive aging is characterized by delayed and attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH surges apparent in middle-aged rats. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN contains the circadian clock that is responsible for the timing of diverse neuroendocrine rhythms. Electrophysiological studies suggest vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP originating from the SCN excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and affects daily patterns of GnRH-LH release. Age-related LH surge dysfunction correlates with reduced VIP mRNA expression in the SCN and fewer GnRH neurons with VIP contacts expressing c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, on the day of the LH surge. To determine if age-related LH surge dysfunction reflects reduced VIP availability or altered VIP responsiveness under estradiol positive feedback conditions, we assessed the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv VIP infusion on c-fos expression in GnRH neurons and on LH release in ovariohysterectomized, hormone-primed young and middle-aged rats. Icv infusion of VIP between 1300 and 1600 h significantly advanced the time of peak LH release, increased total and peak LH release, and increased the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos on the day of the LH surge in middle-aged rats. Surprisingly, icv infusion of VIP in young females significantly reduced the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos and delayed and reduced the LH surge. These observations suggest that a critical balance of VIP signaling is required to activate GnRH neurons for an appropriately timed and robust LH surge in young and middle-aged females. Age-related LH surge changes may, in part, result from decreased availability and reduced VIP-mediated neurotransmission under estradiol positive feedback conditions.

  10. Intracerebroventricular infusion of vasoactive intestinal Peptide rescues the luteinizing hormone surge in middle-aged female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Shu, Jun; Kyei, Kwame; Neal-Perry, Genevieve S

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive aging is characterized by delayed and attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH) surges apparent in middle-aged rats. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains the circadian clock that is responsible for the timing of diverse neuroendocrine rhythms. Electrophysiological studies suggest vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) originating from the SCN excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and affects daily patterns of GnRH-LH release. Age-related LH surge dysfunction correlates with reduced VIP mRNA expression in the SCN and fewer GnRH neurons with VIP contacts expressing c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, on the day of the LH surge. To determine if age-related LH surge dysfunction reflects reduced VIP availability or altered VIP responsiveness under estradiol positive feedback conditions, we assessed the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) VIP infusion on c-fos expression in GnRH neurons and on LH release in ovariohysterectomized, hormone-primed young and middle-aged rats. Icv infusion of VIP between 1300 and 1600 h significantly advanced the time of peak LH release, increased total and peak LH release, and increased the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos on the day of the LH surge in middle-aged rats. Surprisingly, icv infusion of VIP in young females significantly reduced the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos and delayed and reduced the LH surge. These observations suggest that a critical balance of VIP signaling is required to activate GnRH neurons for an appropriately timed and robust LH surge in young and middle-aged females. Age-related LH surge changes may, in part, result from decreased availability and reduced VIP-mediated neurotransmission under estradiol positive feedback conditions.

  11. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Rescues the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Middle-Aged Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Shu, Jun; Kyei, Kwame; Neal-Perry, Genevieve S.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive aging is characterized by delayed and attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH) surges apparent in middle-aged rats. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains the circadian clock that is responsible for the timing of diverse neuroendocrine rhythms. Electrophysiological studies suggest vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) originating from the SCN excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and affects daily patterns of GnRH–LH release. Age-related LH surge dysfunction correlates with reduced VIP mRNA expression in the SCN and fewer GnRH neurons with VIP contacts expressing c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, on the day of the LH surge. To determine if age-related LH surge dysfunction reflects reduced VIP availability or altered VIP responsiveness under estradiol positive feedback conditions, we assessed the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) VIP infusion on c-fos expression in GnRH neurons and on LH release in ovariohysterectomized, hormone-primed young and middle-aged rats. Icv infusion of VIP between 1300 and 1600 h significantly advanced the time of peak LH release, increased total and peak LH release, and increased the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos on the day of the LH surge in middle-aged rats. Surprisingly, icv infusion of VIP in young females significantly reduced the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos and delayed and reduced the LH surge. These observations suggest that a critical balance of VIP signaling is required to activate GnRH neurons for an appropriately timed and robust LH surge in young and middle-aged females. Age-related LH surge changes may, in part, result from decreased availability and reduced VIP-mediated neurotransmission under estradiol positive feedback conditions. PMID:22654857

  12. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  13. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease, and one possible explanation is that elevated UAE reflects a generalized vascular dysfunction. The present study tests whether the plasma concentrations of the two main endothelial vasoactive substances (nitric oxide...... and endothelin-1 [ET-1]) are changed in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAE (>6.6 microg/ min-the 90th percentile in the background population) and to test associations between these concentrations and systemic blood pressure. Twenty-seven subjects with elevated UAE were compared with 46 matched...

  14. Inhibition of growth and reduction in tumorigenicity of UCI-107 ovarian cancer by antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone and vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistamou, I; Schally, A V; Varga, J L; Groot, K; Armatis, P; Bajo, A M

    2001-11-01

    To evaluate the tumor inhibitory activities of antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in UCI-107 human ovarian cancer model, and to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the response. In the present study we investigated the effects of GH-RH antagonist JV-1-36 and VIP antagonist JV-1-52, on the growth and tumorigenicity of UCI-107 ovarian cell carcinoma xenografted into nude mice. Studies on the effects of hGH-RH(1-29)NH2, IGF-I, IGF-II, JV-1-36, and JV-1-52 on the proliferation of UCI-107 cells cultured in vitro were also performed. After 22 days of therapy with JV-1-36 or JV-1-52 at the dose of 20 microg/day, the final volume of UCI-107 tumors was significantly (PUCI-107 cells in nude mice. All ten mice injected with cells treated with medium alone developed tumors within 23 days after cell inoculation, while only eight of ten and four of ten mice injected with cells exposed to JV-1-36 or JV-1-52, respectively, had tumors. In vitro exposure of UCI-107 cells to 5-35 ng/ml IGF-II produced a significant suppression in the rate of cell proliferation (P UCI-107 ovarian cell carcinoma by mechanisms that appear to involve direct effects on the cancer cells.

  15. Vasoactive enzymes and blood flow responses to passive and active exercise in peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Meegan A.; Høier, Birgitte; Walker, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    blood flow was measured with Doppler ultrasound and muscle protein levels of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase, cyclooxygenase 1 and 2, thromboxane synthase, and prostacyclin synthase were determined. Results: Leg blood flow during the initial 90 s of passive leg movement...... (242 ± 33 vs 441 ± 75 ml min-1, P = 0.03) and during reactive hyperaemia (423 ± 100 vs 1255 ± 175 ml min-1, P = 0.002) was lower in PAD than CON, whereas no significant difference was observed for leg blood flow during exercise (1490 ± 250 vs 1887 ± 349 ml min-1, P = 0.37). PAD had higher NADPH oxidase...... than CON (1.04 ± 0.19 vs 0.50 ± 0.06 AU, P = 0.02), with no differences for other enzymes. Leg blood flow during exercise was correlated with prostacyclin synthase (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated NADPH oxidase indicates that oxidative stress may be a primary cause of low nitric oxide availability...

  16. Role of blood and vascular smooth muscle in the vasoactivity of nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taiming; Schroeder, Hobe J; Barcelo, Lisa; Bragg, Shannon L; Terry, Michael H; Wilson, Sean M; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence from humans and rats indicates that nitrite is a vasodilator under hypoxic conditions by reacting with metal-containing proteins to produce nitric oxide (NO). We tested the hypothesis that near-physiological concentrations of nitrite would produce vasodilation in a hypoxia- and concentration-dependent manner in the hind limb of sheep. Anesthetized sheep were instrumented to measure arterial blood pressure and femoral blood flows continuously in both hind limbs. Nitrite was infused into one femoral artery to raise the nitrite concentration in the femoral vein by 10 to 15-fold while the sheep breathed 50%, 14% or 12% oxygen in inspired air. In contrast to reports in humans and rats, the nitrite infusion had no measurable effect on mean femoral blood flows or vascular conductances, regardless of inspired O2 levels. In vitro experiments showed no significant difference in the release of NO from nitrite in sheep and human red blood cells. Further experiments demonstrated nitrite is converted to NO in rat artery homogenates faster than sheep arteries, and that this source of NO production is attenuated in the presence of a heme oxidizer. Finally, western blots indicate that concentrations of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin, but not myoglobin, are markedly lower in sheep arteries compared with rats. Overall, the results demonstrate that nitrite is not a physiological vasodilator in sheep. This is likely due to a lack of conversion of nitrite to NO within the vascular smooth muscle, perhaps due to deficient amounts of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  18. Changes in blood volume and response to vaso-active drugs in horizontally casted primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, D. T.; Teoh, K. K.; Sandler, H.; Stone, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed on horizontally casted primates (male rhesus monkeys) in order to note changes in blood volume caused by horizontal restraint, to compare orthostatic tolerance before and after casting using the responses to upright tilting, to begin to uncover the cardiovascular and neural mechanisms involved in deconditioning, and to compare the data with that obtained from bed-rested human subjects and from humans exposed to weightlessness. Bolus injections of norepinephrine of 2.0 microgram/kg, phenylephrine of 4.0 microgram/kg, and nitroprusside of 2.0 microgram/kg were administered; and aortic pressure and heart rate were recorded during the injections. The results indicate that the horizontally casted primate is a valid animal model for studying the effects of simulated zero-G on the human cardiovascular system.

  19. GLP-2 receptor localizes to enteric neurons and endocrine cells expressing vasoactive peptides and mediates increased blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xinfu; Karpen, Heidi E; Stephens, John

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-responsive hormone that exerts diverse actions in the gastrointestinal tract, including enhancing epithelial cell survival and proliferation, mucosal blood flow, and nutrient uptake and suppressing gastric motility and secretion....... These actions are mediated by the G-protein-coupled receptor, GLP-2R. Cellular localization of the GLP-2R and the nature of its signaling network in the gut, however, are poorly defined. Thus, our aim was to establish cellular localization of GLP-2R and functional connection to vascular action of GLP-2...

  20. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003508.htm Vasoactive intestinal peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount ...

  1. Reproductive hormones in menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J P; Fraser, I S; Caterson, I; Grivas, A; McCarron, G; Norman, T; Tan, K

    1989-08-01

    Menstrual and peripheral blood samples were collected from 19 regularly cycling women on days 1-3 of the menstrual cycle. Menstrual samples were collected with a soft silicone rubber menstrual cup. Hematocrit, PRL, LH, FSH, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured in all samples. Validation studies were carried out for RIAs of PRL, LH, and FSH in menstrual plasma. The menstrual plasma PRL level was significantly higher than its peripheral blood level on day 1 (63.3 +/- 14.7 and 12.1 +/- 2.9 micrograms/L, respectively; t = 3.331; P less than 0.01), and menstrual PRL was significantly higher on day 1 than on day 2 (t = 3.340; P less than 0.01). There was a strong negative correlation between log menstrual PRL concentration and time of onset of menstruation (r = -0.596; P less than 0.01). Menstrual plasma FSH levels were significantly lower than peripheral levels on each of days 1-3 (day 1:t = 4.787; P less than 0.001), and there was a significant positive correlation between menstrual and peripheral levels (r = 0.607; P less than 0.01). By contrast, menstrual plasma LH was significantly higher than the peripheral level on days 1 and 2 (day 1:t = 3.105; day 2:t = 3.180; P less than 0.01), with no correlation between menstrual and peripheral levels. Menstrual E2 was slightly lower than and significantly positively correlated with peripheral E2 (r = 0.646; P less than 0.01). Menstrual P4 was lower than but showed no correlation with peripheral levels. As expected, the menstrual blood hematocrit was less than 0.20 and highly significantly lower than that of peripheral venous blood. These results suggest that PRL is released in substantial amounts from secretory endometrium into the menstrual flow during the first day of menstrual breakdown. LH may also be released in small amounts from menstrual endometrium, while menstrual FSH, E2, and P4 probably arise entirely from the peripheral circulation.

  2. Investigation of Blood Flow and the Effect of Vasoactive Substances in Cutaneous Blood Vessels of "Xenopus Laevis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škorjanc, Aleš; Belušic, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a preparation of frog skin was presented, which can be used to demonstrate the basic concepts of blood flow regulation in a very clear and attractive way to high school and university students. In a freshly euthanized "Xenopus," a patch of abdominal skin was exposed from the internal side and viewed with a USB…

  3. Postulated Role of Vasoactive Neuropeptide-Related Immunopathology of the Blood Brain Barrier and Virchow-Robin Spaces in the Aetiology of Neurological-Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Staines

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, as well as immune and nociception modulators. They have key roles in blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS including maintaining functional integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB and blood spinal barrier (BSB. VNs are potent activators of adenylate cyclase and thus also have a key role in cyclic AMP production affecting regulatory T cell and other immune functions. Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS and contain VNs. Autoimmunity of VNs or VN receptors may affect BBB and VRS function and, therefore, may contribute to the aetiology of neurological-related conditions including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VN autoimmunity will likely affect CNS and immunological homeostasis. Various pharmacological and immunological treatments including phosphodiesterase inhibitors and plasmapheresis may be indicated.

  4. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    and endothelin-1 [ET-1]) are changed in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAE (>6.6 microg/ min-the 90th percentile in the background population) and to test associations between these concentrations and systemic blood pressure. Twenty-seven subjects with elevated UAE were compared with 46 matched...... controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...

  5. Investigation of Hepatic Blood Perfusion by Laser Speckle Imaging and Changes of Hepatic Vasoactive Substances in Mice after Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-jing Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on hepatic blood perfusion (HBP and vascular regulation. We investigated 60 male anesthetized mice under the following 3 conditions: without EA stimulation (control group; EA stimulation at Zusanli (ST36 group; EA stimulation at nonacupoint (NA group during 30 min. The HBP was measured using the laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI. The level of nitric oxide (NO, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and noradrenaline (NE in liver tissue was detected by biochemical methods. Results were as follows. At each time point, HBP increase in ST36 group was higher than that in the NA group in anesthetized mice. HBP gradually decreased during 30 min in control group. The level of NO in ST36 group was higher than that in NA group. The level of both ET-1 and NE was the highest in control group, followed by NA group and ST36 group. It is concluded that EA at ST36 could increase HBP possibly by increasing the blood flow velocity (BFV, changing vascular activity, increasing the level of NO, and inhibiting the level of ET-1 in liver tissue.

  6. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone values from cord blood in neonates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels from cord blood in neonates and to establish the practice for possible application of congenital hypothyroidism screening in Ethiopia. Methods: TSH was measured from cord blood of 1207 consecutive new-borns in the maternal wards of St. Paul, Ghandi ...

  7. Tachykinins stimulate release of peptide hormones (glucagon-like peptide-1) and paracrine (somatostatin) and neurotransmitter (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) from porcine ileum through NK-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P T; Rickelt, L F; Holst, J J

    1999-07-01

    The effects of infusion of the two tachykinins, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of capsaicin on the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), somatostatin, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were studied in isolated, vascularly perfused ileal segments. SP (10(-8) M) stimulated GLP-1, somatostatin, and VIP release to 141.8+/-6.6% (N = 18), 230.3+/-38.7% (N = 21), and 359.7+/-60.5% (N = 22) of basal output, respectively. NKA (10(-8) M) only stimulated VIP release (to 181.2+/-16.7% of basal release, N = 22). The effects of SP and NKA were blocked by the NK-1 receptor antagonist CP96345 (10(-6) M). Infusion of atropine (10(-6) M) had no effect on the SP-induced GLP-1 release, but partly inhibited the effect of SP on somatostatin and VIP release, and the effect of NKA on VIP release. Capsaicin infusions (10(-5) M) significantly stimulated both GLP-1, somatostatin, and VIP release to 111.1+/-4.5% (N = 9), 138.0+/-15.8% (N = 9) and 208.3+/-63.8% (N = 8) of basal release, respectively. Simultaneous addition of receptor antagonists to all three tachykinin receptors (CP96345, SR48968, and SR142801, all at 10(-6) M) significantly inhibited the effect of capsaicin on VIP release, whereas the release of GLP-1 and somatostatin was unaffected. We conclude that tachykinins potently stimulate the release of GLP-1, somatostatin, and VIP in the porcine ileum via NK-1 receptors. The effect on somatostatin and VIP is partly mediated via cholinergic neurons. Sensory neurons releasing tachykinins could be involved in the regulation of VIPergic neurons.

  8. BLOOD METABOLIC HORMONES AND LEPTIN IN GROWING LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Antunović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the concentration of blood metabolic hormones and leptin levels in growing lambs. The research was carried out on Tsigai lambs in two periods (suckling and fattening during the winter feeding season. Lambs were suckling and ate a food mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum, while during the fattening period they were fed only with the above mentioned mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum. Their blood was analyzed on 35th and 75th day of age. Concentrations of minsulin, leptin and thyroid hormones were determined in the blood serum of lambs during both periods. In the blood of fattening lambs significantly higher (P0.05 insulin concentrations (1.05 and 0.54 μU/mL, were determined, compared to suckling lambs. A significant strong positive correlation between serum leptin and insulin (r = 0.85, P0.05. The concentration of thyroid hormones did not significantly differ depending on the period of measurement. These changes indicate that the measurement concentrations of metabolic hormones and leptin in blood are very important in order to understand the changes of metabolism and nutrient supply in growing lambs.

  9. Blood lactate and hormonal responses to prototype flywheel ergometer workouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John F; Coday, Michael A; Monda, Julie K; Ramey, Elizabeth S; Hastings, Lori P; Vingren, Jakob L; Potter, William T; Kraemer, William J; Wickel, Eric E

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare blood lactate and hormonal responses with flywheel ergometer (FERG) leg presses for preliminary assessment of workouts best suited for future in-flight resistance exercise. Comprised of 10 repetition sets, the workouts entailed 3 sets of concentric and eccentric (CE3) actions, or concentric-only actions done for 3 (CO3) or 6 (CO6) sets. Methods employed included assessment of blood lactate concentrations ([BLa-]) before and 5 minutes postexercise. Venous blood was also collected before and at 1 and 30 minutes postexercise to assess growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol concentrations ([GH], [T], [C]) and [T/C] ratios. [BLa-] were compared with 2 (time) x 3 (workout) analysis of variance. Hormones were assessed with 2 (gender) x 3 (time) x 3 (workout) analysis of covariances. Results showed [BLa-] had a time effect. Growth hormone concentration showed gender x workout, gender x time, and workout x time interactions, whereas [T] had a 3-way interaction. [C] had gender, time, and workout effects. [T/C] yielded a gender x time interaction. It was concluded that, because CO6 and CE3 yielded similar anabolic hormonal data but the latter had a lower [C] 30 minutes postexercise, CE3 served as the best workout. Although the FERG was originally designed for microgravity, the effort put forth by current subjects was like that for workouts aimed at greater athletic performance and conditioning. Practical applications suggest that eccentric actions should be used for FERG workouts geared toward muscle mass and strength improvement.

  10. Penile erection: possible role for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as a neurotransmitter.

    OpenAIRE

    Ottesen, B; Wagner, G.; Virag, R; Fahrenkrug, J.

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide were measured in blood drawn from the cavernous spaces of corpus cavernosum of the human penis during tumescence and erection, and the effect of injecting the polypeptide into the cavernous spaces was studied. A significant release of the polypeptide was shown during tumescence and erection. Injection of exogenous vasoactive intestinal polypeptide induced erection. These findings support the concept of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as a ...

  11. Maternal and cord blood hormones in relation to birth size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagiou, Pagona; Samoli, Evangelia; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Lagiou, Areti; Xu, Bio; Yu, Guo-Pei; Onoyama, Sagano; Chie, Lucy; Adami, Hans-Olov; Vatten, Lars J; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-05-01

    Birth size has been associated with adult life diseases, but the endocrine factors that are likely involved are not established. We evaluated the associations of maternal and cord blood hormones with birth size in normal pregnancies, and examined possible effect modification by maternal height, on the basis of prior suggestive evidence. In a prospective study of normal singleton pregnancies in Boston, USA and Shanghai, China, maternal hormone levels at the 27th gestational week were available for 225 pregnancies in Boston and 281 in Shanghai and cord blood measurements for 92 pregnancies in Boston and 110 in Shanghai. Pearson partial correlation coefficients of log-transformed hormone levels with birth weight and length were calculated. Overall, positive correlations with birth weight were found for maternal estriol (r = 0.19; p < 0.001) and progesterone (r = 0.15; p < 0.001) and these associations were more evident among taller mothers. There was an inverse association of cord blood progesterone (r = -0.16; p < 0.03) with birth weight. In Boston, cord blood IGF-1 was positively associated with birth weight (r = 0.22; p < 0.04) and length (r = 0.25; p < 0.02), particularly among taller mothers (r = 0.43 and 0.38, respectively; p < 0.02), whereas among taller mothers in Shanghai the associations of IGF-2 with birth size appeared to be at least as strong as those of IGF-1. In conclusion, maternal estriol and progesterone, and cord blood IGF-1 were positively correlated with birth size. All correlations tended to be more pronounced among offspring of taller mothers. Among taller mothers in Shanghai, IGF-2 appeared to be at least as strongly associated with birth size as IGF-1.

  12. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  13. Circulating levels of vasoactive peptides in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Tofteng, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The underlying mechanisms for cerebral blood flow (CBF) abnormalities in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are largely unknown. Putative mediators include vasoactive peptides, e.g. calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and endothelin-1 (ET-1), all...

  14. Galanin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harling, H; Messell, T; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum. The rele......By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum...

  15. Mechanical, hormonal and metabolic influences on blood vessels, blood flow and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D

    2017-12-01

    Bone tissue is highly vascularized due to the various roles bone blood vessels play in bone and bone marrow function. For example, the vascular system is critical for bone development, maintenance and repair and provides O 2 , nutrients, waste elimination, systemic hormones and precursor cells for bone remodeling. Further, bone blood vessels serve as egress and ingress routes for blood and immune cells to and from the bone marrow. It is becoming increasingly clear that the vascular and skeletal systems are intimately linked in metabolic regulation and physiological and pathological processes. This review examines how agents such as mechanical loading, parathyroid hormone, estrogen, vitamin D and calcitonin, all considered anabolic for bone, have tremendous impacts on the bone vasculature. In fact, these agents influence bone blood vessels prior to influencing bone. Further, data reveal strong associations between vasodilator capacity of bone blood vessels and trabecular bone volume, and poor associations between estrogen status and uterine mass and trabecular bone volume. Additionally, this review highlights the importance of the bone microcirculation, particularly the vascular endothelium and NO-mediated signaling, in the regulation of bone blood flow, bone interstitial fluid flow and pressure and the paracrine signaling of bone cells. Finally, the vascular endothelium as a mediator of bone health and disease is considered. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Caffeine and Blood Pressure Response: Sex, Age, and Hormonal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsett, Thomas L.; McKey, Barbara S.; Wilson, Michael F.; Vincent, Andrea S.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Lovallo, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The pressor effect of caffeine has been established in young men and premenopausal women. The effect of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) remains unknown in postmenopausal women and in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. Materials and Methods In a randomized, 2-week cross-over design, we studied 165 healthy men and women in 6 groups: men and premenopausal women (35–-49 yrs) vs. men and postmenopausal women (50–-64 yrs), with postmenopausal women divided into those taking no hormone replacements (HR), estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone. Testing during one week of the study involved 6 days of caffeine maintenance at home (80 mg, 3x/day) followed by testing of responses to a challenge dose of caffeine (250 mg) in the laboratory. The other week involved ingesting placebos on maintenance and lab days. Resting BP responses to caffeine were measured at baseline and at 45 to 60 min following caffeine vs placebo ingestion, using automated monitors. Results Ingestion of caffeine resulted in a significant increase in systolic BP in all 6 groups (4 ± .6, p caffeine in all (3 ± .4, p caffeine did not vary by age. Conclusions Caffeine resulted in an increase in BP in healthy, normotensive, young and older men and women. This finding warrants the consideration of caffeine in the lifestyle interventions recommended for BP control across the age span. PMID:20500126

  17. Human growth hormone alters carbohydrate storage in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone that plays vital roles in cell growth and metabolism. Aim: The study investigates the effect of GH on carbohydrate metabolism using Indian bird, Acridotheres tristis. Methods: Three different doses (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8mg/100g body weight) of human growth hormone ...

  18. [The changes of vasoactive intestinal peptide somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide in blood and CSF of acute cerebral infarction patients and the effect of acupuncture on them].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Yuan, Y; Kuang, P; Wu, W; Zhang, F; Liu, J

    1996-01-01

    VIP, SS and PP which exist in gastrointestinal tract and CNS might be to play an important role in nervous system as neurotransmitters of neuromediaters. There have been a few of reports about their changes in plasma and CSF in ICVD. The effects of acupuncture, which was used in treatment of ICVD with good efficiency, on VIP, SS and PP have not been known. For researching their changes in ICVD and effects of electro-acupuncture on them, and finding the mechanism of acupuncture in treatment of ICVD, the study was performed. The levels of VIP, SS and PP in 64 patients with acute cerebral infarction were determined. The points of acupuncture were Quchi (LI 12), Waiguan (SJ 5), Huantiao (BG 30), and Zusanli (ST 36). The routine treatment included dextran, nicotinic acid, aspirin, dipyridamole and radix salviae miltiorrhizae composita. The CSF and blood were taken before the begining of treatments and after a course of treatment. The level of VIP, SS and PP were measured by radiommunoassay. Results showed the level of CSF VIP in the patients was significantly lower as compared with controls. The level of plasma SS in the patients was lower, but the difference was not significant as compared with controls, and level of plasma PP in the patients was significantly increased when it was compared with controls. After electro-acupuncture treatment, in patients with good efficiency, CSF VIP recovered to normal level and the levels of plasma and CSF SS were significantly increased, while the level of plasma PP had no significant change. The results suggest that acupuncture might regulate the disturbances of metabolism of VIP and SS in CNS.

  19. Human growth hormone alters carbohydrate storage in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-02

    secreting α-cells predominate in the islets of Langerhans of granivorous species, such as the chicken and duck.[1]. Insulin appears to be more dominant in carnivorous avian species.[1] The roles of growth hormone (GH) in regulation ...

  20. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  1. How hormones influence composition and physiological function of the brain-blood barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Bičíková, M; Sosvorová, L

    2015-01-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain. Their access and effects in the brain are regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Hormones as other substances may enter the brain and vice versa either by paracellular way requiring breaching tight junctions stitching the endothelial cells composing the BBB, or by passage through the cells (transcellular way). Hormones influence both ways through their receptors, both membrane and intracellular, present on/in the BBB. In the review the main examples are outlined how hormones influence the expression and function of proteins forming the tight junctions, as well as how they regulate expression and function of major protein transporters mediating transport of various substances including hormone themselves.

  2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone values from cord blood in neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hospitals in Ethiopia, it is usually difficult to take blood samples from neonates after a few days of life. In the present work, results of cord blood sample TSH measurements are reported for an efficient CH screening. Subjects and Methods. The subjects were 1207 neonates from three state-hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  3. Menopausal hormone therapy is associated with having high blood pressure in postmenopausal women: observational cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Chiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT and cardiovascular risk remains controversial, with a number of studies advocating the use of MHT in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases, while others have shown it to increase risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between menopausal hormone therapy and high blood pressure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 43,405 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Baseline data for these women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia, a large scale study of healthy ageing. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to menopause. Odds ratios for the association between MHT use and having high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by age (<56 years, 56-61 years, 62-70 years and over 71 years and adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. MHT use was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure: past menopausal hormone therapy use: <56 years (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 99% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.20; 56-61 years (1.58, 1.31 to 1.90; 62-70 years (1.26, 1.10 to 1.44. Increased duration of hormone use was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure, with the effect of hormone therapy use diminishing with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: Menopausal hormone therapy use is associated with significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, and the odds increase with increased duration of use. High blood pressure should be conveyed as a health risk for people considering MHT use.

  4. Temporal changes in cardiac function and cerebral blood flow during sequential postmenopausal hormone replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Fritz-Hansen, T; Jensen, H H

    2001-01-01

    and placebo in two 12-week periods. Temporal changes were measured by magnetic resonance flow mapping 8 times. RESULTS: Systemic vascular resistance was reduced during estradiol (-6.9%; P ... (maximum increase, 5.2%; P hormone replacement therapy (-37 mL/min; P =.01) but increased to baseline after...... the addition of norethindrone acetate. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential hormone replacement therapy is associated with changes in cardiac function, which are of therapeutic potential in cardiovascular disorders. Sequential hormone replacement therapy exhibits an overall neutral effect on cerebral blood flow....

  5. Thyroid Hormone and Blood Metabolites Concentration of Gilts Superovulated Prior to Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Mege

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study injection of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG as superovulation agent in gilts to improve thyroid hormone and blood metabolites concentraton. In this experiment, 48 gilts were assigned into four groups of twelve gilts injected with PMSG dan hCG dose levels of 0, 600, 1200 and 1800 IU/gilt. Injections were conducted three days before estrus. During gestation, gilts were placed in colony pigpen. On days 15, 35, and 70 of gestation blood collected to determine triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine, tryglicerides, glucose, protein and bood nitrogen urea concentration. The resuts showed that superovulation dose levels of 600 to 1200 IU/gilt increased concentration of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine/thyroxin and blood metabolite (triglycerides, glucose, and protein, but decreased blood urea nitrogen in gestation ages 15, 35, and 70 days. It is concluded that superovulation with dose of 600 to 1200 IU can improve of gilts metabolite hormone and blood metabolites. (Animal Production 11(2: 88-95 (2009Key Words: gilts, superovulation, metabolite hormone, blood metabolites

  6. Effect of monochromatic and combined light colour on performance, blood parameters, ovarian morphology and reproductive hormones in laying hens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassan, Md Rakibul; Sultana, Shabiha; Choe, Ho Sung; Ryu, Kyeong Seon

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of monochromatic and combined light emitting diode (LED) light colour on performance, ovarian morphology, and reproductive hormone and biochemical blood parameters in laying hens...

  7. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  8. Temporal changes in clinic and ambulatory blood pressure during cyclic post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Post-menopausal hormone replacement (HRT) might protect against cardiovascular disease, possibly by arterial vasodilation and reduced blood pressure. Progestogens are needed to avoid endometrial disease but vascular effects are controversial. The objective was to assess temporal changes...... in blood pressure (BP) by two measurement techniques during a cyclic hormone replacement regimen. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy and normotensive post-menopausal women (age 55 +/- 3 years) were studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, and were randomized to 17beta-oestradiol plus...

  9. Associations between Serum Sex Hormone Concentrations and Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiles in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haring

    Full Text Available Despite observational evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies associating sex hormones with various cardiometabolic risk factors or diseases, pathophysiological explanations are sparse to date. To reveal putative functional insights, we analyzed associations between sex hormone levels and whole blood gene expression profiles.We used data of 991 individuals from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with whole blood gene expression levels determined by array-based transcriptional profiling and serum concentrations of total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free testosterone (free T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, androstenedione (AD, estradiol (E2, and estrone (E1 measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and immunoassay. Associations between sex hormone concentrations and gene expression profiles were analyzed using sex-specific regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, and technical covariables.In men, positive correlations were detected between AD and DDIT4 mRNA levels, as well as between SHBG and the mRNA levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B. No additional significant associations were observed.Besides the associations between AD and DDIT4 expression and SHBG and the transcript levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B, the present study did not indicate any association between sex hormone concentrations and whole blood gene expression profiles in men and women from the general population.

  10. Vasoactive substances in the circulatory dysfunction of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2001-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension exhibit characteristic haemodynamic changes with a hyperkinetic systemic circulation, abnormal distribution of the blood volume, and neurohumoral dysregulation. Moreover, the circulating levels of several vasoactive substances may be elevated....... Splanchnic vasodilatation is of pathogenic significance for the low systemic vascular resistance and abnormal volume distribution, which are important elements in the development of the concomitant cardiac dysfunction, recently termed cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. The systolic and diastolic functions...... are impaired with direct relation to the degree of liver dysfunction. Significant pathophysiological mechanisms seem to include a reduced beta-adrenergic receptor signal transduction, defective cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, and conductance abnormalities. Various vasodilators. such as nitric oxide...

  11. The impact of hormonal contraceptives on blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atthobari, Jarir; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Visser, Sipke T.; de Jong, Paul E.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Aim In short-term studies, hormonal contraceptives (HC) have been suggested to induce a rise in blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE), while the effect of HC in renal function (GFR) is still under debate. Data on long-term and withdrawal effects of HC use on these outcomes are,

  12. Correlation between blood pressure and vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus in sedentary postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtyar Tartibian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The studies show that factors such as vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphorus are involved in the regulation of blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood pressure with vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus in sedentary postmenopausal women. Methods: This investigation is in the form of a descriptive correlational study that was performed in September 2015. The statistical population was all healthy and sedentary postmenopausal women 50-70 years old in Urmia city, Iran. Fifty-four sedentary postmenopausal women were selected as subjects and voluntarily and bona fide participated in this study. General and anthropometric characteristics of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI in subjects were measured by wall-meter with an accuracy of one millimeter, digital scale with precision of 100 g (Beurer, Germany, and dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA (Hologic, USA machines, respectively. Diastolic and systolic blood pressure was measured by indicator machine. Serum levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus were measured by ELISA and Auto-analyzer (BT 1500, Biotecnica, Italy machines, respectively. Results: The mean general, anthropometric, and physiological/laboratory variables of subjects were: age 54 yr, height 156 cm; weight 72 kg; BMI 29 kg/m2; systolic and diastolic blood pressure 76.20 and 110.70, respectively; vitamin D 25.22 ng/ml, parathyroid hormone 33.29 ng/ml, calcium 9.44 ng/ml, and phosphorus 3.26 ng/ml. Moreover, results showed that there was no significant relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and vitamin D (P>0.581 and P>0.619, respectively. There was no significant relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and parathyroid hormone (P>0.623 and P>0.341, respectively. There was no significant

  13. Biomonitoring of blood heavy metals and reproductive hormone level related to low semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ching-Jen; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Han, Bor-Cheng; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-12-30

    Reproductive hormones and exposure to environmental metals are correlated with low-quality semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of heavy metals and reproductive hormones in the blood in addition to other relevant factors to clarify the relationship between these factors and semen quality. We recruited 154 male participants from a reproductive medical center. All participants were provided with a questionnaire on lifestyle implementation. The levels of metals in the blood were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The levels of hormones in the blood were determined using an automatic gamma counter. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict the effects of statistically significant risk factors on semen quality by adjusting for relevant confounders and modifiers. After adjusting for the age, education level, and related factors in the multiple logistic regression analyses, we observed that the increased blood Pb levels were significantly and positively associated with low semen quality. High blood Pb levels (>50 μg/L) had an 11-fold risk of low semen quality. Our results suggest that progressive motility sperm may be a sensitive indicator of the semen quality among all the semen parameters in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A statistical method to calculate blood contamination in the measurement of salivary hormones in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Guilherme A; Patel, Jay P; Coote, Marg; Moreira, Jose C F; Gelain, Daniel P; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that salivary concentrations of certain hormones correlate with their respective serum levels. However, most of these studies did not control for potential blood contamination in saliva. In the present study we developed a statistical method to test the amount of blood contamination that needs to be avoided in saliva samples for the following hormones: cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and oxytocin. Saliva and serum samples were collected from 38 healthy, medication-free women (mean age=33.8±7.3yr.; range=19-45). Serum and salivary hormonal levels and the amount of transferrin in saliva samples were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Salivary transferrin levels did not correlate with salivary cortisol or estradiol (up to 3mg/dl), but they were positively correlated with salivary testosterone, progesterone and oxytocin (phormones in order to determine the level of blood contamination that might affect specific hormonal salivary concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sporadic pancreatic vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor (VIPoma) in a 47-year-old male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Azzam, Ayman; Abudan, Zainab; Algouhi, Amani; Almana, Hadeel; Amin, Tarek

    2014-09-01

    VIPoma is an exceedingly unusual neuroendocrine neoplasm that autonomously secretes vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Its reported incidence is approximately 1 per 10 million individuals per year. Herein, we report the case of sporadic pancreatic VIPoma in a 47-year-old male who presented with a six-month history of chronic, plentiful, watery diarrhea. On physical examination, the patient looked sick, lethargic and had signs of dehydration. Laboratory investigations revealed high VIP hormone level (989pg/mL), hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, high blood urea nitrogen, high creatinine, and metabolic acidosis on arterial blood gas. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showed a 3.1×3.3×4.7cm, well-defined, enhancing lesion involving the pancreatic tail with a cystic component. Moreover, a 5.7×6.1×6.8cm metastatic hepatic lesion was identified. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, hepatic lesion resection, and lymph node dissection. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the pancreatic and hepatic lesions revealed neuroendocrine tumor (VIPoma). Postoperatively, the patient received radiofrequency ablation for the hepatic lesion. A post-operative six-month follow-up showed significant symptomatic relief, reduced VIP hormone level (71pg/mL) and normalized electrolyte and acid-base profiles. However, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a small residual metastatic liver lesion which was considered for hepatic artery embolization (HAE). The patient is still alive with a residual hepatic disease at 18months. We also present a brief literature review on VIPoma. Copyright © 2014 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Novel Vasoactive Proline-Rich Oligopeptide from the Skin Secretion of the Frog Brachycephalus ephippium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Vasconcelos, Andreanne Gomes; Comerma-Steffensen, Simón Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    , PROs decrease blood pressure in animals. In the present study, the isolation and biological characterization of a novel vasoactive BPP isolated from the skin secretion of the frog Brachycephalus ephippium is described. This new PRO, termed BPP-Brachy, has the primary structure WPPPKVSP and the amidated...

  17. Associations of maternal prenatal smoking with umbilical cord blood hormones: the Project Viva cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Rokoff, Lisa B; Hivert, Marie-France; Mantzoros, Christos S; Oken, Emily

    2017-07-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low fetal growth and adverse cardiometabolic health in offspring. However, hormonal pathways underlying these associations are unclear. Therefore, we examined maternal smoking habits and umbilical cord blood hormone profiles in a large, prospective cohort. We studied 978 mother/infant pairs in Project Viva, a Boston-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We categorized mothers as early pregnancy smokers, former smokers, or never smokers. Outcomes were cord blood concentrations of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and C-peptide. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, parity, education, and infant sex. We conducted analyses in the full cohort and stratified by infant sex. Thirteen percent of women were early pregnancy smokers, 20% former smokers, and 68% never smokers. Infants of early pregnancy smokers had lower IGF-1 adjusted for IGFBP-3 [-5.2ng/mL (95% CI: -8.6, -1.7)], with more pronounced associations in girls [-10.7ng/mL (95% CI: -18.5, -2.9) vs. -4.0ng/mL (95% CI: -8.4, 0.4) for boys]. Early pregnancy smoking was not associated with cord blood hormones other than IGF-1. Infants of former smokers had a cord blood hormone profile similar to infants of never smokers. As compared to mothers who never smoked, early pregnancy smokers had infants with lower cord blood IGF-1 which could prime adverse metabolic outcomes. This provides further reason to support smoking cessation programs in women of reproductive age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between perchlorate in drinking water and cord blood thyroid hormones: First experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Javidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the controversial information regarding the effects of perchlorate on thyroid function of high risk population as neonates, and given the high prevalence rate of thyroid disorders specially congenital hypothyroidism in our region, this study aims to investigate for the first time in Iran, the relationship between drinking groundwater perchlorate and cord blood thyroid hormones level in an industrial region. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, drinking groundwater perchlorate level of rural areas of Zarinshahr, Isfahan was measured. Simultaneously, cord blood level of thyroid hormones of neonates born in the studied region was measured. Thyroid function test of neonates in regions with low and high perchlorate level were compared. Results: In this study, 25 tap water samples were obtained for perchlorate measurement. Level of cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, T4 and T3 of 25 neonates were measured. Mean (standard deviation of perchlorate, TSH, T4 and T3 was 3.59 (5.10 μg/l, 7.81 (4.14 mIU/m, 6.06 (0.85 mg/dl, and 63.46 (17.53 mg/dl, respectively. Mean levels of thyroid function tests were not different in low ( 0.05. Conclusions: Perchlorate did not appear to be related to thyroid function of neonates in the studied industrial region. It seems that iodine status of the regions, as well as other environmental contaminants and genetic background, could impact on its relation with thyroid function of neonates.

  19. Thyroid hormones in donkey blood and milk: correlations with milk yield and environmental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Todini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (TH are the primary endocrine stimulators of non-shivering thermogenesis and are known to stimulate lactation. Triiodothyronine (T3 is the bioactive form, mainly derived by deiodination of thyroxine (T4, and the free quote (unbound to plasma proteins is immediately bioavailable. This study aimed to evaluate potential relationships among TH in the blood, triiodothyronine in the milk (T3M, milk yield and environmental temperature in March to July for 8 lactating donkeys. Milk yield and blood TH concentrations changed significantly over time, whereas T3M was rather stable among individuals and not affected by time of sampling. Free T3 was not correlated with free T4 or with total TH in the blood, but it was weakly correlated with T3M. No relationship was found between blood TH and milk yield, which was negatively correlated with T3M. Thus, the absolute quantity of bioactive hormone in milk secretion is maintained. Milk yield was positively correlated with the free/total T3 and free T3/free T4 ratios, thus in turn with the relative quote of the circulating bioactive hormone. Circulating T3/T4 ratios were negatively correlated with environmental temperature. It is concluded that environmental temperature, in the range of the present study (-2 to 35°C, does not significantly entrain thyroid gland activity, which is affected more by other factors, such as inter-individual variations and physiological status (i.e., stage of lactation. However, increases in environmental temperature most likely induce decreases in deiodinase activity at the peripheral tissue level, as indicated by the decrease in the T3/T4 ratios in the blood.

  20. Vasoactive neuropeptides in clinical ophthalmology: An association with autoimmune retinopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Staines

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Staines1,2, Ekua W Brenu2, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik21Queensland Health, Gold Coast Population Health Unit, Southport, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Population Health and Neuroimmunology Unit, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: The mammalian eye is protected against pathogens and inflammation in a relatively immune-privileged environment. Stringent mechanisms are activated that regulate external injury, infection, and autoimmunity. The eye contains a variety of cells expressing vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs, and their receptors, located in the sclera, cornea, iris, ciliary body, ciliary process, and the retina. VNs are important activators of adenylate cyclase, deriving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP from adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Impairment of VN function would arguably impede cAMP production and impede utilization of ATP. Thus VN autoimmunity may be an etiological factor in retinopathy involving perturbations of purinergic signaling. A sound blood supply is necessary for the existence and functional properties of the retina. This paper postulates that impairments in the endothelial barriers and the blood–retinal barrier, as well as certain inflammatory responses, may arise from disruption to VN function. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors and purinergic modulators may have a role in the treatment of postulated VN autoimmune retinopathy.Keywords: retinopathy, autoimmune, vasoactive neuropeptides, phosphodiesterase inhibitors

  1. Blood borne hormones in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure, the role of circumventricular organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Skrzypecki, Janusz

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that blood borne hormones modulate brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure. This appears to be mediated by the circumventricular organs which are located in the walls of the brain ventricular system and lack the blood-brain barrier. Recent evidence shows that neurons of the circumventricular organs express receptors for the majority of cardiovascular hormones. Intracerebroventricular infusions of hormones and their antagonists is one approach to evaluate the influence of blood borne hormones on the neural mechanisms regulating arterial blood pressure. Interestingly, there is no clear correlation between peripheral and central effects of cardiovascular hormones. For example, angiotensin II increases blood pressure acting peripherally and centrally, whereas peripherally acting pressor catecholamines decrease blood pressure when infused intracerebroventricularly. The physiological role of such dual hemodynamic responses has not yet been clarified. In the paper we review studies on hemodynamic effects of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, angiotensin II, aldosterone, natriuretic peptides, endothelins, histamine and bradykinin in the context of their role in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of a scalp massage on stress hormone, blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy female

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, In-Hong; Kim, Tae-Young; Ko, Young-Wan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] A scalp massage was conducted on female office workers divided into a 15 minute group and 25 minute group and its effect on stress hormone, blood pressure and heart rate was analyzed in order...

  3. Menopausia, hipertensión arterial y terapia de reemplazo hormonal Menopause, blood hypertension and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daysi Navarro Despaigne

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la influencia de la terapia de reemplazo hormonal (THR sobre el síndrome climatérico (SC y los niveles de tensión arterial en mujeres posmenopáusicas con hipertensión arterial (HTA, se realizó un ensayo terapéutico abierto, el cual incluyó 45 mujeres no obesas con HTA ligera/moderada. En cada mujer se evaluó la evolución de los síntomas climatéricos y de los niveles de tensión arterial, así como los efectos indeseables a la THR. Como medicamento las pacientes recibieron Estradiol 2mg + Levonorgestrel 1 mg por día durante 12 meses. Durante la THR disminuyeron los síntomas climatéricos, en particular los vasomotores (de 86,6 a 10 % y los genitourinarios (de 56,7 a 15 %. En la totalidad de las mujeres existió estabilidad en los niveles de tensión arterial. En 5 mujeres hubo necesidad de incrementar la dosis de medicamentos antihipertensivos. En el resto esta se mantuvo o disminuyó. Como efectos indeseables se reportó sangramiento vaginal, mastodinia, cefalea, vasculitis e isquemia del quinto dedo del pie. Las dos últimas pacientes debieron suspender el tratamiento y se presentaron al sexto mes de haber iniciado la THR. En conclusión, en mujeres de edad mediana con hipertensión arterial la THR mejora el síndrome climatérico sin empeorar los niveles de tensión arterial.To evaluate the influence of hormone replacement therapy on the climateric syndrome (CS and the blood pressure values in postmenopausal women with hypertension, an open therapeutic assay was carried out, which included 45 non-obese women with slight/moderate hypertension. The course of the climateric symptoms and the blood pressure levels as well as the adverse effects of HRT were evaluated in every woman. The patients took Estradiol 2mg plus Levonorgestrel 1 mg per day for 12 months as drug therapy. During the application of the HRT, the climateric symptoms, particularly vasomotor (from 86,6 to 10% and genitourinary (from 56,7 to 15% decreased

  4. A mathematical/physiological model of parathyroid hormone secretion in response to blood-ionized calcium lowering in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, G; Schwarz, P

    1997-01-01

    increased, probably due to the larger amount of parathyroid tissue in these patients. These observations reveal a striking functional similarity between abnormal and normal parathyroid tissue. Furthermore, an apparently linear relationship between the rate of parathyroid hormone elimination from the blood......The aim of the present study was to test a mathematical model of the biochemical processes in the parathyroid glands responsible for the secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting from extracellular calcium reduction. A double exponential curve described the parathyroid hormone secretion induced...... by rapid lowering of blood-ionized calcium in humans with normal as well as abnormal parathyroid tissue. Our data show that it was possible to establish a simple mathematical model of the parathyroid hormone response to blood-ionized calcium lowering, sufficient to fit experimental data obtained from...

  5. Vasoactive substances in the circulatory dysfunction of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2001-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension exhibit characteristic haemodynamic changes with a hyperkinetic systemic circulation, abnormal distribution of the blood volume, and neurohumoral dysregulation. Moreover, the circulating levels of several vasoactive substances may be elevated....... Splanchnic vasodilatation is of pathogenic significance for the low systemic vascular resistance and abnormal volume distribution, which are important elements in the development of the concomitant cardiac dysfunction, recently termed cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. The systolic and diastolic functions...... and calcitonin gene-related peptide, are among candidates in the vasodilatation and the increased arterial compliance recently described in advanced cirrhosis. Reflex-induced enhanced sympatho-adrenal activity, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and elevated circulating vasopressin...

  6. Effects of oxygenation and the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol on the viscosity of blood from the trout oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bodil; Weber, Roy

    1995-01-01

    Although the concentrations of the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) blood increase upon hypoxic exposure, the combined effects of these hormones and O2 lack upon fish blood rheology have not been investigated. Deoxygenated blood taken by caudal puncture...... exhibited lower viscosities than oxygenated samples at low shear rates, whereas the opposite was true at high shear rates. However, blood from cannulated trout had similar viscosities in its deoxygenated and oxygenated states. In the deoxygenated state, addition of adrenaline lowered viscosity at low shear...... rates and increased it at high shear rates, resembling the effects of deoxygenation observed in blood taken by venepuncture. In oxygenated blood on the contrary, no marked adrenaline effects were observed. In deoxygenated blood, addition of cortisol lowered viscosity at all measured shear rates compared...

  7. Plasma Parathyroid Hormone Is Independently Related to Nocturnal Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients : The Styrian Hypertension Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheyen, Nicolas D; Kienreich, Katharina; Gaksch, Martin; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Grübler, Martin R; Hartaigh, Briain Ó; Schmid, Johannes; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Colantonio, Caterina; Belyavskiy, Evgeny; Treiber, Gerlies; Catena, Cristiana; Brussee, Helmut; Pieske, Burkert; März, Winfried; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    High parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been linked with high blood pressure (BP), but the relationship with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is largely unknown. The authors therefore analyzed cross-sectional data of 292 hypertensive patients participating in the Styrian Hypertension Study

  8. Environmental exposure to metals and male reproductive hormones: circulating testosterone is inversely associated with blood molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Rossano, Mary G; Protas, Bridget; Padmanahban, Vasantha; Diamond, Michael P; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J

    2010-01-01

    To explore associations between exposure to metals and male reproductive hormone levels. Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. University Medical Center. Men recruited through two infertility clinics in Michigan. Metal concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were measured in blood samples collected from 219 men. Serum FSH, LH, inhibin B, T, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Cadmium, copper, and lead were all significantly or suggestively positively associated with T when modeled individually, findings that are consistent with limited previous human and animal studies. Conversely, molybdenum was associated with reduced T. A significant inverse trend between molybdenum and T remained when additionally considering other metals in the model, and a positive association between T and zinc was also found. Finally, in exploratory analysis there was evidence for an interaction between molybdenum and zinc, whereby high molybdenum was associated with a 37% reduction in T (relative to the population median level) among men with low zinc. Although reductions in T and reproductive toxicity after molybdenum exposure have been previously demonstrated in animal studies, more research is needed to determine whether molybdenum poses a risk to human reproductive health. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  10. Human placental growth hormone in ectopic pregnancy: Detection in maternal blood, immunohistochemistry and potential clinical implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübener, Christoph; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Wu, Zida; Diebold, Joachim; Strasburger, Christian J; Mahner, Sven; Hasbargen, Uwe; Delius, Maria

    2017-12-01

    To investigate human placental growth hormone (hGH-V) in ectopic pregnancy (EP): detection in maternal blood, correlation with immunohistochemistry and possible role as a marker for the course of EP. Women presenting in the outpatient or emergency department of a tertiary care university hospital with a positive pregnancy test and strong suspicion of EP by ultrasound and/or symptoms were eligible for the study (n=70). Tissue specimens from the surgically treated patients (n=50) were examined by histopathology as well as by a hGH-V specific immohistochemistry set-up. A highly sensitive hGH-V specific immunoassay was used to analyse serum samples collected before treatment, day 1 post surgery samples and serial samples for medical treatment. In EP patients' sera hGH-V was shown to be measurable for the first time (n=18). HGH-V however could not be detected in all patients' sera. HCG levels were significantly higher in the hGH-V serum positive group (p 0.001). HGH-V was localized to the syncytiotrophoblast in all specimens of EP examined by immunohistochemistry (n=10) regardless of the detection in the patient's blood. Placental growth hormone (hGH-V) was shown to be present both in ectopic pregnancy patients' sera and tissue. It may serve as a biomarker for monitoring the course and treatment of EP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modification of blood pressure in postmenopausal women: role of hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannoletta M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Cannoletta, Angelo Cagnacci Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences of the Mother, Child and Adult, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena and Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy Abstract: The rate of hypertension increases after menopause. Whether estrogen and progesterone deficiency associated with menopause play a role in determining a worst blood pressure (BP control is still controversial. Also, studies dealing with the administration of estrogens or hormone therapy (HT have reported conflicting evidence. In general it seems that, despite some negative data on subgroups of later postmenopausal women obtained with oral estrogens, in particular conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, most of the data indicate neutral or beneficial effects of estrogen or HT administration on BP control of both normotensive and hypertensive women. Data obtained with ambulatory BP monitoring and with transdermal estrogens are more convincing and concordant in defining positive effect on BP control of both normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal women. Overall progestin adjunct does not hamper the effect of estrogens. Among progestins, drospirenone, a spironolactone-derived molecule, appears to be the molecule with the best antihypertensive properties. Keywords: hormone replacement therapy, estrogen, progestin, blood pressure, menopause, hypertension 

  12. Vertebrate phylogeny of hydrogen sulfide vasoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombkowski, Ryan A; Russell, Michael J; Schulman, Alexis A; Doellman, Meredith M; Olson, Kenneth R

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a recently identified endogenous vasodilator in mammals. In steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Osteichthyes), H(2)S produces both dose-dependent dilation and a unique dose-dependent constriction. In this study, we examined H(2)S vasoactivity in all vertebrate classes to determine whether H(2)S is universally vasoactive and to identify phylogenetic and/or environmental trends. H(2)S was generated from NaHS and examined in unstimulated and precontracted systemic and, when applicable, pulmonary arteries (PA) from Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti, Agnatha), sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, Agnatha), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus milberti, Chondrichthyes), marine toad (Bufo marinus, Amphibia), American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis, Reptilia), Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Aves), and white rat (Rattus rattus, Mammalia). In otherwise unstimulated vessels, NaHS produced 1) a dose-dependent relaxation in Pacific hagfish dorsal aorta; 2) a dose-dependent contraction in sea lamprey dorsal aorta, marine toad aorta, alligator aorta and PA, duck aorta, and rat thoracic aorta; 3) a threshold relaxation in shark ventral aorta, dorsal aorta, and afferent branchial artery; and 4) a multiphasic contraction-relaxation-contraction in the marine toad PA, duck PA, and rat PA. Precontraction of these vessels with another agonist did not affect the general pattern of NaHS vasoactivity with the exception of the rat aorta, where relaxation was now dominant. These results show that H(2)S is a phylogenetically ancient and versatile vasoregulatory molecule that appears to have been opportunistically engaged to suit both organ-specific and species-specific homeostatic requirements.

  13. Hormonal shifts and intensity of free radical oxidation in the blood of patients with facial nerve neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Govorova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathochemical characteristic features of facial nerve neuropathy (FNN have been more accurately defined. Heterogeneous patochemical pattern of facial nerve neuropathy has been shown to be dependent on the severity of the disease, intensity of free radical oxidation processes, and hormonal status of the patient. We have found reliable distinctions in dynamics of free radical oxidation processes, and hormo-nal status in the blood of the patients with moderately severe and severe forms of facial nerve neuropathies. In facial nerve neuropathies we observed regulatory effects of cortisol and somatotropic hormone; in facial nerve neuropathywith moderate severity the hormones of thyroid group were seen to be switching off, falling out the processes regulating metabolism. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were found to have regulating effects, especially in the acute phase of the disease. Different dynamics of the hormones in patients with high and low free radical oxidation levels suggests that the oxidative stress intensity could be associated with regulatory effects of the hormones . The results of correlation analysis confirm the reliable distinctions in free radical oxidation characteristics andand cortisole levels, STH, FSH and LH levels.

  14. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sterian Ward

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the possible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Prospective non-randomized clinical trial with at least 3 months of follow-up. SETTING: A public university referral center [CAISM/Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP]. PARTICIPANTS: 415 neonates divided into 5 groups: eighty-three infants born from cardiac mothers; 98 from mothers that had toxemia; 54 of the mothers had diabetes mellitus; 40 were HIV positive and 140 had no diseases. INTERVENTION: All newborns had cord blood samples collected on filter paper at birth. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH was measured from dried blood spots using a homemade immunofluorescence assay (sensitivity in dried blood spots = 0.1 mU/L. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean TSH levels among the 5 groups. Moreover, TSH levels were around 5 mU/L in 48% of the newborns, indicating that our region is severely deficient in iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that primary TSH screening programs using cord blood are not affected by maternal diseases. We suggest that, besides its technical advantages over heel punctures with T4 primary approaches, neonatal screening using primary cord blood TSH may also be used as a monitoring tool for evaluation and control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD.

  15. Environmental exposure to metals and male reproductive hormones: Circulating testosterone is inversely associated with blood molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective To explore associations between exposure to metals and male reproductive hormone levels. Design Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Setting Metal concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were measured in blood samples collected from 219 men. Patients: Men recruited through two Michigan, USA infertility clinics. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Serum FSH, LH, inhibin B, testosterone, and SHBG. Results Cadmium, copper and lead were all significantly or suggestively positively associated with testosterone when modeled individually (p-values = 0.1, 0.03, and 0.07, respectively), findings that are consistent with limited previous human and animal studies. Conversely, molybdenum was associated with reduced testosterone (p-value for trend = 0.001). A significant inverse trend between molybdenum and testosterone remained when additionally considering other metals in the model, where a positive association between testosterone and zinc was also found. Finally, in exploratory analysis there was evidence for an interaction between molybdenum and zinc, where high molybdenum was associated with a 37% reduction in testosterone (relative to the population median level) among men with low zinc. Conclusions While reductions in testosterone and reproductive toxicity following molybdenum exposure have been previously demonstrated in animal studies, more research is needed to determine whether molybdenum poses a risk to human reproductive health. PMID:18990371

  16. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  17. Blood plasma sample preparation method to determine thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds in Effect-Directed Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bytingsvik, J.; Jonker, W.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Boer, J.; Jenssen, B.M.; Lie, E.; Aars, J.; Hamers, T.H.M.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    A sample preparation method combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was developed to be used in Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) of blood plasma. Until now such a method was not available. It can be used for extraction of a broad range of thyroid hormone

  18. Age-Dependent Variation in Hormonal Concentration and Biochemical Constituents in Blood Plasma of Indian Native Fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was to investigate the age-related changes in hormonal concentration and biochemical constituents of blood plasma in Indian native desi fowl. One hundred and sixty two (54 from each breed, i.e., Kadaknath (KN, Aseel peela (AP, and White leghorn (WLH day-old female chicks were randomly divided into nine groups each of 18 chicks (3 groups × 3 replicates. WLH was taken in this study to compare the characteristics of Indian native desi fowl. The highest level of estrogen hormone in WLH and desi fowl in blood plasma was occurred at 18 and 24 wks of age, respectively. Whereas, the peak of progesterone hormone in WLH hens noticed around 24 wks, in case of desi fowls, it was at 30 wks of age. Irrespective of the breed, the hormonal profile of Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroxine (T4 in blood plasma was found highest around 6 to 12 wks of age. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP increased with the reduction of alkaline phosphate (ALP activities at different time intervals. Irrespective of the breed, transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT activities of blood plasma increased linearly with the advancement of the age. From this study, it may be concluded that sexual maturity of the Indian native desi fowl occurred nearly 6 wk later (24 wk than WLH.

  19. Imbalance in the blood antioxidant system in growth hormone-deficient children before and after 1 year of recombinant growth hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Pankratova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the effects of 12-month therapy with recombinant growth hormone (rGH on the blood antioxidant system in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC of plasma was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power or ferric reducing ability of plasma; activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in erythrocytes were assessed; non-protein thiols (NT and ceruloplasmin (CP levels were also measured. These parameters were determined before and after 12 month of rGH treatment. Eleven treatment-naive prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency were included in the study. Another 11 prepubertal children comprised a control group. Before rGH treatment, TAC of plasma and NT level in the control group were significantly lower (726 ± 196 vs. 525 ± 166 µmol/L, P = 0.0182 and 0.92 ± 0.18 vs. 0.70 ± 0.22 µmol/ml, P = 0.0319, before and after the therapy, respectively. The only parameter that significantly (19.6 ± 4.7 vs. 14.5 ± 3.4 Units/g Hb, P = 0.0396 exceeded the same in the control group after rGH therapy was SOD activity. However, none of the measured parameters of antioxidant system in GHD children, except for TAC (525 ± 166 vs. 658 ± 115 µmol/L, P = 0.0205, exhibited significant improvement toward the end of the 12-month treatment period, although non-significant changes in CAT activity and CP level were also observed. This work has demonstrated that some parameters of the blood antioxidant system are out of balance and even impaired in GHD children. A 12-month treatment with rGH resulted in a partial improvement of the antioxidant system.

  20. Determination of steroid hormones in blood by GC–MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Jacobsen, Naja Wessel; Nielsen, Frederik Knud

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a methodology to determine nine key steroid hormones (viz. pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, test......This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a methodology to determine nine key steroid hormones (viz. pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, test...

  1. Mercury in hair and blood from residents of Phnom Penh (Cambodia) and possible effect on serum hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Monirith, In; Chamnan, Chhoun; Tana, Touch Seang; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-06-01

    High concentration of mercury (Hg) in hair has been reported for Cambodians. To confirm the Hg contamination occurring through intake, Hg concentrations were determined in both hair and blood of residents (n=20) from Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Mercury concentrations in the hair and blood were 0.69-190microg g(-1) dry wt and 5.2-58microg l(-1), respectively, which were lower than those from Hg contaminated or high fish intake regions, but were higher than those from non-contaminated regions. Some female subjects had hair and blood Hg levels exceeding the threshold values for neurotoxic effects. Interestingly, serum estrone and estradiol levels were positively correlated with blood Hg level for both males and females, indicating possible induction of female hormones by Hg exposure in Cambodians.

  2. Effect of maternal and neonatal factors on cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal G Lakshminarayana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is most common preventable cause of mental retardation in children. Cord blood Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (CBTSH level is an accepted screening tool for CH. Objectives: To study CBTSH profile in neonates born at tertiary care referral center and to analyze the influence of maternal and neonatal factors on their levels. Design: Cross retrospective sectional study. Methods: Study population included 979 neonates (males = 506 to females = 473. The CBTSH levels were estimated using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on Cobas analyzer. Kit based cut-offs of TSH level were used for analysis. All neonates with abnormal CBSTH levels, were started on levothyroxine supplementation 10 μg/Kg/day and TSH levels were reassessed as per departmental protocol. Results: The mean CBTSH was 7.82 μIU/mL (Range 0.112 to 81.4, SD = 5.48. The mean CBTSH level was significantly higher in first order neonates, neonates delivered by assisted vaginal delivery and normal delivery, delivered at term or preterm, neonates with APGAR score 16.10 and 16.1 μIU/mL was significantly higher in neonates delivered by assisted vaginal delivery and normal delivery, term and preterm neonates, APAGR score of 16.10 and <1.0 led to a recall of 5.41% of neonates which is practicable given the scenario in our Country. The mode of delivery and perinatal stress factors have a significant impact on CBTSH levels and any rise to be seen in the light of these factors. The prevalence rate of CH after recall was ~3 in 1000 live births.

  3. Hormone Responses to an Acute Bout of Low Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Exercise in College-Aged Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eonho Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acute hormone response to exercise differed between low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise and traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in college-aged women. A total of 13 healthy women (aged 18-25 yrs, who were taking oral contraceptives, volunteered for this randomized crossover study. Subjects performed a session of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR (20% of 1-RM, 1 set 30 reps, 2 sets 15 reps and a session of traditional high intensity resistance exercise without blood flow restriction (HI (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1-RM on separate days. Fasting serum cortisol and growth hormone (GH and blood lactate responses were measured in the morning pre and post exercise sessions. GH (Change: HI: 6.34 ± 1.72; BFR: 4.22 ± 1.40 ng·mL-1 and cortisol (Change: HI: 4.46 ± 1.53; BFR: 8.10 ± 2.30 ug·dL-1 significantly (p < 0.05 increased immediately post exercise for both protocols compared to baseline and there were no significant differences between the protocols for these responses. In contrast, blood lactate levels (HI: 7.35 ± 0.45; BFR: 4.02 ± 0.33 mmol·L-1 and ratings of perceived exertion were significantly (p < 0.01 higher for the HI protocol. In conclusion, acute BFR restricted resistance exercise stimulated similar increases in anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women.

  4. Whole blood samples for adrenocorticotrophic hormone measurement can be stored at room temperature for 4 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Madsen, Rikke Fogt; Møller, Line Rosengreen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA-blood sa......INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA......-blood samples from 30 patients were collected, aliquoted and stored on ice or at room temperature for 0, 2, 4, 24, or 48 h before centrifugation, and the plasma was stored frozen until analysis. All samples were analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on cobas 6000 e601. The change...... no clinically relevant change in ACTH recovery for up to 4 h compared to standard conditions. For samples stored at room temperature for 4 h, a significant (p temperature for up...

  5. Role of sensory nervous system vasoactive peptides in hypertension

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    R.E. Watson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present research was to elucidate the roles and mechanisms by which the sensory nervous system, through the actions of potent vasodilator neuropeptides, regulates cardiovascular function in both the normal state and in the pathophysiology of hypertension. The animal models of acquired hypertension studied were deoxycorticosterone-salt (DOC-salt, subtotal nephrectomy-salt (SN-salt, and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME-induced hypertension during pregnancy in rats. The genetic model was the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP are potent vasodilating neuropeptides. In the acquired models of hypertension, CGRP and SP play compensatory roles to buffer the blood pressure (BP increase. Their synthesis and release are increased in the DOC-salt model but not in the SN-salt model. This suggests that the mechanism by which both models lower BP in SN-salt rats is by increased vascular sensitivity. CGRP functions in a similar manner in the L-NAME model. In the SHR, synthesis of CGRP and SP is decreased. This could contribute to the BP elevation in this model. The CGRP gene knockout mouse has increased baseline mean arterial pressure. The long-term synthesis and release of CGRP is increased by nerve growth factor, bradykinin, and prostaglandins and is decreased by alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonists and glucocorticoids. In several animal models, sensory nervous system vasoactive peptides play a role in chronic BP elevation. In the acquired models, they play a compensatory role. In the genetic model, their decreased levels may contribute to the elevated BP. The roles of CGRP and SP in human hypertension are yet to be clarified.

  6. Relationships of sex steroid hormone levels in benign and cancerous breast tissue and blood: A critical appraisal of current science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mathews, Brett W; Sherman, Mark E

    2015-07-01

    A systematic review of the literature on sex steroid measurement in breast tissue identified only 19 articles meeting the following criteria: menopausal status given; steroids measured in tissue homogenates by conventional RIA with a purification step or by mass spectrometry; and values reported per g tissue or per g protein. Twelve articles were analyzed in detail for: ratios of sex steroid hormone levels in cancerous or benign tissues to blood levels, stratified by menopausal status; ratios between the different hormone levels within tissues or within blood; and difference in these ratios between tissue and blood compartments. Estrogen and androgen concentrations varied greatly in benign and cancerous tissues and in blood between individuals. Postmenopausal, but not premenopausal, estradiol concentrations were significantly higher in cancerous compared to benign breast tissue. The estradiol/estrone ratio was lowest in premenopausal benign tissue, and substantially higher in premenopausal cancerous tissue and postmenopausal benign and cancerous tissues. Estradiol and estrone levels were considerably higher in tissue than in plasma in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Androgen levels were generally higher in the benign than the cancerous tissue, and tissue androgen levels were higher than in plasma, suggesting in situ aromatization of androgens to estrogens in breast cancer tissue. Limited available data on levels of hydroxylated estrogens in breast tissue compared to corresponding levels in plasma or urine were reviewed, but due to the paucity of studies no conclusions can presently be drawn regarding the relationship of the 2-hydroxyestrone:16α-hydroxyestrone ratio to breast cancer risk and genotoxic effects of 4-hydroxylated estrogens. Finally, data on hormone levels in breast adipose tissue were analyzed; high levels of androstenedione and testosterone and significant estrone and estradiol levels in breast adipocytes from postmenopausal breast

  7. The influence of occupational heat exposure on cognitive performance and blood level of stress hormones: a field study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlomi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Mahmoud Khani, Somayeh; Ansari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    This article aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress on cognitive performance and the blood concentration of stress hormones among workers of a foundry plant. Seventy workers within the exposed (35 people) and unexposed (35 people) groups were studied. The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index was measured for heat stress assessment. The cognitive performance tests were conducted using the Stroop color word test (SCWT) before and during working hours. For the assessment of the serum level of cortisol and the plasma level of adrenaline and noradrenaline, blood samples were taken during working hours from both groups. Only for SCWT III was there a significant relationship between heat stress and test duration, error rate and reaction time. The laboratory test results revealed significantly higher concentrations of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed group. There existed a positive correlation between cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline and WBGT index and also test duration and reaction time of SCWT III, and number of errors of SCWT I, SCWT II and SCWT III during work. Heat stress can lead to an increase in the blood level of stress hormones, resulting in cognitive performance impairment.

  8. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hormones and Hypertension What is hypertension? Hypertension, or chronic (long-term) high blood pressure, is a main cause of ... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ...

  9. Effects of tactile and electrical stimuli upon release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the mammalian penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, A F; Kendrick, K M; Blank, M A; Bloom, S R

    1984-02-01

    Plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the corpora cavernosa penis and dorsal penile veins greatly exceeded those measured in the limb or caudal veins during anaesthesia in various mammals (Bennett's wallaby, Barbary sheep, cheetah, puma, sooty mangabey, pigtail macaque and chimpanzee). Tactile stimulation of the penis immediately before or during collection of blood samples resulted in an increase. In the wallaby, VIP levels (mean +/- S.E.M.) in blood samples collected from the flaccid penis in the absence of tactile stimulation were very low (0.6 +/- 0.5 pmol/l). A 36-fold increase in VIP occurred after manual extension of the flaccid penis (24.8 +/- 3.2 pmol/l) or during manually stimulated erections (25.1 +/- 1.7 pmol/l). Electrical stimulation of erection produced no significant increase in VIP levels (2.3 +/- 0.9 pmol/l) unless accompanied by tactile stimulation (17.5 +/- 1.4 pmol/l). These studies provide the first demonstration that sensory feedback from the penis plays an important role in regulating vasoactive intestinal polypeptidergic activity. Since VIP is a potent vasodilator its release due to tactile stimuli during copulation may play a role in the maintenance of penile erection.

  10. Vasoactive Drugs and Hemodynamic Monitoring in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care: An Italian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Alessandra; Bignami, Elena; Belletti, Alessandro; Polito, Angelo; Ricci, Zaccaria; Isgrò, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Alessandro; Cogo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about practitioner preference, the availability of technology, and variability in practice with respect to hemodynamic monitoring and vasoactive drug use after congenital heart surgery. The aim of this study was to characterize current hospital practices related to the management of low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) across Italy. We issued a 22-item questionnaire to 14 Italian hospitals performing pediatric cardiac surgery. Electrocardiogram, invasive blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulse oximetry, diuresis, body temperature, arterial lactate, and blood gas analysis were identified as routine in hemodynamic monitoring. With regard to advanced hemodynamic monitoring, pulmonary arterial catheter and transpulmonary thermodilution were available in 43% of the centers, uncalibrated pulse contour methods in 29% of the centers, and transesophageal/transthoracic echocardiograms in all of the centers. Dopamine added to milrinone was the most frequent drug regimen for LCOS prevention after cardiopulmonary bypass. Overall, 86% of centers used milrinone alone as the initial treatment for LCOS with elevated systemic vascular resistances and levosimendan, the second preferred choice. In cases of LCOS with low vascular resistance, epinephrine was the first choice (10 centers), dopamine was the second choice (4 centers), followed by vasopressin and norepinephrine (3 centers). For treatment of LCOS with elevated pulmonary resistances, milrinone was the first choice (eight centers), followed by inhaled nitric oxide (five centers). The survey shows that advanced hemodynamic monitoring is rarely performed. The most commonly used vasoactive drugs are milrinone, levosimendan, dopamine, epinephrine, vasopressin, and norepinephrine. Guidelines on the topic are warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Sex hormones and hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Raghvendra K; Oparil, Suzanne; Imthurn, Bruno; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2017-01-01

    Gender has an important influence on blood pressure, with premenopausal women having a lower arterial blood pressure than age-matched men. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women have higher blood pressures, suggesting that ovarian hormones may modulate blood pressure. However, whether sex hormones are responsible for the observed gender-associated differences in arterial blood pressure and whether ovarian hormones account for differences in blood pressure in premenopausal ver...

  12. Influence of disease activity on steroid hormone levels in peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H. R.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Koppeschaar, H. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The steroid hormone status of 27 female patients (15 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal) and 11 male patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated before and after a clinically significant deterioration in disease activity. In postmenopausal patients the serum level of cortisol decreased

  13. Association between Sex Hormone and Blood Uric Acid in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Wen Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between serum uric acid (SUA level and sexual dysfunction in patients with diabetes is not well characterized. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM causes metabolic disorders, including abnormal serum uric acid (SUA levels. In this study, we enrolled 205 male patients with T2DM and investigated the relationship between sex hormone levels and SUA. Patients were divided into four groups based on SUA quartiles. On the other hand, based on the total testosterone (TT level, patients were divided into three groups; SUA and other laboratory indices were determined. Increase in SUA level was significantly associated with decreased levels of TT, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone, age, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, glycated hemoglobin, serum creatinine, and HOMA-IR levels. SUA, waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA-IR showed a negative correlation with TT level, while age showed a positive correlation with TT level. SUA and body mass index were found to be risk factors for gonadal dysfunction. Therefore, we conclude that hypogonadism of male patients with T2DM is related to SUA level.

  14. Postprandial blood hormone and metabolite concentrations influenced by feeding frequency and feeding level in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicari, T.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Zbinden, Y.; Blum, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    This study hypothesized that increased feeding frequency (FF) decreases problems with glucose homeostasis seen at high feeding levels (FL) in heavy veal calves. Effects of FF and FL on hormone and metabolite concentrations were studied in 15 heavy veal calves fed once (FF1; at 12:00), twice (FF2; at

  15. Effect of Oral and Vaginal Hormonal Contraceptives on Inflammatory Blood Biomarkers

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    Afshin A. Divani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of combined hormonal contraceptives has been reported to increase the level of C-reactive protein (CRP. We assessed the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on inflammatory cytokines including CRP, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and soluble CD40 ligand. We used 79 female subjects (19 to 30 years old who were combined oral contraceptives users (n=29, combined vaginal contraceptive users (n=20, and nonusers (n=30 with CRP values of ≤1 (n=46 or ≥3 (n=33. Information on medical history, physical activities, and dietary and sleeping habits were collected. Both oral and vaginal contraceptive users had higher levels of CRP (P<0.0001, compared to nonusers. Only oral contraceptive users exhibited elevated sCD40L (P<0.01. When comparing the groups with CRP ≤ 1 and CRP ≥ 3, levels of IL-6 and sTNF-RI were positively correlated with CRP among oral contraceptive users. We did not observe the same elevation for other inflammatory biomarkers for the CRP ≥ 3 group among vaginal contraceptive users. The clear cause of elevation in CRP level due to the use of different hormonal contraceptive formulations and methods is not well understood. Longitudinal studies with larger sample size are required to better assess the true cause of CRP elevation among hormonal contraceptive users.

  16. Glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 and vasoactive intestinal peptide are neuroprotective on cultured and mast cell co-cultured rat myenteric neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Voss Ulrikke; Sand Elin; Hellström Per M; Ekblad Eva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuropathy is believed to be a common feature of functional and inflammatory intestinal diseases. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an acknowledged neuroprotective agent in peripheral, including enteric, and central neurons. The proglucagon-like hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 (GLP1 and GLP2) belong to the secretin/glucagon/VIP superfamily of peptides and GLP1 and GLP2 receptors are expressed in enteric neurons. Possible neuroprotective effects of these peptide...

  17. Role of hormones and blood lipids in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris in non-obese, non-hirsute females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Ola Ahmed; El Shazly, Rania Mohamed Azmy; El Farargy, Shawky Mahmoud; Kotb, Dalia

    2014-01-01

    Context: Acne vulgaris (AV) is a common disease affecting all ages and ethnic groups. Androgens, skin and serum lipids, inflammatory signaling and regulatory neuropeptides seem to be involved in this multi-factorial process. Aim: The aim of this work was to determine hormonal levels and lipid profile in non-obese, non-hirsute females with AV. Subjects and Methods: A total of 60 non-obese, non-hirsute female cases with different grades of AV and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were included. Measurement of serum total and free testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol and progesterone and blood lipids was done during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Results: Total testosterone, free testosterone (FT) and progesterone levels were significantly higher (P acne. Higher values of cholesterol (P acne. Conclusion: Changes in hormone levels and lipid profile in non-obese and non-hirsute females with AV should be considered in disease pathogenesis and in treatment prescription of these patients. PMID:25506579

  18. Flow cytometry analysis of hormone receptors on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify stress-induced neuroendocrine effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Understanding the role of circulating peptide hormones in the pathogenesis of space-flight induced disorders would be greatly facilitated by a method which monitors chronic levels of hormones and their effects upon in vivo cell physiology. Single and simultaneous multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was employed to identify subpopulations of mononuclear cells bearing receptors for ACTH, Endorphin, and Somatomedin-C using monoclonal antibodies and monospecific antisera with indirect immunofluorescence. Blood samples were obtained from normal donors and subjects participating in decompression chamber studies (acute stress), medical student academic examination (chronic stress), and a drug study (Dexamethasone). Preliminary results indicate most ACTH and Endorphin receptor positive cells are monocytes and B-cells, exhibit little diurnal variation but the relative percentages of receptor positive cells are influenced by exposure to various stressors and ACTH inhibition. This study demonstrates the capability of flow cytometry analysis to study cell surface hormone receptor regulation which should allow insight into neuroendocrine modulation of the immune and other cellular systems during exposure to stress or microgravity.

  19. Cord blood levels of thyroid hormones and IGF-1 weakly correlate with breast milk levels of PBDEs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Huang, Huei-Lin; Chao, How-Ran; Chang-Chien, Gou-Ping

    2012-04-01

    In vivo studies indicate that prenatal or neonatal exposure of rodents to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) disrupts thyroid hormone balance, but few studies have reported an association of PBDEs and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The goal was to examine whether PBDEs exposure affects the levels of thyroid hormones and IGF-1 in cord blood. Study participants were healthy pregnant women recruited from the general population in central Taiwan between 2000 and 2001 and in southern Taiwan from 2007 to 2009. One-hundred-forty-nine breast milk samples (n=149), which were collected within one month after delivery, were analyzed using a high resolution gas chromatograph equipped with a high resolution mass spectrometer. The average and median levels of breast milk Σ(14)PBDEs were 5.34 and 3.38 ng/g lipid in 2000-2001 and 5.22 and 3.13 ng/g lipid in 2007-2009, respectively. In general, levels of PBDE congeners were very low in this study population and not significantly different between the years 2000-2001 and 2007-2009. Breast milk Σ(14)PBDEs were not significantly correlated with thyroid hormones and IGF-1 in cord blood. After examining multiple stepwise linear regression models with adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, gestational age, and region (namely, central and southern Taiwan), we found that log of T4 in cord blood was significantly but slightly correlated with higher BDE-154 (B=0.113, p=0.017) in breast milk. The log of FT4 concentration was significantly related to a decrease in the log of BDE-99 level (B=-0.137, p=0.043) and an increase in the log of BDE-154 level (B=0.158, p=0.008). Meanwhile, the log of IGF-1 level was also significantly linked to an increase in the log of BDE-196 level (B=0.532, p=0.028) and decrease in the log of BDE-85 level (B=-0.235, p=0.018). Few epidemiological studies report an association between PBDEs exposure and IGF-1. Based on our findings, further in vivo and epidemiological

  20. The Influence of Physical Training on Blood Levels of Human Growth Hormone, Testosterone and Procollagen in Young Rowers

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    Kaloupsis Socratis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle strength and skeletal age in trained and untrained pubertal boys and its relationship to the levels of Testosterone (T, Growth Hormone (GH and Procollagen (PICP. Methods: Both the exercise and control groups consisted of 24 (mean 12.91, sd = 0.63 and 17 (mean 12.91, sd = 0.48 year old boys, respectively. The exercise group (EG, in addition to school activities, participated in a rowing training program for six months (rowing technique, strength & aerobic exercises, 60 min/day, three days/week. The control group (CG only participated in the school physical education program, two to three times/week. Hormonal concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay techniques. Venus blood samples were taken at rest from both groups. Results: Testosterone was increased in both groups (p<0.001. Significant differences were found within groups in T before training (p<0.01 There was an increase of PICP in EG after training (p<0.01. Differences on GH were observed before the training period in both groups (p<0.01. Both groups significantly differed in upper and lower limbs strengths. Significant correlation was found between PICP and skeletal age in both (p<0.05 and p<0.02, respectively Conclusions: The gains in muscle strength in both groups may partly be explained by the increase in the concentrations of hormone levels and the changes in body size. Key words: skeletal age, muscle strength, anabolic hormones, rowing

  1. Effects of continuous Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT on FSH, lipid profiles, blood chemistry, and skin thickness in menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to observe the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT of estradiol 2 mg + 1 mg acetate noretisterone administered continuously on FSH hormone, lipid profile, blood chemistry, and skin thickness in menopausal women. The duration of HRT administration was 6 months. The subjects of the study were 35 menopausal women. The study was conducted from January 2001 to June 2001. After HRT administration of 6 months, a significant decrease of FSH was observed. No effect of HRT was found in bilirubin level; however, there was a slight increase of alkali phosphatase enzyme, and a signifcant increase in SGOT and SGPT. HRT caused a decrease of total cholesterol level and triglyceride level. In addition, a slight increase of LDL level and significant decrease of HDL level were observed. HRT administration with progesterone synthetic noretisterone showed an increase of skin collagen synthesis, which was indicated by the significant increase of skin thickness. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 97-103Keywords: HRT, FSH, menopause, lipid profile, blood chemistry, skin thickness

  2. Temporal changes in clinic and ambulatory blood pressure during cyclic post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2000-01-01

    cyclic norethisterone acetate (NETA) or placebo in two 12-week periods separated by a 3-month washout Clinic blood pressure was measured sitting by the same observer with a mercury manometer at four visits in each period. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure was measured at baseline...... blood pressure was again reduced (-3.6 mmHg, P= 0.037). Mean 24 h ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower than clinic measurements (-15.7 and -5.9 mmHg, P

  3. Associations of cord blood metabolites with perinatal characteristics, newborn anthropometry, and cord blood hormones in project viva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; McCulloch, Scott; Chatzi, Leda; Mantzoros, Christos; Hivert, Marie-France; Oken, Emily

    2017-11-01

    Metabolomics has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize biomarkers and elucidate physiological processes underlying adverse health outcomes. Little is known of these relationships during gestation and infancy, which are critical period for development of metabolic disease risk. To identify cord blood metabolite patterns associated with birth size; and to investigate relations of the birth size-associated metabolite patterns, and a branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolite pattern with a range of newborn and perinatal characteristics. Using untargeted mass-spectrometry, we quantified metabolites in cord blood of 126 mother-child pairs. After excluding 103 xenobiotics, we used principal components analysis (PCA) to consolidate the remaining 606 metabolites into principal components ("factors"). Next, we identified factors associated with gestational age-and sex-standardized birthweight z-score (BW/GA) and examined associations of the BW/GA-associated pattern(s) and the BCAA pattern with cord blood insulin, leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) using multivariable linear regression. Finally, we examined associations of maternal/perinatal characteristics with the cord blood metabolite patterns. Mean BW/GA z-score was 0.27±0.98 units. About half of the infants were male (52.4%) and white (57.1%). Of the 6 factors identified from PCA, one was associated with higher BW/GA: Factor 5, which comprised metabolites involved in energy production (malate, succinate, fumarate) and nucleotide turnover (inosine 5-monophosphate, adenosine 5-monophosphate, cytidine 5-monophosphate) pathways. In multivariable analysis, Factor 5 was related to higher cord blood leptin (1.64 [95% CI: 0.42, 2.87] ng/mL) and IGF-1 even after adjusting for IGFBP-3 (3.35 [0.25, 6.44] ng/mL). The BCAA pattern was associated with higher BW/GA (0.20 [0.03, 0.36] z-scores) and IGFBP-3 (106.5 [44.7, 168.2] ng/mL). No maternal characteristics

  4. Influence of perinatal factors on thyroid stimulating hormone level in cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-mohammad Armanian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion we deduce that the only factor that can affect cord blood TSH was method of delivery. Infant with vaginal delivery has higher TSH level in cord blood. Other factors that were evaluated in this study didn′t have any statistically significant relationship.

  5. Biaxial vasoactivity of porcine coronary artery

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Yunlong; Cheng, Yana; Zhao, Xuefeng; Lu, Xiao; Ghassan S. Kassab

    2012-01-01

    The passive mechanical properties of blood vessel mainly stem from the interaction of collagen and elastin fibers, but vessel constriction is attributed to smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction. Although the passive properties of coronary arteries have been well characterized, the active biaxial stress-strain relationship is not known. Here, we carry out biaxial (inflation and axial extension) mechanical tests in right coronary arteries that provide the active coronary stress-strain relationsh...

  6. Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Aghwan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se, iodine (I, and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3 hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group. Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS, or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI, or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI. The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, mean cell volume (MCV, white blood cells (WBC, band neutrophils (B Neut, segmented neutrophils (S Neut, lymphocytes (Lymph, monocytes (Mono, eosinophils (Eosin and basophils (Baso were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05 in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats.

  7. METABOLIC PROFILE OF COW BLOOD UNDER THE TREATMENT OF OVARIES HYPOFUNCTION BY HORMONAL AND PHYTO-PREPARATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornyat S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For the correction of reproductive function of cows with ovarian hypofunction practices use a number of hormones. Recently, to stimulate reproductive function using herbal medicines that have gonadotropic effect or stimulate secretion of steroid hormones who try to use to increase fertility. Therefore, we carried out an attempt to develop a method of regulation of reproductive function of the ovaries of cows using combination therapies that can provide effective treatment by studying the biochemical parameters of animals. The cows were divided depending on the treatment to control and two experimental groups of 5 animals in each group. Groups were formed by the following treatment regimens indicated pathology. Cows control group treated by next scheme: day 1 — intramuscular injection drug in vitro at a dose of 10 ml; day 2 —PMSG intramuscular administration of the drug at a dose of 500 IU; day 3 —intramuscular injection drug Surfahon at a dose of 50 mg. Cows from experimental group 1 was injected intramuscularly liposomal drug based on herbal (Rhodiola rosea, Salvia; Animals from second experimental group were injected intramuscularly liposomal drug based on phyto-substances (Rhodiola rosea, Salvia with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Surfahon. Analysis of biochemical parameters of blood serum of cows with ovarian hypofunction found low concentrations of estradiol-17-β and progesterone. Between the control and experimental groups concentration of progesterone and estradiol-17-β differ within 10%, which indicates the same level of disease in all animals selected. Level carotene, ascorbic acid and cholesterol in all groups was within the physiological norm and differed slightly. It was established that the treatment of cows with hypofunction ovaries in the experimental group 1 progesterone level 7 days after treatment was 11.5, and 2 - on 41,4% (p <0,01 higher than in the control group animals, indicating that the revitalization of the

  8. Steroids in fluid and/or vasoactive infusion dependent pediatric shock: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hearn, Katharine; McNally, Dayre; Choong, Karen; Acharya, Anand; Wong, Hector R; Lawson, Margaret; Ramsay, Tim; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Gilfoyle, Elaine; Tucci, Marisa; Wensley, David; Gottesman, Ronald; Morrison, Gavin; Menon, Kusum

    2016-05-06

    Physicians often administer corticosteroids for the treatment of fluid and vasoactive infusion dependent pediatric shock. This use of corticosteroids is controversial, however, and has never been studied in a pediatric randomized controlled trial (RCT). This pilot trial will determine the feasibility of a larger RCT on the role of corticosteroids in pediatric shock. Steroids in Fluid and/or Vasoactive Infusion Dependent Pediatric Shock (STRIPES) is a pragmatic, seven-center, double-blind, pilot RCT. We aim to randomize 72 pediatric patients with fluid and vasoactive infusion dependent shock to receive either hydrocortisone or a saline placebo for 7 days or until clinical stability, whichever occurs first. The primary outcome of this pilot trial is the feasibility of recruitment, defined as the number of patients enrolled over a 1-year period. Secondary outcomes include the frequency of, and reasons for, open-label steroid use, protocol adherence, incidence of mortality and corticosteroid-associated adverse events, time to discontinuation of inotropes, and feasibility of blood sampling. Corticosteroids are used for the treatment of pediatric shock without sufficient evidence to support this practice. While there is a scientific rationale and limited data supporting their use in this setting, there is also evidence from other populations suggesting potential harm. The STRIPES pilot study will assess the feasibility of a larger, much needed trial powered for clinically important outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02044159.

  9. Association between decreased klotho blood levels and organic growth hormone deficiency in children with growth impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ido; Shahmoon, Shiri; Ben Ami, Michal; Levy-Shraga, Yael; Mazor-Aronovitch, Kineret; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Hemi, Rina; Kanety, Hannah; Rubinek, Tami; Modan-Moses, Dalit

    2014-01-01

    Klotho is an aging-modulating protein expressed mainly in the kidneys and choroid plexus, which can also be shed, released into the circulation and act as a hormone. Klotho deficient mice are smaller compared to their wild-type counterparts and their somatotropes show marked atrophy and reduced number of secretory granules. Recent data also indicated an association between klotho levels and growth hormone (GH) levels in acromegaly. We aimed to study the association between klotho levels and GH deficiency (GHD) in children with growth impairment. Prospective study comprising 99 children and adolescents (aged 9.0 ± 3.7 years, 49 male) undergoing GH stimulation tests for short stature (height-SDS = -2.1 ± 0.6). Klotho serum levels were measured using an α-klotho ELISA kit. Klotho levels were significantly lower (pchildren with organic GHD (n = 11, 727 ± 273 pg/ml) compared to both GH sufficient participants (n = 59, 1497 ± 754 pg/ml) and those with idiopathic GHD (n = 29, 1645 ± 778 pg/ml). The difference between GHS children and children with idiopathic GHD was not significant. Klotho levels positively correlated with IGF-1- standard deviation scores (SDS) (R = 0.45, p<0.001), but were not associated with gender, pubertal status, age or anthropometric measurements. We have shown, for the first time, an association between low serum klotho levels and organic GHD. If validated by additional studies, serum klotho may serve as novel biomarker of organic GHD.

  10. Serotonin and vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonists attenuate rotavirus diarrhoea

    OpenAIRE

    Kordasti, S; Sjövall, H; Lundgren, O; Svensson, L

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: The mechanisms underlying intestinal secretion in rotavirus diarrhoea remain to be established. We previously reported that rotavirus evokes intestinal fluid and electrolyte secretion by activation of the enteric nervous system. We now report that antagonists for the 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT3) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor, but not antagonists for 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor or the muscarinic receptor, attenuate rotavirus induced diarrhoea.

  11. Role of hormones and blood lipids in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris in non-obese, non-hirsute females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Ahmed Bakry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acne vulgaris (AV is a common disease affecting all ages and ethnic groups. Androgens, skin and serum lipids, inflammatory signaling and regulatory neuropeptides seem to be involved in this multi-factorial process. Aim: The aim of this work was to determine hormonal levels and lipid profile in non-obese, non-hirsute females with AV. Subjects and Methods: A total of 60 non-obese, non-hirsute female cases with different grades of AV and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were included. Measurement of serum total and free testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, estradiol and progesterone and blood lipids was done during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Results: Total testosterone, free testosterone (FT and progesterone levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001 for all while estradiol levels (P < 0.001 and SHBG (P < 0.01 were significantly lower in cases than controls. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001 for both while high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1 levels were significantly lower (P < 0.001 for both in cases than controls. Higher values of FT (P = 0.03 and SHBG (P = 0.02 and lower values of estradiol (P = 0.04 levels were significantly in favor of severe acne. Higher values of cholesterol (P < 0.001 and LDL-C (P = 0.03 and lower values of HDL-C (P = 0.01 and ApoA-1 (P = 0.02 levels were significantly associated with severe acne. Conclusion: Changes in hormone levels and lipid profile in non-obese and non-hirsute females with AV should be considered in disease pathogenesis and in treatment prescription of these patients.

  12. Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Bebermeier, Jan-Hendrik; Werner, Ralf; Demeter, Janos; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Cario, Gunnar; Appari, Mahesh; Siebert, Reiner; Riepe, Felix; Brooks, James D; Hiort, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with rare defined "disorders of sex development" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis) compared to normal 46, XY-males and 46, XX-females. Results A discrete set of transcripts was directly correlated with XY or XX genotypes in all individuals independent of male or female phenotype of the external genitalia. However, a significantly larger gene set in the PBMC only reflected the degree of external genital masculinization independent of the sex chromosomes and independent of concurrent post-natal sex steroid hormone levels. Consequently, the architecture of the transcriptional PBMC-"sexes" was either male, female or even "intersex" with a discordant alignment of the DSD individuals' genetic and hormonal sex signatures. Conclusion A significant fraction of gene expression differences between males and females in the human appears to have its roots in early embryogenesis and is not only caused by sex chromosomes but also by long-term sex-specific hormonal programming due to presence or absence of androgen during the time of external genital masculinization. Genetic sex and the androgen milieu during embryonic development might therefore independently modulate functional traits, phenotype and diseases associated with male or female gender as well as with DSD conditions. PMID:19570224

  13. Influence of perinatal factors on thyroid stimulating hormone level in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanian, Amir-Mohammad; Hashemipour, Mahin; Esnaashari, Azadeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of various perinatal factors on cord blood TSH among newborns in Isfahan, Iran. This was a descriptive-analytic cross sectional study which performed in Isfahan Iran. During a period of four months, since February to May 2012 a total number of 440 newborns delivered in Alzahra and Shahid beheshti hospitals were enrolled in the study. For all newborns one mL blood sample from umbilical vein was obtained by one of the project investigators and sent to laboratory for further examinations. Cord blood TSH and birth body weight (BBW), gestational age, history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), apgar at one minute, apgar at five minute, newborn gender and the mother's age were documented. Differences considered statistically significant if P BBW, gestational age, GDM, apgar at one minute, apgar at five minute, newborn gender and the mother's age didn't have statistically significant relationship with cord TSH level. In conclusion we deduce that the only factor that can affect cord blood TSH was method of delivery. Infant with vaginal delivery has higher TSH level in cord blood. Other factors that were evaluated in this study didn't have any statistically significant relationship.

  14. Bilateral vanished testes diagnosed with a single blood sample showing very high gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and very low inhibin B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Kvist, Kolja

    2011-01-01

    Objective. In boys with cryptorchidism median serum values of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are higher and median serum values of inhibin B lower than in normal controls. Serum values of inhibin B reflect the state of germinative epithelium in cryptorchid testes...

  15. Alterations of growth, blood biochemical components and hormone profiles by intensified nutrition in growth retarded Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisaku; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kazamatsuri, Hiroyuki; Ando, Takaaki; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Oikawa, Masaaki; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2010-09-01

    In order to determine the clinical conditions of Japanese Black (JB) cattle with growth retardation, we determined the changes of body growth, blood profiles of metabolism and hormones caused by intensified nutrition (sufficient total digestible nutrients and digestible crude protein for a target daily gain set at 1.2-1.3 kg/day) in three cattle. The daily gain (DG) was increased during the intensified period (Intense) compared with the preparation period (Pre), but the DG in the Intense period was 36-66% of the target DG. Serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin and IGF-1 increased during the Intense period compared with the Pre period. Serum GH showed high levels in the Pre period, whereas it showed lower levels in the Intense period. These results suggested that the present growth retarded cattle had abnormalities in their metabolic systems and lacked nutrient absorption.

  16. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...

  17. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  18. Methylation at global LINE-1 repeats in human blood are affected by gender but not by age or natural hormone cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman El-Maarri

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported on inter-individual and gender specific variations of LINE-1 methylation in healthy individuals. In this study, we investigated whether this variability could be influenced by age or sex hormones in humans. To this end, we studied LINE-1 methylation in vivo in blood-derived DNA from individuals aged 18 to 64 years and from young healthy females at various hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. Our results show that no significant association with age was observed. However, the previously reported increase of LINE-1 methylation in males was reconfirmed. In females, although no correlation between LINE-1 or Alu methylation and hormone levels was observed, a significant stable individual specific level of methylation was noted. In vitro results largely confirmed these findings, as neither estrogen nor dihydrotestosterone affected LINE-1 or Alu methylation in Hek293T, HUVEC, or MDA-kb2 cell lines. In contrast, a decrease in methylation was observed in estrogen-treated T47-Kbluc cell lines strongly expressing estrogen receptor. The very low expression of estrogen receptor in blood cells could explain the observed insensitivity of methylation at LINE-1 to natural hormonal variations in females. In conclusion, neither natural cycle of hormones nor age has a detectable effect on the LINE-1 methylation in peripheral blood cells, while gender remains an important factor.

  19. Biaxial vasoactivity of porcine coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yunlong; Cheng, Yana; Zhao, Xuefeng; Lu, Xiao; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2012-05-15

    The passive mechanical properties of blood vessel mainly stem from the interaction of collagen and elastin fibers, but vessel constriction is attributed to smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction. Although the passive properties of coronary arteries have been well characterized, the active biaxial stress-strain relationship is not known. Here, we carry out biaxial (inflation and axial extension) mechanical tests in right coronary arteries that provide the active coronary stress-strain relationship in circumferential and axial directions. Based on the measurements, a biaxial active strain energy function is proposed to quantify the constitutive stress-strain relationship in the physiological range of loading. The strain energy is expressed as a Gauss error function in the physiological pressure range. In K(+)-induced vasoconstriction, the mean ± SE values of outer diameters at transmural pressure of 80 mmHg were 3.41 ± 0.17 and 3.28 ± 0.24 mm at axial stretch ratios of 1.3 and 1.5, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those in Ca(2+)-free-induced vasodilated state (i.e., 4.01 ± 0.16 and 3.75 ± 0.20 mm, respectively). The mean ± SE values of the inner and outer diameters in no-load state and the opening angles in zero-stress state were 1.69 ± 0.04 mm and 2.25 ± 0.08 mm and 126 ± 22°, respectively. The active stresses have a maximal value at the passive pressure of 80-100 mmHg and at the active pressure of 140-160 mmHg. Moreover, a mechanical analysis shows a significant reduction of mean stress and strain (averaged through the vessel wall). These findings have important implications for understanding SMC mechanics.

  20. The influence of caloric deprivation and food composition on TSH, thyroid hormones and nuclear binding of T3 in mononuclear blood cells in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kvetny, J

    1989-01-01

    In vivo changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and nuclear binding of T3 (NBT3) in mononuclear blood cells were studied in obese women during seven days of caloric deprivation (maximum 1,100 kcal/d). In seven women given a high protein diet (80% protein...

  1. Hormonal differences in peripheral blood and gene profiling in the liver and lymphocytes in Japanese black cattle with growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Sakura; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Eirai, Sayoko; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Tomioka, Michiko; Kurose, Yohei; Hirano, Takashi; Watanabe, Daisaku

    2013-01-31

    Japanese Black cattle occasionally demonstrate growth retardation despite sufficient nutrient intake. To clarify hormonal and transcriptional characteristics, we investigated differences in blood components, including hormones, and differences in exhaustive gene expressions in the liver and peripheral lymphocytes of six cattle with growth retardation (GR cattle) and eight control cattle of the same age and pedigree with normal growth. Hematocrit values and concentrations of hemoglobin, serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), thyroxine and insulin in GR cattle were significantly lower than those in controls. GR cattle also excreted higher levels of GH. We used three GR and three control cattle for a microarray analysis in the liver and found that 279 gene expressions were significantly different. However, gene expressions related to the GH-IGF-1 axis, such as the GH receptor and IGF-1, were not significantly different from those of controls. Immune-related gene expressions were significantly lower. To clarify these gene expression levels, peripheral lymphocytes were used for real-time RT-PCR. The expression rates of genes that were significantly lower in the liver, such as chemokine ligand 8, interferon gamma receptor 1 and immunoglobulin light chain VJ region were also significantly lower in three GR cattle than those in the three control cattle. These results suggest that the cause of growth retardation in the present study was due to other factors, not abnormal gene expressions of factors related to the GH-IGF-1 axis in the liver, and that GR cattle were susceptible to infectious disease.

  2. Sudden hearing loss: Our experience in treatment with vasoactive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ljubica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A specific title "sudden hearing loss" refers to illness which is characterized by a sudden, rapid sensoneural hearing loss mostly in one ear without obvious causes, accompanied with dizziness, and without vestibular symptomatology. It is defined as a hearing loss for more than 30 dB on 3 or more successive frequencies which appear in 72 hours. Objective The main goal of our paper was to estimate success of implementation of vasoactive method in patients with sudden hearing loss of senso-neural type in different ranges in hospital conditions. METHOD Our research covered 37 patients hospitalized because of a sudden hearing loss of sensoneural type in different ranges. Diagnosis, in all patients, was established by clinical ORL examination, audiology and vestibular examination. R including CT and MR, neurological, internist and laboratory examinations were used in order to exclude other aetiology. In monitored patients, we started treatment with vasoactive therapy, ampules of xanthinol nicotinate (one ampule of 2 ml, 300 mg or ampules of pentoxiphylline (one ampule of 5 ml, 100 mg in form of infusions with addition of vitamins with an everyday gradual increase of dosage up to 12 ampules of xanthinol nicotinate and up to 5 ampules of pentoxiphylline. Then we started with an everyday decrease of dosage down to the first one. Results After the complete curing protocol, we found out that in patients with light and medium senso-neural damages of hearing sense (23 or 62%, hearing recovery was complete. In patients with heavy damage of hearing (9 or 24%, partial success was evidenced. The most difficult cases, with complete hearing loss, heavy buzzing and vertiginous problem (5 or 14% responded to therapy, so buzzing and vertiginous problems disappeared but hearing was not improved. Conclusion Usage of vasoactive medicaments in hospital conditions in treatment of sudden hearing loss gives good results and it is the closest to aetiological

  3. Motion corrected Cadence CPS ultrasound for quantifying response to vasoactive drugs in a rat kidney model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Rachel E.; Dayton, Paul A.; Watson, Katherine D.; Hu, Xiaowen; Guracar, Ismayil M.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish the ability of contrast enhanced motion corrected Cadence Pulse Sequencing (CPS) to detect changes in renal blood flow induced by vasoactive substances in rats. Methods: Ultrasound contrast media was administered as a constant rate infusion into a phantom at a known rate and CPS data acquired. Rats were anesthetized and pre-drug CPS estimates of replenishment rate were made for the right kidney. Real-time motion correction was applied and parametric images were generated from the CPS data. Group 1 rats (n=7) were administered a vasodilator and Group 2 rats (n=3) were given a vasoconstrictor. CPS imaging of the kidney was repeated following ample time for drug effects to occur. Results: Contrast CPS accurately estimated flow velocity in the phantom model. In addition, CPS defined statistically significant differences between pre and post drug blood flow in the renal medulla (vasodilator, p<0.01; vasoconstrictor, p<0.0001) and cortex (vasoconstrictor, p<0.0001). Conclusions: We conclude that motion corrected CPS ultrasound provides real time quantification of renal blood flow alterations and may prove useful for the assessment of blood flow in transplanted kidneys. PMID:19589583

  4. Variação da Pressão Arterial em Usuárias de Terapia de Reposição Hormonal Variation of Blood Pressure in Users of Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alaércio de Toledo Lima-Junior

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal sobre a pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica de mulheres na pós-menopausa. Casuística e Métodos: foram avaliadas retrospectivamente 166 usuárias e 136 não-usuárias de reposição hormonal, acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Menopausa do Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas por um período de três anos. Avaliamos a variação desses parâmetros em relação aos valores iniciais. A análise dos dados foi realizada usando-se o teste t de Student, o Teste de Mann-Whitney e o teste não-paramétrico de Wilcoxon. Resultados: observou-se que a pressão arterial sistólica das usuárias de terapia de reposição hormonal foi menor ao final do terceiro ano de uso quando comparada com os valores iniciais (p = 0,01. Não houve diferença significativa na pressão arterial diastólica entre as usuárias e as não-usuárias. Conclusão: a terapia de reposição hormonal não produziu alterações nos parâmetros estudados em mulheres adequadamente acompanhadas durante o seu uso.Purpose: to evaluate the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of postmenopausal women. Methods: a total of 166 users and 136 non-users of hormone replacement were evaluated retrospectively during a period of three years. All women were assisted at the Menopause Outpatient Clinic of CAISM -- Unicamp, where the variations of these parameters were evaluated at the end of each year in relation to the initial parameters. The data analysis was performed through Student's t test, Mann-Whitney test, and the Wilcoxon nonparametric test. Results: we observed that the systolic blood pressure of HRT users was statistically lower at the end of the third year of use, compared to the initial values (p = 0.01. There was no significant difference in the diastolic blood pressure between users and non-users. Conclusion: hormone

  5. Genetic, Immune, and Vasoactive Factors in the Vascular Dysfunction Associated with Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajjadh M. J.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) is a major complication of pregnancy that could lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiological mechanisms of PE are not completely understood, but recent research has begun to unravel some of the potential mechanisms. Areas covered Genetic polymorphisms and altered maternal immune response may cause impaired remodeling of the spiral arteries; a potential early defect in PE. Inadequate invasion of cytotrophoblasts into the decidua leads to reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP) and placental ischemia/hypoxia. Placental ischemia causes the release of biologically active factors such as anti-angiogenic factors, inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, hypoxia-inducible factors, and angiotensin II receptor autoantibodies. These vasoactive factors could cause systemic vascular endotheliosis and consequent increase in vascular resistance and blood pressure, glomerular endotheliosis causing proteinuria, cerebrovascular endotheliosis causing cerebral edema, seizures and visual disturbances, and hepatic endotheliosis which may contribute to the manifestations of HELLP syndrome. PE-associated vascular endotheliosis causes a decrease in vasodilator mediators such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, an increase in vasoconstrictors such as endothelin-1, angiotensin II and thromboxane A2, and enhanced mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle contraction such as intracellular Ca2+, protein kinase C and Rho-kinase. Changes in matrix metalloproteinase activity and extracellular matrix cause vascular remodeling and further vasoconstriction. Expert opinion Some of the genetic, immune and vasoactive factors involved in vascular endotheliosis could be used as biomarkers for early detection, and as potential targets for prevention and treatment of PE. PMID:26294111

  6. Unsaturated fatty acids prevent desensitization of the human growth hormone secretagogue receptor by blocking its internalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.D. Delhanty (Patric); A. Kerkwijk (Anke); M. Huisman (Martijn); B. van de Zande (Bedette); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); C. Gauna (Carlotta); L.J. Hofland (Leo); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe composition of the plasma membrane affects the responsiveness of cells to metabolically important hormones such as insulin and vasoactive intestinal peptide. Ghrelin is a metabolically regulated hormone that activates the G protein-coupled receptor GH secretagogue receptor type 1a

  7. Evaluation of the effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) on regional cerebral blood flow in spinocerebellar degeneration using 3DSRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Noriyuki; Kumamoto, Toshihide; Masuda, Teruaki; Nomura, Yuki; Hanaoka, Takuya; Hazama, Yusuke; Okazaki, Toshio; Arakawa, Ryuki

    2009-06-15

    Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) therapy improves cerebellar ataxia in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD). We investigated the effect of TRH on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using the fully automated region of interest (ROI) technique, 3DSRT. Ten patients with SCD received TRH intravenously (2 mg/day) for 14 days and underwent brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography before and after therapy. Clinical efficacy was assessed using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). The rCBF in each ROI was measured using the noninvasive Patlak plot method and calculated using 3DSRT. TRH significantly improved the ICARS scores and increased rCBF in the callosomarginal segment and cerebellum. Cerebellar rCBF increased in 4 of 5 patients with improved ICARS scores and in 3 of 5 patients without improved ICARS scores after TRH therapy. The correlation between the change in cerebellar rCBF and the improved ICARS score, however, was not significant. These findings indicate that TRH therapy may increase cerebellar rCBF in some patients with cerebellar forms of SCD and that 3DSRT may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of TRH for increasing CBF. The beneficial effects of TRH may be due to increased cerebellar rCBF or the increased rCBF may be a secondary effect of TRH therapy.

  8. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptidergic nerves and Brunner's gland secretion in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1981-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide is known to have powerful effect on the secretions from endocrine and exocrine glands. By immunohistochemical studies on the rat, both a dense network of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive nerve fibers around the acini of Brunner's glands, and small...

  9. Extensive Variability in Vasoactive Agent Therapy: A Nationwide Survey in Chinese Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Bo Pei

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Vasoactive agent use for treatment of shock is inconsistent according to self-report by Chinese intensive care physicians; however, the variation in use depends upon the form of shock being treated and the type of hospital; thus, corresponding educational programs about vasoactive agent use for shock management should be considered.

  10. Steroid hormones in blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen polutted minke whale (Balanenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, J.

    2014-01-01

    , respectively, for 321–576 days. In the exposed group, this constituted a mean daily intake of 128 μg ∑PCBs (5 μg/kg/day). At the end of the study, organohalogen contaminant (OHC) were measured in adipose tissue and hormone levels in blood of sledge dogs. The hormones included 11 products of the steroidogenesis......Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are known to disrupt steroidogenesis and subsequent concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones. This is also suspected to occur in Arctic predatory species, such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and a study was therefore...... conducted in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as a sentinel species for adverse effects on steroid homeostasis. The control and exposed groups were composed of four sister-bitches all fed pork fat (Suis suis) and organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber...

  11. Alterations of serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin, nuclear binding of tri-iodothyronine and thyroid hormone-stimulated cellular uptake of oxygen and glucose in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear tri-iodothyronine (T3) binding and thyroid hormone-stimulated oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness (NTI) in which serum T3 was significantly (P less than 0.05) depressed (0.62 +/- 0.12 (S.D.) nmol/l) compared...... which tend to maintain intracellular homeostasis....

  12. Effects of octacosanol extracted from rice bran on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase in weaning piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Long

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of octacosanol to the body of animals and the effects of octacosanol on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK in liver and muscle tissue of weaning piglets. A total of 105 crossbred piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc with an initial BW of 5.70 ± 1.41 kg (21 d of age were used in a 6-wk trial to evaluate the effects of octacosanol and tiamulin supplementation on contents of triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, growth hormone (GH, glucagon (GU and adrenaline (AD in blood and gene expressions of GLUT-4 and AMPK in liver and muscle. Piglets were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments on the basis of BW and sex. Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 5 piglets per pen. Treatments were as followed: control group, tiamulin group and octacosanol group. The results showed that compared with control group and tiamulin group, octacosanol greatly promoted the secretion of T3, GH, GU and AD (P  0.05. Results of the present study has confirmed that octacosanol affects energy metabolism of body by regulating secretion of blood hormones and related gene expression in tissue of weaning piglets, which can reduce stress response and has an impact on performance.

  13. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas is localized to nerves, many of which travel along the pancreatic ducts. VIP stimulates pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretion like secretin. Electrical vagal stimulation in the pig causes an atropine-resistant profuse secretion...... of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice. In an isolated perfused preparation of the pig pancreas with intact vagal nerve supply, electrical vagal stimulation caused an atropine-resistant release of VIP, which accurately parallelled the exocrine secretion of juice and bicarbonate. Perfusion of the pancreas...... with a potent VIP-antiserum inhibited the effect of vagal stimulation on the exocrine secretion. It is concluded, that VIP is responsible for (at least part of) the neurally controlled fluid and bicarbonate secretion from the pig pancreas....

  14. Local Control of Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  15. THE EFFECT OF HORMONE THERAPY ON MEAN BLOOD PRESSURE AND VISIT-TO-VISIT BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: RESULTS FROM THE WOMEN’S HEALTH INITIATIVE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Wang, Lu; Lamonte, Michael J.; Allison, Matthew; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bavry, Anthony A.; Martin, Lisa W.; Aragaki, Aaron; Newman, Jonathan D.; Swica, Yael; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mean and visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We examined the effect of hormone therapy on mean and VVV of blood pressure in postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials. Methods Blood pressure was measured at baseline and annually in the two WHI hormone therapy trials in which 10,739 and 16,608 postmenopausal women were randomized to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, 0.625 mg/day) or placebo, and CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) or placebo, respectively. Results At the first annual visit (Year 1), mean systolic blood pressure was 1.04 mmHg (95% CI 0.58, 1.50) and 1.35 mmHg (95% CI 0.99, 1.72) higher in the CEE and CEE+MPA arms respectively compared to corresponding placebos. These effects remained stable after Year 1. CEE also increased VVV of systolic blood pressure (ratio of VVV in CEE vs. placebo, 1.03, Pblood pressure increased at Year 1, and the differences in the CEE and CEE+MPA arms vs. placebos also continued to increase after Year 1. Further, both CEE and CEE+MPA significantly increased VVV of systolic blood pressure (ratio of VVV in CEE vs. placebo, 1.04, Pblood pressure. PMID:24991872

  16. Effects of ginseng on peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA copy number and hormones in men with metabolic syndrome: A randomized clinical and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Jae; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Jang-Young; Shin, Seung-Hun; Park, Jong-Ku

    2016-02-01

    It has been observed that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. There is growing evidence that hyperactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hormone (testosterone and growth hormone) deficiency may lead to metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have reported that ginseng treatment improves mitochondrial and HPA-axis function and increases anabolic hormone secretion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of red ginseng (RG) on metabolic syndrome, hormones, and mitochondrial function using leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number in men with metabolic syndrome. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 62 subjects who were not taking drugs that could affect their metabolic function. A total of 62 men with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to either an RG group (3.0g/day) or a placebo group for 4 weeks. We analyzed changes in metabolic syndrome components, leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number, hormones (total testosterone, IGF-1, cortisol, and DHEAS) and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, ferritin) from baseline to 4 weeks. Significant improvement in mitochondrial function (95% CI -44.9 to -1.3) and an increase in total testosterone (95% CI -70.1 to -1.0) and IGF-1(P=0.01) levels were observed in the RG group when compared with the placebo group. Diastolic blood pressure (95% CI 2.0-9.4) and serum cortisol (95% CI 1.1-5.5) significantly decreased in the RG group. We found evidence that RG had a favorable effect on mitochondrial function and hormones in men with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT and low-dose combined oral pill on skin thickness, lipid profile and blood chemistry of menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study to evaluate the effect of hormone replacement therapy ( HRT and low-dose combinated oral pill on skin thickness , lipid profile and blood chemistry on menopausal woman.This study was carried out in one year randomized prospective study. 36 women were divided into 18 women receiving HRT and the other 18 receiving low-dose oral pill. The result of this study showed an increase in skin thickness (collagen in both groups. But Those received low dose oral pill showed more . The increase of the skin thickness can prevent osteoporosis. The administration of HRT or low-dose oral pill could cause allteration in blood lipip profile and blood chemistry. But The changes were still within in normal limit. The administration of low-dose oral pill can be considered in postmeno-pausal women. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 224-8Keywords: Hormone replacement therapy, low-dose oral pill, menopausal women, skin thickness, lipid profile, blood chemistry.

  18. Twenty-one hormones fail to inhibit the brain to blood transport system for Tyr-MIF-1 and the enkephalins in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, W A; Kastin, A J

    1988-04-01

    Tyr-MIF-1 (Tyr-Pro-Leu-Gly-amide) and methionine enkephalin are transported intact across the blood-brain barrier by a saturable, stereospecific system. This system has been found to be modulated by a few non-peptide substances and by certain conditions such as ageing and some stresses. We investigated the possibility that hormones structurally unrelated to Tyr-MIF-1 and the enkephalins might also be capable of modulating this transport. Twenty-one hormones were tested including steroids, proteins, glycoproteins, peptides, and thyroid hormones, in doses ranging from 0.01 pmol to 1 nmol/mouse by injecting each hormone directly into the lateral ventricle simultaneously with [125I]Tyr-MIF-1. No clear effect on transport could be established for any of the substances at the doses tested. None of these substances seemed able to act as competitive inhibitors, to share their respective transport systems with Tyr-MIF-1, or to modulate immediately the saturable transport system.

  19. Effects of leuprolide acetate on selected blood and fecal sex hormones in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventrais).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaphake, Eric; Fecteau, Kellie; DeWit, Martine; Greenacre, Cheryl; Grizzle, Judith; Jones, Michael; Zagaya, Nancy; Abney, L Kim; Oliver, Jack

    2009-12-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide acetate is used commonly to anage reproductive problems in pet birds. To determine the effect of leuprolide acetate on plas a and fecal hormone levels in a psittacine species, a single 800 microg/kg dose of the 30-day depot form of leuprolide acetate was administered IM in 11 healthy, nonbreeding adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and plasma and fecal hormone levels were measured before and after leuprolide administration. At pooled baseline to 21 days postleuprolide acetate administration, sample collection day was significantly associated with plasma 17beta-estradiol and androstenedione levels and fecal 17beta-estradiol levels (evaluated in females only). Both plasma androstenedione and plasma 17beta-estradiol levels decreased significantly from baseline to a nadir at 7 days postleuprolide acetate administration but did not differ significantly 14 days later from that nadir or from pooled baseline samples, suggesting that the effect of leuprolide on hormone levels remained about 2 weeks. Fecal 17beta-estradiol levels increased significantly from the nadir at 7 days postleuprolide to 21 days postleuprolide administration, with trends of the level at 21 days postleuprolide being higher than the pooled baseline level and of decreasing levels from pooled baseline to 7 days postleuprolide administration. Plasma luteinizing hormone and fecal testosterone levels did not change significantly from baseline levels after leuprolide administration over the 2-day period. No significant correlations were found between plasma hormone and fecal hormone levels. These results suggest that measurement of plasma androstenedione, plasma 17beta-estradiol, and fecal 17beta-estradiol levels might be useful in assessing the effects of 30-day depot leuprolide acetate in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  20. Luteal dynamic and functionality assessment in dairy goats by luteal blood flow, luteal biometry, and hormonal assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaro, Mario Felipe A; Santos, Alex S; Moura, Luiz Fernando G M; Fonseca, Jeferson F; Brandão, Felipe Z

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the luteal dynamics of pregnant and non-pregnant Saanen goats throughout an estrous cycle by B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) associated with a P4 hormonal assay. Furthermore, a cutoff point was chosen to determine the corpus luteum (CL) functionality by luteal biometry (LB) measurement and luteal blood flow (LBF) assessment. Ultrasound assessment was carried out daily throughout an entire estrous cycle (21 days) in 23 Saanen goats pre-synchronized and inseminated in the breeding season. The plasmatic P4 concentration was determined daily by radioimmunoassay. LB parameters (diameter, area, and volume) were measured using the maximum area of a cross-section of the CL. LBF assessment was performed subjectively by percentage of area of colored pixels and objectively by calculating the number of the colored pixels. Eventually, 45.0% (9/20) and 55.0% (11/20) of goats became pregnant and or remained non-pregnant, respectively. The LB and LBF demonstrated value stabilization on the 9th day of the estrous cycle and maximum values on the 12th and 13th days of the estrous cycle, respectively. LB presented a progressive decrease in the luteal regression phase, whereas the LBF decreased abruptly in association with P4. The LBF values were more reliable in predicting the luteal functionality when compared to the LB data. The number of colored pixels accurately predicted values of P4 >1.0 ng/mL, reaching only 17% of the maximum values, and 1200 colored pixels as a minimum cutoff point when compared to the use of 53% of the maximum values and a minimum luteal diameter of 9.0 mm as cutoff point for P4 >1.0 ng/mL. The LBF assessment was more informative about the CL functionality throughout the complete luteal phase when compared to the LB. The use of the number of colored pixels is indicated for research regarding luteal functionality due to their greater correlation with P4 values. In addition, the luteal subjective evaluation can be

  1. A Survey of the Relationship Between Noised Pollution, Honey and Vitamin E and Plasma Level of Blood Sexual Hormones in Noise-Exposed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of honey and vitamin E on fertilization capacity of noise-exposed rats by assessing whether the plasma sexual hormones levels i.e. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone are altered in relation with noise stress. Objectives Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of honey and vitamin E on the levels of sex hormones and male fertilization capacity of noise-exposed rats. Materials and Methods This study targeted 24 male rats that were randomly divided into four equal groups including the control group that were not exposed to noise and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 that were the untreated, honey treated and vitamin E treated groups, respectively; all of which were exposed to noise for 50 days. Next, in order to measure serum sexual hormones, blood samples of experimental and control groups were taken and analyzed. Also in order to investigate the fertility capacity of rats, the male rats of all groups were coupled with female rats. Results The results showed that in the male rats exposed to the noise stress, the levels of FSH and LH rose and the testosterone secretion fell sharply compared to not exposed rats. Additionally, the continuing effects of noise stress injury could reduce the weight of the fetus and the number of live fetuses and survival rate of the fetus. However, honey and vitamin E improved serum testosterone concentration, while declined plasma FSH and LH secretion in noise-exposed rats and enhanced fertility rate by increasing the rate of healthy alive fetuses. Conclusions It seems that noise pollution has harmful effects on the fertility of males. Also these findings may suggest the use of a natural curative approach rather than pharmaceutical drugs to optimize both neuroendocrine gonadal axis and testicular integrity induced by pathogenesis stress, and enhance fertility capacity in men.

  2. Effect of acupuncture on vasoactive intestinal peptide in ischemic cerebrovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Yuan, Y; Kuang, P; Wu, W; Zhang, F; Liu, J

    1997-12-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) appears to play an important role as a neurotransmitter or neuromediater in ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (ICVD). The effect of acupuncture, which is used in treatment of ICVD with good efficiency, on VIP has not been known. For finding the mechanism of acupuncture in treatment of ICVD and the effect of electro-acupuncture on VIP, the present study was performed. 59 patients with acute ICVD were randomly divided into two groups. Electro-acupuncture and routine treatment were given in Group 1 (n = 29), and routine treatment was used alone in Group 2 (n = 30). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood were taken before the beginning of treatment and after a course of treatment in both groups. The control group consisted of 38 cases of non-ICVD. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. The level of CSF VIP in patients with acute ICVD was significantly lower than that in the controls, while the levels of plamsa VIP showed no significant difference between the ICVD and control groups, and the level of CSF VIP was not significantly correlated with the level of plasma VIP. After acupuncture treatment, the level of CSF VIP was increased and showed no significant difference as compared with the control group. Acupuncture might alleviate the disturbance of metabolism of VIP in CNS.

  3. Effects of neutral endopeptidase (neprilysin) inhibition on the response to other vasoactive peptides in small human resistance arteries: studies with thiorphan and omapatrilat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Jonathan R; Seed, Alison; Berry, Colin; Whelan, Carol J; Petrie, Mark C; Padmanabhan, Neal; Clarke, Amanda; Biggerstaff, Fiona; Hillier, Christopher; McMurray, John J V

    2014-02-01

    New compounds with neprilysin or neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibiting activity are under clinical investigation in heart failure and hypertension. We investigated the effect of NEP inhibition on the functional vasomotor responses to a range of vasoactive peptides in human blood vessels. Small human resistance arteries from patients with coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular systolic function were studied. Thiorphan (a NEP inhibitor) was compared with captopril (an ACE inhibitor) and omapatrilat (a dual NEP-ACE inhibitor) with regard to their effects on the response of human arteries to key vasoactive peptides. As expected, both captopril and omapatrilat (but not thiorphan) inhibited the vasoconstrictor effect of angiotensin I (maximal response [SEM]: 27 ± 8% vehicle, 6 ± 2% captopril, 39 ± 10% thiorphan, 8 ± 7% omapatrilat, P < 0.05). Thiorphan, captopril, and omapatrilat all enhanced the vasodilator response to bradykinin (all P < 0.01). Omapatrilat markedly augmented the vasodilator action of adrenomedullin (P < 0.05), whilst thiorphan and captopril did not. None of the three inhibitors studied affected the vasodilator action of c-type natriuretic peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or substance P. NEP inhibition with thiorphan modestly augmented the vasodilator action of bradykinin, but did not potentiate the response to adrenomedullin; dual ACE and NEP inhibition with omapatrilat, as expected, markedly augmented the response to bradykinin and also potentiated the effect of adrenomedullin. Thiorphan weakly enhanced the vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin I. Neither omapatrilat nor thiorphan had any effect on the action of a range of other vasoactive peptides including CNP. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Learning to manage vasoactive drugs-A qualitative interview study with critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Marie; Bergsman, Ann-Christin; Månsson, Ulrika; Holmström, Malin Rising

    2017-04-01

    Being a nurse in an intensive care unit entails caring for seriously ill patients. Vasoactive drugs are one of the tools that are used to restore adequate circulation. Critical care nurses often manage and administer these potent drugs after medical advice from physicians. To describe the experiences of critical care nurses learning to manage vasoactive drugs, and to highlight the competence required to manage vasoactive drugs. Twelve critical care nurses from three hospitals in Sweden were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The theme "becoming proficient requires accuracy, practice and precaution" illustrated how critical care nurses learn to manage vasoactive drugs. Learning included developing cognitive, psychomotor, and effective skills. Sources for knowledge refers to specialist education combined with practical exercises, collegial support, and accessible routine documents. The competence required to manage vasoactive drugs encompassed well-developed safety thinking that included being careful, in control, and communicating failures. Specific skills were required such as titrating doses, being able to analyse and evaluate the technological assessments, adapting to the situation, and staying calm. Learning to manage vasoactive drugs requires a supportive introduction for novices, collegial support, lifelong learning, and a culture of safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Serotonin and vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonists attenuate rotavirus diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordasti, S; Sjövall, H; Lundgren, O; Svensson, L

    2004-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying intestinal secretion in rotavirus diarrhoea remain to be established. We previously reported that rotavirus evokes intestinal fluid and electrolyte secretion by activation of the enteric nervous system. We now report that antagonists for the 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT(3)) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor, but not antagonists for 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor or the muscarinic receptor, attenuate rotavirus induced diarrhoea. Neurotransmitter antagonists were administered to wild-type or neurokinin 1 receptor knockout mice infected with homologous (EDIM) or heterologous (RRV) rotavirus. While RRV infected mice had diarrhoea for 3.3 (0.2) days (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.04-3.56), the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist (granisetron) and the VIP receptor antagonist (4Cl-D-Phe(6),Leu(17))-VIP both reduced the total number of days of RRV induced diarrhoea to 2.1 (0.3) (95% CI 1.31-2.9) (protavirus. On the other hand, rotavirus diarrhoea was not attenuated in the neurokinin 1 receptor knockout mice. Our results suggest that the neurotransmitters serotonin and VIP are involved in rotavirus diarrhoea; observations that could imply new principles for treatment of this disease with significant global impact.

  6. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  7. Contents hormone cortisol in the blood youths with different levels of physical training and its changes in the single training sessions under athleticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernozub A.A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Obtained and summarized the results of studies indicate that the content of the hormone cortisol when exposed to body exercise power orientation exhibits rapid reaction type, which have no signs of consolidation over the three years of occupation by force sports. The studies found that reducing the amount of cortisol in the blood, fixed after the training load in all four study groups, showing a certain dependence on the magnitude and intensity of training loads, and possibly on the level of fitness.

  8. First and second trimester gestational weight gains are most strongly associated with cord blood levels of hormones at delivery important for glycemic control and somatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Fleisch, Abby; Hivert, Marie-France; Mantzoros, Christos; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring. Early, mid, and late pregnancy GWGs have different associations with fetal growth and later life adiposity, but associations with cord blood hormones, which might predict later health, are not well studied. In 978 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, we calculated trimester-specific GWG using clinically recorded prenatal weights. Outcomes were levels of umbilical cord blood hormones related to fetal and postnatal growth. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, education, pregnancy smoking status and child sex; 2nd and 3rd trimester models were additionally adjusted for GWG in prior trimesters. Mean±SD pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.9±5.5kg/m 2 , 30% were non-white, and 63% were college graduates. Mean±SD cord blood hormone levels were insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1 (56.4±24.3ng/mL), IGF-2 (408.5±92.7ng/mL), IGFBP-3 (1084±318ng/mL), insulin (6.5±7.2 uU/mL), C-peptide (1.0±0.6ng/mL), leptin (9.0±6.6ng/mL) and adiponectin (28.7±6.8μg/mL). Mean±SD 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester GWG rates were 0.22±0.22, 0.49±0.19 and 0.46±0.22kg/wk. Greater 1st trimester GWG (per 0.2kg/wk) was associated with higher insulin (0.5 uU/mL; 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) and C-peptide (0.06ng/mL; 95% CI 0.02, 0.09) and lower adiponectin (-0.4μg/mL; 95% CI -0.9, 0.0). Greater 2nd trimester GWG (per 0.2kg/wk) was associated with higher IGF-1 (2.3ng/mL; 95% CI 0.6, 4.0), IGF-2 (7.9ng/mL; 95% CI 1.2, 14.6), IGFBP-3 (41.6ng/mL; 95% CI 19.4, 63.7) and leptin (0.9ng/mL; 0.4, 1.4). 3rd trimester GWG was not associated with cord blood hormones. 1st trimester weight gain appears to matter more for cord blood hormones related to offspring glucose/insulin regulation, whereas 2nd trimester gain matters more for hormones related to growth and adiposity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of thyroid hormones in donkey (Equus asinus) blood and milk: validation of ELISA kits and evaluation of sample collection, handling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todini, Luca; Malfatti, Alessandro; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fantuz, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Donkey's milk is well tolerated by human infants with cow's milk allergy and is useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases and in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate lactation and active triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could take paracrine action supporting lactogenesis in the mother, and play physiological roles for the suckling offspring (systemic or within the gastrointestinal tract). The aims were to measure TH concentrations in donkey blood and milk, validate ELISA methods, evaluate the effects of sample collection and post-collection handling and the stability of TH in milk and blood serum and plasma samples. In milk and blood samples obtained from lactating jennies total concentrations of TH were assayed using competitive-type ELISA kits. Good validation results were obtained for both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk samples extracted with cold (-20°C) ethanol alkalinized (pH 9·0) with NH4OH. In most of the milk extract samples, thyroxine (T4) concentrations resulted below the sensitivity threshold. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations of TH concentrations in different blood and milk samples were below 10%. Parallelism tests gave displacement lines parallel to those of the calibrators for both TH in blood serum and plasma and for T3 in milk extracts. Mean recovery rates were between 95% and 123%, but the concentration values approaching the highest calibrators were overestimated. Therefore, serum and plasma samples for T3 assay must be previously diluted with buffer. Both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk did not change during storage for up to 6 months at -20°C. In conclusion, the ELISA methods tested in the present study are suitable for determination of both TH concentrations in donkey blood samples, and for T3 measurement in milk, after extraction with cold alkaline ethanol.

  10. Effects of different progestin regimens in hormone replacement therapy on blood coagulation factor VII and tissue factor pathway inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Skouby, S O.; Andersen, L F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) reduces cardiovascular risk, but an early increased risk was reported in women with coronary heart disease. In such women the arterial intima can express tissue factor, and changes in coagulation factor VII (factor VII) and tissue factor...

  11. Insulin Plays a Permissive Role for the Vasoactive Effect of GIP Regulating Adipose Tissue Metabolism in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Asmar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    of insulin for the vasoactive effect of GIP in adipose tissue metabolism and whether the vasodilatory effect of GIP is dependent on C-peptide. METHODS: Six lean healthy subjects were studied. The sc abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was assessed by Fick's principle during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol....../kg/min) in combination with 1) euglycemic-high insulinemic clamp (Eugluc-Hiinsu), raising plasma insulin concentrations to postprandial levels, 2) hyperglycemic-euinsulinemic clamp (Hygluc-Euinsu), and 3) hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, raising plasma insulin concentrations to supraphysiological levels. During...... the hyperglycemic clamps, endogenous insulin and C-peptide secretion were inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide. RESULTS: During GIP infusion, Eugluc-Hiinsu, and hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps, sc abdominal adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was similar and increased from 2.1 ± 0...

  12. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and show how well treatments are working. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  13. [Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus l. iridaceae) on blood level of follicle-stimulating hormone, and number and dynamics of body weight of offspring in female rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimova, U F; Kamilova, N K; Babaev, Kh F; Shukurova, P A; Hasanova, S I; Abbasov, R Y

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of saffron Сrocus sativus L. Iridaceae which grow in Azerbaijan on blood level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and number and dynamics of body weight of offspring in female rats. The findings indicated that the per os administration of alcoholic extract of saffron was able to decrease the FSH levels in blood of the 12-month-old rats as compared to that in the control group, involving the animals of the same age which have not received the saffron extract, and was close to the FSH levels reported for the 6-month rats. There was also an increase in number and body weight of pups from rats receiving the saffron extract prior to pairing with the intact males.

  14. The modulatory role of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone administered spinally in the regulation of blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-08-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of α-MSH located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in d-glucose-fed and immobilization stress (IMO) mouse models. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with α-MSH alone did not affect the blood glucose level. However, i.t. administration with α-MSH reduced the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed model. The plasma insulin level was increased in d-glucose-fed model and was further increased by α-MSH, whereas α-MSH did not affect plasma corticosterone level in d-glucose-fed model. In addition, i.t. administration with glucagon alone enhanced blood glucose level and, i.t. injection with glucagon also increased the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed model. In contrasted to results observed in d-glucose-fed model, i.t. treatment with α-MSH caused enhancement of the blood glucose level in IMO model. The plasma insulin level was increased in IMO model. The increased plasma insulin level by IMO was reduced by i.t. treatment with α-MSH, whereas i.t. pretreatment with α-MSH did not affect plasma corticosterone level in IMO model. Taken together, although spinally located α-MSH itself does not alter the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of α-MSH system located in the spinal cord play important modulatory roles for the reduction of the blood glucose level in d-glucose fed model whereas α-MSH is responsible for the up-regulation of the blood glucose level in IMO model. The enhancement of insulin release may be responsible for modulatory action of α-MSH in down-regulation of the blood glucose in d-glucose fed model whereas reduction of insulin release may be responsible for modulatory action of α-MSH in up-regulation of the blood glucose in IMO model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of vasoactive intestinal peptide in scavenging singlet oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, B.R.; Misra, H.P. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a highly basic 28 amino acid peptide, has a widespread distribution in the body. The functional specificity of this peptide not only includes its potent vasodilatory activity, but also its role in protecting lungs against acute injury, in preventing T-lymphocyte proliferation and in modulating immune function. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible antioxidant properties of VIP. The authors found that VIP up to 50 {mu}g/ml had no inhibitory effect on its reduction of cytochrome C by xanthine and xanthine oxidase, indicating that the peptide does not have significant O{sub 2} scavenging ability. However, VIP was found to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the {sup 1}O{sub 2} dependent 2, 2, 6, 6 tetramethyl piperidine oxide (TEMPO) formation. {sup 1}O{sub 2} was produced by rose benzal photosensitizing system and was detected as TEMP-{sup 1}O{sub 2} adduct (TEMPO) by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic technique. The formation of TEMPO signal was strongly inhibited by {beta}-carotene, histidine as well as azide, but not by superoxide dismutase (48 {mu}g/ml), catalase (20 {mu}g/ml) and mannitol (6mM), indicating that TEMPO signal was a TEMP-{sup 1}O{sub 2} adduct. These results indicate that VIP has potent antioxidant activity and may serve as a singlet O{sub 2} scavenger, thus it may modulate the oxidative tissue injury caused by this reactive oxygen species.

  16. Effects of water restriction following feeding on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water restriction following feeding under heat stress conditions on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and some blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows were evaluated. The design was completely randomized with 30 high producing lactating Holstein cows (80.8±40.5 DIM which were assigned to two treatment groups (15 cows per treatment. Treatments were free access to water (FAW and 2 h water restriction (2hWR following feeding. Average temperature-humidity index (THI in the farm was over 80 throughout the experiment which defines heat stress conditions. Neutral detergent fibre, organic matter and ether extract digestibilities increased by water restriction (P0.05. Water intake was recorded daily during the digestibility period and was not different between FAW and 2hWR group (P>0.05. Fat corrected milk was higher in 2hWR group than FAW group (P0.05. Somatic cell counts were greater in 2hWR than FAW group (P0.05. Blood prolactin and growth hormone were higher in 2hWR group than the FAW group (P<0.05. It is concluded that water restriction for 2 hours following feeding improved nutrient digestibility of some dietary components and increased milk fat percentage in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

  17. [Chronic vascular catheterization in the rat. Adaptation to injections and semi-continous blood sampling for hormonal studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, J F; Boucher, D; Leinot, M

    1978-01-01

    A method for frequent sampling of blood and injections of fluids in undisturbed rats is described. The right external jugular vein and the left carotid artery are cannulated without completely blood stream interruption in the vessel. Injection or perfusion can be performed during several weeks. Blood was collected for at least 15 post-operative days. The technique appears suitable for pituitary kinetics studies which can be carried out several times in rats bearing indwelling catheters.

  18. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ky; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Lee-Kyung; Cho, Young Min

    2016-02-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, Pdiabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281).

  19. Sexual hormones modulate compensatory renal growth and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Azurmendi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The role played by sexual hormones and vasoactive substances in the compensatory renal growth (CRG that follows uninephrectomy (uNx is still controversial. Intact and gonadectomized adult Wistar rats of both sexes, with and without uNx, performed at 90 days age, were studied at age 150 days. Daily urine volume, electrolyte excretion and kallikrein activity (UKa were determined. Afterwards, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were measured, the kidneys weighed and DNA, protein and RNA studied to determine nuclei content and cell size. When the remnant kidney weight at age 150 days was compared with the weight of the kidney removed at the time of uNx, male uNx rats showed the greatest CRG (50% while growth in the other uNx groups was 25%, 15% and 19% in orchidectomized, female and ovariectomized rats, respectively. The small CRG observed in the uNx female rats was accompanied by the lowest glomerular filtration value, 0.56 ± 0.02 ml/min/g kwt compared, with the other uNx groups, p < 0.05. Cell size (protein or RNA/DNA was similar for all the groups except for uNx orchidectomized rats. In this group the cytoplasmatic protein or RNA content was lower than in the other groups while DNA (nuclei content was similar. Some degree of hyperplasia was determined by DNA content in the uNx groups. Male sexual hormones positively influenced CRG and its absence modulated cell size. Female sexual hormones, instead, did not appear to stimulate CRG. The kallikrein kinin system may not be involved in CRG.

  20. Sexual hormones modulate compensatory renal growth and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azurmendi, Pablo J; Oddo, Elisabet M; Toledo, Jorge E; Martin, Rodolfo S; Ibarra, Fernando R; Arrizurieta, Elvira E

    2013-01-01

    The role played by sexual hormones and vasoactive substances in the compensatory renal growth (CRG) that follows uninephrectomy (uNx) is still controversial. Intact and gonadectomized adult Wistar rats of both sexes, with and without uNx, performed at 90 days age, were studied at age 150 days. Daily urine volume, electrolyte excretion and kallikrein activity (UKa) were determined. Afterwards, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were measured, the kidneys weighed and DNA, protein and RNA studied to determine nuclei content and cell size. When the remnant kidney weight at age 150 days was compared with the weight of the kidney removed at the time of uNx, male uNx rats showed the greatest CRG (50%) while growth in the other uNx groups was 25%, 15% and 19% in orchidectomized, female and ovariectomized rats, respectively. The small CRG observed in the uNx female rats was accompanied by the lowest glomerular filtration value, 0.56 ± 0.02 ml/ min/g kwt compared, with the other uNx groups, p protein or RNA/DNA) was similar for all the groups except for uNx orchidectomized rats. In this group the cytoplasmatic protein or RNA content was lower than in the other groups while DNA (nuclei content) was similar. Some degree of hyperplasia was determined by DNA content in the uNx groups. Male sexual hormones positively influenced CRG and its absence modulated cell size. Female sexual hormones, instead, did not appear to stimulate CRG. The kallikrein kinin system may not be involved in CRG.

  1. Effect of sterilization and of dietary fat and carbohydrate content on food intake, activity level, and blood satiety-related hormones in female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauf, S; Salas-Mani, A; Torre, C; Bosch, G; Swarts, H; Castrillo, C

    2016-10-01

    Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph.II). In each phase, dogs received a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet (313 and 105 g/kg DM starch and fat, respectively) and a high-fat (HF) diet (191 and 213 g/kg DM starch and fat, respectively), both high in total dietary fiber (>200 g/kg DM) and providing 27% ME as protein, in 2 consecutive periods following a crossover arrangement. During each period, dogs' voluntary DMI and activity level were recorded during 5 d. Then, energy allowance was restricted to 0.7 maintenance and the level of intake of a common challenge food offered 4 h after feeding the experimental diets (challenge food intake [ChFI]) was used as an index of the satiety state of dogs. Blood concentration of active ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), total peptide YY (PYY), and insulin were determined before and 15, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min after feeding. Voluntary DMI was greater ( dogs, but ChFI did not differ between diets ( > 0.10). Dogs fed the HF diet showed a lower increase of CCK at 120 ( dogs at 120 min. Only active ghrelin concentration at 240 min and insulin tAUC correlated ( Dog sterilization did not affect voluntary DMI, ChFI, or blood hormones ( > 0.10) but led to a reduced activity level compared with control dogs ( dog sterilization was not associated with an impaired appetite control. Feeding dogs the HF diet led to energy overconsumption and to a lower

  2. Histochemical localization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and its influence on contractile activity in the non-pregnant and pregnant human cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, I; Norström, A; Lindblom, B; Dahlström, A

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied by immunofluorescence in cervical tissue of non-pregnant and pregnant women. VIP was localized in connection with blood vessels as well as among collagen fibres and smooth muscle cells. No difference was observed between non-pregnant and term pregnant women. The effect of VIP on cervical contractility was tested on isolated strips by superfusion in a tissue chamber. VIP inhibited contractions at 10(-8)-10(-6) M concentration, strips from term pregnant women responding more frequently at the lower concentration. It is suggested that VIP-containing neurons of the human cervix remain intact throughout pregnancy until term.

  3. Effects of Dietary L-carnosine and Alpha-lipoic Acid on Growth Performance, Blood Thyroid Hormones and Lipid Profiles in Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Bao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effects of L-carnosine (LC and/or alpha-lipoic acid (ALA supplementation on growth performance, blood thyroid hormones and lipid profiles in finishing pigs. A total of 40 (Landrace×Yorkshire pigs with an initial body weight of 57.93±3.14 kg were randomly allocated to 4 experimental diets using a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 LC supplemental levels (0 or 0.1% and 2 ALA supplemental levels (0 or 0.03% in basal diets. The results showed that pigs fed LC-supplemented diets increased final live weight, average daily gain, and average daily feed intake compared to those of pigs fed without LC-supplemented diets (p0.05. Additionally, LC supplementation increased serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine levels, and ALA supplementation increased serum triiodothyronine levels (p<0.05. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LC and ALA supplemented groups, respectively (p<0.05. Moreover, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower in the ALA-supplemented groups than those of pigs fed without ALA-supplemented diets (p<0.05. However, no significant LC×ALA interaction effect on growth performance, blood thyroid hormones and lipid profiles was found. This study suggested that dietary supplementation of LC resulted in better growth performance compared to that of ALA supplementation. L-carnosine and/or ALA supplementation positively modified blood lipid profiles, which may have the potential to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Fasting and post-prandial splanchnic blood flow is reduced by a somatostatin analogue (octreotide) in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A M; Braatvedt, G D; Qamar, M I; Brown, H; Thomas, D M; Halliwell, M; Read, A E; Corrall, R J

    1991-08-01

    1. The effects of the subcutaneous administration of a long-acting somatostatin analogue (octreotide) or of placebo on the splanchnic blood flow response to a mixed solid meal has been examined in eight normal subjects by using a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasound technique. Each subject was studied on two occasions more than 1 week apart. 2. On the control day, feeding had a pronounced effect on both superior mesenteric artery and portal venous blood flows, causing a peak rise of 82% in superior mesenteric artery blood flow at 15 min and of 75% in portal venous blood flow at 30 min post-prandially (P less than 0.001). Blood flows remained elevated 2 h after the meal. Pulse and blood pressure showed no significant changes from baseline. 3. Octreotide reduced fasting superior mesenteric artery blood flow by 59% (P less than 0.05) and portal venous blood flow by 49% (P less than 0.01) and blunted the normal post-prandial rise. Pulse and blood pressure did not change in response to either the injection or the ingestion of the meal. 4. Octreotide suppressed the release of insulin, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide in response to feeding and resulted in post-prandial hyperglycaemia. 5. The mechanism of action of octreotide on splanchnic blood flow is uncertain. It may be mediated via a direct vascular effect or it may act via suppression of vasoactive intestinal hormones.

  5. Association between vasoactive-inotropic score and mortality in pediatric septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, A; Siddiqui, N R; Munir, O; Saleem, S; Mian, A

    2015-04-01

    To assess the association between Vasoactive Inotrope Score (vis) and mortality in children with fluid-refractory septic shock. A retrospective chart review of 71 children (age 1 mo-16y) admitted with fluid-refractory septic shock in pediatric intensive care unit during a two year period was done. We divided our cohort into two groups viz High vasoactive inotrope score (Group-H) and Low-vasoactive inotrope score (Group-L) based on a cut-off value of 20. 73% of the children were in Group-L. The mortality rate was 44% and 100% in Group L and Group H, respectively. High inotropic score in children with septic shock is associated with high mortality rate.

  6. Increased thermal response to ultrasound in the Walker carcinosarcoma treated with vasoactive drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, W.H.; Debatin, J.; Helus, F.; Sinn, H.J.; Ostertag, H.

    1989-04-01

    In order to evaluate the potential of a highly selective Ca2+ entry blocker (nisoldipine) and of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) as adjuvant in hyperthermia treatment, we studied the differential flow response and time-course of tumor and normal tissue temperature following the administration of the two substances and during ultrasound heating. In 12 rats bearing Walker 256 carcinomas i.p. injection of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg nisoldipine caused a reduction in the tumor-to-muscle flow relationship of 4.4 +/- 1.9 (SD) to 1.74 +/- 0.86 as determined by intraarterial 133Xe injection; i.p. injection of 2-8 mg/kg 5-HT (N = 13) caused a respective reduction from 3.9 +/- 2.67 to 1.3 +/- 1.59. During a 20-min period of 41 degrees C normal tissue temperature-controlled ultrasound heating without drugs, tumor temperature attained 40.8 +/- 0.9 degrees C (N = 16). Nisoldipine or 5-HT injection at continuing 41 degrees C normal tissue temperature controlled energy delivery produced an instantaneous further increment of tumor temperature, eventually to 44.0 +/- 1.14 degrees C or 44.2 +/- 1.26 degrees C, respectively, after a period of 20 min. Injection of 0.9% NaCl (N = 4) solution caused only insignificant changes. Blood pressure and muscle perfusion were distinctly influenced by nisoldipine, but not by 5-HT. Since both drugs instantaneously increased the temperature differential between tumor and normal tissue, though by different vasoaction, they should be considered as adjuvants in hyperthermia.

  7. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and can affect people who have a diet ... 2015 More on this topic for: Teens Blood Types Donating Blood Blood Transfusions Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Hemophilia When Cancer Keeps You ...

  8. Basal levels and diurnal variations of some hormones and metabolites in blood of dairy cows treated daily with rbSTin early and late lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Blum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of basal value (before morning feeding at 3-4 days interval and daily pattern (on 4and 18day of treat-  ment with 8 blood collections within 24h of hormones and metabolites were studied in four dairy cows; 2 in early and  2 in late lactation, which were alternatively injected daily for a period of 21 days with 26.3 mg rbST or saline.  The rbST  injection significantly increased the basal and daily levels of GH, IGF-I in both stages of lactation. Daily levels of NEFA  were significantly increased by rbST in both stages of lactation and their variations, due to the effect of meals, were coun-  teracted by the rbST; the higher level of NEFA allowed a greater sparing of glucose, the blood level of which resulted  higher (P  blood urea level (P  ticular the high availability of glucose, determined a significantly higher blood level of insulin and T3, and lower level of  glucagon. Despite the similar GH, IGF-I and NEFA increases observed in the cows treated in early and late lactation, other  metabolic and endocrine consequences resulted more evident in late lactation. Furthermore, some of these variations  were affected by the forage meals. It can be concluded, therefore, that the changes occurring in the blood subsequent  to a rbST treatment are not equal to those which occur at the start of lactation; moreover, they are affected by the daily  feeding pattern and perhaps by the stage of  lactation. 

  9. Effect of different types of stress on adrenal gland parameters and adrenal hormones in the blood serum of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex and medulla in mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different stress types: acute, chronic, and combined, i.e., chronic followed by acute stress. These parameters were correlated with adrenal activity as judged from serum levels of corticosterone and catecholamine, respectively, as well as with serum levels of ACTH and glucose. Under all three conditions, we observed bilaterally asymmetric and stress-type-independent hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as adrenal cortices and medullas. Under acute and combined stress, adrenal hypertrophy was followed by increase of adrenal hormones in the blood serum. However, under chronic stress, both cortical and medullar activities as judged from low or unaltered levels of the respective hormones and glucose were compromised and disconnected from the input signal of ACTH. Since all of the studied adrenal activities could be restored by subsequent acute stress, it is concluded that chronic isolation can be viewed as partly maladaptive stress with characteristics resembling stress resistance rather than the stress exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome.

  10. Vasoactive substances in subchondral bone of the dog knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, I E; Ewald, Henrik Lykke; Bülow, J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate regulatory mechanisms for subchondral bone blood flow. A model including elevation of joint cavity pressure in the immature dog knee was applied. The role of prostaglandins in bone blood flow regulation was indirectly examined by indomethacin...

  11. Blood-brain barrier to peptides: (/sup 3/H)gonadotropin-releasing hormone accumulation by eighteen regions of the rat brain and by anterior pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermisch, A.; Ruehle, H.J. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biowissenschaften); Klauschenz, E.; Kretzschmar, R. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Inst. fuer Wirkstofforschung)

    1984-01-01

    After intracarotid injection of (/sup 3/H)gonadotropin-releasing hormone ((/sup 3/H)GnRH) the mean accumulation of radioactivity per unit wet weight of 18 brain samples investigated and the anterior pituitary was 0.38 +- 0.11% g/sup -1/ of the injected tracer dose. This indicates a low but measurable brain uptake of the peptide. The brain uptake of (/sup 3/H)GnRH in blood-brain barrier (BBB)-protected regions is 5% of that of separately investigated (/sup 3/H)OH. In BBB-free regions the accumulation of radioactivity was more than 25-fold higher than in BBB-protected regions. The accumulation of (/sup 3/H)GnRH among regions with BBB varies less than among regions with leaky endothelia. The data presented for (/sup 3/H)GnRH are similar to those for other peptides so far investigated.

  12. Increased nuclear tri-iodothyronine binding and thyroid hormone-stimulated glucose consumption in mononuclear blood cells from patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1991-01-01

    control subjects. Serum T3 was decreased in patients with LC. The MBC of T3 was increased significantly (P less than 0.05) in cells from patients with LC compared with patients with AH and controls, whereas the equilibrium association constants did not differ. Unstimulated glucose consumption was slightly......Nuclear tri-iodothyronine (T3) maximal binding capacity (MBC) and thyroxine- and T3-stimulated cellular oxygen consumption and glucose consumption were examined in mononuclear blood cells from six patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), in six patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH), and in six healthy...... increased (P less than 0.05) in cells from patients with AH and LC compared with controls. Thyroid hormone-stimulated glucose consumption was significantly (P less than 0.05) increased in cells from patients with LC compared with controls and patients with AH. Unstimulated oxygen consumption did not differ...

  13. Effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT on the body weight, blood pressure and vaginal bleeding in menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was a descriptive, retrospective trial conducted in 29 menopausal women. Each patient received treatment with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE 0.625 mg/day + medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 5 mg/hari continuously for the period of 6 months. The average age of menopause was 53.7 years with duration of menopause of 5.5 years. The education level of patients was Senior High School and higher. During the period of 6 months of continuous combined HRT, a significant increase of body weight and systolic blood pressure was found, while diastolic blood pressure did not have any significant change. Vaginal bleeding in the form of spotting occurred in 69% of the patients during the use of continuous combined HRT. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:11-4Keywords: continuous HRT, menopause, body weight, blood pressure, bleeding

  14. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Nanomedicine for the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Dulari; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Guzman, Grace; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Onyuksel, Hayat

    2017-11-06

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disorder of the intestine, with increasing incidence worldwide. At present, the management of IBD is an unmet medical need due to the ineffectiveness of currently available drugs in treating all patients, and there is strong demand for novel therapeutics. In this regard, vasoactive intestinal peptide, a potent anti-inflammatory endogenous hormone, has shown promise in managing multiple immune disorders in animal models. However, when administered in the free form, VIP undergoes rapid degradation in vivo, and with continuous infusion, it causes severe dose limiting side effects. To overcome these barriers, we have developed a superior mode to deliver VIP in its native form, using sterically stabilized micelles (VIP-SSM). Our previous studies demonstrated that, VIP, when administered in SSM, prevented joint damage and inflammation in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis at a significantly lower dose than the free peptide, completely abrogating the serious side effect of hypotension associated with VIP. In the current study, we demonstrate the therapeutic benefit of VIP-SSM over free peptide in reversing severe colitis associated with IBD. First, we conducted preliminary studies with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice, to determine the effectiveness of VIP administered on alternate days in reducing disease severity. Thereafter, a single intra peritoneal injection of VIP-SSM or the free peptide was used to determine its therapeutic effect on the reversal of colitis and associated diarrhea. The results demonstrated that when administered on alternate days, both VIP-SSM and VIP were capable of alleviating DSS colitis in mice. However, when administered as a single dose, in a therapeutic setting, VIP-SSM showed superior benefits compared to the free peptide in ameliorating colitis phenotype. Namely, the loss of solid fecal pellets and increased fluid accumulation in colon resulting from DSS insult

  15. Intracerebroventricular injection of vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide inhibits feeding in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Tetsuya; Saito, Shin; Tomonaga, Shozo; Takagi, Tomo; Saito, Ei-Suke; Boswell, Tim; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2003-03-27

    Previous research has indicated an involvement of glucagon superfamily peptides in the regulation of feeding in the domestic chick brain. However the possible roles of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP) have not yet been investigated. We therefore examined the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of VIP or PACAP on food intake in chicks. ICV injection of both VIP and PACAP significantly inhibited food intake over 4 h at doses ranging from 12 to 188 pmol. Subsequently, we compared the anorexic effect the glucagon superfamily peptides VIP, PACAP, growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) after ICV injection at an equimolar dose (12 pmol). All four peptides significantly inhibited food intake, although the anorexic effects of VIP and PACAP were weaker than those of GRF and GLP-1. These findings support the hypothesis that glucagon superfamily peptides play an important role in the regulation of appetite in the chick brain.

  16. Association of free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin with metabolic syndrome and subclinical atherosclerosis but not blood pressure in hypertensive perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2016-06-01

    Data on the role of androgens as potential mediators of increasing cardiovascular risk in women at midlife are controversial. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship of free testosterone (FT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with blood pressure and subclinical organ damage and metabolic syndrome (MS) in middle aged hypertensive women. One hundred and fifty-two women with newly diagnosed arterial hypertension were included in the study. In all subjects blood pressure measurements were performed as well as echocardiographic examination with left ventricular structure and function assessment (GE Vivid 7.0), carotid ultrasound with measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement (Sphygmocor). A fasting blood sample was taken to measure glucose and lipid concentrations. Serum testosterone and SHBG were measured. Free testosterone was calculated according to the Vermeulen formula. Metabolic syndrome was defined following the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) recommendations. Free testosterone was significantly higher and SHBG lower in women with MS independently of menopausal status. The odds ratio of MS per quartile increment in FT after adjustment for covariates was 2.06 (95% CI: 1.16-3.65). There was no correlation between FT, SHBG and blood pressure. Free testosterone was associated with decreased left ventricular diastolic function (E/A ratio β = -0.19, p = 0.05) and subclinical atherosclerosis (IMT β = 0.34, p = 0.009), but not arterial stiffness. Free testosterone and SHBG independently of menopause status are related to MS. Free testosterone is associated with worse metabolic profile, subclinical atherosclerosis and impaired diastolic function of the left ventricle.

  17. BLOOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit (altruism). '35 An individual who gives blood in replacement for that which has been given to his relation is referred to as family replacement donor. '2 But when a person donates blood for the purpose of transfusing a. defined patient, such a person is referred to as. AHMED S. G. AND HASSAN A. W. a directed donor.

  18. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  19. Q-T interval (QTc) in patients with cirrhosis: relation to vasoactive peptides and heart rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Gülberg, V.; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prolonged Q-T interval (QT) has been reported in patients with cirrhosis who also exhibit profound abnormalities in vasoactive peptides and often present with elevated heart rate (HR). The aim of this study was to relate QT to the circulating level of endothelins (ET-1 and ET-3...

  20. Evaluation of the effects of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) therapy on regional cerebral blood flow in the cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy using 3DSRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Noriyuki; Kumamoto, Toshihide; Masuda, Teruaki; Nomura, Yuki; Hanaoka, Takuya; Hazama, Yusuke; Okazaki, Toshio

    2011-04-01

    Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) improves cerebellar ataxia and cerebellar perfusion in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration. It is not known whether TRH therapy can improve the cerebellar regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) or not in patients with cerebellar variant of multiple-system atrophy (MSA-C). Seven patients with MSA-C received TRH intravenously (2 mg/day) for 14 days. Clinical efficacy was assessed using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) and brain perfusion single photon emission-computed tomography was performed before and after therapy. The rCBF in each region of interest (ROI) was calculated using 3DSRT, a fully automated the ROI technique. The ICARS scores slightly improved in 6 of the 7 patients after TRH therapy, but this was not statistically significant. After TRH therapy, the cerebellar rCBF reduced in the 6 of 7 patients and the mean rCBF in cerebellum also significantly decreased (P=0.029, paired t-test), whereas the rCBF in the precentral segment tend to increase (P=0.048, paired t-test). TRH therapy may be less effective on cerebellar ataxia and cerebellar rCBF in MSA-C. The 3DSRT program may be useful for the evaluation of the efficacy of TRH therapy on cerebral blood flow. Copyright © 2009 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  1. Acute and delayed responses of steroidal hormones, blood lactate and biomarkers of muscle damage after a resistance training session: time-of-day effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Achraf; Chtourou, Hamdi; Turki, Mouna; Hammouda, Omar; Chaari, Ahmed; Boudaya, Mariem; Driss, Tarak; Ayedi, Fatma; Souissi, Nizar

    2017-02-21

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of time-of-days (TOD) on some biochemical and hormonal responses after resistance training sessions. Ten trained subjects (22±2 years) performed, in randomized order, three resistance-training-sessions at 07h:00, 13h:00 and 17h:00. Each training-session included six upper and lower body resistance exercises with 3×10 repetitions. Blood lactate (Lac), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) were collected at rest, 3min and 48h after each-session. At rest, steroidal hormones were higher in the morning compared to the evening (p<0.01), whereas, no significant TOD effect on Lac, CK or LDH was observed. 3min after training, whatever the TOD, Lac, CK and T increased significantly (p<0.001). However, a significant decrease in C and a significant increase of T/C ratio were registered only after morning training. 3min and even 48h after training, the diurnal variations (i.e., morning to evening) of CK and C have been altered with higher early evening values of CK and lower one of C; whereas, T, Lac and LDH conserved their resting diurnal variation. Additionally, 48h after the morning session, CK and T/C ratio remained elevated compared to the baseline levels. In conclusion, resistance exercises soliciting both lower and upper limbs seems to alter the diurnal variation of CK and C, to enhance the morning anabolism/catabolism status and to produce more favorable environment for muscular adaptation up to 48h post-training.

  2. Postulated vasoactive neuropeptide immunopathology affecting the blood–brain/blood–spinal barrier in certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions: A role for phosphodiesterase inhibitors in treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Staines1,2, Ekua W Brenu2, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik21Queensland Health, Gold Coast Population Health Unit, Southport, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Population Health and Neuroimmunology Unit, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms occur in a number of neurological fatigue-related conditions including multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson’s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. These conditions have been attributed variably to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. While autoimmune pathology, at least in part, has long been suspected in these conditions proof has been elusive. Autoimmune pathomechanisms affecting the blood–brain barrier (BBB or blood–spinal barrier (BSB may predispose the BBB/BSB to ‘leakiness’ and be a precursor to additional autoimmune events resulting in neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. The aim of the paper is to postulate immunopathology of the cerebrospinal perivascular compartment involving certain vasoactive neuropeptides, specifically pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, in the etiology of certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions such as MS, ALS, PD, and CFS. Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators. PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS and have key roles in CNS blood vessels including maintaining functional integrity of the BBB and BSB. Autoimmunity affecting these VNs would likely have a detrimental effect on BBB and BSB functioning arguably predisposing to further pathological processes. Virchow–Robin spaces (VRS are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS which

  3. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feedback system to maintain stable amounts of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the blood ... their thyroid gland removed is receiving too little thyroid hormone replacement medication and the dose may need to ...

  4. TSH, thyroid hormones and nuclear-binding of T3 in mononuclear blood cells from obese and non-obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kvetny, J; Pedersen, K K

    1989-01-01

    The specific nuclear-binding of T3 (NBT3) in mononuclear blood cells, and the concentrations of TSH, thyroid hormones, and binding proteins were measured after overnight fasting in 12 obese and in 14 non-obese women, none of the subjects were taking any medicine. The concentrations of TSH and free...... plus bound-T3 (TT3) were significantly higher in the obese (p less than 0.05), concentrations of T4 and binding proteins did not differ. The NBT3 was significantly lower in the obese women; the maximal binding capacity (MBC) was 34.5 +/- 11.6 fmol/mg DNA in the obese subjects and 50.0 +/- 11.6 fmol....../mg DNA in the non-obese subjects (p less than 0.02). The binding affinities did not differ. We have previously shown that increasing T3 concentrations within the physiological range down-regulates NBT3. Therefore, the reduced NBT3 in the obese women was probably secondary to the increased TT3...

  5. Vasomotor hot flushes and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive women: A placebo-controlled trial on post-menopausal hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Haapalahti, Petri; Sarna, Seppo; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S

    2010-07-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is one of the most powerful determinants of cardiovascular risk in women. This risk may differ between post-menopausal women with and without vasomotor hot flushes, possibly indicating different vascular responses to hormone therapy (HT). Thus, we compared in a clinical trial the effect of HT on ambulatory BP in normotensive, recently post-menopausal women with or without severe hot flushes. A total of 147 women recorded prospectively their hot flushes for 2 weeks; 70 women were symptomatic (>or=7 moderate/severe hot flush episodes/day), whereas 77 women were defined as asymptomatic (hot flush episodes/day). Women were treated for 6 months with either transdermal estradiol, oral estradiol with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate, or placebo. In symptomatic women decreases in BPs were seen during estradiol use. In contrast, in asymptomatic women receiving oral but not transdermal estradiol, increases in 24-h and day-time systolic and diastolic BPs were encountered. Hot flushes modify the HT-mediated responses in ambulatory BP. In asymptomatic women oral but not transdermal estradiol show potentially harmful cardiovascular effect by increasing BP. Our results give additional justification to prescribing HT primarily for the treatment of troublesome hot flushes and avoiding HT in women without vasomotor symptoms.

  6. SiRNA-mediated silencing of the diencephalic thyrotropin-releasing hormone precursor gene decreases the arterial blood pressure in the obese agouti mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Maria Silvina; Schuman, Mariano Luis; Burgueno, Adriana; Alvarez, Azucena Laura; Garcia, Silvia Ines; Pirola, Carlos Jose

    2007-05-01

    Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in part through development of hypertension. Leptin promotes weight loss by reducing food intake and increasing energy expenditure through sympathetic stimulation. It also counteracts the starvation-induced suppression of thyroid hormone by up-regulating the expression of TRH. On the other hand, it is known that the extrahypothalamic TRH system participates in cardiovascular function modulating sympathetic system activity. In order to challenge the testable hypothesis that obesity may raise arterial blood pressure (ABP) through TRH system activation, we herein analyze the participation of the TRH system in the elevation of ABP in the obese agouti yellow mice. These mice are characterized by resistance to the weight reducing effect of leptin although they show a preserved sympathetic response to leptin along with a mild hypertension compared with the control strain (121+/-2 vs 102+/-2 mmHg, p less than 0.001, n=10). We report here that hyperleptinemic agouti mice showed a 1.8-fold elevation of diencephalic TRH content compared with controls, and we demonstrate that a long lasting specific inhibition of TRH system by icv treatment with siRNA against preproTRH normalizes systolic ABP independently of the thyroid status. These results suggest that the interaction leptin-diencephalic TRH may be one of the mechanisms involved in the mild hypertension of the obese agouti mice.

  7. [Sports and measurement of components in urine--responses of renal blood flow, electrolytes and hormones and of excretion of proteins into urine to exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Machida, K

    1996-07-01

    Renal blood flow decreased depending on the increase in exercise intensity. The kidneys may have roles to conserve the electrolytes and body fluid, and maintenance of acid-base balance during and after severe exercise. Increases in plasma hormones involved in the regulation of electrolyte-water balance, and decreases in urine flow, Na, Cl and K excretions into urine were observed following moderate exercise under a warm environment. Inhibition of electrolytes and water excretion into urine following exercise in water was less than that following exercise on land. Exercise in water is good for patients with hypertension, obesity and a mild renal disease who have tendency to conserve sodium and/or water. Increase in urinary albumin excretion, glomerular-type proteinuria was observed after moderate exercise (50 approximately 75%HRmax) in the obese individuals who had higher levels of hematocrit, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cho, apoprotein B, CIII, and fasting insulin. The findings suggest that moderate exercise causes a latent abnormality of renal glomerular basement membrane in the obese individuals who had an early disturbance of glucose-fatty metabolism.

  8. ACTH blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003695.htm ACTH blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... the adrenal gland . It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. This test can help find the causes of certain hormone ...

  9. Vasoactive and radioprotective properties of isothiourea derivatives having NOS-inhibitory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filimonova, Marina V.; Shevchenko, Ludmila I.; Ulyanenko, Stepan E.; Makarchuk, Victorya M.; Kuznetsova, Mary N.; Shevchuk, Aza S.; Lushnikova, Galina A.; Chesnakova, Ekaterina A. [Medical Radiological Research Center Health Ministry of Russia, 4, Korolev street, Obninsk, 249036, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    We studied vasoactive and radioprotective properties of new original N-acyl, S-alkyl isothiourea derivatives which are potent inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (preferably eNOS and iNOS). These compounds have a moderate toxicity (LD50 - 400-550 mg/kg), and are stable in aqueous solutions. In hemodynamic studies, these compounds exhibited high vasotropic activity. The use of these compounds in doses of 5-15 mg/kg (0,01-0,03 LD{sub 50}) in the experimental animals in a state of the severe hemorrhagic or endo-toxic shock causes a potent vasopressor effect, accompanied by a significant and continuous rise in blood pressure. The increasing of vascular tone developed over 2-5 min after injection and persisted for at least 60-90 minutes, excelling at least 3-5 times the duration of α1-adreno-mimetic vasopressor action. The rapid increase in vascular tone under the influence of these compounds in normo-tonic animals caused protective baroreflex to prevent high blood pressure. At doses of 10-15 mg/kg the reflex reaction was mild, but at higher doses (30-40 mg/kg) the reaction was fierce and prolonged, and was accompanied by severe bradycardia, decreasing of the cardiac output and a significant weakening of the peripheral blood flow. In all cases, the hemodynamic response was reflexive and easily eliminated by atropine. The ability of these compounds to induce circulatory hypoxia was the basis for the study of their radioprotective properties. The study of radioprotective effect on the survival of animals exposed to lethal doses of γ-radiation (10 Gy) and on the survival of hematopoietic clonogenic cells showed that these compounds in doses of 80-150 mg/kg (0,2-0,3 LD50) have considerable radioprotective action, which is comparable with the protective effect of the maximum tolerated dose of cystamine. The factor of change in dose for γ-radiation, estimated by the LD{sub 50}, was 1,42-1,58. We also investigated the ability of the test compounds, due to their hypoxic

  10. Steroids in fluid and/or vasoactive infusion dependent pediatric shock: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    O?Hearn, Katharine; McNally, Dayre; Choong, Karen; Acharya, Anand; Wong, Hector R.; Lawson, Margaret; Ramsay, Tim; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Gilfoyle, Elaine; Tucci, Marisa; Wensley, David; Gottesman, Ronald; Morrison, Gavin; Menon, Kusum

    2016-01-01

    Background Physicians often administer corticosteroids for the treatment of fluid and vasoactive infusion dependent pediatric shock. This use of corticosteroids is controversial, however, and has never been studied in a pediatric randomized controlled trial (RCT). This pilot trial will determine the feasibility of a larger RCT on the role of corticosteroids in pediatric shock. Methods/design Steroids in Fluid and/or Vasoactive Infusion Dependent Pediatric Shock (STRIPES) is a pragmatic, seven...

  11. Associations of high and low milk protein concentrations with energy allocation, milk production, and concentrations of blood plasma metabolites and hormones in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, M L; Marett, L C; Macmillan, K L; Morton, J M; Hannah, M C; Fisher, A D; Auldist, M J

    2016-12-01

    A positive association between milk protein concentration (MPC) and reproductive performance in dairy cows has been shown in several studies globally. This association may positively influence farm productivity and profitability, particularly in seasonally calving, pasture-based herds. However, the differences in milk production and energy allocation, physical characteristics, and blood plasma nutrient status between cows with differing MPC have not been examined, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the association remain undefined. The objective of this study was to examine associations between MPC and nutrient partitioning in primiparous Holstein-Friesian cows managed under pasture-based dairying conditions, and to identify differences that may indicate the underlying mechanisms. Data were collected from 85 cows at regular intervals during the early part of the 2013 to 2014 seasonal lactation, including daily milk yield, weekly milk composition, weekly body condition score measurements, as well as weekly blood plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. Cows were retrospectively separated into quartiles based on their average MPC during the first 120d of lactation, and comparisons were made between cows within the highest (high; 3.22 to 3.40%) and the lowest (low; 2.87 to 3.00%) MPC quartiles. The high-MPC cows had lower daily milk yields, yet did not differ in the daily yields of milk solids (protein + fat) compared with the low-MPC cows. After parturition, the high-MPC cows had greater blood plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin compared with the low-MPC cows and maintained their body condition score, despite no differences in these variables prepartum. These results indicate an increased partitioning of nutrients toward milk synthesis at the expense of body condition for cows in the low MPC quartile. However, average daily energy outputs in milk were similar in the high- and low-MPC cows. The high

  12. Thyroid hormones in milk and blood of lactating donkeys as affected by stage of lactation and dietary supplementation with trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todini, Luca; Salimei, Elisabetta; Malfatti, Alessandro; Ferraro, Stefano; Fantuz, Francesco

    2012-05-01

    The traditional utilization of donkeys (Equus asinus) as dairy animals has recently attracted substantial scientific interest with regard to human nutrition. Donkey milk is well tolerated by infants with cows' milk allergy, useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases, in the prevention of atherosclerosis, and in-vitro studies showed an anti-proliferative effect. Active 3-3'-5-triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could play different physiological roles, systemic and paracrine, for both the mother and the suckling offspring. The aim was to evaluate whether thyroid hormones (TH) concentrations in milk and blood of lactating donkeys change with the advancing lactation and whether they can be affected by dietary supplementation with several trace elements, some of them directly involved with TH synthesis (I), metabolism (Se) and action (Zn). Sixteen lactating jennies were divided into two groups (CTL and TE). Mixed feed for TE was added with Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, I, Se and Co. Every 2 weeks milk and blood samples were collected at 11·00. Total concentrations of T3 in milk (T3M) and T3 and T4 in plasma (T3P and T4P) were assayed using ELISA kits, validated for the donkey species. T3M was not correlated with TH concentrations in blood, did not change with the stage of lactation, and was significantly higher in TE (4·09 ± 0·07 ng/ml, mean ± SE) than in CTL group (3·89 ± 0·08 ng/ml). T4P (81·8 ± 5·2 ng/ml) and T3P (15·2 ± 1 ng/ml) significantly changed with time, but were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. T3P/T4P ratio was significantly lower in TE group. This study indicates that in donkey milk the concentration of T3, a human-like bioactive compound, can be affected by trace elements intake.

  13. Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone, serum calcium and arterial blood pressure in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: results of a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Ermani, M; Luisetto, G; Nardi, A; Basso, S M M; Camozzi, V; Favia, G

    2002-05-01

    To evaluate the possible relationship between serum calcium, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and arterial blood pressure (BP) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). A retrospective population-based study. Charts of 194 patients with proven primary HPT were reviewed, and the main clinical and biochemical parameters were recorded. There were 48 men (24.7%) and 146 women (75.3%), with a median age of 59 years (range 23-82 years). Patients who used antihypertensive drugs or hormone replacement therapy had been previously excluded. All patients underwent successful parathyroidectomy, and were cured of their disease. There were no differences (P=NS) between men and women in systolic (143.3+/-19.1 vs 145.4+/-17.1 mmHg) and diastolic (87.1+/-12.3 vs 88.4+/-9.9 mmHg) BP, and in the main biochemical parameters. A significant (P<0.01) correlation was found between (i) serum calcium and serum PTH levels (r=0.39, F=88.36), (ii) age and BP, both systolic (r=0.61, F=118.16) and diastolic (r=0.48, F=64.5), and (iii) body mass index (BMI) and BP (r=0.45 and 0.36 respectively). There was no significant association of serum calcium levels with systolic (r=0.0974, t=1.3422, P=0.18) or diastolic (r=0.1117, t=1.5409, P=0.12) BP, and of serum PTH levels with systolic (r=-0.0349, t=-0.4783, P=0.63) or diastolic (r=-0.0793, t=-1.0913, P=0.28) BP. Multivariate analysis confirmed that none of the independent biochemical parameters significantly correlated with BP, both systolic and diastolic. In patients with primary HPT there is no relationship between PTH, calcium and BP. Thus, in hyperparathyroid patients, BP should be considered as an independent variable, mainly related to age and BMI.

  14. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-09-29

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies.

  15. Two-layer model of coronary artery vasoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yunlong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Cheng, Yana; Lu, Xiao; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2013-05-15

    Since vascular tone is regulated by smooth muscle cells in the media layer, a multilayer mechanical model is required for blood vessels. Here, we performed biaxial mechanical tests in the intima-media layer of right coronary artery to determine the passive and active properties in conjunction with the passive properties of adventitia for a full vessel wall model. A two-layer (intima-media and adventitia) model was developed to determine the transmural stress and stretch across the vessel wall. The mean ± SE values of the outer diameters of intima-media layers at transmural pressure of 60 mmHg in active state were 3.17 ± 0.16 and 3.07 ± 0.18 mm at axial stretch ratio of 1.2 and 1.3, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those in passive state (i.e., 3.62 ± 0.19 and 3.49 ± 0.22 mm, respectively, P opening angles in zero-stress state had values of 159 ± 21° for intima-media layers and 98 ± 15° for adventitia layers, which suggests a residual strain between the two layers. There were slightly decreased active circumferential stresses (25%) in the intima-media layer compared with those in the intact vessel. This suggests that the adventitia layer affects vascular contraction. The two-layer analysis showed that the intima-media layer bears the majority of circumferential tensions, in contrast to the adventitia layer, while contraction results in decreased stress and stretch in both layers.

  16. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Cord Blood Serum and Bloodspot of the Newborn Infants of Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmi Kim

    Full Text Available Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs among newborn infants is limited and often controversial. To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to major POPs and thyroid hormone levels among newborn infants, both cord serum or maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were compared with five thyroid hormones in cord serum of newborn infants as well as TSH in bloodspot collected at 2 day after birth (n=104. Since cord serum thyroid hormones could be affected by those of mothers, thyroid hormone concentrations of the matching mothers at delivery were adjusted. In cord serum, BDE-47, -99, and Σchlordane (CHD showed significant positive associations with cord or bloodspot TSH. At the same time, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB showed negative associations with total T3 and total T4 in cord serum, respectively. Maternal exposure to β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH, ΣCHD, ΣDDT, or p,p'-DDE were also associated with neonatal thyroid hormones. Although the sample size is small and the thyroid hormone levels of the subjects were within the reference range, our observation supports thyroid disrupting potential of several POPs among newborn infants, at the levels occurring in the general population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones during gestation and early life stages, health implication of thyroid hormone effects by low level POPs exposure deserves further follow up investigations.

  17. Correlation of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood with undesirable clinicopathological features in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Riming; Hao, Shaolong; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Jihong; Liu, Xincheng; Xu, Jie; Liu, Xin; Ning, Jinyao; Sun, Yan; Jiang, Lixin; Li, Guojun; Song, Xicheng; Zheng, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    To determine the extent to which thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) mRNA in peripheral blood (PB) has diagnostic value for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We obtained pre- and postoperative PB samples from 104 thyroid disease patients and collected 11 healthy volunteers’ PB samples twice apiece at different times. We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to quantify TSHR mRNA expression levels in the samples. T-test and chi-square test were used to compare quantitative data and rates. The mean preoperative PB TSHR mRNA expression level of the PTC patients was significantly higher than that of the healthy volunteers. However, on the postoperative day 1, PB TSHR mRNA level of PTC patients significantly decreased but not for healthy controls. Preoperative PB TSHR mRNA expression levels were significantly associated with patient age, capsular invasion status, lymph node metastasis status, and BRAFV600E mutation status (P cancer foci, or Hashimoto thyroiditis status. Preoperative assessment of the PB TSHR mRNA expression level combined with ultrasonography of the thyroid had better accuracy in the diagnosis of PTC than either method alone did. Moreover, TSHR mRNA expression significantly affected recurrence of PTC patients. Our findings suggest that PB TSHR mRNA expression level is a promising novel biomarker for the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of PTC. It may serve as a noninvasive means of PTC detection and a prognostic biomarker of residual tumor and help guide further treatment. PMID:29088773

  18. Effect of feeding a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet on subsequent food intake and blood concentration of satiety-related hormones in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauf, S; Salas-Mani, A; Torre, C; Jimenez, E; Latorre, M A; Castrillo, C

    2018-02-01

    Although studies in rodents and humans have evidenced a weaker effect of fat in comparison to carbohydrates on the suppression of food intake, very few studies have been carried out in this field in dogs. This study investigates the effects of a high-carbohydrate (HC) and a high-fat (HF) diets on subsequent food intake and blood satiety-related hormones in dogs. Diets differed mainly in their starch (442 vs. 271 g/kg dry matter) and fat (99.3 vs. 214 g/kg dry matter) contents. Twelve Beagle dogs received the experimental diets at maintenance energy requirements in two experimental periods, following a cross-over arrangement. In week 7 of each period, blood concentrations of active ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide YY, insulin, and glucose were determined before and at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 min post-feeding. The following week, intake of a challenge food offered 180 min after the HC and HF diets was recorded over two days. In comparison to the dogs on the HC diet, those on the HF diet had a higher basal concentration of GLP-1 (p = .010) and a higher total area under the curve over 180 min post-prandial (tAUC 0-180 ) (p = .031). Dogs on the HC diet showed a higher elevation of ghrelin at 180 min (p = .033) and of insulin at 360 min (p = .041), although ghrelin and insulin tAUC 0-180 did not differ between the two diets (p ˃ .10). Diet had no effect on challenge food intake (p ˃ .10), which correlated with the tAUC 0-180 of ghrelin (r = .514, p = .010), insulin (r = -.595, p = .002), and glucose (r = -.516, p = .010). Feeding a diet high in carbohydrate or fat at these inclusion levels does not affect the feeding response at 180 min post-prandial, suggesting a similar short-term satiating capacity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Postulated Vasoactive Neuropeptide Autoimmunity in Fatigue-Related Conditions: A Brief Review and Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Staines

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and gulf war syndrome (GWS are characterised by prolonged fatigue and a range of debilitating symptoms of pain, intellectual and emotional impairment, chemical sensitivities and immunological dysfunction. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS surprisingly may have certain features in common with these conditions. Post-infection sequelae may be possible contributing factors although ongoing infection is unproven. Immunological aberration may prove to be associated with certain vasoactive neuropeptides (VN in the context of molecular mimicry, inappropriate immunological memory and autoimmunity.

  20. Secretion of goblet cell serine proteinase, ingobsin, is stimulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and acetylcholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1987-01-01

    Ingobsin is localized to the intestinal goblet cells in the rat and in man. In the present study, we investigated the effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine on the secretion of ingobsin from the proximal duodenum. Intravenous infusion of VIP or acetylcholine increased...... the concentration of ingobsin in duodenal secretion, while the concentration in the duodenum was unchanged. Simultaneous infusion of VIP and acetylcholine increased the concentration of ingobsin in duodenal secretion and decreased the concentration of ingobsin in the duodenum. This study demonstrates that secretion...... of ingobsin from the proximal duodenum is exocrine and can be stimulated by VIP and acetylcholine....

  1. [Effect of 5 warm-hot nature Chinese drugs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on 5-HT, NE, and endocrine hormones of rats of cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Fu, Xian-Jun; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To study the mechanism of warm-hot nature Chinese drugs (WHNCD) for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis (PBCRBS) for intervening model rats of cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome (CCBSS). CCBSS rat model was set up in outbred SD rats using ice water immersion method. Totally 300 successfully modeled CCBSS rats were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the principle of balance weight, 60 in each group. Contents of triothyrone (T3), tetraiodothyroine (T4), progesterone (P), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and noradrenalin (NE) were paralleledly detected in all groups. Then rats in each group were subdivided into 6 subgroups as the model group, the curcuma group, the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group, the safflower group, the Rhizoma Corydalis group, and the Olibanumg group. Besides, 5 normal control groups were set up for 5 indices, 50 rats in total. We need 70 rats (7 groups) to finish observing 1 index, 350 rats in total for 5 indices. Except those in the model group and the normal control group, rats were administered with corresponding decoction at 20 g crude drugs/kg body weight by gastrogavage, 3 mL each time, once daily for 7 successive days. Equal volume of normal saline was given to rats in the normal control group and the model group. Contents of T3, T4, P, 5-HT, and NE were detected before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Compared with before treatment in the same group, T3 increased in the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group and the Olibanumg group, 5-HT increased in the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group, T4, NE, and P increased in all medicated groups (P model group decreased (P model group, contents of T3, T4, 5-HT, and NE increased in each medicated group (P modeled rats of CCBSS. They could promote the thyroid gland-gonadal axis function, enhance the function of the endocrine system, which might be one of the pharmacodynamic mechanism of WHNCD for PBCRBS in intervening CCBSS.

  2. Recent Advances in the Gastric Mucosal Protection Against Stress-induced Gastric Lesions. Importance of Renin-angiotensin Vasoactive Metabolites, Gaseous Mediators and Appetite Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in Gastric Blood Flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions. Here we summarize the novel gastroprotective mechanisms against stress damage exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the newly discovered metabolite of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), the gaseous mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or Carbon Monoxide (CO), and the food intake controlling peptides ghrelin, nesfatin- 1 and apelin possibly acting via brain-gut axis. These bioactive molecules such as RAS vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) and appetite peptides have been shown to afford gastroprotective effect against stressinduced gastric lesions mainly mediated by an increase in gastric microcirculation. Gaseous mediators protect the gastric mucosa against stress lesions by mechanism involving the activation of PG/COX and CO/HO-1 biosynthetic pathways, and their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidizing properties. Thus, these new components add new mechanistic aspects to the common cooperation of NO/NO-synthase, PG/COX systems and vasoactive sensory neuropeptides including CGRP but their gastroprotective efficacy against experimental stress ulcerogenesis requires the confirmation in human clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  4. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003699.htm Calcitonin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in ...

  5. Aldosterone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003704.htm Aldosterone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The aldosterone blood test measures the level of the hormone aldosterone in ...

  6. TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone): MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test if you have symptoms of too much thyroid hormone in your blood ( hyperthyroidism ), or too little thyroid hormone ( hypothyroidism ). Symptoms of hyperthyroidism, also known as overactive ...

  7. A high normal thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with arterial stiffness, central systolic blood pressure, and 24-hour systolic blood pressure in males with treatment-naïve hypertension and euthyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Beom-June; Roh, Ji-Woong; Lee, Su-Hyun; Lim, Sung-Min; Park, Chan-Seok; Kim, Dong-Bin; Jang, Sung-Won; Chang, Kiyuk; Kim, Hee-Yeol; Ihm, Sang-Hyun

    2014-12-20

    We compared the results of laboratory examinations, echocardiography, arterial stiffness, central blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) between treatment-naïve patients with low normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and those with high normal TSH levels. A total of 285 consecutively-eligible patients with both treatment-naïve hypertension and euthyroid were divided into two groups: those with low-normal TSH (0.40-1.99 μIU/mL, group 1) and high-normal TSH (2.00-4.50 μIU/mL, group 2) and compared according to group and gender. Males were divided into group 1 (n = 113, 68.9%) and group 2 (n = 51, 31.1%) and females were divided into group 1 (n = 71, 58.7%) and group 2 (n = 50, 41.3%). Multivariate analyses revealed that the augmentation index (71.0 [adjusted mean] ± 1.7 [standard error] vs. 78.8 ± 2.5%, P = 0.045), central systolic BP (SBP) (143.3 ± 2.1 vs. 153.0 ± 3.2 mmHg, P = 0.013), systemic vascular resistance (SVR, 21.4 ± 0.6 vs. 23.9 ± 0.9 mmHg/L/min, P = 0.027), SBP during daytime (144.1 ± 1.4 vs. 151.6 ± 2.1 mmHg, P=0.004) and nighttime (130.4 ± 1.6 vs. 138.5 ± 2.5 mmHg, P=0.008), and nighttime pulse pressure (PP, 47.2 ± 0.9 vs. 51.7 ± 1.4 mmHg, P = 0.010) were significantly higher while cardiac output (5.4 ± 0.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.2L/min, P = 0.043) and PP amplification (1.02 ± 0.02 vs. 0.94 ± 0.03, P = 0.039) were significantly lower in the male group 2 than in the male group 1. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in females. Treatment-naïve hypertensive males with high normal TSH and euthyroid showed higher arterial stiffness, central SBP, SVR, and SBP in ABPM and lower cardiac output and PP amplification as compared to the the low normal TSH group, but not females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What happened to blood substitutes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, C P

    2005-11-01

    Concerns about the safety and adequacy of the blood supply have fostered twenty years of research into the so-called "blood substitutes" among them the oxygen carriers based on modified hemoglobin. Although none of these materials has yet been licensed for use in North America or Europe, the results of research and clinical trials have increased our understanding of oxygen delivery and its regulation. In particular, the examination of the basis for the vasoactivity observed with some of the hemoglobin based oxygen carriers has led to the insight that several colligative properties of hemoglobin solutions, such as their diffusion coefficient for oxygen, viscosity and colloid oncotic pressure, are important determinants of efficacy.

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for prehypertension and high blood pressure is increasing for children and teens, possibly due to the ... II is a hormone that narrows blood vessels, increasing blood pressure. ACE converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hormones in your blood, which leads to secondary high blood pressure. Risk Factors Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, race or ethnicity, being overweight, gender, ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harder and leading to high blood pressure. Medicines Prescription medicines such as asthma or hormone therapies, including ... aldosterone system leading to high blood pressure. Other Medical Causes of High Blood Pressure Other medical causes ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors : Angiotensin-II is a hormone that narrows blood vessels, increasing blood pressure. ACE converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the ...

  13. Effect of sterilization and of dietary fat and carbohydrate content on food intake, activity level, and blood satiety–related hormones in female dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schauf, S.; Salas-Mani, A.; Torre, C.; Bosch, G.; Swarts, H.; Castrillo, C.

    2016-01-01

    Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main

  14. Thyroid hormone stimulated glucose uptake in human mononuclear blood cells from normal persons and from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1989-01-01

    of stimulation of cells from control subjects and patients with NIDDM revealed an identical oxygen consumption, whereas the thyroid hormone-induced glucose uptake was significantly increased in cells from patients with NIDDM. T4 (5 mumol/l) stimulation in controls: 1.34 +/- 0.23 mmol.l-1 (mg DNA)-1.h-1, in NIDDM...

  15. Α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Protects Early Diabetic Retina from Blood-Retinal Barrier Breakdown and Vascular Leakage via MC4R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Siwei; Yang, Qianhui; Hou, Mengzhu; Han, Qian; Zhang, Hanyu; Wang, Jiantao; Qi, Chen; Bo, Qiyu; Ru, Yusha; Yang, Wei; Gu, Zhongxiu; Wei, Ruihua; Cao, Yunshan; Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and vascular leakage is the leading cause of blindness of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are primary pathogenic factors of this severe DR complication. An effective interventional modality against the pathogenic factors during early DR is needed to curb BRB breakdown and vascular leakage. This study sought to examine the protective effects of α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on early diabetic retina against vascular hyperpermeability, electrophysiological dysfunction, and morphological deterioration in a rat model of diabetes and probe the mechanisms underlying the α-MSH's anti-hyperpermeability in both rodent retinas and simian retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF6A). Sprague Dawley rats were injected through tail vein with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The rats were intravitreally injected with α-MSH or saline at Week 1 and 3 after hyperglycemia. In another 2 weeks, Evans blue assay, transmission electron microscopy, electroretinogram (ERG), and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were performed to examine the protective effects of α-MSH in diabetic retinas. The expression of pro-inflammatory factors and tight junction at mRNA and protein levels in retinas was analyzed. Finally, the α-MSH's anti-hyperpermeability was confirmed in a high glucose (HG)-treated RF6A cell monolayer transwell culture by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-Dextran assay. Universal or specific melanocortin receptor (MCR) blockers were also employed to elucidate the MCR subtype mediating α-MSH's protection. Evans blue assay showed that BRB breakdown and vascular leakage was detected, and rescued by α-MSH both qualitatively and quantitatively in early diabetic retinas; electron microscopy revealed substantially improved retinal and choroidal vessel ultrastructures in α-MSH-treated diabetic retinas; scotopic ERG suggested

  16. Morphometric analysis of vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide neurons in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus: influence of microwave treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J. N.; Hofman, M. A.; Swaab, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The vasopressin (VP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were morphometrically determined with or without microwave (MW) treatment. Both an enlarged volume and an increased number of neurons were found in the VP and VIP subnucleus

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system makes angiotensin and aldosterone hormones . Angiotensin narrows or constricts blood vessels, which can ... pressure. Medicines Prescription medicines such as asthma or hormone therapies, including birth control pills and estrogen, and ...

  18. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal lining gets thinner, dryer, and less elas- tic. Vaginal dryness may cause pain during sexual intercourse . ... when a woman starts taking hormone therapy. Some research suggests that for women who start combined therapy ...

  19. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of GHD and/or hypopituitarism , such as: Decreased bone density Fatigue Adverse lipid changes, such as high cholesterol Reduced exercise tolerance Other hormone testing, such as thyroid testing , ...

  20. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... 003706.htm . Accessed October 2010. (© 1995-2010). Unit Code 8688: Growth Hormone, Serum. Mayo Clinic, Mayo Medical ...

  1. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  2. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in cirrhosis: arteriovenous extraction in different vascular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Staun-Olsen, P; Fahrenkrug, J

    1980-01-01

    The concentration of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was determined in peripheral venous plasma from 136 patients with liver cirrhosis without gastrointestinal bleeding or coma and from 112 controls. In eight patients (cirrhosis, six; fibrosis, one; steatosis, one) arteriovenous extraction...... or release of VIP was measured during catheterization at four locations: brain, lower limb, intestine-liver, and kidney. The mean concentration of VIP in peripheral venous plasma from patients with cirrhosis was 9.4 pmol/l (median, 7.0; range, 0-86), which was significantly higher than that of the controls...... is significantly elevated in peripheral plasma from patients with cirrhosis, probably due to porto-systemic shunting and/or compromised hepatic elimination. Hepatic elimination is still likely to account for the inactivation of most of the VIP escaping from the neurosynapses throughout the body in patients...

  3. Clostridium difficile suppresses colonic vasoactive intestinal peptide associated with altered motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nassif

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether Clostridium difficile toxin alters colonic tissue levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP at the expense of changes in colonic motility in the isolated perfused rabbit left colon. Colonic inflammation was induced by the intracolonic administration of 10−8 M C. difflcile toxin. Strain gauge transducers were sewn onto the serosal surface of the colon to evaluate colonic motility. C. difflcile administration produced histologic changes consistent with epithelial damage. This was associated with an increased production of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2. Tissue levels of VIP but not substance P were significantly reduced. This was associated with an increased number of contractions per minute and an average force of each colonic contraction. These results suggest that tissue levels of VIP are suppressed by C. difflcile and may participate in colonic dysmotility during active inflammation.

  4. Growth hormone receptor deficiency in mice results in reduced systolic blood pressure and plasma renin, increased aortic eNOS expression, and altered cardiovascular structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egecioglu, E; Andersson, I J; Bollano, E

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the development of cardiovascular structure and function, female GHR gene-disrupted or knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at age 18 wk were used. GHR KO mice had lower plasma renin levels (12 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 4 mGU/ml, P .... These data suggest an important role for an intact GH/IGF-I axis in the maintenance of a normal cardiovascular system....

  5. Impact of laparoscopic ovarian drilling on anti-Müllerian hormone levels and ovarian stromal blood flow using three-dimensional power Doppler in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmashad, Ashraf I

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) on plasma levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian stromal blood flow changes, by using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography, in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective controlled study. Taiba hospital, Kuwait. Twenty-three anovulatory clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant women with PCOS and 20 fertile women as a control group. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling. Serum levels of AMH, ovarian three-dimensional power Doppler indices (vascularization index, flow index, and vascularization flow index) and occurrence of ovulation or pregnancy. Plasma AMH and power Doppler indices of ovarian stromal blood flow were significantly higher in the PCOS group than in the control group. Plasma AMH and ovarian stromal blood flow Doppler indices were significantly reduced in the PCOS group after LOD. Women who ovulated after LOD had a significantly lower preoperative AMH compared with the nonresponders. There was a significant positive correlation between AMH and power Doppler flow indices before and after LOD in PCOS group. Measuring AMH and ovarian stromal three-dimensional power Doppler blood flow for women with anovulatory PCOS undergoing LOD may provide a useful tool in evaluating the outcome of LOD. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of a lower content of energy in the ration on blood biochemical profile and selected hormones concentration in bulls Wplyw obnizonej zawartosci energii w dawce pokarmowej buhajkw na profil biochemiczny krwi i stezenie wybranych hormonw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GLOWINSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the blood biochemical profile and selected hormones content in Black-and-White Polish Holstein-Fresian bulls (PHF and crossbreds obtained from PHF dams sired by Limousine (PHFxLM, on different date during the experiment. Animals in group: I (PHF and III (PHFxLM over 63 days prior to slaughter were provided with the ration energy limited to 80% of the maintenance requirement. Until slaughter the bulls in group II (PHF and IV (PHFxLM were receiving a balanced ration. Blood from all the animals was collected three times. The date of blood collection during the experiment did not have a significant effect on the content of total protein, albumin, triglyceride and alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT as well as the insulin and triiodothyronine (T3 content. Significant increase in the level of glucose in group II and IV, HDL and urea in III and activity of AST in all groups in 14th (B and 70th (C day of experiment occurred. Significant decrease of thyroxine (T4 was found in all animals. The analyses of total blood plasma cholesterol initially showed decrease and then significant increase.

  7. Measurement of aortic blood flow by magnetic resonance below and above the origin of the coronary arteries in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Beck; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Jensen, Henrik Halvor

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Principal blood flow measures might be assessable by velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance (VENC MR) of aortic blood flow. The feasibility of using VENC MR for clinical research was tested in a contemporary and controversial human model: the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E) and cyclic...

  8. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the cell doesn't want anymore. Nutrients, hormones, proteins, and waste are dissolved in the plasma — kind of like the cocoa mix that dissolves in a cup of hot water. What are the marshmallows? The blood cells — they float in the plasma. previous continue ...

  9. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and other preprovasoactive intestinal polypeptide-derived peptides in the female and male genital tract: localization, biosynthesis, and functional and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Fahrenkrug, J

    1995-01-01

    in the control of erection. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide has been suggested as a causative factor in some diseases of the genital organs (e.g., it may play a pathophysiologic role in male impotence and the peptide is currently used in the treatment of this condition). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide may...... be important for control of the low resistance in the fetomaternal vascular bed and is therefore a putative factor involved in the development of preeclampsia. The therapeutic potential of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and future agonists and antagonists will be revealed by ongoing and forthcoming studies....

  10. Effects of previous protein intake on rectal temperature, blood glucose, plasma thyroid hormone and minerals by laying hens during a forced molt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G.A.; Moraes, V.M.B.; Cherici, I; Furlan, R.L.; Macari, M. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    1991-12-01

    The effects of forced molting on blood glucose, rectal temperature, plasma T4, T3 and minerals were studied in hens previously fed rations with different protein contents (14, 17 and 20% crude protein). Blood samples were obtained from brachial veins for blood glucose, T4 and T3 were measured by radioimmunoassay, and plasma minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood glucose and rectal temperature were reduced during fasting regardless of previous protein intake. Pre molting T4 plasma level was higher in laying hens fed higher protein ration, but feed deprivation reduced T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} concentrations irrespective of protein intake, except T{sub 4} level for 14% crude protein fed birds that increased during fasting. The data obtained in this experiment suggest that previous protein intake does not interfere with the metabolic changes during forced molt. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs.

  11. Effect of Acarbose, Sitagliptin and combination therapy on blood glucose, insulin, and incretin hormone concentrations in experimentally induced postprandial hyperglycemia of healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Ueda, Kaori; Lee, Peter; Oda, Hitomi; Ishioka, Katsumi; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

    2016-06-01

    Acarbose (AC) and Sitagliptin (STGP) are oral hypoglycemic agents currently used either alone or in conjunction with human diabetic (Type 2) patients. AC has been used with diabetic cats, but not STGP thus far. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the potential use of AC or STGP alone and in combination for diabetic cats, by observing their effect on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and incretin hormone (active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and total glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)) concentrations in five healthy cats, following ingestion of a meal with maltose. All treatments tended (pinsulin AUC as compared to no treatment. Meanwhile, a significant increase (pinsulin and incretin hormone levels of healthy cats. Increasing active GLP-1 and reducing postprandial hyperglycemia appear to be the principal mechanisms of combined treatment. Considering the different, but complementary mechanisms of action by which AC and STGP induce lower glucose and insulin levels, combination therapy with both these agents offers great potential for treating diabetic cats in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hormone impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  13. Validation of an instrument regarding nursing intervention in patients in vasoactive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim, Ane Elisa; Nascimento, Eliane Regina Pereira do; Bertoncello, Kátia Cilene Godinho; Sifroni, Karla Gomes; Salum, Nadia Chiodelli; Nascimento, Keyla Cristiane do

    2017-01-01

    to validate the content of a Standard Operational Procedure, regarding nursing interventions in emergency patients treated with vasoactive drugs. methodological study, carried out from December 2015 to January 2016. Content validity was determined by 16 experts (13 nurses, 2 pharmacists and one biomedical scientist), who judged it through a four-point Likert scale. The items were evaluated in terms of: feasibility, objectivity, simplicity, clearness, pertinence and accuracy. The Content Validity Index was applied, accepting the value ≥ 0.90. two rounds of evaluation were required to achieve the minimum index. The items were reviewed regarding writing, dilution, indication and replacement interval. The instrument was validated with 33 items and with total Content Validity Index of 0.99. the instrument was considered appropriate, fractionally and globally, for nursing care for the patient treated with vasoactive drugs in emergency, in a safe and reliable way. validar o conteúdo do Procedimento Operacional Padrão, para intervenção de enfermagem ao paciente em uso de fármacos vasoativos na emergência. estudo metodológico, realizado de dezembro de 2015 a janeiro de 2016. A validação de conteúdo deu-se por 16 juízes, sendo 13 enfermeiros, dois farmacêuticos e um biomédico, que o julgaram por meio da escala tipo Likert de quatro pontos. Os itens foram avaliados em: exequibilidade, objetividade, simplicidade, clareza, pertinência e precisão. Aplicou-se o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo, aceitando-se o valor ≥ 0,90. foram necessárias duas rodadas de validação para atingir o índice. Os itens foram alterados: na redação, diluição, indicação, intervalo de troca. O instrumento foi validado com 33 itens e com Índice de Validade de Conteúdo total de 0,99. considerou-se adequado, separadamente, e de maneira global, para que o enfermeiro possa cuidar do paciente em uso de fármacos vasoativos na emergência, de forma segura e confiável.

  14. Expression of vasoactive proteins in gastric antral mucosa reflects vascular dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebicka, Jonel; Wix, Cyrus; von Heydebrand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis display hypocontractility of splanchnic vessels because of dysregulation of vasoactive proteins, such as decreased effect of RhoA/ROCK and increased activity of β-Arrestin-2 and eNOS. However, it is unknown whether the dysregulation of vasoactive proteins....... Portal pressure gradient was measured in 49 patients with TIPS and in 16 patients without TIPS. Biopsies from the antrum were conserved in formaldehyde for immunohistochemistry or shock-frozen for PCR and Western blot. RESULTS: The mucosal transcription of vascular markers (αSMA, CD31) was higher...... in cirrhotic patients than controls, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. On average, relative mucosal levels of RhoA and ROCK were lower, while β-Arrestin-2 levels were higher in cirrhotic patients compared to controls. Transcriptional levels of eNOS increased with presence of ascites and grade...

  15. Types of hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor for regular checkups when taking HT. Alternative Names HRT- types; Estrogen replacement therapy - types; ERT- types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ...

  16. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  17. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  18. Circulating endogenous vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in patients with uraemia and liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Staun-Olsen, P; Borg Mogensen, N

    1986-01-01

    and patients with cirrhosis both the liver and kidneys are involved in the biodegradation of VIP. The elevated level of circulating VIP in uraemic patients may in part be due to decreased renal and hepatic biodegradation but increased neuronal release of VIP, especially in the splanchnic system, may also......The concentration of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in peripheral venous plasma was median 6.0 pmol l-1 (range 0-20) in 112 normal subjects. In fifty-three patients with decreased kidney function plasma VIP was significantly increased (median 15.0 pmol l-1, range 0.5-70, P less than 0.......0001) and positively correlated to serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.51, P less than 0.001). In 133 patients with liver cirrhosis peripheral venous VIP was slightly elevated (median 7.0 pmol l-1 range 0-86, P less than 0.01). Samples obtained during a central venous catheterization showed significant renal...

  19. Decreased REM sleep and altered circadian sleep regulation in mice lacking vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wang-Ping; Li, Jia-Da; Colwell, Christopher S; Zhou, Qun-Yong

    2011-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has been implicated in sleep regulation as a promoter of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Previous work has shown that the amount of time spent in REM sleep is increased by intracerebroventricular administration of VIP, and reduced by treatment with VIP antagonists or antibodies against VIP. A variety of evidence suggests that VIP is critical for normal expression of circadian rhythmicity of diverse physiological and behavioral parameters. In the present study, we investigated the role of this peptide in sleep regulation using VIP-deficient (VIP-/-) mice. EEG/EMG sleep-wake patterns were recorded in VIP-/- mice and their wild-type littermate controls under normal light-dark (LD), constant darkness (DD) and sleep deprivation conditions. VIP-/- mice exhibited reduced REM sleep time over the 24-h cycle while total daily amounts of NREM sleep and wakefulness were not altered significantly. The reduced REM sleep time in VIP-/- mice occurred entirely during the day due to a reduction in the duration, but not the frequency, of REM sleep bouts. In response to sleep deprivation, compensatory rebounds in NREM sleep and REM sleep were also attenuated in VIP-/- mice. Finally, the loss of VIP altered the temporal distribution of sleep in that the VIP -/- mice exhibited smaller amplitude rhythms in total sleep, NREM sleep, and REM sleep under both LD and DD. These results indicate that VIP regulates the duration of REM sleep, sleep homeostatic mechanisms as well as the temporal patterning of sleep.

  20. Changes of vasoactive polypeptides during postoperative hypertensive crisis in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Wang, Xue-feng; Wang, Chao; Luan, Wen-zhong

    2007-12-05

    Hypertensive crisis could be found after operation in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH). The aim of this study was to explore the changes and the roles of some vasoactive polypeptides during postoperative hypertensive crisis in patients with HICH. A total of 31 patients, who were admitted for craniotomy, were enrolled into this study. After the operation, the patients were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of 9 patients with postoperative hypertensive crisis, and group II was composed of 13 patients without postoperative hypertensive crisis. Nine patients, who denied history of hypertension or HICH, were set as group III. The levels of some vasoactivators in the three groups were measured before and after the operation. The differences in the results among the groups were analyzed using the ANOVA. The data collected before and after the operation in the group I was compared by Wilcoxon test. The concentration of endothelin in group I was significantly higher than that in group III (P 0.05). Postoperative hypertensive crisis may be due to the increased thromboxane A2 and relatively inadequate prostacyclin, especially 6-keto-PGF1a. The increased level of endothelin and intraoperative stimulation also play a certain role in the development of postoperative hypertensive crisis.

  1. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the guinea pig. A mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triepel, J; Metz, J; Munroe, D; London, S; Sweriduk, S; Forssmann, W G

    1987-07-01

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive (VIP-IR) neurons in the lower medulla oblongata and the spinal cord has been analyzed in guinea pigs. This study includes results obtained by colchicine treatment and transection experiments. In the spinal cord, numerous VIP-IR varicosities were observed in the substantia gelatinosa of the columna dorsalis; some were also found in the substantia intermedia and the columna anterior. The spinal VIP-IR nerve fibers were mainly of intraspinal origin and oriented segmentally. VIP-IR nuclei in the spinal cord extended dorsally into corresponding regions of the caudal medulla oblongata, namely from the substantia intermedia medialis and lateralis into the vagus-solitarius complex and from the nucleus spinalis lateralis into the area of the nucleus reticularis lateralis. Additional VIP-IR perikarya were observed in the pars caudalis of the nucleus spinalis nervi trigemini. The VIP-IR nuclei within the caudal medulla oblongata probably form a continuous system with those localized within the spinal cord. They may be involved functionally in the modulation of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation in the guinea pig.

  2. Electroacupuncture Inhibits Inflammation Reaction by Upregulating Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Feng He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is emerging as an alternative therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this beneficial effect of acupuncture has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture at acupoints Zusanli (ST36, Xuanzhong (GB39; and Shenshu (BL23 markedly decreased the paw swelling and the histologic scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue, and reduced the body weight loss in an adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. However, the electrical stimulation at nonacupoint did not produce any beneficial effects against the experimental arthritis. Most interestingly, the electroacupuncture treatment resulted in an enhanced immunostaining for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, a potent anti-inflammatory neuropeptide, in the synovial tissue. Moreover, the VIP-immunostaining intensity was significantly negatively correlated with the scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue (r=−0.483, P=.0026. In conclusion, these findings suggest that electroacupuncture may offer therapeutic benefits for the treatment of RA, at least partially through the induction of VIP expression.

  3. Active immunization against vasoactive intestinal polypeptide decreases neuronal recruitment and inhibits reproduction in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistoropsky, Yulia; Heiblum, Rachel; Smorodinsky, Nechama-Ina; Barnea, Anat

    2016-08-15

    Neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment occur in adult brains of many vertebrates, and the hypothesis is that these phenomena contribute to the brain plasticity that enables organisms to adjust to environmental changes. In mammals, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is known to have many neuroprotective properties, but in the avian brain, although widely distributed, its role in neuronal recruitment is not yet understood. In the present study we actively immunized adult zebra finches against VIP conjugated to KLH and compared neuronal recruitment in their brains, with brains of control birds, which were immunized against KLH. We looked at two forebrain regions: the nidopallium caudale (NC), which plays a role in vocal communication, and the hippocampus (HC), which is involved in the processing of spatial information. Our data demonstrate that active immunization against VIP reduces neuronal recruitment, inhibits reproduction, and induces molting, with no change in plasma prolactin levels. Thus, our observations suggest that VIP has a direct positive role in neuronal recruitment and reproduction in birds. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2516-2528, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Excess LIGHT contributes to placental impairment, increased secretion of vasoactive factors, hypertension, and proteinuria in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Parchim, Nicholas F; Iriyama, Takayuki; Luo, Renna; Zhao, Cheng; Liu, Chen; Irani, Roxanna A; Zhang, Weiru; Ning, Chen; Zhang, Yujin; Blackwell, Sean C; Chen, Lieping; Tao, Lijian; Hicks, M John; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2014-03-01

    Preeclampsia, a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is believed to be secondary to uteroplacental ischemia. Accumulating evidence indicates that hypoxia-independent mediators, including inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, are associated with preeclampsia, but it is unclear whether these signals directly contribute to placental damage and disease development in vivo. We report that LIGHT, a novel tumor necrosis factor superfamily member, is significantly elevated in the circulation and placentas of preeclamptic women compared with normotensive pregnant women. Injection of LIGHT into pregnant mice induced placental apoptosis, small fetuses, and key features of preeclampsia, hypertension and proteinuria. Mechanistically, using neutralizing antibodies specific for LIGHT receptors, we found that LIGHT receptors herpes virus entry mediator and lymphotoxin β receptor are required for LIGHT-induced placental impairment, small fetuses, and preeclampsia features in pregnant mice. Accordingly, we further revealed that LIGHT functions through these 2 receptors to induce secretion of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and endothelin-1, 2 well-accepted pathogenic factors in preeclampsia, and thereby plays an important role in hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant mice. Lastly, we extended our animal findings to human studies and demonstrated that activation of LIGHT receptors resulted in increased apoptosis and elevation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 secretion in human placental villous explants. Overall, our human and mouse studies show that LIGHT signaling is a previously unrecognized pathway responsible for placental apoptosis, elevated secretion of vasoactive factors, and subsequent maternal features of preeclampsia, and reveal new therapeutic opportunities for the management of the disease.

  5. Clinical and sonographic assessment of the side effects of intracavernous injection of vasoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemen, M N; Hamed, H A; Kamel, I I; Shamloul, R M; Ghanem, H M

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the side effects of intracavernous vasoactive agents on clinical and sonographic basis. Two groups of patients were included, group I included 168 ED patients trained on self-injection therapy using one of the three protocols. Protocol A: papaverine; protocol B: PGE1; and protocol C: trimix (papaverine, phentolamine and PGE1). Patients were followed up clinically, sonographically and by laboratory investigations for 6 months to evaluate the occurrence of side effects. Group II included 21 patients presenting to our department for the first time with a complication of intracavernous injection pharmacotherapy (ICI) initiated elsewhere. In all, 168 patients of group I completed the study. Patients on papaverine had the highest incidence of complications concerning prolonged erection, subcutaneous hematoma and penile fibrosis. Postinjection penile pain was observed more with groups B and C than group A. No systemic side effects were reported. Duplex ultrasound was beneficial in detecting mild clinically impalpable fibrosis. In total, 10 patients of group II presented with prolonged erection, seven with penile fibrosis, three with cavernositis and one with intracavernous needle breakage. We conclude that although ICI therapy is an effective second-line treatment option, patients on a self-injection program should be followed up both clinically and sonographically both at the initiation phase and on regular follow-up visits.

  6. Stress hormones and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Hormone secretion during physical activity of specific duration and intensity is part of the stress response. In a study to investigate the secretion of ß-endorphin, leucine enkephalin and other recognised stress hormones during physical exercise, blood samples were taken from fourteen (14 healthy, male athletes who competed in a 21 km roadrace. Blood samples were collected before and after completion of the race. This study shows that ß-endorphin/ß-lipotropin, leucine enkephalin, prolactin, and melatonin may be classified as stress hormones in physical activity of duration 80 to 120 minutes and intensity exceeding 75%-V0₂max. Widespread intra-individual variation in serum cortisol concentrations prevent definite conclusion. The un­expected increase in serum testosterone levels warrants further research.

  7. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen

  8. Endothelin-2/Vasoactive Intestinal Contractor: Regulation of Expression via Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by CoCl22, and Biological Activities Including Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the local hormone endothelin-2 (ET-2, or vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC, a member of the vasoconstrictor ET peptide family, where ET-2 is the human orthologous peptide of the murine VIC. While ET-2/VIC gene expression has been observed in some normal tissues, ET-2 recently has been reported to act as a tumor marker and as a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor in tumor cells. A recently published study reported that the hypoxic mimetic agent CoCl2 at 200 µM increased expression of the ET-2/VIC gene, decreased expression of the ET-1 gene, and induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS increase and neurite outgrowth in neuronal model PC12 cells. The ROS was generated by addition of CoCl2 to the culture medium, and the CoCl2-induced effects were completely inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6 gene expression was up-regulated upon the differentiation induced by CoCl2. These results suggest that expression of ET-2/VIC and ET-1 mediated by CoCl2-induced ROS may be associated with neuronal differentiation through the regulation of IL-6 expression. CoCl2 acts as a pro-oxidant, as do Fe(II, III and Cu(II. However, some biological activities have been reported for CoCl2 that have not been observed for other metal salts such as FeCl3, CuSO4, and NiCl2. The characteristic actions of CoCl2 may be associated with the differentiation of PC12 cells. Further elucidation of the mechanism of neurite outgrowth and regulation of ET-2/VIC expression by CoCl2 may lead to the development of treatments for neuronal disorders.

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... work harder and leading to high blood pressure. Medicines Prescription medicines such as asthma or hormone therapies, ... or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to ...

  10. Establishing schedules for repeated doses of strontium and for concurrent chemotherapy in hormone-resistant patients with prostate cancer: measurement of blood and urine strontium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Rami; Pelled, Omer; Marko, Rachel; Vexler, Akiva; Teshuva, Avi; German, Uzi; Levita, Moshe; Kol, Rina

    2005-04-01

    Strontium-89 (Sr-89) alone or with concurrent chemotherapy has a role in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer (PCP). The schedules for repeated doses of Sr-89 or for concurrent chemotherapy is undetermined. The objective of this study was to measure the effective half-life (Te) of Sr-89 using a detector available in a nuclear research facility. Blood and urine samples obtained from PCP treated with Sr-89 (Metastron, Amersham, U.K.) were measured for radioactivity with a High Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector in a gamma spectrometry system (Eurisys, France). Twenty-five urine and 22 blood samples were obtained from 8 patients during a period of 160 days after Metastron injection. Sr-89 radioactivity levels in blood and urine were quite low (radioactivity levels were moderately high and could be detected up to 160 days. Based on Sr-85 urine levels, the calculated Sr-89 Te ranged from 9.6 to 20.7 days. Sr-89 Te can be routinely calculated in PCP based on HPGe detection of Sr-85 radioactivity levels in urine. This measurement can establish schedules for either repeated doses of Sr-89 or concurrent chemotherapy.

  11. [Effect of estradiol valerate and chlormadinone acetate in hormone replacement therapy in postmenopause on Kupperman index, body weight, blood pressure, lipids, enzymes and electrolytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göretzlehner, G; Nikschick, S; Zimmermann, T

    1996-01-01

    Kupperman-index, weight, blood pressure, serum lipids, blood count, thrombocytes, fibrinogen, thrombine time, electrolytes, enzymes, serum proteins, bilirubine and other parameters were studied in 16 healthy post-menopausal women treated for 18 months with 2 mgs estradiol valerate continuously sequentially combined with the antiandrogenic progestogen chlormadinone acetate (CMA) 2 mgs from 1st to 12th every month of treatment. The women were examined after the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th, and 18th month during the last 3 days of the progestogen phase, where the CMA had been added to the estradiol valerate for at least 12 days. The combined estradiol-CMA therapy resulted in a significantly reduced Kupperman-index. The total serum cholesterol- and LDLC-levels were also reduced and the HDL-cholesterol and HDLC-cholesterol-quotient increased. Triglycerides, weight, blood pressure, enzymes, and other parameters were unchanged. The positively metabolic effects of estradiol valerate were not altered after the chlormadinone acetate in a sequential regime.

  12. Gastrointestinal hormone responses to meals before and after gastric bypass and vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellum, J M; Kuemmerle, J F; O'Dorisio, T M; Rayford, P; Martin, D; Engle, K; Wolf, L; Sugerman, H J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the gastrointestinal hormone responses to meals in morbidly obese patients before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP; n = 9) or vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG; n = 7). On consecutive days before and after operation, we measured changes in peripheral blood levels of glucose, insulin, enteroglucagon, serotonin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and cholecystokinin (CCK) in response to a standardized glucose or protein-fat meal. The percentage of excess weight lost at 6 months after operation was 66.3% +/- 4% and 41.8% +/- 5% for GBP and VBG, respectively (p less than 0.01). The 3-hour integrated glucose response to a glucose meal decreased from 145.3 +/- 33.7 to 75.8 +/- 15.7 g min/L (p less than 0.02) after GBP. This was associated with a decrease in 3-hour integrated insulin response from 22.8 +/- 8.2 to 10.5 +/- 4.9 mU min/L. Vertical banded gastroplasty patients had lesser reductions of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Neither the CCK, serotonin, nor VIP responses to meals were altered by either operation. The 3-hour integrated enteroglucagon response to glucose increased markedly in GBP patients after operation from 11.8 +/- 6 to 133.4 +/- 38 nmol min/mL (p less than 0.02). This increase in enteroglucagon occurred at the same time as development of dumping symptoms, which occurred exclusively in GBP patients after glucose but not protein. We conclude that (1) GBP surgery for morbid obesity results in amelioration of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, (2) CCK does not mediate an endocrine satiety effect of surgery, (3) GBP is associated with an exaggerated enteroglucagon response to glucose, and (4) enteroglucagon appears to be a marker of the dumping syndrome in GBP patients. PMID:2192696

  13. All about Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines • infection or other illness • changes in hormone levels,such as during menstrual periods • stress What can make blood glucose fall? • missing a meal or snack,or having a meal or snack with less ...

  14. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough hormones ( Addison disease or other adrenal gland insufficiency) Bleeding (hemorrhage) Heart failure High blood pressure caused by narrowing of the kidney arteries ( renovascular hypertension ) Liver scarring and poor liver ...

  15. Has active immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone any effect on testis innervation in the pig? An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, W; Molenaar, G J; Kaleczyc, J; Falkowski, J; Lakomy, M

    2000-08-01

    The innervation of porcine testes was studied in intact animals and in boars undergoing active immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by means of immunohistochemistry using antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H), vasoactive intestinal polypolypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Moreover, the distribution of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors in clusters of Leydig cells was also investigated. To identify these cells easily, either the NADPH-diaphorase histochemical technique or the Mayer counter-staining procedure was applied. Differences in the distribution pattern and relative density of particular subsets of intratesticular nerve fibres were observed in immunized boars as compared to those found in the intact animals. In the testes of non-treated animals, only single TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) nerve fibres were observed. However, many D beta H-IR nerve terminals surrounded blood vessels in the tunica albuginea and parenchyma. Very scarce VIP-IR nerves occurred only in the tunica albuginea, mainly in close vicinity to blood vessels. Immunoreactivity to NPY occurred in single nerve fibres. Immunoreactivity to SNAP-25 and PGP 9.5 was found in single nerve fibres distributed mainly in the tunica albuginea. The interstitial cells were heavily stained for LH-receptors and NADPH-diaphorase. In the testes of immunized animals, only single TH-IR nerve fibres, scattered mainly in the tunica albuginea, were observed. Some TH-IR nerve terminals were also encountered in the parenchyma of the organ, where they were always associated with blood vessels. D beta H-IR nerve fibres formed a dense network distributed throughout the testis in association with the capsule, vasculature and interstitium. Some fibres were observed to run between seminiferous tubules. VIP-IR nerve fibres were located in the neighbourhood of blood vessels in

  16. The Potential Biochemical Diagnosis Criteria and Therapeutic Effect Indexes: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels and Free Androgen Index in Blood of Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-02

    The Investigators Collected 534 PCOS Patients as the Case Group,and 580 Infertile Women With Normal Ovulatory Cycle of the Control Group;; At the Same Time, the Investigators Continuedly Collect Cases to October 2012, and Totally Collected 579 Patients With PCOS Altogether;; 534 Patients in the Cases Group and 580 Women in the Control Group Received no Measures, While 579 Patients Received Drugs;; The Investigators Monitored Basic Indexes in Blood of All the Subjects in This Suvey,and Also Monitored Indexes of 579 Patients After Treatment.

  17. High fasting blood glucose and obesity significantly and independently increase risk of breast cancer death in hormone receptor-positive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Berrino, Franco; Sebastiani, Federica; Falcini, Fabio; Vattiato, Rosa; Cioccoloni, Francesca; Calagreti, Gioia; Fusco, Mario; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Sigona, Aurora; Budroni, Mario; Cesaraccio, Rosaria; Candela, Giuseppa; Scuderi, Tiziana; Zarcone, Maurizio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Sant, Milena

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis on risk of breast cancer death for cases diagnosed in five Italian cancer registries in 2003-2005 and followed up to the end of 2008. For 1607 Italian women (≥15 years) with information on BMI or blood glucose or diabetes, we analysed the risk of breast cancer death in relation to glucose tertiles (≤84.0, 84.1-94.0, >94.0 mg/dl) plus diabetic and unspecified categories; BMI tertiles (≤23.4, 23.5-27.3, >27.3 kg/m(2), unspecified), stage (T1-3N0M0, T1-3N+M0 plus T4anyNM0, M1, unspecified), oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) status (ER+PR+, ER-PR-, ER and PR unspecified, other), age, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, using multiple regression models. Separate models for ER+PR+ and ER-PR- cases were also run. Patients often had T1-3N0M0, ER+PR+ cancers and received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy; only 6% were M1 and 17% ER-PR-. Diabetic patients were older and had more often high BMI (>27 kg/m(2)), ER-PR-, M1 cancers than other patients. For ER+PR+ cases, with adjustment for other variables, breast cancer mortality was higher in women with high BMI than those with BMI 23.5-27.3 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio (HR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.9). Breast cancer mortality was also higher in women with high (>94 mg/dl) blood glucose compared to those with glucose 84.1-94.0mg/dl (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7). Our results provide evidence that in ER+PR+ patients, high blood glucose and high BMI are independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. Detection and correction of these factors in such patients may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of a single injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on testicular blood flow measured by color doppler ultrasonography in male Shiba goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Haney; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Ahmed, Eman; Karen, Aly; Nagaoka, Kentaro; El Sayed, Mohamed; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-05-01

    Although color Doppler ultrasonography has been used to evaluate testicular blood flow in many species, very little has been done in goat. Eight male Shiba goats were exposed to a single intramuscular injection of either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH group; 1 µg/kg BW) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG group; 25 IU/kg BW). Plasma testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and inhibin (INH) were measured just before (0 hr) and at different intervals post injection by radioimmunoassay. Testis volume (TV) and Doppler indices, such as resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the supratesticular artery, were measured by B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. The results indicated an increase in testicular blood flow in both groups, as RI and PI decreased significantly (P<0.05), but this increase was significant higher and earlier in hCG group (1 hr) than in the GnRH group (2 hr). A high correlation was found for RI and PI with both T (RI, r= -0.862; PI, r= -0.707) and INH in the GnRH group (RI, r=0.661; PI, r=0.701). However, a significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between E2 and both RI (r= -0.610) and PI (r= -0.763) in hCG group. In addition, TV significantly increased and was highly correlated with RI in both groups (GnRH, r= -0.718; hCG, r= -0.779). In conclusion, hCG and GnRH may improve testicular blood flow and TV in Shiba goats.

  19. Effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on the wound healing of alkali-burned corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nese Tuncel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP on wound healing in experimental alkali burns of the cornea. METHODS: Twenty-seven albino rabbits, weighing 3.2±0.75 kg were used. Alkali burns were induced on corneas by applying 10 mm Whatman paper No:50 soaked in 1 mol/L NaOH. They have further classified into 5 groups as follows: 1 control group given no treatment (n=5; 2 VIP given subconjunctivally (n=6; 3 VIP injected into anterior chamber (n=6; 4 NaCl 0.9% given subconjunctivally (n=5; 5 NaCl 0.9% given into the anterior chamber (n=5. All treatment protocols except control group were followed by topical eye drops composed of VIP at two hourly intervals for one week from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. RESULTS: VIP treated groups of rabbits with alkali burns were found to have better wound healing findings histo-pathologically when compared to those of control group who have received no treatment on day 30. No differences were observed between groups in respect to degree of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL infiltration and degree of loss of amorphous substrate on day 15. However, PMNL infiltration and degree of loss of amorphous substrate were lower in Groups 2 and 3 when compared to that of control group on day 30 (P(0.05. CONCLUSION: We have shown that VIP has positive effects on alkali induced corneal burns. VIP may inhibit PMNL migration to cornea through an immunomodulatory effect. Inhibition of PMNL migration might reduce the release of collagenases and this might prevent the extracellular amorphous substance loss.

  20. Modulation of Corpus Striatal Neurochemistry by Astrocytes and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) in Parkinsonian Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelkenli, İbrahim Halil; Ulupinar, Emel; Korkmaz, Orhan Tansel; Şener, Erol; Kuş, Gökhan; Filiz, Zeynep; Tunçel, Neşe

    2016-06-01

    The neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is widely used in animal models of Parkinson's disease. In various neurodegenerative diseases, astrocytes play direct, active, and critical roles in mediating neuronal survival and functions. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has neurotrophic actions and modulates a number of astrocytic activities. In this study, the effects of VIP on the striatal neurochemistry were investigated in parkinsonian rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham-operated, unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned, and lesioned + VIP-administered (25 ng/kg i.p.) groups. VIP was first injected 1 h after the intrastriatal 6-OHDA microinjection and then every 2 days throughout 15 days. Extracellular striatal concentration of glutathione (GSH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (GLU), and lactate were measured in microdialysates by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quantification of GABA and activity dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP)-expressing cells were determined by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)/ADNP + glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated that a 6-OHDA lesion significantly increased the density of astrocytes in the striatum and VIP treatment slightly reduced the gliosis. Extracellular concentration of GABA, GLU, and lactate levels did not change, but GSH level significantly increased in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. VIP treatment reduced GSH level comparable to sham-operated groups, but enhanced GABA and GLU levels. Our double labeling results showed that VIP primarily acts on neurons to increase ADNP and GAD expression for protection. These results suggest that, in the 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration model, astrocytes were possibly activated for forefront defensiveness by modulating striatal neurochemistry.

  1. Downregulation of neuronal vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in Parkinson's disease and chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancola, F; Torresan, F; Repossi, R; Bianco, F; Latorre, R; Ioannou, A; Guarino, M; Volta, U; Clavenzani, P; Mazzoni, M; Chiocchetti, R; Bazzoli, F; Travagli, R A; Sternini, C; De Giorgio, R

    2017-05-01

    Chronic constipation (CC) is a common and severe gastrointestinal complaint in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This study evaluated functionally distinct submucosal neurons in relation to colonic motility and anorectal function in PD patients with constipation (PD/CC) vs both CC and controls. Twenty-nine PD/CC and 10 Rome III-defined CC patients were enrolled. Twenty asymptomatic age-sex matched subjects served as controls. Colonic transit time measurement and conventional anorectal manometry were evaluated in PD/CC and CC patients. Colonoscopy was performed in all three groups. Colonic submucosal whole mounts from PD/CC, CC, and controls were processed for immunohistochemistry with antibodies for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peripheral choline acetyltransferase, markers for functionally distinct submucosal neurons. The mRNA expression of VIP and its receptors were also assessed. Four subgroups of PD/CC patients were identified: delayed colonic transit plus altered anorectal manometry (65%); delayed colonic transit (13%); altered manometric pattern (13%); and no transit and manometric impairment (9%). There were no differences in the number of neurons/ganglion between PD/CC vs CC or vs controls. A reduced number of submucosal neurons containing VIP immunoreactivity was found in PD/CC vs controls (PCC vs CC and controls (Pmotor and rectal sensory functions are impaired in most PD/CC patients. These abnormalities are associated with a decreased VIP expression in submucosal neurons. Both sensory-motor abnormalities and neurally mediated motor and secretory mechanisms are likely to contribute to PD/CC pathophysiology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Vasoactive agonists exert dynamic and coordinated effects on vascular smooth muscle cell elasticity, cytoskeletal remodelling and adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhongkui; Sun, Zhe; Li, Min; Li, Zhaohui; Bunyak, Filiz; Ersoy, Ilker; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Staiculescu, Marius Catalin; Jin, Minshan; Martinez-Lemus, Luis; Hill, Michael A; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Meininger, Gerald A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the ability of vasoactive agonists to induce dynamic changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) elasticity and adhesion, and tested the hypothesis that these events are coordinated with rapid remodelling of the cortical cytoskeleton. Real-time measurement of cell elasticity was performed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and adhesion was assessed with AFM probes coated with fibronectin (FN). Temporal data were analysed using an Eigen-decomposition method. Elasticity in VSMCs displayed temporal oscillations with three components at approximately 0.001, 0.004 and 0.07 Hz, respectively. Similarly, adhesion displayed a similar oscillatory pattern. Angiotensin II (ANG II, 10−6 m) increased (+100%) the amplitude of the oscillations, whereas the vasodilator adenosine (ADO, 10−4 m) reduced oscillation amplitude (–30%). To test whether the oscillatory changes were related to the architectural alterations in cortical cytoskeleton, the topography of the submembranous actin cytoskeleton (100–300 nm depth) was acquired with AFM. These data were analysed to compare cortical actin fibre distribution and orientation before and after treatment with vasoactive agonists. The results showed that ANG II increased the density of stress fibres by 23%, while ADO decreased the density of the stress fibres by 45%. AFM data were supported by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Collectively, these observations indicate that VSMC cytoskeletal structure and adhesion to the extracellular matrix are dynamically altered in response to agonist stimulation. Thus, vasoactive agonists probably invoke unique mechanisms that dynamically alter the behaviour and structure of both the VSMC cytoskeleton and focal adhesions to efficiently support the normal contractile behaviour of VSMCs. PMID:24445320

  3. Receptor-linked early events induced by vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) on neuroblastoma and vascular smooth-muscle cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, T; Okano, Y; Zhang, W.; OZEKI, T.; Mitsui, Y; Nozawa, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) caused a series of biochemical events, including the temporal biphasic accumulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), transient formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and increase in intracellular free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) in neuroblastoma NG108-15 cells. In these cellular responses, VIC was found to be much more potent in NG108-15 cells than in cultured rat vascular smooth-muscle cells. The single cell [Ca2+]i assay revealed that in the presence of nifedipine (1 microM) or E...

  4. Q-T interval (QT(C)) in patients with cirrhosis: relation to vasoactive peptides and heart rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Gülberg, V; Fuglsang, S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prolonged Q-T interval (QT) has been reported in patients with cirrhosis who also exhibit profound abnormalities in vasoactive peptides and often present with elevated heart rate (HR). The aim of this study was to relate QT to the circulating level of endothelins (ET-1 and ET-3......) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in patients with cirrhosis. In addition, we studied problems with HR correction of QT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension were studied during a haemodynamic investigation. Circulating levels of ETs and CGRP were determined...

  5. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  6. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... happens because medicines can change the way your body controls fluid and salt balances, cause your blood vessels to constrict, or impact the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to high blood pressure. Other Medical Causes of High Blood ... these other conditions change the way your body controls fluids, sodium, and hormones in your blood, which leads ...

  8. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  9. Clinical and duplex US assessment of effects of sildenafil on cavernosal arteries of the penis: comparison with intracavernosal injection of vasoactive agents--initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copel, Laurian; Katz, Ran; Blachar, Arye; Sosna, Jacob; Sheiman, Robert G

    2005-12-01

    To prospectively evaluate the clinical response and hemodynamic changes in cavernosal arteries after oral administration of sildenafil without and with audiovisual sexual stimulation and to compare those responses with responses from intracavernosal injections of vasoactive agents. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. Thirteen consecutive patients (age range, 22-77 years; mean, 60.4 years) with erectile dysfunction were evaluated with clinical assessment and cavernosal duplex ultrasonography (US). The patients were examined at two sessions 3 weeks apart. First, each patient received 100 mg of sildenafil citrate orally and was examined 60 minutes later without any sexual stimulation. Each patient then underwent repeat clinical and duplex US assessment after audiovisual sexual stimulation. Three weeks later, the patients underwent identical clinical evaluation and duplex US after intracavernosal injection of a commercially available combination of papaverine, prostaglandin E1, and phentolamine. Clinical and duplex US data (ie, peak systolic velocity [PSV]) were examined by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test for matched pairs. At rest, the overall mean cavernosal artery PSV was 1.08 cm/sec and remained unchanged after intake of sildenafil without any audiovisual stimulation, with no clinical evidence of erection. With the addition of audiovisual sexual stimulation, eight (62%) of 13 patients had penile congestion or erection, and six (46%) had a PSV greater than 25 cm/sec. With intracavernosal injection of the combination of three drugs, all 13 patients achieved congestion or erection, and 10 (77%) had a PSV greater than 25 cm/sec. Both clinical and duplex US responses to intracavernosal injection were significantly greater than they were to sildenafil with audiovisual sexual stimulation (P = .04 and .003, respectively). Oral sildenafil with audiovisual sexual stimulation led to a significant clinical response and increment

  10. Hormones and receptors in fish: do duplicates matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Graeme J; Wu, Sheng; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2009-03-01

    Modern fish are the result of major changes in evolution including three possible duplications of the whole genome. Retained duplicate genes are often involved with metabolism, transcription, neurogenic processes and development. Here we examine the consequences of the most recent (350 mya) teleost-specific duplication in five fishes (zebrafish, fugu, medaka, stickleback and rainbow trout) in regard to duplicate copies of hormones and receptors in the secretin superfamily. This subset of genes was selected as the superfamily is limited to ten hormones and their receptors and includes some important members: glucagon, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). We used reports from the literature and an extensive database search of the fish genomes to evaluate the status of the superfamily and its duplicate genes. We found that all five fish species have an almost complete set of orthologs with the human superfamily of hormones, although they lack secretin and its receptor. Receptor orthologs are present in zebrafish, fugu, medaka, stickleback and to a lesser extent in salmonids. Zebrafish retain duplicate copies for seven hormones and five receptors. Duplicated genes in fugu, medaka, stickleback and salmonids are also present, based mainly on genome annotation or mRNA transcription. Separate chromosome locations and synteny support zebrafish duplicates as the result of large-scale duplications. Novel changes in fish include the modification of a duplicate glucagon receptor to a GLP-1 receptor and, unlike humans, the presence of bioactive and specific PHI and GHRH-like peptide receptors. We conclude that fish duplicates in the secretin superfamily are a rich, mostly unexplored area for endocrine research.

  11. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Increased splanchnic blood flow after hypoglycaemia in diabetic and normal man: evidence against glucagon as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D R; Bargiota, A; Braatvedt, G D; Halliwell, M; Corrall, R J

    1999-02-01

    Superior mesenteric artery blood flow increases significantly after hypoglycaemia in healthy humans. Glucagon has vasoactive properties but its role in hypoglycaemic hyperaemia is unclear. To assess this role, we studied the superior mesenteric artery blood flow response to hypoglycaemia of patients with uncomplicated Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus of at least 10 years duration; a group known to have defective glucagon response to hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia was induced using an intravenous infusion of soluble human insulin (2.5 m-units.min-1.kg-1) discontinued at a plasma glucose of 2.5 mmol/l. Superior mesenteric artery blood flow was measured using transcutaneous duplex Doppler ultrasound. Plasma samples were assayed for glucose, insulin, glucagon, catecholamines, growth hormone and cortisol. Plasma glucose concentration fell to a nadir of 1.8 (0.3) mmol/l in patients and 1.4 (0.1) mmol/l in controls. Plasma glucagon concentration was unchanged in patients from a baseline level of 111.7 (13.1) ng/l but rose in controls from 105 (8.5) to a peak of 239 (3.1) ng/l (P<0.001). Superior mesenteric artery blood flow increased in both groups: from 385 (29) to 921 (100) ml/min (140% increase; P<0.05) in patients and from 517 (50) to 790 (67) (53% increase; P<0.001) in controls. This study shows that patients with Type 1 diabetes have a normal splanchnic vascular hyperaemic response to hypoglycaemia despite defective glucagon counter-regulation. These results support our previous work suggesting that glucagon is not a major mediator of this response; it seems likely that circulating adrenaline is the major regulatory mechanism.

  13. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  14. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Budziszewska, B.; Tolmacheva, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  15. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  16. Hormone therapy in acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  17. A phase 2 study of high-activity {sup 186}Re-HEDP with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant in progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer metastatic to bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, J.M. [Queen' s University Belfast/Belfast City Hospital, Department of Oncology, Belfast (United Kingdom); Norman, A.R. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Computing, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); McCready, V.R.; Flux, G.; Buffa, F.M. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Physics, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Johnson, B. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Bob Champion Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Coffey, J.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.A.; Parker, C.C.; Dearnaley, D.P. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Academic Unit of Urology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Cook, G. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Treleaven, J. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Haematology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    We investigated the potential for improvement in disease control by use of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) to permit administration of high activities of {sup 186}Re-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) in patients with progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Eligible patients had progressive HRPC metastatic to bone, good performance status and minimal soft tissue disease. Patients received 5,000 MBq of {sup 186}Re-HEDP i.v., followed 14 days later by PBSCT. Response was assessed using PSA, survival, pain scores and quality of life. Thirty-eight patients with a median age of 67 years (range 50-77) and a median PSA of 57 ng/ml (range 4-3,628) received a median activity of 4,978 MBq {sup 186}Re-HEDP (range 4,770-5,100 MBq). The most serious toxicity was short-lived grade 3 thrombocytopenia in 8 (21%) patients. The median survival of the group is 21 months (95%CI 18-24 months) with Kaplan-Meier estimated 1- and 2-year survival rates of 83% and 40% respectively. Thirty-one patients (81%, 95% CI 66-90%) had stable or reduced PSA levels 3 months post therapy while 11 (29%, 95% CI 15-49%) had PSA reductions of >50% lasting >4 weeks. Quality of life measures were stable or improved in 27 (66%) at 3 months. We have shown that it is feasible and safe to deliver high-activity radioisotope therapy with PBSCT to men with metastatic HRPC. Response rates and survival data are encouraging; however, further research is needed to define optimal role of this treatment approach. (orig.)

  18. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women may be present due to: Being very underweight or having had recent rapid weight loss Not ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative ... National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  19. Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and somatostatin on secretion of epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    The effect of VIP and somatostatin on secretion of epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands was investigated in the rat. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide infused in doses of 10 and 100 ng/kg/h significantly increased epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate output......, but the concentrations did not change. Somatostatin infused at doses of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/kg/h against a background of VIP 100 ng/kg/h inhibited in dose-dependent fashion the stimulated epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate outputs from rat Brunner's gland pouches. Also basal secretion was inhibited...... growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands, an effect which is inhibited by somatostatin. A possible role for somatostatin in the control of Brunner's gland secretion is suggested....

  20. Inhibitory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced inflammation in surviving human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisnic, S; Branchet-Gumila, M C; Coutanceau, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on skin fragments stimulated by a neuromediator, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Skin fragments (from plastic surgery) were maintained in survival conditions for 6 h. To induce inflammation, VIP was placed in contact with dermis by culture medium. Histological analysis was then performed on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Edema was evaluated with semiquantitative scores. Vasodilation was studied by quantifying the percentage of dilated vessels according to scores and by measuring their surface by morphometrical image analysis. TNF-alpha dosage was made on culture supernatants. Vasodilation was significantly increased after application of VIP. After treatment with oatmeal extract oligomer, the mean surface of dilated vessels and edema were significantly decreased compared with VIP-treated skin. Moreover, treatment with this extract decreased TNF-alpha.

  1. Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Samantha J; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C; D'Souza, Damian G; Darras, Veerle M; Van Herck, Stijn L J

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms.

  2. Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Samantha J.; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C.; D'Souza, Damian G.; Darras, Veerle M.; Van Herck, Stijn L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms. PMID:25784853

  3. A survey of stated physician practices and beliefs on the use of steroids in pediatric fluid and/or vasoactive infusion-dependent shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kusum; McNally, James D; Choong, Karen; Ward, Roxanne E; Lawson, Margaret L; Ramsay, Tim; Wong, Hector R

    2013-06-01

    Limited evidence exists on the use of corticosteroids in pediatric shock. We sought to determine physicians' practices and beliefs with regard to the management of pediatric shock. Cross-sectional, Internet-based survey. Canada. Physicians identified as practicing pediatric intensive care in any of 15 academic centers. Seventy of 97 physicians (72.2%) responded. Physicians stated that they were more likely to prescribe steroids for septic shock than for shock following cardiac surgery (odds ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 0.9-4.3]) or trauma (odds ratio, 11.46 [95% CI, 2.5-51.2]), and 91.4% (64/70) would administer steroids to patients who had received 60 cc/kg of fluid and two or more vasoactive medications. Thirty-five percent of respondents (25/70) reported that they rarely or never conducted adrenal axis testing before giving steroids to patients in shock. Eighty-seven percent of respondents (61/70) stated that the role of steroids in the treatment of fluid and/or vasoactive drug-dependent shock needed to be clarified and that 84.3% would be willing to randomize patients into a trial of steroid efficacy who were fluid resuscitated and on one high-dose vasoactive medication. However, 74.3% stated that they would start open-label steroids in patients who required two high-dose vasoactive medications. This survey provides information on the stated beliefs and practices of pediatric critical care physicians with regard to the use of steroids in fluid and/or vasoactive drug-dependent shock. Clinicians feel that the role of steroids in shock still requires clarification and that they would be willing to randomize patients into a trial. This survey may be useful as an initial framework for the development of a future trial on the use of steroids in pediatric shock.

  4. Relationship of serum S1P and HC-II levels with vasoactive substances and cytokines in patients with cerebral vascular restenosis after stent implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of serum sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P and heparin cofactor II (HCII levels with vasoactive substances and cytokines in patients with cerebral vascular restenosis after stent implantation. Methods: 52 patients who received cerebrovascular stent implantation and developed restenosis in our hospital between May 2012 and December 2015 were collected as observation group, and 40 healthy patients with cerebrovascular stent implantation who had re-examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. ELISA method was used to detect serum S1P and HC-II levels as well as vasoactive substance and inflammatory factor contents. Spearman correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship of serum S1P and HC-II levels with vasoactive substances and inflammatory factors. Results: Serum S1P and HC-II levels of observation group were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum vasoactive substances endothelin (ET, angiotensin II (AngII and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 contents of observation group were higher than those of control group while nitric oxide (NO content was lower than that of control group (P<0.05; serum inflammatory factors hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-11 contents of observation group were higher than those of control group (P<0.05. Serum S1P and HC-II levels in patients with cerebral vascular restenosis after stent implantation were directly correlated with vasoactive substance and inflammatory factor contents. Conclusion: Serum S1P and HC-II levels decrease in patients with cerebral vascular restenosis after stent implantation, and it is an important cause of cerebral vascular dysfunction and systemic inflammatory response.

  5. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood can be unhealthy. What Is Hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia (say: hi-per-gly-SEE-me-uh) is the medical word for high blood sugar levels. The hormone insulin is supposed to control the level of glucose ...

  6. Human umbilical cord expresses several vasoactive peptides involved in the local regulation of vascular tone: protein and gene expression of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Gerbino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Full-term human umbilical cord contains three blood vessels: two arteries coiled around a vein and surrounded by Wharton’s jelly, a mucous tissue with few mesenchymal stromal cells and abundant extracellular matrix. Umbilical vessels lack innervations, thus endothelial cells must play a role in the control of blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate in human umbilical cord the expression of five peptides that could be involved in the regulation of vascular tone: Orphanin FQ, Oxytocin, Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP, endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS. The expression of these molecules in full-term human umbilical cord was investigated through immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Immunoreactivity for Orphanin FQ was detected in Wharton’s jelly, vessel musculature and endothelium; Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS were expressed by the umbilical epithelium, Wharton’s jelly and endothelium, whereas iNOS only by endothelial cells. RT-PCR analysis showed transcriptional expression of Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS mRNAs. The presence of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS proteins was identified in the human umbilical cord. mRNA expression for Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS suggest that these molecules are synthesized by umbilical cord cells themselves. The expression of these vasoactive molecules could be part of a general mechanism locally regulating vascular tone. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 211–218

  7. Human umbilical cord expresses several vasoactive peptides involved in the local regulation of vascular tone: protein and gene expression of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Annamaria; Buscemi, Maria; Provenzano, Salvatore; Gerbino, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    Full-term human umbilical cord contains three blood vessels: two arteries coiled around a vein and surrounded by Wharton's jelly, a mucous tissue with few mesenchymal stromal cells and abundant extracellular matrix. Umbilical vessels lack innervations, thus endothelial cells must play a role in the control of blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate in human umbilical cord the expression of five peptides that could be involved in the regulation of vascular tone: Orphanin FQ, Oxytocin, Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP), endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS). The expression of these molecules in full-term human umbilical cord was investigated through immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Immunoreactivity for Orphanin FQ was detected in Wharton's jelly, vessel musculature and endothelium; Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS were expressed by the umbilical epithelium, Wharton's jelly and endothelium, whereas iNOS only by endothelial cells. RT-PCR analysis showed transcriptional expression of Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS mRNAs. The presence of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS proteins was identified in the human umbilical cord. mRNA expression for Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS suggest that these molecules are synthesized by umbilical cord cells themselves. The expression of these vasoactive molecules could be part of a general mechanism locally regulating vascular tone.

  8. Effect of indomethacin on regulation of juxta-articular bone blood-flow during joint tamponade. An experimental study in puppies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, Henrik Lykke; Holm, I E; Bülow, J

    1989-01-01

    Prostaglandins are vasoactive substances which are assumed to play a major role in bone metabolism and bone repair. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of indomethacin on the control of epiphyseal bone blood-flow. By means of simultaneous intra-osseous pressure (IOP...

  9. Differences in eeg oscillations during vasoactive stress reactions in extroverts and introverts

    OpenAIRE

    Kustubayeva, A.; Matthews, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Hyperventilation (HV) and breath-holding (BH) are informative psychophysiological tests resulting in rapidly changing cerebral blood flow. The aim of our research was to determine differential EEG spectra of introverts/extroverts with induced HV and BH. Introverts revealed more intensive EEG reaction during HV, which was specifically shown by increased theta and gamma activity in all cortical areas.

  10. Deciding about hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to continue seeing your doctor for regular checkups. Alternative Names HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - ...

  11. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because these other conditions change the way your body controls fluids, sodium, and hormones in ... lifestyle habits, and a family history of high blood pressure can increase your risk ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or hormone therapies, including birth control pills and estrogen, and over-the-counter medicines such as cold ... pressure. Medicines to lower blood pressure include: Diuretics (Water or Fluid Pills): Flush excess sodium from your ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harder and leading to high blood pressure. Medicines Prescription medicines such as asthma or hormone therapies, including ... health care provider before you start a new exercise plan. Ask him or her how much and ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help to lower your blood pressure. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors : Angiotensin-II is a hormone that ... and Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) RELATED NEWS December 13, 2017 | ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help to lower your blood pressure. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors : Angiotensin-II is a hormone that ... National Institute of Health Department of Health and Human Services OIG USA.gov

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead to an increase in blood pressure. Aldosterone controls how the kidneys balance fluid and salt levels. ... such as asthma or hormone therapies, including birth control pills and estrogen, and over-the-counter medicines ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these other conditions change the way your body controls fluids, sodium, and hormones in your ... lifestyle habits, and a family history of high blood pressure can increase your risk ...

  19. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    and 5 days after rapid, passive transport to high altitude (4,559 m). Acute mountain sickness scores ranged from 5 to 16 (maximal attainable score: 20) on the first day but were reduced to 0-8 by the fifth day. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma epinephrine increased on day 1 at altitude...... compared with sea level but declined again on day 5, whereas diastolic and mean blood pressures continued to rise in parallel with plasma norepinephrine. With local cooling, an increased vasoactive response was seen on the fifth day at altitude. Very high pressures were obtained, and the pressure elevation...

  20. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults Patient Guide Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults June 2011 Download PDFs English ... depression, or moodiness What are the benefits of growth hormone therapy? Growth hormone treatment involves injections (shots) of ...

  1. Vitamina A: nível sérico e ingestão dietética em crianças e adolecentes com déficit estatural de causa não hormonal Vitamin A: blood level and dietetics intake in stunted children and adolescents without hormonal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSELI S. SARNI

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a ingestão dietética de vitamina A e os níveis séricos de carotenóides e retinol em crianças e adolescentes com déficit estatural sem causa hormonal, atendidos no Ambulatório de Endocrinopediatria do Núcleo de Nutrição (NUNADI da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados de maneira prospectiva 47 pacientes pré-púberes, entre 4 e 14 anos, com relação a: antropometria, idade óssea, inquérito alimentar, bioimpedanciometria e nível sérico de retinol e carotenóides. RESULTADOS: A média do escore Z da estatura foi de -2,4; 20% dos pacientes eram desnutridos, 25,5% tinham inadequação da massa gorda e maior atraso da idade óssea. Os níveis séricos de retinol e carotenóides foram inadequados em 21% dos pacientes, sendo que foi maior o percentual de inadequação dos carotenóides nos pacientes que apresentavam déficit estatural mais acentuado. Não houve relação dos níveis séricos de retinol e carotenóides com a velocidade de crescimento. Em 82,9% dos inquéritos alimentares realizados, houve ingestão de vitamina A inferior a 50% do estabelecido na Pirâmide de Alimentos. CONCLUSÃO: Baseados nestes resultados, concluímos que há uma elevada prevalência de desnutrição, comprometimento da idade óssea, inadequação no nível sérico de carotenóides e ingestão de vitamina A em crianças com comprometimento estatural.OBJECTIVES: To determine the vitamin A intake and the blood levels of carotenoids and retinol in stunted children and adolescents without hormonal disease, assisted in the Clinic of Pediatric Endocrinology of the Center for Nutrition and Child Development - Department of Health, State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We evaluated, in a prospective and randomized trial, 47 prepubertal patients between 4 and 14 years old. All patients were submitted to anthropometric evaluation, bone age, bioelectric impedance and serum retinol and carotenoid levels

  2. Sex Hormones, Gonadotropins, and Sex Hormone-binding Globulin in Infants Fed Breast Milk, Cow Milk Formula, or Soy Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Wu, Chunhua; Shi, Huijing; Zhou, Zhijun; Montgomery, Scott; Cao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of endogenous hormones in early life is important to investigate the effects of hormonally active environmental compounds. To assess the possible hormonal effects of different feeding regimens in different sample matrices of infants, 166 infants were enrolled from two U.S hospitals between 2006 and 2009. The children were classified into exclusive soy formula, cow milk formula or breast milk regimens. Urine, saliva and blood samples were collected over the first 12 months of life....

  3. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comasco, Erika; Frøkjær, Vibe; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2014-01-01

    these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in several cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized...

  4. The Effects of Low Density Lipoproteins on Endothelial Mediated Vasoactivity in the Coronary Circulation in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-27

    with the recent availability of information regarding plaque development 13. However., it is still debated whether the coronary artery thrombi are the...large epicardial vessels., can reduce normal coronary blood flow and can be demonstrated angiographically. The vascular endothelium of the tunica...many clinical studies is examined by measuring the changes in either luminal diameter or by measuring the changes in flow in the large epicardial

  5. Genomic growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Lei et al., 2007). Recently, the effects of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism at codon 127 and 172 were determined on carcass traits and fatty acid compositions in Japanese Black cattle using allele specific-multiplex ...

  6. Genetic susceptibility to refractive error: association of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VIPR2 with high myopia in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Chi Yiu

    Full Text Available Myopia is the most common ocular disease worldwide. We investigated the association of high myopia with the common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of five candidate genes - early growth response 1 (EGR1, v-fos FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS, jun oncogene (JUN, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VIPR2. We recruited 1200 unrelated Chinese subjects with 600 cases (spherical equivalent ≤-8.00 diopters and 600 controls (spherical equivalent within ±1.00 diopter. A discovery sample set was formed from 300 cases and 300 controls, and a replication sample set from the remaining samples. Tag SNPs were genotyped for the discovery sample set, and the most significant haplotypes and their constituent SNPs were followed up with the replication sample set. The allele and haplotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared by logistic regression adjusted for sex and age to give P a values, and multiple comparisons were corrected by permutation test to give P aemp values. Odd ratios (OR were calculated accordingly. In the discovery phase, EGR1, JUN and VIP did not show any significant association while FOS and VIPR2 demonstrated significant haplotype association with high myopia. In the replication phase, the haplotype association for VIPR2 was successfully replicated, but not FOS. In analysis combining both sample sets, the most significant association signals of VIPR2 were the single marker rs2071625 (P a = 0.0008, P aemp = 0.0046 and OR = 0.75 and the 4-SNP haplotype window rs2071623-rs2071625-rs2730220-rs885863 (omnibus test, P a = 9.10e-10 and P aemp = 0.0001 with one protective haplotype (GGGG: P aemp = 0.0002 and OR = 0.52 and one high-risk haplotype (GAGA: P aemp = 0.0027 and OR = 4.68. This 4-SNP haplotype window was the most significant in all sample sets examined. This is the first study to suggest a role of VIPR2 in the genetic

  7. Starvation reduces allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, H

    2002-10-01

    The effect of starvation on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neuropeptide levels was not previously reported. Starvation for 24 h reduces allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma levels of substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome, but not in control subjects. These results may have implications for the pathophysiology of the atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome.

  8. Preoperative echocardiographic measures of left ventricular mechanics are associated with postoperative vasoactive support in preterm infants undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Margaret A; Graham, Eric M; Atz, Andrew M; Bradley, Scott M; Kavarana, Minoo N; Chowdhury, Shahryar M

    2017-12-01

    Preoperative risk factors associated with poor outcomes after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants have not been well defined. The aim of this study was to determine the association between preoperative echocardiographic measures of left ventricular mechanics and postoperative clinical outcomes after patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Preterm infants less than 90 days of age with no other significant congenital anomalies who underwent patent ductus arteriosus ligation between 2007 and 2015 were considered for retrospective analysis. The primary outcome was peak postoperative vasoactive inotropic score. Conventional echocardiographic measures of ventricular size, function, and patent ductus arteriosus size were performed. Echocardiographic single-beat, pressure-volume loop analysis estimates of contractility (end-systolic elastance) and afterload (arterial elastance) were calculated. Ventriculoarterial coupling was assessed using the arterial elastance/end-systolic elastance ratio. Multivariable linear regression was performed using clinical and echocardiographic data. Echocardiograms from 101 patients (42.5% male) were analyzed. We found a statistically significant association between vasoactive inotropic score and both end-systolic elastance and arterial elastance. No patient with arterial elastance/end-systolic elastance greater than 0.78 (n = 32) had a vasoactive inotropic score 20 or greater. Analysis of our secondary outcomes found associations between preoperative end-systolic elastance and postoperative urine output less than 1 mL/kg/h at 24 hours, creatinine change greater than 0.5 mg/dL, and time to first extubation. End-systolic elastance and arterial elastance were the only predictors of postoperative vasoactive inotropic score after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants. Those neonates with increased contractility and low afterload were at highest risk for elevated inotropic support. These findings suggest a role

  9. The influences of GnRH, oxytocin and vasoactive intestinal peptide on LH and PRL secretion by porcine pituitary cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, I; Siawrys, G; Okrasa, S; Kaminski, T; Przala, J

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible direct effects of GnRH, oxytocin (OT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the release of LH and PRL by dispersed porcine anterior pituitary cells. Pituitary glands were obtained from mature gilts, which were ovariectomized (OVX) one month before slaughter. Gilts randomly assigned to one of the four groups were treated: in Group 1 (n = 8) with 1 ml/100 kg b.w. corn oil (placebo); in Group 2 (n = 8) and Group 3 (n = 8) with estradiol benzoate (EB) at the dose 2.5 mg/100 kg b.w., respectively, 30-36 h and 60-66 h before slaughter; and in Group 4 (n = 9) with progesterone (P4) at the dose 120 mg/ 100 kg b.w. for five consecutive days before slaughter. In gilts of Group 2 and Group 3 treatments with EB have induced the negative and positive feedback in LH secretion, respectively. Isolated anterior pituitary cells (10(6)/well) were cultured in McCoy's 5a medium with horse serum and fetal calf serum for 3 days at 37 degrees C under the atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO2. Subsequently, the culture plates were rinsed with fresh McCoy's 5A medium and the cells were incubated for 3.5 h at 37 degrees C in the same medium containing one of the following agents: GnRH (100 ng/ml), OT (10-1000 nM) or VIP (1-100 nM). The addition of GnRH to cultured pituitary cells resulted in marked increases in LH release (p gilts representing the positive feedback phase (Group 3). In contrast, OT and VIP were without any effect on LH release in Group 1 (placebo) and Group 2 (the negative feedback). Pituitary cells obtained from OVX gilts primed with P4 produced significantly higher amounts (p gilts of all experimental groups. Oxytocin also failed to alter PRL secretion in Group 1 and Group 2. However, pituitary cells from animals primed with EB 60-66 h before slaughter and P4 produced markedly increased amounts of PRL in the presence of OT. Neuropeptide VIP stimulated PRL release from pituitary cells of OVX gilts primed with EB

  10. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  11. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hormonal therapy for acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane

    2008-09-01

    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available.

  13. Enhanced Mortality to Metastatic Bladder Cancer Cell Line MB49 in Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Gene Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niely Mirsaidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify if the absence of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP gene enhances susceptibility to death from metastatic bladder cancer, two strains of mice were injected with MB49 murine bladder cancer cells. The growth and spread of the cancer was measured over a period of 4 weeks in C57BL/6 mice and 5 weeks in VIP knockout (KO mice. A Kaplan–Meier plot was constructed to compare control C57BL/6 mice and C57BL/6 mice with MB49 vs. VIP KO controls and VIP KO mice with MB49. The wild-type (WT strain (C57BL/6 contained the VIP gene, while the other strain, VIP knockout backcrossed to C57BL/6 (VIP KO did not and was thus unable to endogenously produce VIP. VIP KO mice had increased mortality compared to C57BL/6 mice at 4 weeks. The number of ulcers between both groups was not statistically significant. In vitro studies indicated that the presence VIP in high doses reduced MB49 cell growth, as well as macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF, a growth factor in bladder cancer cells. These findings support the concept that VIP may attenuate susceptibility to death from bladder cancer, and that it exerts its effect via downregulation of MIF.

  14. Distribution of vasotocin- and vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunoreactivity in the brain of blue tit (Cyanistes coeruleus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnese, Catherine M.; Székely, Tamás; Csillag, András; Zachar, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Blue tits (Cyanistes coeruleus) are songbirds, used as model animals in numerous studies covering a wide field of research. Nevertheless, the distribution of neuropeptides in the brain of this avian species remains largely unknown. Here we present some of the first results on distribution of Vasotocine (AVT) and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the brain of males and females of this songbird species, using immunohistochemistry mapping. The bulk of AVT-like cells are found in the hypothalamic supraoptic, paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the lateral forebrain bundle. Most AVT-like fibers course toward the median eminence, some reaching the arcopallium, and lateral septum. Further terminal fields occur in the dorsal thalamus, ventral tegmental area and pretectal area. Most VIP-like cells are in the lateral septal organ and arcuate nucleus. VIP-like fibers are distributed extensively in the hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum, diagonal band of Broca. They are also found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid nucleus of taenia, robust nucleus of the arcopallium, caudo-ventral hyperpallium, nucleus accumbens and the brainstem. Taken together, these results suggest that both AVT and VIP immunoreactive structures show similar distribution to other avian species, emphasizing evolutionary conservatism in the history of vertebrates. The current study may enable future investigation into the localization of AVT and VIP, in relation to behavioral and ecological traits in the brain of tit species. PMID:26236200

  15. Distribution of Vasotocin- and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-like Immunoreactivity in the Brain of Blue Tit (Cyanistes coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Monique Montagnese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Blue tits (Cyanistes coeruleus are songbirds, used as model animals in numerous studies covering a wide field of research. Nevertheless, the distribution of neuropeptides in the brain of this avian species remains largely unknown. Here we present some of the first results on distribution of Vasotocine (AVT and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP in the brain of males and females of this songbird species, using immunohistochemistry mapping.The bulk of AVT-like cells are found in the hypothalamic supraoptic, paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the lateral forebrain bundle. Most AVT-like fibers course toward the median eminence, some reaching the arcopallium, and lateral septum. Further terminal fields occur in the dorsal thalamus, ventral tegmental area and pretectal area. Most VIP-like cells are in the lateral septal organ and arcuate nucleus. VIP-like fibers are distributed extensively in the hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum, diagonal band of Broca. They are also found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid nucleus of taenia, robust nucleus of the arcopallium, caudo-ventral hyperpallium, nucleus accumbens and the brainstem. Taken together, these results suggest that both AVT and VIP immunoreactive structures show similar distribution to other avian species, emphasizing evolutionary conservatism in the history of vertebrates. The current study may enable future investigation into the localization of AVT and VIP, in relation to behavioral and ecological traits in the brain of tit species.

  16. Severe microcephaly induced by blockade of vasoactive intestinal peptide function in the primitive neuroepithelium of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressens, P; Hill, J M; Paindaveine, B; Gozes, I; Fridkin, M; Brenneman, D E

    1994-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has potent growth-related actions that influence cell mitosis, neuronal survival, and neurodifferentiation in cell culture. VIP can also produce dramatic growth in postimplantation mouse embryos in vitro, characterized by large increases in cell number. The goal of the present study was to assess the role of VIP on early nervous system development in vivo. Pregnant mice were treated with a specific antagonist to VIP. Prenatal administration of the antagonist early in development (E9-E11) produced severe microcephaly characterized by decreased embryonic brain weight with reduced DNA and protein content. The retardation of growth was disproportionally manifested in the brain compared with the body and was prevented by co-treatment with VIP. Identical treatment with the antagonist later in gestation had no detectable effect on embryonic growth. VIP receptors, which were restricted to the central nervous system during this stage of embryonic development, were increased in the neuroepithelium of antagonist-treated embryos while the number of cells in S-phase was significantly decreased. Thus, VIP regulates brain growth in vivo and inhibition of its action provides new insight into a molecular mechanism for microcephaly.

  17. Targeting of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2, VPAC2, a secretin family G-protein coupled receptor, to primary cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livana Soetedjo

    2013-05-01

    Primary cilia protrude from the cell surface of many cell types in the human body and function as cellular antennae via ciliary membrane localized receptors. Neurons and glial cells in the brain possess primary cilia, and the malfunction of primary cilia may contribute to neurological deficits present in many cilia-associated disorders. Several rhodopsin family G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are specifically localized to a subset of neuronal primary cilia. However, whether other family GPCRs target to neuronal cilia and whether glial primary cilia harbor any GPCRs are not known. We conducted a screening of GPCRs to determine their ability to target to primary cilia, and identified a secretin family member, Vasoactive Intestinal Receptor 2 (VPAC2, as a novel ciliary GPCR. Here, we show that endogenous VPAC2 targets to primary cilia in various brain regions, including the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the thalamus. Surprisingly, VPAC2 not only localizes to neuronal cilia but also to glial cilia. In addition, we show that VPAC2's C-terminus is both necessary and sufficient for its ciliary targeting and we define a novel ciliary targeting signal: the tetrapeptide RDYR motif in the C-terminus of VPAC2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that VPAC2 ciliary targeting is dependent on Tubby, the BBSome (a complex of Bardet–Biedl syndrome proteins and the BBSome targeting factor, Arl6.

  18. BPC 157 and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiwerth, Sven; Brcic, Luka; Vuletic, Lovorka Batelja; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Misic, Marija; Zenko, Anita; Drmic, Domagoj; Rucman, Rudolf; Sikiric, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the described effects of BPC 157 on blood vessels after different types of damage, and elucidate by investigating different aspects of vascular response to injury (endothelium damage, clotting, thrombosis, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation, vasculoneogenesis and edema formation) especially in connection to the healing processes. In this respect, BPC 157 was concluded to be the most potent angiomodulatory agent, acting through different vasoactive pathways and systems (e.g. NO, VEGF, FAK) and leading to optimization of the vascular response followed, as it has to be expected, by optimization of the healing process. Formation of new blood vessels involves two main, partly overlapping mechanisms, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The additional mechanism of arteriogenesis is involved in the formation of collaterals. In conjunction with blood vessel function, we at least have to consider leakage of fluid/proteins/plasma, resulting in edema/exudate formation as well as thrombogenesis. Blood vessels are also strongly involved in tumor biology. In this aspect, we have neoangiogenesis resulting in pathological vascularization, vascular invasion resulting in release of metastatic cells and the phenomenon of homing resulting in formation of secondary tumors--metastases.

  19. Serum blood metabolite response and evaluation of select organ weight, histology and cardiac morphology of beef heifers exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge following supplementation of

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to: 1) determine if supplementation of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride (ZH) altered select organ weights, histology and cardiac anatomical features at harvest and 2) determine if administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) challenge followi...

  20. The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, G; Hayashi, I

    1976-12-01

    The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media. (Reemplazo del suero por hormonas en el medio de cultivo de células). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 120-121, 1976. The serum used in cell culture media can be replaced by a mixture of hormones and some accesory blood factors. The pituitary cell line GH3 can be grown in a medium in which serum is replaced by triiodothyronine, transferrin, parathormone, tyrotrophin releasing hormone and somatomedins. Hela and BHK cell strains can also be grown in serum free medium supplemented with hormones. Each cell type appears to have different hormonal requirements yet it may found that some hormones are required for most cell types.

  1. Exported Epoxide Hydrolases Modulate Erythrocyte Vasoactive Lipids during Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J. Spillman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes are reservoirs of important epoxide-containing lipid signaling molecules, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs. EETs function as vasodilators and anti-inflammatory modulators in the bloodstream. Bioactive EETs are hydrolyzed to less active diols (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by epoxide hydrolases (EHs. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum infects host red blood cells (RBCs and exports hundreds of proteins into the RBC compartment. In this study, we show that two parasite epoxide hydrolases, P. falciparum epoxide hydrolases 1 (PfEH1 and 2 (PfEH2, both with noncanonical serine nucleophiles, are exported to the periphery of infected RBCs. PfEH1 and PfEH2 were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and they hydrolyzed physiologically relevant erythrocyte EETs. Mutations in active site residues of PfEH1 ablated the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze an epoxide substrate. Overexpression of PfEH1 or PfEH2 in parasite-infected RBCs resulted in a significant alteration in the epoxide fatty acids stored in RBC phospholipids. We hypothesize that the parasite disruption of epoxide-containing signaling lipids leads to perturbed vascular function, creating favorable conditions for binding and sequestration of infected RBCs to the microvascular endothelium.

  2. Unexpected Elevated Free Thyroid Hormones in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Claudia; Nazzari, Elena; Galletti, Marina Raffaella; Mandolfino, Mattia Grazia; Pupo, Francesca; Pesce, Giampaola; Lillo, Flavia; Bagnasco, Marcello; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2016-11-01

    The use of thyrotropin and free thyroid hormone assays to evaluate thyroid function is widespread, but in some situations the results are inconsistent with the patient's thyroid status. A 35-year-old woman with a known diagnosis of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was referred to the authors' clinic at week 26 of her second pregnancy. The patient was clinically euthyroid. Consistent with this, her serum thyrotropin (TSH) was normal (0.79 mIU/L), but she had elevated free thyroid hormones-free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4)-as determined by a one-step chemiluminescent assay. The patient was taking levothyroxine replacement therapy (125 μg/day), and the dose was confirmed. Previous blood tests showed concordance between TSH and free thyroid hormone values. The patient was followed up throughout gestation and at 12 months postpartum. During gestation, her free thyroid hormones remained high using one-step methods, while the total thyroid hormone concentration values were within the reference range, in agreement with the TSH values. Postpartum fT4 and fT3 values returned progressively to normality, in agreement with the TSH values. The presence of circulating thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAb) was hypothesized, which are known to interfere, although to a variable extent, with thyroid hormone one-step assays. Using stored frozen sera, this hypothesis was confirmed indirectly by measuring normal levels of fT3 and fT4 with a two-step method, and directly by demonstrating THAb against the two hormones. Despite their relative rarity, circulating THAb may be suspected when laboratory data are not consistent and contrast with the clinical picture. To the authors' knowledge, no previous case of transient appearance of THAb in pregnancy has been described.

  3. Electrophysiological, vasoactive, and gastromodulatory effects of stevia in healthy Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesmine, Saquiba; Connolly, Kylie; Hill, Nicholas; Coulson, Fiona R; Fenning, Andrew S

    2013-07-01

    Antihypertensive and antidiabetic effects of stevia, Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae), have been demonstrated in several human and animal models. The current study aims to define stevia's role in modifying the electrophysiological and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes, blood vessels, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Tissues from thoracic aorta, mesenteric arteries, ileum, and left ventricular papillary muscles were excised from 8-week-old healthy Wistar rats. The effects of stevia (1 × 10-9 M to 1 × 10-4 M) were measured on these tissues. Stevia's effects in the presence of verapamil, 4-AP, and L-NAME were also assessed. In cardiomyocytes, stevia attenuated the force of contraction, decreased the average peak amplitude, and shortened the repolarisation phase of action potential - repolarisation phase of action potential20 by 25 %, repolarisation phase of action potential50 by 34 %, and repolarisation phase of action potential90 by 36 %. Stevia caused relaxation of aortic tissues which was significantly potentiated in the presence of verapamil. In mesenteric arteries, incubation with L-NAME failed to block stevia-induced relaxation indicating the mechanism of action may not be fully via nitric oxide-dependent pathways. Stevia concentration-dependently reduced electrical field stimulated and carbachol-induced contractions in the isolated ileum. This study is the first to show the effectiveness of stevia in reducing cardiac action potential duration at 20 %, 50 %, and 90 % of repolarisation. Stevia also showed beneficial modulatory effects on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal tissues via calcium channel antagonism, activation of the M2 muscarinic receptor function, and enhanced nitric oxide release. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Nutrient Sensing Overrides Somatostatin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone to Control Pulsatile Growth Hormone Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, F J

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacological studies reveal that interactions between hypothalamic inhibitory somatostatin and stimulatory growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) govern pulsatile GH release. However, in vivo analysis of somatostatin and GHRH release into the pituitary portal vasculature and peripheral GH output demonstrates that the withdrawal of somatostatin or the appearance of GHRH into pituitary portal blood does not reliably dictate GH release. Consequently, additional intermediates acting at the level of the hypothalamus and within the anterior pituitary gland are likely to contribute to the release of GH, entraining GH secretory patterns to meet physiological demand. The identification and validation of the actions of such intermediates is particularly important, given that the pattern of GH release defines several of the physiological actions of GH. This review highlights the actions of neuropeptide Y in regulating GH release. It is acknowledged that pulsatile GH release may not occur selectively in response to hypothalamic control of pituitary function. As such, interactions between somatotroph networks, the median eminence and pituitary microvasculature and blood flow, and the emerging role of tanycytes and pericytes as critical regulators of pulsatility are considered. It is argued that collective interactions between the hypothalamus, the median eminence and pituitary vasculature, and structural components within the pituitary gland dictate somatotroph function and thereby pulsatile GH release. These interactions may override hypothalamic somatostatin and GHRH-mediated GH release, and modify pulsatile GH release relative to the peripheral glucose supply, and thereby physiological demand. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  5. Sex hormones and urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, A; Brzoza, Z; Rogala, B

    2008-11-01

    Chronic urticaria is characterized by mast cells/basophils activation which initiate the inflammatory response. Pathogenetically, the disease may in many cases represent an autoimmune phenomenon. Altered function of the neuro-endocrine-immune system due to stress and other factors has also been implicated its pathogenesis. Sex hormones modulate immune and inflammatory cell functions, including mast cell secretion, and are regarded as responsible for gender and menstrual cycle phase-associated differential susceptibility and severity of some autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Chronic urticaria is approximately twice more frequent in women than in men. In addition, urticaria may be associated with some diseases and conditions characterized by hormonal changes, including endocrinopathy, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause and hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Hypersensitivity reactions to endogenous or exogenous female sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of urticarial lesions associated with estrogen and autoimmune progesterone dermatitis. We observed lower serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentration in patients with chronic urticaria with positive and negative response to autologous serum skin test. Thus, the influence of fluctuations in the hormonal milieu and altered sex hormone expression on the triggering-off, maintenance or aggravation of urticaria should be taken into account. In addition, the possible impact of estrogen mimetics, in the environment and in food, on the development of disease associated with mast cell activation must be considered. This review endeavours to outline what is known about the possible influence of sex hormones in the expression of urticaria.

  6. Parathyroid Hormone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have any questions about how to inject this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection comes in a cartridge to be mixed in ... and vitamin D while you are taking this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection controls hypoparathyroidism but does not cure it. Continue ...

  7. Assessing the eligibility of a non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement technique for application during total intravenous anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhle, Robert; Siegert, Joachim; Wonka, Fred; Schindler, Christoph; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Koch, Thea; Morgenstern, Ute; Theilen, Herman

    2016-06-01

    To assess the eligibility for replacement of invasive blood pressure as measured "within" the arterial vessel (IBP) with non-invasive continuous arterial blood pressure (cNIP) monitoring during total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA), the ability of cNiP to track fast blood pressure changes needs to be quantified. A new method of statistical data analysis is developed for this purpose. In a pilot study on patients undergoing neurosurgical anaesthesia, mean arterial pressure MAPIBP measured with IBP was compared to MAPCNP measured by the CNAP Monitor 500 in ten patients (age: 63±13 a). Correlation analysis of changes of device differences ΔeMAP=ΔMAPCNP-ΔMAPIBP with changes of MAPIBP (ΔMAPIBP) during intervals of vasoactivity was conducted. An innovative technique, of linear trend analysis (LTA) applied to two signals, is described to perform this analysis without a priori knowledge of intervals of vasoactivity. Analysis of ΔeMAP during vasoactivity revealed that ΔMAPCNP systematically underestimated ΔMAPIBP by 37%. This was confirmed in the complete data set using LTA technique showing a systematic, yet patient specific, underestimation in tracking ΔMAPIBP (16…120%). The proposed LTA technique is able to detect systematic errors in tracking short-term blood pressure changes otherwise masked by established analysis. LTA may thus be a useful tool to assess the eligibility of cNIP to replace IBP during TIVA.

  8. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  9. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  10. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. Testosterone is one ...

  11. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... c m y one in Children What is growth hormone deficiency? Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare condition in which the body does not make enough growth hormone (GH). GH is made by the pituitary gland, ...

  12. Sex hormones in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Roger Lyrio; da Silva, Fabrício Bragança; Ribeiro, Rogério Faustino; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2014-05-01

    Gender-associated differences in the development of cardiovascular diseases have been described in humans and animals. These differences could explain the low incidence of cardiovascular disease in women in the reproductive period, such as stroke, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. The cardiovascular protection observed in females has been attributed to the beneficial effects of estrogen on endothelial function. Besides estrogen, sex hormones are able to modulate blood pressure by acting on important systems as cardiovascular, renal, and neural. They can have complementary or antagonistic actions. For example, testosterone can raise blood pressure by stimulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas estrogen alone or combined with progesterone has been associated with decreased blood pressure. The effects of testosterone in the development of cardiovascular disease are contradictory. Although some researchers suggest a positive effect, others indicate negative actions of testosterone. Estrogens physiologically stimulate the release of endothelium-derived vasodilator factors and inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Although the cardioprotective effects of estrogen are widely appreciated, little is known about the effects of progesterone, which is commonly used in hormone replacement therapy. Progesterone has both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive effects in the vasculature, depending on the location of the vessel and the level of exposure. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which sex hormones modulate blood pressure have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the characterization of those could lead to a better understanding of hypertension in women and men and perhaps to improved forms of therapy.

  13. Framework of collagen type I - vasoactive vessels structuring invariant geometric attractor in cancer tissues: insight into biological magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Díaz

    Full Text Available In a previous research, we have described and documented self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complex organizations (GTCHC in human pathological tissues. This article documents and gathers insights into the magnetic field in cancer tissues and also how it generates an invariant functional geometric attractor constituted for collider partners in their entangled environment. The need to identify this hierarquic attractor was born out of the concern to understand how the vascular net of these complexes are organized, and to determine if the spiral vascular subpatterns observed adjacent to GTCHC complexes and their assembly are interrelational. The study focuses on cancer tissues and all the macroscopic and microscopic material in which GTCHC complexes are identified, which have been overlooked so far, and are rigorously revised. This revision follows the same parameters that were established in the initial phase of the investigation, but with a new item: the visualization and documentation of external dorsal serous vascular bed areas in spatial correlation with the localization of GTCHC complexes inside the tumors. Following the standard of the electro-optical collision model, we were able to reproduce and replicate collider patterns, that is, pairs of left and right hand spin-spiraled subpatterns, associated with the orientation of the spinning process that can be an expansion or contraction disposition of light particles. Agreement between this model and tumor data is surprisingly close; electromagnetic spiral patterns generated were identical at the spiral vascular arrangement in connection with GTCHC complexes in malignant tumors. These findings suggest that the framework of collagen type 1 - vasoactive vessels that structure geometric attractors in cancer tissues with invariant morphology sets generate collider partners in their magnetic domain with opposite biological behavior. If these principles are incorporated

  14. Receptor-linked early events induced by vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) on neuroblastoma and vascular smooth-muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, T; Okano, Y; Zhang, W; Ozeki, T; Mitsui, Y; Nozawa, Y

    1990-11-15

    Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) caused a series of biochemical events, including the temporal biphasic accumulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), transient formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and increase in intracellular free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) in neuroblastoma NG108-15 cells. In these cellular responses, VIC was found to be much more potent in NG108-15 cells than in cultured rat vascular smooth-muscle cells. The single cell [Ca2+]i assay revealed that in the presence of nifedipine (1 microM) or EGTA (1 mM), the peak [Ca2+]i declined more rapidly to the resting level in VIC-stimulated NG108-15 cells, indicating that the receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is followed by Ca2+ influx through the nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ channel. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin only partially decreased Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation as well as the [Ca2+]i transient induced by VIC, whereas these events induced by endothelin-1 were not affected by the toxin, suggesting involvement of distinct GTP-binding proteins. The VIC-induced transient Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation coincident with the first early peak of DAG formation suggested that PtdIns(4,5)P2 is a principal source of the first DAG increase. Labelling studies with [3H]myristate, [14C]palmitate and [3H]choline indicated that in neuroblastoma cells phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) was hydrolysed by a phospholipase C to cause the second sustained DAG increase. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by prolonged pretreatment with phorbol ester markedly prevented the VIC-induced delayed DAG accumulation. Furthermore, chelation of intracellular CA2+ completely abolished the second sustained phase of DAG production. These findings suggest that PtdCho hydrolysis is responsible for the sustained production of DAG and is dependent on both Ca2+ and PKC.

  15. Potential Hormone Mechanisms of Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Randeva, Manpal S; Miras, Alexander D

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the role of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in energy homeostasis through modulation of the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and the production of incretin hormones is well recognized. Bariatric surgery for obesity has been a very effective method in substantially improving weight, and numerous studies have focused on intestinal adaptation after bariatric procedures. A number of structural and functional changes in the GI tract have been reported postsurgery, which could be responsible for the altered hormonal responses. Furthermore, the change in food absorption rate and the intestinal regions exposed to carbohydrates may affect blood glucose response. This review hopes to give new insights into the direct role of gut hormones, by summarising the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery.

  16. Ozone toxicity: hormone-like oxidation products from arachidonic acid by ozone-catalyzed autoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roycroft, J.H.; Cunter, W.B.; Menzel, D.B.

    1977-09-01

    The effects of peroxidation by ozone on the activity of arachidonic acid (AA) with and without vitamin E, on the initiation of human platelet aggregation, and on the contraction of superfused smooth muscle strips, are described. AA was rapidly oxidized by a stream of air containing 2 ppm of ozone to peroxides having biological activity similar to prostaglandin endoperoxides. Ozone-formed AA peroxides contracted both rabbit aortic strips and rat fundus strips in the presence of indomethacin and vasoactive hormones at doses comparable to naturally formed prostaglandin endoperoxides. Vitamin E had no effect on the activity of AA peroxides once formed. Ozone-formed AA peroxides also aggregated human platelets in platelet rich plasma, but this activity was blocked by the addition of indomethacin. (2 diagrams, 3 graphs, 8 references)

  17. Sex Hormones, Gonadotropins, and Sex Hormone-binding Globulin in Infants Fed Breast Milk, Cow Milk Formula, or Soy Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Wu, Chunhua; Shi, Huijing; Zhou, Zhijun; Montgomery, Scott; Cao, Yang

    2017-06-28

    Measurement of endogenous hormones in early life is important to investigate the effects of hormonally active environmental compounds. To assess the possible hormonal effects of different feeding regimens in different sample matrices of infants, 166 infants were enrolled from two U.S hospitals between 2006 and 2009. The children were classified into exclusive soy formula, cow milk formula or breast milk regimens. Urine, saliva and blood samples were collected over the first 12 months of life. Estradiol, estrone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured in the three matrices. Lower estradiol and LH levels were found in urine and saliva samples of soy formula-fed boys compared to cow formula-fed boys. Higher LH level was found in urine samples of soy formula-fed girls compared to cow formula-fed girls. However, we found neither a neonatal testosterone rise in the boys nor a gender-specific difference in testosterone levels, which suggests that urinary testosterone levels may not accurately reflect blood levels during mini-puberty. Nevertheless, our study shows that blood, urine and saliva samples are readily collectible and suitable for multi-hormone analyses in children and allow examination of hypotheses concerning endocrine effects from dietary compounds.

  18. Possible role of human growth hormone in penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A J; Uckert, S; Stief, C G; Truss, M C; Machtens, S; Scheller, F; Knapp, W H; Hartmann, U; Jonas, U

    2000-12-01

    Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency increases nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). We examined the functional in vitro effects of recombinant human growth hormone on tissue tension and cyclic nucleotide levels of human corpus cavernosum and detected changes in growth hormone in the cavernous and peripheral blood during different phases of penile erection. Relaxant responses of human corpus cavernosum were investigated using the organ bath technique. Tissue levels of cGMP were determined by a specific radioimmunoassay after dose dependent exposition of isolated human corpus cavernosum strips to recombinant human growth hormone. In 35 healthy potent volunteers blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the corpus cavernosum and cubital vein during different functional conditions of the penis, including flaccidity, tumescence, rigidity and detumescence. Penile erection was induced by audiovisual and tactile stimulation. Serum growth hormone was determined by an immunoradiometric assay. Recombinant human growth hormone elicited dose dependent relaxation of human corpus cavernosum strips in vitro. The relaxing potency of recombinant human growth hormone was paralleled by its ability to elevate intracellular levels of cGMP. In vivo the peripheral growth hormone serum profile of the respective penile conditions did not significantly differ from those of cavernous serum. The main increase in growth hormone to greater than 90% was determined during developing penile tumescence, followed by a transient decrease afterward. These results suggest that penile erection may probably be induced by growth hormone through its cGMP stimulating activity on human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle.

  19. Growth hormone releasing hormone or growth hormone treatment in growth hormone insufficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, P J; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen prepubertal children who were insufficient for growth hormone were treated with growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) 1-40 and GHRH 1-29 for a mean time of nine months (range 6-12 months) with each peptide. Eleven children received GHRH 1-40 in four subcutaneous nocturnal pulses (dose 4-8 micrograms/kg/day) and eight (three of whom were also treated with GHRH 1-40) received GHRH 1-29 twice daily (dose 8-16 micrograms/kg/day). Altogether 73% of the children receiving GHRH 1-40 and 63...

  20. [Hormonal contraception in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, W; Meuleman, E J H

    2007-11-17

    Over the past few decades, female hormonal contraception has been seen to be very successful. However, this has still not resulted in a hormonal contraceptive for men. Certain injectable combinations ofandrogens and progestagens have been found to suppress spermatogenesis. All combinations that have been tested so far suffer from a relative lack of efficacy, a long lag time to achieve azoospermia, requiring the user to undergo one or more semen analyses, a moderate user friendliness, and concerns about the long-term safety and reversibility. It is not to be expected that male hormonal contraception will become a serious alternative to the already existing female equivalent during the coming 5 years.

  1. Plasma hormones facilitated the hypermotility of the colon in a chronic stress rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbai Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between brain-gut peptides, gastrointestinal hormones and altered motility in a rat model of repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS, which mimics the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted daily to 1-h of water avoidance stress (WAS or sham WAS (SWAS for 10 consecutive days. Plasma hormones were determined using Enzyme Immunoassay Kits. Proximal colonic smooth muscle (PCSM contractions were studied in an organ bath system. PCSM cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion and IKv and IBKca were recorded by the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The number of fecal pellets during 1 h of acute restraint stress and the plasma hormones levels of substance P (SP, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, motilin (MTL, and cholecystokinin (CCK in WAS rats were significantly increased compared with SWAS rats, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH in WAS rats were not significantly changed and peptide YY (PYY in WAS rats was significantly decreased. Likewise, the amplitudes of spontaneous contractions of PCSM in WAS rats were significantly increased comparing with SWAS rats. The plasma of WAS rats (100 µl decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of controls. The IKv and IBKCa of PCSMs were significantly decreased in WAS rats compared with SWAS rats and the plasma of WAS rats (100 µl increased the amplitude of IKv and IBKCa in normal rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that WAS leads to changes of plasma hormones levels and to disordered myogenic colonic motility in the short term, but that the colon rapidly establishes a new equilibrium to maintain the normal baseline functioning.

  2. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  3. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  4. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause an infection under the skin ( abscess ). Hormones from the mother may also cause some fluid to leak from the infant's nipples. This is called witch's milk. It is common and most often goes away ...

  5. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  6. Gastrin: old hormone, new functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockray, Graham; Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    It is exactly a century since the gastric hormone gastrin was first described as a blood-borne regulator of gastric acid secretion. The identities of the main active forms of the hormone (the "classical gastrins") and their cellular and molecular sites of action in regulating acid secretion have all attracted sustained attention. However, recent work on peptides derived from the gastrin precursor that do not stimulate acid secretion ("non-classical gastrins"), together with studies on mice over-expressing the gene, or in which the gastrin gene has been deleted, suggest hitherto unsuspected roles in regulating cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Moreover, microarray and proteomic studies have identified previously unsuspected target genes of the classical gastrins. Some of the newer actions have implications for our understanding of the progression to cancer in oesophagus, stomach, pancreas and colon, all of which have recently been linked in one way or another to dysfunctional signalling involving products of the gastrin gene. The present review focuses on recent progress in understanding the biology of both classical and non-classical gastrins.

  7. Body segments and growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  8. Hormonal and Growth Factor Responses to Heavy Resistance Exercise Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    calculated as weight periods. The load control workout for series I used a 10- times the vertical distance moved per repetition times RM load and was... time of day to reduce the effects of any diurnal variations on the RESULTS hormonal concentrations. Before a resting blood sample was obtained, a 20...sustained elevations over time . In contrast, creases in hormonal responses previously thought to alterations in serum testosterone and somatomedin-C

  9. Enzyme butilcholinesterase activity variation in hormonal contraception users

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Llermén; Dirección Regional de Salud - Puno, EsSALUD, Puno, Perú; Osorio, Jorge; Complejo Hospitalario Clínica San Pablo, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate enzyme butilcholinesterase activity in women using two hormonal contraceptives, norgestrel ethinylestradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate, using alkaline phosphatase as indirect liver marker. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Women attending family planning program at El Agustino "7 de Octubre" health center, continuing users of hormonal contraception for over six months. Fasting blood was obtained and enzymatic activity was measured in serum. RESULTS: Users of both contraceptive...

  10. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  11. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  12. Molecular Basis for Certain Neuroprotective Effects of Thyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eDavis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of brain damage that is common to ischemia-reperfusion inury and brain trauma includes disordered neuronal and glial cell energetics, intracellular acidosis, calcium toxicity, extracellular excitotoxic glutamate accumulation and dysfunction of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum. Thyroid hormone isoforms, 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 and L-thyroxine (T4, have nongenomic and genomic actions that are relevant to repair of certain features of the pathophysiology of brain damage. Thyroid hormone can nongenomically repair intracullar H+ accumulation by stimulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger and can support desirably low [Ca2+]i.c. by activation of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Thyroid hormone nongenomically stimulates astrocyte glutamate uptake, an action that protects both glial cells and neurons. The hormone supports the integrity of the cytoskeleton by its effect on actin. Several proteins linked to thyroid hormone action are also neuroprotective. For example, the hormone stimulates expression of the seladin-1 gene whose gene product is anti-apoptotic and is potentially protection in the setting of neurodegeneration. Transthyretin (TTR is a serum transport protein for T4 that is important to blood-brain barrier transfer of the hormone and TTR has also been found to be neuroprotective in the setting of ischemia. Finally, the interesting thyronamine derivatives of T4 have been shown to protect against ischemic brain damage through their ability to induce hypothermia in the intact organism. Thus, thyroid hromone or hormone derivatives have experimental promise as neuroprotective agents.

  13. Influence of cerebral blood vessel movements on the position of perivascular synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic activity is regulated and limited by blood flow, which is controlled by blood vessel dilation and contraction. Traditionally, the study of neurovascular coupling has mainly focused on energy consumption and oxygen delivery. However, the mechanical changes that blood vessel movements induce in the surrounding tissue have not been considered. We have modeled the mechanical changes that movements of blood vessels cause in neighboring synapses. Our simulations indicate that synaptic densities increase or decrease during vascular dilation and contraction, respectively, near the blood vessel walls. This phenomenon may alter the concentration of neurotransmitters and vasoactive substances in the immediate vicinity of the vessel wall and thus may have an influence on local blood flow. PMID:28199396

  14. Effect of estrogen-progestin hormonal replacement therapy on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women Efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal estroprogestativa sobre o sistema de coagulação e de fibrinólise em mulheres na pós-menopausa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio E Bonduki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antithrombin III (AT, thrombin (Fragment 1+2 [F1+2] and thrombin-antithrombin [TAT] generation markers, as well as other coagulation parameters, such as prothrombin time, partial activated thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, euglobulin lysis time, and platelet count, in postmenopausal women after hormonal therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five patients who received either 0.625 mg/day unopposed oral conjugated equine estrogen (CEE, 0.625 mg/day oral CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MP, or 50 µg/day transdermal 17beta-estradiol plus MP, were included. Tests were performed before (T0 and after 3 (T3, 6 (T6 and 12 (T12 months of treatment. AT was determined by an amidolytic method, whereas F1+2 and TAT complex were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the AT level of patients who received oral CEE plus MP at T3. There was no AT reduction in patients taking either oral CEE alone or transdermal 17beta-estradiol plus MP. F1+2 increased in all patients, but it reached statistical significance only in patients receiving transdermal 17beta-estradiol MP at T3. CONCLUSIONS: The CEE associated with MP treatment may reduce AT levels, whereas unopposed CEE or transdermal 17beta-estradiol plus MP does not change AT. These changes might not be clinically relevant in the general population; however, hormonal replacement therapy may increase the risk of thrombosis in women with congenital or acquired thrombophilia.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os marcadores antitrombina III (AT, fragmento 1 + 2 da trombina (F1+2 e complexo trombina-antitrombina (TAT, bem como outros parâmetros da coagulação, como tempo de pró-trombina, tempo parcial de tromboplastina ativado, tempo de trombina, fibrinogênio e tempo de lise da euglobulina em mulheres na pós-menopausa após terapia hormonal. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Foram incluídas 45 voluntárias que receberam estrogênios conjugados eqüinos (ECE 0,625 mg/dia, isoladamente ou

  15. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71)Interferes with Thyroid Hormone Action Independent Of Effects On Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological stud...

  16. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  17. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...

  18. Alteration of the renal regulatory hormonal pattern during experimental obstructive jaundice Alteración del patrón hormonal regulatorio renal durante la ictericia obstructiva experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J Padillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the alteration of hormones regulating sodium and water status is related to renal failure in obstructive jaundice (OJ. Experimental design: OJ was induced by common bile duct ligation. Samples were obtained from the control (SO and OJ groups at 24 and 72 hours, and at 7 days. Different parameters related to biliary obstruction, liver and renal injury, and vasoactive mediators such as renin, aldosterone, endothelin-1 (ET-1 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were studied. Results: bile duct ligation caused an increase in total bilirubin (p < 0.001 and alkaline phosphatase (AP (p < 0.001. The SO and OJ groups had the same values for diuresis, renin, and creatinine clearance at 24 h. However, animals with OJ had a lower sodium concentration in urine than SO animals (p < 0.01, as well as an increase in aldosterone levels (p < 0.03. ANP levels were moderately increased during OJ but did not reach statistical significance when compared to the SO group. In contrast, OJ animals showed a rise in serum ET-1 concentration (p < 0.001 and increased PGE2 in urine (p < 0.001. Conclusions: biliary obstruction induced an increase in ET-1 release and PGE2 urine excretion. These hormones might play a role during the renal complications associated with renal disturbances that occur during OJ.

  19. Gut satiety hormones and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köşüş, Aydin; Köşüş, Nermin; Usluoğullari, Betül; Hizli, Deniz; Namuslu, Mehmet; Ayyildiz, Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is described as unexplained excessive nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Some gut hormones that regulate appetite may have important role in etiopathogenesis of HG and weight changes during pregnancy. In this study, levels of gut satiety hormones were evaluated in pregnant women with HG. This prospective case-control study was conducted in 30 women with HG and 30 healthy pregnant women without symptoms of HG. Fasting venous blood samples were taken from all subjects for measurement of plasma gut hormone levels; obestatin (pg/mL), peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Plasma PYY and PP levels were significantly higher in HG group. The most important parameter in diagnosis of HG was plasma PP level. Simple use of PP level led to the diagnosis 91.1 % of HG cases correctly. The single most important parameter in the prediction of HG was also PP level. Anorexigenic gut hormones might have important role in etiopathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum and weight changes during pregnancy.

  20. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  1. Transport of thyroid hormone in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva K Wirth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating thyroid hormone uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and the blood-CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8 play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed.

  2. LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... period and ovulation in rats.J. Endocr. 57,235. JOcHLE, W., 1969. Latest trends and practical problems arising during oestrus synchronisation. Proc. S. Afr. Soc. Anim. Prod. 8,23. KANN, G., 1971. Variations des concentrations plasmatiques de l'hormone luteinisant et de la prolactin au cours du cycle oestrien de la brebis.

  3. Thyroid hormone and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2012-10-01

    To review several of the most recent and most important clinical studies regarding the effects of thyroid treatments on weight change, associations between thyroid status and weight, and the effects of obesity and weight change on thyroid function. Weight decreases following treatment for hypothyroidism. However, following levothyroxine treatment for overt hypothyroidism, weight loss appears to be modest and mediated primarily by loss of water weight rather than fat. There is conflicting evidence about the effects of thyroidectomy on weight. In large population studies, even among euthyroid individuals, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone is typically positively associated with body weight and BMI. Both serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and T3 are typically increased in obese compared with lean individuals, an effect likely mediated, at least in part, by leptin. Finally, there is no consistent evidence that thyroid hormone treatment induces weight loss in obese euthyroid individuals, but thyroid hormone analogues may eventually be useful for weight loss. The interrelationships between body weight and thyroid status are complex.

  4. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  5. Hormonal contraception and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Milsom, Ian; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas

    2012-01-01

    New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published.......New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published....

  6. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  7. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones? Hormones are substances that function as chemical messengers in the body. They affect the actions of ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  8. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  9. Melatonin – apleiotropic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Brzęczek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, a tryptophan derivative, is synthesised in mammals mainly in the pineal gland. It coordinates the biological clock by regulating the circadian rhythm. Its production is dependent on light and its concentrations change with age. Thanks to its specific chemical structure, melatonin is capable of crossing all biological barriers in the organism and affecting other tissues and cells, both in indirect and direct ways. Its mechanism of action involves binding with membrane receptors, nuclear receptors and intracellular proteins. Melatonin shows antioxidant activity. Moreover, its immunomodulatory and antilipid effects as well as its role in secreting other hormones, such as prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, somatotropin, thyroliberin, adrenocorticotropin hormone or corticosteroids, are essential. In the recent years, research studies have been mainly focussed on the potential influence of melatonin on the aetiology and development of various disease entities, such as sleep disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancers, psychiatric and neurological conditions, cardiovascular diseases or conditions with bone turnover disorders. Indications for melatonin use in paediatrics are being discussed more and more frequently. Among others, authors debate on its use in dyssomnias in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, supportive treatment in febrile seizures and epilepsy as well as potential use in paediatric anaesthesia. The molecular mechanism and broad-spectrum action of melatonin have not been sufficiently researched and its clinical relevance is often underestimated. This hormone is a promising link in achieving alternative therapeutic solutions.

  10. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Is It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Hepatitis Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  11. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about nine pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  12. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  13. Effect of ganglionic blockade on endogenous circulating pancreatic polypeptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, neurotensin and noradrenaline in healthy controls and long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Pedersen, J H

    1986-01-01

    Plasma pancreatic polypeptide (PP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P (SP), neurotensin (NT) and noradrenaline (NA) were measured in eight healthy subjects and 12 long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy, before and after intravenous...

  14. Hormone Profiling in Plant Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Plant hormones are for a long time known to act as chemical messengers in the regulation of physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence. Furthermore, plant hormones simultaneously coordinate physiological responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To study the hormonal regulation of physiological processes, three main approaches have been used (1) exogenous application of hormones, (2) correlative studies through measurements of endogenous hormone levels, and (3) use of transgenic and/or mutant plants altered in hormone metabolism or signaling. A plant hormone profiling method is useful to unravel cross talk between hormones and help unravel the hormonal regulation of physiological processes in studies using any of the aforementioned approaches. However, hormone profiling is still particularly challenging due to their very low abundance in plant tissues. In this chapter, a sensitive, rapid, and accurate method to quantify all the five "classic" classes of plant hormones plus other plant growth regulators, such as jasmonates, salicylic acid, melatonin, and brassinosteroids is described. The method includes a fast and simple extraction procedure without time consuming steps as purification or derivatization, followed by optimized ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This protocol facilitates the high-throughput analysis of hormone profiling and is applicable to different plant tissues.

  15. Mexico City normal weight children exposed to high concentrations of ambient PM2.5 show high blood leptin and endothelin-1, vitamin D deficiency, and food reward hormone dysregulation versus low pollution controls. Relevance for obesity and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Blaurock-Busch, Eleonore; Busch, Yvette; Chao, Chih-kai; Thompson, Charles; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George

    2015-07-01

    Millions of Mexico, US and across the world children are overweight and obese. Exposure to fossil-fuel combustion sources increases the risk for obesity and diabetes, while long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mexico City Metropolitan Area children are chronically exposed to PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above the standards and exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We investigated adipokines, food reward hormones, endothelial dysfunction, vitamin D and apolipoprotein E (APOE) relationships in 80 healthy, normal weight 11.1±3.2 year olds matched by age, gender, BMI and SES, low (n: 26) versus high (n:54) PM2.5 exposures. Mexico City children had higher leptin and endothelin-1 (pMexico City APOE 4 versus 3 children had higher glucose (p=0.009). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin DMexico City children. Leptin is strongly positively associated to PM 2.5 cumulative exposures. Residing in a high PM2.5 and O3 environment is associated with 12h fasting hyperleptinemia, altered appetite-regulating peptides, vitamin D deficiency, and increases in ET-1 in clinically healthy children. These changes could signal the future trajectory of urban children towards the development of insulin resistance, obesity, type II diabetes, premature cardiovascular disease, addiction-like behavior, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Increased efforts should be made to decrease pediatric PM2.5 exposures, to deliver health interventions prior to the development of obesity and to identify and mitigate environmental factors influencing obesity and Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. Hormone replacement therapy works by replacing estrogen hormone that is no ... menopausal women. Progestin is added to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy to reduce the risk of uterine cancer in ...

  17. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOOD Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  18. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, nitric oxide synthase, and their receptors in human and rat sphenopalatine ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csati, A; Tajti, J; Kuris, A

    2012-01-01

    Cranial parasympathetic outflow is mediated through the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). The present study was performed to examine the expression of the parasympathetic signaling transmitters and their receptors in human and rat SPG. Indirect immunofluorescence technique was used for the demonstra......Cranial parasympathetic outflow is mediated through the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). The present study was performed to examine the expression of the parasympathetic signaling transmitters and their receptors in human and rat SPG. Indirect immunofluorescence technique was used...... for the demonstration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutamine synthetase (GS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), VIP and PACAP common receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2), and PACAP receptor (PAC1). In addition, double labeling...

  19. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular...... fluid and cells were obtained from patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization for tubal infertility. The concentrations of VIP and PHM in pre-ovulatory human follicular fluid were measured radioimmunochemically. Granulosa/lutein cells isolated from follicular fluid were cultured under serum....... We conclude that VIP and PHM are present in human preovulatory follicular fluid and that VIP stimulates DNA synthesis and oestradiol secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. This indicates that VIP and perhaps PHM participate in the local nervous regulation of human ovarian function....

  20. Biochemical Changes in Blood Components after Lethal Doses of Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Cooper, S.C. Garner, P.L. Munson, and S.A. Welles, Jr. Stimulation of gastrin secretion in the pig by parathyroid hormone and its inhibition by...Bendorphin, and gastrin . Interrelationships between the various blood components are discussed. In addition to its effects upon blood histamine, the...tested, the blood levels of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) showed no tendency to vary from the nonirradiated controls. Mean values of

  1. Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Vincent M.; Lutsky, Marta; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Lasley, Bill; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle; Gee, Nancy; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay…

  2. DOES GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH TURNERS SYNDROME CAUSE AN ABNORMAL BODY SHAPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERVER, WJM; DRAYER, NM; VANES, A

    The effect of human growth hormone on the body shape of 51 patients with Turner's syndrome (aged 6-19 years) was evaluated. Biosynthetic growth hormone was given in a dose of 24 IU/m2 body surface/week for two years. Karyotype analysis on peripheral blood was performed. Patients older than 12 years

  3. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels

  4. Amelioration of cardiac function and activation of anti-inflammatory vasoactive peptides expression in the rat myocardium by low level laser therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Trindade Manchini

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been used as an anti-inflammatory treatment in several disease conditions, even when inflammation is a secondary consequence, such as in myocardial infarction (MI. However, the mechanism by which LLLT is able to protect the remaining myocardium remains unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that LLLT reduces inflammation after acute MI in female rats and ameliorates cardiac function. The potential participation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS and Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS vasoactive peptides was also evaluated. LLLT treatment effectively reduced MI size, attenuated the systolic dysfunction after MI, and decreased the myocardial mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in comparison to the non-irradiated rat tissue. In addition, LLLT treatment increased protein and mRNA levels of the Mas receptor, the mRNA expression of kinin B2 receptors and the circulating levels of plasma kallikrein compared to non-treated post-MI rats. On the other hand, the kinin B1 receptor mRNA expression decreased after LLLT. No significant changes were found in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the myocardial remote area between laser-irradiated and non-irradiated post-MI rats. Capillaries density also remained similar between these two experimental groups. The mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS was increased three days after MI, however, this effect was blunted by LLLT. Moreover, endothelial NOS mRNA content increased after LLLT. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration was increased three days after MI in non-treated rats and increased even further by LLLT treatment. Our data suggest that LLLT diminishes the acute inflammation in the myocardium, reduces infarct size and attenuates left ventricle dysfunction post-MI and increases vasoactive peptides expression and nitric oxide (NO generation.

  5. Breast Milk Hormones and Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Savino; Stefania Alfonsina Liguori; Miriam Sorrenti; Maria Francesca Fissore; Roberto Oggero

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that a complex relationship exists between the central nervous system and peripheral organs involved in energy homeostasis. It consists in the balance between food intake and energy expenditure and includes the regulation of nutrient levels in storage organs, as well as in blood, in particular blood glucose. Therefore, food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis are strictly connected to each other. Several hormones, such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin...

  6. Breast Milk Hormones and Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that a complex relationship exists between the central nervous system and peripheral organs involved in energy homeostasis. It consists in the balance between food intake and energy expenditure and includes the regulation of nutrient levels in storage organs, as well as in blood, in particular blood glucose. Therefore, food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis are strictly connected to each other. Several hormones, such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin, are involved in this complex regulation. These hormones play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and are involved in the development of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Recently, their presence in breast milk has been detected, suggesting that they may be involved in the regulation of growth in early infancy and could influence the programming of energy balance later in life. This paper focuses on hormones present in breast milk and their role in glucose homeostasis.

  7. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    and 5 days after rapid, passive transport to high altitude (4,559 m). Acute mountain sickness scores ranged from 5 to 16 (maximal attainable score: 20) on the first day but were reduced to 0-8 by the fifth day. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma epinephrine increased on day 1 at altitude...... compared with sea level but declined again on day 5, whereas diastolic and mean blood pressures continued to rise in parallel with plasma norepinephrine. With local cooling, an increased vasoactive response was seen on the fifth day at altitude. Very high pressures were obtained, and the pressure elevation...... was prolonged. Heart rate increased twice as much on day 5 compared with the other two occasions. Thoracic fluid index increased with cooling on day 5, suggesting an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. In conclusion, prolonged hypoxia seems to elicit an augmented pressor response to local cooling...

  8. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and plasma catecholamines during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pott, F; Jensen, K; Hansen, H

    1996-01-01

    During dynamic exercise, mean blood velocity (Vmean) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) demonstrates a graded increase to work rate and reflects regional cerebral blood flow. At a high work rate, however, vasoactive levels of plasma catecholamines could mediate vasoconstriction of the MCA...... and thereby elevate Vmean at a given volume flow. To evaluate transcranial Doppler-determined Vmean at high plasma catecholamine levels, seven elite cyclists performed a maximal performance test on a bicycle ergometer. Results were compared with those elicited during five incremental exercise bouts and during...... rhythmic handgrip when plasma catecholamines are low. During rhythmic handgrip the Vmean was elevated by 21 +/- 3% (mean +/- SE), which was not statistically different from that established during moderate cycling. However, at the highest submaximal and maximal work intensities on the bicycle ergometer...

  9. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  10. Hormonal Control of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    青野, 敏博; Toshihiro, AONO; 徳島大学; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tokushima, School of Medicine

    1990-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of normal lactation, especially the roles of prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OXT) in the initiation of lactation, the lactation in the women complicated with endocrinological disorders, and medical therapies for stimulation and suppression of lactation. The level of serum PRL increases as pregnancy progresses, and reachs to a peak on the day of delivery. Despite high PRL level, milk secretion does not appear during pregnancy, because the sex steroid hormones suppress bi...

  11. Hormonal derangement and abnormal renal haemodynamics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A severe burn is characterized by the development of hyperenzymatic levels in plasma and biochemical changes in the blood as well as generalized hormonal dysregulation. This hypercatabolic state reflects the generalized enhanced proteolytic enzyme systems following severe burns. Since anuria often develops in the ...

  12. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism of growth hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yurnalis

    The pupose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphisms of bovine growth hormone gene exon. 4, and intron 4 in local cattle breeds in West Sumatera Province of Indonesia. DNA was isolated from 60 blood samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product of GH5 fragment (366 bp) were directly sequenced.

  13. Compensatory growth assessment by plasma IGF-I hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to show the difference in compensatory growth (CG) with different starvation and feeding periods replications, depending on the IGF-I hormone level in the blood. There were 4 treatments in 3 replications. Other indexes like food coefficient ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and daily food intake were ...

  14. Sex Hormones And Biochemical Profiles Of Male Gossypol Users In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of gossypol administration on sex hormones and biochemical parameters of male subjects. Twelve male subjects receiving 20mg daily gossypol at the family planning clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan were studied. Blood samples collected from the subjects ...

  15. hormonal derangement and abnormal renal haemodynamics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    A severe burn is characterized by the development of hyperenzymatic levels in plasma and biochemical changes in the blood as well as generalized hormonal dysregulation. This hypercatabolic state reflects the generalized enhanced proteolytic enzyme systems following severe burns. Since anuria often develops in the ...

  16. Interrelationship of growth hormone, glucose and lipid metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the contrary, negative correlations were shown between GH vs the fasting levels of glucose,GH vs lipid and GH vs HSL. Conclusion: GH caused the reduction of the blood levels of glucose and, lipid using HSL as mediator, by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and stimulating lipolysis, respectively. Keywords: Growth hormone ...

  17. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenic gene transcription in the liver

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glucose homeostasis in mammals is achieved by the actions of counterregulatory hormones, namely insulin, glucagon and glucocorticoids. Glucose levels in the circulation are regulated by the liver, the metabolic centre which produces glucose when it is scarce in the blood. This process is catalysed by two rate-limiting ...

  18. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  19. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Blood clots By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood clots are gel-like clumps of blood. They are beneficial when they form in response to an injury or a cut, plugging the injured blood vessel, which stops bleeding. Some blood clots form inside your veins without a good reason and don't ...

  20. The Phenotype of Hormone-Related Allergic and Autoimmune Diseases in the Skin: Annular Lesions That Lateralize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Kollipara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sexual dimorphism with an increased prevalence in women has long been observed in various autoimmune, allergic, and skin diseases. Recent research has attempted to correlate this female predilection to physiologic changes seen in the menstrual cycle in order to more effectively diagnose and treat these diseases. Cases. We present five cases of cutaneous diseases in women with annular morphology and distributive features that favor one side over the other. In all cases, skin disease improved with ovarian suppression. Conclusion. Sexual dimorphism in the innate and adaptive immune systems has long been observed, with females demonstrating a more vigorous immune response compared to males. Female sex hormones promote T and B lymphocyte autoreactivity and favor the humoral arm of adaptive immunity. In addition to ovarian steroidogenesis and immunity, intricate pathways coexist in order to engage a single oocyte in each cycle, while simultaneously sustaining the ovarian reserve. Vigorous proinflammatory, vasoactive, and pigment-related cytokines emerge during the demise of the corpus luteum, influencing peripherical sex hormone metabolism\tof the level of the macrophage and fibroblast. We propose that annular and lateralizing lesions are important manifestations of hormone-related inflammation and recognition of this linkage can lead to improved immune and reproductive health.

  1. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Is It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Health Care: What Do You Know? Donating Blood Blood Transfusions Stem Cell Transplants Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  2. Regulation of exercise blood flow: Role of free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinity, Joel D; Broxterman, Ryan M; Richardson, Russell S

    2016-09-01

    During exercise, oxygen and nutrient rich blood must be delivered to the active skeletal muscle, heart, skin, and brain through the complex and highly regulated integration of central and peripheral hemodynamic factors. Indeed, even minor alterations in blood flow to these organs have profound consequences on exercise capacity by modifying the development of fatigue. Therefore, the fine-tuning of blood flow is critical for optimal physical performance. At the level of the peripheral circulation, blood flow is regulated by a balance between the mechanisms responsible for vasodilation and vasoconstriction. Once thought of as toxic by-products of in vivo chemistry, free radicals are now recognized as important signaling molecules that exert potent vasoactive responses that are dependent upon the underlying balance between oxidation-reduction reactions or redox balance. Under normal healthy conditions with low levels of oxidative stress, free radicals promote vasodilation, which is attenuated with exogenous antioxidant administration. Conversely, with advancing age and disease where background oxidative stress is elevated, an exercise-induced increase in free radicals can further shift the redox balance to a pro-oxidant state, impairing vasodilation and attenuating blood flow. Under these conditions, exogenous antioxidants improve vasodilatory capacity and augment blood flow by restoring an "optimal" redox balance. Interestingly, while the active skeletal muscle, heart, skin, and brain all have unique functions during exercise, the mechanisms by which free radicals contribute to the regulation of blood flow is remarkably preserved across each of these varied target organs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The Essentials of Parathyroid Hormone Venous Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taslakian, Bedros, E-mail: btaslakian@gmail.com [NYU Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine (United States); Trerotola, Scott O., E-mail: streroto@uphs.upenn.edu [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology (United States); Sacks, Barry, E-mail: bsacks@bidmc.harvard.edu [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Oklu, Rahmi, E-mail: oklu.rahmi@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Deipolyi, Amy, E-mail: deipolya@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Hyperparathyroidism is an excess of parathyroid hormone in the blood due to over-activity of one or more parathyroid gland. Localization of abnormal glands with noninvasive imaging modalities, such as technetium sestamibi scan and cross-sectional imaging, has a high success rate. Parathyroid venous sampling is performed for patients with persistent or recurrent disease after previous parathyroid surgery, when repeat noninvasive imaging studies are negative or discordant. The success of invasive localization studies and results interpretation is dependent on the interventional radiologist’s understanding of the normal and ectopic anatomic locations of parathyroid glands, as well as their blood supply and venous drainage. Anatomic and technical considerations for selective parathyroid venous sampling are reviewed.

  4. Breathing Maneuvers as a Vasoactive Stimulus for Detecting Inducible Myocardial Ischemia - An Experimental Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kady Fischer

    Full Text Available Breathing maneuvers can elicit a similar vascular response as vasodilatory agents like adenosine; yet, their potential diagnostic utility in the presence of coronary artery stenosis is unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate if breathing maneuvers can non-invasively detect inducible ischemia in an experimental animal model when the myocardium is imaged with oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (OS-CMR.In 11 anesthetised swine with experimentally induced significant stenosis (fractional flow reserve <0.75 of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD and 9 control animals, OS-CMR at 3T was performed during two different breathing maneuvers, a long breath-hold; and a combined maneuver of 60s of hyperventilation followed by a long breath-hold. The resulting change of myocardial oxygenation was compared to the invasive measurements of coronary blood flow, blood gases, and oxygen extraction. In control animals, all breathing maneuvers could significantly alter coronary blood flow as hyperventilation decreased coronary blood flow by 34±23%. A long breath-hold alone led to an increase of 97±88%, while the increase was 346±327% (p<0.001, when the long breath-hold was performed after hyperventilation. In stenosis animals, the coronary blood flow response was attenuated after both hyperventilation and the following breath-hold. This was matched by the observed oxygenation response as breath-holds following hyperventilation consistently yielded a significant difference in the signal of the MRI images between the perfusion territory of the stenosis LAD and remote myocardium. There was no difference between the coronary territories during the other breathing maneuvers or in the control group at any point.In an experimental animal model, the response to a combined breathing maneuver of hyperventilation with subsequent breath-holding is blunted in myocardium subject to significant coronary artery stenosis. This

  5. Growth Hormone and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    34Retrasos de crecimiento " 2a Ed., Diaz de al 1999), together with an increase in physical Santos. Madrid. pp 365-376 (1996). capacity (Jorgensen et al 1991...A, Marrama P, Agnati LF, Moiller EE. "Retrasos de crecimiento " 2’ Ed., Diaz de Reduced growth hormone releasing factor Santos. Madrid. pp 377-396...P, Skakkeback, Christiansen JS. variantes en (Moreno y Tresguerres dir). Three years of GH treatment in GH deficient "Retrasos de crecimiento " 2a Ed

  6. Effects of thyroid hormones on the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando; Bonelo-Perdomo, Anilsa; Sierra-Torres, Carlos Hernán

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have a significant impact on heart function, mediated by genomic and non-genomic effects. Consequently, thyroid hormone deficiencies, as well as excesses, are expected to result in profound changes in cardiac function regulation and cardiovascular hemodynamics. Thyroid hormones upregulate the expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-activated ATPase and downregulate the expression of phospholamban. Overall, hyperthyroidism is characterized by an increase in resting heart rate, blood volume, stroke volume, myocardial contractility, and ejection fraction. The development of "high-output heart failure" in hyperthyroidism may be due to "tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy". On the other hand, in a hypothyroid state, thyroid hormone deficiency results in lower heart rate and weakening of myocardial contraction and relaxation, with prolonged systolic and early diastolic times. Cardiac preload is decreased due to impaired diastolic function. Cardiac afterload is increased, and chronotropic and inotropic functions are reduced. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is relatively common in patients over 65 years of age. In general, subclinical hypothyroidism increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and CHD events, but not of total mortality. The risk of CHD mortality and atrial fibrillation (but not other outcomes) in subclinical hyperthyroidism is higher among patients with very low levels of thyrotropin. Finally, medications such as amiodarone may induce hypothyroidism (mediated by the Wolff-Chaikoff), as well as hyperthyroidism (mediated by the Jod-Basedow effect). In both instances, the underlying cause is the high concentration of iodine in this medication. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Hormonal Regulation of Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Jeong

    2017-09-12

    Adipose tissue includes multiple anatomical depots that serve as an energy reserve that can expand or contract to maintain metabolic homeostasis. During normal growth and in response to overnutrition, adipose tissue expands by increasing the volume of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy) and/or by generating new adipocytes (hyperplasia) via recruitment and differentiation of adipose progenitors. This so-called healthy expansion through hyperplasia is thought to be beneficial in that it protects against obesity associated metabolic disorders by allowing for the "safe" storage of excess energy. Remodeling adipose tissue to replace dysfunctional adipocytes that accumulate with obesity and age also requires new fat cell formation and is necessary to maintain metabolic health. Adipogenesis is the process by which adipose progenitors become committed to an adipogenic lineage and differentiate into mature adipocytes. This transition is regulated by complex array of transcriptional factors and numerous autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine signals. We will focus on hormonal factors that regulate adipocyte differentiation and their molecular mechanisms of actions on adipogenesis as studied in vitro and in vivo. Accumulating evidence indicates that adipose progenitors isolated from different adipose tissues exhibit intrinsic differences in adipogenic potential that may contribute to the depot and sex differences in adipose expansion and remodeling capacity. We will put special emphasis on the hormonal factors that are known to depot-dependently affect body fat accumulation and adipocyte development. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:1151-1195, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  9. Hormonal Disorders as Significant Pathogenetic Factor of Acne in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Naumova

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions. Hormonal study of women with acne should include an assessment of the function of ovaries, adrenal glands, thyroid gland, determination of the level of prolactin in the blood plasma and glycated hemoglobin. Treatment should be aimed at management of hormonal and metabolic disorders, and topical treatment of acne. Before 30 years of age it is important to diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome and late forms of congenital dysfunction of the adrenal glands, after 30 — hyperprolactinemia syndrome, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus type 2, and after 40 years acne often manifests on the background of ovarian failure.

  10. Double-Blind Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of Dopamine Versus Epinephrine as First-Line Vasoactive Drugs in Pediatric Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Andréa M C; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Bousso, Albert; Góes, Patrícia F; de Cássia F O Fernandes, Iracema; de Souza, Daniela C; Paulo, Rodrigo Locatelli Pedro; Chagas, Fabiana; Gilio, Alfredo E

    2015-11-01

    The primary outcome was to compare the effects of dopamine or epinephrine in severe sepsis on 28-day mortality; secondary outcomes were the rate of healthcare-associated infection, the need for other vasoactive drugs, and the multiple organ dysfunction score. Double-blind, prospective, randomized controlled trial from February 1, 2009, to July 31, 2013. PICU, Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. Consecutive children who are 1 month to 15 years old and met the clinical criteria for fluid-refractory septic shock. Exclusions were receiving vasoactive drug(s) prior to hospital admission, having known cardiac disease, having already participated in the trial during the same hospital stay, refusing to participate, or having do-not-resuscitate orders. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either dopamine (5-10 μg/kg/min) or epinephrine (0.1-0.3 μg/kg/min) through a peripheral or intraosseous line. Patients not reaching predefined stabilization criteria after the maximum dose were classified as treatment failure, at which point the attending physician gradually stopped the study drug and started another catecholamine. Physiologic and laboratory data were recorded. Baseline characteristics were described as proportions and mean (± SD) and compared using appropriate statistical tests. Multiple regression analysis was performed, and statistical significance was defined as a p value of less than 0.05. Baseline characteristics and therapeutic interventions for the 120 children enrolled (63, dopamine; 57, epinephrine) were similar. There were 17 deaths (14.2%): 13 (20.6%) in the dopamine group and four (7%) in the epinephrine group (p=0.033). Dopamine was associated with death (odds ratio, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.1-37.8; p=0.037) and healthcare-associated infection (odds ratio, 67.7; 95% CI, 5.0-910.8; p=0.001). The use of epinephrine was associated with a survival odds ratio of 6.49. Dopamine was associated with an increased risk of death and healthcare

  11. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in mice with a targeted mutation in the gene encoding vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: a model for the study of intestinal ileus and Hirschsprung's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelievre, V; Favrais, G; Abad, C; Adle-Biassette, H; Lu, Y; Germano, P M; Cheung-Lau, G; Pisegna, J R; Gressens, P; Lawson, G; Waschek, J A

    2007-09-01

    In 1970, Drs. Said and Mutt isolated a novel peptide from porcine intestinal extracts with powerful vasoactive properties, and named it vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Since then, the biological actions of VIP in the gut as well as its signal transduction pathways have been extensively studied. A variety of in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that VIP, expressed in intrinsic non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) neurons, is a potent regulator of gastrointestinal (GI) motility, water absorption and ion flux, mucus secretion and immune homeostasis. These VIP actions are believed to be mediated mainly by interactions with highly expressed VPAC(1) receptors and the production of nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, VIP has been implicated in numerous physiopathological conditions affecting the human gut, including pancreatic endocrine tumors secreting VIP (VIPomas), insulin-dependent diabetes, Hirschsprung's disease, and inflammatory bowel syndromes such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. To further understand the physiological roles of VIP on the GI tract, we have begun to analyze the anatomical and physiological phenotype of C57BL/6 mice lacking the VIP gene. Herein, we demonstrate that the overall intestinal morphology and light microscopic structure is significantly altered in VIP(-/-) mice. Macroscopically there is an overall increase in weight, and decrease in length of the bowel compared to wild type (WT) controls. Microscopically, the phenotype was characterized by thickening of smooth muscle layers, increased villi length, and higher abundance of goblet cells. Alcian blue staining indicated that the latter cells were deficient in mucus secretion in VIP(-/-) mice. The differences became more pronounced from the duodenum to the distal jejunum or ileum of the small bowel but, became much less apparent or absent in the colon with the exception of mucus secretion defects. Further examination of the small intestine revealed larger axonal trunks and

  12. Reproductive hormones as psychotropic agents?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    need to understand the role of reproductive hormones in psy- chiatric disorders. There is much research on the interaction between mood and endocrine factors that is impacting on the practice of women's health. Hormone fluctuations are linked to behavioural changes as well as the onset and recurrence of mood disorders.

  13. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  14. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  15. Sex hormones and cardiometabolic risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we set out to investigate the complex relationship between endogenous sex hormones and cardiometabolic risk in men and women. The first part of this thesis is devoted to studies in women, and the second part describes the association between sex hormones and cardiometabolic risk in

  16. Oxytocin - The Sweet Hormone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Gareth; Sabatier, Nancy

    2017-05-01

    Mammalian neurons that produce oxytocin and vasopressin apparently evolved from an ancient cell type with both sensory and neurosecretory properties that probably linked reproductive functions to energy status and feeding behavior. Oxytocin in modern mammals is an autocrine/paracrine regulator of cell function, a systemic hormone, a neuromodulator released from axon terminals within the brain, and a 'neurohormone' that acts at receptors distant from its site of release. In the periphery oxytocin is involved in electrolyte homeostasis, gastric motility, glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and osteogenesis, and within the brain it is involved in food reward, food choice, and satiety. Oxytocin preferentially suppresses intake of sweet-tasting carbohydrates while improving glucose tolerance and supporting bone remodeling, making it an enticing translational target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Benefits and risks of hormonal contraception for women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2007-08-01

    contraception. Headache appeared mostly only at the beginning of the use of combined oral contraceptives. Progestogen-only contraceptives worsened the results of the glucose tolerance test. A review of low evidence reported further risks of hormonal contraceptives (concerning menstrual problems, ovarian cysts, bone density, thyroid diseases and rheumatoid arthritis as well as further benefits (concerning blood pressure and Crohn’s disease. Hormonal spirals were shown to be more effective than spirals which do not release hormones. In emergency contraception, Levonorgestrel was more effective than the Yuzpe method. Most other proven differences between hormonal contraceptives were related to menstrual problems. After spirals with or without hormone release, the other hormonal contraceptives were shown in typical use to be the second most cost-effective reversible methods of contraception. Discussion: The addressed questions could be answered only on relatively low evidence level, partly only for applications with estrogen doses which are not used in Germany any more. The transferability of the results of the analysed primary health-economics studies on the current situation in Germany is limited (clinical assumptions from out-dated information sources of low evidence levels, cost assumptions from the American health system. Conclusions: In perfect use, hormonal contraceptives have to be classified as the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. For the individual decision concerning the use of hormonal contraception, benefits should be related to the additional risks. Alternative methods such as spirals should be prioritised if perfect use seems to be impossible. In this case, spirals are also preferable from health-economics perspective. No ethical-social or legal conclusions can be derived from the available data.

  18. [Hormonal treatment of transsexual persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkanen, Helena; Das, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The primary investigations and starting the hormonal treatment of transsexual persons takes place in Helsinki and Tampere University hospitals as part of the real life period. The hormones used are estrogen and anti-androgen for MtoF and testosterone for FtoM persons. The medication suppresses the endogenous sex-hormone production and brings about the desired features of the other sex. While the recommended doses result in physiological hormone levels, higher doses do not hasten or increase the desired changes and are a health risk. After the transition period, the follow up is referred to the person's home district. The physical and psychological status and laboratory values are evaluated at the yearly follow-up doctor visits. Although the hormone doses are lowered and percutaneous administration route is favored upon aging, stopping the medication is not recommended.

  19. The effects of vasoactive agents on flow through saphenous vein grafts during lower-extremity peripheral vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew D; Bert, Arthur; Slaiby, Jeffrey; Carney, William; Marcaccio, Edward

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hemodynamic alterations on vein graft flow during peripheral vascular surgery. It was hypothesized that vasopressors can be administered without compromising flow through the vein grafts. Tertiary care center, university medical center. Randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded study. The effects of phenylephrine, epinephrine, milrinone, intravenous fluid, and placebo on newly constructed peripheral vein grafts were assessed in 60 patients (12 patients in each of 5 groups). Systemic and central hemodynamics were measured by using intra-arterial and pulmonary artery catheters. Vein graft flow was measured by using a transultrasonic flow probe (Transultrasonic Inc, Ithaca, NY). Phenylephrine increased systemic mean blood pressure (mBP) (68.2-94.0 mmHg, p < 0.01), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) (1,091-1,696 dynes x sec x cm(-5), p < 0.001), and vein graft flow (39.5-58.9 mL/min, p < 0.01), whereas cardiac output remained unchanged. Epinephrine resulted in increased cardiac output (4.4-6.9 L/min, p < 0.01) and mBP (72.7-89.1 mmHg, p < 0.01), whereas vein graft flow was reduced in 6 of 12 patients. Intravenous fluid administration resulted in a relatively smaller increase in graft flow (37.6-46.0 mL/min, p < 0.05), an increase in cardiac output, and an insignificant decrease in SVR. Other treatments had either little or no effect on vein graft flow. The study hypothesis was partly supported. Although both phenylephrine and epinephrine increased blood pressure, only the former increased vein graft flow in all patients. In conjunction with increases in graft flow after fluid administration, these data suggest that factors affecting vein graft flow are not just simply related to systemic hemodynamics.

  20. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make headaches worse. Though fluctuating hormone levels can influence headache patterns, you're not completely at the mercy of your hormones. Your doctor can help you treat — or prevent — hormone-related ...

  1. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. ... performed on infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. ...

  2. The effect of different doses of isotretinoin on pituitary hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ayse Serap; Takci, Zennure; Ertugrul, Derun Taner; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Balahoroglu, Ragip; Takir, Mumtaz

    2015-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies investigating the side effects and effectiveness of various doses of isotretinoin (ISO). We have previously shown that high-dose ISO affects pituitary hormones. To our knowledge, there is no study in the literature looking into the effects of various doses of ISO on pituitary hormones. We searched pituitary hormones in three groups of different doses in acne patients. We included 105 acne vulgaris patients from two different centers. We divided the patients into three groups; the first group received 0.5-1 mg/kg/day, the second 0.2-0.5 mg/kg/day and the third intermittent 0.5-1 mg/kg/day (only 1 week in 1 month) ISO treatment. Blood samples were collected for biochemistry and hormone analysis, before the treatment and after 3 months. After 3 months of treatment with ISO, luteinizing hormone (LH) (p testosterone (p < 0.001), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (p < 0.001), cortisol (p < 0.001), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (p < 0.001), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (p = 0.002), growth hormone (GH) (p = 0.002) and free T3 (fT3) (p < 0.001) levels had decreased significantly. Furthermore, we split data into three different groups. Among the patients receiving intermittent-dose ISO, LH, ACTH, IGF-1, GH and fT3 measurements lost significance. Most of the significant measurements observed in the whole group were also significant among the patients receiving high-dose ISO. Additionally, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (p = 0.003) levels increased, and free T4 levels decreased significantly. ISO affects pituitary hormones at all of these three doses. The differences in pituitary hormones are more pronounced in high-dose treatment. The weakest effect was observed in the intermittent-dose group. Choosing lower doses of ISO may decrease side effects, however the effectiveness of the treatment may also be diminished. ISO, by affecting the PPARγ/RXR system, may affecting hormone systems. These changes in various

  3. Decreased distribution of nitric oxide synthase and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide positive nerve cells in the sphincter of Oddi in humans with pancreatobiliary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Shimojo, Hisashi; Ehara, Takashi; Shigematsu, Hidekazu

    2005-06-01

    To better understand the relationship between innervation in the sphincter of Oddi and pancreatobiliary diseases, nerve cells which possess nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and/or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were studied immunohistochemically in the sphincter of Oddi and duodenum of humans. Specimens from autopsies included 11 cases with pancreatobiliary diseases and 7 cases without such diseases. An elaborate nerve network was revealed with an anti-S-100 antibody in the sphincter of Oddi and duodenum of all specimens. In the sphincter of Oddi of the control group, approximately 47% of the myenteric nerve cells were NOS positive, whereas 54% were VIP positive. Of the NOS positive nerve cells, 21% were also VIP positive. In contrast, 11% of the nerve cells in the sphincter of Oddi of the disease group were NOS positive while 32% were VIP positive. Within the duodenal myenteric plexus of the control group, 35% of all nerve cells were NOS positive while 40% was VIP positive; among them, 23% of the NOS positive cells were VIP positive. Similar results were observed in the duodenum of the disease group. These data indicate that abundant NOS and VIP positive innervation is present in the sphincter of Oddi and duodenum in humans. The lower proportion of NOS positive or VIP positive nerve cells of the disease group may suggest an inadequacy of the sphincter of Oddi to relax.

  4. Extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha and Rosmarinus officinalis Attenuate Ischemic Myocardial Damage by Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Regulating the Production of Cardiac Vasoactive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Enrique Cuevas-Durán

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have supported a role for oxidative stress in the development of ischemic damage and endothelial dysfunction. Crataegus oxyacantha (Co and Rosmarinus officinalis (Ro extracts are polyphenolic-rich compounds that have proven to be efficient in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effect of extracts from Co and Ro on the myocardial damage associated with the oxidative status and to the production of different vasoactive agents. Rats were assigned to the following groups: (a sham; (b vehicle-treated myocardial infarction (MI (MI-V; (c Ro extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro; (d Co extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Co; or (e Ro+Co-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro+Co. Ro and Co treatments increased total antioxidant capacity, the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD-Cu2+/Zn2+, SOD-Mn2+, and catalase, with the subsequent decline of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels. The extracts diminished vasoconstrictor peptide levels (angiotensin II and endothelin-1, increased vasodilators agents (angiotensin 1–7 and bradikinin and improved nitric oxide metabolism. Polyphenol treatment restored the left intraventricular pressure and cardiac mechanical work. We conclude that Ro and Co treatment attenuate morphological and functional ischemic-related changes by both an oxidant load reduction and improvement of the balance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators.

  5. An investigation into the presence of a vagal tachycardia and the effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on rat heart rate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, K; Markos, F

    2006-01-01

    The presence of the vagal tachycardia and the effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the isolated innervated rat atrium were investigated. The right vagus, or cardiac branch, were stimulated at 4, 8, 16 and 32 Hz, pulse duration 1 ms, 20 V, 30 s before atropine and for 1 min after atropine (3 micromol/l), experiments were carried out in the presence of atenolol (4 micromol/l). No significant vagal tachycardia was observed in the presence of atropine, the greatest increase in heart rate was at 16 Hz which was 3+/-1 beats/min (n = 12 rats) (p = 0.052). Baseline heart rates for the control, 226+/-11 beats/min (n = 12 rats) and atropine experiments, 210+/-8 beats/min (n = 12 rats), were not significantly different (p = 0.24). VIP (0.06, 0.12, 0.24 micromol/l) caused a maximum increase of 27+/-13 beats/min (n = 5 rats) after 6 micromol/l VIP which was not significant, two higher concentrations of VIP failed to increase heart rate further. These results show that the vagal tachycardia is not present and that VIP does not cause a significant tachycardia in the rat. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effect of Acute Power Load on the Parameters of Hormonal Response in Untrained Young Men During Weight Training Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Chernozub

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article displays the results of experimental studies on the characteristics of the changes in steroid hormones cortisol and testosterone levels in the blood of untrained young men in response to the acute power load of various kinds. It is found that the power load of high intensity at a small volume of work increase the level of hormones in the blood. However, the use of power loads of average intensity during training and with heavy workload causes opposite hormonal response that shown in reducing hormones in blood in comparison with the state of rest. In turn, it was found that, irrespective of the nature of the hormonal response to acute power load, fixed for three months of training athleticism, morphometric parameters and power capabilities of the body of participants in both groups showed positive growth dynamics.

  7. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Cibele N.; Hayashida, Cesar Y.; Nascimento, Nancy; Longuini, Viviane C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Bartolini, Paolo; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo, Sergio P.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/lit mice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising from mutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (pgrowth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin) stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a. PMID:22473409

  8. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones un......, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research....

  9. Handedness and gender influence blood pressure in young healthy men and women: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda I

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The type and level of sex steroids influence blood pressure (BP. It has been suggested that functional brain asymmetries may be influenced by sex hormones. In addition, there are inter-arm differences in BP not yet related with handedness. In this study, we hypothesize a possible association between sex hormones, handedness, and inter-arm differences in blood pressure.

  10. Effect of hypothyroidism on female reproductive hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Saran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective was to evaluate reproductive hormones levels in hypothyroid women and impact of treatment on their levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 59 women with untreated primary hypothyroidism were included in this prospective study. Venous blood was taken at baseline and after euthyroidism was achieved for measuring serum free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine (FT3, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin (PRL, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, and thyroid peroxidase antibody. Thirty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any hormonal disturbances served as controls. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 20 ([SPSS] IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: On an average at diagnosis cases have more serum TSH (mean[M] = 77.85; standard error [SE] = 11.72, PRL (M = 39.65; SE = 4.13 and less serum E2(M = 50.00; SE = 2.25 and T (M = 35.40; SE = 2.31 than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 1.74; SE = 0.73, (M = 16.04; SE = 0.84, (M = 76.25; SE = 2.60, and (M = 40.29; SE = 2.27, respectively. This difference was statistically significant t(58 = 6.48, P <0.05; t(58 = 6.49, P < 0.05; t(58 = 12.47; P <0.05; and t(58 = 2.04, P <0.05; respectively. Although average serum FSH(M = 12.14; SE = 0.40 and LH (M = 5.89; SE = 0.27 were lower in cases at diagnosis than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 12.70; SE = 0.40,(M = 6.22; SE = 0.25, respectively, but these differences were statistically insignificant t(58 = 1.61, P = 0.11; t(58 = 1.11, P = 0.27, respectively. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated low E2 and T levels in hypothyroid women which were increased after achieving euthyroidism. Although average serum FSH and LH were increased in hypothyroid women after achieving euthyroidism but this difference was statistically insignificant.

  11. Compounded bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Although improvement in long-term health is no longer an indication for menopausal hormone therapy, evidence supporting fewer adverse events in younger women, combined with its high overall effectiveness, has reinforced its usefulness for short-term treatment of menopausal symptoms. Menopausal therapy has been provided not only by commercially available products but also by compounding, or creation of an individualized preparation in response to a health care provider's prescription to create a medication tailored to the specialized needs of an individual patient. The Women's Health Initiative findings, coupled with an increase in the direct-to-consumer marketing and media promotion of compounded bioidentical hormonal preparations as safe and effective alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy, have led to a recent increase in the popularity of compounded bioidentical hormones as well as an increase in questions about the use of these preparations. Not only is evidence lacking to support superiority claims of compounded bioidentical hormones over conventional menopausal hormone therapy, but these claims also pose the additional risks of variable purity and potency and lack efficacy and safety data. The Committee on Gynecologic Practice of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine provide an overview of the major issues of concern surrounding compounded bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy and provide recommendations for patient counseling. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamins as hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, J; Lehmann, B; Carlberg, C; Varani, J; Zouboulis, C C

    2007-02-01

    Vitamins A and D are the first group of substances that have been reported to exhibit properties of skin hormones, such as organized metabolism, activation, inactivation, and elimination in specialized cells of the tissue, exertion of biological activity, and release in the circulation. Vitamin A and its two important metabolites, retinaldehyde and retinoic acids, are fat-soluble unsaturated isoprenoids necessary for growth, differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues, and also for reproduction. In a reversible process, vitamin A is oxidized IN VIVO to give retinaldehyde, which is important for vision. The dramatic effects of vitamin A analogues on embryogenesis have been studied by animal experiments; the clinical malformation pattern in humans is known. Retinoic acids are major oxidative metabolites of vitamin A and can substitute for it in vitamin A-deficient animals in growth promotion and epithelial differentiation. Natural vitamin A metabolites are vitamins, because vitamin A is not synthesized in the body and must be derived from carotenoids in the diet. On the other hand, retinoids are also hormones - with intracrine activity - because retinol is transformed in the cells into molecules that bind to and activate specific nuclear receptors, exhibit their function, and are subsequently inactivated. The mechanisms of action of natural vitamin A metabolites on human skin are based on the time- and dose-dependent influence of morphogenesis, epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, epithelial and mesenchymal synthetic performance, immune modulation, stimulation of angiogenesis and inhibition of carcinogenesis. As drugs, vitamin A and its natural metabolites have been approved for the topical and systemic treatment of mild to moderate and severe, recalcitrant acne, photoaging and biologic skin aging, acute promyelocytic leukaemia and Kaposi's sarcoma. On the other hand, the critical importance of the skin for the human body's vitamin D endocrine

  13. Genotoxic potential of nonsteroidal hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalović Dijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones are cellular products involved in the regulation of a large number of processes in living systems, and which by their actions affect the growth, function and metabolism of cells. Considering that hormones are compounds normally present in the organism, it is important to determine if they can, under certain circumstances, lead to genetic changes in the hereditary material. Numerous experimental studies in vitro and in vivo in different systems, from bacteria to mammals, dealt with the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of hormones. This work presents an overview of the research on genotoxic effects of non­steroidal hormones, although possible changes of genetic material under their influence have not still been known enough, and moreover, investigations on their genotoxic influence have given conflicting results. The study results show that mechanisms of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones are manifested through the increase of oxidative stress by arising reactive oxygen species. A common mechanism of ROS occurence in thyroid hormones and catecholamines is through metabolic oxidation of their phenolic groups. Manifestation of insulin genotoxic effect is based on production of ROS by activation of NADPH isophorms, while testing oxytocin showed absence of genotoxic effect. Considering that the investigations on genotoxicity of nonsteroidal hormones demonstrated both positive and negative results, the explanation of this discordance involve limitations of test systems themselves, different cell types or biological species used in the experiments, different level of reactivity in vitro and in vivo, as well as possible variations in a tissue-specific expression. Integrated, the provided data contribute to better understanding of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones and point out to the role and mode of action of these hormones in the process of occurring of effects caused by oxidative stress. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  14. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking Staying in ...

  15. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  16. Possible stimuli for strength and power adaptation: acute hormonal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair; Keogh, Justin; Cronin, John; Cook, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The endocrine system plays an important role in strength and power development by mediating the remodelling of muscle protein. Resistance training scheme design regulates muscle protein turnover by modifying the anabolic (testosterone, growth hormone) and catabolic (cortisol) responses to a workout. Although resistance exercise increases the concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 in blood following exercise, the effect of scheme design is less clear, most likely due to the different release mechanisms of this growth factor (liver vs muscle). Insulin is non-responsive to the exercise stimulus, but in the presence of appropriate nutritional intake, elevated blood insulin levels combined with resistance exercise promotes protein anabolism. Factors such as sex, age, training status and nutrition also impact upon the acute hormonal environment and, hence, the adaptive response to resistance training. However, gaps within research, as well as inconsistent findings, limit our understanding of the endocrine contribution to adaptation. Research interpretation is also difficult due to problems with experimental design (e.g. sampling errors) and various other issues (e.g. hormone rhythms, biological fluid examined). In addition to the hormonal responses to resistance exercise, the contribution of other acute training factors, particularly those relating to the mechanical stimulus (e.g. forces, work, time under tension) must also be appreciated. Enhancing our understanding in these areas would also improve the prescription of resistance training for stimulating strength and power adaptation.

  17. HORMONE LEVELS IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bloedmonsters van 5 volwasse, lakterende Afrikanerkoeie is daagliksvanaf kalwing tot die eerste daaropvolgende estrus ingesamel. Plasmaprogesteroonkonsentrasie is deur middel van radioimmunologiese tegnieke bepaal en is aangewend vir die evaluering van eierstok- aktiwiteite na kalwing. Die posr ...

  18. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone values from cord blood in neonates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 2 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. HORMONE LEVELS IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . PROGESTERONE LEVELS DURING THE POST PARTUM PEzuOD. Receipt of MS 26.03.1978. W.A. Coetzer*, C.H. van Niekerk and J.C. Morgenthal. Department of Animal and Human Physiologt,. Universiry of Stellenbosch, 7600.

  20. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have Certain heart or blood vessel diseases An abnormal heart rhythm called atrial fibrillation A heart valve replacement A risk of blood clots after surgery Congenital heart defects There are two main types of blood thinners. Anticoagulants such as heparin or ...

  1. Relationship of relaxin hormone and thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Scher, Danielle L; Etchill, Eric W; Scott, Frank; Williams, Allison E; Delaronde, Steven; King, Karen B

    2014-04-01

    The female predominance in thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint arthritis has led to speculation that reproductive hormones or hypermobility are responsible. Evidence shows that patients with pathologic laxity have a higher rate of thumb CMC arthritis. Relaxin hormone increases laxity in the pelvic ligaments through upregulation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). It is thus a hormone of interest in the development of thumb CMC arthritis. Our goals were to identify demographic and hormonal factors associated with joint laxity in patients with CMC arthritis and to evaluate the relationship among serum relaxin, relaxin receptors, and MMPs in the anterior oblique ligament (AOL) of the thumb. We hypothesized that serum relaxin was correlated with joint laxity as well as with relaxin receptors and MMPs in the AOL. Forty-nine patients undergoing thumb CMC arthroplasty underwent laxity examination, blood draw, and AOL sampling. Ligaments were analyzed for relaxin receptor and MMPs 1 and 3 using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Women demonstrated more joint laxity than men (p thumb CMC arthritis. Relaxin hormone may play a role in the development of arthritis at the thumb CMC joint. Level I, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  3. The association of reproductive and lifestyle factors with a score of multiple endogenous hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafrir, Amy L; Zhang, Xuehong; Poole, Elizabeth M; Hankinson, Susan E; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2014-10-01

    We recently reported that high levels of multiple sex and growth hormones were associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Limited research has explored the relationship between reproductive, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors and levels of multiple hormones simultaneously. This cross-sectional analysis included 738 postmenopausal Nurses' Health Study participants who were controls in a breast cancer nested case-control study and had measured levels of estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, prolactin, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). A score was created by summing the number of hormones a woman had above (below for SHBG) each hormone's age-adjusted geometric mean. The association between lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive exposures and the score was assessed using generalized linear models. The hormone score ranged from 0 to 8 with a mean of 4.0 (standard deviation = 2.2). Body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption at blood draw were positively associated with the hormone score: a 5 unit increase in BMI was associated with a 0.79 (95%CI: 0.63, 0.95) unit increase in the score (p hormones, whereas anthropometric and lifestyle factors, particularly BMI and alcohol consumption, tended to be associated with higher levels of multiple hormones.

  4. Changes in small intestinal motility and related hormones by acupuncture stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jung-Hee; Lee, Deuk-Joo; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kwon, Sunoh; Park, Hi-Joon; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Seungtae

    2017-03-01

    To clarify the effects of acupuncture stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) on the hormonal changes. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice received acupuncture stimulation at acupoint ST 36 or Quchi (LI 11) once a day for 3 or 5 days in the acupuncture-stimulated groups, but not received in the normal group (n=6 in each group). On day 3 or 5, animals were given 0.1 mL of charcoal orally with a bulbed steel needle, 30 min after the last acupuncture stimulation. Ten minutes later, mice were anesthetized, and the intestinal transit and the concentrations of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), motilin, ghrelin and gastrin in the serum were measured. Compared to no acupuncture stimulation, acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 for 5 days increased the intestinal transit and down-regulated the concentration of VIP and up-regulated the concentrations of motilin, ghrelin and gastrin (Pacupuncture stimulation at LI 11 did not change them signifificantly (P>0.05). Acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 for 5 days enhances the small intestinal motility and regulates the secretion of hormones related to small intestinal motility.

  5. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. It also makes precursors that can be converted ... steroids (androgen, estrogen). A different part of the adrenal gland makes adrenaline (epinephrine). When the glands produce ...

  6. Hormonal modulation of plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Does, D. van der; Zamioudis, C.; Leon-Reyes, A.; Wees, A.C.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Plant hormones have pivotal roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and reproduction. Additionally, they emerged as cellular signal molecules with key functions in the regulation of immune responses to microbial pathogens, insect herbivores, and beneficial microbes. Their signaling

  7. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  8. Hormone replacement therapy in menopause

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pardini, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than six decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), estrogen therapy (ET...

  9. Association between thyroid hormone disorders and renal dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mushir; Sharma, Anil; Iqbal, Shahid; Nagtilak, Suryakant; Ahmad, Naved

    2018-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormones perform a wide range of metabolic functions. Relationship between thyroid diseases and kidney function initially described were clinically subtle. It has been suggested that patients of thyroid disorder can be associated with increased risk of renal diseases.Aims and Objectives: To understand the effects of thyroid disorders on renal function and carbohydrate metabolism, we estimated and compared blood sugar, serum urea and serum creatinine levels with T3, T4 and ...

  10. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  11. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Community Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Hosting ...

  12. Hormones in the immune system and their possible role. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2014-09-01

    Immune cells synthesize, store and secrete hormones, which are identical with the hormones of the endocrine glands. These are: the POMC hormones (ACTH, endorphin), the thyroid system hormones (TRH, TSH, T3), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, melatonin, histamine, serotonin, catecholamines, GnRH, LHRH, hCG, renin, VIP, ANG II. This means that the immune cells contain all of the hormones, which were searched at all and they also have receptors for these hormones. From this point of view the immune cells are similar to the unicells (Tetrahymena), so it can be supposed that these cells retained the properties characteristic at a low level of phylogeny while other cells during the evolution accumulated to form endocrine glands. In contrast to the glandular endocrine cells, immune cells are polyproducers and polyreceivers. As they are mobile cells, they are able to transport the stored hormone to different places (packed transport) or attracted by local factors, accumulate in the neighborhood of the target, synthesizing and secreting hormones locally. This is taking place, e.g. in the case of endorphin, where the accumulating immune cells calms pain caused by the inflammation. The targeted packed transport is more economical than the hormone-pouring to the blood circulation of glandular endocrines and the targeting also cares the other receptor-bearing cells timely not needed the effect. Mostly the immune-effects of immune-cell derived hormones were studied (except endorphin), however, it is not exactly cleared, while the system could have scarcely studied important roles in other cases. The evolutionary aspects and the known as well, as possible roles of immune-endocrine system and their hormones are listed and discussed.

  13. Thyroid hormone receptors in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Kwakkel, J.; Fliers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a key role in energy homeostasis throughout life. Thyroid hormone production and secretion by the thyroid gland is regulated via the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Thyroid hormone has to be transported into the cell, where it can bind to the thyroid hormone

  14. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  15. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  16. Receptor-dependent inhibition by vasoactive intestinal peptide of phorbol ester-enhanced IgM secretion by a human B cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, P.P.J.; Sreedharan, S.P.; Robichon, A.; Gronroos, E.; Goetzl, E.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28 amino acid neuromediator, which is released into tissues during inflammatory reactions. To examine the mechanisms of VIP effects on lymphocyte functions, replicate 5 ml suspensions of 2{times}10{sup 6} cultured SKW 6.4 human B lymphocytes per ml of RPMI 1640 medium with 10% FCS were incubated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) at 37C. After 2 hr of exposure of SKW 6.4 cells to 100 ng/ml of PMA, the specific high-affinity binding of ({sup 125}I)VIP was decreased by 43{plus minus}7.8% and remained suppressed for up to 8 hr. Continued incubation of SKW 6.4 cells with PMA for 7 days increased the specific high-affinity binding of ({sup 125}I)VIP by 55{plus minus}16%. The secretion of IgM by SKW 6.4 cells, as quantified in an ELISA assay, was enhanced a mean of 3.6 fold by 100 ng/ml of PMA after 7 days. The concurrent addition of 10{sup {minus}12}M-10{sup {minus}6}M VIP to the SKW 6.4 cells inhibited the PMA-enhanced secretion of IgM in an concentration-dependent manner with maximal mean inhibition ({plus minus}S.D.) of 40{plus minus}2% by 10{sup {minus}10}M VIP at 7 days, without an effect on unstimulated levels of IgM. The potent inhibition of immunoglobulin production by VIP has apparent specificity for stimulated B cells with an increased number of VIP receptors.

  17. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 17 alpha-hydroxylase enzyme activity in hen granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A L; Li, Z; Gibney, J A; Malamed, S

    1994-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (P450 17 alpha-OH) mRNA levels and enzyme activity in granulosa cells from nonhierarchal (6-8-mm) follicles. Initial studies demonstrated that immunoreactive VIP is localized within the theca (but not granulosa) layer of both resting (< 0.5-mm follicles) and 6-8-mm follicles, thus providing a potential paracrine mechanism of action for VIP. While short-term (3 h) incubation of granulosa cells with VIP (0.001-1.0 microM) failed to stimulate progesterone production from 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells, a 4-h culture period in the presence of VIP resulted in increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, and a 24-h culture period resulted in progesterone synthesis and increased P450scc mRNA levels; control levels of each endpoint measurement were not altered within the period observed. By contrast, culture with the growth factor transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in the presence of VIP (1 microM) prevented increases in P450scc mRNA levels and progesterone production. Similar effects of VIP and TGF alpha in the presence of VIP were demonstrated for P450 17 alpha-OH mRNA levels and enzyme activity. Finally, there was an additive effect of VIP (0.1 microM) plus recombinant human (rh) FSH (100 mIU) on the initiation of progesterone production in cultured 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells compared to the addition of VIP or rhFSH alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Correlation between ovarian morphology and biochemical and hormonal parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Cihan; Karadag, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the biochemical and hormonal differences in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with and without polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology and to evaluate the outcomes resulting from those differences. Methods: The study included a total of 83 patients with PCOS; 43 of them had PCO morphology (Group-I) and 40 did not (Group-II). Serum LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), total testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17b-estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), glucose and insulin levels were determined. Homoeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated. Results: The two groups were similar with respect to BMI. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements of Group-I were significantly lower (pinsulin resistance, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases due to effects of hyperandrogenism. PMID:27375725

  19. Interactions between intakes of alcohol and postmenopausal hormones on risk of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    alcohol interacts with hormone use on risk of breast cancer. The 5,035 postmenopausal women who participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about their alcohol intake and hormone use at baseline in 1981-1983 and were followed until 2002 in the Danish cancer registry, with ...Alcohol and postmenopausal hormone use are well-established modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. Alcohol may decrease the metabolic clearance of estradiol, whereby the risk of breast cancer associated with hormone use may depend on blood alcohol levels. The objective is to determine whether...... to follow-up. Proportional hazard models were used to analyze data. During follow-up, 267 women developed breast cancer. Alcohol consumption was associated with a small increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio = 1.11 per drink/day, 95% CI: 0.99-1.25). Women who used hormones also had a higher risk...

  20. Dynamics of hormonal status in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murzabaeva R.Т.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the hormonal parameters in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Materials and methods: We have studied the content of cortisol, thyrotropic hormone (TTH, triiodothyro-nine (T3, free thyroxin (FT4, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin in blood serum of 62 women with moderate (33 and severe (29 HFRS forms age (17-62. They were divided into 2 groups: the first group (33 patients women with the normal menstrual cycle, the second group (29 women consisted of patients in climacteric period. Results: TTH secretion increase, T3 and FT4 — decrease with their normalization to the recovery period were registered in the thyroid system of the compared groups. Blood cortisol level was high during the illness. Gonadotropic hypophysis function study demonstrated that LH and blood prolactin concentrations were increased since oliguria period; FSH was authentic reduced. The indices of these hormones were restored to the normal level by the reconvalescence period. LH and FSH contents were authentic higher in women of the second group in comparison with the first group. The hyperprolactinemia was observed in both women groups during the whole period of disease. The increased progesterone and testosterone concentrations have been manifested in blood serum. The estradiol concentration had different direction tendencies. Conclusion: Thus, the complex study of hypophysic- thyreoid and gonadotropic hormone state of adrenal system and the sexual hormone levels in women of different age groups in HFRS revealed the hormone status indces changes due to the period and severity of the disease, connected with the virus action, intoxication, the general inflammation reactions and their age.

  1. Natural Variation in Stress Hormones, Comparisons Across Matrices, and Impacts Resulting from Induced Stress in the Bottlenose Dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Kellar, Nicholas M; Cockrem, John; Romano, Tracy; Booth, Rebecca K; Wasser, Samuel K

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge regarding stress hormones and how they vary in response to seasonality, gender, age, and reproductive status for any marine mammal is limited. Furthermore, stress hormones may be measured in more than one matrix (e.g., feces, blood, blubber), but the relationships between levels of a given hormone across these matrices are unknown, further complicating the interpretations of hormones measured in samples collected from wild animals. A study is underway to address these issues in a population of bottlenose dolphins trained for voluntary participation in sample collections from different matrices and across season and time of day.

  2. The contribution of astrocytes to the regulation of cerebral blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare eHowarth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain normal brain function, it is critical that cerebral blood flow (CBF is matched to neuronal metabolic needs. Accordingly, blood flow is increased to areas where neurons are more active (a response termed functional hyperemia. The tight relationships between neuronal activation, glial cell activity, cerebral energy metabolism and the cerebral vasculature, known as neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling, underpin functional MRI (fMRI signals but are incompletely understood. As functional imaging techniques, particularly BOLD fMRI, become more widely used, their utility hinges on our ability to accurately and reliably interpret the findings. A growing body of data demonstrates that astrocytes can serve as a ‘bridge’, relaying information on the level of neural activity to blood vessels in order to coordinate oxygen and glucose delivery with the energy demands of the tissue. It is widely assumed that calcium-dependent release of vasoactive substances by astrocytes results in arteriole dilation and the increased blood flow which accompanies neuronal activity. However, the signaling molecules responsible for this communication between astrocytes and blood vessels are yet to be definitively confirmed. Indeed, there is controversy over whether activity-induced changes in astrocyte calcium are widespread and fast enough to elicit such functional hyperemia responses. In this review, I will summarise the evidence which has convincingly demonstrated that astrocytes are able to modify the diameter of cerebral arterioles. I will discuss the prevalence, presence and timing of stimulus-induced astrocyte calcium transients and describe the evidence for and against the role of calcium-dependent formation and release of vasoactive substances by astrocytes. I will also review alternative mechanisms of astrocyte-evoked changes in arteriole diameter and consider the questions which remain to be answered in this exciting area of research.

  3. INDUCED FUCTIONAL MALE OF CORAL TROUT GROUPER (Plectropomus leopardus USING 17α-METHYLTESTOSTERONE HORMONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sar Budi Moria Sembiring

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of grouper seeds production is depends on the availability of qualified broodstock. The nature of grouper is protogynous hermaphrodite, causing difficulties to mantain female and a bit difficult to get male broodstock, one possibility to accelerate sex revers is by hormone manipulation. The aim of this experiment was to find effectiveness of 17α-methyl testosterone hormone to produce coral trout grouper (Plectropomus leopardus functional male. The experiment was conducted in floating net cage by using 6 net cages with size of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m at density of 25 fish/cage, size of fish were 377.27±21.49 g. The fishes were treated by hormone implantation at concentration of 50 μg/kg body weight and without hormone implantation as a control with 3 replicates. The results showed that the highest concentration of testosteron in fish blood (1.144±0.135 pg/mL was detected after four months of hormone treatment, but the concentration of testosteron in fish blood declined after 8th months of treatment. The treated fish with hormone grew faster than control. Based on histological analysis of gonad, female gonado somatic index was higher for treated fish compare to control. Its seems that hormone tratment lead to promote development of female maturity and than sex reverse into male become faster.

  4. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  5. Amylase - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased blood amylase levels may occur due to: Acute pancreatitis Cancer of the pancreas , ovaries, or lungs Cholecystitis Gallbladder attack caused by disease Gastroenteritis (severe) Infection ...

  6. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  7. Variation in levels of serum inhibin B, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in monthly samples from healthy men during a 17-month period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2003-01-01

    To obtain information on the scale of the intraindividual variation in testicular hormone, blood samples for inhibin B determination were collected monthly in 27 healthy male volunteers during a 17-month period. In addition, the traditional reproductive hormones FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol....... A seasonal variation was observed in LH and testosterone levels, but not in the levels of the other hormones. The seasonal variation in testosterone levels could be explained by the variation in LH levels. The seasonal variation in LH levels seemed to be related to the mean air temperature during the month...... before blood sampling, but not to the length of daylight or the hours of sunshine. In conclusion, our data showed that day to day levels of inhibin B are relatively constant in men and do not seem to be influenced by seasonal factors. In contrast, we found a seasonal variation in LH and testosterone...

  8. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  9. Plasma concentrations of the vasoactive peptide fragments mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, C-terminal pro-endothelin 1 and copeptin in hemodialysis patients: associated factors and prediction of mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruh Artunc

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, endothelin and adrenomedullin are vasoactive peptides that regulate vascular tone and might play a role in hypertensive diseases. Recently, laboratory assays have been developed to measure stable fragments of vasopressin, endothelin and adrenomedullin. Little is known about their diagnostic and prognostic value in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we measured the plasma concentration of copeptin, mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-pro-ADM and C-terminal pro-endothelin 1 (CT-pro-ET1 in stable ambulatory hemodialysis patients (n = 239 and investigated their associations with clinical factors and mortality. In all patients enrolled, the plasma concentrations of copeptin, MR-pro-ADM and CT-pro-ET1 were largely elevated with a median concentration of 132 pmol/L (interquartile range [IQR] 78-192 for copeptin, 1.26 nmol/L (IQR 1.02-1.80 for MR-pro-ADM and 149 pmol/L (IQR 121-181 for CT-pro-ET1. The plasma concentrations of all vasoactive peptide fragments correlated with time on dialysis and plasma β2-microglobulin concentration and were negatively correlated to residual diuresis. The plasma concentration of MR-pro-ADM was a strong predictor of all-cause (univariate hazard ratio for a 10-fold increase 9.94 [3.14;32], p<0.0001 and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 34.87 [5.58;217], p = 0.0001 within a 3.8-year follow-up. The associations remained stable in models adjusted for dialysis specific factors and were attenuated in a full model adjusted for all prognostic factors. Plasma copeptin concentration was weakly associated with cardiovascular mortality (only in univariate analysis and CT-pro-ET1 was not associated with mortality at all. In conclusion, vasoactive peptide fragments are elevated in hemodialysis patients because of accumulation and, most likely, increased release. Increased concentrations of MR-pro-ADM are predictive of mortality.

  10. Influence of obesity and hormone disturbances on sexuality of women in the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncig Netjasov, Aleksandra; Tančić-Gajić, Milina; Ivović, Miomira; Marina, Ljiljana; Arizanović, Zorana; Vujović, Svetlana

    2016-09-01

    To assess influence of obesity and hormone disturbances on sexuality in the menopause. The study included 73 menopausal women, who were divided into groups according to body mass index (BMI) ≥ 26.7 kg/m(2). Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken at 08:00 for hormones. All the participants filled in McCoy Female Sexual Questionnaire for the assessment of sexual life. Student's t-test, correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA). Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were very significantly lower in obese compared to controls. E2 and systolic blood pressure were very significantly, while diastolic blood pressure significantly higher in obese compared to controls. Obese women had significantly decreased frequency of pain during sexual intercourse (3.48 ± 2.64 vs. 4.09 ± 2.81). Influence of age on frequency of sexual intercourse was very significant. Significant influence in interaction between BMI and age on frequency of sexual fantasies as well as significant influence of BMI on satisfaction with partner as lover is also found. Obesity has influence on different aspects of sexuality in the postmenopausal women. Our results suggest the need of awareness toward obesity and its impact on sexuality in the menopause.

  11. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  12. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  13. Artificial Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Yasar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes. Studies on artificial blood basically aim to develop oxygen carrying compounds, produce stem cell-based erythrocyte cells in vitro and, implement the functions and movements of natural hemoglobin molecules found in erythrocyte cells through artificial erythrocyte cells. Consequently, major areas of research in artificial blood studies are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, perfluorochemicals, respirocytes and stem cells. Even though these artificial erythrocyte cells do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes yet, they have many potential clinical and non clinical uses. Studies are being carried out on the elimination of side effects of blood substitutes and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. Artificial blood substitutes could only be used clinically for patient management following clinical trials and approvals, and will be the ultimate global solution to the problems associated with donor scarcity, blood collection and transfusion-mediated diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 95-108

  14. Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body's cells to use for energy. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too ... serious problems. Even if you don't have diabetes, sometimes you may have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high. Keeping ...

  15. Influence of red blood cell-derived microparticles upon vasoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed S; Doctor, Allan

    2017-05-15

    Here we review recent data and the evolving understanding of the role of red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) in normal physiology and in disease progression. Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to a variety of stimuli through several cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes. MPs have been investigated as potential biomarkers for multiple disease processes and are thought to have biological effects, most notably in: promotion of coagulation, production and handling of reactive oxygen species, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and in apoptosis. Specifically, RMPs are produced normally during RBC maturation and their production is accelerated during processing and storage for transfusion. Several factors during RBC storage are known to trigger RMP production, including: increased intracellular calcium, increased potassium leakage, and energy failure with ATP depletion. Of note, RMP composition differs from that of intact RBCs, and the nature and composition of RMP components are affected by both storage duration and the character of storage solutions. Recognised RMP bioactivities include: promotion of coagulation, immune modulation, and promotion of endothelial adhesion, as well as influence upon vasoregulation via nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. Of particular relevance, RMPs are more avid NO scavengers than intact RBCs and this feature has been proposed as a mechanism for the impaired oxygen delivery homeostasis that has been observed following transfusion. Preliminary human studies demonstrate that circulating RMP abundance increases with RBC transfusion and is associated with altered plasma vasoactivity and abnormal vasoregulation. In summary, RMPs are submicron particles released from stored RBCs, with demonstrated vasoactive properties that appear to disturb oxygen delivery homeostasis. The clinical impact of RMPs in transfusion recipients is an area of continued

  16. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  17. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  19. Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, Rainer W

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry hormonal growth promoters ("anabolics") are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.As a consequence of the total ban in the EU of all hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in livestock production, in contrast to their legal use [e.g. of five such hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone and zeranol) as small solid ear implants and two hormones as feed additives for feedlot heifers (melengestrol acetate) and for swine (ractopamine) in the USA], the regulatory controls also differ sharply between the EU and the USA.In the EU the treatment of slaughter animals is the regulatory offence that has to be controlled in inspection programs. In the USA testing for compliance of a regulatory maximum residue level in the edible product (muscle, fat, liver or kidney) is the purpose of the inspection program (if any).The EU inspection programs focus on sample materials that are more suitable for testing for banned substances, especially if the animals are still on the farm, such as urine and feces or hair. In the case of slaughtered animals, the more favored sample materials are bile, blood, eyes and sometimes liver. Only in rare occasions is muscle meat sampled. This happens only in the case of import controls or in monitoring programs of meat sampled in butcher shops or supermarkets.As a result, data on hormone concentrations in muscle meat samples from the EU market are very rare and are obtained in most cases from small programs on an ad hoc basis. EU data for natural hormones in meat are even rarer because of the absence of "legal natural levels" for these hormones in compliance testing. With the exception of samples from the application sites - in the EU the site of injection of liquid hormone

  20. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaie ML

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed L Elsaie Department of Dermatology and Venereology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. Keywords: acne, hormones, hyperandrogenism

  1. Modulatory effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on intestinal mucosal immunity and microbial community of weaned piglets challenged by an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunlan; Wang, Youming; Sun, Rui; Qiao, Xiangjin; Shang, Xiaoya; Niu, Weining

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial pathogens and trigger immune response, but their regulation by neuropeptide-vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in weaned piglets infected by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 remains unexplored. Therefore, the study was conducted to investigate its role using a model of early weaned piglets infected by ETEC K88. Male Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire piglets (n = 24) were randomly divided into control, ETEC K88, VIP, and ETEC K88+VIP groups. On the first three days, ETEC K88 and ETEC K88+VIP groups were orally administrated with ETEC K88, other two groups were given sterile medium. Then each piglet from VIP and ETEC K88+VIP group received 10 nmol VIP intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily, on day four and six. On the seventh day, the piglets were sacrificed. The results indicated that administration of VIP improved the growth performance, reduced diarrhea incidence of ETEC K88 challenged pigs, and mitigated the histopathological changes of intestine. Serum levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-γ and TNF-α in the ETEC K88+ VIP group were significantly reduced compared with those in the ETEC group. VIP significantly increased IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β and S-IgA production compared with the ETEC K88 group. Besides, VIP could inhibit the expression of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB p65 and the phosphorylation of IκB-α, p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-38 induced by ETEC K88. Moreover, VIP could upregulate the expression of occludin in the ileum mucosa compared with the ETEC K88 group. Colon and caecum content bacterial richness and diversity were lower for pigs in the ETEC group than the unchallenged groups. These results demonstrate that VIP is beneficial for the maturation of the intestinal mucosal immune system and elicited local immunomodulatory activities. The TLR2/4-MyD88 mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathway may be critical to the mechanism underlying the modulatory effect of VIP on intestinal mucosal immune function and

  2. Modulatory effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on intestinal mucosal immunity and microbial community of weaned piglets challenged by an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Xu

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs recognize microbial pathogens and trigger immune response, but their regulation by neuropeptide-vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP in weaned piglets infected by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC K88 remains unexplored. Therefore, the study was conducted to investigate its role using a model of early weaned piglets infected by ETEC K88. Male Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire piglets (n = 24 were randomly divided into control, ETEC K88, VIP, and ETEC K88+VIP groups. On the first three days, ETEC K88 and ETEC K88+VIP groups were orally administrated with ETEC K88, other two groups were given sterile medium. Then each piglet from VIP and ETEC K88+VIP group received 10 nmol VIP intraperitoneally (i.p. once daily, on day four and six. On the seventh day, the piglets were sacrificed. The results indicated that administration of VIP improved the growth performance, reduced diarrhea incidence of ETEC K88 challenged pigs, and mitigated the histopathological changes of intestine. Serum levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-γ and TNF-α in the ETEC K88+ VIP group were significantly reduced compared with those in the ETEC group. VIP significantly increased IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β and S-IgA production compared with the ETEC K88 group. Besides, VIP could inhibit the expression of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB p65 and the phosphorylation of IκB-α, p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-38 induced by ETEC K88. Moreover, VIP could upregulate the expression of occludin in the ileum mucosa compared with the ETEC K88 group. Colon and caecum content bacterial richness and diversity were lower for pigs in the ETEC group than the unchallenged groups. These results demonstrate that VIP is beneficial for the maturation of the intestinal mucosal immune system and elicited local immunomodulatory activities. The TLR2/4-MyD88 mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathway may be critical to the mechanism underlying the modulatory effect of VIP on intestinal mucosal immune

  3. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  4. Advances in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  5. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...

  6. Does thyroid gland examination by palpation alter serum hormone levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Sema Zer; Ozel, Leyla; Yekrek, Mehmet Murat; Toros, Ahmet Burak; Naiboglu, Baris; Kara, Melih; Erdoğdu, Erdal; Egeli, Erol; Titiz, Izzet

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of routine thyroid gland palpation on serum thyroid hormone levels. Prospective study at Haydarpaşa Numune Research and Education Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. This study was carried out in two groups with a total of 50 consecutive adults. Group I consisted of 20 patients (12 female and 8 male, aged 20-48 years) with a diagnosis of nodular thyroid disease confirmed by ultrasound imaging techniques. The second group consisted of 30 otherwise healthy subjects (17 female and 13 male, aged 18-50 years) referred for neck and thyroid ultrasound and with no thyroid pathology detected. Thyroid gland palpations were performed by the same physician. Blood samples were obtained before and 2 hours after thyroid gland palpation. Serum total T3 (TT3), total T4 (TT4), free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroglobulin (TG) measurements were made. We found that routine palpation in the first group caused a significant increase in serum TT3 (P .05). Preliminary data proposing a possible effect of routine thyroid gland palpation on serum thyroid hormone levels suggest that serum thyroid hormone measurements should be performed before any manipulation of the gland, including palpation, to avoid misdiagnosis.

  7. The role of sulfated steroid hormones in reproductive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Joachim; Bakhaus, Katharina; Bernhardt, Rita; Blaschka, Carina; Dezhkam, Yaser; Fietz, Daniela; Grosser, Gary; Hartmann, Katja; Hartmann, Michaela F; Neunzig, Jens; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios; Schuler, Gerhard; Shihan, Mazen; Wrenzycki, Christine; Wudy, Stefan A; Bergmann, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Sulfated steroid hormones, such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate or estrone-3-sulfate, have long been regarded as inactive metabolites as they cannot activate classical steroid receptors. Some of them are present in the blood circulation at quite high concentrations, but generally sulfated steroids exhibit low membrane permeation due to their hydrophilic properties. However, sulfated steroid hormones can actively be imported into specific target cells via uptake carriers, such as the sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SOAT, and, after hydrolysis by the steroid sulfatase (so-called sulfatase pathway), contribute to the overall regulation of steroid responsive organs. To investigate the biological significance of sulfated steroid hormones for reproductive processes in humans and animals, the research group "Sulfated Steroids in Reproduction" was established by the German Research Foundation DFG (FOR1369). Projects of this group deal with transport of sulfated steroids, sulfation of free steroids, desulfation by the steroid sulfatase, effects of sulfated steroids on steroid biosynthesis and membrane receptors as well as MS-based profiling of sulfated steroids in biological samples. This review and concept paper presents key findings from all these projects and provides a broad overview over the current research on sulfated steroid hormones in the field of reproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. THE ROLE OF GROWTH HORMONE IN LIPID METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Dewi Ratnayanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is one of the hormones that regulate metabolism, including lipid metabolism. GH can regulate the amount of fat in the tissue and also the level of lipid profile. Growth hormone affects the lipid in the tissue and blood by modulating the lipid metabolism, especially through the regulation of synthesis, excretion and breakdown of internal lipids. Research showed that GH could consistently lower the level of total cholesterol and LDL, whereas its effect on triglyceride and HDL level showed varying results. Growth hormone induces lypolisis by stimulating the activity of HSL and LPL and thereby influenced the triglyceride level and tissue fat storage. Cholesterol and lipoprotein levels are controlled by regulating the synthesis of cholesterol by lowering the activity of HMGCoA reductase. The excretion of cholesterol through the bile is also enhanced by stimulating the activity of enzymes C7?OH. The breakdown of VLDL and LDL are enhanced by increasing the expression of LDL receptor and ApoE as well as affecting the editing of mRNA ApoB100. Increase activity of LPL is also known to be the important factor in the HDL metabolism

  9. New vasoactive peptides in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Goetze, Jens Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    and proANP were measured in hepatic and renal veins and the femoral artery. RESULTS: We found no differences in concentrations of copeptin and proadrenomedullin between patients and controls. ProANPs were higher in cirrhotic patients, median 138 pm (25/75 percentiles 101-194) compared with controls......, median 91 pm (25/75 percentiles 82-153) P=0·02. ProANPs were higher in the femoral artery and renal vein, median 140 pm and 116 pm (25/75 percentiles 109-191 and 92-164, respectively), compared with controls, median 99 and 81 (25/75 percentiles 85-146 and 66-123) P=0·02 and P=0·007, respectively. We...

  10. Serum level of hormone and metabolites in pregnant rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Brecchia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the hormones and metabolites serum levels and the reproductive performances of nulliparous (n=100 and primiparous pregnant does submitted to artificial insemination (AI 11 days post-partum. On the day of AI, all the does were weighed and the sexual receptivity was evaluated. The kits were weaned at 26 day. Blood samples were collect by punc- ture of the marginal ear vein from one day before AI until few days before the kindling and assayed for hormones and metabolites. The higher sexual receptivity and the fertility in nulliparous than in primiparous does confirmed the negative effect of lactation. Nulliparous does showed higher blood con- centration of leptine than primiparous, and in both the groups such level lowered during pregnancy, probably reflecting the reduction of the fat reserve. The insuline level increased during pregnancy in either groups as a consequence of the growing of the foetuses. In nulliparous does the cortisol, NEFA and T3 concentrations were higher than primiparous does. The glucose levels were similar in both the groups probably due to the homeostatic mechanisms controlling the glycemia. Hormonal and metabo- lite analyses represent a good tool for understanding the physiological mechanisms required to meet higher reproductive performance.

  11. [Elevated thyroid hormone levels in the absence of hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, D; Tuval, M; Nakash, I

    1992-03-01

    Elevated blood levels of thyroid hormones may be due to causes other than glandular hyperactivity. We have seen transient increases in total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine index (FTI), free thyroxine (FT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3) in 12 women and 3 men with subacute thyroiditis and 2 women with painless (silent) postpartum thyroiditis. Elevated TT4, FTI, and FT4 were found in 11 of 85 patients treated with amiodarone. High TT4, but not FTI or FT4, was seen in 4 women using contraceptives, in 2 pregnant women and in 2 men with liver dysfunction. All hormones, except TSH, were elevated in a patient in whom thyrotoxicosis factitia was later proved. High FTI, TT4 or FT4 but not TT3 were detected in 11 of 20 patients treated with l-throxine after surgical thyroidectomy and in 10 of 68 treated for hypothyroidism. To avoid treating when thyroxicosis is not present and to avoid reducing or stopping vital drug treatment, familiarity with these states which alter blood hormone levels is important.

  12. Sex hormone effects on autonomic mechanisms of thermoregulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Stachenfeld, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Autonomic mechanisms are fundamental to human physiological thermoregulation, and female reproductive hormones have substantial influences on several aspects of these mechanisms. Of these, the best recognized are the thermoregulatory responses that occur at menopause (hot flushes) and the changes in body temperature within the menstrual cycle which may help couples predict ovulation. Our goal in this brief review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the influences of reproductive hormones on autonomic mechanisms in human thermoregulation. In general, estrogens tend to promote lower body temperatures via augmentation of heat dissipation responses, whereas progesterone tends to promote higher body temperatures. Recent evidence suggests specific influences of estrogens on central autonomic nuclei involved in control of skin blood flow and sweating. Estrogens also augment vasodilation by direct effects on peripheral blood vessels. Influences of progesterone are less well understood, but include both centrally regulated changes in thermoregulatory set-point as well as and peripheral effects, including augmented vasoconstriction in the skin. We conclude with a brief discussion of thermoregulatory adjustments associated with changing hormone levels during menopause, pregnancy and polycystic ovary syndrome. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of anemia or thalassemia. Blood Chemistry Tests/Basic Metabolic Panel The basic metabolic panel ( ... parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Coronary Heart ...

  14. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder in which there is excessive breakdown of hemoglobin ( thalassemia ) The presence of cells called burr cells may indicate: Abnormally high level of nitrogen waste products in the blood ( ...

  15. [Blood examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masahiko

    2009-11-01

    Allergic blood examination such as radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is an important and sensitive method for detecting the allergen against allergic diseases including bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. In this review, blood examination such as RAST and histamine release test (HRT) will be discussed. In 1967, Wide et al developed allergen detecting system such as RAST that measures the allergen specific IgE antibody. Now, several systems including capsulated hydrophilic carrier polymer (CAP)-RAST or multiple antigen simultaneous test (MAST) by using the fluoroenzyme immunoassay (FEIA) or other methods by using the ELISA are available. Another method for blood test is HRT that measures histamine release from the peripheral blood basophils after antigen addition in vitro. In general, HRT is thought to be more sensitive than RAST but available for only ten allergens. Also, 10-20% of patients are non-responder for this test.

  16. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Toxoplasmosis Testing Trace Minerals Transferrin and Iron-binding Capacity ( ... Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Bone Marrow Disorders Breast Cancer Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Celiac Disease Cervical Cancer Chronic ...

  17. Atherosclerosis of coronary blood vessels - local or systemic inflamation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejkov, Hristo; Kedev, Sasko; Panov, Saso; Srbinovska-Kostovska, Elizabeta; Lang, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The presence of atherosclerotic lesions in the blood vessels is a predisposition for the development and occurrence of acute ischaemic attacks. Bigger atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary blood vessels cause lumen occlusion, which is a cause of acute myocardial infarction. Endothelial dysfunction is defined as an ability of the endothelium to produce vasorelaxing nitric oxide (NO), or deregulation of the other vasoactive substances, such as angiotensin II and endothelin [13]. This definition describes endothelial dysfunction as an improper vasomotor constriction of the vessel, that leads to lumen occlusion of the already existing atherosclerotic lesions. According to the modern model, the development of atherosclerotic plaque and inappropriate endothelial NO production have a synergistic role in patho-physiological and molecular processes in the blood vessels [14]. Lesions in the coronary arteries are deposits of huge quantities of foamy cells and fibrous plaques. The thin fibrous plaques are 10-20% of the total plaque population and are the cause of 80-90% of clinical cases due to their ability to rupture [48]. According to all the results from published studies by far, it has been pointed out that the plaque stability, not the absolute size influences the rupture potential. Elucidating the risk factors that may modify in the atherogenesis and the consequent atherothrombic effect is the first step to this goal.

  18. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a

  19. Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, A.

    2012-01-01

    The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect

  20. Anti-Müllerian Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... arupconsult.com . Accessed May 2011. (© 1995–2011). Unit Code 89711: Antimullerian Hormone (AMH), Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo ...