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Sample records for vascular reactivity evaluation

  1. Vascular Reactivity: Evaluation of an acute suprasystolic occlusion with impedance plethysmography

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    Herrera, M C [Departamento de BioingenierIa, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y TecnologIa, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman e INSIBIO, CONICET, Tucuman (Argentina); Bonaudo, M; Conde, A [Carrera de Ingenieria de Biomedica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y TecnologIa, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina); Palavecino, L [Carrera de Ingenieria de Biomedica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y TecnologIa, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    In the clinical set, the evaluation of endothelium- dependent vasodilator response of large vessels is carried out using ultrasound equipment for vascular flow determinations and during administration of vasoactive drugs. This work proposes to use a substantially cheaper technique and a sustained cuff arterial occlusion in order to cause vasodilation. Impedance plethysmography is used to detect the arterial pulse wave over radial artery while the forearm is occluded by above the recording site. From these plethysmographic waves, three indexes and their changes -between control and maximal response post-occlusion- were calculated. 33 complete records obtained from healthy low-risk volunteers were analyzed. Between control and post-occlusion maximal response, 'average percentual change of pulse wave amplitude' were (35{+-}13)%, 'stiffness index' did not show significant differences (6,38{+-}0,98 vs 6,38{+-}0,94 and 'reflection index' was significant lower (58{+-}15 vs 35{+-}16)%. These results indicate that: 1- cuff occlusion maneuver was effective to cause endothelium-dependent vasodilation, 2-changes of pulse wave amplitude and reflection index could be used as markers of athero-arteriosclerotic damage in the vascular bed, even in sub-clinical conditions.

  2. Vascular Reactivity: Evaluation of an acute suprasystolic occlusion with impedance plethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, M. C.; Bonaudo, M.; Conde, A.; Palavecino, L.

    2007-11-01

    In the clinical set, the evaluation of endothelium- dependent vasodilator response of large vessels is carried out using ultrasound equipment for vascular flow determinations and during administration of vasoactive drugs. This work proposes to use a substantially cheaper technique and a sustained cuff arterial occlusion in order to cause vasodilation. Impedance plethysmography is used to detect the arterial pulse wave over radial artery while the forearm is occluded by above the recording site. From these plethysmographic waves, three indexes and their changes -between control and maximal response post-occlusion- were calculated. 33 complete records obtained from healthy low-risk volunteers were analyzed. Between control and post-occlusion maximal response, "average percentual change of pulse wave amplitude" were (35±13)%, "stiffness index" did not show significant differences (6,38±0,98 vs 6,38±0,94 and "reflection index" was significant lower (58±15 vs 35±16)%. These results indicate that: 1- cuff occlusion maneuver was effective to cause endothelium-dependent vasodilation, 2-changes of pulse wave amplitude and reflection index could be used as markers of athero-arteriosclerotic damage in the vascular bed, even in sub-clinical conditions.

  3. Angiopoietins regulate vascular reactivity after haemorrhagic shock in rats through the Tie2-nitric oxide pathway.

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    Xu, Jing; Lan, Dan; Li, Tao; Yang, Guangming; Liu, Liangming

    2012-11-01

    Vascular reactivity shows biphasic changes after severe trauma or shock. Our aim was to elucidate the mechanisms of biphasic-changed vascular reactivity after haemorrhagic shock by observing the regulation of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) on it. Haemorrhagic-shock Sprague-Dawley rats, hypoxia-treated superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs) with intact endothelia, and a cell mixture of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and vascular endothelial cells (VECs) were adopted to evaluate the regulatory effects of Ang-1 and Ang-2 on vascular reactivity and their relationship to Tie2 (receptor tyrosine kinase)-Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Tie2-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signal pathways. Ang-1 expression, Tie2 phosphorylation, and nitric oxide (NO) release were increased at early shock. Exogenous Ang-1 maintained the vascular reactivity of SMAs after early hypoxia. Tie2-blocking antibody and the antagonists of Akt and eNOS antagonized Ang-1-induced maintenance in vascular reactivity and a slight release in NO at the early stage of shock. Ang-2 expression, Tie2 phosphorylation, and NO release were greatly increased at late shock, but exogenous Ang-2 further decreased the vascular reactivity of SMAs after late hypoxia. Tie2-blocking antibody and the antagonists of Erk and iNOS andtagonized the Ang-2-induced decrease in vascular reactivity and a large release of NO at the late stage of shock. Ang-1 and Ang-2 participated in the regulation of vascular reactivity after haemorrhagic shock. Ang-1 was mainly responsible for the hyperreactivity at early shock through the Tie2-Akt-eNOS pathway and an appropriate amount of NO release. Ang-2 was mainly responsible for the hyporeactivity at late shock through the Tie2-Erk-iNOS pathway and the release of a large amount of NO.

  4. Nox, Reactive Oxygen Species and Regulation of Vascular Cell Fate

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    Denise Burtenshaw

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and an imbalance of antioxidant defence mechanisms can result in oxidative stress. Several pro-atherogenic stimuli that promote intimal-medial thickening (IMT and early arteriosclerotic disease progression share oxidative stress as a common regulatory pathway dictating vascular cell fate. The major source of ROS generated within the vascular system is the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase family of enzymes (Nox, of which seven members have been characterized. The Nox family are critical determinants of the redox state within the vessel wall that dictate, in part the pathophysiology of several vascular phenotypes. This review highlights the putative role of ROS in controlling vascular fate by promoting endothelial dysfunction, altering vascular smooth muscle phenotype and dictating resident vascular stem cell fate, all of which contribute to intimal medial thickening and vascular disease progression.

  5. Mineralocorticoids participate in the reduced vascular reactivity of pregnant rats.

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    Provencher, M; Houde, V; Brochu, M; St-Louis, J

    2012-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system is markedly activated in pregnancy. We evaluated if mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), a major component of the RAA system, are involved in the reduced vascular reactivity associated with pregnancy. Canrenoate (MR antagonist; 20 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was administered to nonpregnant (NP) rats for 7 days and to pregnant rats from day 15 to 22 of gestation. These were killed on day 17, 19, or 22 of gestation and, for NP rats, after 7 days treatment. Constrictor responses to phenylephrine (PhE) and KCl were measured in endothelium-denuded thoracic aortic rings under the influence of modulators of potassium (activators) and calcium (blocker) channels. Responses to the constrictors were blunted from days 17 to 22 of gestation. Although canrenoate increased responses to PhE and KCl, it did not reverse their blunted responses in gestation. NS-1619 and cromakalim (respectively, high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and ATP-sensitive potassium channel activators) diminished responses to both PhE and KCl. Inhibition by NS-1619 on responses to both agonists was decreased under canrenoate treatment in NP, but the reduced influence of NS-1619 during gestation was reversed by the mineralocorticoid antagonist. Cromakalim reduced the response to PhE significantly in the pregnant groups; this effect was enhanced by canrenoate. Finally, nifedipine (calcium channel blocker) markedly reduced KCl responses but to a lesser extent at the end of pregnancy, an inhibiting effect that was increased with canrenoate treatment. These data demonstrate that treating rats with a MR antagonist increased vascular reactivity but that it differentially affected potassium and calcium channel activity in aortas of NP and pregnant animals. This suggests that aldosterone is one of the components involved in vascular adaptations to pregnancy.

  6. Vascular Reactivity and Salt Sensitivity in Normotensive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are not many studies designed to study the relationship between vascular reactivity and salt sensitivity in a black population. Fifty-two hypertensive (HT) and forty-seven age-matched normotensive (NT) Nigerian subjects took part in the study after informed consent was obtained from them. Ethical clearance was ...

  7. N-acetylcysteine improves arterial vascular reactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Wittstock, Antje; Burkert, Magdalena; Zidek, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease show increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that are partly related to impaired arterial vascular reactivity. We investigated whether intravenous administration of the antioxidant acetylcysteine improves arterial vascular reactivity...

  8. Renin- angiotensin system in control of vascular reactivity

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    I. Drenjančević-Perić

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to present recent knowledge of the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS in the control of vascular relaxation mechanisms and the relation to development and maintenance of hypertension. The emphasisis given on the role of oxidative stress and NO – dependent and prostanoid - dependent vascular relaxation mechanisms that are impaired in SS salt-sensitive rat strain (that exhibit chronically low plasma renin activity, and restored in consomic SS.13BN rats (that have chromosome 13, containing renin gene, introgressed from BN rat into SS genetic background. In conclusion, results of numerous experimental studies suggest that hypoactive (as well as hyperactive RAS may contribute to development and maintenance of hypertension due to the effects of angiotensin II on vascular reactivity.

  9. Impaired vascular reactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Tetzner, Fabian; Scholze, Alexandra; Wittstock, Antje

    2008-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) show increased cardiovascular morbidity. We hypothesized that vascular properties which can be routinely evaluated noninvasively are related to different stages of CKD and their clinical and biochemical characteristics.......Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) show increased cardiovascular morbidity. We hypothesized that vascular properties which can be routinely evaluated noninvasively are related to different stages of CKD and their clinical and biochemical characteristics....

  10. Reactivity of the isolated perfused rat tail vascular bed

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    A.S. França

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated segments of the perfused rat tail artery display a high basal tone when compared to other isolated arteries such as the mesenteric and are suitable for the assay of vasopressor agents. However, the perfusion of this artery in the entire tail has not yet been used for functional studies. The main purpose of the present study was to identify some aspects of the vascular reactivity of the rat tail vascular bed and validate this method to measure vascular reactivity. The tail severed from the body was perfused with Krebs solution containing different Ca2+ concentrations at different flow rates. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (65 mg/kg and heparinized (500 U. The tail artery was dissected near the tail insertion, cannulated and perfused with Krebs solution plus 30 µM EDTA at 36oC and 2.5 ml/min and the procedures were started after equilibration of the perfusion pressure. In the first group a dose-response curve to phenylephrine (PE (0.5, 1, 2 and 5 µg, bolus injection was obtained at different flow rates (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ml/min. The mean perfusion pressure increased with flow as well as PE vasopressor responses. In a second group the flow was changed (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 ml/min at different Ca2+ concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 3.75 mM in the Krebs solution. Increasing Ca2+ concentrations did not alter the flow-pressure relationship. In the third group a similar protocol was performed but the rat tail vascular bed was perfused with Krebs solution containing PE (0.1 µg/ml. There was an enhancement of the effect of PE with increasing external Ca2+ and flow. PE vasopressor responses increased after endothelial damage with air and CHAPS, suggesting an endothelial modulation of the tone of the rat tail vascular bed. These experiments validate the perfusion of the rat tail vascular bed as a method to investigate vascular reactivity

  11. C-reactive protein (CRP) in cerebro-vascular events.

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    Canova, C R; Courtin, C; Reinhart, W H

    1999-11-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a useful prognostic factor in coronary heart disease. It has not been previously studied in acute cerebro-vascular events, which was the topic of the present study. Patients admitted to the hospital for an acute cerebro-vascular event were prospectively investigated. C-reactive protein was determined nephelometrically. Infection or inflammation were excluded clinically and with an erythrocyte sedimentation rate brain was performed. According to initial brain imaging and the clinical course the 138 patients were divided into five groups: 20 with transient ischemic attack, 20 with reversible neurological deficit lasting less than 2 weeks, 61 with completed stroke and restitution, 16 with stroke without restitution and 21 with cerebral hemorrhage. Median CRP values (range) were 3.2 (2.4-13.5), 3.3 (2.4-39.4), 4.2 (2.4-73. 4), 3.4 (3.2-44.0) and 3.5 (2.4-104.0 mg/l), respectively with no significant differences between groups in a non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis). Risk factors for vascular disease in general and stroke in particular had no visible influence on CRP levels. No relationship was found between time interval since onset of symptoms and CRP measurement, suggesting that an acute cerebro-vascular event has little influence on CRP values. CRP is not a useful marker to predict the outcome of an acute cerebro-vascular event on hospital admission. This is in contrast to acute coronary events.

  12. Kcne4 Deletion Sex-Dependently Alters Vascular Reactivity

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    Abbott, Geoffrey W; Jepps, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels formed by Kv7 (KCNQ) α-subunits are recognized as crucial for vascular smooth muscle function, in addition to their established roles in the heart (Kv7.1) and the brain (Kv7.2-5). In vivo, Kv7 α-subunits are often regulated by KCNE subfamily ancillary (β) sub...... known molecular mechanism for sex-specificity of this modulation that has important implications for vascular reactivity and may underlie sex-specific susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases.......Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels formed by Kv7 (KCNQ) α-subunits are recognized as crucial for vascular smooth muscle function, in addition to their established roles in the heart (Kv7.1) and the brain (Kv7.2-5). In vivo, Kv7 α-subunits are often regulated by KCNE subfamily ancillary (β...... transcripts, with no striking sex-specific differences. However, Kv7.4 protein expression in females was twice that in males, and was reduced in both sexes by Kcne4 deletion. Our findings confirm a crucial role for KCNE4 in regulation of Kv7 channel activity to modulate vascular tone, and provide the first...

  13. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

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    Eros Antonio de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. Objective: To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5: G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16th day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg; G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg; G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg; G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg. After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Results: Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Conclusion: Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  14. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

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    Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br; Ozaki, Michiko Regina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5): G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16{sup th} day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg); G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg); G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg); G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg). After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  15. Metformin Exposure During Pregnancy and Lactation Did Not Cause Vascular Reactivity Alteration in Adult Male Offsprings.

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    Novi, Daniella R B S; Forcato, Simone; Vidigal, Camila B; Loiola, Guilherme H; Gerardin, Daniela C C; Ceravolo, Graziela S

    2017-11-01

    Metformin has been used for the treatment of some metabolic diseases during gestation and the beneficial effects of metformin to the vascular system have been described in diabetic and obese animal models. Nevertheless, the long-term consequences to the vascular system of offsprings maternally exposed to metformin have not yet been characterized. Therefore, we want to test the hypothesis that gestational and lactational exposure to metformin would be safe for the vascular reactivity of male adult offsprings. Wistar female rats were treated with metformin 293 mg·kg·d, by gavage, from gestational day (GD) 0 to GD 21 (METG) or GD 0 until postnatal day 21 (METGL). Control dams received water by gavage in the same periods (CTRG and CTRGL). In male offsprings (75 days), the aortic reactivity to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside in the presence or absence of endothelium were evaluated. The results demonstrated that aortic contraction and relaxation were similar between groups. These data showed that metformin exposure during pregnancy and lactation did not interfere with aortic reactivity, suggesting that metformin exposure during gestational and lactation are safe for the offsprings' vascular system.

  16. Effects of acid-base imbalance on vascular reactivity

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    A.C. Celotto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base homeostasis maintains systemic arterial pH within a narrow range. Whereas the normal range of pH for clinical laboratories is 7.35-7.45, in vivo pH is maintained within a much narrower range. In clinical and experimental settings, blood pH can vary in response to respiratory or renal impairment. This altered pH promotes changes in vascular smooth muscle tone with impact on circulation and blood pressure control. Changes in pH can be divided into those occurring in the extracellular space (pHo and those occurring within the intracellular space (pHi, although, extracellular and intracellular compartments influence each other. Consistent with the multiple events involved in the changes in tone produced by altered pHo, including type of vascular bed, several factors and mechanisms, in addition to hydrogen ion concentration, have been suggested to be involved. The scientific literature has many reports concerning acid-base balance and endothelium function, but these concepts are not clear about acid-base disorders and their relations with the three known mechanisms of endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity: nitric oxide (NO/cGMP-dependent, prostacyclin (PGI2/cAMP-dependent and hyperpolarization. During the last decades, many studies have been published and have given rise to confronting data on acid-base disorder and endothelial function. Therefore, the main proposal of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the state of art and incentivate researchers to develop more studies about these issues.

  17. C-reactive protein variability is associated with vascular access outcome in hemodialysis patients.

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    Kuo, Wei-Hung; Lee, Yueh-Ting; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Wang, Chun-Yeh; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Lee, Chien-Te

    2018-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) vascular access failure is one of the most important causes of morbidity and contributes to the cost of dialysis care. There is paucity of data evaluating long-term monitoring of C-reactive protein (CRP) on outcome of HD vascular access. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether variability of serum CRP level was associated with vascular access failure rate over a 7-year period. A total of 318 HD patients were included. Their demographic data, co-morbidities and biochemical data were reviewed and collected. Serum high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) level was measured every 6 months. Patients were divided into three groups according to their serial hs-CRP levels. Patients with their hs-CRP below 2 mg/L were defined as low group (n=65, 20.4%) and those with higher than 4 mg/L were defined as high (n=39, 12.3%). The rest were classified as fluctuated hs-CRP group (n=214, 67.3%). Treatment of vascular access failure includes angioplasty and access re-creation. Their body mass index, indicators of dialysis adequacy and serum albumin and hs-CRP levels differed significantly among three groups. The annual vascular access failure rate was significantly higher in fluctuated hs-CRP group than in high hs-CRP group (0.41 vs 0.36, P=.037). Serum albumin was a significant associate of vascular access failure. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated patients with high or fluctuated hs-CRP had shorter free interval of vascular access failure than low hs-CRP group. HD patients with fluctuated hs-CRP levels were associated with increased vascular access failure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. New Indices of Endothelial Function Measured by Digital Thermal Monitoring of Vascular Reactivity: Data from 6084 Patients Registry

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    Morteza Naghavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial function is viewed as a barometer of cardiovascular health and plays a central role in vascular reactivity. Several studies showed digital thermal monitoring (DTM as a simple noninvasive method to measure vascular reactivity that is correlated with atherosclerosis risk factors and coronary artery disease. Objectives. To further evaluate the relations between patient characteristics and DTM indices in a large patient registry. Methods. DTM measures were correlated with age, sex, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 6084 patients from 18 clinics. Results. DTM vascular reactivity index (VRI was normally distributed and inversely correlated with age (r=-0.21, p<0.0001. Thirteen percent of VRI tests were categorized as poor vascular reactivity (VRI < 1.0, 70 percent as intermediate (1.0 ≤ VRI < 2.0, and 17 percent as good (VRI ≥ 2.0. Poor VRI (<1.0 was noted in 6% of <50 y, 10% of 50–70 y, and 18% of ≥70 y. In multiple linear regression analyses, age, sex, and diastolic blood pressure were significant but weak predictors of VRI. Conclusions. As the largest database of finger-based vascular reactivity measurement, this report adds to prior findings that VRI is a meaningful physiological marker and reflects a high level of residual risk found in patients currently under care.

  19. Cerebral vascular reactivity on return from the International Space Station

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    Zuj, Kathryn; Greaves, Danielle; Shoemaker, Kevin; Blaber, Andrew; Hughson, Richard L.

    Returning from spaceflight, astronauts experience a high incidence of orthostatic intolerance and syncope. Longer duration space flight may result in greater adaptations to microgravity which could increase the post-flight incidence of syncope. CCISS (Cardiovascular and Cerebovascular Control on return from the International Space Station) is an ongoing project designed to help determine adaptations that occur during spaceflight which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance. One component of this project involves looking at cerebral vascular responses before and after long duration spaceflight. As a known vasodilator, carbon dioxide (CO2) has been frequently used to assess changes in cerebral vascular reactivity. In this experiment, end tidal PCO2 was manipulated through changes in respired air. Two breaths of a 10% CO2 gas mixture were administered at 1-min intervals resulting in an increase in end tidal PCO2 . Throughout the testing, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was determined using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. The cerebral resistance index (RI) was calculated from the Doppler wave form using the equation; RI=(CBFVsystolic-CBFVdiastolic)/CBFVsystolic. Changes in this index have been shown to reflect changes in cerebral vascular resistance. Peak responses to the CO2 stimulus were determined and compared to baseline measures taken at the beginning of the testing. Cerebral blood flow velocity increased and RI decreased with the two breaths of CO2. Preliminary data show a 36.0% increase in CBFV and a 9.0% decrease in RI pre-flight. Post flight, the response to CO2 appears to change showing a potentially blunted decrease in resistance (6.8%) and a smaller increase in CBFV (22.8%). Long term spaceflight may result in cerebrovascular changes which could decrease the vasodilatory capacity of cerebral resistance vessels. Further investigations in the CCISS project will reveal the interactive role of CO2 and arterial blood pressure on maintenance of brain

  20. Soy isoflavones enhance coronary vascular reactivity in atherosclerotic female macaques.

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    Honoré, E K; Williams, J K; Anthony, M S; Clarkson, T B

    1997-01-01

    To examine the effects of soy phytoestrogens on coronary vascular reactivity in atherosclerotic male and female rhesus monkeys. A prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled study. Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center of an academic medical center. Twenty-two young adult rhesus monkeys with pre-existing diet-induced atherosclerosis. Monkeys were fed soy-based diets for 6 months identical in composition, except that the isoflavones were extracted from one flow-isoflavone) and intact in the other (high-isoflavone). Quantitative coronary angiography was performed at the end of the study period. Females in the low-isoflavone group under went a second angiography after an acute IV dose of genistein. Percent change in diameter of the proximal left circumflex coronary artery in response to intracoronary acetylcholine and nitroglycerin, compared with control diameter. Arteries from males constricted in response to acetylcholine. Arteries from females in the low-isoflavone group constricted (-6.2% +/- 2.8%, mean +/- SEM), whereas arteries from females in the high-isoflavone group dilated (6.4% +/- 1.2%, mean +/- SEM). Intravenous administration of genistein caused dilation in the previously constricting low-isoflavone females (3.3% +/- 2.8%). Like mammalian estrogens, dietary soy isoflavones enhance the dilator response to acetylcholine of atherosclerotic arteries in female monkeys.

  1. Differences in vascular reactivity between pregnant women with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia.

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    Mori, Toshitaka; Watanabe, Kazushi; Iwasaki, Ai; Kimura, Chiharu; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distinct pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic hypertension in pregnancy and preeclampsia in terms of oxidative stress and vascular reactivity. A total of 17 women with uncomplicated pregnancies, 30 women with preeclampsia and 17 women with chronic hypertension were evaluated. We measured serum derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs; marker of oxygen free radicals), flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD; marker of endothelial function) and intima-media thickness in the carotid artery (IMT; marker of atherogenesis) during pregnancy and 1 month after delivery. Serum d-ROM concentrations were significantly higher in women with chronic hypertension and severe preeclampsia than in the control group during pregnancy. d-ROM concentrations in all groups significantly decreased to similar levels 1 month after delivery. FMD was significantly lower during pregnancy in preeclamptic and chronic hypertension groups compared with the control group. FMD in preeclamptic groups significantly increased and normalized to control levels after delivery. Similarly, FMD in the chronic hypertension group significantly increased after delivery but was still lower. IMT in the chronic hypertension group was significantly higher than that in control and preeclamptic groups. These findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction induced by enhanced oxidative stress is reversible in women with preeclampsia, whereas impaired vascular reactivity may be associated with atherosclerotic changes in women with chronic hypertension.

  2. Increased vascular adrenergic vasoconstriction and decreased vasodilation in blacks. Additive mechanisms leading to enhanced vascular reactivity.

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    Stein, C M; Lang, C C; Singh, I; He, H B; Wood, A J

    2000-12-01

    Blood pressure reactivity is enhanced in young black subjects through mechanisms that are poorly understood. We compared alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstrictor and ss-adrenergic vasodilator sensitivity and their relation to sympathetic activity in blacks and whites. Ten healthy black (age, 29.9+/-2.4 years) and 10 white (age, 28.3+/-1.9 years) men were studied. Forearm blood flow was measured with strain-gauge plethysmography after the intrabrachial artery administration of phenylephrine (1.25 to 20 microgram/min) and isoproterenol (60 and 400 ng/min) after application of lower-body negative pressure and after a cold pressor test. Forearm and systemic norepinephrine spillover were measured with a radioisotope dilution technique. alpha-Adrenergic vasoconstriction was markedly increased (ANOVA P=0.008) and ss-adrenergic vasodilation decreased (ANOVA P=0.02) in blacks. Phenylephrine (10 microgram/min) decreased forearm blood flow by 58.0+/-2.5% in blacks but only by 26.6+/-6.0% in whites (Ptone caused by enhanced vasoconstriction and attenuated vasodilation, effects that would be additive, and not increased sympathetic activity could enhance vascular reactivity and may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in blacks.

  3. Effects of different frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on venous vascular reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, O.S.; Paulitsch, F.S.; Pereira, A.P.C.; Teixeira, A.O. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Faculdade de Medicina, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Silva, A.M.V. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Plentz, R.D.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Reabilitação, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto do Coração, Unidade de Hipertensão, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Signori, L.U. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Faculdade de Medicina, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a type of therapy used primarily for analgesia, but also presents changes in the cardiovascular system responses; its effects are dependent upon application parameters. Alterations to the cardiovascular system suggest that TENS may modify venous vascular response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TENS at different frequencies (10 and 100 Hz) on venous vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomized into three groups: placebo (n=10), low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, n=9) and high-frequency TENS (100 Hz, n=10). TENS was applied for 30 min in the nervous plexus trajectory from the superior member (from cervical to dorsal region of the fist) at low (10 Hz/200 μs) and high frequency (100 Hz/200 μs) with its intensity adjusted below the motor threshold and intensified every 5 min, intending to avoid accommodation. Venous vascular reactivity in response to phenylephrine, acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent) was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique. The phenylephrine effective dose to achieve 70% vasoconstriction was reduced 53% (P<0.01) using low-frequency TENS (10 Hz), while in high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz), a 47% increased dose was needed (P<0.01). The endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and independent (sodium nitroprusside) responses were not modified by TENS, which modifies venous responsiveness, and increases the low-frequency sensitivity of α1-adrenergic receptors and shows high-frequency opposite effects. These changes represent an important vascular effect caused by TENS with implications for hemodynamics, inflammation and analgesia.

  4. Effects of different frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on venous vascular reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Franco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a type of therapy used primarily for analgesia, but also presents changes in the cardiovascular system responses; its effects are dependent upon application parameters. Alterations to the cardiovascular system suggest that TENS may modify venous vascular response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TENS at different frequencies (10 and 100 Hz on venous vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomized into three groups: placebo (n=10, low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, n=9 and high-frequency TENS (100 Hz, n=10. TENS was applied for 30 min in the nervous plexus trajectory from the superior member (from cervical to dorsal region of the fist at low (10 Hz/200 μs and high frequency (100 Hz/200 μs with its intensity adjusted below the motor threshold and intensified every 5 min, intending to avoid accommodation. Venous vascular reactivity in response to phenylephrine, acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique. The phenylephrine effective dose to achieve 70% vasoconstriction was reduced 53% (P<0.01 using low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, while in high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz, a 47% increased dose was needed (P<0.01. The endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine and independent (sodium nitroprusside responses were not modified by TENS, which modifies venous responsiveness, and increases the low-frequency sensitivity of α1-adrenergic receptors and shows high-frequency opposite effects. These changes represent an important vascular effect caused by TENS with implications for hemodynamics, inflammation and analgesia.

  5. Effects of a lifestyle program on vascular reactivity in macro- and microcirculation in severely obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, David; Walther, Guillaume; Perez-Martin, Antonia; Mercier, Charles S; Gayrard, Sandrine; Vicente-Salar, Nestor; Sempere-Ortells, José Miguel; Martinez-Peinado, Pascual; Roche, Enrique; Vinet, Agnès

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively assess the macro- and microcirculation of severely obese adolescents (SOA) and normal-weight counterparts and to determine the longitudinal effects of weight loss on vascular function in SOA. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Seventeen SOA (body mass index z-score = 4.22 ± 0.73) and 19 puberty-matched normal-weight counterparts (body mass index z-score = -0.02 ± 1.04) were included. The SOA participated in a 4 month weight loss program. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and response to sublingual nitrate (nitrate-mediated dilation [NMD]) were assessed by high-resolution ultrasound. Microvascular reactivity was evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry in response to NMD, iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, and local hyperthermia. Plasma insulin, leptin, resistin, C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, and tissue plasminogen activator were measured. At baseline, SOA had similar flow-mediated dilation and impaired NMD in the brachial artery compared to normal-weight adolescents. Similarly, peak responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis and to local hyperthermia were unaltered, whereas cutaneous blood flow after NMD was lower in the forearm microcirculation of SOA. All plasma measurements were significantly higher in SOA. After the 4-month program, SOA presented a weight reduction of 7.4 ± 3.1%, but neither brachial artery nor microvascular reactivity variables were improved. Significant decreases were detected in plasma leptin, myeloperoxidase, and tissue plasminogen activator. Macro- and microvascular endothelial function are preserved in adolescents with severe obesity. Conversely, weight loss does not improve their impaired smooth muscle response to exogenous organic nitrate in both vascular beds, despite reducing plasma markers adversely related to vascular homeostasis.

  6. C-reactive protein and microalbuminuria differ in their associations with various domains of vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuveling, EM; Hillege, HL; Bakker, SJL; Asselbergs, FW; de Jong, PE; Gans, ROB; de Zeeuw, D

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and microalbuminuria (MA) have been identified as risk markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We questioned whether CRP and MA are similar markers of vascular disease in different regions of the vascular tree like the heart, kidneys and extremities or if they differ in

  7. Selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition improves collateral vascular reactivity in biliary cirrhotic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chih Chang

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: There was no significant hemodynamic change and renal toxicity after acute administration of COX inhibitor in the FBDL-induced cirrhotic rats. Preincubation of selective COX-1, but not COX-2, inhibitor could enhance collateral vascular response to AVP, indicating that COX-1 plays a major role in the collateral vascular reactivity.

  8. Cyclic Stretch Alters Vascular Reactivity of Mouse Aortic Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Leloup

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large, elastic arteries buffer the pressure wave originating in the left ventricle and are constantly exposed to higher amplitudes of cyclic stretch (10% than muscular arteries (2%. As a crucial factor for endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, cyclic stretch has, however, never been studied in ex vivo aortic segments of mice. To investigate the effects of cyclic stretch on vaso-reactivity of mouse aortic segments, we used the Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance (ROTSAC. The aortic segments were clamped at frequencies of 6–600 bpm between two variable preloads, thereby mimicking dilation as upon left ventricular systole and recoiling as during diastole. The preloads corresponding to different transmural pressures were chosen to correspond to a low, normal or high amplitude of cyclic stretch. At different time intervals, cyclic stretch was interrupted, the segments were afterloaded and isometric contractions by α1-adrenergic stimulation with 2 μM phenylephrine in the absence and presence of 300 μM L-NAME (eNOS inhibitor and/or 35 μM diltiazem (blocker of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels were measured. As compared with static or cyclic stretch at low amplitude (<10 mN or low frequency (0.1 Hz, cyclic stretch at physiological amplitude (>10 mN and frequency (1–10 Hz caused better ex vivo conservation of basal NO release with time after mounting. The relaxation of PE-precontracted segments by addition of ACh to stimulate NO release was unaffected by cyclic stretch. In the absence of basal NO release (hence, presence of L-NAME, physiological in comparison with aberrant cyclic stretch decreased the baseline tension, attenuated the phasic contraction by phenylephrine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and shifted the smaller tonic contraction more from a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated to a non-selective cation channel-mediated. Data highlight the need of sufficient mechanical activation of endothelial and

  9. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal [MLC 5031 Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adams, Denise M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics and Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gupta, Anita [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  10. Effect of magnesium on vascular reactivity in NOS inhibition-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basralı, Filiz; Nasırcılar Ülker, Seher; Koçer, Günnur; Ülker Karadamar, Pınar; Özyurt, Dilek; Cengiz, Melike; Şentürk, Ümit Kemal

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of magnesium on the vascular reactivity of conduit and resistance arteries in a nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension model. The aorta and third-order branches of the mesenteric artery were dissected from normotensive control and hypertensive rats, and their constriction and dilation responses in physiological saline solution containing normal (1.2 mM) or high (4.8 mM) magnesium concentrations were examined. The responses of the vessels were evaluated using potassium chloride (KCl) and phenylephrine (Phe), acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside. The Phe-induced constriction response of the aortic rings increased, whereas the ACh-induced dilation response decreased, in the hypertensive group compared to controls, in the presence of a normal magnesium concentration. High magnesium did not alter these responses in either group. Both the KCl- and Phe-induced constriction responses of the mesenteric arteries increased, and the ACh-induced dilation response decreased in the hypertensive group compared to controls, in the presence of a normal magnesium concentration. High magnesium significantly decreased the KCl and Phe-induced constriction and increased the ACh-induced dilation response of the mesenteric arteries in the hypertensive group, while it did not alter these responses in controls. This study suggests that high magnesium improves vascular reactivity of resistance-, but not conduit-type arteries in the nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension model.

  11. The effect of mode of delivery on placental chorionic plate vascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Tracey A; Baker, Philip N; Wareing, Mark

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether delivery mode influences placental chorionic plate arterial and venous vascular reactivity. Normal term placentas were obtained after vaginal delivery or cesarean section. Chorionic plate arterial and venous function was assessed by wire myography. Sodium nitroprusside-induced arterial relaxation increased post cesarean section at 20% oxygen. Decreased U46619-induced venous contraction was observed in vaginal deliveries at 7% oxygen. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation increased in vaginal delivery at 20% oxygen. Delivery mode does not alter chorionic plate arterial vascular reactivity under physiological conditions, however venous reactivity was modified, a factor for consideration when interpreting functional experimental data.

  12. Reactive oxygen species and angiotensin II signaling in vascular cells: implications in cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touyz R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are associated with vascular functional and structural changes including endothelial dysfunction, altered contractility and vascular remodeling. Cellular events underlying these processes involve changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC growth, apoptosis/anoikis, cell migration, inflammation, and fibrosis. Many factors influence cellular changes, of which angiotensin II (Ang II appears to be amongst the most important. The physiological and pathophysiological actions of Ang II are mediated primarily via the Ang II type 1 receptor. Growing evidence indicates that Ang II induces its pleiotropic vascular effects through NADPH-driven generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS function as important intracellular and intercellular second messengers to modulate many downstream signaling molecules, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases, protein tyrosine kinases, transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and ion channels. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to VSMC growth and migration, regulation of endothelial function, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, and modification of extracellular matrix. In addition, ROS increase intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, a major determinant of vascular reactivity. ROS influence signaling molecules by altering the intracellular redox state and by oxidative modification of proteins. In physiological conditions, these events play an important role in maintaining vascular function and integrity. Under pathological conditions ROS contribute to vascular dysfunction and remodeling through oxidative damage. The present review focuses on the biology of ROS in Ang II signaling in vascular cells and discusses how oxidative stress contributes to vascular damage in cardiovascular disease.

  13. Genetically elevated C-reactive protein and ischemic vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    in CRP levels of up to 64%, resulting in a theoretically predicted increased risk of up to 32% for ischemic heart disease and up to 25% for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. However, these genotype combinations were not associated with an increased risk of ischemic vascular disease. In contrast......, apolipoprotein E genotypes were associated with both elevated cholesterol levels and an increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in the CRP gene are associated with marked increases in CRP levels and thus with a theoretically predicted increase in the risk of ischemic vascular disease....... However, these polymorphisms are not in themselves associated with an increased risk of ischemic vascular disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10/30...

  14. The effect of chronic nitric oxide inhibition on vascular reactivity and blood pressure in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Hideto Takiuti

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The exact mechanism involved in changes in blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the importance of endothelium-derivated relaxing factor (EDRF and its main component, nitric oxide, in blood pressure and vascular reactivity in pregnant rats. DESIGN: Clinical trial in experimentation animals. SETTING: University laboratory of Pharmacology. SAMPLE: Female Wistar rats with normal blood pressure, weight (152 to 227 grams and age (90 to 116 days. INTERVENTION: The rats were divided in to four groups: pregnant rats treated with L-NAME (13 rats; pregnant control rats (8 rats; virgin rats treated with L-NAME (10 rats; virgin control rats (12 rats. The vascular preparations and caudal blood pressure were obtained at the end of pregnancy, or after the administration of L-NAME in virgin rats. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The caudal blood pressure and the vascular response to acetylcholine in pre-contracted aortic rings, both with and without endothelium, and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition, Nw-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME, in pregnant and virgin rats. The L-NAME was administered in the drinking water over a 10-day period. RESULTS: The blood pressure decreased in pregnancy. Aortic rings of pregnant rats were more sensitive to acetylcholine than those of virgin rats. After L-NAME treatment, the blood pressure increased and relaxation was blocked in both groups. The fetal-placental unit weight of the L-NAME group was lower than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation sensitivity was greater in pregnant rats and that blood pressure increased after L-NAME administration while the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation response was blocked.

  15. Local vascular CO2 reactivity in the infant brain assessed by functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P.B.; Leth, H; Lou, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    hyperventilated voluntarily, the vascular reactivity was homogeneously distributed predominantly over the grey matter. The experiments demonstrate that local impairment of vascular CO2 reactivity in the distressed infant brain can be detected by T2 sensitive gradient-echo MRI, which is also known as functional......The local cerebral vascular response to hyperventilation was investigated in five distressed, intubated infants by means of a T2 sensitive gradient-echo MRI technique at 1.5 T. In one preterm infant, the MR signal change during hyperventilation was sparse. In four term infants, the mean MR signal...... of the brain slice investigated decreased by 1.2-2.6% per kPa change in PCO2 as a reflection of decreased cerebral blood flow during hyperventilation. Pixel-wise analysis revealed absence of vascular response in the basal ganglia, the thalamus or in the occipital region. In two adult controls, who...

  16. Digital thermal monitoring (DTM) of vascular reactivity closely correlates with Doppler flow velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilkin, Gary L; Panthagani, David; Metcalfe, Ralph W; Hassan, Haider; Yen, Albert A; Naghavi, Morteza; Hartley, Craig J

    2009-01-01

    The noninvasive measurement of peripheral vascular reactivity, as an indicator of vascular function, provides a valuable tool for cardiovascular screening of at-risk populations. Practical and economical considerations demand that such a test be low-cost and simple to use. To this end, it is advantageous to substitute digital thermal monitoring (DTM) for the more costly and complex Doppler system commonly used for this measurement. A signal processing model was developed to establish the basis for the relationship between finger temperature reactivity and blood flow reactivity following a transient brachial artery occlusion and reperfusion protocol (reactive hyperemia). Flow velocity signals were acquired from the radial artery of human subjects via an 8 MHz Doppler probe while simultaneous DTM signals were acquired from a distal fingertip via DTM sensors. The model transforms the DTM temperature signals into normalized flow signals via a deconvolution method which employs an exponential impulse function. The DTM normalized flow signals were compared to simultaneous, low-frequency, normalized flow signals computed from Doppler sensors. The normalized flow signals, derived from DTM and Doppler sensors, were found to yield similar reactivity responses during reperfusion. The reactivity areas derived from DTM and Doppler sensors, indicative of hyperemic volumes, were found to be within +/- 15%. In conclusion, this signal processing model provides a means to measure vascular reactivity using DTM sensors, that is equivalent to that obtained by more complex Doppler systems.

  17. Preserved vascular reactivity of rat renal arteries after cold storage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Stringer, M.; Terlunen, L.; Siero, H.L.M.; Russel, F.G.M.; Smits, P.; Kramers, C.

    2004-01-01

    In cultured renal tubular cells hypothermia results in cell damage caused by iron-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species. It is unknown whether cold preservation affects function of renal vessels. Rat renal arcuate arteries were stored in a physiological salt solution at 4 degrees C for 24h

  18. Vascular Reactivity and Salt Sensitivity in Normotensive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physiology, 1Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Nigeria and 2College of Medicine,. University of Lagos, (CMUL), .... were excluded from the study if they were pregnant or breast feeding or if they had history of poor ..... The present results show higher SBP reactivity in the normotensive subjects ...

  19. Pulmonary vascular reactivity and hemorheology in patients with chronic cor pulmonale: responses to pentoxifylline at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturani, C; Palareti, G; Poggi, M; Schiavina, M; Torricelli, P; Papiris, S; Coccheri, S; Gunella, G

    1986-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to evaluate changes in pulmonary vascular reactivity and in hemorheology induced by pentoxifylline infusion (100 mg) at rest and during standardized exercise in patients with chronic cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The administration of pentoxifylline at rest was associated with reduction in mean pulmonary artery pressure (p less than 0.01), pulmonary vascular resistance (p less than 0.01) and right ventricular stroke work index (p less than 0.02). Standard exercise performed after pentoxifylline infusion was also associated with significant reduction in mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Rheologic tests showed less evident changes. Our data suggest that pentoxifylline significantly improves pulmonary hemodynamics at rest and partly reverses its changes, after exercise, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. Alteration of vascular reactivity in heart failure: role of phosphodiesterases 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, F; Belacel-Ouari, M; Manoury, B; Zhai, K; Domergue-Dupont, V; Mateo, P; Joubert, F; Fischmeister, R; Leblais, V

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study examined the role of the main vascular cAMP-hydrolysing phosphodiesterases (cAMP-PDE) in the regulation of basal vascular tone and relaxation of rat aorta mediated by β-adrenoceptors, following heart failure (HF). Experimental Approach Twenty-two weeks after proximal aortic stenosis, to induce HF, or SHAM surgery in rats, we evaluated the expression, activity and function of cAMP-PDE in the descending thoracic aorta. Key Results HF rat aortas exhibited signs of endothelial dysfunction, with alterations of the NO pathway, and alteration of PDE3 and PDE4 subtype expression, without changing total aortic cAMP-hydrolytic activity and PDE1, PDE3 and PDE4 activities. Vascular reactivity experiments using PDE inhibitors showed that PDE3 and PDE4 controlled the level of PGF2α-stimulated contraction in SHAM aorta. PDE3 function was partially inhibited by endothelial NO, whereas PDE4 function required a functional endothelium and was under the negative control of PDE3. In HF, PDE3 function was preserved, but its regulation by endothelial NO was altered. PDE4 function was abolished and restored by PDE3 inhibition. In PGF2α-precontracted arteries, β-adrenoceptor stimulation-induced relaxation in SHAM aorta, which was abolished in the absence of functional endothelium, as well as in HF aortas, but restored after PDE3 inhibition in all unresponsive arteries. Conclusions and Implications Our study underlines the key role of the endothelium in controlling the contribution of smooth muscle PDE to contractile function. In HF, endothelial dysfunction had a major effect on PDE3 function and PDE3 inhibition restored a functional relaxation to β-adrenoceptor stimulation. PMID:25048877

  1. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in limb vascular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be one of the most important regulatory compounds within the cardiovascular system where it is central for functions such as regulation of blood pressure, blood flow and vascular growth. The bioavailability of NO is determined by a balance between, on one hand...... and xanthine oxidase and the degree of ROS removal through the antioxidant defense system. The development of cardiovascular disease has been proposed to be closely related to a reduced bioavailability of NO in parallel with an increased presence of ROS. Excessive levels of ROS not only lower....... Regular physical activity is therefore likely to be a highly useful tool in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Future studies should focus on which form of exercise that may be most optimal for enhancing NO bioavailability and improving cardiovascular health....

  2. Chronic hypoxia increases fetoplacental vascular resistance and vasoconstrictor reactivity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoubek, Vít; Bíbová, Jana; Herget, Jan; Hampl, Václav

    2008-04-01

    An increase in fetoplacental vascular resistance caused by hypoxia is considered one of the key factors of placental hypoperfusion and fetal undernutrition leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), one of the serious problems in current neonatology. However, although acute hypoxia has been shown to cause fetoplacental vasoconstriction, the effects of more sustained hypoxic exposure are unknown. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia elicits elevations in fetoplacental resistance, that this effect is not completely reversible by acute reoxygenation, and that it is accompanied by increased acute vasoconstrictor reactivity of the fetoplacental vasculature. We measured fetoplacental vascular resistance as well as acute vasoconstrictor reactivity in isolated perfused placentae from rats exposed to hypoxia (10% O(2)) during the last week of a 3-wk pregnancy. We found that chronic hypoxia shifted the relationship between perfusion pressure and flow rate toward higher pressure values (by approximately 20%). This increased vascular resistance was refractory to a high dose of sodium nitroprusside, implying the involvement of other factors than increased vascular tone. Chronic hypoxia also increased vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II (by approximately 75%) and to acute hypoxic challenges (by >150%). We conclude that chronic prenatal hypoxia causes a sustained elevation of fetoplacental vascular resistance and vasoconstrictor reactivity that are likely to produce placental hypoperfusion and fetal undernutrition in vivo.

  3. Pancreatic transplantation: Radiologic evaluation of vascular complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, J.F.; Hunter, D.W.; Kuni, C.C.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Letourneau, J.G. (Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Transplantation of the pancreas is an increasingly common therapeutic option for preventing or delaying complications of type I diabetes mellitus. The authors studied the relative roles of various radiologic examinations in diagnosing vascular complications in these grafts including arterial and venous thrombosis, stenosis, and anastomotic leak (the most common vascular factors that necessitate pancreatectomy of the transplant), as defined with pathologic or arteriographic data. The results of 78 scintigraphic flow studies, 40 abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scans, 27 sonograms, and eight color Doppler studies were evaluated in 52 patients who received a total of 27 cadaveric and 26 living-donor grafts over a 12-year period. These results were correlated with the data from 45 gross and microscopic pathologic studies and 37 arteriograms to determine their relative value in enabling detection of graft thrombosis and other vascular complications. Scintigraphy, CT, sonography, and color Doppler were all sensitive in detection of generalized graft abnormalities but lacked specificity in defining the underlying etiologic factors.

  4. [C-reactive protein and risk of ischaemic vascular and cerebrovascular disease--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated levels of C reactive protein (CRP) are associated with increased risk of ischaemic vascular disease. We tested whether this is a causal association. CRP > 3 vs disease of 1.6 and 1.3, respectively. Four...... vascular disease Udgivelsesdato: 2009/5/18...... CRP polymorphisms were associated with a 64% increase in CRP levels, resulting in a theoretically predicted increased risk of 32% and 25% for ischemic heart- and ischemic cerebrovascular disease, respectively. However, these genotype combinations were not associated with an increased risk of ischaemic...

  5. Nitric oxide-mediated changes in vascular reactivity in pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Z. M.; Beilin, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. To examine the mechanisms which may account for pregnancy-induced vasodilatation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we have investigated the changes in vascular reactivity and the effects of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in the in situ blood-perfused, mesenteric resistance vessels of 18-20 day pregnant SHR. The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) were compared in pregnant and nonpregnant SHR and gestation matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. 2. Intra-arteria...

  6. Local versus systemic influences on uterine vascular reactivity during pregnancy in the single-horn gravid rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert; Colton, Ilsley; Gokina, Natalia; Mandala, Maurizio; Osol, George

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether gestational changes in maternal uterine artery reactivity are primarily driven by local vs. systemic factors. Rats underwent surgical ligation of one oviduct, thereby restricting implantation and pregnancy to one uterine horn while maintaining a gestational endocrine milieu. Uterine arcuate arteries were isolated and cannulated to evaluate reactivity. Vessels from the implanted horn were significantly more sensitive to phenylephrine and less sensitive to sodium nitroprusside than those from the non-implanted horn; endothelial basal calcium levels were only increased in the implanted horn. Conversely, there were no differences in sensitivity to acetylcholine, or its effects on endothelial cell calcium, although efficacy was greater in vessels from the implanted vs. non-implanted horn. These findings demonstrate that local factors are predominant in inducing changes in vascular smooth muscle function, while endothelial adaptations result from an interplay between local and systemic factors, with distinct effects attributable to each.

  7. Perceived racism and vascular reactivity in black college women: moderating effects of seeking social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study explored the association of perceived racism and seeking social support to vascular reactivity in a college sample of 110 Black women. Perceived racism and seeking social support were assessed via self-report, and vascular reactivity was measured before and during a standardized speaking task. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived racism was positively related to changes in systolic blood pressure. These analyses also indicated that seeking social support moderated the relationship between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes. This interaction effect persisted after controlling for several potential confounders. Follow-up regression analyses showed that perceived racism was positively associated with reactivity among participants who were low in seeking social support. A significant relationship was not observed between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes among participants who were high in seeking social support. Perceived racism and seeking social support were not significantly associated with changes in diastolic blood pressure. These findings highlight the importance of examining psychosocial factors that may mitigate the hypothesized relationship between perceived racism and reactivity. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Noninvasive ultrasound assessment of maternal vascular reactivity during pregnancy: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, Wendy L; Smulian, John C; Ananth, Cande V; Vintzileos, Anthony M

    2004-08-01

    To estimate the pattern of maternal vascular reactivity in normal and high-risk pregnancies using postocclusion brachial artery diameter. Prospective, longitudinal study of 44 low-risk singleton pregnancies and 28 high-risk pregnancies, defined as pregestational diabetes (n = 7), chronic hypertension (n = 4), twin gestation (n = 6), and a previous history of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, or vascular disease (n = 11). During each trimester, the brachial artery was ultrasonographically imaged above the antecubital crease. Brachial artery diameter was measured and then occluded for 5 minutes using an inflated blood pressure cuff. Changes in brachial artery diameter at 1 minute after occlusion were expressed as percent change from baseline and were compared across trimesters for both low-risk and high-risk groups, adjusting for potential confounders. Brachial artery diameters were increased after occlusion in every trimester for all groups. For low-risk women, the degree of postocclusion brachial artery dilatation was similar in the first and second trimesters, but was lower in the third trimester. In the first trimester, low-risk women had significantly greater brachial artery diameter increases at 1 minute compared with high-risk singleton pregnancies (19% compared with 12%; P pregnancies complicated by pregestational diabetes or chronic hypertension had significantly smaller 1-minute brachial artery diameter changes in the first trimester (7.0 +/- 0.5%, P vascular disease had responses similar to low-risk women. Maternal vascular reactivity as assessed by postocclusion brachial artery dilatation decreases in the third trimester in both low-risk and high-risk women. In addition, singleton pregnancies at high risk for preeclampsia display decreased brachial artery reactivity compared with low-risk women.

  9. E-Cigarette Aerosol Exposure Induces Reactive Oxygen Species, DNA Damage, and Cell Death in Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chastain; Majeste, Andrew; Hanus, Jakub; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-12-01

    Cigarette smoking remains one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Vascular cell death and dysfunction is a central or exacerbating component in the majority of cigarette smoking related pathologies. The recent development of the electronic nicotine delivery systems known as e-cigarettes provides an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking; however, the potential vascular health risks of e-cigarette use remain unclear. This study evaluates the effects of e-cigarette aerosol extract (EAE) and conventional cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). A laboratory apparatus was designed to produce extracts from e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes according to established protocols for cigarette smoking. EAE or conventional CSE was applied to human vascular endothelial cells for 4-72 h, dependent on the assay. Treated cells were assayed for reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, cell viability, and markers of programmed cell death pathways. Additionally, the anti-oxidants α-tocopherol and n-acetyl-l-cysteine were used to attempt to rescue e-cigarette induced cell death. Our results indicate that e-cigarette aerosol is capable of inducing reactive oxygen species, causing DNA damage, and significantly reducing cell viability in a concentration dependent fashion. Immunofluorescent and flow cytometry analysis indicate that both the apoptosis and programmed necrosis pathways are triggered by e-cigarette aerosol treatment. Additionally, anti-oxidant treatment provides a partial rescue of the induced cell death, indicating that reactive oxygen species play a causal role in e-cigarette induced cytotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Altering dietary lysine: arginine ratio has little effect on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The effect of dietary protein type on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity, with specific focus on the lysine to arginine (Lys:Arg) ratio, has been studied sporadically. Objective: Determine effect of dietary Lys:Arg ratio on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reacti...

  11. Increased oxygen free radical production during pregnancy may impair vascular reactivity in preeclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazushi; Mori, Toshitaka; Iwasaki, Ai; Kimura, Chiharu; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether enhanced oxidative stress during pregnancy impairs vascular endothelial function and improves after delivery in preeclamptic women, we measured serum parameters of oxidative stress and endothelial function during pregnancy and 1 month after delivery in women with or without preeclampsia. We evaluated 18 participants with uncomplicated pregnancies, 11 with mild preeclampsia and 13 with severe preeclampsia. The plasma concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolite derivatives (d-ROMs) were measured, and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) was determined to evaluate the oxygen free radicals and antioxidants, respectively. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was also assessed as a marker of endothelial function. FMD was decreased significantly in both preeclamptic groups compared with control during pregnancy. FMD did not change after delivery in the control group, but it significantly increased after delivery in both the mildly and severely preeclamptic groups, nearing control levels 1 month after delivery (mild, 6.5±3.6-9.0±3.5%; severe, 4.3±3.3-9.7±2.6%). No changes in d-ROM concentrations were observed in the control group; however, the concentrations in both the mildly and severely preeclamptic groups significantly decreased to normal levels 1 month after delivery (mild, 562.0±106.5-430.5±90.5 CARR U (Carratelli units); severe, 681.0±239.0-411.8±69.7 CARR U). The plasma BAP levels did not change significantly in all three groups. A negative correlation between FMD and d-ROM concentrations was observed in the preeclamptic group, but not in the control group (r=-0.497; Ppregnancy may impair endothelial function and improve after delivery in preeclamptic women.

  12. Effect of pH on pulmonary vascular tone, reactivity, and arachidonate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, I S; Gurtner, G H; Terry, P B; Tohidi, W; Yang, J N; Adkinson, N F; Michael, J R

    1989-07-01

    We studied the effects of perfusate pH on pulmonary vascular tone, reactivity, and thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis in isolated buffer-perfused rabbit lungs. Extracellular acidosis did not affect base-line vascular tone, but alkalosis had a biphasic effect. Increasing the perfusate pH from 7.40 to 7.65 caused vasodilation, whereas raising pH to 7.70-8.10 caused vasoconstriction. Removing calcium (Ca2+) from the perfusate completely prevented the vasoconstriction caused by alkalosis. Perfusate pH strikingly affected pulmonary vascular reactivity. Acidosis inhibited the vasoconstriction caused by thromboxane and potassium chloride (KCl) but did not affect the response to angiotensin II. Alkalosis, in contrast, augmented the vasoconstriction caused by thromboxane and angiotensin II but reduced the vasoconstriction caused by KCl. Changes in pH also altered thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis after the infusion of exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) or the endogenous release of AA by the lipid peroxide tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

  13. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Pathogenesis of Vascular Complications of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Man Son

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrovascular and microvascular diseases are currently the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in subjects with diabetes. Disorders of the physiological signaling functions of reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide and reactive nitrogen species (nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are important features of diabetes. In the absence of an appropriate compensation by the endogenous antioxidant defense network, increased oxidative stress leads to the activation of stress-sensitive intracellular signaling pathways and the formation of gene products that cause cellular damage and contribute to the vascular complications of diabetes. It has recently been suggested that diabetic subjects with vascular complications may have a defective cellular antioxidant response against the oxidative stress generated by hyperglycemia. This raises the concept that antioxidant therapy may be of great benefit to these subjects. Although our understanding of how hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress ultimately leads to tissue damage has advanced considerably in recent years, effective therapeutic strategies to prevent or delay the development of this damage remain limited. Thus, further investigation of therapeutic interventions to prevent or delay the progression of diabetic vascular complications is needed.

  14. Evaluation of Peripheral Vascular Calcification and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Vascular calcification is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in the general population. It is highly prevalent in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Low magnesium (Mg) levels have been reported to have a strong association with vascular calcification in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aims of this ...

  15. IFPA Meeting 2010 Workshop Report I: Immunology; ion transport; epigenetics; vascular reactivity; epitheliochorial placentation; proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, C; Antczak, D F; Carvalho, J; Chamley, L W; Chen, Q; Daher, S; Damiano, A E; Dantzer, V; Díaz, P; Dunk, C E; Daly, E; Escudero, C; Falcón, B; Guillomot, M; Han, Y W; Harris, L K; Huidobro-Toro, J P; Illsley, N; Jammes, H; Jansson, T; Johnson, G A; Kfoury, J R; Marín, R; Murthi, P; Novakovic, B; Myatt, L; Petroff, M G; Pereira, F T V; Pfarrer, C; Redman, C W G; Rice, G; Saffery, R; Tolosa, J M; Vaillancourt, C; Wareing, M; Yuen, R; Lash, G E

    2011-03-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting. At IFPA Meeting 2010 there were twelve themed workshops, six of which are summarized in this report. 1. The immunology workshop focused on normal and pathological functions of the maternal immune system in pregnancy. 2. The transport workshop dealt with regulation of ion and water transport across the syncytiotrophoblast of human placenta. 3. The epigenetics workshop covered DNA methylation and its potential role in regulating gene expression in placental development and disease. 4. The vascular reactivity workshop concentrated on methodological approaches used to study placental vascular function. 5. The workshop on epitheliochorial placentation covered current advances from in vivo and in vitro studies of different domestic species. 6. The proteomics workshop focused on a variety of techniques and procedures necessary for proteomic analysis and how they may be implemented for placental research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic lead exposure decreases the vascular reactivity of rat aortas: the role of hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolini Zuqui Nunes

    Full Text Available We investigated whether exposure to small concentrations of lead alters blood pressure and vascular reactivity. Male Wistar rats were sorted randomly into the following two groups: control (Ct and treatment with 100 ppm of lead (Pb, which was added to drinking water, for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured weekly. Following treatment, aortic ring vascular reactivity was assessed. Tissue samples were properly stored for further biochemical investigation. The lead concentration in the blood reached approximately 8 μg/dL. Treatment increased blood pressure and decreased the contractile responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 mM. Following N-nitro-L arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administration, contractile responses increased in both groups but did not differ significantly between them. Lead effects on Rmax were decreased compared to control subjects following superoxide dismutase (SOD administration. Catalase, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA, and apocynin increased the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in the aortas of lead-treated rats but did not increase the vasoconstrictor response in the aortas of untreated rats. Tetraethylammonium (TEA potentiated the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in aortic segments in both groups, but these effects were greater in lead-treated rats. The co-incubation of TEA and catalase abolished the vasodilatory effect noted in the lead group. The present study is the first to demonstrate that blood lead concentrations well below the values established by international legislation increased blood pressure and decreased phenylephrine-induced vascular reactivity. The latter effect was associated with oxidative stress, specifically oxidative stress induced via increases in hydrogen peroxide levels and the subsequent effects of hydrogen peroxide on potassium channels.

  17. Effects of chronic hypoxia on maternal vasodilation and vascular reactivity in guinea pig and ovine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Margueritte M; Zhang, Lubo

    2003-01-01

    During pregnancy, exposure to chronic hypoxia is thought to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia and fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While some studies suggest that this process may be mediated through effects of chronic hypoxia on uterine artery vasodilation and growth, these observations are likely to be species specific and may represent genetic variability in maternal adaptation to hypoxia. This review is a comparative analysis of the effects of chronic hypoxia on vascular reactivity in pregnant and nonpregnant guinea pig and sheep. Data suggest that exposure to chronic hypoxia is associated with enhanced uterine artery blood flow in the sheep, whereas, in the guinea pig, blood flow is decreased.

  18. Preoperative vascular access evaluation for haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Sarah D; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2015-09-30

    Haemodialysis treatment requires reliable vascular access. Optimal access is provided via functional arteriovenous fistula (fistula), which compared with other forms of vascular access, provides superior long-term patency, requires few interventions, has low thrombosis and infection rates and cost. However, it has been estimated that between 20% and 60% of fistulas never mature sufficiently to enable haemodialysis treatment. Mapping blood vessels using imaging technologies before surgery may identify vessels that are most suitable for fistula creation. We compared the effect of conducting routine radiological imaging evaluation for vascular access creation preoperatively with standard care without routine preoperative vessel imaging on fistula creation and use. We searched Cochrane Kidney and Transplant's Specialised Register to 14 April 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled adult participants (aged ≥ 18 years) with chronic or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who needed fistulas (both before dialysis and after dialysis initiation) that compared fistula maturation rates relating to use of imaging technologies to map blood vessels before fistula surgery with standard care (no imaging). Two authors assessed study quality and extracted data. Dichotomous outcomes, including fistula creation, maturation and need for catheters at dialysis initiation, were expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Continuous outcomes, such as numbers of interventions required to maintain patency, were expressed as mean differences (MD). We used the random-effects model to measure mean effects. Four studies enrolling 450 participants met our inclusion criteria. Overall risk of bias was judged to be low in one study, unclear in two, and high in one.There was no significant differences in the number of fistulas that were successfully created (4

  19. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Prevents Alterations of Coronary Vascular Reactivity Caused by Hormone Deficiency Induced by Castration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wender Nascimento Rouver

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effects of chronic treatment with different doses of testosterone on endothelium-dependent coronary vascular reactivity in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (SHAM, castrated (CAST, castrated and immediately treated subcutaneously with a physiological dose (0.5 mg/kg/day, PHYSIO group or supraphysiological dose (2.5 mg/kg/day, SUPRA group of testosterone for 15 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was assessed at the end of treatment through tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed using the Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A dose-response curve for bradykinin (BK was constructed, followed by inhibition with 100 μM L-NAME, 2.8 μM indomethacin (INDO, L-NAME + INDO, or L-NAME + INDO + 0.75 μM clotrimazole (CLOT. We observed significant endothelium-dependent, BK-induced coronary vasodilation, which was abolished in the castrated group and restored in the PHYSIO and SUPRA groups. Furthermore, castration modulated the lipid and hormonal profiles and decreased body weight, and testosterone therapy restored all of these parameters. Our results revealed an increase in SBP in the SUPRA group. In addition, our data led us to conclude that physiological concentrations of testosterone may play a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system by maintaining an environment that is favourable for the activity of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator without increasing SBP.

  20. Long-term effects of maternal diabetes on vascular reactivity and renal function in rat male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Silvia O; Gomes, Guiomar N; Forti, André Luis L; do Carmo Pinho Franco, Maria; Fortes, Zuleica B; de Fátima Cavanal, Maria; Gil, Frida Zaladek

    2005-12-01

    Fetal growth impairment can occur in pregnancy complicated by diabetes. Although several studies have focused the effects of nutritional status on intrauterine development, the long-term impact of maternal diabetes on vascular and renal function in the offspring is poorly investigated. In the present study, blood pressure profiles and renal function parameters were investigated in the offspring of diabetic rats (DO). Female rats were made diabetic throughout gestation with a single dose of streptozotocyn (STZ) 10 d before mating. After weaning, the offspring had free access to food and water. Arterial pressure was evaluated every 15 d. Functional and morphometric kidney studies were performed in newborn, 3, 6 and 12-mo-old male rats in DO and in controls, C. Although maternal diabetes did not affect nephron number in the young adult rat, glomerular hypertrophy developed from 3 mo on. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Renal Plasma Flow were observed to be significantly decreased in DO when compared with C, from 3 mo on. In DO, hypertension was observed from 8 wk on and persisted elevated throughout the experimental period (12 mo). Vascular reactivity, evaluated in mesenteric arterial bed showed a decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in 12-mo-old DO animals, while preserved response to sodium nitroprusside was demonstrated. Our data show that exposure to intrauterine diabetes induced by STZ does not affect nephron number in the young offspring but can cause permanent changes in Nitric Oxide (NO)-related vascular response, which, in turn may accelerate the natural age-related nephron loss.

  1. Successful renal transplantation decreases aortic stiffness and increases vascular reactivity in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covic, A; Goldsmith, D J A; Gusbeth-Tatomir, P; Buhaescu, I; Covic, M

    2003-12-15

    Patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis have among the highest cardiovascular event rates documented. Abnormal nitric oxide (NO)-dependent endothelial reactivity and increased arterial stiffness are commonly described in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Measures of aortic stiffness--aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AGI)--have been shown to be powerful predictors of survival on hemodialysis. It is not known how these parameters interfere with successful renal transplantation. PWV and aortic AGI (difference between the first and second systolic peak on the aortic pressure waveform divided by the pulse wave height) were determined from contour analysis of arterial waveforms recorded by applanation tonometry using a SphygmoCor device in 41 HD patients (20 men; age, 41.8 years) and in a control group of 20 patients with essential hypertension (HTA) (10 men; age, 43.6 years). Twenty of the HD patients (10 men; age, 39.7 years) received live-related renal transplants (RTx) and were restudied (3 months after RTx, normal serum creatinine). NO-dependent and NO-independent vascular reactivity were assessed by changes in AGI after challenges with inhaled salbutamol (SAL) and sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG), respectively. AGI values were significantly lower in RTx patients compared with subjects on hemodialysis (15.9 +/- 13.9% vs. 27.9 +/- 11.9%, Pdialysis to 15.9 +/- 7.0% 3 months after transplantation (Pdialysis patients (7.19 +/- 1.88 m/sec) were significantly higher than those measured in essential HTA patients (6.34 +/- 1.32 m/sec, Pdialysis) values (P<0.05 for comparison) but similar to the control group of essential HTA patients. Renal transplantation is associated with marked improvements in vascular structure and function to a profile comparable to essential HTA patients.

  2. Topical administration of Metamizole and its implications on vascular reactivity in Wistar rats- Experimental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Ioana-Cristina; Paunescu, Horia; Stamate, Alina Cristina; Cherecheanu, Alina Popa; Ghita, Isabel; Barac, Cosmina; Vasile, Danut; Tudosescu, Ruxandra; Fulga, Ion

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this paper was to describe the possible implications of topical (ocular) administration of Metamizole on vascular reactivity of the iris in Wistar rats. No other study regarding its topical use was found. Methods: Male adult Wistar rats were anaesthetized with Ketamine 100 mg /kg body weight - injected intraperitoneally - while maintaining spontaneous respiration and the blink reflex. After selecting the area of interest (long posterior ciliary artery – LPCA), manual adjustments of the image magnitude, clarity, and brightness were made, and the experiment began. The image recording lasted 10 minutes. Results: Metamizole induced a slight vasoconstriction that started with the initial moment for all the doses used. After the topical administration of Metamizole, we did not observe an increase of the vascular diameter of LPCA in a dose dependent manner. The saline solution used as a negative control did not modify the vessel diameter. Conclusions: Metamizole (dipyrone) is a non-opioid drug, which is commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. It is the most popular first-line analgesic in various populations. In some cases, this agent is still incorrectly classified as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The high analgesic efficacy of metamizole, as well as its spasmolytic effect, makes it a very important pharmaceutical agent that could be used in the therapy of various eye disorders in humans and in animals. Abbreviations: COX = Cyclooxygenase; LPCA = Long Posterior Ciliary Artery; PRP = panretinal photocoagulation; PDR = proliferative diabetic retinopathy; Sec = second(s); VSPR = very severe non proliferative diabetic retinopathy

  3. Effects of hypercapnia on peripheral vascular reactivity in elderly patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matthaeis, Angela; Greco, Antonio; Dagostino, Mariangela Pia; Paroni, Giulia; Fontana, Andrea; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Seripa, Davide; Vendemiale, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    Blood acid-base imbalance has important effects on vascular reactivity, which can be related to nitric oxide (NO) concentration and increased during hypercapnia. Release of NO seems to be linked to H+ and CO2 concentration and to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a common medical condition in the elderly. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a valuable cardiovascular risk indicator, allows assessment of endothelial-dependent vasodilation, which is to a certain extent mediated by NO. We investigated the effects of hypercapnia and acid-base imbalance on endothelial-dependent vasodilation by measurement of FMD in 96 elderly patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Patients underwent complete arterial blood gas analysis and FMD measurement before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) standard therapy for acute exacerbation of COPD and recovery. Significant differences between phase 1 and phase 2 were observed in the mean values of pH (7.38±0.03 versus 7.40±0.02, P<0.001), pO2 (59.6±4.9 mmHg versus 59.7±3.6 mmHg, P<0.001), pCO2 (59.3±8.63 mmHg versus 46.7±5.82 mmHg, P<0.001), FMD (10.0%±2.8% versus 8.28%±2.01%, P<0.001) and blood flow rate (1.5±0.3 m/s versus 1.5±0.3 m/s, P=0.001). FMD values were positively correlated with pCO2 values (r=0.294, P=0.004) at baseline. A significant correlation was also found between relative changes in FMD and pCO2 levels, passing from phase 1 to phase 2 (r=0.23, P=0.023). Patients with higher baseline endothelium-dependent vasodilation as evaluated by FMD showed greater modification with regard to pCO2 changes (2.6±1.39 versus 1.59±1.4, P=0.012). In conclusion, endothelium-dependent vasodilation as evaluated by FMD was elevated during hypercapnia, and varied significantly according to pCO2 changes in patients with higher baseline levels, suggesting that vascular reactivity in acute COPD exacerbations in the elderly depends on integrity of the vascular endothelium.

  4. Evaluation of a static stretching intervention on vascular endothelial function and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinno, Hiromi; Kurose, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Yutaka; Higurashi, Kyoko; Fukushima, Yaeko; Tsutsumi, Hiromi; Kimura, Yutaka

    2017-06-01

    Maintenance and enhancement of vascular endothelial function contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and prolong a healthy life expectancy. Given the reversible nature of vascular endothelial function, interventions to improve this function might prevent arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, we studied the effects of a 6-month static stretching intervention on vascular endothelial function (reactive hyperaemia peripheral arterial tonometry index: RH-PAT index) and arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity: baPWV) and investigated the reversibility of these effects after a 6-month detraining period following intervention completion. The study evaluated 22 healthy, non-smoking, premenopausal women aged ≥40 years. Subjects were randomly assigned to the full-intervention (n = 11; mean age: 48.6 ± 2.8 years) or a half-intervention that included a control period (n = 11; mean age: 46.9 ± 3.6 years). Body flexibility and vascular endothelial function improved significantly after 3 months of static stretching. In addition to these improvements, arterial stiffness improved significantly after a 6-month intervention. However, after a 6-month detraining period, vascular endothelial function, flexibility, and arterial stiffness all returned to preintervention conditions, demonstrating the reversibility of the obtained effects. A 3-month static stretching intervention was found to improve vascular endothelial function, and an additional 3-month intervention also improved arterial stiffness. However, these effects were reversed by detraining.

  5. The impact of topical mydriatic ophthalmic solutions on retinal vascular reactivity and blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Edmund; Sehi, Mitra; Cheng, Richard W F; Wan, Jennifer; Wong, Tien; Dorner, Stephanie; Fisher, Joseph A; Hudson, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    The impact of mydriatic agents on the standardized provocation of retinal vascular reactivity has not been systematically investigated. Our aim was to investigate the effect of commonly used mydriatic agents on the provoked vascular response of retinal arterioles. One eye was randomly selected for mydriasis from 10 healthy volunteers (age 23.3 ± 4.9 years). A single drop of: 1% tropicamide (T), or a combination of 0.8% tropicamide and 5% phenylephrine (TP), or 1% cyclopentolate (C) were instilled into the volunteers lower fornix at each of three visits. Volunteers underwent a standardized isocapnic hyperoxic provocation. Four retinal hemodynamic measurements were acquired with the Canon Laser Blood Flowmeter at equivalent positions on the superior temporal arteriole (STA) and inferior temporal arteriole (ITA) at baseline, during provocation and after recovery. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed-effect models. Pre- and post-dilation measurements indicated that pupil diameter increased with use of T, TP, C (all 0.05). In response to a standardized isocapnic hyperoxic challenge, blood vessel diameter, blood velocity and flow decreased in both the STA and ITA relative to baseline. Comparison between the change elicited by isocapnic hyperoxic gas stimuli with respect to blood vessel diameter, blood velocity, blood flow, were equivalent for each mydriatic agent in the STA (p = 0.66, p = 0.99, p = 0.99, respectively) and the ITA (p = 0.85, p = 0.80, p = 0.66, respectively). Furthermore, comparison between the change in the STA and ITA with respect to the above parameters showed equivalent responses in both vessels for each mydriatic agent: T (p = 0.92, p = 0.99, p = 0.35; respectively), TP (p = 0.89, p = 0.96, p = 0.62; respectively), and C (p = 0.87, p = 0.35, p = 0.56; respectively). The provoked retinal vascular reactivity response to standardized isocapnic hyperoxia was equivalent irrespective of the agent used to

  6. Arterial blood pressure is inversely associated with vascular sympathetic reactivity (isometric handgrip exercise) in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Shah, Hasmukh D; Nimbalkar, Archana S; Patel, Nilesh; Singh, S K

    2014-01-01

    Studies conducted earlier have found that vascular sympathetic reactivity to isometric handgrip exercise is either low or high in adolescents with higher blood pressure (Hypertensives) as compared to adolescents with relatively lower blood pressure (Normotensive). The current study was conducted to determine the correlation of vascular sympathetic reactivity to isometric handgrip exercise with blood pressure in Gujarati Indian adolescents so as to understand the pathogenesis and/consequences of Hypertension in this population. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 651 Gujarati Indian adolescents (285 girls, 366 boys) of age group 13-19 years. Blood pressure was measured by oscillometry and vascular sympathetic reactivity (Percentage rise in Diastolic Blood Pressure, %RDBP) was assessed using isometric handgrip test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to study the correlation between %RDBP and blood pressure. In both girls and boys, %RDBP showed significant negative correlation with resting SBP, DBP and MAP. The study thus indicates that an inverse association exist between arterial blood pressure and vascular sympathetic reactivity to isometric handgrip exercise in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

  7. Blood flow and vascular reactivity during attacks of classic migraine--limitations of the Xe-133 intraarterial technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1989-01-01

    The present study reports cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements in 11 patients during attacks of classic migraine (CM)--migraine with aura. In 6 and 7 patients, respectively, cerebral vascular reactivity to increased blood pressure and to hypocapnia was also investigated during the CM attacks...

  8. Effects of hypercapnia on peripheral vascular reactivity in elderly patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Matthaeis A

    2014-05-01

    positively correlated with pCO2 values (r=0.294, P=0.004 at baseline. A significant correlation was also found between relative changes in FMD and pCO2 levels, passing from phase 1 to phase 2 (r=0.23, P=0.023. Patients with higher baseline endothelium-dependent vasodilation as evaluated by FMD showed greater modification with regard to pCO2 changes (2.6±1.39 versus 1.59±1.4, P=0.012. In conclusion, endothelium-dependent vasodilation as evaluated by FMD was elevated during hypercapnia, and varied significantly according to pCO2 changes in patients with higher baseline levels, suggesting that vascular reactivity in acute COPD exacerbations in the elderly depends on integrity of the vascular endothelium.Keywords: hypercapnia, elderly, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, vascular reactivity, flow-mediated dilation

  9. Effect of magnesium on vascular tone and reactivity in pressurized mesenteric resistance arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurant, P; Touyz, R M; Schiffrin, E L

    1997-04-01

    This study examines the effects of magnesium on vascular tone and reactivity in mesenteric resistance arteries from 17-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Third-order branches of mesenteric arteries were mounted in a pressurized flow chamber and studied with constant flow and transmural pressure. The mesenteric arteries were perfused extra- and intra-luminally with physiological salt solution containing a normal (1.2 mmol/L), high (4.8 mmol/L), or low (0.15 mmol/L) magnesium concentration. Vascular reactivity to norepinephrine and vasopressin was examined when the agonists were applied extraluminally. High magnesium increased lumen diameter and decreased media thickness whereas low magnesium decreased lumen diameter and increased media thickness in mesenteric arteries from both SHR and WKY rats. The effects of magnesium on vascular tone were less in arteries from SHR compared with normotensive controls (p magnesium potentiated norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in SHR (p magnesium did not modify vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction in either SHR or WKY. High magnesium attenuated vasopressin- and norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in SHR (p magnesium attenuated only norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in WKY (p magnesium has differential modulatory effects on vascular tone and reactivity in mesenteric resistance arteries of SHR and WKY. Magnesium may play an important role in the modulation of peripheral resistance in hypertension.

  10. Reactive oxygen species mediate shear stress-induced fluid-phase endocytosis in vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Koichi; Sakai, Jiro; Karino, Takeshi; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ohyama, Tohru; Inanami, Osamu; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2006-02-01

    To elucidate the role of shear stress in fluid-phase endocytosis of vascular endothelial cells (EC), we used a rotating-disk shearing apparatus to investigate the effects of shear stress on the uptake of lucifer yellow (LY) by cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Exposure of EC to shear stress (area-mean value of 10 dynes/cm2) caused an increase in LY uptake that was abrogated by the antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, acetovanillone, and two inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), calphostin C and GF109203X. These results suggest that fluid-phase endocytosis is regulated by both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and PKC. Shear stress increased both ROS production and PKC activity in EC, and the increase in ROS was unaffected by calphostin C or GF109203X, whereas the activation of PKC was reduced by NAC and acetovanillone. We conclude that shear stress-induced increase in fluid-phase endocytosis is mediated via ROS generation followed by PKC activation in EC.

  11. Vascular Reactivity Concerning Orthosiphon stamineus Benth-Mediated Antihypertensive in Aortic Rings of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Maizan Manshor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthosiphon stamineus Benth has been traditionally used to treat hypertension. The study aimed to investigate the vascular reactivity of water extract (WOS and water : methanolic (1 : 1 extract (WMOS of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and AT1 receptors blocker in the mechanisms of antihypertensive mediated by α1-adrenergic receptor and EDNO and PGI2 releases in the SHR aortic rings. SHR (230–280 g were divided into four groups: control, WOS, WMOS, and losartan. After being fed orally for 14 days, the aorta was harvested and subjected to PE (10−9 to 10−5 M and ACh (10−9 to 10−5 M with and without L-NAME (100 µM and indomethacin (10 µM, respectively. WOS, WMOS, and losartan significantly reduced the contractile responses to PE intact suggesting the importance of endothelium in vasorelaxation. Losartan significantly enhanced the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. L-NAME significantly inhibited the ACh-induced relaxation in all groups. Indomethacin enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation in WMOS. Collectively, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves extract reduced vasoconstriction responses by the alteration of α1-adrenergic and AT1 receptors activities. The involvement of EDNO releases was clearly observed in this plant. In WOS, PGI2 releases might not participate in the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. However, in WMOS, enhancement of vasorelaxation possibly due to continuous release of PGI2.

  12. An approach to evaluating reactive airborne wind shear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Joseph P., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to evaluating reactive airborne windshear detection systems was developed to support a deployment study for future FAA ground-based windshear detection systems. The deployment study methodology assesses potential future safety enhancements beyond planned capabilities. The reactive airborne systems will be an integral part of planned windshear safety enhancements. The approach to evaluating reactive airborne systems involves separate analyses for both landing and take-off scenario. The analysis estimates the probability of effective warning considering several factors including NASA energy height loss characteristics, reactive alert timing, and a probability distribution for microburst strength.

  13. Measuring vascular reactivity with resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations: A potential alternative to the breath-holding challenge?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Christen, Thomas; Moseley, Michael E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Wright, Clinton B; Tamura, Manjula K; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of the ability of blood vessels to dilate and constrict, known as vascular reactivity, is often performed with breath-holding tasks that transiently raise arterial blood carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels...

  14. Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridker, Paul M.; Danielson, Eleanor; Fonseca, Francisco A. H.; Genest, Jacques; Gotto, Antonio M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Libby, Peter; Lorenzatti, Alberto J.; Macfadyen, Jean G.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Shepherd, James; Willerson, James T.; Glynn, Robert J.; Ridker, P. M.; Fonseca, F. A. H.; Genest, J.; Gotto, A. M.; Koenig, W.; Libby, P.; Lorenzatti, A. J.; Nordestgaard, B. G.; Shepherd, J.; Willerson, J. T.; Danielson, E.; Glynn, R. J.; MacFadyen, J. G.; Mora, S.; Collins, R.; Bailey, K.; Gersh, B.; Lamas, G.; Smith, S.; Vaughan, D.; Mahaffey, K.; Brown, P.; Montgomery, D.; Wilson, M.; Wood, F.; Altamirano, J.; Boskis, P.; Colombo, H.; Cuneo, C.; Diaz, M.; Esper, R.; Fernandez, A.; Foye, R.; Hershson, A.; Kuschnir, E.; La Greca, R.; Lorenzatti, A.; Lozada, A.; Luciardi, H.; Luquez, H.; Maffei, L.; Majul, C.; Marin, M.; Muntaner, J.; Nul, D.; Paolasso, E.; Rey, R.; Rodenas, P.; Rodriguez, P.; Rojas, C.; Telsolin, P.; Vita, N.; Adrianes, G.; Argento, O.; Bacart, P.; Baeck, L.; Baguet, J.; Balthazar, Y.; Battello, G.; Behets, J.; Beke, P.; Berwouts, P.; Boermans, P.; Bolly, F.; Borms, J.; Boulad, M.; Boulanger, L.; Bous, J.; van Boxstael, R.; Brands, Y.; Buyse, L.; Calozet, Y.; Camps, K.; Capiau, L.; Celis, H.; Coucke, F.; D'Argent, F.; Op de Beeck, G.; de Meulemeester, M.; de Praeter, K.; de Rouck, S.; Delcourt, A.; Delvaux, J.; Demanet, E.; Dendale, P.; Derijcke, M.; Deruyck, C.; Devaux, J.; Dupont, C.; van Duyse, J.; Erpicum, L.; Gilio, C.; Gillet, A.; Grosjean, J.; Heeren, J.; Henry, G.; Heyvaert, F.; Hollanders, G.; Hutsebaut, A.; Janssens, P.; Lannoy, H.; Ledoux, C.; Legros, P.; Leliaert, R.; Martens, R.; Maury, O.; Mehuys, G.; Michaux, J.; Migeotte, A.; Mortelmans, J.; van Mulders, N.; van Parijs, P.; van Peer, W.; Pieters, E.; Reynders, P.; van Riet, D.; Robert, P.; van Stee, J.; Teheux, J.; Teuwen, J.; Thoeng, J.; Timmermans, B.; Tshinkulu, M.; Vanden Bemden, S.; Vantroyen, D.; Veevaete, M.; Vercruysse, K.; Vereecken, G.; Vermeersch, L.; Vernijns, J.; Verspecht, E.; Vinck, G.; Vrancken, F.; Watté, G.; Weymans, J.; Windmolders, S.; Albuquerque, D. C.; Barbosa, E. C. D.; Bertolami, M. C.; Blacher, C.; Brasileiro, A. L. S.; Costa e Forti, A.; Eliaschewitz, F. G.; Esteves, J. P.; Feitosa, G. S.; Francischetti, E. A.; Franco, R. J. S.; Gomes, M. A.; Gross, J. L.; Jardim, P. C.; Kohlmann, O.; Loures-Vale, A. A.; Magalhães, M. E. C.; Maia, L. N.; Moriguchi, E. H.; Nogueira, P. R.; Oigman, W.; Repetto, G.; Santos, R. D.; Saraiva, J. F. K.; Xavier, H. T.; Benov, H.; Chompalova, B.; Donova, T.; Gocheva, N.; Goudev, A.; Grigorov, M.; Gruev, T.; Hergeldjieva, V.; Marchev, S.; Mihov, A.; Pasheva, V.; Penev, A.; Popov, A.; Raev, D.; Sirakova, V.; Slavcheva, A.; Stoikov, A.; Stoilov, R.; Tisheva, S.; Todorov, G.; Torbova, S.; Uzunangelov, J.; Achyuthan, G.; Akhras, R.; Barriere, G.; Bartlett, J.; Behiels, S.; Bell, A.; Bergeron, J.; Berlingieri, J.; Bhamjee, H.; Bodok-Nutzati, R.; Booth, W.; Boyd, C.; Brault, S.; Bruckswaiger, D.; Bukovy, B.; Campbell, G.; Carlson, B.; Cha, J.; Chehayeb, R.; Cheng, W.; Chilvers, M.; Chouinard, G.; Chow, W.; Conter, H.; Conway, J.; Craig, B.; Craig, D.; Dattani, I.; del Grande, R.; Dharamshi, S.; Dickson, M.; Dion, D.; Dowell, A.; Drexler, J.; Dube, S.; Dupont, A.; Dworkin, B.; Fields, L.; Filteau, P.; Gardiner, E.; Gervais, B.; Gillis, G.; Girard, R.; Goldman, H.; Gorfinkel, I.; Goulet, S.; Greenspoon, A.; Gritter, R.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M.; Habib, N.; Harding, R.; Hart, R.; Henein, S.; Henry, D.; Hirsch, Axxx; Ho, K.; Hoag, G.; Houde, D.; Howlett, E.; Ing, G.; Jadd, J.; Janes, J.; Jardine, F.; Johnston, T.; Kanani, S.; Kazimirski, M.; Kelly, A.; Klajner, F.; Kooy, J.; Lalani, A.; Lam, S.; Laranjeiro, J.; LaRose, D.; Leiter, L.; Leung, W.; Li, J.; Lowe, D.; Luces, K.; Ma, P.; MacKinnon, R.; Martinho, V.; Matangi, M.; McCrossin, M.; McIsaac, H.; McMullen, W.; Mehta, P.; Meunier, M.; Misik, K.; Nayar, A.; Ng, A.; Nigro, F.; Noronha, L.; O'Mahony, W.; Pandey, S.; Papp, E.; Patel, V.; Patrick, L.; Peddle, C.; Pinsky, N.; Poirier, P.; Powell, C.; Price, J.; Rolfe, A.; Saliba, N.; Sawkiw, R.; Senior, R.; Shu, D.; Smith, R.; Somani, R.; Soowamber, M.; Stakiw, K.; Talbot, P.; Taliano, J.; Tan, K.; Teitelbaum, I.; Threoux, P.; Tremblay, G.; Turcotte, C.; Tytus, R.; Walsh, P.; Webb, G.; Willoughby, P.; Woo, V.; Woodland, R.; Yee, G.; Acevedo, M.; Caorsi, C.; Cardenas, N.; Gonzalez, B.; Gutierrez, M.; Prieto, J.; Stockins, B.; Valerta, P.; Vejar, M.; Ardila, W.; Aschner, P.; Botero, J.; Botero, R.; Calderon, C.; Casas, L.; Castellanos, R.; Cure, C.; Escobar, I.; Fortich, A.; Garcia, L.; Hernandez, E.; Isaza, D.; Jaramillo, N.; Jiménez, C.; Kattah, W.; Luengas, C.; Matiz, C.; Perez, M.; Quintero, A.; Rizcala, A.; Ruiz, A.; Urina, M.; Valenzuela, A.; Cob-Sanchez, A.; Gutreiman-Golberg, M.; Lainez-Ventosilla, A.; Ramirez-Zamora, L.; Slon-Hitti, C.; Speranza-Sánchez, M.; Vinocour-Fornieri, M.; Hansen, H.; Nordestgaard, B.; Steffensen, R.; Stender, S.; Alvarado-Renderos, J.; Rivera-Ochoa, L.; Villarroel-Abrego, H.; Eha, J.; Jaanson, E.; Kaasik, U.; Keba, E.; Mäeots, E.; Petersen, M.; Reinmets, S.; Roostalu, U.; Vahula, V.; Veidrik, K.; Bellmann, R.; Hanefeld, M.; Horacek, T.; Klein, C.; Knels, R.; Laus, S.; Meissner, G.; Mondrof, C.; Schell, E.; Schuster, H.; Sehnert, W.; Stahl, H.; Szelazek, G.; Winkelmann, B.; Witczak, E.; Elis, A.; Gavish, A.; Grossman, E.; Harats, D.; Keidar, S.; Levy, Y.; Osamah, H.; Shapiro, I.; Shveydel, E.; Wolfovitz, E.; Yogev, R.; Zeltser, D.; Arenas, J. L.; Cardona-Muñoz, E.; Cervantes, J. L.; Flores-Lozano, F.; Gonzalez, Clicerio; Gonzalez-Galvez, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gutierrez-Fajardo, P.; Morales, E.; de los Rios, M.; Romero-Zazueta, A.; Talavera, J. O.; Velasco-Sanchez, R.; Vergara-Takahashi, H.; Zúñiga-Guajardo, S.; Agous, I.; Bak, A.; Bartels, G.; Basart, D.; Cornel, J.; de Schipper, L.; Holwerda, N.; Jonker, J.; Köse, V.; Lok, D.; Lokhorst, B.; Mosterd, A.; Nierop, P.; Oude Ophuis, A.; Somer, S.; Tiebesl, J.; Trip, M.; van Hessen, M.; van Kempen, W.; Andersen, M.; Berz, A.; Bjurstrom, M.; Bo, P.; Brunstad, O.; Daae-Johansen, T.; Elle, S.; Fauske, J.; Fossdal, B.; Gjefsen, O.; Hallaraker, A.; Haugen, J.; Helberg, S.; Holm-Johnsen, S.; Istad, H.; Jacobsen, T.; Johansen, R.; Jorstad, T.; Jorum, I.; Kjorlaug, K.; Kontny, F.; Langaker, K.; Larsen, B.; Lonning, S.; Loraas, A.; Mansilla-Tinoco, R.; Medhus, R.; Meyer, I.; Nasrala, S.; Ofjord, E.; Ose, L.; Palmas, J.; Risberg, K.; Sandberg, A.; Sirnes, P.; Skjegstad, E.; Skjelvan, G.; Solnor, L.; Storm-Larsen, A.; Tandberg, A.; Tomala, T.; Torkelsen, A.; Ursin, A.; Valnes, K.; Walaas, K.; Binns-Halman, R.; Delgado-Paredes, A.; Lombana-Vasquez, B.; Noriega-Aguirre, L.; Trujillo-Sagel, R.; Kowalczyk-Kram, M.; Artemiuk, E.; Asankowicz-Bargiel, B.; Banas, I.; Baranska, E.; Baranski, M.; Bijata-Bronisz, R.; Sikorska, A.; Blaszczyk, B.; Bolanowski, J.; Brokl-Stolarczyk, B.; Brzecki, K.; Buczkowski, K.; Chmielewski, T.; Chojnowska-Jezierska, J.; Chwist-Novak, A.; Cygan, W.; Czajkowska-Kaczmarek, E.; Dargiewicz, A.; Dluzniewski, M.; Dudka, C.; Fares, I.; Flasinska, J.; Gadzinski, W.; Gaszczyk, G.; Golebiowski, G.; Gozdur, W.; Grudzien, K.; Sobieska, E.; Kalamarz, J.; Kalinowska, A.; Kornacewicz-Jach, Z.; Korol, M.; Korycka, W.; Kostka, T.; Kostrzewska, A.; Kot, A.; Kowalska-Werbowy, B.; Krupinska, G.; Lotocka, E.; Luberda-Heynar, Z.; Lukas, W.; Lysek, R.; Machyna-Dybala, A.; Mlynarczyk-Jeremicz, K.; Mocarska-Gorna, B.; Niedbal-Yahfouf, I.; Pasternak, D.; Potakowska, I.; Ramian, U.; Roleder, M.; Rosinska-Migda, J.; Sidorowicz-Bialynicka, A.; Skierkowska, J.; Skorinko, I.; Slaboszewska, J.; Sleziak-Barglik, K.; Stachlewski, P.; Superson-Byra, E.; Tissler-Nahorska, G.; Turbak, R.; Uzunow, A.; Wasowicz, D.; Wodniecki, J.; Wojnowski, L.; Wrzol, A.; Zdrojewska, J.; Zurakowska-Krzywonos, A.; Zurowska-Gebala, M.; Ablachim, T.; Abobului, M.; Balanescu, S.; Bobescu, E.; Bojinca, M.; Cristea, M.; Gaita, D.; Stoicovici, R.; Tataru, R.; Tudose, A.; Ardashev, V.; Arutyunov, G.; Azarin, O.; Barbarash, O.; Bondarev, S.; Borisov, M.; Boyarkin, M.; Burova, N.; Chazova, I.; Dovgalevsky, P.; Duplyakov, D.; Egorova, L.; Goloshchekin, B.; Gratsianskiy, N.; Ivleva, A.; Karpov, R.; Karpov, Y. A.; Karpov, Y. B.; Khokhlov, A.; Khokhlov, R.; Khrustalev, O.; Konyakhin, A.; Kostenko, V.; Libov, I.; Lukyanov, Y.; Mezentseva, N.; Panov, A.; Repin, M.; Shabalin, A.; Shalaev, S.; Shilkina, N.; Shulman, V.; Sidorenko, B.; Smolenskaya, O.; Starodubtsev, A.; Talibov, O.; Titkov, Y.; Tsyba, L.; Uspenskiy, Y.; Vishnevsky, A.; Yarokhno, N.; Ahmed, S.; Ashtiker, H.; Bester, A.; Bhorat, Q.; Biermann, E.; Boyd, W.; Burgess, L.; Dindar, F.; Dulabh, R.; Engelbrecht, I.; Erasmus, E.; Fouche, L.; Furman, S.; Govind, U.; Herbst, L.; Jacovides, A.; Kahanovitz, C.; Kruger, C.; Lakha, D.; Lombaard, J.; Macleod, A.; Makan, H.; Manuel, E.; McDonald, M.; Mitha, E.; Mitha, I.; Moola, S.; Nell, H.; Nieuwoudt, G.; Olivier, P.; Padayachee, T.; Pillai, P.; Pillay, S.; Ranjith, N.; Reyneke, S.; Sandell, R.; Sandell, P.; Sebastian, P.; Skriker, M.; Smit, J.; van Rensburg, D.; van Zyl, L.; Vawda, Z.; Wellman, H.; Miserez, A.; Adbulhakim, E.; Angus, M.; Balmer, F.; Balmer, J.; Barrat, R.; Blair, D.; Blyth, A.; Brodie, R.; Brydie, D.; Campbell, C.; Campbell, I.; Church, M.; Clark, C.; Clements, R.; Donnachie, A. N.; Fitpatrick, P.; Godley, C.; Hill, J.; Jarvie, F.; Kieran, W.; Langridge, S.; Leslie, R.; Liddell, A.; MacKenzie, J.; MacKintosh, C.; Mair, R.; Marshall, G.; Martin, R.; McCann, C.; McKibbin, C.; Mclachlan, B.; McLean, F.; Murray, S.; Norris, A.; Pawa, R.; Pexton, N.; Ramage, A.; Reid, S.; Robertson, A.; Rourke, E.; Sarmiento, R.; Shaw, H.; Shaw, R.; Sheil, L.; Spence, G.; Stewart, E.; Thomas, H.; Thomson, J.; Thomson, W.; Travers, J.; Ward, R.; Williams, L.; Wooff, D.; Young, W.; Belzarena, C.; Huarte, A.; Kuster, F.; Lluberas, R.; Abarikwu, C.; Abate, L.; Abbott, R.; Ackley, C.; Adams, G.; Adkins, S.; Albakri, E.; Albarracin, C.; Allison, J.; Alvarado, O.; Alwine, L.; Amin, K.; Amin, M.; Anderson, J.; Anderson, M.; Anderson, W.; Andrawis, N.; Andrews, C.; Angles, L.; Aquino, N.; Ariani, M.; Armstrong, C.; Aronoff, S.; Arora, N.; Atri, P.; Baker, J.; Baker, K.; Balli, E.; Banish, D.; Bardenheier, J.; Barnett, G.; Bartkowiak, A.; Basista, M.; Beliveau, W.; Bell, G.; Benchimol, G.; Bennett, B.; Bennett, N.; Bermudez, Y.; Bernstein, J.; Berroya, A.; Bhargava, M.; Biaggioni, I.; Bimson, S.; Bittar, N.; Bleser, S.; Blumberg, M.; Bobson, C.; Boeren, J.; Bogan, R.; Boling, E.; Booras, C.; Borge, A.; Bradlau, C.; Brady, J.; Brandon, D.; Brideau, D.; Brobyn, T.; Brodowski, M.; Broker, R.; Broussard, C.; Brown, C.; Browning, D.; Brusco, O.; Bryant, J.; Buchanan, P.; Bueso, G.; Burgess, G.; Burke, B.; Buynak, R.; Byrd, L.; Camilo-Vazquez, E.; Campbell, J.; Cannon, L.; Capo, J.; Carmouche, D.; Castaldo, R.; Castilleja, J.; Caudill, T.; Caulin-Glaser, T.; Champlin, J.; Chardon-Feliciano, D.; Cheng, T.; Cherlin, R.; Cheung, D.; Chodock, A.; Christensen, J.; Christian, D.; Christiansen, L.; Ciemiega, R.; Clark, J.; Coble, S.; Cohen, K.; Colan, D.; Cole, F.; Cole, R.; Colleran, K.; Collins, G.; Conard, S.; Cook, J.; Cooperman, M.; Cooze, D.; Copeland, T.; Corder, C.; Courtney, D.; Cox, W.; Crump, W.; Cruz, L.; Cuellar, J.; Cunningham, T.; Daboul, N.; Dailey, R.; Dallas, A.; Dansinger, M.; Dao, L.; Darwin, C.; Dauber, I.; Davidson, M.; Davis, P.; Degarmo, R.; Degoma, R.; Dempsey, M.; Denny, D.; Denyer, G.; Desai, V.; Despot, J.; Dewan, M.; Dickert, J.; Diederich, C.; Doben, S.; Dobratz, D.; Douglas, B.; Drehobl, M.; Dresner, J.; Dreyfus, J.; Drummond, W.; Dunbar, W.; Dunlap, J.; Dunmyer, S.; Eaton, C.; Ecker, A.; Edris, M.; Egbujiobi, L.; Elkind, A.; Ellis, J.; Ellison, H.; Engeron, E.; Erdy, G.; Ervin, W.; Eshowsky, S.; Estock, D.; Fang, C.; Fanning, J.; Feinberg, B.; Feld, L.; Fenton, I.; Fernandez, E.; Ferrera, R.; Fiacco, P.; Fierer, R.; Finneran, M.; Fintel, D.; Fischer, M.; Flippo, G.; Flores, A.; Folkherth, S.; Forbes, R.; Fowler, R.; Francis, P.; Franco, M.; Frank, A.; Fraser, N.; Fuchs, R.; Gabriel, J.; Gaddam, S.; Gaffney, M.; Gamponia, M.; Gandhi, D.; Ganzman, H.; Gaona, R.; Garibian, G.; Garofalo, J.; Gatewood, R.; Gazda, S.; Geiger, R.; Geller, M.; Germino, W.; Gibbs, R.; Gifford, C.; Gilhooley, N.; Gill, S.; Gillespie, E.; Godwin, D.; Goldberg, M.; Goldberg, R.; Goldstein, M.; Gonzalez-Ortiz, E.; Goodman, D.; Gordon, G.; Gordon, M.; Goswami, A.; Gottlieb, D.; Gottschlich, G.; Graham, D.; Gray, J.; Gray, W.; Green, S.; Greenberg, R.; Greenspan, M.; Greenwald, M.; Grover, D.; Gupta, R.; Gupta-Bala, S.; Guthrie, R.; Gutmann, J.; Gvora, T.; Habib, G.; Hack, T.; Haidar, A.; Hamdy, O.; Hansen, M.; Hanshaw, C.; Hargrove, J.; Harris, H.; Harrison, B.; Hart, T.; Heacock, J.; Head, D.; Headley, D.; Henderson, D.; Herman, L.; Herrera, C.; Hershberger, V.; Hershon, K.; Heym, H.; Hill, G.; Hippert, R.; Hnatiuk, G.; Hoekstra, J.; Holt, W.; Homan, J.; Honsinger, R.; Howard, J.; Howard, V.; Howard, W.; Huling, R.; Imburgia, M.; Isajiw, G.; Ison, R.; Iverson, W.; Jacks, R.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, K.; Jacobs, J.; Jacobson, E.; James, A.; Jayanty, V.; Johary, A.; Johnson, G.; Jones, P.; Jones, T.; Joseph, J.; Julien, C.; Kahn, Z.; Kalvaria, I.; Kang, J.; Kaplan, I.; Karns, R.; Kashi, K.; Kaster, S.; Kaufman, A.; Kawley, F.; Keller, R.; Kenton, D.; Kerlin, J.; Kern, J.; Kerwin, E.; Kerzner, B.; Ketchum, J.; Khan, J.; Khan, S.; Khawar, M.; Khera, A.; Kinstrey, T.; Klein, B.; Klein, E.; Klein, S.; Klein, T.; Kleinsteuber, K.; Klementowicz, P.; Knopp, R.; Knutson, T.; Koch, S.; Kramer, M.; Krause, R.; Krisciunas, V.; Krueger, C.; Kruszewski, D.; Kumar, R.; Kunst, E.; Kuo, D.; Kuritsky, L.; Kushner, P.; Kutner, M.; Kwiterovich, P.; Kwong, S.; Lanese, J.; Lang, B.; Lary, J.; Lasalle, J.; Lasater, S.; Lasser, N.; Laughlin, D.; Lawless, J.; Lawlor, D.; Ledbetter, J.; Ledesma, G.; Lee, D.; Lemanski, P.; Levinson, G.; Levinson, L.; Lewis, D.; Lewis, L.; Lewis, S.; Linden, D.; Loh, I.; Look, M.; Lopez, D.; Loskovitz, L.; Lubin, B.; Lucas, M.; MacAdams, M.; Madden, B.; Magee, P.; Maggiacomo, F.; Magier, D.; Magnuson, S.; Mahaffey, R.; Makowski, D.; Maletz, L.; Mally, A.; Maloney, R.; Mancha, V.; Manolukas, P.; Marple, R.; Masri, A.; Masri, B.; Mattingly, G.; Mayer, N.; McCain, A.; McCall Bundy, J.; McCartney, M.; Mcclain, D.; McConn, M.; Mccullum, K.; Mcdavid, R.; McGettigan, J.; McIvor, M.; McNeff, J.; Mendolla, M.; Mercado, A.; Mersey, J.; Milam, J.; Milko, T.; Miller, M.; Miller, R.; Miller, S.; Mobley, D.; Modi, T.; Modiano, M.; Mollen, M.; Montgomery, R.; Moran, J.; Morelli, J.; Morin, D.; Moskow, H.; Moursi, M.; Mueller, N.; Mullins, M.; Myers, E.; Nadar, V.; Naiser, J.; Nash, S.; Natarajan, S.; Neft, M.; Neuman, D.; Nevins, B.; Newman, J.; Newman, R.; Newman, S.; Nolen, T.; Nwasuruba, C.; Oberoi, M.; Odom, A.; Ong, Y.; Oppy, J.; Owen, S.; Pampe, E.; Pangtay, D.; Parker, R.; Patel, B.; Patel, J.; Patel, M.; Patel, R.; Paul, A.; Pearlstein, R.; Penepent, P.; Peniston, J.; Perlman, M.; Persson, D.; Peters, P.; Peterson, G.; Peterson, J.; Pettyjohn, F.; Phillips, A.; Phillips, D.; Piel, M.; Pillai, T.; Pi-Sunyer, F.; Pollack, A.; Pond, M.; Pongonis, J.; Porras, C.; Portnoy, E.; Potos, W.; Powers, J.; Prasad, J.; Pritchett, K.; Pudi, K.; Pullman, J.; Purdy, A.; Quinones, Y.; Raad, G.; Radbill, M.; Radin, D.; Rai, K.; Raikhel, M.; Raine, C.; Ramanujan, R.; Ramirez, G.; Ramos-Santana, Z.; Rapo, S.; Ravin, S.; Rawtani, P.; Reeves, R.; Reeves, W.; Reiter, W.; Rendell, M.; Resnick, H.; Reynolds, W.; Rhudy, J.; Rice, L.; Rictor, K.; Ringrose, R.; Riser, J.; Rizvi, M.; Rizzo, W.; Robinson, J.; Robison, W.; Rogers, W.; Rohlf, J.; Rosen, R.; Ross, E.; Roth, E.; Rovner, S.; Rucki, P.; Runde, M.; Ryan, W.; Rybicki, J.; Saleem, T.; Salvato, P.; Santram, D.; Scharf, B.; Schear, M.; Schectman, G.; Schmidt, J.; Schneider, A.; Schneider, P.; Schneider, R.; Schoenfelder, S.; Schussheim, A.; Schwartz, R.; Schwartz, S.; Schwarze, M.; Scott, C.; Segal, S.; Settipane, R.; Shah, M.; Shamim, T.; Shanes, J.; Shapero, P.; Shapiro, J.; Shealy, N.; Shepard, M.; Shepherd, A.; Sheta, M.; Shrivastava, R.; Shusman, R.; Siddiqui, M.; Sidney, A.; Silvers, D.; Simek, C.; Simpson, C.; Sinatra, L.; Singh, S.; Singson, D.; Slabic, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.; Smith, T.; Snell, P.; Specter, J.; Speer, J.; Spees, R.; Sperling, M.; Spuhler, W.; Staab, P.; Stafford, J.; Stanton, D.; Stein, E.; Stern, S.; Stocks, T.; Stone, A.; Strader, W.; Strout, C.; Strzinek, R.; Subich, D.; Suen, J.; Sugimoto, D.; Sulman, S.; Suresh, D.; Sweeney, G.; Szatkowski, A.; Szeto, J.; Szewczak, S.; Szulawski, I.; Taber, L.; Taghizadeh, B.; Tague, R.; Tambunan, D.; Tannoury, G.; Tavaez Valle, J.; Thieneman, A.; Thigpen, D.; Thompson, P.; Tidman, R.; Tilton, G.; Tokatlian, E.; Topkis, R.; Torelli, M.; Tortorice, F.; Toth, P.; Touger, M.; Treat, S.; Trevino, M.; Trupin, S.; Turner, A.; Turner, M.; Tweel, C.; Ugarte, J.; Ulmer, E.; Urbach, D.; Vacker, M.; Vallecillo, J.; van de Beek, M.; Vargas, L.; Vazquez Tanus, J.; Verma, A.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Wade, P.; Wade, T.; Wagner, S.; Wahle, J.; Walker, J.; Walker, M.; Weinstein, R.; Weisbrot, A.; Weiss, R.; West, P.; White, A.; Wickemeyer, W.; Wieskopf, B.; Wiggins, M.; Williams, H.; Wiseman, J.; Yataco, A.; Yates, S.; Zamarra, J.; Zamora, B.; Zawada, E.; Zemel, L.; Zigrang, W.; Zusman, R.; Aguiton, M.; Arroyo-Parejo, M.; Beaujon Sierralta, J.; Berrizbeitia, M.; Carrizales de Marlin, Y.; Colan Parraga, J.; Fernandez, C.; Fuenmayor, N.; Giesen, G.; Gonzalez Gomez, C.; Guaipo, A.; Herrera Rivera, C.; Jaua, L.; Lopez, N.; Lopez Nouel, R.; Marulanda, M.; Morr, I.; Nass, A.; Palmucci, G.; Perez, L.; Ponte, C.; Rivas, I.; de Roa, E.; Figarella Salazar, G.; Sanchez, F.; Siriti, U.; Viloria, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased levels of the inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein predict cardiovascular events. Since statins lower levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as well as cholesterol, we hypothesized that people with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels

  15. Transgenic mice over-expressing ET-1 in the endothelial cells develop systemic hypertension with altered vascular reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wai-Chung Leung

    Full Text Available Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor involved in the regulation of vascular tone and implicated in hypertension. However, the role of small blood vessels endothelial ET-1 in hypertension remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of chronic over-expression of endothelial ET-1 on arterial blood pressure and vascular reactivity using transgenic mice approach. Transgenic mice (TET-1 with endothelial ET-1 over-expression showed increased in ET-1 level in the endothelial cells of small pulmonary blood vessels. Although TET-1 mice appeared normal, they developed mild hypertension which was normalized by the ET(A receptor (BQ123 but not by ET(B receptor (BQ788 antagonist. Tail-cuff measurements showed a significant elevation of systolic and mean blood pressure in conscious TET-1 mice. The mice also exhibited left ventricular hypertrophy and left axis deviation in electrocardiogram, suggesting an increased peripheral resistance. The ionic concentrations in the urine and serum were normal in 8-week old TET-1 mice, indicating that the systemic hypertension was independent of renal function, although, higher serum urea levels suggested the occurrence of kidney dysfunction. The vascular reactivity of the aorta and the mesenteric artery was altered in the TET-1 mice indicating that chronic endothelial ET-1 up-regulation leads to vascular tone imbalance in both conduit and resistance arteries. These findings provide evidence for the role of spatial expression of ET-1 in the endothelium contributing to mild hypertension was mediated by ET(A receptors. The results also suggest that chronic endothelial ET-1 over-expression affects both cardiac and vascular functions, which, at least in part, causes blood pressure elevation.

  16. Altering dietary lysine:arginine ratio has little effect on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Sonia; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Harding, Scott V; Rideout, Todd C; Ai, Masumi; Otokozawa, Seiko; Freed, Alicia; Kuvin, Jeffrey T; Jones, Peter J; Schaefer, Ernst J; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2010-06-01

    Information is scarce regarding the effect of dietary protein type, with specific focus on the lysine-to-arginine (Lys:Arg) ratio, on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in humans. Determine the effect of dietary Lys:Arg ratio on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. Randomized cross-over design of two 35-day diet phases; thirty adults (21 females and 9 males, >or=50 years, LDL cholesterol>or=120 mg/dL). Diets had 20% energy (E) protein, 30%E fat, 50%E carbohydrate and were designed to have low (0.7) or high (1.4) Lys:Arg ratio. Measures included fasting and postprandial lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein concentrations; fasting high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), small dense LDL (sdLDL) cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RemLC), glycated albumin, adiponectin and immunoreactive insulin concentrations, endogenous cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activities; cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR); and flow mediated dilation (FMD) and peripheral artery tonometry (PAT). No differences were observed in fasting and/or postprandial total, LDL, HDL and sdLDL cholesterol, RemLC, Lp(a) or apo B concentrations, LCAT and CETP activities, FSR, glycated albumin, immunoreactive insulin, FMD or PAT. The low, relative to the high, Lys:Arg ratio diet resulted in lower postprandial VLDL cholesterol (-24%, P=0.001) and triglycerides (-23%, P=0.001), and small but significant differences in fasting (-3%, P=0.003) and postprandial (-3%, P=0.018) apo AI, and fasting adiponectin concentrations (+7%, P=0.035). Fasting and postprandial hsCRP concentrations were 23% lower after the low Lys:Arg ratio diet (P=0.020 for both). Diets differing in Lys:Arg ratios had no or small effects on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Peroperative evaluation of vascularity of various flaps by fluorescein technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The viability of any pedicled flap depends upon its vascularity. When a flap is dissected it becomes relatively ischaemic. Ultimately, the viability of the flap depends on the vessels incorporated in the pedicle and their perfusion capacity. There are different techniques to evaluate the blood supply of a flap. Aims: This study deals with experimental and clinical efficiency of fluorescein dye technique to evaluate the vascularity of flaps of various compositions. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was conducted on rats to standardize the technique. Thereafter clinical evaluation was conducted for different flaps namely fasciocutaneous, skeletonized perforator based fasciocutaneous, adipofascial, fasciocutaneous flap with adipofascial extension, fasciocutaneous flap with fascial extension and fasciocutaneous flap with split fascial extension. Conclusions: The paper deals in detail with the technique and method of documentation of a fluorescein study on flaps both experimentally and clinically. The appearance of fluorescein on both the surfaces and distal margin of the flap confirmed the adequacy of vascularity soon after dissection of the flaps. It was found to be an easy, safe and reliable objective method.

  18. Serum Amyloid A, but Not C-Reactive Protein, Stimulates Vascular Proteoglycan Synthesis in a Pro-Atherogenic Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patricia G.; Thompson, Joel C.; Webb, Nancy R.; de Beer, Frederick C.; King, Victoria L.; Tannock, Lisa R.

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory markers serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are predictive of cardiac disease and are proposed to play causal roles in the development of atherosclerosis, in which the retention of lipoproteins by vascular wall proteoglycans is critical. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SAA and/or CRP alters vascular proteoglycan synthesis and lipoprotein retention in a pro-atherogenic manner. Vascular smooth muscle cells were stimulated with either SAA or CRP (1 to 100 mg/L) and proteoglycans were then isolated and characterized. SAA, but not CRP, increased proteoglycan sulfate incorporation by 50 to 100% in a dose-dependent manner (P proteoglycans; P proteoglycan synthesis in vivo, ApoE−/− mice were injected with an adenovirus expressing human SAA-1, a null virus, or saline. Mice that received adenovirus expressing SAA had increased TGF-β concentrations in plasma and increased aortic biglycan content compared with mice that received either null virus or saline. Thus, SAA alters vascular proteoglycans in a pro-atherogenic manner via the stimulation of TGF-β and may play a causal role in the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:18974302

  19. GENETICALLY INCREASED ANGIOTENSIN-I CONVERTING ENZYME ALTERS PERIPHERAL AND RENAL VASCULAR REACTIVITY TO ANGIOTENSIN II AND BRADYKININ IN MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Catherine; Placier, Sandrine; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Hus-Citharel, Annette; Caron, Nathalie; Roussel, Ronan; Alhenc-Gelas, Francois; Bouby, Nadine

    2017-11-03

    Angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) levels in man are under strong genetic influence. Genetic variation in ACE has been linked to risk for, and progression of, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Causality has been documented in genetically modified mice but mechanisms underlying causality are not completely elucidated. To further document the vascular and renal consequences of a moderate genetic increase in ACE synthesis, we studied genetically modified mice carrying three copies of the ACE gene (3-copy mice) and littermate wild type animals (2-copy mice). We investigated peripheral and renal vascular reactivity to angiotensin II and bradykinin in vivo by measuring blood pressure and renal blood flow after intravenous administration, and also reactivity of isolated glomerular arterioles by following intracellular calcium mobilisation. Carrying 3 copies of the ACE gene potentiated the systemic and renal vascular responses to angiotensin II over the whole range of peptide concentration tested. Consistently, response of isolated glomerular afferent arterioles to angiotensin II was enhanced in 3-copy mice. In these mice, signalling pathways triggered by endothelial activation by bradykinin or carbachol in glomerular arterioles were also altered. While the NOS-NO pathway was not functional in arterioles of 2-copy mice, in muscular efferent arterioles of 3-copy mice NOS3 gene expression was induced and NO mediated the effect of bradykinin or carbachol. These data document new and unexpected vascular consequences of a genetic increase in ACE synthesis. Enhanced vasoconstrictor effect of angiotensin II may contribute to the risk for cardiovascular and renal diseases linked to genetically high ACE level. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  20. [Changes of vascular reactivity and reactive oxygen species in conditions of varying duration of permanent stay in the alienation zone in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, M M; Kotsiuruba, A V; Baziliuk, O V; Horot', I V; Sahach, V F

    2010-01-01

    Peculiarities of changes in the vascular reactivity and in the content of reactive forms of oxygen and stable metabolites of nitric oxide (NO) were studied in the aorta preparations of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice of the two age groups (6 and 18 mo.), which were born and permanently kept in the Chernobyl alienation zone. The results obtained showed a disturbance of acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent reactions of relaxation of smooth muscles of the thoracic aorta. A lower level of NO synthesis and lower level of oxidative arginase metabolism of arginine corresponded to a higher degree of damage of endothelium-dependent reactions of relaxation of the thoracic aorta smooth muscles. A decrease of NO synthesis in conditions of permanent effects of low doses of radiation was conditioned by an increase of generation of reactive forms of oxygen, namely, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, which might be formed in mitochondria. In conditions of permanent effects of low doses of radiation a lesser level of protein nitrosothilation, same as lesser one of generation of OH-radical, corresponded to a higher level of damage of endothelium-dependent reactions.

  1. EVALUATION OF THE APPLICABLE REACTIVITY RANGE OF A REACTIVITY COMPUTER FOR A CANDU-6 REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUN KI LEE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a CANDU digital reactivity computer system (CDRCS to measure the worth of the liquid zone controller in a CANDU-6 was developed and successfully applied to a physics test of refurbished Wolsong Unit 1. In advance of using the CDRCS, its measureable reactivity range should be investigated and confirmed. There are two reasons for this investigation. First, the CANDU-6 has a larger reactor and smaller excore detectors than a general PWR and consequently the measured reactivity is likely to reflect the peripheral power variation only, not the whole core. The second reason is photo neutrons generated from the interaction of the moderator and gamma-rays, which are never considered in a PWR. To evaluate the limitations of the CDRCS, several tens of three-dimensional steady and transient simulations were performed. The simulated detector signals were used to obtain the dynamic reactivity. The difference between the dynamic reactivity and the static worth increases in line with the water level changes. The maximum allowable reactivity was determined to be 1.4 mk in the case of CANDU-6 by confining the difference to less than 1%.

  2. Essential role for vascular gelatinase activity in relaxin-induced renal vasodilation, hyperfiltration, and reduced myogenic reactivity of small arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; Novak, Jacqueline; Danielson, Lee A; Kerchner, Laurie J; Opett, Shannon L; Conrad, Kirk P

    2003-12-12

    During pregnancy, relaxin stimulates nitric oxide (NO)-dependent renal vasodilation, hyperfiltration and reduced myogenic reactivity of small renal arteries via the endothelial ETB receptor subtype. Our objective in this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which relaxin stimulates the endothelial ETB receptor/NO vasodilatory pathway. Using chronically instrumented conscious rats, we demonstrated that a specific peptide inhibitor of the gelatinases MMP-2 and -9, cyclic CTTHWGFTLC (cyclic CTT), but not the control peptide, STTHWGFTLS (STT), completely reversed renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in relaxin-treated rats. Comparable findings were observed with a structurally different and well-established, general antagonist of MMPs, GM6001. In contrast, phosphoramidon, an inhibitor of endothelin-converting enzyme, did not significantly change the renal vasodilatory response to relaxin administration. When small renal arteries were incubated with either of the general MMP inhibitors, GM6001 or TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of MMP), or with the specific gelatinase inhibitor, cyclic CTT, the reduced myogenic reactivity of these blood vessels from relaxin-treated nonpregnant and midterm pregnant rats was totally abolished. Moreover, a neutralizing antibody specific for MMP-2 completely abrogated the reduced myogenic reactivity of small renal arteries from relaxin-treated nonpregnant and midterm pregnant rats. In contrast, phosphoramidon did not significantly affect the reduction in myogenic reactivity. Using gelatin zymography, we showed increased pro and active MMP-2 activity in small renal arteries from relaxin-treated nonpregnant and midterm pregnant rats relative to the control animals. Thus, inhibitors of MMPs in general and of gelatinases in particular reverse the renal vascular changes induced by pregnancy or relaxin administration to nonpregnant rats. Finally, the typical reduction in myogenic reactivity of small renal arteries from relaxin-treated nonpregnant

  3. The role of nitric oxide in the altered vascular reactivity of pregnancy in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, L; Cuevas, J; Chaudhuri, G

    1995-01-01

    1. Pregnancy is characterized by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance and a blunting of the angiotensin II (AII) pressor response. We studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in these vascular changes of pregnancy in anaesthesized, ganglion blocked non-pregnant and pregnant rats. 2. Inhibition of NO synthesis with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) led to an increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) which was of a significantly greater magnitude in pregnant rats in la...

  4. Performance evaluation of reactive direct current unbalanced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Keywords. Semi-industrial unbalanced magnetron sputtering system; nanostructured TiN coatings; HSS drill bits; performance evaluation. 1. Introduction. Stainless steels are considered to be difficult to machine materials. Built-up edge and irregular wear situations are often faced in machining operations of these materials.

  5. Local Versus Systemic Influences on Uterine Vascular Reactivity During Pregnancy in the Single-Horn Gravid Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Robert; Colton, Ilsley; Gokina, Natalia; Mandala, Maurizio; Osol, George

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether gestational changes in maternal uterine artery reactivity are primarily driven by local vs. systemic factors. Rats underwent surgical ligation of one oviduct, thereby restricting implantation and pregnancy to one uterine horn while maintaining a gestational endocrine milieu. Uterine arcuate arteries were isolated and cannulated to evaluate reactivity. Vessels from the implanted horn were significantly more sensitive to phenylephrine and less sensi...

  6. Effects of exercise training on stress-induced vascular reactivity alterations: role of nitric oxide and prostanoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise may modify biologic stress responses. Objective: To investigate the impact of exercise training on vascular alterations induced by acute stress, focusing on nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways. Method: Wistar rats were separated into: sedentary, trained (60-min swimming, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, carrying a 5% body-weight load, stressed (2 h-immobilization, and trained/stressed. Response curves for noradrenaline, in the absence and presence of L-NAME or indomethacin, were obtained in intact and denuded aortas (n=7-10. Results: None of the procedures altered the denuded aorta reactivity. Intact aortas from stressed, trained, and trained/stressed rats showed similar reduction in noradrenaline maximal responses (sedentary 3.54±0.15, stressed 2.80±0.10*, trained 2.82±0.11*, trained/stressed 2.97± 0.21*, *P<0.05 relate to sedentary. Endothelium removal and L-NAME abolished this hyporeactivity in all experimental groups, except in trained/stressed rats that showed a partial aorta reactivity recovery in L-NAME presence (L-NAME: sedentary 5.23±0,26#, stressed 5.55±0.38#, trained 5.28±0.30#, trained/stressed 4.42±0.41, #P<0.05 related to trained/stressed. Indomethacin determined a decrease in sensitivity (EC50 in intact aortas of trained rats without abolishing the aortal hyporeactivity in trained, stressed, and trained/stressed rats. Conclusions: Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Stress-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial nitric oxide. Beside the involvement of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway, the vascular response of trained/stressed rats involved an additional mechanism yet to be elucidated. These findings advance on the understanding of the vascular processes after exercise and stress alone and in combination.

  7. Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Registry evaluation of stent cell design on carotid artery stenting outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Jeffrey; Rubin, Brian G; Landis, Gregg S; Kenwood, Christopher T; Siami, Flora S; Sicard, Gregorio A

    2011-07-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Vascular Registry (VR) collects data on outcomes of carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting (CAS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of open vs closed cell stent design on the in-hospital and 30-day outcome of CAS. The VR collects provider-reported data on patients using a Web-based database. Data were analyzed both in-hospital and at 30 days postprocedure. The primary outcome is combined death/stroke/myocardial infarction (MI). As of October 14, 2009, there were 4337 CAS with discharge data and 2397 with 30-day data. Open cell stents (OPEN) were used in 3451 patients (79.6%), and closed cell stents (CLOSED) were used in 866 patients (20.4%). Baseline demographics showed no differences in age, gender, race, and ethnicity. However, the OPEN group had more patients with atherosclerosis (74.5% vs 67.4%; P = .0003) as the etiology of carotid artery disease. The OPEN group also had a higher prevalence of preprocedural stroke (25.8% vs 21.4%; P = .0079), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; 21.0% vs 17.6%; P = .0277), cardiac arrhythmia (14.7% vs 11.4%; P = .0108), valvular heart disease (7.4% vs 3.7%; P differences in the in-hospital or 30-day outcomes between the OPEN and CLOSED patients. Further subgroup analyses demonstrated symptomatic patients had a higher event rate than the asymptomatic cohort in both the OPEN and CLOSED groups. Among symptomatic patients, the OPEN patients had a lower (0.43% vs 1.41%; P = .0349) rate of in-hospital mortality with no difference in stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). There were no differences in 30-day event rates. In asymptomatic patients, there were also no statistically significant differences between the OPEN and CLOSED groups. After risk adjustment, there remained no statistically significant differences between groups of the primary endpoint (death/stroke/MI) during in-hospital or 30 days. In-hospital and 30-day outcomes after CAS were not

  8. Estudo da reatividade vascular induzida pelo estresse mental na gravidez de mulheres portadoras de estenose mitral Vascular reactivity response to mental stress in pregnant women with mitral stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkiria Samuel Avila

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a reatividade vascular mediante a análise do fluxo sangüíneo e da resistência vascular periférica em repouso e estresse mental na gravidez de mulheres com estenose mitral. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 22 mulheres portadoras de estenose mitral, 13 grávidas (GE e 9 não-grávidas (EM, e 9 gestantes saudáveis voluntárias (GN. Na gestação, 9 (GEB das 13 do GE necessitaram de betabloqueador e 4 restantes (GESB evoluíram sem medicação. A plestimografia em repouso e sob estresse mental analisou o fluxo sangüíneo muscular, resistência vascular periférica (RVP, pressão arterial média (PAM e freqüência cardíaca (FC na gestação e no puerpério. RESULTADOS: Na gestação do GESB, os valores do fluxo sangüíneo muscular e da FC foram maiores em 1,6% e 20,5% (p = 0,05, e os da RVP e da PAM foram menores em 19,3% e 4,4%, respectivamente, em comparação ao puerpério; no estresse mental, o fluxo sangüíneo muscular aumentou em 55,9%, a FC reduziu em 30,2% e houve semelhança da RVP e PAM. No GEB, os valores do fluxo e da FC foram maiores em 5,9% e 14,9% (p = 0,001 e os da PAM e da RVP menores em 10,3% e 9,1%, respectivamente, quando comparados ao puerpério; no estresse mental o fluxo e a PAM aumentaram em 69,8% e 174,1%, respectivamente, a FC foi semelhante e a RVP reduziu em 53,7%. O estudo comparativo mostrou que no grupo GN o fluxo sangüíneo muscular foi maior, a RVP menor e houve semelhança na PAM e FC em relação ao grupo GE e que os grupos GE, GN, EM apresentaram semelhança na resposta ao estresse mental. CONCLUSÕES: A reatividade vascular na gestação de mulheres com estenose mitral foi preservada e a análise das medidas mostrou valores menores de fluxo sangüíneo muscular e maiores da RVP quando comparados às gestantes saudáveis.OBJECTIVE: To study vascular reactivity according to the analysis of blood flow and peripheral vascular resistance at rest and during mental stress in pregnant women with

  9. Role of the α-adrenergic system in femoral vascular reactivity in neonatal llamas and sheep: a comparative study between highland and lowland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, Fernando A; Reyes, Roberto V; Herrera, Emilio A; Riquelme, Raquel A; Ebensperger, Germán; Pulgar, Víctor M; Parer, Julian T; Giussani, Dino A; Llanos, Aníbal J

    2011-10-01

    Using an integrative approach at the whole animal, isolated vessels, and molecular levels, we tested the hypothesis that the llama, a species that undergoes pregnancy under the influence of the chronic hypoxia of high altitude, delivers offspring with an increased α-adrenergic peripheral vascular reactivity compared with neonates from lowland species. We studied the femoral vascular response to acute hypoxia in vivo, the reactivity of femoral vessels ex vivo, and the expression of femoral α(1)-adrenergic receptor subtypes using RT-PCR in vitro. The increase in femoral resistance during hypoxia was 3.6 times greater in newborn llamas than newborn sheep (P vascular reactivity compared with neonates from lowland species that could be partially explained by preferential expression of α(1B)-adrenergic receptor subtype.

  10. The design and rationale of the Beijing Vascular Disease Patients Evaluation Study (BEST study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: 2858 subjects were enrolled into our present study at baseline, and this present study will provide important information on the metabolic related traditional and new risk factors, establish a new vascular disease early detection system and scoring systems based on comprehensive vascular disease risk factors and vascular function and structure evaluation indexes.

  11. Assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity to oxygen using fractional moving blood volume in fetuses with normal lung development and pulmonary hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoninck, Philip; Jimenez, Julio; Russo, Francesca M; Hodges, Ryan; Gratacós, Eduard; Deprest, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate whether assessment pulmonary vascular reactivity in response to maternal hyperoxygenation using fractional moving blood volume (FMBV) is associated with lesser variability between individual measurements than what is observed with direct Doppler measurements. Forty-five measurements were performed in 15 singleton fetuses with normal lung development at three time points in the latter half of pregnancy (range: 25.9-36.7 weeks). We further evaluated five fetuses with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Lung perfusion was assessed using power Doppler ultrasound, and images were stored for offline FMBV calculation, both at base line and during oxygen administration (9 L/min for 10 min). The proportionate difference between both measurements is further referred to as deltaFMBV. Overall, 91% of images were of sufficient quality for further analysis. There was no correlation between pulmonary reactivity to oxygen (deltaFMBV) and gestational age in controls (12.9 ± 32.1%). Moreover, deltaFMBV showed large variability between subjects, as well as within the same fetus throughout gestation. We observed good intraobserver (0.88; 0.84) and interobserver (0.88; 0.77) reproducibility for both controls and congenital diaphragmatic hernia, respectively (intraclass correlation coefficients). Despite being a reproducible method to study the lung vasculature, the large variability of FMBV following hyperoxygenation limits its clinical translation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Aguado, Andrea [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, María Jesús [Dept. of Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Genetics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitória-EMESCAM, Vitória, ES CEP 29045-402 (Brazil); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  13. Improved pulmonary vascular reactivity and decreased hypertrophic remodeling during nonhypercapnic acidosis in experimental pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Helen; Reslan, Ossama M.; Mam, Virak; Tanbe, Alain F.; Vitali, Sally H.; Touma, Marlin; Arons, Elena; Mitsialis, S. Alex; Kourembanas, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by pulmonary arteriolar remodeling with excessive pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. This results in decreased responsiveness of pulmonary circulation to vasodilator therapies. We have shown that extracellular acidosis inhibits VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro. Here we tested whether induction of nonhypercapnic acidosis in vivo ameliorates PH and the underlying pulmonary vascular remodeling and dysfunction. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxia (8.5% O2) for 2 wk, or injected subcutaneously with monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) to develop PH. Acidosis was induced with NH4Cl (1.5%) in the drinking water 5 days prior to and during the 2 wk of hypoxic exposure (prevention protocol), or after MCT injection from day 21 to 28 (reversal protocol). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and Fulton's index were measured, and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling was analyzed. Pulmonary and mesenteric artery contraction to phenylephrine (Phe) and high KCl, and relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were examined ex vivo. Hypoxic and MCT-treated rats demonstrated increased RVSP, Fulton's index, and pulmonary arteriolar thickening. In pulmonary arteries of hypoxic and MCT rats there was reduced contraction to Phe and KCl and reduced vasodilation to ACh and SNP. Acidosis prevented hypoxia-induced PH, reversed MCT-induced PH, and resulted in reduction in all indexes of PH including RVSP, Fulton's index, and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling. Pulmonary artery contraction to Phe and KCl was preserved or improved, and relaxation to ACh and SNP was enhanced in NH4Cl-treated PH animals. Acidosis alone did not affect the hemodynamics or pulmonary vascular function. Phe and KCl contraction and ACh and SNP relaxation were not different in mesenteric arteries of all groups. Thus nonhypercapnic acidosis ameliorates experimental PH, attenuates pulmonary arteriolar thickening

  14. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Signaling During Disease: Regulation by Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Michelle E.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The endothelium is immunoregulatory in that inhibiting the function of vascular adhesion molecules blocks leukocyte recruitment and thus tissue inflammation. The function of endothelial cells during leukocyte recruitment is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. In inflammatory sites and lymph nodes, the endothelium is stimulated to express adhesion molecules that mediate leukocyte binding. Upon leukocyte binding, these adhesion molecules activate endothelial cell signal transduction that then alters endothelial cell shape for the opening of passageways through which leukocytes can migrate. If the stimulation of this opening is blocked, inflammation is blocked. In this review, we focus on the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Expression of VCAM-1 is induced on endothelial cells during inflammatory diseases by several mediators, including ROS. Then, VCAM-1 on the endothelium functions as both a scaffold for leukocyte migration and a trigger of endothelial signaling through NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. These ROS induce signals for the opening of intercellular passageways through which leukocytes migrate. In several inflammatory diseases, inflammation is blocked by inhibition of leukocyte binding to VCAM-1 or by inhibition of VCAM-1 signal transduction. VCAM-1 signal transduction and VCAM-1-dependent inflammation are blocked by antioxidants. Thus, VCAM-1 signaling is a target for intervention by pharmacological agents and by antioxidants during inflammatory diseases. This review discusses ROS and antioxidant functions during activation of VCAM-1 expression and VCAM-1 signaling in inflammatory diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1607–1638. PMID:21050132

  15. Increased reactive oxygen metabolites is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and vascular endothelial damage in middle-aged Japanese subjects

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    Sugiura T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomonori Sugiura1, Yasuaki Dohi1, Hiroyuki Takase2, Sumiyo Yamashita1, Satoru Tanaka1, Genjiro Kimura11Department of Cardio-Renal Medicine and Hypertension, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Enshu Hospital, Hamamatsu, JapanBackground: Vascular endothelium, a provider of nitric oxide, is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in healthy vascular systems. Increased oxidative stress promotes vascular inflammation and is a common pathway involved in endothelial damage. The present study sought to investigate the usefulness of derivative reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM as an oxidative stress marker for detecting endothelial damage in the clinical setting in subjects with early-stage atherosclerosis.Methods: Study 1 investigated the relationship between serum d-ROM levels and cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy middle-aged subjects (n = 1992, 49 ± 8 years who participated in our health checkup program. Study 2 analyzed the association between d-ROM levels and endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation and that between d-ROM levels and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in middle-aged outpatients with mild-to-moderate cardiovascular risk (n = 43, 40 ± 5 years.Results: In study 1, the d-ROM level was independently correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and brain natriuretic peptide in univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In study 2, the d-ROM level was correlated positively with the hs-CRP level and inversely with the flow-mediated dilation value. Patients in the highest tertile of d-ROM had significantly lower flow-mediated dilation values compared with patients in the other tertiles. Moreover, after subdivision of patients into four groups according to d-ROM and hs-CRP levels, patients with high levels of both d-ROM and hs-CRP showed

  16. Evaluating Peripheral Vascular Injuries: Is Color Doppler Enough for Diagnosis?

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    Mohd Lateef Wani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Vascular injury poses a serious threat to limb and life. Thus, diagnosis should be made immediately with minimally invasive methods. Doppler is a good aid in diagnosis of vascular injury. Methods:: The present prospective study was conducted on 150 patients who presented with soft signs (the signs which are suggestive but not confirmatory of vascular injury. They were subjected to color Doppler examination before exploration. The patients with the features of vascular injury on color Doppler were subjected to exploration. On the other hand, those who had normal Doppler were subjected to CT- angiography. Then, the findings of the exploration were matched with those of color Doppler. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. Results:: Out of the 150 Doppler examinations, 110 (73.33% were reported as positive, while 40 were reported as negative for vascular injury. These were subjected to CT-angiography and seven of them had the features of vascular injury on CT-angiography. All the patients with positive Doppler or CT angiography findings were subjected to exploration. Doppler had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 82.5% in diagnosis of vascular injury using Binary classification test. Conclusions:: Color Doppler is an easily available, reliable, and handy method of diagnosing a vascular injury. It has a very high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of vascular injuries.

  17. VEGF receptor antagonist Cyclo-VEGI reduces inflammatory reactivity and vascular leakiness and is neuroprotective against acute excitotoxic striatal insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLarnon James G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitotoxic brain insult is associated with extensive neuronal damage but could also cause inflammatory reactivity and vascular remodeling. The effects of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor, Cyclo-VEGI on expression of VEGF, microgliosis and astrogliosis, blood-brain barrier (BBB integrity and neuronal viability have been studied following intra-striatal injection of the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid (QUIN. The purpose of this study was to examine VEGF-dependent inflammatory responses in excitotoxin-injected brain and their dependence on pharmacological antagonism of VEGF receptors. Methods Single and double immunofluorescence staining of cellular (microglia, astrocyte, neuron responses and dye and protein infiltration of blood-brain barrier have been applied in the absence, and presence, of pharmacological modulation using a VEGF receptor antagonist, Cyclo-VEGI. Dunn-Bonferroni statistical analysis was used to measure for significance between animal groups. Results Detailed analysis, at a single time point of 1 d post-QUIN injection, showed excitotoxin-injected striatum to exhibit marked increases in microgliosis (ED1 marker, astrogliosis (GFAP marker and VEGF expression, compared with PBS injection. Single and double immunostaining demonstrated significant effects of Cyclo-VEGI treatment of QUIN-injected striatum to inhibit microgliosis (by 38%, ED1/VEGF (by 42% and VEGF striatal immunoreactivity (by 43%; astrogliosis and GFAP/VEGF were not significantly altered with Cyclo-VEGI treatment. Leakiness of BBB was indicated by infiltration of Evans blue dye and plasma protein fibrinogen into QUIN-injected striatum with barrier permeability restored by 62% (Evans blue permeability and 49% (fibrinogen permeability with Cyclo-VEGI application. QUIN-induced toxicity was demonstrated with loss of striatal neurons (NeuN marker and increased neuronal damage (Fluoro-Jade marker with significant neuroprotection

  18. Whole-brain vascular reactivity measured by fMRI using hyperventilation and breath-holding tasks: efficacy of 3D prospective acquisition correction (3D-PACE) for head motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, 466-8550, Nagoya (Japan); Maruyama, Katsuya; Takizawa, Osamu [Siemens-Asahi Medical Technologies Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-08-01

    Functional MR imaging (fMRI) study using hyperventilation and breath-holding task has been reported to be one of the non-invasive methods to examine whole-brain vascular reactivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a method for 3D prospective detection and correction of head motion (3D-PACE) in a study of whole-brain vascular reactivity using hyperventilation and breath-holding tasks. Eight healthy volunteers were scanned using an fMRI protocol of hyperventilation and breath-holding task blocks at 3 T in separate runs with and without 3D-PACE. In two subjects, two more runs with and without 3D-PACE were repeated. The mean total number of activated voxels {+-} standard deviation was 26,405.3{+-}1,822.2 in the run with 3D-PACE and 17,329.9{+-}2,766.3 in the run without 3D-PACE (P<0.05), although there is some intersubject variation regarding the effect of 3D-PACE. In the two subjects whose performed two more runs, the number of activated voxels were smaller in the run without 3D-PACE than even in the run with 3D-PACE performed later. We conclude that 3D-PACE is beneficial for fMRI studies of whole-brain vascular reactivity induced by hyperventilation and breath-holding. (orig.)

  19. Synthesis, reactivity studies and biological evaluation of novel bisphosphonates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ph.D. (Chemistry) This thesis was devoted to the synthesis of new bisphosphonates molecules, the study of their reactivity and the evaluation of their biological activities. The synthesis of epoxyalkylgembisphosphonates was carried out in three steps. The first step was the synthesis of arynyl and alkynylphosphonates by metallation of alkyl and aryl acetylenes followed by condensation with diethylchlorophosphate at low temperature. The second step was the synthesis of vinylgembisphosphonat...

  20. Mesenteric vascular occlusion: a new diagnostic method using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody reactive with platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Zamora, P.O. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))

    1989-06-01

    A new method for diagnosing mesenteric vaso-occlusive bowel disease with the use of radioimmunoscintigraphy was developed and tested in experimental models of arterial and venous disease, as well as in a model simulating bowel strangulation. The method involves the use of a monoclonal antibody fragment mixture that binds to platelets. The antibody was labeled with technetium-99m, and imaging was performed with a gamma camera in the planar and single photon emission computed tomography modes. This method allowed visualization of areas of ischemia of 1-6 hours duration in bowel loops in 19 dogs 90-180 minutes after injection of the radiolabeled antibody. No bowel radioactivity accumulation occurred in dogs that underwent the same surgical procedure but were given a nonspecific Tc-99m-labeled antibody or in normal dogs given the specific antibody. It appears that the radiolabeled antibody used, which has higher reactivity with human platelets than with dog platelets, will be a good agent for noninvasive diagnosis of mesenteric vaso-occlusive disease in humans. It may also play a role in the intraoperative determination of the extent and location of ischemic bowel segments.

  1. Evaluation of computer tomography in cerebro-vascular disease (Strokes)

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    Lee, Young Sik; Baek, Seung Yon; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seup [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-06-15

    Most of cerebrovascular disease are composed of vascular occulusive changes and hemorrhage. Now a day, the computed tomography is the best way for evaluation of cerebrovascular disease including detection of nature, location, and associated changes. This study includes evaluation of computed tomography of 70 patients with cerebrovascular disease during the period of 10 months from April. 1983 to Feb. 1984 in Department of Radiology, Ewha Womans University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution of the total 70 patients was broad ranging from 25 years to 79 years. 78.6% of patients were over the age of 50. The male and female sex ratio was 1.4:1. 2. 4 out of 70 patients were normal and 66 patients revealed abnormal on C.T. findings; those were intracranial hemorrhage (28 patients), cerebral infarction (34 patients) and brain atrophy (4 patients). 3. In cases of cerebral infarction, the cerebral hemisphere was most common site of lesion (28 cases), and next was basal ganglia (2 cases). Most of the infarcts in cerebral hemisphere were located in the parietal and temporal lobes. 4. In cases of intracranial hemorrhage, the basal ganglia was most common site of lesion (15 cases). The next common site was cerebral hemisphere (9 cases). 6 patients of all intracranial hemorrhage were combined with intraventricular hemorrhage. Ratio of right and left was 2:3. 5. In patients with motor weakness or hemiparesis, more common findings on CT scan were cerebral infarction. In case with hemiplegia, more common CT findings were intracerebral hemorrhage. 6. Of the 40 cases thought to be cerebral infarction initially by clinical findings and spinal tap. 8 cases (20.0%) were proved to be cerebral hemorrhage by the CT scan. However, of the 22 cases thought to be cerebral hemorrhage, initially, only two cases (9.0%) were cerebral infarction.

  2. Cerebrovascular Reactivity and Vascular Activation in Postmenopausal Women With Histories of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jill N; Harvey, Ronée E; Miller, Kathleen B; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Malterer, Katherine R; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Joyner, Michael J; Miller, Virginia M

    2018-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is reduced in patients with cognitive decline. Women with a history of preeclampsia are at increased risk for cognitive decline. This study examined an association between pregnancy history and CVR using a subgroup of 40 age- and parity-matched pairs of women having histories of preeclampsia (n=27) or normotensive pregnancy (n=29) and the association of activated blood elements with CVR. Middle cerebral artery velocity was measured by Doppler ultrasound before and during hypercapnia to assess CVR. Thirty-eight parameters of blood cellular elements, microvesicles, and cell-cell interactions measured in venous blood were assessed for association with CVR using principal component analysis. Middle cerebral artery velocity was lower in the preeclampsia compared with the normotensive group at baseline (63±4 versus 73±3 cm/s; P =0.047) and during hypercapnia ( P =0.013-0.056). CVR was significantly lower in the preeclampsia compared with the normotensive group (2.1±1.3 versus 2.9±1.1 cm·s·mm Hg; P =0.009). Globally, the association of the 7 identified principal components with preeclampsia ( P =0.107) and with baseline middle cerebral artery velocity ( P =0.067) did not reach statistical significance. The interaction between pregnancy history and principal components with respect to CVR ( P =0.084) was driven by a nominally significant interaction between preeclampsia and the individual principal component defined by blood elements, platelet aggregation, and interactions of platelets with monocytes and granulocytes ( P =0.008). These results suggest that having a history of preeclampsia negatively affects the cerebral circulation years beyond the pregnancy and that this effect was associated with activated blood elements. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Vascular matrix metalloproteinase-9 mediates the inhibition of myogenic reactivity in small arteries isolated from rats after short-term administration of relaxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; Novak, Jacqueline; Doty, Ketah D; Matthews, Julianna; Fisher, Michelle C; Kerchner, Laurie J; Conrad, Kirk P

    2007-01-01

    During pregnancy and chronic relaxin administration to nonpregnant rats (for days), vascular MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-2 is increased and mediates renal vasodilation, hyperfiltration, and inhibition of myogenic reactivity of small renal arteries. However, the renal vasodilatory actions of relaxin also occur after only several hours of hormone administration to nonpregnant rats, and we hypothesized a pivotal role for vascular MMP-2. Accordingly, we used gelatin zymography, which reveals not only vascular MMP-2, but also MMP-9 activity in small renal arteries isolated from rats administered recombinant human relaxin (rhRLX) or vehicle for 4-6 h. Furthermore, we tested whether myogenic reactivity is inhibited, and if so, whether the inhibition is mediated by increased vascular MMP-2. Surprisingly, we detected no significant difference in either pro or active MMP-2 in small renal arteries isolated from rhRLX and vehicle control treatment groups. In contrast, vascular MMP-9 was up-regulated by 70% (P vascular smooth muscle. MMP-9, but not MMP-2 activity, was also increased in mesenteric arteries after short-term rhRLX administration (P 0.05 vs. vehicle, respectively). Myogenic reactivity was inhibited in small renal arteries isolated from nonpregnant rats treated with rhRLX for 4-6 h (P < 0.01 vs. vehicle) and was completely restored by incubation with MMP-9, but not MMP-2 neutralizing antibodies in vitro. In contrast to chronic rhRLX administration, MMP-9 rather than MMP-2 plays a central role in the vasodilatory effect of short-term relaxin administration.

  4. Dynamin-related protein inhibitor downregulates reactive oxygen species levels to indirectly suppress high glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitijiang, Alimujiang; Zhuang, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaofei; Li, Yong, E-mail: 11211220031@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-03-18

    Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is a pathogenic mechanism common in diabetic vascular complications and is a putatively important therapeutic target. This study investigated multiple levels of biology, including cellular and organellar changes, as well as perturbations in protein synthesis and morphology. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was utilized to assess the effect of mitochondrial dynamic changes and reactive oxygen species(ROS) levels on high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The data demonstrated that the mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 and downregulation of ROS levels both effectively inhibited the high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Downregulation of ROS levels played a more direct role and ROS levels were also regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. Increased ROS levels induced excessive mitochondrial fission through dynamin-related protein (Drp 1), while Mdivi-1 suppressed the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS levels, thus inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission under high-glucose conditions. This study is the first to propose that mitochondrial dynamic changes and ROS levels interact with each other and regulate high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This finding provides novel ideas in understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular remodeling and intervention. - Highlights: • Mdivi-1 inhibits VSMC proliferation by lowering ROS level in high-glucose condition. • ROS may be able to induce mitochondrial fission through Drp1 regulation. • Mdivi-1 can suppress the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS.

  5. Modification of the liver fatty acids by Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae) infusion, its possible effect on vascular reactivity in a metabolic syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zúñiga Muñoz, Alejandra; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Ulises; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Guarner Lans, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (HSL)-fed infusion on the fatty acid (FA) profile in liver of metabolic syndrome (MS) rats and its possible effect on vascular reactivity. Body mass, intra-abdominal fat, triglycerides, insulin, blood pressure, saturated, monounsaturated FA, NEFAs, Δ(9)-, Δ(6)-desaturases and vasoconstriction were increased, while vasorelaxation, polyunsaturated FA, endothelial nitric oxide and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio decreased in MS versus Control, but HSL infusion modified it and increased Δ(5)-desaturase. The results suggest that the alteration in FA liver metabolism in the MS contributes to impaired vascular reactivity, but treatment with of HSL infusion can improve this condition.

  6. Obesity Induces Artery-Specific Alterations: Evaluation of Vascular Function and Inflammatory and Smooth Muscle Phenotypic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Garcia Soares

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular alterations are expected to occur in obese individuals but the impact of obesity could be different depending on the artery type. We aimed to evaluate the obesity effects on the relaxing and contractile responses and inflammatory and smooth muscle (SM phenotypic markers in two vascular beds. Obesity was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by 16-week high-fat diet and vascular reactivity, mRNA expression of inflammatory and SM phenotypic markers, and collagen deposition were evaluated in small mesenteric arteries (SMA and thoracic aorta (TA. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in SMA and TA was not modified by obesity. In contrast, contraction induced by depolarization and contractile agonists was reduced in SMA, whereas only contraction induced by adrenergic agonist was reduced in TA of obese mice. Obesity increased the mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in SMA and TA. The expression of genes necessary for maintaining contractile ability was increased by obesity, but the increase was more pronounced in TA. Collagen deposition was increased in SMA, but not in TA, of obese mice. Although the endothelial function was still preserved, the SM of the two artery types was impaired by obesity, but the impairment was higher in SMA, which could be associated with SM phenotypic changes.

  7. INDIVIDUAL-TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF BLOOD FLOW AND VASCULAR REACTIVITY IN FEMALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horban D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of functional state of the microcirculation in the female body by laser Doppler flux-metry (LDF, which allows evaluating the state of the tissue blood flow and detecting signs of microcirculation changes under the influence of various factors were done. Studying individual typological features of blood circulation during recording LDF-grams in girl’s students, most of them recorded mainly of high LDF-grams with severe vasomotor waves of the second order. Parameter of microcirculation (PM of each blood flow ranged from 3.4 to 27.4 perf. ed.; on average it was 19,0 ± 0,43 perf. units. The level of tissue blood flow oscillations – SCR ranged from 0.57 to 3.23 perf. units., accounting for an average of 2,06 ± 0,05 perf. units. The coefficient of variation on average was 13,2 ± 0,51. We identified three types of LDF-grams, corresponding to different types of blood. We also determined the relationship of the thermal hyperemia with the phases of the menstrual cycle and daily dynamics of changes of microcirculation blood. Data on the peculiarities of microcirculation in female students have important theoretical and practical significance for understanding the mechanisms of regulation of tissue blood flow. The normative indicators of blood microcirculation of female students would much easier identify the functional changes in human body by using of non-invasive methods. The data on blood circulation in females can be used as standard rates of LDF measuring the study of pathological processes in medicine.

  8. Up-Regulation of Endothelin Receptors Induced by Cigarette Smoke — Involvement of MAPK in Vascular and Airway Hyper-Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke exposure is well known to cause cardiovascular and airway diseases, both of which are leading causes of death and disability in the world. However, the molecular mechanisms that link cigarette smoke to cardiovascular and airway diseases are not fully understood. Vascular and airway hyper-reactivity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and airway diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that endothelin receptor up-regulation mediates vascular and airway hyper-reactivity in response to endothelin-1 (ET-1, endothelin receptor agonist in cardiovascular and airway diseases. In the vasculature and airways, the main functional consequences of up-regulated endothelin receptors by cigarette smoke exposure are enhanced contraction and proliferation of the smooth muscle cells, which subsequently result in abnormal contraction (spasm and adverse proliferation (remodeling of the vasculature and airways. The structural alteration by adverse remodeling involves changes in cell growth, cell death, cell migration, and production or degradation of the extracellular matrix. This review focuses on cigarette smoke exposure that induces activation of intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and subsequently results in the up-regulation of endothelin receptors in the vasculature and airways, which mediates vascular and airway hyper-reactivity, one of the important pathogenic characteristics of cardiovascular and airway diseases. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of how cigarette smoke causes up-regulation of endothelin receptors in the vasculature and airways may provide new strategies for the treatment of cigarette smoke—associated cardiovascular and lung diseases.

  9. Differential suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species-mediated signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells by several subclasses of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Long; Chen, Chun-ye; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Qian-yong; Zhu, Jun-dong; Mi, Man-tian

    2012-09-01

    Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is crucial for vascular endothelial dysfunction, a key step in the initiating of atherosclerosis (AS). The antioxidant activity of flavonoids has been suggested to contribute to AS prevention. However, The association of the structure characteristics to antioxidant capacities in relation to the inhibitory effects on endothelial dysfunction has not been well established. In this study, four subclasses of flavonoids with similar structures, including two anthocyanins (delphinidin and cyanidin), two flavonols (myricetin and quercetin), two flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and two isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) were examined for their inhibitory effects on intracellular ROS-mediated signaling pathway in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell EA.hy926. Cells were pretreated with different flavonoids for 2 h and then exposed to oxLDL of 100 μg/ml for another 24 h. It was found that treatment with different flavonoids alone had no notable effects on cell viability. However, the oxLDL-induced decrease of cell viability, generation of O(2)(·-) and ROS, p38MAPK activation, NF-κB nuclear translocation, NF-κB-modulated transcriptional activity as well as the mRNA expression of genes including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were notably inhibited by the pretreatment of different flavonoids through blunting ROS-triggered signaling pathway, in spite of apparent differences. And the number of hydroxyl groups in total, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyl in B-ring and 3-hydroxyl group in C-ring of flavonoids were important structure characteristics for the inhibitory effects. Thus, anthocyanins and flavonols such as delphinidin and myricetin exert higher ROS scavenging activities and more significant endothelium-protective effects compared to the other compounds. Our results provide evidence for AS prevention and a basis for designing the potent anti-atherosclerotic agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  10. Restoring placental growth factor-soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 balance reverses vascular hyper-reactivity and hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minglin; Ren, Zongli; Possomato-Vieira, José S; Khalil, Raouf A

    2016-09-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder (HTN-Preg) with unclear mechanism. An imbalance between antiangiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and angiogenic placental growth factor (PlGF) has been observed in PE, but the vascular targets and signaling pathways involved are unclear. We assessed the extent of sFlt-1/PlGF imbalance and vascular dysfunction in a rat model of HTN-Preg produced by reduction of uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP), and tested whether inducing a comparable sFlt-1/PlGF imbalance by infusing sFlt-1 (10 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in day 14 pregnant (Preg) rats cause similar increases in blood pressure (BP) and vascular reactivity. Using these guiding measurements, we then tested whether restoring sFlt-1/PlGF balance by infusing PIGF (20 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in RUPP rats would improve BP and vascular function. On gestational day 19, BP was in Preg+sFlt-1 and RUPP > Preg, and in RUPP+PlGF Preg, and in RUPP+PlGF vascular reactivity to Phe and KCl between groups were less apparent in vessels treated with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor l-NAME or guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) or endothelium-denuded, suggesting changes in endothelial NO-cGMP pathway. In Phe precontracted vessels, ACh-induced relaxation was in Preg+sFlt-1 and RUPP RUPP, and was blocked by N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) or ODQ treatment or endothelium removal. Western blots revealed that aortic total endothelial NOS (eNOS) and activated phosphorylated-eNOS were in Preg+sFlt-1 and RUPP RUPP. ACh-induced vascular nitrate/nitrite production was in Preg+sFlt-1 and RUPP RUPP. Vascular relaxation to the exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside was not different among groups. Thus, a tilt in the angiogenic balance toward anti-angiogenic sFlt-1 is associated with decreased vascular relaxation and increased vasoconstriction and BP. Restoring the angiogenic/antiangiogenic balance using Pl

  11. Mechanisms of vasodilatation in pregnancy: studies of the role of prostaglandins and nitric-oxide in changes of vascular reactivity in the in situ blood perfused mesentery of pregnant rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Z. M.; Beilin, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. To examine the possible mechanisms of the vasodilatation and blunted pressor responses in late pregnancy, we have studied vascular reactivity of the in situ blood perfused mesenteric resistance vessels of 18-20 day pregnant Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). 2. Intra-arterial mean blood pressure (MBP) was lower in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant controls. There was no significant difference in basal mesenteric perfusion pressure (BPP) between groups. 3. Vascular reactivity to electrical stimulatio...

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of blood coagulation activation of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel plus dextran-based vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Nuno; Costa, Elísio; Coimbra, Susana; Silva, Alice; Lopes, Ascensão; Rodrigues, Miguel; Santos, Marta; Maurício, Ana Colette; Santos, José Domingos; Luís, Ana Lúcia

    2015-04-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer that is commonly used in biomedical applications including vascular grafting. It was argued that the copolymerization of PVA with dextran (Dx) can result in improvement of blood-biomaterial interactions. The focus of this experimental study was to assess that interaction through an in vivo and in vitro evaluation of the coagulation system activation. The thrombogenicity of the copolymer was determined by quantification of platelet adhesion through the lactate dehydrogenase assay, determination of whole blood clotting time, and by quantification of platelet activation by flow cytometry. The thrombin-antithrombin complex blood levels were also determined. The obtained results for the in vitro assays suggested a non-thrombogenic profile for PVA/Dx. Additionally in vivo coagulation and hematological parameters were determined in an animal model after PVA/Dx vascular graft implantation. For coagulation homeostasis assessment, the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway's activation was determined by measuring prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Other markers of coagulation and inflammation activation including d-dimers, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein were also assessed. The PVA/Dx copolymer tended to inhibit platelet adhesion/activation process and the contact activation process for coagulation. These results were also confirmed with the in vivo experiments where the measurements for APTT, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein parameters were normal considering the species normal range of values. The response to those events is an indicator of the in vitro and in vivo hemocompatibility of PVA/Dx and it allows us to select this biomaterial for further preclinical trials in vascular reconstruction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. In-depth evaluation of commercially available human vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype: Implications for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timraz, Sara B.H., E-mail: sara.timraz@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Farhat, Ilyas A.H., E-mail: ilyas.farhat@outlook.com [Department of Applied Mathematics and Sciences, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Alhussein, Ghada, E-mail: ghada.alhussein@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Christoforou, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.christoforou@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Teo, Jeremy C.M., E-mail: jeremy.teo@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-01

    In vitro research on vascular tissue engineering has extensively used isolated primary human or animal smooth muscle cells (SMC). Research programs that lack such facilities tend towards commercially available primary cells sources. Here, we aim to evaluate the capacity of commercially available human SMC to maintain their contractile phenotype, and determine if dedifferentiation towards the synthetic phenotype occurs in response to conventional cell culture and passaging without any external biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Lower passage SMC adopted a contractile phenotype marked by a relatively slower proliferation rate, higher expression of proteins of the contractile apparatus and smoothelin, elongated morphology, and reduced deposition of collagen types I and III. As the passage number increased, migratory capacity was enhanced, average cell speed, total distance and net distance travelled increased up to passage 8. Through the various assays, corroborative evidence pinpoints SMC at passage 7 as the transition point between the contractile and synthetic phenotypes, while passage 8 distinctly and consistently exhibited characteristics of synthetic phenotype. This knowledge is particularly useful in selecting SMC of appropriate passage number for the target vascular tissue engineering application, for example, a homeostatic vascular graft for blood vessel replacement versus recreating atherosclerotic blood vessel model in vitro. - Highlights: • Ability of human smooth muscle cells to alter phenotype in culture is evaluated. • Examined the effect of passaging human smooth muscle cells on phenotype. • Phenotype is assessed based on morphology, proliferation, markers, and migration. • Multi-resolution assessment methodology, single-cell and cell-population. • Lower and higher passages than P7 adopted a contractile and synthetic phenotype respectively.

  14. Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index and C-Reactive Protein Are Useful Parameters for Identification of Ischemic Heart Disease in Acute Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Shunsuke; Hisatake, Shinji; Kabuki, Takayuki; Oka, Takashi; Dobashi, Shintaro; Fujii, Takahiro; Ikeda, Takanori

    2017-05-01

    The most common cause of heart failure (HF) is ischemic heart disease (IHD). Evaluation of IHD with non-invasive examinations is useful for the treatment of HF, and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a good parameter for detecting systemic arteriosclerosis. However, the relationship between IHD and CAVI in acute HF (AHF) patients is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of non-invasive examinations, including CAVI to detect IHD. We studied 53 consecutive patients (average age of 66.5 ± 10.9 years old, 36 males) with AHF from January 2009 to December 2012. These patients were classified into the IHD group (n = 19) and non-IHD group (n = 34) according to the coronary artery angiography results. We evaluated the vital signs, laboratory findings and CAVI. According to the laboratory findings, the C-reactive protein (CRP) in IHD group was significantly higher than non-IHD group (1.5 ± 2.1 mg/dL vs. 0.4 ± 0.4 mg/dL, P = 0.002). CAVI in IHD group was significantly higher than non-IHD group (9.58 ± 1.73 vs. 7.83 ± 1.86, P < 0.001). In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for discriminating the probability of IHD, the cut-off point of the CRP plus CAVI was 9.00. At that cut-off point, the sensitivity and the specificity were 69.7% and 89.5%, respectively. The mean area under the ROC curve (AUC) defined by the CRP plus CAVI was the greatest at all parameters. The CRP and CAVI were useful parameters for the identification of IHD in patients with AHF.

  15. Efeitos agudos dos estrogênios associados a progestogênios sobre a trigliceridemia e reatividade vascular pós-prandial Acute effects of the use of estrogens in association with progestogens on postprandial triglyceridemia and vascular reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio C.M. Santos

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a terapia de reposição hormonal com estrogênios e progestogênios, em mulheres hipertensas na pós-menopausa, modifica a trigliceridemia e a reatividade vascular pós-prandial. MÉTODOS: Estudo controlado, duplo cego, cruzado contra placebo em 15 mulheres na pós-menopausa (idade de 50 a 70, média = 61,6 ± 6 anos, sorteadas para 2 semanas de placebo ou ingestão oral de 0,625 mg de estrogênios conjugados eqüinos e 2,5 mg de medroxiprogesterona e alimentadas com refeição rica em gorduras (897 calorias; 50,1% de gorduras. Foi medida a reatividade vascular (RV - % de variação dos diâmetros do vaso entre o jejum e 2h após a alimentação, usando-se método ultra-sonográfico automatizado. Foram também determinados o perfil lipídico e a glicose, em jejum e 2h após a alimentação rica em gorduras. RESULTADOS: Com o placebo, a reatividade vascular (RV diminuiu de 3,20 ± 17% em jejum para -2,1 ± 30%, 2h após a alimentação (p = 0,041, e com terapia de reposição hormonal, a reatividade vascular diminuiu de 6,14 ± 27% em jejum para -0,05±18%, 2h após a alimentação (p=NS. A trigliceridemia pós-prandial aumentou, 35 ± 25% com o placebo, e 12 ± 10% com a terapia de reposição hormonal (P OBJECTIVE: To assess whether hormone replacement therapy with estrogens in association with progestogens in postmenopausal hypertensive women alters postprandial triglyceridemia and vascular reactivity. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was carried out with 15 postmenopausal women (age range: 50 to 70 years, mean = 61.6 ± 6 years randomly assigned to 2 weeks of placebo or oral ingestion of 0.625 mg of equine conjugated estrogens and 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone, fed a high-fat diet (897 calories; 50.1% fat. Vascular reactivity (VR - % of vessel diameter variation in the fasting period and 2 hours after meals was measured by using the automated ultrasound method. Lipid profile and glycemia

  16. Myosin light chain kinase is necessary for post-shock mesenteric lymph drainage enhancement of vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity in hemorrhagic-shocked rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.P.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Si, Y.H. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Hebei (China)

    2013-08-10

    Vascular hyporeactivity is an important factor in irreversible shock, and post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) blockade improves vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock. This study explored the possible involvement of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in PSML-mediated vascular hyporeactivity and calcium desensitization. Rats were divided into sham (n=12), shock (n=18), and shock+drainage (n=18) groups. A hemorrhagic shock model (40±2 mmHg, 3 h) was established in the shock and shock+drainage groups. PSML drainage was performed from 1 to 3 h from start of hypotension in shock+drainage rats. Levels of phospho-MLCK (p-MLCK) were determined in superior mesenteric artery (SMA) tissue, and the vascular reactivity to norepinephrine (NE) and sensitivity to Ca{sup 2+} were observed in SMA rings in an isolated organ perfusion system. p-MLCK was significantly decreased in the shock group compared with the sham group, but increased in the shock+drainage group compared with the shock group. Substance P (1 nM), an agonist of MLCK, significantly elevated the decreased contractile response of SMA rings to both NE and Ca{sup 2+} at various concentrations. Maximum contractility (E{sub max}) in the shock group increased with NE (from 0.179±0.038 to 0.440±0.177 g/mg, P<0.05) and Ca{sup 2+} (from 0.515±0.043 to 0.646±0.096 g/mg, P<0.05). ML-7 (0.1 nM), an inhibitor of MLCK, reduced the increased vascular response to NE and Ca{sup 2+} at various concentrations in the shock+drainage group (from 0.744±0.187 to 0.570±0.143 g/mg in E{sub max} for NE and from 0.729±0.037 to 0.645±0.056 g/mg in E{sub max} for Ca{sup 2+}, P<0.05). We conclude that MLCK is an important contributor to PSML drainage, enhancing vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity in rats with hemorrhagic shock.

  17. Testosterone induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells via extrinsic apoptotic pathway with mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rheure Alves Moreira; Neves, Karla Bianca; Pestana, Cezar Rangel; Queiroz, André Lima; Zanotto, Camila Ziliotto; Chignalia, Andréia Z; Valim, Yara Maria; Silveira, Leonardo R; Curti, Carlos; Tostes, Rita C

    2014-06-01

    Testosterone exerts both beneficial and harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. Considering that testosterone induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ROS activate cell death signaling pathways, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via mitochondria-dependent ROS generation. Potential mechanisms were addressed. Cultured VSMCs were stimulated with testosterone (10(-7) mol/l) or vehicle (2-12 h) in the presence of flutamide (10(-5) mol/l), CCCP (10(-6) mol/l), mimetic manganese(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP; 3 × 10(-5) mol/l), Z-Ile-Glu(O-ME)-Thr-Asp(O-Me) fluoromethyl ketone (Z-IETD-FMK; 10(-5) mol/l), or vehicle. ROS were determined with lucigenin and dichlorodihydrofluorescein; apoptosis, with annexin V and calcein; O2 consumption, with a Clark-type electrode, and procaspases, caspases, cytochrome c, Bax, and Bcl-2 levels by immunoblotting. Testosterone induced ROS generation (relative light units/mg protein, 2 h; 162.6 ± 16 vs. 100) and procaspase-3 activation [arbitrary units, (AU), 6 h; 166.2 ± 19 vs. 100]. CCCP, MnTMPyP, and flutamide abolished these effects. Testosterone increased annexin-V fluorescence (AU, 197.6 ± 21.5 vs. 100) and decreased calcein fluorescence (AU, 34.4 ± 6.4 vs. 100), and O2 consumption (nmol O2/min, 18.6 ± 2.0 vs. 34.4 ± 3.9). Testosterone also reduced Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio but not cytochrome-c release from mitochondria. Moreover, testosterone (6 h) induced cleavage of procaspase 8 (AU, 161.1 ± 13.5 vs. 100) and increased gene expression of Fas ligand (2(ΔΔCt), 3.6 ± 1.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.5), and TNF-α (1.7 ± 0.4 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1). CCCP, MnTMPyP, and flutamide abolished these effects. These data indicate that testosterone induces apoptosis in VSMCs via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway with the involvement of androgen receptor activation and mitochondria-generated ROS. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. High early uterine vascular resistance values increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome independently from placental VEGF and VEGFR1 reactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Sándor; Németh, Júlia; Sára, Levente; Gidai, János; Tóth, Péter; Schaff, Zsuzsanna; Paulin, Ferenc; Pajor, Attila

    2011-06-01

    From data in the literature, we hypothesized that high vascular resistance values in the uterine arteries at the end of the first trimester would increase adverse pregnancy outcomes and therefore might be accompanied by changes in VEGF/VEGFR1 immunoreactivities. In our university hospital 82 women (Study I n=62 and Study II n=20) were divided into two groups according to their uterine vascular resistance values. Uterine vascular resistance values were measured in the 10-13th weeks of gestation by color-Doppler ultrasonography. Women were divided into low and high vascular resistance groups. In the prospective follow-up study (Study I) the data of the pregnancy outcome were recorded. In cross-sectional study (Study II), VEGF and VEGFR1 immunoreactivities were measured on the tissue samples from women who underwent termination of pregnancy. In the high vascular resistance group (PI>2.3), the probability of adverse pregnancy outcome was significantly higher (40.0% vs. 12.8%). No differences in VEGF and VEGFR1 immunoreactivities were observed between groups. In both groups, intense VEGF immunoreactivity was observed in the maternal glandular epithelium and in the decidual cells. Weak reactivity was observed in the villous trophoblast. VEGFR1 immunoreactivity was intense in all regions. Our data suggest that high vascular resistance values in the first trimester are independent from VEGF/VEGFR1 immunoreactivities and markedly increase the probability of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This may be used for early screening of pregnant women in the first trimester. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Induction of reactive oxygen intermediates-dependent programmed cell death in human malignant ex vivo glioma cells and inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor production by taurolidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, Roksana; Kubota, Hisashi; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Eugster, Hans-Pietro; Könü, Dilek; Möhler, Hanns; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Frei, Karl

    2005-06-01

    Taurolidine, a derivative of the amino acid taurin, was recently found to display a potent antineoplastic effect both in vitro and in vivo. The authors therefore initiated studies to assess the potential antineoplastic activity of taurolidine in human glioma cell lines and in ex vivo malignant cell cultures. They also studied the mechanisms that induce cell death and the impact of taurolidine on tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Cytotoxicity and clonogenic assays were performed using crystal violet staining. In the cytotoxicity assay 100% of glioma cell lines (eight of eight) and 74% of ex vivo glioma cultures (14 of 19) demonstrated sensitivity to taurolidine, with a mean median effective concentration (EC50) of 51 +/- 28 microg/ml and 56 +/- 23 microg/ml, respectively. Colony formation was inhibited by taurolidine, with a mean EC50 of 7 +/- 3 microg/ml for the cell lines and a mean EC50 of 3.5 +/- 1.7 microg/ml for the ex vivo glioma cultures. On observing this high activity of taurolidine in both assays, the authors decided to evaluate its cell death mechanisms. Fragmentation of DNA, externalization of phosphatidylserine, activation of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential followed by a release of apoptosis-inducing factor, and typical apoptotic features were found after taurolidine treatment. Cell death was preceded by the generation of reactive O2 intermediates, which was abrogated by N-acetylcysteine but not by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone. Moreover, taurolidine also induced suppression of VEGF production on the protein and messenger RNA level, as shown by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Given all these findings, taurolidine may be a promising new agent in the treatment of malignant gliomas; it displays a combination of antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities, inducing tumor cell

  20. Relationship between adipokines, inflammation, and vascular reactivity in lean controls and obese subjects with metabolic syndrome Relação entre as adipocinas, inflamação e reatividade vascular em controles magros e pacientes obesos com síndrome metabólica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bahia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Adipokines interfere with insulin action and endothelial cell function. We investigated the relationship among adipokines, metabolic factors, inflammatory markers, and vascular reactivity in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome and lean controls. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 19 obese subjects with metabolic syndrome and 8 lean volunteers evaluated as controls. Vascular reactivity was assessed by venous occlusion pletysmography measuring braquial forearm blood flow (FBF and vascular resistance (VR responses to intra-arterial infusions of endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine-Ach and independent (sodium nitroprusside-SNP vasodilators. Blood samples were obtained to evaluate C reactive protein (CRP, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, fibrinogen, adiponectin, resistin, and lipid profile. Patients were classified with regard to insulin resistance through the HOMA-IR index. RESULTS: PAI-1, CRP and fibrinogen were higher and adiponectin was lower in metabolic syndrome subjects compared to controls. Metabolic syndrome subjects had impaired vascular reactivity. Adiponectin and PAI-1 were associated with insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and HDLc; and resistin with CRP. Adiponectin was associated with VR after Ach in the pooled group and resistin with D FBF after Ach in the metabolic syndrome group. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome subjects exhibited low levels of adiponectin and high levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and PAI-1. Adiponectin and PAI-1 correlated with insulin resistance markers. Adiponectin and resistin correlated with vascular reactivity parameters. An adipocyte-endothelium interaction might be an important mechanism of inflammation and vascular dysfunction.A Síndrome Metabólica é um importante fator de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. As adipocinas interferem com a ação da insulina e com a função endotelial. OBJETIVO: Investigar a rela

  1. Evaluation of age and peripheral vascular disease as risk factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of age and peripheral vascular disease as risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration among Nigerian patients without foot ulcers. ... collected included subjects age (years), gender, age at first diagnosis of DM, duration of DM (years) and baseline fasting venous plasma glucose. The subjects were evaluated for ...

  2. Evaluating 3D-printed biomaterials as scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Martha O; Vorwald, Charlotte E; Dreher, Maureen L; Mott, Eric J; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Cinar, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Somo, Sami; Dean, David; Brey, Eric M; Fisher, John P

    2015-01-07

    There is an unmet need for a consistent set of tools for the evaluation of 3D-printed constructs. A toolbox developed to design, characterize, and evaluate 3D-printed poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds is proposed for vascularized engineered tissues. This toolbox combines modular design and non-destructive fabricated design evaluation, evaluates biocompatibility and mechanical properties, and models angiogenesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basralı, Filiz; Koçer, Günnur; Ülker Karadamar, Pınar; Nasırcılar Ülker, Seher; Satı, Leyla; Özen, Nur; Özyurt, Dilek; Şentürk, Ümit Kemal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral magnesium supplementation (Mg-supp) on blood pressure (BP) and possible mechanism in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition-induced hypertension model. Hypertension and/or Mg-supp were created by N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (25 mg/kg/day by drinking water) and magnesium-oxide (0.8% by diet) for 6 weeks. Systolic BP was measured weekly by tail-cuff method. The effects of hypertension and/or Mg-supp in thoracic aorta and third branch of mesenteric artery constriction and relaxation responses were evaluated. NOS-inhibition produced a gradually developing hypertension and the magnitude of the BP was significantly attenuated after five weeks of Mg-supp. The increased phenylephrine-induced contractile and decreased acetylcholine (ACh)-induced dilation responses were found in both artery segments of hypertensive groups. Mg-supp was restored ACh-relaxation response in both arterial segments and also Phe-constriction response in thoracic aorta but not in mesenteric arteries. The contributions of NO, prostaglandins and K(+) channels to the dilator response of ACh were similar in the aorta of all the groups. The contribution of the NO to the ACh-mediated relaxation response of mesenteric arteries was suppressed in hypertensive rats, whereas this was corrected by Mg-supp. The flow-mediated dilation response of mesenteric arteries in hypertensive rats failed and could not be corrected by Mg-supp. Whereas, vascular eNOS protein and magnesium levels were not changed and plasma nitrite levels were reduced in hypertensive rats. The results of this study showed that Mg-supp lowered the arterial BP in NOS-inhibition induced hypertension model by restoring the agonist-induced relaxation response of the arteries.

  4. [Development of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for evaluating clinical competence in vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, J; Busato, T; Dufrost, V; Perri, M; Zuily, S; Wahl, D

    2017-05-01

    Vascular medicine is now a clinical specialty in France. During their studies, students will acquire clinical reasoning in addition to technical skills. An Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is considered as the gold standard for evaluating clinical competence. Our main objective was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of OSCE for the evaluation of students, secondarily their performance. Three representative clinical cases of the specialty were developed. The OSCE consisted of a sequence of clinical situations presented in three stations of 7minutes each. The role of the simulated patient was played by medical students. At the end of the OSCE, observers and students completed the evaluation form. We compared the performances between junior and senior vascular medicine students. Written questionnaires were used to measure OSCE satisfaction. We were able to develop and organize this examination without difficulties. Fifteen students were evaluated. All participants agreed that the clinical situations were representative of vascular medicine practice, the cases were realistic and standardized patients were convincing. The performance of senior students was statistically higher than junior students in one case. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of the OSCE in students in vascular medicine. The small number of stations and candidates requires further studies on a larger scale to evaluate their performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of reactivity of horses in the presence of unknown stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ferrari Calviello

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate reactivity of horses during usual brushing management against the repeated presence of an unknown sonorous stimulus. Twenty Mangalarga Marchador horses, distributed in different categories (mares and foals, were evaluated. The animals were allocated into the control treatment (N = 10 and the treatment with unknown sonorous stimulus (N = 10 from a rattle and a tambourine. Four consecutive evaluations were carried out first (day 0, 1, 2, 3. Two consecutive assessments were carried out after 30 days of the first collection (day 30 and 31, and two consecutive assessments were carried out 15 days after the second evaluation (day 45 and 46. The behavioral observations were made by assigning a score to behaviors of movement, position of ears and eyes, breathing, and vocalization during brushing management. A response variable called reactivity was attributed to each animal, ranging from score 1 (not reactive or calm animal to reactivity score 4 (very reactive or aggressive animal. For statistical analysis, the results were adjusted to a logistic regression model using the categories, day, and treatment as covariates. The animals of the unknown stimuli showed greater reactivity. The days of the experimental period influenced the reactivity of animals between 6 and 7 months old, with a decrease in the possibilities of the animals to have a higher reactivity. The maturity of the foal with repeated exposure to the unknown sound stimulus may decrease the possibility of the animal being reactive.

  6. Conduit Vascular Evaluation is Associated with Reduction in Anastomotic Leak After Esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chase; Reames, Mark K; Robinson, Myra; Symanowski, James; Salo, Jonathan C

    2015-05-01

    Anastomotic leak following esophagectomy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A major factor determining anastomotic success is an adequate blood supply to the conduit. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of intraoperative evaluation of the conduit's vascular supply on anastomotic failure after esophagectomy. We retrospectively analyzed data from 90 consecutive patients undergoing esophagectomy with gastric conduit reconstruction. A change in surgical practice occurred after 60 cases were completed, when we introduced the use of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence angiography and Doppler examination to evaluate blood supply and assist in construction of the conduit. The leak rates before and after implementation of conduit vascular evaluation were compared. After the introduction of intraoperative vascular evaluation of the gastric conduit, we noted a dramatic decrease in the rate of anastomotic leak from 20 % in the first 60 patients to 0 % in the succeeding 30 patients. Intraoperative vascular evaluation with indocyanine green fluorescence imaging and Doppler examination of the gastric conduit used to assist reconstruction after esophagectomy allows for enhanced construction of the conduit that maximizes blood supply to the anastomosis. This change in practice was associated with a significant reduction in anastomotic leak rate.

  7. [Heterogeneities in intracellular Ca2+ pools among different arterial smooth muscle cells and its possible role in vascular reactivities in rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J; Chen, M; Wang, Q

    1996-06-01

    The differences in intracellular Ca2+ pool capacities, the mutual relations between different agonist-sensitive Ca2+ pools (ASCaP) and between ASCaP and caffeine-sensitive Ca2+ pool (CSCaP), and the possible role of Ca2+ pool capacity in vascular reactivities in different isolated artery rings of rat in Ca(2+)-free media were studied by using the tension of vascular smooth muscle as an indicator of Ca2+ release. The study showed the following findings: (1) the Ca2+ pools were significantly different in capacities in different arteries (renal artery > mesenteric artery > caudal artery > aorta > pulmonary artery); (2) different ASCaPs were partially "overlapped", i.e., when one ASCaP was depleted, other kind of agonist could still induce a small but significant Ca2+ release; (3) the CSCaP was present in all the arteries tested, but it was not the same pool with the ASCaP; (4) there were no high-K+ depolarization-induced Ca2+ release in all the arteries tested and (5) there was a positive correlation between the maximal contraction (Emax expressed as mg force/mg muscle wet weight) and the Ca2+ pool capacities, suggesting that there is a role of Ca2+ pool capacities in the vascular contractilities.

  8. The 18-kDa Translocator Protein Inhibits Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression via Inhibition of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Gun; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2015-12-01

    Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and is abundantly expressed in a variety of organ and tissues. To date, the functional role of TSPO on vascular endothelial cell activation has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 250 nM), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), was used to induce vascular endothelial activation. Adenoviral TSPO overexpression (10-100 MOI) inhibited PMA-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in a dose dependent manner. PMA-induced VCAM-1 expressions were inhibited by Mito-TEMPO (0.1-0.5 μM), a specific mitochondrial antioxidants, and cyclosporin A (1-5 μM), a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor, implying on an important role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the endothelial activation. Moreover, adenoviral TSPO overexpression inhibited mitochondrial ROS production and manganese superoxide dismutase expression. On contrasts, gene silencing of TSPO with siRNA increased PMA-induced VCAM-1 expression and mitochondrial ROS production. Midazolam (1-50 μM), TSPO ligands, inhibited PMA-induced VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. These results suggest that mitochondrial TSPO can inhibit PMA-induced endothelial inflammation via suppression of VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells.

  9. Evaluation of incremental reactivity and its uncertainty in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, Philip T; Harley, Robert A; Milford, Jana B; Russell, Armistead G

    2003-04-15

    The incremental reactivity (IR) and relative incremental reactivity (RIR) of carbon monoxide and 30 individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were estimated for the South Coast Air Basin using two photochemical air quality models: a 3-D, grid-based model and a vertically resolved trajectory model. Both models include an extended version of the SAPRC99 chemical mechanism. For the 3-D modeling, the decoupled direct method (DDM-3D) was used to assess reactivities. The trajectory model was applied to estimate uncertainties in reactivities due to uncertainties in chemical rate parameters, deposition parameters, and emission rates using Monte Carlo analysis with Latin hypercube sampling. For most VOC, RIRs were found to be consistent in rankings with those produced by Carter using a box model. However, 3-D simulations show that coastal regions, upwind of most of the emissions, have comparatively low IR but higher RIR than predicted by box models for C4-C5 alkenes and carbonyls that initiate the production of HOx radicals. Biogenic VOC emissions were found to have a lower RIR than predicted by box model estimates, because emissions of these VOC were mostly downwind of the areas of primary ozone production. Uncertainties in RIR of individual VOC were found to be dominated by uncertainties in the rate parameters of their primary oxidation reactions. The coefficient of variation (COV) of most RIR values ranged from 20% to 30%, whereas the COV of absolute incremental reactivity ranged from about 30% to 40%. In general, uncertainty and variability both decreased when relative rather than absolute reactivity metrics were used.

  10. Evaluation of a simplified augmented reality device for ultrasound-guided vascular access in a vascular phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yunseok; Choi, Seungpyo; Kim, Heechan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate whether a novel ultrasound device may be used with a simplified augmented reality technique, and to compare this device with conventional techniques during vascular access using a vascular phantom. Prospective, randomized study. Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine departments of a university-affiliated hospital. 20 physicians with no experience with ultrasound-guided techniques. All participants performed the vascular access technique on the vascular phantom model using both a conventional device and the new ultrasound device. Time and the number of redirections of the needle until aspiration of dye into a vessel of the vascular phantom were measured. The median/interquartile range of time was 39.5/41.7 seconds versus 18.6/10.0 seconds (P < 0.001) and number of redirections was 3/3.5 versus 1/0 (P < 0.001) for the conventional and novel ultrasound devices, respectively. During vascular access in a vascular phantom model, the novel device decreased the time and the number of redirections significantly. The device successfully improved the efficiency of the ultrasound-guided vascular access technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance Evaluation of a Reactive Muffler Using CFD | Kore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to simulate and investigate the performance of a reactive muffler by simulation technique. The dimensions of Alfa Romeo 145 vehicle model 1999 muffler were used to perform the simulation. The simulation was carried out using a commercial software package named FLUENT.

  12. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, V.V. [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT (Brazil); Lobato, N.S.; Filgueira, F.P. [Curso de Medicina, Setor de Fisiologia Humana, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Jataí, GO (Brazil); Webb, R.C. [Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (United States); Tostes, R.C. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Giachini, F.R. [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2±2 vs 7.9±1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4±2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3±2 vs 7.5±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1±2 vs 7.4±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction.

  13. Evaluation of C-reactive Protein Levels in Nigerian Dialysis Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP) values in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is important due to the known role of high levels of CRP in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. This cross-sectional study evaluates the levels of C-reactive protein in Nigerian dialysis patients. Fifty seven dialysis patients ...

  14. Functional Reactive Programming on the Web - A Practical Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Christian Strand

    2015-01-01

    The web as an application platform is rising rapidly. With more complex solutions written in JavaScript that run client-side, as well as server-side, challenges related to JavaScript's asynchronous nature arise. This thesis explores and applies the Functional Reactive Programming paradigm (FRP) on the web as an alternative to traditional imperative programming. The potential of FRP in a context of the web is shown through case implementations of general practical real world problems that web ...

  15. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or decreasing carbonyl stress-associated pathologies. There is no rapid and convenient analytical method available for the assessment of direct carbonyl scavenging capacity, and a very limited number of carbonyl scavengers have been identified to date, their therapeutic potential being highlighted only recently. In this context, we have developed a new and rapid sensitive fluorimetric method for the assessment of reactive carbonyl scavengers without involvement glycoxidation systems. Efficacy of various thiol- and non-thiol-carbonyl scavenger pharmacophores was tested both using this screening assay adapted to 96-well microplates and in cultured cells. The scavenging effects on the formation of Advanced Glycation End-product of Bovine Serum Albumin formed with methylglyoxal, 4-hydroxynonenal and glucose-glycated as molecular models were also examined. Low molecular mass thiols with an α-amino-β-mercaptoethane structure showed the highest degree of inhibitory activity toward both α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyls. Cysteine and cysteamine have the best scavenging ability toward methylglyoxal. WR-1065 which is currently approved for clinical use as a protective agent against radiation and renal toxicity was identified as the best inhibitor of 4-hydroxynonenal.

  16. Clinical applications of MR digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of intracranial vascular and tumorous lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katase, Shichiro; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Hachiya, Junichi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-07-01

    MR digital subtraction angiography (MR DSA), which is performed by a rapid two-dimensional T1-weighted sequence in combination with bolus injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent was applied to the evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), brain tumors (intraaxial and extraaxial tumors), and other vascular lesions. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the method in the diagnosis of these lesions. We studied 19 cases of cerebral AVM, 36 cases of intraaxial tumor (metastatic brain tumors in 14, glioblastomas in five, astrocytomas in eight, malignant lymphomas in four, pineal tumors in two, and other tumors, in three), 34 cases of extraaxial tumor (meningiomas in 29, and pituitary adenomas in five), and 10 cases of other vascular lesions (cerebral aneurysms in five, venous thrombosis in two, and other lesion in three). For cerebral AVMs, the feeder, nidus, and drainer were evaluated on a 4 - point grading scale (0=poor, 1=fair, 2=good, 3=excellent), and the results obtained were compared with those of conventional cerebral angiography or MR angiography using the postcontrast three-dimensional time-of-flight method. Brain tumors were classified into six enhancement patterns, and were compared with the findings of conventional cerebral angiography. Other vascular lesions were assessed visually. All cases were evaluated independently by two radiologists, and inter-observer agreement was assessed using the {kappa}-test. In all cerebral AVM cases, the hemodynamics of the feeder, nidus, and drainer could be observed. In all but five brain tumor cases, tumor stain could be confirmed in MR DSA images. The findings of tumor stain corresponded to those of cerebral angiographic images. For other vascular lesions, results of lesion detection and lesion morphology were almost in congruence with other methods. MR DSA provides information on the hemodynamics of vascular and tumorous lesions. When used in conjunction with routine MR

  17. The utility of 64 channel multidetector CT angiography for evaluating the renal vascular anatomy and possible variations: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sheo; Neyaz, Zafar; Gupta, Archna

    2010-01-01

    The increased use of laparoscopic nephrectomy and nephron-sparing surgery has prompted the need for a more detailed radiological evaluation of the renal vascular anatomy. Multidetector CT angiography is a fast and accurate modality for assessing the precise anatomy of the renal vessels. In this pictorial review, we present the multidetector CT angiography appearances of the normal renal vascular anatomy and a spectrum of various anomalies that require accurate vascular depiction before undergoing surgical treatment.

  18. The Utility of 64 Channel Multidetector CT Angiography for Evaluating the Renal Vascular Anatomy and Possible Variations: a Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sheo; Neyaz, Zafar; Gupta, Archna [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)

    2010-06-15

    The increased use of laparoscopic nephrectomy and nephron-sparing surgery has prompted the need for a more detailed radiological evaluation of the renal vascular anatomy. Multidetector CT angiography is a fast and accurate modality for assessing the precise anatomy of the renal vessels. In this pictorial review, we present the multidetector CT angiography appearances of the normal renal vascular anatomy and a spectrum of various anomalies that require accurate vascular depiction before undergoing surgical treatment.

  19. Reactive Agility Performance in Handball; Development and Evaluation of a Sport-Specific Measurement Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Miodrag; Krolo, Ante; Zenic, Natasa; Delextrat, Anne; Sekulic, Damir

    2015-09-01

    There is no current study that examined sport-specific tests of reactive-agility and change-of-direction-speed (CODS) to replicate real-sport environment in handball (team-handball). This investigation evaluated the reliability and validity of two novel tests designed to assess reactive-agility and CODS of handball players. Participants were female (25.14 ± 3.71 years of age; 1.77 ± 0.09 m and 74.1 ± 6.1 kg) and male handball players (26.9 ± 4.1 years of age; 1.90 ± 0.09 m and 93.90±4.6 kg). Variables included body height, body mass, body mass index, broad jump, 5-m sprint, CODS and reactive-agility tests. Results showed satisfactory reliability for reactive-agility-test and CODS-test (ICC of 0.85-0.93, and CV of 2.4-4.8%). The reactive-agility and CODS shared less than 20% of the common variance. The calculated index of perceptual and reactive capacity (P&RC; ratio between reactive-agility- and CODS-performance) is found to be valid measure in defining true-game reactive-agility performance in handball in both genders. Therefore, the handball athletes' P&RC should be used in the evaluation of real-game reactive-agility performance. Future studies should explore other sport-specific reactive-agility tests and factors associated to such performance in sports involving agile maneuvers. Key pointsReactive agility and change-of-direction-speed should be observed as independent qualities, even when tested over the same course and similar movement templateThe reactive-agility-performance of the handball athletes involved in defensive duties is closer to their non-reactive-agility-score than in their peers who are not involved in defensive dutiesThe handball specific "true-game" reactive-agility-performance should be evaluated as the ratio between reactive-agility and corresponding CODS performance.

  20. In vitro evaluation of carbon-nanotube-reinforced bioprintable vascular conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolati, Farzaneh; Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; De Jesus, Aribet M.; Sander, Edward A.; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T.

    2014-04-01

    Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular conduits directly, where conduits were reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed conduits encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the conduits. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular conduits provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these conduits in large-scale tissue fabrication.

  1. KV7 channels contribute to paracrine, but not metabolic or ischemic, regulation of coronary vascular reactivity in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Adam G.; Fu, Lijuan; Noblet, Jillian N.; Casalini, Eli D.; Berwick, Zachary C.; Kassab, Ghassan S.; Tune, Johnathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and voltage-dependent K+ (KV) channels play key roles in regulating coronary blood flow in response to metabolic, ischemic, and paracrine stimuli. The KV channels responsible have not been identified, but KV7 channels are possible candidates. Existing data regarding KV7 channel function in the coronary circulation (limited to ex vivo assessments) are mixed. Thus we examined the hypothesis that KV7 channels are present in cells of the coronary vascular wall and regulate vasodilation in swine. We performed a variety of molecular, biochemical, and functional (in vivo and ex vivo) studies. Coronary arteries expressed KCNQ genes (quantitative PCR) and KV7.4 protein (Western blot). Immunostaining demonstrated KV7.4 expression in conduit and resistance vessels, perhaps most prominently in the endothelial and adventitial layers. Flupirtine, a KV7 opener, relaxed coronary artery rings, and this was attenuated by linopirdine, a KV7 blocker. Endothelial denudation inhibited the flupirtine-induced and linopirdine-sensitive relaxation of coronary artery rings. Moreover, linopirdine diminished bradykinin-induced endothelial-dependent relaxation of coronary artery rings. There was no effect of intracoronary flupirtine or linopirdine on coronary blood flow at the resting heart rate in vivo. Linopirdine had no effect on coronary vasodilation in vivo elicited by ischemia, H2O2, or tachycardia. However, bradykinin increased coronary blood flow in vivo, and this was attenuated by linopirdine. These data indicate that KV7 channels are expressed in some coronary cell type(s) and influence endothelial function. Other physiological functions of coronary vascular KV7 channels remain unclear, but they do appear to contribute to endothelium-dependent responses to paracrine stimuli. PMID:26825518

  2. Inhibitory role of reactive oxygen species in the differentiation of multipotent vascular stem cells into vascular smooth muscle cells in rats: a novel aspect of traditional culture of rat aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haibo; Wang, Hui; Wu, Weiwei; Qi, Lei; Shao, Lei; Wang, Fang; Lai, Yimu; Leach, Desiree; Mathis, Bryan; Janicki, Joseph S; Wang, Xing Li; Tang, Dongqi; Cui, Taixing

    2015-10-01

    Proliferative or synthetic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are widely accepted to be mainly derived from the dedifferentiation or phenotypic modulation of mature contractile VSMCs, i.e., a phenotype switch from a normally quiescent and contractile type into a proliferative or synthetic form. However, this theory has been challenged by recent evidence that synthetic VSMCs predominantly originate instead from media-derived multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs). To test these hypotheses further, we re-examine whether the conventional rat aortic SMC (RASMC) culture involves the VSMC differentiation of MVSCs or the dedifferentiation of mature VSMCs and the potential mechanism for controlling the synthetic phenotype of RASMCs. We enzymatically isolated RASMCs and cultured the cells in both a regular growth medium (RGM) and a stem cell growth medium (SCGM). Regardless of culture conditions, only a small portion of freshly isolated RASMCs attaches, survives and grows slowly during the first 7 days of primary culture, while expressing both SMC- and MVSC-specific markers. RGM-cultured cells undergo a process of synthetic SMC differentiation, whereas SCGM-cultured cells can be differentiated into not only synthetic SMCs but also other somatic cells. Notably, compared with the RGM-cultured differentiated RASMCs, the SCGM-cultured undifferentiated cells exhibit the phenotype of MVSCs and generate greater amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that act as a negative regulator of differentiation into synthetic VSMCs. Knockdown of phospholipase A2, group 7 (Pla2g7) suppresses ROS formation in the MVSCs while enhancing SMC differentiation of MVSCs. These results suggest that cultured synthetic VSMCs can be derived from the SMC differentiation of MVSCs with ROS as a negative regulator.

  3. Hass avocado modulates postprandial vascular reactivity and postprandial inflammatory responses to a hamburger meal in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoping; Wong, Angela; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Jones, Alexis; Zerlin, Alona; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David

    2013-02-26

    Hass avocados are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid) and antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) and are often eaten as a slice in a sandwich containing hamburger or other meats. Hamburger meat forms lipid peroxides during cooking. After ingestion, the stomach functions as a bioreactor generating additional lipid peroxides and this process can be inhibited when antioxidants are ingested together with the meat. The present pilot study was conducted to investigate the postprandial effect of the addition of 68 g of avocado to a hamburger on vasodilation and inflammation. Eleven healthy subjects on two separate occasions consumed either a 250 g hamburger patty alone (ca. 436 cal and 25 g fat) or together with 68 grams of avocado flesh (an additional 114 cal and 11 g of fat for a total of 550 cal and 36 g fat), a common culinary combination, to assess effects on vascular health. Using the standard peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method to calculate the PAT index, we observed significant vasoconstriction 2 hours following hamburger ingestion (2.19 ± 0.36 vs. 1.56 ± 0.21, p = 0.0007), which did not occur when the avocado flesh was ingested together with the burger (2.17 ± 0.57 vs. 2.08 ± 0.51, NS p = 0.68). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from postprandial blood samples and the Ikappa-B alpha (IκBα) protein concentration was determined to assess effects on inflammation. At 3 hours, there was a significant preservation of IκBα (131% vs. 58%, p = 0.03) when avocado was consumed with the meat compared to meat alone, consistent with reduced activation of the NF-kappa B (NFκB) inflammatory pathway. IL-6 increased significantly at 4 hours in postprandial serum after consumption of the hamburger, but no change was observed when avocado was added. Postprandial serum triglyceride concentration increased, but did not further increase when avocado was ingested with the burger compared to burger alone despite the added fat and

  4. An Evaluation of the Quality of Nursing Care Provided for Vascular Access in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Chamanzari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Care for vascular access of patients undergoing hemodialysis is a critical issue. Inflammation and subsequent infection are the major factors which threaten patients' health and diminish effectiveness of hemodialysis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the severity and incidence of inflammation of vascular access in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 patients undergoing hemodialysis in Emam Reza and Montazerie Hospitals in Mashhad, June, 2014. Evaluation of inflammation severity over the course of one month (12 hemodialysis sessions was performed by means of an inflammation tool designed by the Board of Nursing. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16, and performing descriptive and Chi-square tests.  Results:The mean and standard deviation of incidence of inflammation in the first session of hemodialysis was 3.2±1.3 cases. The mean and standard deviation of the intensity of inflammation was 12.5±4.7. Conclusion: Since inflammation of vascular access in hemodialysis patients impairs their safety and health improvement, necessary measures to reduce this complication must be taken.

  5. 3D-CT vascular setting protocol using computer graphics for the evaluation of maxillofacial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAVALCANTI Marcelo de Gusmão Paraiso

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the aspect of a mandibular giant cell granuloma in spiral computed tomography-based three-dimensional (3D-CT reconstructed images using computer graphics, and demonstrate the importance of the vascular protocol in permitting better diagnosis, visualization and determination of the dimensions of the lesion. We analyzed 21 patients with maxillofacial lesions of neoplastic and proliferative origins. Two oral and maxillofacial radiologists analyzed the images. The usefulness of interactive 3D images reconstructed by means of computer graphics, especially using a vascular setting protocol for qualitative and quantitative analyses for the diagnosis, determination of the extent of lesions, treatment planning and follow-up, was demonstrated. The technique is an important adjunct to the evaluation of lesions in relation to axial CT slices and 3D-CT bone images.

  6. Evaluation of various methods to quantify endothelial cells attached to vascular prostheses: Comparison with a new "gold standard" FACS method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.J.T.; Lennep, A.C.D. van; Bockel, J.H. van; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Keur, M. van der; Hermans, J.

    1996-01-01

    For in vitro evaluation of functional properties of endothelial cells seeded on synthetic vascular prostheses accurate and reproducible quantification of cells is mandatory. Comparison of these properties with those resulting from other studies requires correlation of the functional parameters to

  7. Toll-like receptor 4 upregulation by angiotensin II contributes to hypertension and vascular dysfunction through reactive oxygen species production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila R De Batista

    Full Text Available Hypertension is considered as a low-grade inflammatory disease, with adaptive immunity being an important mediator of this pathology. TLR4 may have a role in the development of several cardiovascular diseases; however, little is known about its participation in hypertension. We aimed to investigate whether TLR4 activation due to increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS contributes to hypertension and its associated endothelial dysfunction. For this, we used aortic segments from Wistar rats treated with a non-specific IgG (1 µg/day and SHRs treated with losartan (15 mg/kg·day, the non-specific IgG or the neutralizing antibody anti-TLR4 (1 µg/day, as well as cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC from Wistar and SHRs. TLR4 mRNA levels were greater in the VSMC and aortas from SHRs compared with Wistar rats; losartan treatment reduced those levels in the SHRs. Treatment of the SHRs with the anti-TLR4 antibody: 1 reduced the increased blood pressure, heart rate and phenylephrine-induced contraction while it improved the impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation; 2 increased the potentiation of phenylephrine contraction after endothelium removal; and 3 abolished the inhibitory effects of tiron, apocynin and catalase on the phenylephrine-induced response as well as its enhancing effect of acetylcholine-induced relaxation. In SHR VSMCs, angiotensin II increased TLR4 mRNA levels, and losartan reduced that increase. CLI-095, a TLR4 inhibitor, mitigated the increases in NAD(PH oxidase activity, superoxide anion production, migration and proliferation that were induced by angiotensin II. In conclusion, TLR4 pathway activation due to increased RAS activity is involved in hypertension, and by inducing oxidative stress, this pathway contributes to the endothelial dysfunction associated with this pathology. These results suggest that TLR4 and innate immunity may play a role in hypertension and its associated end-organ damage.

  8. Consequences of reduced production of NO on vascular reactivity of porcine coronary arteries after angioplasty: importance of EDHF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thollon, Catherine; Fournet-Bourguignon, Marie Pierre; Saboureau, Delphine; Lesage, Ludovic; Reure, Hélène; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Vilaine, Jean Paul

    2002-01-01

    The consequences of the reduced production of nitric oxide (NO) by cells from regenerated endothelium were investigated by measuring membrane potential of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), isometric tension and cyclic nucleotides content in porcine coronary arteries with intimal thickening, four weeks following angioplasty. Under basal conditions, SMCs of coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium were depolarized by 10 mV. This depolarization was associated with 82% decreased level of cGMP without alteration in cAMP. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1 μM) repolarized SMCs of the previously denuded coronary arteries. This repolarization was abolished by 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 μM) and not suppressed by glibenclamide (10 μM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 100 nM) and the combination of charybdotoxin (ChTX, 40 nM) plus apamin (100 nM). Four-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1-5 mM) generated spontaneous rhythmic activities only in coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium which were abolished by SNP. Nevertheless, 4-AP did not suppress the repolarization induced by SNP. In vascular segments with regenerated endothelium, contracted with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), relaxation to bradykinin (BK, 30 nM) was unaltered despite a reduced production of cGMP (−70%). Indomethacin (10 μM) plus Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA, 30 μM) reduced relaxation (−12% and −35% for native and regenerated endothelium, respectively) but did not abolish it. The hyperpolarizations induced by BK were not altered by the presence of indomethacin and L-NA and were unchanged in segments with regenerated endothelium. These data are consistent with a contribution of impairment in NO production to the depolarization of SMCs. Nevertheless, EDHF responses to BK are sufficient to maintain a normal relaxation after angioplasty. PMID:12163348

  9. Red yeast rice improves lipid pattern, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and vascular remodeling parameters in moderately hypercholesterolemic Italian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Derosa, Giuseppe; Parini, Angelo; Maffioli, Pamela; D'Addato, Sergio; Reggi, Alessandra; Giovannini, Marina; Borghi, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    Despite a recent health claim by the European Agency on Food Safety, the effect of high doses of dietary monacolin supplements from red yeast rice on cholesterolemia has not been tested in Italian subjects. Our aim via a crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was to test if a short-term treatment with 10 mg monacolins could improve lipid pattern, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and vascular remodeling biomarkers in a small cohort of Mediterranean subjects. Thus, 25 healthy, mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were enrolled, and after 4 weeks of a stabilization diet, subjects were randomized to the sequence placebo-washout-monacolins or monacolins-washout-placebo, with each period being 4 weeks long. At each study step, a complete lipid pattern, safety parameters, hs-CRP, and matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 levels were measured. When compared to the placebo group, monacolins-treated patients experienced a more favorable percent change in total cholesterol (-12.45%, 95% CI -16.19 to -8.71), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-21.99%, 95% CI -26.63 to -17.36), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-14.67%, 95% CI -19.22 to -10.11), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (-28.05%, 95% CI -35.18 to -20.93), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (-27.19%, 95% CI -36.21 to -18.15), and hs-CRP (-23.77%, 95% CI -30.54 to -17.01). No significant differences were observed in regards to triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and safety parameters. On the basis of our data, we demonstrate that a 10-mg monacolin nutraceutical appears to safely reduce cholesterolemia, hs-CRP, and markers of vascular remodeling in Italian subjects. These results have to be confirmed in larger patient samples and longer studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vascular Physiology according to Clinical Scenario in Patients with Acute Heart Failure: Evaluation using the Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Toshihiko; Wakami, Kazuaki; Mori, Kento; Kikuchi, Shohei; Fukuta, Hidekatsu; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-09-01

    Increased aortic stiffness may be an important cause of acute heart failure (AHF). Clinical scenario (CS), which classifies the pathophysiology of AHF based on the initial systolic blood pressure (sBP), was proposed to provide the most appropriate therapy for AHF patients. In CS, elevated aortic stiffness, vascular failure, has been considered as a feature of patients categorized as CS1 (sBP > 140 mmHg at initial presentation). However, whether elevated aortic stiffness, vascular failure, is present in such patients has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we assessed aortic stiffness in AHF patients using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), which is considered to be independent of instantaneous blood pressure. Sixty-four consecutive AHF patients (mean age, 70.6 ± 12.8 years; 39 men) were classified with CS, based on their initial sBP: CS1: sBP > 140 mmHg (n = 29); CS2: sBP 100-140 mmHg (n = 22); and CS3: sBP < 100 mmHg (n = 13). There were significant group differences in CAVI (CS1 vs. CS2 vs. CS3: 9.7 ± 1.4 vs. 8.4 ± 1.7 vs. 8.3 ± 1.7, p = 0.006, analysis of variance). CAVI was significantly higher in CS1 than in CS2 (p = 0.02) and CS3 (p = 0.04). CAVI did not significantly correlate with sBP at the time of measurement of CAVI (r = 0.24 and p = 0.06). Aortic stiffness assessed using blood pressure-independent methodology apparently increased in CS1 AHF patients. We conclude that vascular failure is a feature of CS1 AHF initiation.

  11. Chronic Supplementation of Paeonol Combined with Danshensu for the Improvement of Vascular Reactivity in the Cerebral Basilar Artery of Diabetic Rats

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    Peng-Cheng Qiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading causes of death in the world is cerebrovascular disease. Numerous Chinese traditional medicines, such as Cortex Moutan (root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, protect against cerebrovascular diseases and exhibit anti-atherosclerotic effects. Traditional medicines have been routinely used for a long time in China. In addition, these two herbs are prescribed together in clinical practice. Therefore, the pharmacodynamic interactions between the active constituents of these two herbs, which are paeonol (Pae and danshensu (DSS, should be particularly studied. The study of Pae and DSS can provide substantial foundations in understanding their mechanisms and empirical evidence to support clinical practice. This study investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of the pharmacodynamic interaction between Pae and DSS on cerebrovascular malfunctioning in diabetes. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats, which was then treated with Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS for eight weeks. Afterward, cerebral arteries from all groups were isolated and equilibrated in an organ bath with Krebs buffer and ring tension. Effects of Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS were observed on vessel relaxation with or without endothelium as well as on the basal tonus of vessels from normal and diabetic rats. Indexes about oxidative stress were also determined. We report that the cerebral arteries from diabetic rats show decreased vascular reactivity to acetylcholine (ACh which was corrected in Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS treated groups. Furthermore, phenylephrine (PE-induced contraction response decreased in the treated groups. Phenylephrine and CaCl2-induced vasoconstrictions are partially inhibited in the three treated groups under Ca2+-free medium. Pre-incubated with tetraethylammonium, a non-selective K+ channel blocker, the antagonized relaxation responses increased in DSS and Pae + DSS

  12. Mandibular lingual vascular canals (MLVC): Evaluation on dental CTs of a case series

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    Scaravilli, Maria Serena; Mariniello, Mauro [Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Sciences, Section of Oral and Implant Surgery, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Sammartino, Gilberto, E-mail: serena.scaravilli@gmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Sciences, Section of Oral and Implant Surgery, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the anatomy of the mandibular lingual foramen (MLF) and its linked canals (mandibular lingual vascular canals - MLVC), describing their frequency, diameter, location, and course. Materials and methods: One hundred and fourteen computed tomography (CT) images of the mandible (57 male and 57 female; mean age 44.70 {+-} 12.53; age range 13-75 years, were evaluated. The CT sections were obtained on axial plane by using a bone reconstruction algorithm and then processed with dedicated software (Dentascan), with a standard protocol. Results: 103 patients (90.35%) had at least one lingual vascular canal and 52 (45.61%) had multiple (two or three) canals. The typical locations of MLVC were the midline of the mandible (median lingual canal [MLC]). The mean diameter of the lingual canals in the midline (MLC) was 0.8 mm {+-} 0. The direction of MLC progresses in an anterior and slightly caudal sense. Conclusions: Dental CT examination easily demonstrates the presence, position, direction and size of the lingual foramen and of the lingual vascular canals of the mandible. Radiologists and oral surgeons should be aware of these canals and their importance, in order to prevent bleeding complications during implants placement and other surgical procedures.

  13. Evaluation of a liquid embolization agent (Onyx) for transcatheter embolization for renal vascular lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennert, Janine; Herold, T.; Schreyer, A.G.; Jung, E.M.; Mueller-Wille, R.; Zorger, N. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum der Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Banas, B.; Feuerbach, S. [Medizinische Klinik, Nephrologie, Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Lenhart, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Sozialstiftung Bamberg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the therapeutic outcome after endovascular treatment of renal vascular lesions using the liquid embolization agent, Onyx. Materials and methods: between 2004 and 2008 nine patients with renal vascular lesions were treated with transcatheter arterial embolization using Onyx. The renal vascular lesions consisted of 4 AV-fistulas, a pseudoaneurysm, bleeding from a single subsegmental artery, diffuse parenchymal bleeding after trauma, septic embolizations and multiple aneurysms in endocarditis. All patients underwent selective angiography of the renal artery. A dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-compatible microcatheter was used and Onyx was injected. The technical and clinical success rate, examination time and procedure-related complications were documented. Results: the overall technical and clinical success rate was 100%. One patient had to be treated twice due to recurrent bleeding after an accidental puncture with a drainage catheter. No loss of viable renal tissue occurred in 4 cases. In 4 patients mild to moderate parenchyma loss was noted. In one patient having diffuse renal bleeding, occlusion of the main renal artery was performed. No procedure-related complications were noted. The mean examination time was 16.17 min when treating with Onyx alone and 60 min when using a combination of Onyx and coils. Within an average follow-up period of 21 months, no recurrent renal bleeding or recurrent AV-fistulas occurred. Conclusion: Onyx is an effective embolization agent for the treatment of renal vascular lesions. It allows controlled and quick application with low complication rates and a short examination time as a standalone agent or in combination with coils. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of lymph node reactivity in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

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    Ali Amar

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The development of metastases is the most notable characteristic of malignant neoplasias. The filter function of lymph nodes, which led to the idea of including lymphatic treatment in surgical management of metastases. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate morphological alterations in neck nodes in the presence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC: hyperplasia, histiocytosis, desmoplasia, capsular rupture, necrosis and their relation to the biological behavior of these neoplasias. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University referral unit. PARTICIPANTS: 98 DTC patients, from 1977 to 1992, 18 cases were selected for histological analyses, of which 14 were female and 4 males, with an average age of 50.2 years. From these cases, 290 lymph nodes were analyzed (81 with metastasis, with an average of 16 lymph nodes/patient. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Morphological evaluation of paraffin cuts stained by HE was done using an optical microscope, looking for presence of the abovementioned neoplasias and their UICC-TNM (1997 staging. RESULTS: Sinus histiocytosis was 2.4 times more frequent in the absence of lymph node metastasis (pNo. Disease recurrence occurred in 5 patients, all of whom were more than 40 years old (p= 0.24 and 4 of whom had necrosis (p= 0.02. Six patients with predominance of paracortical hyperplasia (p= 0.02 did not show as much relapse into disease as those with less than 6 metastasis lymph nodes (p= 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of paracortical hyperplasia is associated with a better prognosis. The existence of necrosis or metastasis in more than 6 lymph nodes in patients over 40 years of age is related to higher risk of relapse of disease in DTC.

  15. Reactive endplate marrow changes: a systematic morphologic and epidemiologic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karchevsky, Michael [Hahnemann University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Carrino, John A.; Zoga, Adam; Montgomery, Douglas; Parker, Laurence [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States)

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate the morphology and location of vertebral endplate changes, and to analyze their association with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). At 1.5 T (T1-weighted, T2-weighted/STIR) 100 lumbar spines were evaluated separately by three observers. The readers classified the endplate bone marrow abnormalities on sagittal MR images according to the definitions of Modic et al. Findings were localized by disc segment; whether in the upper and/or lower endplate; and within each endplate divided into 15 segments. Disc space narrowing, as well as disc desiccation, was also noted at each vertebral level. In addition, endplate changes were correlated with age, gender, and BMI (weight(kg)/height(m){sup 2}). A total of 15,000 data points were studied and 422 total changes recorded. A total of 99 vertebral levels were affected in 58 patients. Of these, 171 were of type I, 242 were of type II, and 9 were of type III. L4 - L5 and L5 - S1 vertebral levels were most commonly involved, having (142, 4.73%) and (116, 3.87%) changes respectively (P<0.0001). The upper and lower aspects of the endplate were affected similarly. Changes most frequently occurred at the anterior aspect of the endplate (P<0.0001). Endplate marrow changes were associated with increasing age (P<0.0001) and, surprisingly, male gender (P<0.0001). Endplate changes were not associated with BMI. The fatty pattern was most common, with the sclerotic pattern being rare. Endplate marrow changes most often occurred at the anterior aspect of the endplate, particularly at L4 - L5 and L5 - S1 levels. Modic changes occur more frequently with aging, evidence of their degenerative etiology. They were, however, not related to body habitus, but to weight and male gender. (orig.)

  16. Grifola frondosa (maitake mushroom) water extract inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis through inhibition of reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Suk; Park, Byung Chul; Ko, Yu Jin; Choi, Mi Kyoung; Choi, Han Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Lee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2008-12-01

    Grifola frondosa, a large edible mushroom also known as maitake, has been used as a health food for centuries in China and Japan. In the present study, we examined anti-angiogenic activity of a water extract of the fruiting body of G. frondosa (GFW). An in vivo angiogenesis assay using chick chorioallantoic membrane revealed that GFW (1-100 microg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. In addition, GFW inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation, chemotactic migration, and capillary-like tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a concentration-dependent manner. Upon stimulation by VEGF, HUVECs rapidly increased reactive oxygen species production, which was significantly blocked by the treatment with GFW. Moreover, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, a downstream signaling molecule following VEGF receptor activation, was also inhibited by GFW. The results indicate that GFW effectively inhibit angiogenesis by blocking VEGF signaling and suggest that G. frondosa fruiting body may be a valuable medicinal food for treatment of angiogenesis-associated human diseases.

  17. Data on the effects of losartan on protein expression, vascular reactivity and antioxidant capacity in the aorta of ethanol-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. Ceron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the effects of losartan, a selective AT1 receptor antagonist on the alterations induced by treatment with ethanol in the rat aorta. The data shown here are related to the article entitled “Angiotensin type 1 receptor mediates chronic ethanol consumption-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress” (P. Passaglia, C.S. Ceron, A.S. Mecawi, J. Antunes-Rodrigues, E.B. Coelho, C.R. Tirapelli, 2015 [1]. Here we include new data on the protective effect of losartan against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats treated for 2 weeks with ethanol (20%, vol./vol. exhibited increased aortic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and losartan (10 mg/kg/day; p.o. gavage prevented this response. Ethanol did not alter the expression of eNOS in the rat aorta. Losartan prevented ethanol-induced increase in the aortic expression of nNOS. Neither ethanol nor losartan affected superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase (CAT activities in the rat aorta. Treatment with ethanol increased the contraction induced by phenylephrine in both endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas and these responses were prevented by losartan. Conversely, neither ethanol nor losartan affected the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine.

  18. Evaluation of cross-reactive antibody response to HVR1 in chronic hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Bing-Shui; Feng, Xiao-Yan; He, Jing; Wang, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Xiang-Ying; Zhang, He-Qiu; Song, Xiao-Guo; Chen, Kun; Ling, Shi-Gan; Zhu, Cui-Xia; Wei, Lai; Rao, Hui-Ying

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the presence and cross-reactive antibodies against hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients and its relationship with the progression of the disease. METHODS: Sixteen representative HVR1 proteins selected from a unique set of 1600 natural sequences were used to semiquantitate the cross-reactivity of HVR1 antibodies in the sera of HCV patients. Fifty-five chronic HCV patients including 23 with asymptomatic mild hepatitis, 18 with chronic hepatitis and 16 with liver cirrhosis patients were studied. RESULTS: The degree of the cross-reactivity of anti-HVR1 antibodies in 23 patients with mild asymptomatic hepatitis was 3.09 ± 2.68, which was significantly lower than in those with chronic hepatitis (5.44 ± 3.93, P < 0.05) and liver cirrhosis (7.44 ± 3.90, P < 0.01). No correlation was observed between the broadness of the cross-reactivity anti-HVR1 antibodies and patient’s age, infection time, serum alanine aminotransferase activity, or serum HCV-RNA concentration. It was the breath of cross-reactivity rather than the presence of anti-HVR1 antibody in HCV sera that was associated with the progression of liver disease. CONCLUSION: The broadly cross-reactive HVR1 antibodies generated in natural HCV patients can not neutralize the virus, which results in persistent infection in patients with chronic hepatitis. PMID:20845515

  19. "Prediction of early failure of vascular-access arteriovenous fistula based on immediate postsurgical evaluation"

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    Keshvari A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For patients requiring chronic hemodialysis, the preferred site for vascular access is an autogenous arteriovenous fistula. Although a properly formed fistula is advantageous because it is less susceptible than other types of vascular accesses to infection and clot formation and can last longer than any other types of vascular access, AV fistula has a high rate of early failure that can increase immediate cost and complications. In this study, the prognostic value of physical examination of arteriovenous fistula by the surgeon at the end of the surgery was evaluated. Methods: In the general surgery ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 326 chronic renal failure patients, 354 arteriovenous fistula operations were accomplished by two surgeons from 1377 to 1381 (ca. 1998 to 2002. The performance of each fistula was divided into the following groups by the surgeon at the end of operation: 1 systolic and diastolic thrill, 2 systolic thrill 3 souffle 4 pulse 5 not functional. Clinical function of the fistula was evaluated by the same surgeon in the following days if no souffle or thrill, early failure was detected on initial inspection. Results: In the 354 cases of arteriovenous fistula, the total early failure rate was 12.7%. The lowest early-failure rate was 3.5% in the systolic and diastolic thrill group. The highest early-failure rate was in the not functional group (P<0.001. There was no correlation between early failure and age, sex, surgeon and location of fistula. Conclusion: Optimally, an arteriovenous fistula has a thrill with a soft compressible pulse. At the end of each operation, if the surgeon cannot detect a thrill at the fistula site, can find only pulse, or if the function is otherwise unsatisfactory, considering of a new arteriovenous fistula may be required, however it is better to postpone the surgery.

  20. Evaluation of skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and cats with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Sebastian G; Willemse, Ton

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and in cats with atopic dermatitis (AD). 10 healthy cats and 10 cats with AD. 10 allergens in serial dilutions were injected ID on the lateral aspect of the thorax of sedated cats. Histamine (0.01% solution) and buffer solutions were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Immediately after the last injection, 10% fluorescein solution was administered IV. Skin test results were evaluated with ultraviolet light after 15 to 30 minutes and at 4 and 6 hours by 2 independent observers. In the control group, skin tests were repeated after 6 weeks. Skin test reactivity and the nature of the immunoglobulin involved were investigated by use of the Prausnitz-Küstner test with untreated and heat-treated cat sera. Intertest and interobserver agreement were high when measurement of the diameter of the fluorescent wheal was used to evaluate skin test responses, compared with assessment of its intensity. In both groups of cats, immediate skin test reactivity was observed as an IgE-mediated reaction, as an IgG-mediated reaction, and as a result of nonspecific mast cell degranulation. There was no correlation between allergen concentration and the type of reaction observed. Skin test reactivity in cats should be evaluated after IV administration of 10% fluorescein solution by means of a Prausnitz-Küstner test to differentiate among IgE-mediated, IgG-mediated, and nonspecific reactions.

  1. Development and evaluation of elastomeric hollow fiber membranes as small diameter vascular graft substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado-Pagán, Ángel E.; Kang, Yunqing [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Findlay, Michael W. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); University of Melbourne Department of Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Yang, Yunzhi, E-mail: ypyang@stanford.edu [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Engineering of small diameter (< 6 mm) vascular grafts (SDVGs) for clinical use remains a significant challenge. Here, elastomeric polyester urethane (PEU)-based hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) are presented as an SDVG candidate to target the limitations of current technologies and improve tissue engineering designs. HFMs are fabricated by a simple phase inversion method. HFM dimensions are tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. The walls of HFMs are highly porous. The HFMs are very elastic, with moduli ranging from 1–4 MPa, strengths from 1–5 MPa, and max strains from 300–500%. Permeability of the HFMs varies from 0.5–3.5 × 10{sup −6} cm/s, while burst pressure varies from 25 to 35 psi. The suture retention forces of HFMs are in the range of 0.8 to 1.2 N. These properties match those of blood vessels. A slow degradation profile is observed for all HFMs, with 71 to 78% of the original mass remaining after 8 weeks, providing a suitable profile for potential cellular incorporation and tissue replacement. Both human endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells proliferate well in the presence of HFMs up to 7 days. These results demonstrate a promising customizable PEU HFMs for small diameter vascular repair and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) were fabricated and evaluated. • HFM properties could be tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. • Properties could match or exceed those of blood vessels. • HFM showed excellent compatibility in vitro. • HFMs have the potential to be used for small diameter vascular grafts.

  2. Computerized evaluation method of white matter hyperintensities related to subcortical vascular dementia in brain MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kawata, Yasuo; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a computerized evaluation method of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) regions for the diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) based on magnetic resonance (MR) images, and implemented the proposed method as a graphical interface program. The WMH regions were segmented using either a region growing technique or a level set method, one of which was selected by using a support vector machine. We applied the proposed method to MR images acquired from 10 patients with a diagnosis of VaD. The mean similarity index between WMH regions determined by a manual method and the proposed method was 78.2+/-11.0%. The proposed method could effectively assist neuroradiologists in evaluating WMH regions.

  3. Predictors of high on-aspirin platelet reactivity in high-risk vascular patients treated with single or dual antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsallem, Myriam; Manzo-Silberman, Stephane; Dillinger, Jean-Guillaume; Sideris, Georgios; Voicu, Sebastian; Bal dit Sollier, Claire; Drouet, Ludovic; Henry, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Aspirin is the key treatment in the secondary prevention of atherothrombosis. Interindividual variability of response has been linked to a higher risk for ischemic events. The aim of this study was to identify clinical and biologic factors predicting high on-aspirin platelet reactivity (HPR) in a high-risk, "real-world" population of vascular patients. All platelet testing performed from 2011 to 2013 in consecutive patients receiving long-term treatment with aspirin for coronary or cerebrovascular disease was retrospectively analyzed. Indications for platelet testing were recurrent ischemic events or high-risk angioplasty. HPR was defined as aggregation intensity≥20% using light-transmission aggregometry with arachidonic acid 0.5 mg/ml. Collagen-epinephrine platelet function analysis was also performed (thresholdantiplatelet treatment were recorded. A total of 1,508 patients were included (mean age 63 years, 71% men, 23% with diabetes). Antiplatelet treatment was aspirin alone in 333 patients and dual-antiplatelet therapy in 1,175 patients. HPR was found in 11.1% of patients. In multivariate analysis, independent predictive factors of HPR on light-transmission aggregometry with arachidonic acid were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39 to 3.16), age (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.47), fibrinogen level (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.42), and von Willebrand factor level (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09). On light-transmission aggregometry with arachidonic acid and collagen-epinephrine platelet function analysis, fibrinogen remained the main factor associated with HPR (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.61). Similar results were found in patients treated with aspirin alone or dual-antiplatelet therapy. A fibrinogen level>4.0 g/L was associated with a 3.9-fold increased risk for HPR in patients aged aspirin in this large population of high-risk vascular patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes of Serum Intercellular Adhesion Molecule – 1, Vascular Adhesion Molecule-1 and C – Reactive Protein in Middle-Aged Men with Heart Failure after Eight Weeks of Aerobic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Haghir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The evidence has shown that expansion of cardiovascular disease has inflammation base, and general inflammation (systemic plays a pivotal role in the development of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this research was evaluation of changes in intercellular adhesion molecule – 1, vascular adhesion molecule-1 and C – reactive protein in middle-aged men with heart failure after eight weeks of aerobic exercise. Methods: Twenty four middle-aged men with heart failure were selected as volunteers, and were divided into two groups; the aerobic training and the control groups. Aerobic training program was eight weeks, three times per week with the intensity of 40%-70% maximum heart rate. Fasting blood samples were taken from all subjects before and after eight weeks of aerobic exercise. . Data were analyzed by paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test at a significance levels of P<0.05. Results: In the aerobic training group, comparison within groups showed, serum levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CRP (respectively P=0.001, P=0.001 and P=0.001 were significantly reduced. There was a significant reduction in comparison between groups only for VCAM-1 (P=0.001 and CRP (P=0.002. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise with reducing levels of inflammatory markers ICAM-1 and CRP may play an important role in the prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged men with heart failure.

  5. Vascular biology of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, L; Webster, R P

    2009-03-01

    Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, resolves on delivery of the placenta. Normal pregnancy is itself characterized by systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and alterations in levels of angiogenic factors and vascular reactivity. This is exacerbated in preeclampsia with an associated breakdown of compensatory mechanisms, eventually leading to placental and vascular dysfunction. The underlying pathology of preeclampsia is thought to be a relatively hypoxic or ischemic placenta. Both the placenta and maternal vasculatures are major sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which can interact to produce peroxynitrite a powerful prooxidant that covalently modifies proteins by nitration of tyrosine residues, to possibly alter vascular function in preeclampsia. The linkage between placental hypoxia and maternal vascular dysfunction has been proposed to be via placental syncytiotrophoblast basement membranes shed by the placenta or via angiogenic factors which include soluble flt1 and endoglin secreted by the placenta that bind vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PIGF) in the maternal circulation. There is also abundant evidence of altered reactivity of the maternal and placental vasculature and of the altered production of autocoids in preeclampsia. The occurrence of preeclampsia is increased in women with preexisting vascular disease and confers a long-term risk for development of cardiovascular disease. The vascular stress test of pregnancy thus identifies those women with a previously unrecognized at risk vascular system and promotes the development of preeclampsia. Preexisting maternal vascular dysfunction intensified by placental factors is possibly responsible for the individual pathologies of preeclampsia.

  6. Vascular complications after adult living donor liver transplantation: Evaluation with ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Lu, Qiang; Luo, Yan

    2016-01-28

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been widely used to treat end-stage liver disease with improvement in surgical technology and the application of new immunosuppressants. Vascular complications after liver transplantation remain a major threat to the survival of recipients. LDLT recipients are more likely to develop vascular complications because of their complex vascular reconstruction and the slender vessels. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical for the survival of graft and recipients. As a non-invasive, cost-effective and non-radioactive method with bedside availability, conventional gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography play important roles in identifying vascular complications in the early postoperative period and during the follow-up. Recently, with the detailed vascular tracing and perfusion visualization, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has significantly improved the diagnosis of postoperative vascular complications. This review focuses on the role of conventional gray-scale ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and CEUS for early diagnosis of vascular complications after adult LDLT.

  7. Reactivity in pain-free subjects and a clinical pain population: evaluation of the Kohn Reactivity Scale-dutch Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Noordermeer, Siri D S; van Wijck, Albert J M; Snijders, Tom J; Geenen, Rinie

    2013-07-01

    Patients with pain are more reactive to various types of sensations, not limited to pain alone. A potential useful instrument to assess reactivity is the Kohn Reactivity Scale (KRS). This study examines the psychometric characteristics of the KRS-Dutch version and its ability to differentiate between subjects with and without pain. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of the Dutch translation of the KRS were assessed in 321 pain-free control subjects and different subgroups of this sample. Subsequently, reactivity scores were compared between the pain-free subjects and 291 pain patients who were referred to a pain clinic for treatment. Reliability analyses indicated good internal consistency (α ≥ 0.77) and high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation = 0.95) of the KRS in the control subjects. Validity analyses yielded positive correlations of the KRS with related constructs like pain vigilance and awareness (r = 0.37), symptom severity (r = 0.29), and the personality characteristic neuroticism (r = 0.20). Pain patients had overall significantly higher KRS scores than the pain-free subjects indicating increased reactivity, particularly for the patients with medically unexplained pain. These findings indicate that the KRS is a useful instrument to screen for reactivity in pain patients, which may be of particular relevance for those suffering from medically unexplained pain. © 2012 The Authors Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of vascular permeability in the gerbil brain after transient ischemia using Evans blue fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, O; Okamura, N; Yanase, M; Narita, M; Kawabata, K; Sugita, M

    1988-04-01

    Mongolian gerbils were used to evaluate brain edema during restoration of flow following bilateral carotid occlusion for 1 h. We have modified the method for fluorometric measurement of Evans blue to monitor vascular protein leakage (vasogenic edema). The extraction of extravasated Evans blue was performed by homogenizing the whole brain in 50% trichloroacetic acid. The supernatant was diluted fourfold with ethanol and the Evans blue fluorescence was measured. The tissue blank was negligible. Evans blue content of the plasma was similarly determined and the ratio of tissue to plasma Evans blue content was calculated. Furthermore, Evans blue fluorescence was used for microscopic investigation. It is suggested that Evans blue fluorescence can be applied for quantification of protein leakage with much more sensitivity and accuracy than the colorimetric absorbance method, as well as for tissue localization of protein leakage.

  9. Evaluation of lingual vascular canals of the mandible with Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Maria; Ukmar, Maja; Bole, Tanja; Morra, Aldo; Lubin, Enrico; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2003-10-01

    To assess the anatomy of the mandibular lingual vascular canals with the use of computed tomography (CT). Seventy consecutive patients underwent preimplantation CT of the mandible. CT images were obtained on axial plane by using a bone reconstruction algorithm and then processed with dedicated software (Dentascan). The number of lingual vascular canals, the diameter of their entrance foramina and the distance of the foramina from the symphysis menti and from the lower edge of the mandible were measured in each patient. The median superior canal (MSC), the median inferior canal (MIC), the lateral mesial canals (LMC) and the lateral distal canals (LDC) were evaluated separately. 0 to 5 canals were found in each patient. The MSC was found to be present in 98.6% of cases; the mean diameter of the entrance foramen was 0.85+/-0.28 mm located adjacent the symphysis menti and 11.3+/-2.6 mm from the inferior margin of the mandible. The MIC was found to be present in 32.9% of cases; the mean diameter of the entrance foramen was 0.58+/-0.21 mm located adjacent the symphysis menti and 5.5+/-2.2 mm from the inferior margin of the mandible. LMCs were found to be present in 38.6% of cases; the mean diameter of their entrance foramina was 0.60+/-0.24 mm located 5.1+/-2.5 mm from the symphysis menti and 6.3+/-3.2 mm from the inferior margin of the mandible. LDCs were found to be present in 48.6% of the patients; the mean diameter of their entrance foramina was 0.58+/-0.19 mm located 19.3+/-7.3 mm from the symphysis menti and 6.6+/-5.4 mm from the inferior margin of mandible. Dental CT detects the lingual vascular canals of the mandible in a high percentage of subjects and allows a good demonstration of their number, location and entrance foramen diameter. The evaluation of these canals is important in the preoperative planning of dental implants or in the planning of dental surgery in general so as to avoid bleeding due to damage of the vessels present in these canals.

  10. Radiologic evaluation of the therapeutic effect of gamma knife radiosurgery in cerebral vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ig Dae; Kim, Il; Jeon, Young Seup; Lee, Jong Yuk; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Seong Suk; Eun, Choong Ki; Kim, Mu Seong; Sim, Jae Hong [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of gamma knife radiosurgery in cerebral vascular malformation using a radiologic imaging method such as MRI or angiography. We retrospectively reviewed MRIs, CT scans and angiograms of 29 cases of arteriovenous malformation and 15 of cavernous malformation before and after gamma knife radiosurgery. The patients underwent follow-up radiologic studies for between 6 and 35 months after radiosurgery. No patient underwent other surgery or embolization. Radiological imaging analysis focused on changes in the volume of the nidus or central core. Other findings of edema, cystic change, hemorrhage, signal intensity, enhancement and distributional vascular markings were also studied. The volume of the AVM nidus was measured and assigned to one of four groups:<1cc, 1-4cc,>4-10cc and >10cc. In arteriovenous malformation cases, the volume of the nidus decreased by mean 60.2%;reduction was greatest(68.1%) in the 1-4cc group. Three cases showed complete loss of the nidus at 9, 12 and 25 months after radiosurgery, respectively. In nine cases, decreased caliber or loss of draining vein was noted. High signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images, suggesting either edema or demyelination, was observed in four cases. In cavernous angioma cases, core volume was reduced by 36.8%. Transient cerebral edema and presumed radiation necrosis were observed in two cases and one, respectively. Gamma knife surgery was effective in nearly all cases of arteriovenous malformation and some cases of cavernous malformation. More than two years follow-up involving radiologic imaging such as MRI is needed for the evaluation of therapeutic effect and diagnosis of complications.=20.

  11. Ultrasound Molecular Imaging of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Expression for Endometrial Receptivity Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Chen, Yihan; Yan, Fei; Han, Xiaohua; Wu, Junru; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound (US) molecular imaging by examining the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) on uterus vascular endothelium was applied to evaluate the endometrial receptivity. Methods: VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) and the control UCA (without VEGFR2) were prepared and characterized. Adhesion experiment in vitro was performed with mouse microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3) and the ratio of the number of UCA to that of cells at the same field was compared. In vivo study, randomized boluses of targeted or control UCA were injected into the animals of non-pregnancy (D0), pregnancy on day 2 (D2) and day 4 (D4), respectively. Sonograms were acquired by an ultrasound equipment with a 40-MHz high-frequency transducer (Vevo 2100; VisualSonics, Toronto, Canada). The ultrasonic imaging signals were quantified as the video intensity amplitudes generated by the attachment of VEGFR2-targeted UCA. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays were used for confirmation of VEGFR2 expression. Results: Our results showed that VEGFR2-targeted UCA could bind to bEnd.3 cells with significantly higher affinity than the control UCA (9.8 ± 1.0 bubbles/cell versus 0.7 ± 0.3 bubbles/cell, P 0.05). Moreover, D4 mice showed the highest video intensity amplitude, indicating the highest VEGFR2 expression when compared with D2 and D0 mice (P < 0.01). This was further confirmed by our immunoblotting and immunofluorescence experiments. Conclusion: Ultrasound molecular imaging with VEGFR2-targeted UCA may be used for noninvasive evaluation of endometrial receptivity in murine models. PMID:25553109

  12. Long-term evaluation of cardiac and vascular toxicity in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias treated with bosutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Jorge E; Jean Khoury, H; Kantarjian, Hagop; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Mauro, Michael J; Matczak, Ewa; Pavlov, Dmitri; Aguiar, Jean M; Fly, Kolette D; Dimitrov, Svetoslav; Leip, Eric; Shapiro, Mark; Lipton, Jeff H; Durand, Jean-Bernard; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Vascular and cardiac safety during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy is an emerging issue. We evaluated vascular/cardiac toxicities associated with long-term bosutinib treatment for Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemia based on treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and changes in QTc intervals and ejection fraction in two studies: a phase 1/2 study of second-/third-/fourth-line bosutinib for Ph+ leukemia resistant/intolerant to prior TKIs (N = 570) and a phase 3 study of first-line bosutinib (n = 248) versus imatinib (n = 251) in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Follow-up time was ≥48 months (both studies). Incidences of vascular/cardiac TEAEs in bosutinib-treated patients were 7%/10% overall with similar incidences observed with first-line bosutinib (5%/8%) and imatinib (4%/6%). Few patients had grade ≥3 vascular/cardiac events (4%/4%) and no individual TEAE occurred in >2% of bosutinib patients. Exposure-adjusted vascular/cardiac TEAE rates (patients with events/patient-year) were low for second-line or later bosutinib (0.037/0.050) and not significantly different between first-line bosutinib (0.015/0.024) and imatinib (0.011/0.017; P ≥ 0.267). Vascular/cardiac events were managed mainly with concomitant medications (39%/44%), bosutinib treatment interruptions (18%/21%), or dose reductions (4%/8%); discontinuations due to these events were rare (0.7%/1.0%). Based on logistic regression modelling, performance status >0 and history of vascular or cardiac disorders were prognostic of vascular/cardiac events in relapsed/refractory patients; hyperlipidemia/hypercholesterolemia and older age were prognostic of cardiac events. In newly diagnosed patients, older age was prognostic of vascular/cardiac events; history of diabetes was prognostic of vascular events. Incidences of vascular and cardiac events were low with bosutinib in the first-line and relapsed/refractory settings following long-term treatment in patients

  13. [The problem in the reactivation of microorganisms on evaluating the efficacy of water disinfectants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemova, T Z; Nedachin, A E; Zholdakova, Z I; Sinitsyna, O O; Gipp, E K; Butorina, N N; Mamonov, R A; Tul'skaia, E A

    2010-01-01

    The investigation deals with the topical problem of whether bacterial viability and properties may be restored after the achieved bacteriostatic effect of water disinfection, which reduces the reliability of the control and adequate assessment of its epidemic safety. The objective of the investigation was to study whether bacteria might be reactivated in the estimation of water disinfection with guanidine-containing agents as an alternative to chlorine. Experiments were carried out on the waters from model water reservoirs, by simulating water contamination with residential waste waters and on the natural water from the Moscow River, by reproducing the purification conditions: coagulation, filtration, disinfection with a binary mixture of polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride and quaternary ammonium compound. The experimental studies of the efficacy of the binary agent against indicator, opportunistic, and pathogenic bacteria indicated that the viability of bacterial cells might be reactivated and restored after water disinfection and cell multiplication upon further exposure. Microorganisms that had the greatest capacity for reactivation after use of the binary agent, as evidenced by the group values of the total number of saprophytes (microbial number) at 37 degrees C, coliform bacteria, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were identified. The findings show it necessary to consider reactivation processes in the evaluation of novel disinfectants, which requires a supplemented procedure for obligatorily estimating their exposure 24 hours after use of a reagent.

  14. NONINVASIVE EVALUATION OF VASCULAR WALL STIFFNESSIN HEALTHY ADOLESCENTS, THE RISK FACTORS FOR ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Filippov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the main indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in healthy ado-lescents with such risk factors (RF for arterial hypertension (AH as a family history on hypertension and smoking. Identify changes in the initial elastic-elastic properties of the arteries at the preclinical stage of development of hypertension.Material and methods. It was formed two groups of comparison. Age studied from 13 to 17 years (mean age (15.00 ± 0.31 years. The first group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents whose parents suffer from hypertension from a young age. The second group consisted of 30 healthy smokers teenager from healthy parents. The control group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents from healthy parents. Determines the basic stiffness of the vascular wall: PWV, CAVI, SAI.Results. A significant in crease in the indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in the two comparison groups relative to the control. PWV: 6,89 ± 0,56 (first group, 7.13 ± 0.55 (second group and 5.5 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.L-CAVI: 5,46 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.84 ± 0.61 (second group and 4.32 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.R-CAVI: 5,63 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.89 ± 0.56 (second group and 4.49 ± 0.41(control, p < 0.05. R-AI: 0,89 ± 0,09 (first group, 0.95 ± 0.12 (second group and 0.62 ± 0.1 (control, p < 0.05.Smoking teenagers and adolescents with family history of hypertension, there are changes in the initial stiffness of the vessel wall, which requires the allocation of at-riskfor the development of hypertension and prevention activities at the preclinical stage of development ofthe disease.

  15. "Prediction of early failure of vascular-access arteriovenous fistula based on immediate postsurgical evaluation"

    OpenAIRE

    Keshvari A; Jafarian A; Makarem J; Rabbani A; Mirsharifi SM

    2007-01-01

    Background: For patients requiring chronic hemodialysis, the preferred site for vascular access is an autogenous arteriovenous fistula. Although a properly formed fistula is advantageous because it is less susceptible than other types of vascular accesses to infection and clot formation and can last longer than any other types of vascular access, AV fistula has a high rate of early failure that can increase immediate cost and complications. In this study, the prognostic value of physical exam...

  16. Evaluation of polyomavirus BK reactivation in lupus patients who underwent kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A pathogenic role for polyomavirus BK in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE has been proposed, however no study evaluated the occurrence of BK replication in renal transplant recipients according to the underlying disease leading to transplantation and its potential impact. Methods. The occurrence of BK reactivation was serially evaluated in 468 renal transplant recipients, including 11 patients with SLE as underlying disease (overall, 2370 serum and 2370 urine specimens; 65 from SLE patients. Results. Considering the overall occurrence of viral reactivation (viremia and/or viruria, 26/65 (40% specimens were positive in four SLE patients (36.3% versus 331/2143 (15.4% in 130/227 (57.3% non-SLE patients. A patient transplanted for class III lupus nephritis evidenced sustained BK viremia and viruria (with viremia values potentially indicative of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in the absence of clinical features of renal dysfunction or recurrence of lupus nephritis. Conclusions. Further studies on larger populations and for a longer follow-up should be required to evaluate the impact of BKV reactivation in renal transplant patients with SLE as underlying disease, as well as the potential therapeutic implications.

  17. No praise, please: Depressive symptoms, reactivity to positive social interaction, and fear of positive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Julia; Wiggert, Nicole; Agroskin, Dmitrij; Wilhelm, Frank H; Blechert, Jens

    2017-03-01

    Depression is characterized by depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure. Resulting alterations in emotional reactivity have been explained by three different accounts: 'positive attenuation', 'negative potentiation', and 'emotion context insensitivity'. Despite the importance of depression-related emotional alteration in social interactions, research with naturalistic interpersonal stimuli is scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unknown. Hence, the present study examined subjective emotional reactivity to brief negative, positive, and neutral social-evaluative videos as a function of depressive symptoms in an adult sample (N = 84). Fear of positive evaluation (FPE) and fear of negative evaluation (FNE), often conceptualized as cognitive components of social anxiety, were examined as possible mediators. Results revealed that more depression symptoms were related to diminished pleasantness responses to both positive and neutral videos. When considering all three video conditions simultaneously, only responses to positive videos remained significantly related to depression scores, supporting the 'positive attenuation' account. Moreover, FPE was found to uniquely mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and pleasantness responses to positive videos. Results indicate that emotional reactivity to positive interpersonal stimuli is relevant for theoretical and clinical considerations of depression. This research underlines the importance of FPE not only for understanding social anxiety but also depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of synthetic vascular grafts in a mouse carotid grafting model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex H P Chan

    Full Text Available Current animal models for the evaluation of synthetic grafts are lacking many of the molecular tools and transgenic studies available to other branches of biology. A mouse model of vascular grafting would allow for the study of molecular mechanisms of graft failure, including in the context of clinically relevant disease states. In this study, we comprehensively characterise a sutureless grafting model which facilitates the evaluation of synthetic grafts in the mouse carotid artery. Using conduits electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL we show the gradual development of a significant neointima within 28 days, found to be greatest at the anastomoses. Histological analysis showed temporal increases in smooth muscle cell and collagen content within the neointima, demonstrating its maturation. Endothelialisation of the PCL grafts, assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis and CD31 staining, was near complete within 28 days, together replicating two critical aspects of graft performance. To further demonstrate the potential of this mouse model, we used longitudinal non-invasive tracking of bone-marrow mononuclear cells from a transgenic mouse strain with a dual reporter construct encoding both luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP. This enabled characterisation of mononuclear cell homing and engraftment to PCL using bioluminescence imaging and histological staining over time (7, 14 and 28 days. We observed peak luminescence at 7 days post-graft implantation that persisted until sacrifice at 28 days. Collectively, we have established and characterised a high-throughput model of grafting that allows for the evaluation of key clinical drivers of graft performance.

  19. Lingual vascular canals of the interforaminal region of the mandible: evaluation with conventional tomography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, H; Frederiksen, N L; Benson, B W

    2004-01-01

    The presence of lingual vascular foramina and canals in the interforaminal region may increase the risk of surgical complications during implant placement, bone grafting procedures and osteodistraction...

  20. EVALUATING DEGREE OF ACTIVE POWER LOSSES REDUCTION IN THE ELECTRIC POWER LINES WITH REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers evaluation procedure for the degree of active power losses reduction in the power transmission lines under 1 kV and 6–10 kV of the systems of electric power supply of industrial enterprises with compensating installations mounted at the side of the customer. The capacitor installations conform to the applied voltage level and factor in dielectric losses in the capacitors. The voltage at the compensating device terminal changes from 0.95 to 1.05 of the capacitors nominal voltage. The study did not account for reactive power losses in the line, nor did it for its charge capacity, conditioned by relative shortness of the cable lines generally operating in the mains of industrial enterprises. For this reason, the quantities of reactive power being consumed and generated by the transmission line are negligible and do not significantly affect the reactive power flux. The researchers obtain functional relations that allow estimating the degree of power loss reduction in the transmission line factoring in its explicit initial data. They perform mathematical analysis of the obtained functional relations and study the function by means of derivatives. The function extremum points are found as well as the intervals of its increment and decrement. A graphical research of the obtained functional relation is performed. It is ascertained that reduction of the active power losses is contingent on the line and the capacitor-installation engineering factors, the electrical energy consumer reactive load value as well as the voltage applied to the capacitor installation. The functional relations presented in the article can be employed in scoping calculation necessary for decision making on the reactive power compensation in systems of the industrial facilities electric power supply. Their account will allow a more accurate estimate of technical and economic effect of the capacitor bank installation in the electrical mains under 1 kV and 6

  1. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  2. Screening for angiogenic inhibitors in zebrafish to evaluate a predictive model for developmental vascular toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemically-induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development may cause a wide range of adverse effects. To identify putative vascular disrupting chemicals (pVDCs), a predictive signature was constructed from U.S. EPA ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) assays that map to...

  3. Diabetic retinopathy: retina-specific methods for maintenance of diabetic rodents and evaluation of vascular histopathology and molecular abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Alexander; Liu, Haitao; Lee, Chieh Allen; Du, Yunpeng; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment, which continues to increase in prevalence as more and more people develop diabetes. Despite the importance of vision, the retina is one of the smallest tissues in the body, and specialized techniques to study the retinopathy have been developed. This chapter will summarize several methods used to (i) induce diabetes, (ii) maintain the diabetic animals throughout the months required for the development of typical vascular histopathology, (iii) evaluate vascular histopathology of diabetic retinopathy, and (iv) quantitate abnormalities implicated in the development of the retinopathy. PMID:26331759

  4. Assessing vascular endothelial function using frequency and rank order statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Liu, An-Bang; Lin, Zong-Lin; Tang, Chieh-Ju; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2013-08-01

    Using frequency and rank order statistics (FROS), this study analyzed the fluctuations in arterial waveform amplitudes recorded from an air pressure sensing system before and after reactive hyperemia (RH) induction by temporary blood flow occlusion to evaluate the vascular endothelial function of aged and diabetic subjects. The modified probability-weighted distance (PWD) calculated from the FROS was compared with the dilatation index (DI) to evaluate its validity and sensitivity in the assessment of vascular endothelial function. The results showed that the PWD can provide a quantitative determination of the structural changes in the arterial pressure signals associated with regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure by intact vascular endothelium after the application of occlusion stress. Our study suggests that the use of FROS is a reliable noninvasive approach to the assessment of vascular endothelial degeneration in aging and diabetes.

  5. [Vascular trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, T; Nobori, M; Tanaka, N

    1999-07-01

    Vascular trauma is essentially acute arterial obstruction, often combined with hemorrhage, fracture, and infection. It can be both life-threatening and limb-threatening and needs an emergency operation. In vascular trauma patient, multiple fracture and organ injury, such as brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, or gastrointestinal tract should be evaluated to decide treatment priority. When the pulse distal from the injured site is absent or diminished, vascular trauma is most likely and reconstruction should be accomplished within "the golden time (6-8 hours)". Intimal damage followed by platelet aggregation and thrombus formation will necessitate resection and repair of the site instead of simple thrombectomy. Although autogenous vein is the first choice, artificial graft can be implanted for short segment in non-infected field.

  6. Vascular Endothelial Over-Expression of Human Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase (Tie2-sEH Tr) Attenuates Coronary Reactive Hyperemia in Mice: Role of Oxylipins and ω-Hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Ahmad; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Morisseau, Christophe; Falck, John R; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2017-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) into two vasoactive oxylipins with opposing biologic effects: epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and omega-(ω)-terminal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). EETs have numerous beneficial physiological effects, including vasodilation and protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury, whereas ω-terminal HETEs induce vasoconstriction and vascular dysfunction. We evaluated the effect of these oxylipins on post-ischemic vasodilation known as coronary reactive hyperemia (CRH). CRH prevents the potential harm associated with transient ischemia. The beneficial effects of EETs are reduced after their hydrolysis to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). ω-terminal HETEs are formed by ω-hydroxylase family members. The relationship among endothelial over-expression of sEH (Tie2-sEH Tr), the changes in oxylipins it may produce, the pharmacologic inhibition of ω-hydroxylases, activation of PPARγ, and CRH response to a brief ischemia is not known. We hypothesized that CRH is attenuated in isolated mouse hearts with endothelial sEH over-expression through modulation of oxylipin profiles, whereas both inhibition of ω-hydroxylases and activation of PPARγ enhance CRH. Compared to WT mice, Tie2-sEH Tr mice had decreased CRH, including repayment volume, repayment duration, and repayment/debt ratio (P Tr mice. Inhibition of sEH with t-AUCB reversed the decreased CRH in Tie2-sEH Tr mice. Endothelial over-expression of sEH significantly changed oxylipin profiles, including decreases in DHETs, mid-chain HETEs, and prostaglandins (P Tr and wild type (WT) mice. These data demonstrate that endothelial over-expression of sEH (through changing the oxylipin profiles) attenuates CRH, whereas inhibition of ω-hydroxylases and activation of PPARγ enhance it.

  7. VASCULAR DEMENTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak

    2010-01-01

    vascular cognitive disorders and vascular dementia (VD. The heterogeneity of vascular cognitive disorders, concurrence of vascular and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed. Data from studies of specific therapy for VD are given.

  8. Evaluation of five strategies to limit the impact of fouling in permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Benson, Craig H

    2010-09-15

    Ground water flow and geochemical reactive transport models were used to assess the effectiveness of five strategies used to limit fouling and to enhance the long-term hydraulic behavior of continuous-wall permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) employing granular zero valent iron (ZVI). The flow model accounted for geological heterogeneity and the reactive transport model included a geochemical algorithm for simulating iron corrosion and mineral precipitation reactions that have been observed in ZVI PRBs. The five strategies that were evaluated are pea gravel equalization zones, a sacrificial pre-treatment zone, pH adjustment, large ZVI particles, and mechanical treatment. Results of simulations show that installation of pea gravel equalization zones results in flow equalization and a more uniform distribution of residence times within the PRB. Residence times within the PRB are less affected by mineral precipitation when a pre-treatment zone is employed. pH adjustment limits the total amount of hydroxide ions in ground water to reduce porosity reduction and to retain larger residence times. Larger ZVI particles reduce porosity reduction as a result of the smaller iron surface area for iron corrosion, and retain longer residence time. Mechanical treatment redistributes the porosity uniformly throughout the PRB over time, which is effective in maintaining residence time. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Serum Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 as a Potential Biomarker in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1 is a glycoprotein that mediates tissue-selective lymphocyte adhesion. The prognostic value of VAP-1 has been determined in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes and the predictive value of serum VAP-1 in patients with thyroid cancer. A total of 126 patients with thyroid nodules and 53 healthy controls participated in this study. The patients were further divided into subgroup 1 (69 cases with benign thyroid nodules and subgroup 2 (57 cases with thyroid cancer. Serum VAP-1 was measured by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. Diagnostic value of presurgical VAP-1 for thyroid cancer was conducted by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Serum levels of VAP-1 were significantly lower in thyroid cancer group than in healthy control and benign thyroid nodule groups. VAP-1 concentrations negatively correlated with serum thyroglobulin (Tg levels in thyroid cancer patients (r=-0.81; p<0.001. The optimum cut-off value of VAP-1 was 456.6 ng/mL with a 77.4% specificity and 66.7% sensitivity for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Serum VAP-1 decreased in thyroid cancer patients and VAP-1 could be a potential useful adjunct biomarker in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  10. Does pre- and post-angioplasty Doppler ultrasound evaluation help in predicting vascular access outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes-Marques, Maria; Maia, Pedro A; Neves, Fernando; Ferreira, Aníbal; Cruz, João; Carvalho, Dulce; Oliveira, Carlos; Barreto, Carlos; Carvalho, Telmo; Ponce, Pedro

    2016-11-02

    Kidney Disease - Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recommends post-percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) access blood flow (ABF) improvement predicts vascular access (VA) outcome. Secondary: compare Doppler ultrasound (DU) and angiography diagnostic accuracy; determine how other factors predict outcome. Eighty patients. DU evaluation performed pre- and post-PTA. Several parameters recorded. Secondary patency verified after 6 months. Initial ABF 537 ± 248 mL/min; final ABF 1013 ± 354 mL/min. Number and location of stenosis was highly correlated between DU and angiography (p30% associated to better survival, p 0.038. Initial ABF0.05). A >2-fold ABF increase had no significant impact on fistulas (p>0.05) but was significantly associated with worst outcomes in grafts (23.1% vs. 73.5%, p 0.009). Grafts had lower survival (HR 3.3, p 0.034). Although less accurate for central lesions, DU has a key role on VA surveillance, allowing a morphologic and hemodynamic assessment. Angioplasty is effective in preserving VA; however, it may increase restenosis due to accelerated neointimal hyperplasia. Current parameters are not useful. Trials addressing this issue are needed.

  11. [Clinicofunctional evaluation of ischemic episodes and vascular endothelium in patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarchenko, I P; Pozdniakova, N V; Dudukina, E A; Morozova, O I

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study the significance of the functional condition of endothelium for the evaluation of ischemic episodes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Ninety-three patients (52 men; 41 women; mean age 58.3+/-4.8 years) were examined. Group 1 consisted of 47 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and CD2; group 2 consisted of 46 CAD patients without carbohydrate exchange disorder. Both groups were comparable by gender, age, and the main risk factors. The patients were examined using Holter monitoring, physical load test, EchoCG, reactive hyperemia test (ultrasound evaluation of the endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation). The number of painless ischemic episodes (PIE), the total duration of ischemia, the maximum degree of ST depression prevailed in group 1 patients. Correlation analysis demonstrated a significant negative correlation between endothelial dysfunction, one the one part, and the number and duration of PIE and the time between the ischemic ST depression and pain syndrome, on the other, in group 1 patients.

  12. Role of 128 slice MSCT angiography in evaluation of congenital extra-cardiac intra-thoracic vascular anomalies in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Mansour Abd El-Rahman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the value and highlight the role of multi slice computed tomography (MSCT angiography in evaluation of extra-cardiac intra thoracic vascular anomalies in children. Patients and methods: This study included 24 patients (13 males and 11 females with an age range of 1 month–13 years. All of these patients were clinically diagnosed to have congenital heart disease with suspected extracardiac vascular anomalies. All underwent prospective ECG-gated MSCT angiography after trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE. Iterative reconstruction techniques were applied to reduce the radiation dose in MSCT angiography with the mean radiation dose of (4 mSv. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of MSCT angiography and TTE were compared in comparison with surgical outcome. Results: The most common congenital extra cardiac vascular anomalies are PDA (45.8% and aortic coarctation (37.5%. The major CT angiographic findings missed by TTE were coronary artery anomalies, absence of a pulmonary artery and pulmonary artery stenosis. The overall sensitivity of the MSCT angiography in diagnosis of the extra-cardiac vascular anomalies was 98.1% which was higher than that of TTE 80%. Conclusion: CG gated MSCT angiography is an accurate modality for demonstrating extra cardiac structures in complex CHD. It provides important complementary information to TTE with regard to extra cardiac vascular structures and coronary artery anatomy. This modality may reduce the need for high radiation dose invasive diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Keywords: MSCT, TTE, Iterative reconstruction, CHD, Congenital extra cardiac vascular lesions

  13. Enhanced growth and improved vascular function in offspring from successive pregnancies in endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Longo, M; Jain, [No Value; Langenveld, J; Vedernikov, YP; Garfield, RE; Hankins, GDV; Anderson, GD; Saade, GR

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Transgenic mice that lack endothelial nitric oxide synthase have offspring with growth deficiency and abnormal vascular reactivity in later life. Our objective was to evaluate the role of parity in the modulation of the fetal programming of growth and vascular responses in these

  14. Multidetector computed tomography for preoperative evaluation of vascular anatomy in living renal donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Akinci, Serkan; Yildiz, Sener; Olçer, Tülay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2009-04-01

    Currently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a noninvasive alternative imaging modality to catheter renal angiography for the evaluation of renal vascular anatomy in living renal donors. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of 16-slice MDCT in the preoperative assessment of living renal donors. Fifty-nine consecutive living renal donors (32 men, 27 women) underwent MDCT angiography followed by open donor nephrectomy. All MDCT studies were performed by using a 16-slice MDCT scanner with the same protocol consisting of arterial and nephrographic phases followed by conventional abdominal radiography. The MDCT images were assessed retrospectively for the number and branching pattern of the renal arteries and for the number and presence of major or minor variants of the renal veins. The results were compared with open surgical results. The sensitivity and specificity of MDCT for the detection of anatomic variants of renal arteries including the accessory arteries (n = 9), early arterial branching (n = 7) and major renal venous anomalies including the accessory renal veins (n = 3), late venous confluence (n = 4), circumaortic (n = 2) or retroaortic (n = 3) left renal veins were 100%. However, the sensitivity for identification of minor venous variants was 79%. All of three ureteral duplications were correctly identified at excretory phase conventional abdominal radiography. Sixteen-slice MDCT is highly accurate for the identification of anatomic variants of renal arteries and veins. Dual-phase MDCT angiography including arterial and nephrographic phases followed by conventional abdominal radiography enables complete assessment of renal donors without significant increase of radiation dose. However, the evaluation of minor venous variants may be problematic because of their small diameters and poor opacification.

  15. A comprehensive histopathological evaluation of vascular medial fibrosis: Insights into the pathophysiology of arterial stiffening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvin, Elizabeth; Najjar, Samer S.; Cornish, Toby C.; Halushka, Marc K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Medial vascular fibrosis contributes to arterial stiffening and reduced compliance, increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. We undertook the first comprehensive histopathologic study of medium-to-large caliber blood vessels (carotid, coronary, dorsalis pedis, internal mammary, iliac, mesenteric, pulmonary, and renal arteries) in 100 autopsy subjects to characterize medial fibrosis in relation to cardiovascular risk factors. Methods and Results Masson Trichrome staining of vascular tissue microarrays (TMAs) was digitally analyzed to determine the percent fibrosis (% collagen) of over 700 vascular segments. The percent fibrosis of the tunica media was strongly correlated within subjects across all systemic blood vessels (average r = 0.53), suggesting that fibrosis is a global process independent of the predilection of the vessel towards the development of atherosclerosis. Hypertension, diabetes, age and poor renal function were significantly associated with increased systemic vascular fibrosis (p≤0.03). By multivariable analysis, only poor renal function (p=0.003) was an independent predictor of higher levels of fibrosis. Finally, in a subset of 13 individuals we observed a significant correlation between pre-mortem pulse pressure and systemic vascular fibrosis (p<0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that vascular fibrosis is a global process associated with diseases of aging and elevated pulse pressures. PMID:19632677

  16. Understanding Vascular Endothelium

    OpenAIRE

    Gimbrone, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Vascular Endothelium : Nature’s Container for Blood The entire cardiovascular system, from the chambers of the heart to the smallest capillaries of peripheral tissues, is lined by a single-cell-thick continuous layer—the vascular endothelium. For many years, this gossamer membrane was thought to function largely as an inert barrier, passively separating the reactive components of the circulating blood from the cells and connective tissue matrix of the various organs of the body....

  17. Estimation of cerebral vascular tone during exercise; evaluation by critical closing pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Brothers, R Matthew; Jeschke, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate critical closing pressure (CCP) of the cerebral vasculature at rest and during exercise to estimate cerebral vascular tone. Five men and two women were seated upright for 15 min and then performed 15 min of right-legged knee extension exercise at 40, ......, P = 0.564) or adrenaline concentrations (right, P = 0.138; left, P = 0.108). We consider that an exercise-induced increase in cerebral vascular tone serves to protect the blood-brain barrier from the exercise-induced hypertension....... and the left MCA. In both arteries, the CCP increased (right MCA, +6.6 +/- 8.5 mmHg, P = 0.023; left MCA, +7.3 +/- 9.1 mmHg, P = 0.016) during 75% WL(max) without changes in resistance-area product, while femoral vascular resistance of the non-exercising leg decreased (from 0.32 +/- 0.07 to 0.18 +/- 0.05 mm......Hg min ml(1); P right and left MCA (P = 0.31). These findings suggest an increase in cerebral vascular tone in both the right and the left MCA from rest to exercise despite a decrease in vascular resistance of the systemic vasculature...

  18. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from black garlic extract prevents TNFα-induced monocytic cell adhesion to HUVECs by suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, reactive oxygen species generation and NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Young-Whan; Lee, Eun Na; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sun-Gun; Park, Da-Jung; Kim, Bong-Seon; Lim, Young-Tak; Yoon, Sik

    2011-07-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is a common Maillard reaction product; the reaction occurs during heat-processing and the preparation of many types of foods and beverages. Although 5-HMF has been proposed to have harmful effects, recently, its beneficial effects, including antioxidant, cytoprotective and antitumor effects have become increasingly apparent. It was found recently that a chloroform extract of aged black garlic shows antiinflammatory properties when administered to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This study investigated the antiinflammatory potential of 5-HMF purified from the chloroform extract of aged black garlic in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated HUVECs. Treatment of HUVECs with 5-HMF strongly suppressed TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as well as their mRNA expression. In addition, 5-HMF significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species formation, and markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, 5-HMF significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of 5-HMF in support of its potential therapeutic use for the prevention and management of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effect of Aggressive lipid-lowering treatment with Rosuvastatin on vascular endoTHelium function: evaluation of vascular endothelium function (EARTH study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tadateru; Hiro, Takafumi; Yoda, Shunichi; Fukamachi, Daisuke; Haruta, Hironori; Kogo, Takaaki; Mineki, Takashi; Murata, Hironobu; Oshima, Toru; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2017-12-05

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the process of atherosclerosis up to the final stage of plaque rupture. Vascular endothelial dysfunction is reversible, and can be recovered by medications and life-style changes. Improvement in endothelial function may reduce cardiovascular events and improve long-term prognosis. A total of 50 patients with stable angina and dyslipidemia were enrolled, including patients who had not received prior treatment with statins and had serum LDL-C levels ≥ 100 mg/dL, and patients who had previously received statin treatment. All agreed to register regardless of their LDL-C level. Rosuvastatin was initially administered at a dose of 2.5 mg and appropriately titrated up to the maximum dose of 20 mg or until LDL-C levels lower than 80 mg/dL were achieved, for 24 weeks. Endothelial function was assessed by the reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) index in the radial artery by Endo-PAT® 2000 (Endo-PAT®2000, software version 3.0.4, Itamar Medical Ltd., Caesarea, Israel). RH-PAT data were digitally analyzed online by Endo-PAT®2000 at baseline and at 24 weeks. LDL-C and MDA-LDL-C decreased from 112.6 ± 23.3 to 85.5 ± 20.2 mg/dL and from 135.1 ± 36.4 to 113.9 ± 23.5 mg/dL respectively (p < 0.0001). However, HDL-C, hs-CRP and TG did not change significantly after treatment. RH-PAT index levels significantly improved, from 1.60 ± 0.31 to 1.77 ± 0.57 (p = 0.04) after treatment, and the percent change of the RH-PAT index was 12.8 ± 36.9%. Results of multivariate analysis show that serum LDL-C levels over 24 weeks did not act as a predictor of improvement of the RH-PAT index. However, HbA1c at baseline was an independent predictor which influenced the 24-week RH-PAT index level. The RH-PAT index of patients with high HbA1c at baseline did not improve after administration of rosuvastatin but it did improve in patients with low HbA1c at baseline. Aggressive lowering

  20. [Significance of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of reconstructive vascular interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, M

    1983-12-01

    The author examined 160 patients by means of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after reconstructive vascular surgery. The checkup aimed to controlling the functional capacity of arterial and venous bypasses, of thrombal endarterectomy (TEA) and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The image quality of the examinations was good or very good in 138 cases and satisfactory in 19 cases in respect of the questions to be solved. In 3 cases, no information of diagnostic value was obtained. Vascular wall irregularities, stenoses, occlusions, dissections and aneurysms could be assessed with satisfactory display of anatomic details. Evidently DSA yielded a higher percentage of better results in the assessment of reconstructive vascular surgery than was obtained by pretherapeutic diagnosis in the region of the vessels, head, trunk and body periphery.

  1. Avaliação ultrassonográfica da anomalia vascular portossistêmica em cão: relato de caso Ultrasonographic evaluation of portosystemic vascular anomaly in dog: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a avaliação ultrassonográfica, com auxílio do Doppler em cores, da anomalia vascular portossistêmica em um cão da raça Poodle Toy, que apresentou edema pulmonar e alterações gastrintestinais. Ao exame ultrassonográfico, foram observados vasos portais dilatados e tortuosos. Esses resultados associados aos achados clínicos e laboratoriais permitem identificar a anomalia vascular portossistêmica no paciente.It was reported the ultrasonographic evaluation, assisted to Doppler color, of the portosystemic vascular anomaly in a Poodle Toy dog. The dog was referred with lung edema and gastrointestinal alterations. At ultrasonographic exam, portal vessels were extended and tortuous. These findings associated to clinical and laboratorial findings, allowed to identify the vascular portosystemic anomaly in the patient.

  2. Evaluation of the relationship between renal function and renal volume-vascular indices using 3D power Doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansu, Aysegul, E-mail: drcansu@gmail.com; Kupeli, Ali; Kul, Sibel; Eyuboglu, Ilker; Oguz, Sukru; Ozturk, Mehmet Halil; Dinc, Hasan

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between renal function and total renal volume-vascular indices using 3D power Doppler ultrasound (3DPDUS). Materials and methods: One hundred six patients with hypertensive proteinuric nephropathy (HPN) (49 male, 57 female) and 65 healthy controls (32 male, 33 female) were evaluated prospectively using 3DPDUS. Total renal volume (RV), vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were calculated using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL). The estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) of the patients with HPN and the control group were calculated. The patients with HPN were divided into two groups on the basis of GFR, normal (≥90) or reduced (<90). Differences between groups were compared using ANOVA. Correlations between GFR, renal volume and vascular indices were analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The mean total RV, VI, FI and VFI values in the reduced GFR, normal GFR and control groups were RV (ml): 234.7, 280.7 and 294.6; VI: 17.6, 27.6 and 46.8; FI: 79.1, 88.7 and 93.9 and VFI: 7.1, 12.7 and 23.8. There were statistically significant differences between the groups (p < 0.001). Total RVs and vascular indices exhibited significant correlations with estimated GFR (r = 0.53–0.59, p < 0.001) Conclusion: Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound is a reliable predictive technique in renal function analysis.

  3. Efect of periodontal disease and non surgical periodontal treatment on C-reactive protein. Evaluation of type 1 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Llambés Arenas, Fernando; Silvestre Donat, Francisco Javier; Hernández Mijares, Antonio; Guiha, Rami; Bautista, Daniel; Caffesse, Raul G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze how anti-infectious periodontal treatment affects C reactive protein (CRP) values in patients with type 1 diabetes, and correlate baseline CRP levels with periodontal disease severity. Study Design: A cohort of fifty three subjects with type 1 diabetes and moderate to severe periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal parameters were measured, and blood samples were obtained to evaluate high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Group 1 wa...

  4. Accurate and Simple Evaluation of Vascular Anastomoses in Monochorionic Placenta using Colored Dye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopriore, Enrico; Slaghekke, Femke; Middeldorp, Johanna M.; Klumper, Frans J.; van Lith, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.; Oepkes, Dick

    2011-01-01

    The presence of placental vascular anastomoses is a conditio sine qua non for the development of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS)(1,2). Injection studies of twin placentas have shown that such anastomoses are almost invariably present in

  5. [Long-term evaluation of spinal cord electric stimulation in peripheral vascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duato Jané, A; Lorente Navarro, C; Azcona Elizalde, J M; Revilla Martín, J M; Marsal Machín, T; Buisán Bardají, J M

    1993-01-01

    We reported an study about the Electric Medullar Stimulation on Peripheral Vascular Pathology, in cases of critical Ischaemia of lower limbs. Short-time and longtime results are exposed. Arteriopathies included into the study were: arteriosclerosis, "mixed arteriopathy and TAO". Examination was made by Doppler-Ultrasonography.

  6. Evaluation of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, David D; Kisiday, John D; Kawcak, Chris E; Werpy, Natasha M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was the assessment of clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of intraarticular administered adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was induced arthroscopically in the middle carpal joint of all horses, the contralateral joint being sham-operated. All horses received treatment on Day 14. Eight horses received placebo treatment and eight horses received adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction in their osteoarthritis-affected joint. The final eight horses were treated the in osteoarthritis-affected joint with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Evaluations included clinical, radiographic, synovial fluid analysis, gross, histologic, histochemical, and biochemical evaluations. No adverse treatment-related events were observed. The model induced a significant change in all but two parameters, no significant treatment effects were demonstrated, with the exception of improvement in synovial fluid effusion PGE2 levels with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when compared to placebo. A greater improvement was seen with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when compared to adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction and placebo treatment. Overall, the findings of this study were not significant enough to recommend the use of stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis represented in this model.

  7. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Sonodynamic Therapy Promotes Phenotypic Switching from Dedifferentiated to Differentiated Phenotype via Reactive Oxygen Species and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Juhua; Sun, Xin; Li, Wanlu; Zhang, Yun; Li, Xuesong; Xu, Haobo; Li, Zhitao; Tian, Zhen; Guo, Shuyuan; Yao, Jianting; Gao, Weidong; Tian, Ye

    2015-06-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has been found to inhibit in-stent restenosis in animal models. However, the mechanism is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated SDT (ALA-SDT) on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), a cause of restenosis, with a focus on SDT-induced phenotypic switching. Serum-induced dedifferentiated VSMCs were cultured with ALA (1 mm, 24 h) and exposed to ultrasound (0.8 W/cm(2)) for 5 min. Results indicated that ALA-SDT inhibited the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and enhanced the expression of differentiated phenotypic markers in VSMCs. Additionally, ALA-SDT increased intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in VSMCs. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species elevation or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity abolished the expression of smooth muscle 22α (SM22α) in VSMCs induced by ALA-SDT. Taken together, these results suggest that ALA-SDT promotes transformation of the VSMC phenotype from the dedifferentiated to differentiated status via reactive oxygen species and activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of blood pool and extracellular gadolinium chelate for functional MR evaluation of vascular thoracic outlet syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ruth P., E-mail: ruthplim74@gmail.com [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Austin Health, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 (Australia); The University of Melbourne, School of Medicine, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bruno, Mary, E-mail: mary.bruno@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Rosenkrantz, Andrew B., E-mail: Andrew.rosenkrantz@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Kim, Danny C., E-mail: danny.kim@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Mulholland, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.mulholland@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Kwon, Jane, E-mail: jane.kwon@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Palfrey, Amy P., E-mail: amy.pastva10@stjohns.edu [St John' s University, Department of Psychology, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica-Queens, NY 11439 (United States); Ogedegbe, Olugbenga, E-mail: Olugbenga.Ogedegbe@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Clinical and Translational Science Institute, 227 E30th St, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To compare performance of single-injection blood pool agent (gadofosveset trisodium, BPA) against dual-injection extracellular contrast (gadopentetate dimeglumine, ECA) for MRA/MRV in assessment of suspected vascular TOS. Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients referred for vascular TOS evaluation were assessed with BPA (n = 18) or ECA (n = 13) MRA/MRV in arm abduction and adduction. Images were retrospectively assessed for: image quality (1 = non-diagnostic, 5 = excellent), vessel contrast (1 = same signal as muscle, 4 = much brighter than muscle) and vascular pathology by two independent readers, with a separate experienced reader providing reference assessment of vascular pathology. Results: Median image quality was diagnostic or better (score ≥3) for ECA and BPA at all time points, with BPA image quality superior at abduction late (BPA 4.5, ECA 4, p = 0.042) and ECA image quality superior at adduction-early (BPA 4.5; ECA 4.0, p = 0.018). High qualitative vessel contrast (mean score ≥3) was observed at all time points with both BPA and ECA, with superior BPA vessel contrast at abduction-late (BPA 3.97 ± 0.12; ECA 3.73 ± 0.26, p = 0.007) and ECA at adduction-early (BPA 3.42 ± 0.52; ECA 3.96 ± 0.14, p < 0.001). Readers readily identified arterial and venous pathology with BPA, similar to ECA examinations. Conclusion: Single-injection BPA MRA/MRV for TOS evaluation demonstrated diagnostic image quality and high vessel contrast, similar to dual-injection ECA imaging, enabling identification of fixed and functional arterial and venous pathology.

  9. Cross-cultural validation of the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire in vascular amputees fitted with prostheses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavent, Jose Vicente; Igual, Celedonia; Mora, Enrique; Antonio, Rosa; Tenias, Jose Maria

    2016-12-01

    The lack of specific prosthetic-related outcome instruments for Spanish amputees must be addressed. To elaborate a culturally equivalent version of the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire in the Spanish language. Cross-cultural questionnaire validation. Two-step process for cultural adaptation: forward and backward translations of English original and Spanish translated versions; assessment of both construct and criterion validity and reliability in a group of vascular amputees. A total of 61 patients were recruited, 44 men (72.1%) and 17 women (27.9%), with a median age of 71.1 years (standard deviation: 7.7 years; range: 51-87 years). In the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire-Spanish, the lowest scores were for gait and frustration, and the highest scores were for noise and stump health. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was acceptable (>0.70) for four of the scales used in the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire but poor (<0.50) for the scales relating to appearance and stump health. Correlations with the quality-of-life levels as measured by the Short Form-36 were positive and mostly significant. Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire-Spanish could assess the quality of life in patients who have undergone vascular amputations and then been fitted with a prosthetic limb. The questionnaire shows adequate criteria validity when compared with other instruments for measuring quality of life. The Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire-Spanish could be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing adaptation to prostheses in vascular amputees. The questionnaire adds information relevant to the patient and the physician and may identify cases with poor expected adaptation to the prosthesis. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  10. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of white matter lesions on MRI: the evaluation of vascular care in Alzheimer's disease (EVA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A

    2010-03-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs and prevents occurrence of new infarcts. A randomized controlled clinical trial, including 123 subjects, compared vascular care with standard care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions on MRI. Progression of WMLs, lacunes, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and global cortical atrophy were semiquantitatively scored after 2-year follow-up. Sixty-five subjects (36 vascular care, 29 standard care) had a baseline and a follow-up MRI and in 58 subjects, a follow-up scan could not be obtained due to advanced dementia or death. Subjects in the vascular care group had less progression of WMLs as measured with the WML change score (1.4 versus 2.3, P=0.03). There was no difference in the number of new lacunes or change in global cortical atrophy or medial temporal lobe atrophy between the 2 groups. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs. Treatment aimed at vascular risk factors in patients with early Alzheimer disease may be beneficial, possibly in an even earlier stage of the disease.

  11. Evaluation of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluid C-reactive protein in patients with peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Kumaresan; Padmanabhan, Giri; Vijayaraghavan, Bhooma

    2016-05-01

    Severe peritonitis causing death is one of the most devastating complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Since the predictive value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in PD fluid has not been assessed, the objective of the present study is to evaluate its predictive value and clinical correlation in patients on PD with peritonitis. One hundred and twenty patients on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) were enrolled and their serum and fluid CRP (Fl. CRP) were evaluated at the start of CAPD. All patients who developed peritonitis were further evaluated for serum and fluid CRP. The patients were categorized into four groups, namely: normal patients (control group), patients with peritonitis, patients with peritonitis leading to catheter removal, and death due to peritonitis. Sixty-five patients developed peritonitis of whom, catheter removal was performed in eight patients. Five patients died due to peritonitis-related complications. Fl. CRP showed a significant difference among the three groups, unlike S. CRP. Estimation of CRP in the peritoneal fluid may be a useful marker to monitor the onset of peritonitis.

  12. Construction and biofunctional evaluation of electrospun vascular graft loaded with selenocystamine for in situ catalytic generation of nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siyuan; An, Jun; Weng, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials for Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Yandong [Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xu, Han; Wang, Yaping; Ding, Dan; Kong, Deling [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials for Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Shufang, E-mail: wangshufang@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials for Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Construction and biofunctional evaluation of a novel vascular graft with in situ catalytic generation of nitric oxide were described in this paper. Poly α-lysine and poly (γ-glutamic acid) were deposited alternately onto the surface of an electrospun poly ε-caprolactone matrix via electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly, and then selenocystamine was loaded as a catalyst. Measurement of in vitro catalytic generation of nitric oxide demonstrated that this catalyst-loaded material could considerably accelerate the release of nitric oxide from S-nitrosoglutathione. A fibroblast proliferation assay showed that the material possessed satisfactory cellular compatibility. The catalyst-loaded material could inhibit the spread of smooth muscle cells in the presence of nitric oxide donors. In arteriovenous-shunt experiment, the catalyst-loaded graft exhibited good anti-thrombotic property where it could prevent acute thrombosis by decreasing the adhesion and activation of platelets and other blood cells. These data suggest a new method of building vascular grafts with improved hemocompatibility and biological functions. - Highlights: • A porous small-diameter vascular graft was prepared by electrospinning. • Selenocystamine was loaded for in situ catalytic and sustained NO generation. • There was a significant catalytic NO generation on the catalyst-loaded sample. • The spread of smooth muscle cells was inhibited on the catalyst-loaded sample. • The catalyst-loaded sample showed anti-thrombotic property in AV-shunt experiment.

  13. Neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene in a rat model of vascular dementia: Experimental study and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarabadi, Mustafa; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Mehri, Soghra; Motamedshariaty, Vahideh Sadat; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-06-03

    Vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease are most common type of dementia. These diseases have been associated with cognitive decline and affected personal behavioral activities. Moreover, the pattern of cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive disorder has appeared as a predictive indication for the development into Alzheimer's disease. Permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) is a standard animal model to study vascular dementia and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In present study neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene (AUR), a citrus coumarin, were studied in 2VO rats. Different doses (25, 8 & 4mg/kg) of AUR were administered orally. The spatial memory performance was tested with Morris water maze after 2VO induction. Biochemical experiments and histopathological evaluations were also applied to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AUR in brain tissue. In comparison with 2VO group, AUR could significantly decrease the scape latency time in treated rats. Also AUR increased the percentage of time spent and traveled pathway in target quadrant on final trial test day. All behavioral results were confirmed by biochemical and histopathological data. Biochemical data indicated that AUR could decrease malondialdehyde (MDA), as lipid peroxidation indicator, and increase glutathione (GSH) content in cortex and hippocampus tissues. Histopathological data showed that AUR could protect cerebrocortical and hippocampus neurons against ischemia. This study demonstrated the memory enhancing effect and neuroprotective activity of AUR after induction of brain ischemia in a rat model of vascular dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 'The Closer'-percutaneous vascular suture device: evaluation of safety and performance in neuroangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henk, Christine B. E-mail: christine.henk@univie.ac.at; Grampp, Stephan; Heimberger, Karl; Czerny, Christian; Schindler, Erwin; Mostbeck, Gerhard H

    2003-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of the suture mediated vascular closure device concerning practicability and safety in clinical angiography practice. Material and methods: One hundred and seventeen patients (59 female, 58 male, mean age 40.9{+-}13.4) underwent percutaneous closure of common femoral arterial puncture sites following diagnostic neuroangiography using the suture device 'the Closer' (Perclose Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA). Primary success, early problems (within 24 h) and late complications were evaluated. Complications were graded as minor and severe with or without need of surgical intervention and categorized by type. Parameters such as age, gender, sheath size and number of previous arterial punctures were evaluated with respect to complications. Results: Percutaneous closure was primary successful in 85% (100/117). The overall complication rate was 32% (28% mild n=35, 4% severe n=6, which needed surgical intervention). All but one problem occurred within the first 24 h after the suture. Additional manual compression was necessary in 32 cases (25%). There was no significant difference in age and gender between the groups with and without complications. Sheath size was significantly larger (P<0.01) and numbers of preceding angiograms were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the complications group compared with uncomplicated cases. Conclusion: The evaluated percutaneous vascular suture device is useful in clinical practice but limitations concerning patient selection seem to emerge in order to avoid complications.

  15. High-salt diets during pregnancy increases renal vascular reactivity due to altered soluble guanylyl cyclase-related pathways in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Yin, Xiaohui; He, Axin; Li, Lingjun; Bo, Le; Zhou, Xiuwen; Tang, Jiaqi; Gu, Xiuxia; Wu, Jue; Gao, Qinqin; Lv, Juanxiu; Mao, Caiping; Xu, Zhice

    2016-02-01

    Adverse prenatal factors such as overtake of salt or fat food are potential risks for cardiovascular diseases in offspring. This study tested the hypothesis that prenatal high-salt (HS) diets may influence renal vascular tone and attenuates signaling pathways related to soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) or/and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channels in the offspring. Pregnant rats were fed either normal salt (NS) (1% NaCl) or HS (8% NaCl) diet for the whole gestation. Offspring were maintained on NS diets. Renal interlobar arteries in offspring were tested for vascular responses to phenylephrine (Phe), K(+) channels and signal pathways related to sGC. Phe induced higher vessel tension in interlobar arteries of the HS offspring. Following pretreatment with BKCa channel inhibitor iberiotoxin, Phe-mediated vasoconstrictions were decreased in HS offspring compared to NS. Phe-mediated constrictions following pretreatment with NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or sGC inhibitor 1H-1,2,4-oxadiazolo-4,3-quinoxalin-1-one in the HS offspring were less sensitive than NS. The whole-cell K(+) currents and the component of BKCa channels were not changed in smooth muscle cells from interlobar arteries, whereas the K(+) currents stimulated by sGC activator BAY41-2272 were reduced in the HS offspring. The protein expressions of sGC β1 and β2 in the interlobar arteries of HS offspring were reduced. The results showed that chronic overintake of salt during pregnancy could increase renal vascular tone in the offspring. The affected signal pathways included down-regulation of sGC function and expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  17. Frequency of positive results of vibroacoustic stimulation test in evaluating fetus health of pregnant women with non-reactive NST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soheila Akbari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Non-Stress Test (NST is one of the most common methods used to evaluat fetus health, which its results are presented as reactive and non-reactive. One of the limitations of this test is the high number of false non-reactive cases. Different studies have suggested a combination of vibroacoustic stimulation and NST to reduce the number of non-reactive cases and duration of the test. Materials and Methods: The present study examined a group of tests, and used simple randomized sampling. The number of the sample was 55 individuals and the data collection tools were NST, sonography instruments, NST result paper, a tooth brusher, a watch, a demographic questionnaire, and a checklist. Vibroacoustic stimulation with an electronic brush was performed on fetus head situated on mother’s abdomen for 3 seconds and then NST was continued for a further 20 minutes. Then the results were recorded. The obtained data were gathered by SPSS 19 software, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: In this study, 85.5% of the non-reactive cases changed into reactive through vibroacoustic stimulation. The amount of false positive was lower with vibroacoustic stimulation in comparison with NST. Conclusion: Vibroacoustic stimulation, as a technique for evaluating fetus health, makes it possible to save time, costs and personnel. It is also leads to sooner and better diagnosis of fetus health.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of reactive nitrogen emissions with urbanization: a case study in Beijing megacity, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Chaofan; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Lu, Fei; Xiao, Yang; Li, Yanmin

    2016-09-01

    The rapid increase in anthropogenic nitrogen (N) load in urbanized environment threatens urban sustainability. In this study, we estimated the amount of reactive N (Nr) as an index of N pollution potential caused by human activities, using the megacity of Beijing as a case study. We investigated the temporal changes in Nr emissions in the environment from 2000 to 2012 using a multidisciplinary approach with quantitative evaluation. The Nr emissions presented slightly increasing during study period, and the annual emission was 0.19 Tg N, mainly resulting from fuel combustion. Nevertheless, the Nr output intensity resulting from inhabitants' livelihoods and material production had weakened over the study period. The evaluation results showed that the environmental measures to remove Nr in Beijing were efficient in most years, suggesting that progress in mitigating the growth of the Nr load in this urban environment was significant. Further measures based on N offset are suggested that could help alleviate the environmental pressure resulting from anthropogenic Nr emissions. These could provide theoretical support for the sustainable development of megacities.

  19. Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein as Useful Surrogate Markers for Evaluating CKD Risk in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsun Chuang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP as potential markers for chronic kidney disease (CKD in adults in Taiwan, and to identify associations between these factors and CKD, stratifying by gender. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed multi-center data retrospectively. Data were collected from 22,043 adult Taiwanese at Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital from 2005 to 2011. Smoking/drinking history, personal medical/medication history, pregnancy, fasting times as well as laboratory parameters, including homocysteine and CRP were measured and analyzed. Results: Significant differences were observed between four homocysteine and CRP quartiles in eGFR and CKD. For males, only one model showed significant associations between plasma homocysteine and CKD, while in females, all three models showed significant associations with CKD. On the contrary, the gender difference in the case of CRP was opposite. Combined homocysteine and CRP were associated with CKD in males but not in females. Conclusion: Among Taiwanese adults, plasma homocysteine is associated with CKD in females and plasma hsCRP is associated with CKD in males. High hsCRP/high homocysteine is associated with elevated CKD risk in male. Our results suggest that homocysteine and hsCRP may be useful surrogate markers for evaluating CKD risk in adults.

  20. Flaxseed oil increases aortic reactivity to phenylephrine through reactive oxygen species and the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Dieli Oliveira; Almenara, Camila Cruz Pereira; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson Brás; Silva, Marito Afonso Sousa Costa; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton V; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2014-07-03

    Flaxseed oil has the highest concentration of omega-3 α-linolenic acid, which has been associated with cardiovascular benefit. However, the mechanism underlying the vascular effects induced through flaxseed oil is not well known. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of flaxseed oil on vascular function in isolated rat aortic rings. Wistar rats were treated daily with flaxseed oil or a control (mineral oil) intramuscular (i.m.) for fifteen days. Isolated aortic segments were used to evaluate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, superoxide anion levels and vascular reactivity experiments. Flaxseed oil treatment increased the vasoconstrictor response of aortic rings to phenylephrine. Endothelium removal increased the response to phenylephrine in aortic segments isolated from both groups, but the effect was smaller in the treated group. L-NAME incubation similarly increased the phenylephrine response in segments from both groups. The TXA2 synthase inhibitor furegrelate, the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS 398, the TP receptor antagonist SQ 29.548, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger apocynin, the superoxide anion scavengers tiron and the phospholipase A2 inhibitor dexamethasone partially reversed the flaxseed oil-induced increase in reactivity to phenylephrine. These findings suggest that flaxseed oil treatment increased vascular reactivity to phenylephrine through an increase in ROS production and COX-2-derived TXA2 production. The results obtained in the present study provide new insight into the effects of flaxseed oil treatment (i.m.) on vascular function.

  1. [Early evaluations of BISAP plus C-reactive protein in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jimin; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Juncha

    2015-03-31

    To explore the early evaluations of Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) plus C-reactive protein (CRP) in predicting the severity and prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP). A total of 114 cases of AP at our hospital over the last 2 years were retrospectively analyzed. The levels of amylase, serum glucose, serum calcium, CRP and D-dimer in 24 hours were measured. According to the evaluation standard, the scores of BISAP, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II), Ranson and computed tomography severity index (CTSI) were obtained. Mild acute pancreatitis (MAP), moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP), severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), death toll and their proportion were compared in different BISAP scores. Correlation analyses were conducted for BISAP scores and laboratory indices, CRP and different scoring systems. We compared the evaluative value of BISAP plus CRP and other scoring systems in SAP. With rising BISAP scores, both severity and mortality increased in acute pancreatitis (χ(2) = 78.616, P APACHE-II, Ranson's, BISAP and CTSI scores (r = 0.407, 0.392, 0.451, 0.427, P < 0.001). When CRP was included into the BISAP scores, the area under the curve (AUC) of predicting SAP was 0.873 and the AUC of predicting death 0.909 so that BISAP score plus CRP had a good predictive value for the severity of AP and death. In clinical practice, the simple BISAP scoring system may predict the severity of AP. And BISAP score plus CRP has a better predictive value for AP.

  2. Using Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate the Source Term at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Chen

    2001-12-19

    The conventional approach of source-term evaluation for performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories uses speciation-solubility modeling tools and assumes pure phases of radioelements control their solubility. This assumption may not reflect reality, as most radioelements (except for U) may not form their own pure phases. As a result, solubility limits predicted using the conventional approach are several orders of magnitude higher then the concentrations of radioelements measured in spent fuel dissolution experiments. This paper presents the author's attempt of using a non-conventional approach to evaluate source term of radionuclide release for Yucca Mountain. Based on the general reactive-transport code AREST-CT, a model for spent fuel dissolution and secondary phase precipitation has been constructed. The model accounts for both equilibrium and kinetic reactions. Its predictions have been compared against laboratory experiments and natural analogues. It is found that without calibrations, the simulated results match laboratory and field observations very well in many aspects. More important is the fact that no contradictions between them have been found. This provides confidence in the predictive power of the model. Based on the concept of Np incorporated into uranyl minerals, the model not only predicts a lower Np source-term than that given by conventional Np solubility models, but also produces results which are consistent with laboratory measurements and observations. Moreover, two hypotheses, whether Np enters tertiary uranyl minerals or not, have been tested by comparing model predictions against laboratory observations, the results favor the former. It is concluded that this non-conventional approach of source term evaluation not only eliminates over-conservatism in conventional solubility approach to some extent, but also gives a realistic representation of the system of interest, which is a prerequisite for truly understanding the long

  3. Reactivity of cerebral blood flow to carbon dioxide in hypertensive patients: evaluation by the transcranial Doppler method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, H; Matsumoto, M; Handa, N; Hougaku, H; Ogawa, S; Itoh, T; Tsukamoto, Y; Kamada, T

    1994-02-01

    To evaluate hypertensive cerebral involvement before cerebrovascular accidents. Cerebral microvascular responses to changes in the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2; the CO2 reactivity) were compared among patients with different stages and severity of hypertensive disease. Fifty-eight patients with hypertension, 11 with borderline hypertension, 15 hypertensives with cerebral infarction and 58 normotensive controls were studied. The cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity was determined by measuring simultaneously the end-tidal pCO2 and the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler sonography under hypocapnic, normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions. CO2 reactivity was impaired in the hypertensive patients compared with in the normotensive controls, but less so than in the symptomatic hemisphere of the hypertensive patients with cerebral infarction. The CO2 reactivity in the borderline hypertensive patients was greater than that in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic hemispheres of the hypertensive patients with cerebral infarction. In the subjects without cerebral infarction, two risk factors for cerebral atherosclerosis (age and hypertension) were negatively correlated with cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity. In the hypertensive patients age and the estimated duration of hypertension were negatively correlated with cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity. CO2 reactivity in the patients with hypertensive or arteriosclerotic retinopathy or ST-T changes on their electrocardiogram was impaired compared with that in the patients without such changes. Hypertension affected the microvascular reactivity of the brain before the development of cerebrovascular accidents, and its effect varied dependently on the extent of involvement of other target organs.

  4. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...

  5. Evaluation of C-reactive protein as an inflammatory biomarker in rabbits for vaccine nonclinical safety studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Destexhe, E.; Prinsen, M.K.; Schöll, I. van; Kuper, C.F.; Garçon, N.; Veenstra, S.; Segal, L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammatory reactions are one of the potential safety concerns that are evaluated in the framework of vaccine safety testing. In nonclinical studies, the assessment of the inflammation relies notably on the measurement of biomarkers. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase plasma

  6. Performance Evaluation of In-Situ Iron Reactive Barriers at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.B.

    2003-12-30

    In November 1997, a permeable iron reactive barrier trench was installed at the S-3 Ponds Pathway 2 Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The overall goal of the project is to evaluate the ability of permeable reactive barrier technology to remove uranium, nitrate, and other inorganic contaminants in groundwater and to assess impacts of biogeochemical interactions on long-term performance of the treatment system. Zero-valent iron (Fe0) was used as the reactive medium, which creates a localized zone of reduction or low oxidation reduction potential (ORP), elevated pH, and dissolved H{sub 2} as Fe{sup 0} corrodes in groundwater. These conditions favor the removal of metals and radionuclides (such as uranium and technetium) through redox-driven precipitation and/or sorption to iron corrosion byproducts, such as iron oxyhydroxides. The technology is anticipated to be economical and low in maintenance as compared with conventional pump-and-treat technology. Groundwater monitoring results indicate that the iron barrier is effectively removing uranium and technetium, the primary contaminants of concern, as anticipated from our previous laboratory studies. In addition to uranium and technetium, nitrate, sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium, and magnesium are also found to be removed, either partially or completely by the iron barrier. Elevated concentrations of ferrous ions and sulfide, and pH were observed within the iron barrier. Although ferrous iron concentrations were initially very high after barrier installation, ferrous ion concentrations have decreased to low to non-detectable levels as the pH within the iron has increased over time (as high as 9 or 10). Iron and soil core samples were taken in February 1999 and May 2000 in order to evaluate the iron surface passivation, morphology, mineral precipitation and cementation, and microbial activity within and in the vicinity of the iron barrier. Results indicate that most of the iron filings collected in cores

  7. Arterial stiffness evaluation by cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertension and diabetes mellitus subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Jinbo; Zhao, Hongwei; Fu, Xiaobao; Shang, Guangyun; Zhou, Yingyan; Yu, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xujing; Wang, Guang; Shi, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for vascular diseases. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of arterial stiffness. In the present study, we investigated the possible risk factors involving CAVI in hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects. One thousand sixty-three subjects (M/F 533/530) from Shougang Corporation Examination Center were divided into four groups: healthy group (n = 639); hypertension group (n = 312); DM group (n = 58); and hypertension with DM group (n = 54). CAVI was measured by VS-1000 apparatus. Our results showed that CAVI was significantly higher in hypertension subjects with DM than in healthy and hypertension group, respectively (8.59 ± 1.08 vs 7.23 ± 1.10; 8.59 ± 1.08 vs 7.94 ± 1.33; both P hypertension subjects with DM compared with healthy and hypertension groups. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vascular Care in Patients With Alzheimer Disease With Cerebrovascular Lesions Slows Progression of White Matter Lesions on MRI The Evaluation of Vascular Care in Alzheimer's Disease (EVA) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, E.; Gouw, A.A.; Scheltens, P.; van Gool, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose:White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in

  9. Vascular Care in Patients With Alzheimer Disease With Cerebrovascular Lesions Slows Progression of White Matter Lesions on MRI The Evaluation of Vascular Care in Alzheimer's Disease (EVA) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A.; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose-White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in

  10. Evaluating resist degradation during reactive ion oxide etching using 193 nm model resist formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Mortini, B.; Sourd, C.; Perret, D.; Chung, D. W.; Barclay, G.; Brochon, C.; Hadziioannou, G.

    2006-03-01

    The weaker etch resistance of 193 nm resists1 is raising questions concerning their usability for the coming nodes as a single layer resist. We have found that 193 nm positive tone resists, that have been designed2 incorporating etch resistant groups like adamantyl or isobornyl 3-7, exhibit chemical modifications concerning these grafted functions while undergoing an oxide etch step. Previously performed experiments have pointed out that the photoacid generator (PAG) that is still contained in the unexposed regions of the sacrificial layer might be a reason for the modifications in the chemical buildup of this resists. Therefore, this work has focused on evaluating the impact of reactive ion oxide etching 8-10 on 193nm materials, for positive and negative tone chemically amplified resists. We used Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transformed Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to check model formulations based on PHS, methacrylate or cyclic olefin polymers with various protecting groups having different activation energies and formulated with or without PAG and in order to understand the impact of the photoactive compound in the resist degradation behavior during plasma etch.

  11. Rapid evaluation of the durability of cortical neural implants using accelerated aging with reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takmakov, Pavel; Ruda, Kiersten; Phillips, K. Scott; Isayeva, Irada S.; Krauthamer, Victor; Welle, Cristin G.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. A challenge for implementing high bandwidth cortical brain-machine interface devices in patients is the limited functional lifespan of implanted recording electrodes. Development of implant technology currently requires extensive non-clinical testing to demonstrate device performance. However, testing the durability of the implants in vivo is time-consuming and expensive. Validated in vitro methodologies may reduce the need for extensive testing in animal models. Approach. Here we describe an in vitro platform for rapid evaluation of implant stability. We designed a reactive accelerated aging (RAA) protocol that employs elevated temperature and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to create a harsh aging environment. Commercially available microelectrode arrays (MEAs) were placed in a solution of hydrogen peroxide at 87 °C for a period of 7 days. We monitored changes to the implants with scanning electron microscopy and broad spectrum electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (1 Hz-1 MHz) and correlated the physical changes with impedance data to identify markers associated with implant failure. Main results. RAA produced a diverse range of effects on the structural integrity and electrochemical properties of electrodes. Temperature and ROS appeared to have different effects on structural elements, with increased temperature causing insulation loss from the electrode microwires, and ROS concentration correlating with tungsten metal dissolution. All array types experienced impedance declines, consistent with published literature showing chronic (>30 days) declines in array impedance in vivo. Impedance change was greatest at frequencies <10 Hz, and smallest at frequencies 1 kHz and above. Though electrode performance is traditionally characterized by impedance at 1 kHz, our results indicate that an impedance change at 1 kHz is not a reliable predictive marker of implant degradation or failure. Significance. ROS, which are known to be present in vivo, can create

  12. Evaluating the Use of Monocytes with a Degradable Polyurethane for Vascular Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Kyle Giovanni

    Monocytes are one of the first cell types present following the implantation of a biomaterial or tissue engineered construct. Depending on the monocyte activation state supported by the biomaterial, monocytes and their derived macrophages (MDMs) can act as positive contributors to tissue regeneration and wound healing, or conversely promote a chronic inflammatory response that leads to fibrous encapsulation and implant rejection. A degradable polar hydrophobic iconic polyurethane (D-PHI) has been shown to reduce pro-inflammatory monocyte/macrophage response compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), a substrate routinely used for in vitro culture of cells, as well as poly(lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA), a standard synthetic biodegradable biomaterial in the tissue engineering field. D-PHI has also shown properties suitable for use in a vascular tissue engineering context. In order to understand the mechanism through which D-PHI attenuates pro-inflammatory monocyte response, this thesis investigated the ability of D-PHI to modulate interactions with adsorbed serum proteins and the properties of D-PHI that were important for this activity. D-PHI was shown to regulate protein adsorption in a manner that produced divergent monocyte responses compared to TCPS and PLGA when coated with the serum proteins alpha2-macroglobulin or immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the case of IgG, D-PHI was shown to reduce pro-inflammatory binding site exposure as a function of the material's polar, hydrophobic, and ionic character. Due to the favourable monocyte activation state supported by D-PHI, and the importance of monocytes/macrophages in regulating the response of tissue-specific cell types in vivo, the ability of a D-PHI-stimulated monocyte/macrophage activation state to contribute to modulating the response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in a vascular tissue engineering context was investigated. D-PHI- stimulated monocytes promoted VSMC growth and migration through biomolecule

  13. Advances in neuroimaging techniques for the evaluation of tumor growth, vascular permeability, and angiogenesis in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Sorensen, A Gregory; Jain, Rakesh K; Batchelor, Tracy T

    2008-12-01

    This review will summarize new neuroimaging techniques, particularly MRI and PET imaging, that can be used to assess brain tumor growth and angiogenesis. Glioma tumor vasculature is abnormal, and advances in MRI now permit visualization of the hemodynamic properties of gliomas including cerebral blood volume and blood flow, vascular permeability, and blood vessel diameter. New radiolabeled PET tracers have allowed more specific interrogation of glioma physiology such as hypoxia assessment or tumor proliferation rate. These two techniques are complementary and will likely yield important information on tumor response to therapy, particularly in the setting of antiangiogenic agents, which confound the interpretation of standard contrast-enhanced MRI scans. These techniques may allow development of patient-specific therapy to improve outcome in patients with gliomas.

  14. Vascular map combined with CT colonography for evaluating candidates for laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor, Nicola; Ceretti, Andrea Pisani; Maroni, Nirvana; Opocher, Enrico; Cornalba, Gianpaolo [Azienda Ospedaliera San Paolo, Milan (Italy); Campari, Alessandro; Ravelli, Anna; Lombardi, Maria Antonietta [University degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomography colonography (CE-CTC) is a useful guide for the laparoscopic surgeon to avoid incorrectly removing the colonic segment and the failure to diagnose of synchronous colonic and extra-colonic lesions. Lymph node dissection and vessel ligation under a laparoscopic approach can be time-consuming and can damage vessels and organs. Moreover, mesenteric vessels have extreme variations in terms of their courses and numbers. We describe the benefit of using an abdominal vascular map created by CE-CTC in laparoscopic colorectal surgery candidates. We describe patients with different diseases (colorectal cancer, diverticular disease, and inflammatory bowel disease) who underwent CE-CTC just prior to laparoscopic surgery.

  15. Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging for the differentiation of inflammatory, neoplastic, and vascular intradural spinal cord diseases in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciarelli, Amanda E; Griffin, John F; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Hecht, Silke; Mankin, Joseph M; Holmes, Shannon P; Platt, Simon R; Kent, Marc; Pancotto, Theresa E; Chen, Annie V; Levine, Jonathan M

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a common test for dogs with suspected intradural spinal cord lesions, however studies on diagnostic performance for this test are lacking. Objectives of this multi-institutional, retrospective, case-control study were to estimate sensitivity and specificity of MRI for (1) distinguishing between histopathologically confirmed intradural spinal cord disease versus degenerative myelopathy in dogs, (2) categorizing intradural spinal cord diseases as neoplastic, inflammatory, or vascular; and (3) determining tumor type within the etiologic category of neoplasia. Additional aims were to (1) determine whether knowledge of clinical data affects sensitivity and specificity of MRI diagnoses; and (2) report interrater agreement for MRI classification of intradural spinal lesions. Cases were recruited from participating hospital databases over a 7-year period. Three reviewers independently evaluated each MRI study prior to and after provision of clinical information. A total of 87 cases were sampled (17 degenerative myelopathy, 53 neoplasia, nine inflammatory, and eight vascular). Magnetic resonance imaging had excellent (>97.6%) sensitivity for diagnosis of intradural spinal cord lesions but specificity varied before and after provision of clinical data (68.6% vs. 82.4%, P = 0.023). Magnetic resonance imaging had good sensitivity (86.8%) and moderate specificity (64.7-72.5%) for diagnosing neoplasia. Sensitivity was lower for classifying inflammatory lesions but improved with provision of clinical data (48.1% vs. 81.5%, P = 0.015). Magnetic resonance imaging was insensitive for diagnosing vascular lesions (25.0%). Interrater agreement was very good for correctly diagnosing dogs with intradural lesions (ĸ = 0.882-0.833), and good (ĸ = 0.726-0.671) for diagnosing dogs with neoplasia. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. Evaluation of objective and perceived mental fatigability in older adults with vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Roiland, Rachel; Heffner, Kathi; Johnson, Melissa; Chen, Ding-Geng Din; Mapstone, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Mental fatigability refers to the failure to sustain participation in tasks requiring mental effort. Older adults with vascular risk are at particular risk for experiencing mental fatigability. The present study (1) tested a new way of measuring objective mental fatigability by examining its association with perceived mental fatigability; and (2) identified associated psychological, physiological, and situational predictors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 49 community-dwelling participants aged 75+ years with vascular risk. A 20-minute fatigability-manipulation task was used to induce mental fatigability and develop objective and perceived mental fatigability measures. Objective fatigability was calculated by the change of reaction time over the course of the task. Perceived fatigability was calculated by the change of fatigue self-reported before and after the task. A set of potential psychological, physiological, and situational predictors were measured. There was a significant increase in reaction time and self-reported fatigue to the fatigability manipulation task, indicating occurrence of objective and perceived mental fatigability. Reaction time and self-reported fatigue were moderately, but significantly correlated. Higher levels of executive control and having a history of more frequently engaging in mental activities were associated with lower objective mental fatigability. None of the examined factors were associated with perceived mental fatigability. Objective and perceived mental fatigability were sensitive to our fatigability-manipulation task. While these two measures were correlated, they were not associated with the same factors. These findings need to be validated in studies with a more heterogeneous sample and a greater variety of fatigability-manipulation tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Prevention of vascular ulcers and diabetic foot. Non-randomized open clinical evaluation on the effectiveness of "Mepentol Leche"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes Sánchez, José; Pardo González, Carmen M; Pardo González, M Belén; Navarro Casado, Félix J; Puentes Sánchez, Román; Méndez González, Juan Miguel; González Rojo, Josefa; Juárez Morales, Antonia; López Fernández, Isabel M

    2006-10-01

    Vascular ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers present a health serious problem which affects a large number of patients, creating a major challenge for health professionals. Hyper-oxygenated fatty acid dressings have proven to be effective thanks to their favorable action on the skin in three ways: increasing the microcirculation of the blood, promoting the renovation of the epidermic cells, and notably increasing cutaneous hydration. Evaluate the effectiveness of Mepentol Leche, an emulsion based on Hyper-oxygenated fatty acids, Aloe barbadensis and Mimosa tenuiflora, used to treat the skin and alleviate symptoms in patients who suffer from vascular ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers. Clinical evaluation carried out between June 2004 and December 2005. 195 patients were studied. The parameters for inclusion in this study were 32.82% for venous pathology 35.90% for skin care, 26.67% due to arterial pathology, and 4.62% for a lymphatic pathology. These patients were evaluated over a one month period and each had a follow-up by means of a data collection file. The guideline to apply this product was twice a day and always over integral skin. The effectiveness of this product has been established based on these epigraphs: symptoms of itching, smarting and pain, and skin conditions: color, dryness, edema, maceration, rashes, and desquamation. Not one patient developed new lesions in healthy skin protected by Mepentol Leche. Symptoms linked to this pathology saw improvements in these percents: itching 96%, smarting 93%, and pain 96%, and skin conditions: color 100%, edema 90%, maceration 96%, rashes 92%, and desquamation 100%. Health professionals' evaluation of this product has been highly favorable in regards to ease of use, tolerance, absorption, and ease of application. This study showed the benefits in applying this product systematically to alleviate the symptoms prior to the appearance of ulcers, thus avoiding skin dryness and reducing itching, smarting, pain and eczema

  18. Reactive Capping Mat Development and Evaluation for Sequestering Contaminants in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    permeability testing also showed that these coarser geotextiles would allow the maximum methane levels produced in a freshwater environment to pass...82  Figure 5.3-30.  Biogas bubble flow/dissipation at Day 0 (left) and Day 12 (right) of the gas permeability test...broadcasting larger amounts of coarsely applied reactive materials to achieve the desired cap thickness. In contrast to thick layers of reactive material

  19. Evaluation of EOC removal processes during artificial recharge through a reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Cristina; Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias

    2018-01-15

    A reactive barrier that consisted of vegetable compost, iron oxide and clay was installed in an infiltration basin to enhance the removal of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) in the recharge water. First-order degradation rates and retardation factors were jointly estimated for 10 compounds using a multilayer reactive transport model, whose flow and conservative transport parameters were previously estimated using hydraulic head values and conservative tracer tests. Reactive transport parameters were automatically calibrated against the concentration of EOCs measured at nine monitoring points. The degradation rate of each compound was estimated for three zones defined according to the redox state, and retardation coefficients were estimated in two zones defined according to the organic matter content. The fastest degradation rates were obtained for the reactive barrier, and the estimated values were similar to or higher than those estimated in column and/or field experiments for most of the compounds (8/10). Estimated retardation coefficients in the reactive barrier were higher than in the rest of the aquifer in most cases (8/10) and higher than those values estimated in previous studies. Based on the results obtained in this study the reactive barrier seems to be able to enhance the removal of EOCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the first national program to bring the power of the patient to vascular research and care. ... Our recent national Vascular Research Summit brought together leaders from 31 institutions to generate collaborative projects for ...

  1. The utility of ultrasound superb microvascular imaging for evaluation of breast tumour vascularity: comparison with colour and power Doppler imaging regarding diagnostic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, A Y; Seo, B K; Woo, O H; Jung, K S; Cho, K R; Park, E K; Cha, S H; Cha, J

    2017-11-06

    To investigate the utility of superb microvascular imaging (SMI) for evaluating the vascularity of breast masses in comparison with colour or power Doppler ultrasound (US) and the effect on diagnostic performance. A total of 191 biopsy-proven masses (99 benign and 92 malignant) in 166 women with greyscale, colour Doppler, power Doppler, and SMI images were enrolled in this retrospective study. Three radiologists analysed the vascular images using a three-factor scoring system to evaluate the number, morphology, and distribution of tumour vessels. They assessed the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System categories for greyscale US alone and combinations of greyscale US and each type of vascular US. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) measured. On SMI, vascular scores were compared between benign and malignant masses and the optimal cut-off value for the overall score was determined. SMI showed higher vascular scores than colour or power Doppler US and malignant masses had higher scores than benign masses (pDoppler US (AUC, 0.815 versus 0.774, 0.789, 0.791; pDoppler US for characterising the vascularity in breast masses and improving diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of early vascular complications after liver transplantation: Usefulness of power Doppler US with a microbubble contrast agent -Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dong Kil; Lim, Hyo Keun; Kim, Seung Hoon; Cho, Jae Min; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Pyeujn, Yong Seon; Joh, Jae Won; Kim, Sung Joo [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) with a microbubble contrast agent in assessing the early vascular complications after liver transplantation (LT). In 15 patients with orthotopic LT (n=12) and living -related donor LT (n=3), PDUS examinations, before and after intravenous injection of a microbubble contrast agent (Levovist, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) were performed one day after the LT. We compared the results of unenhanced PDUS with those of contrast-enhanced PDUS in terms of depicting the complications and conspicuity of the lesions. In three (20%) of 15 patients, flow signal of hepatic artery was not detected on unenhanced PDUS, while contrast PDUS showed flow signals of the hepatic artery in all patients. Both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced PDUS showed portal vein thromboses in two (13%) of 15 patients, but conspicuity of portal vein thromboses was better appreciated on contrast- enhanced PDUS. Compared with unenhanced PDUS, contrast-enhanced PDUS showed better detection of hepatic arterial flow and increased conspicuity od portal vein thromboses on day after LT. Our preliminary data suggest that contrast-enhanced PDUS can be a promising noninvasive technique the early vascular complications after LT.

  3. Cardioankle vascular index evaluations revealed that cotreatment of ARB Antihypertension medication with traditional Chinese medicine improved arterial functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Yan, Hua; Yao, Min J; Ma, Jie; Jia, Jun M; Ruan, Fen X; Yao, Zeng C; Huang, Hua M; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ting; Lv, Hua; Endler, Alexander M

    2013-05-01

    Qian Yang He Ji (QYHJ) is a traditional Chinese medicine composed of Digitalis purpurea, Uncaria gambir, Fructus tribuli terrestris, and Ligustrum lucidum. Here, we explored whether combining an antihypertensive angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) therapy with QYHJ can improve the arterial functionality of hypertensive patients. One hundred and eight hypertensive patients were randomized into 2 groups; 1 group (n = 53) was treated with ARB and the other group (n = 55) was treated with ARB combined with QYHJ. Each of the 2 groups included 3 subgroups (pure hypertension, hypertension with diabetes, and hypertension with coronary heart disease) and was further divided into patients with and without complications. The cardioankle vascular index and intima-media thickness and pulse pressure were the outcome evaluation parameter. Combined QYHJ and ARB treatment reduced the values of cardioankle vascular index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure to significantly lower levels than ARB treatment alone did in hypertension patients after 6 months of treatment. ARB improves hypertension, but a combined QYHJ treatment can additionally ameliorate the arterial functionality not only in solely hypertensive patients but also in hypertensive patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease complications. QYHJ coapplication might be a choice to further improve the arterial functionality during an ARB hypertension treatment.

  4. The vascular collar of the ilium: three-dimensional evaluation of the dominant nutrient foramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Craig A; Black, Sue M

    2013-05-01

    Nutrient arteries are the predominant blood supply to endochondral bones and are particularly important during the early stages of endochondral ossification and the active growth period. These nutrient vessels traverse the periosteal shell of a developing bone to invade the disintegrating cartilage matrix and bring about endochondral bone formation. This results in the formation of a nutrient foramen which is retained as the vascular conduit between the exterior and interior of the bone. This study examined the dominant nutrient foramen of the neonatal ilium using high resolution micro-computed (micro-CT) tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction of micro-CT data consistently demonstrated the presence of a distinctive, yet poorly reported, collar of bone extending into the trabecular cavity beyond the endosteum. This study proposes that this collar of bone may have formed in response to osteogenic signaling from approximated arterial vasculature. Additionally, it is suggested that the formation of this collar may act as a protective mechanism to the dominant nutrient vessel and as a potential biomechanical anchor for surrounding trabeculae, aiding to increase the biomechanical competency around the area of the foramen. The documentation of this osteological structure is important from a clinical perspective to prevent the misinterpretation of fracturing and pathology on plain plate radiographs and clinical computed tomography scans. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of serum haptoglobin and C-reactive protein in dogs with mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planellas, Marta; Bassols, Anna; Siracusa, Carlo; Saco, Yolanda; Giménez, Mercè; Pato, Raquel; Pastor, Josep

    2009-09-01

    In veterinary medicine, there is increasing interest in measuring acute phase proteins as a tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic diseases. Although mammary neoplasms are the most common type of cancer in dogs, acute phase proteins have not been extensively evaluated in dogs with mammary tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum haptoglobin (Hp) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in the dogs with mammary tumors and assess their potential association with malignancy. A retrospective study of dogs with mammary tumors was performed. Serum concentrations of CRP and Hp were determined in healthy control dogs (n=20) and dogs with mammary tumors before surgery (n=41). Mammary tumors were grouped as carcinomas (n=24), fibrosarcoma (n=1), malignant mixed tumors (n=7), benign mixed tumors (n=6), and adenomas (n=3). CRP and Hp concentrations were compared in dogs with different tumor types and were also compared based on tumor size, lymph node infiltration, skin ulceration, fixation to underlying tissue, and time between tumor identification and removal. Hp concentration was significantly (Pdogs with mammary tumors (median 2.03 g/L, range 0.09-2.94 g/L) compared with controls (1.38 g/L, range 0.08-3.00 g/L), but the range of values overlapped considerably. CRP concentration was higher in dogs with carcinomas (4.70 mg/L, range 0.63-128.96 mg/L) vs controls (2.11 mg/L, range 0.25-6.57 mg/L) (P=.0008) and in dogs with ulcerated skin (14.8 mg/L, range 5.7-128.9 mg/L, n=3) compared with those without ulceration (2.4 mg/L, range 0.11-30.3 mg/L, n=38) (P=.048). Serum Hp and CRP do not appear to have value in diagnosing or predicting malignancy of mammary tumors in dogs. Higher CRP concentrations in dogs with mammary carcinoma suggest a role for inflammation in this tumor type.

  6. New Cinchona Oximes Evaluated as Reactivators of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibited by Organophosphorus Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Katalinić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For the last six decades, researchers have been focused on finding efficient reactivators of organophosphorus compound (OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. In this study, we have focused our research on a new oxime scaffold based on the Cinchona structure since it was proven to fit the cholinesterases active site and reversibly inhibit their activity. Three Cinchona oximes (C1, C2, and C3, derivatives of the 9-oxocinchonidine, were synthesized and investigated in reactivation of various OP-inhibited AChE and BChE. As the results showed, the tested oximes were more efficient in the reactivation of BChE and they reactivated enzyme activity to up to 70% with reactivation rates similar to known pyridinium oximes used as antidotes in medical practice today. Furthermore, the oximes showed selectivity towards binding to the BChE active site and the determined enzyme-oxime dissociation constants supported work on the future development of inhibitors in other targeted studies (e.g., in treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Also, we monitored the cytotoxic effect of Cinchona oximes on two cell lines Hep G2 and SH-SY5Y to determine the possible limits for in vivo application. The cytotoxicity results support future studies of these compounds as long as their biological activity is targeted in the lower micromolar range.

  7. Evaluation of cross-reactivity between Holoptelea integrifolia and Parietaria judaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Panzani, R C; Gaur, S N; Ariano, R; Singh, A B

    2005-02-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia and Parietaria judaica belong to the family Urticaceae, but are geographically distantly located. H. integrifolia is an important pollen allergen of India and sensitizes almost 10% of the atopic population in Delhi. P. judaica, on the other hand, is a very dominant pollen allergen of the Mediterranean region, sensitizing almost 80% of the allergic population. Since both these important pollen allergens belong to the family Urticaceae, the objective of the present study was to assess cross-reactivity between these two pollen allergens from different geographical regions. Cross-reactivity between these two pollen allergens was assessed on the basis of skin prick tests and ELISA, ELISA inhibition and immunoblot inhibition studies. Out of 44 atopic Indian patients skin prick tested with H. integrifolia extract, 34% were found to be sensitized. All the patients sensitized to H. integrifolia also showed varying degrees of skin positivity to P. judaica pollen extract. ELISA and ELISA inhibition studies suggested strong cross-reactivity between H. integrifolia and P. judaica pollen. Immunoblot inhibition studies revealed that 14-, 16-, 28-, 38-, 42- and 46-kDa proteins are the cross-reactive proteins in H. integrifolia and P. judaica. However, Par j 1, the major allergen of P. judaica, is absent in H. integrifolia pollen. H. integrifolia and P. judaica pollens share cross-reactive as well as unique epitopes. The major allergen of P. judaica, Par j 1, seems to be absent in H. integrifolia pollen allergen. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Performance evaluation of two Aspergillus spp. for the decolourization of reactive dyes by bioaccumulation and biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Megha; Gola, Deepak; Panja, Rupobrata; Malik, Anushree; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2017-10-16

    A biological method was adopted to decolourize textile dyes, which is an economic and eco-friendly technology for textile wastewater remediation. Two fungal strains, i.e. Aspergillus lentulus and Aspergillus fumigatus, were used to study the removal of low to high concentrations (25 to 2000 mg L-1) of reactive remazol red, reactive blue and reactive yellow dyes by biosorption and bioaccumulation. The biosorption was successful only at the lower concentrations. A. lentulus was capable of removing 67-85% of reactive dyes during bioaccumulation mode of treatment at 500 mg L-1 dye concentration with an increased biomass uptake capacity. To cope up with the high dye concentration of 2000 mg L-1, a novel combined approach was successful in case of A. lentulus, where almost 76% removal of reactive remazol red dye was observed during bioaccumulation followed by biosorption. The scanning electron microscopy also showed the accumulation of dye on the surface of fungal mycelium. The results signify the application of such robust fungal strains for the removal of high concentration of dyes in the textile wastewaters.

  9. OP001. A longitudinal study of maternal vascular reactivity, circulating endothelial progenitor cells and inflammatory response during the second half of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Flo; Anne, Husebekk; Åse, Vårtun; Egil, Blix Støre; Tom, Wilsgaard; Ganesh, Acharya

    2013-04-01

    Maternal endothelial dysfunction and inflammation are associated with hypertensive pregnancy disorders. To investigate maternal endothelial function in normal pregnancy using two different methods and explore their association with markers of inflammatory response. 53 women with uncomplicated pregnancies were examined at four-weekly intervals during 22-40weeks gestation. Maternal endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of brachial artery. FMD was defined as the increase of brachial artery diameter in percent during reactive hyperemia compared to the resting diameter. Circulating EPC were defined as CD45low/CD34+/VEGFR2+ and quantified by flow cytometry. Concentration of the two markers of inflammatory response, i.e. leptin (immunoassay) and highly sensitive CRP (mCRP) (immunoturbidimetric method) were measured in the plasma samples. FMD decreased from 16.3% to 13.4% and concentration of EPC increased from 6.5 to 12.3 per million mononuclear cells during 22-40 weeks. Leptin increased from 18 to 22ng/L and mCRP did not change significantly (p=0.61). Significant associations were observed between FMD and mCRP (p=0.0016), and between FMD and leptin (p=0.0029). There was no significant association between EPC and FMD or between EPC and mCRP. FMD decreases, whereas the concentration of circulating EPC increases with advancing gestation during the second half of pregnancy. However, FMD was associated with biomarkers of inflammation but not with EPC. This suggests that the reduced NO-dependent vasodilatation observed in the third trimester of normal pregnancy is related to maternal inflammatory response. Mechanisms other than effective mobilization of EPC to repair endothelial damage are likely to be responsible for gestational age-associated increase in circulating EPC during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Decreased C-reactive protein induces abnormal vascular structure in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Jun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Chronic liver disease leads to liver fibrosis, and although the liver does have a certain regenerative capacity, this disease is associated with dysfunction of the liver vessels. C-reactive protein (CRP is produced in the liver and circulated from there for metabolism. CRP was recently shown to inhibit angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CRP levels on angiogenesis in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation (BDL. Methods The diameter of the hepatic vein was analyzed in rat liver tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. The expression levels of angiogenic factors, albumin, and CRP were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A tube formation assay was performed to confirm the effect of CRP on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs treated with lithocholic acid (LCA and siRNA-CRP. Results The diameter of the hepatic portal vein increased significantly with the progression of cirrhosis. The expression levels of angiogenic factors were increased in the cirrhotic liver. In contrast, the expression levels of albumin and CRP were significantly lower in the liver tissue obtained from the BDL rat model than in the normal liver. The CRP level was correlated with the expression of albumin in hepatocytes treated with LCA and siRNA-CRP. Tube formation was significantly decreased in HUVECs when they were treated with LCA or a combination of LCA and siRNA-CRP. Conclusion CRP seems to be involved in the abnormal formation of vessels in hepatic disease, and so it could be a useful diagnostic marker for hepatic disease.

  11. Evaluation of endometrial and subendometrial vascularization and endometrial volume by 3-D power Doppler ultrasound and its relationship with age and pregnancy in intrauterine insemination cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, V; Sanfrutos, L; Pérez-Medina, T; Álvarez, P; Zapardiel, I; Bueno, B; Godoy-Tundidor, S; Bajo-Arenas, J M

    2011-01-01

    To measure endometrial volume and endometrial-subendometrial vascularization by 3-D power Doppler ultrasound in patients undergoing cycles of artificial insemination with ovarian stimulation, to evaluate their relationship with patients' age and pregnancy development. We included patients with primary and secondary infertility of one year of evolution. We measured vascular indexes and endometrial volume by 3-D power Doppler ultrasound. Seventy-nine consecutive cycles were studied. Endometrial volume average was 4.7 ± 2.66 ml. We did not find any difference between the endometrial volumes in women who did versus did not become pregnant (9 vs. 70 women, respectively). The endometrial vascular index was significantly higher in patients aged between 31 and 33 years old. In patients between the ages of 31 and 33, both the endometrial flow index (FI; p = 0.017) and the endometrial vascular FI (p = 0.013) were higher. At the subendometrial area, the vascular FI was lower in women older than 33 years old (p = 0.024), while the FI was higher in patients that achieved pregnancy (p = 0.047). Endometrial volumes were independent of pregnancy development. Endometrial and subendometrial vascularization FIs were significantly higher in younger women. The subendometrial FI was significantly higher in patients who achieved pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Evaluation of C-reactive protein, Haptoglobin and cardiac troponin 1 levels in brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstructive syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Planellas Marta; Cuenca Rafaela; Tabar Maria-Dolores; Bertolani Coralie; Poncet Cyrill; Closa Josep M; Lorente Juan; Cerón Jose J; Pastor Josep

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Brachycephalic dogs have unique upper respiratory anatomy with abnormal breathing patterns similar to those in humans with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anatomical components, clinical signs and several biomarkers, used to determine systemic inflammation and myocardial damage (C-reactive protein, CRP; Haptoglobin, Hp; cardiac troponin I, cTnI), in dogs with brachycephalic upper airway obstructiv...

  13. Evaluation of intra-aortic CT angiography performances for the visualisation of spinal vascular malformations' angioarchitecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarencon, Frederic; Gabrieli, Joseph; Chiras, Jacques [Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Paris VI University, Pierre et Marie Curie University, Paris (France); Di Maria, Federico; Sourour, Nader-Antoine; Shotar, Eimad; Cormier, Evelyne; Fahed, Robert [Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Nouet, Aurelien [Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Paris (France); Cornu, Philippe [Paris VI University, Pierre et Marie Curie University, Paris (France); Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Paris (France)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the performances of the CT-angiography by direct intra-aortic contrast media injection (IA-CTA) for spinal vascular malformations (SVMs)' imaging. Thirteen patients (8 males, 5 females, mean age: 56 y) with suspected SVM underwent IA-CTAs by direct intra-aortic iodinated contrast media injection (5 cc/s; 100 cc) via an arterial femoral or humeral access. Two independent observers evaluated the angioarchitecture of the SVMs and the visualisation of both the Adamkiewicz artery and the anterior spinal artery. Then a consensus was obtained between the 2 reviewers; the results of the IA-CTA were finally compared with those of the full spinal DSA evaluated in consensus. The IA-CTA was feasible in all cases and depicted the SVM in all except one case (92 %). Interrater agreement was good for the location of the SVMs' level. Intermodality (IA-CTA/DSA) agreement was excellent for the level and side of the shunt point, as well as for the SVM subtype evaluation. In 77 % of the cases, the Adamkiewicz artery was satisfactorily seen at the same time on IA-CTA. IA-CTA is a new technique that seems helpful to reach a better understanding of SMVs and may help to tailor more precisely their treatment. (orig.)

  14. Interior Point Method Evaluation for Reactive Power Flow Optimization in the Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lubośny

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper verifies the performance of an interior point method in reactive power flow optimization in the power system. The study was conducted on a 28 node CIGRE system, using the interior point method optimization procedures implemented in Power Factory software.

  15. Evaluation of Molecular Basis of Cross Reactivity between Rye and Bermuda Grass Pollen Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  16. Photocatalytic oxidation of a reactive azo dye and evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the photocatalytic oxidation of a reactive azo dye and determine the improvement in the biodegradability when photocatalytic oxidation was used as a pretreatment step prior to biological treatment. The results obtained from the experiments adding H2O2/TiO2 show that the ...

  17. An Interaction of the Pre- and Post-Weaning Diets Rich in Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fats Alters Plasma Lipids, Hepatic Gene Expression and Aortic Vascular Reactivity in Adult 057Bl/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta Chechi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the effects of diets rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA fed during pre- and post-weaning time periods on the lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity in adult C57Bl/6 mice, in order to assess the impact of maternal nutrition and its interaction with the offspring diet on the metabolism of adult offspring. Methods Female C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet enriched with n-6 PUFA (P or control diet (C for 2-weeks before, during mating, gestation and lactation, while their pups received either P or C for 8-weeks post-weaning. Results A significant interaction between the maternal and post-weaning diets was observed for the offspring body weight, food-, caloric-intake, plasma lipids, hepatic mRNA expression of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, aortic contractile and relaxation responses ( P < 0.05. Conclusion The overall metabolic and physiological outcome in the offspring is dependent upon the interaction between the pre- and post-weaning dietary environments.

  18. In vitro assessment of mouse fetal abdominal aortic vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshall, Lewis J; Dilworth, Mark R; Greenwood, Susan L; Sibley, Colin P; Wareing, Mark

    2014-09-15

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects 3-8% of human pregnancies. Mouse models have provided important etiological data on FGR; they permit the assessment of treatment strategies on the physiological function of both mother and her developing offspring. Our study aimed to 1) develop a method to assess vascular function in fetal mice and 2) as a proof of principle ascertain whether a high dose of sildenafil citrate (SC; Viagra) administered to the pregnant dam affected fetal vascular reactivity. We developed a wire myography methodology for evaluation of fetal vascular function in vitro using the placenta-specific insulin-like growth factor II (Igf2) knockout mouse (P0; a model of FGR). Vascular function was determined in abdominal aortas isolated from P0 and wild-type (WT) fetuses at embryonic day (E) 18.5 of gestation. A subset of dams received SC 0.8 mg/ml via drinking water from E12.5; data were compared with water-only controls. Using wire myography, we found that fetal aortic rings exhibited significant agonist-induced contraction, and endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation. Sex-specific alterations in reactivity were noted in both strains. Maternal treatment with SC significantly attenuated endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation of fetal aortic rings. Mouse fetal abdominal aortas reproducibly respond to vasoactive agents. Study of these vessels in mouse genetic models of pregnancy complications may 1) help to delineate early signs of abnormal vascular reactivity and 2) inform whether treatments given to the mother during pregnancy may impact upon fetal vascular function. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. An Evaluation of Serum Procalcitonin and C-Reactive Protein Levels as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Severe Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi Janos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recommendations have been made, following the multicenter Surviving Sepsis Campaign study, to standardize the definition of severe sepsis with reference to several parameters such as haemodynamic stability, acid-base balance, bilirubin, creatinine, International Normalized Ratio (INR, urine output and pulmonary functional value of the ratio between arterial oxigen partial pressure and inspiratory oxigen concentration. Procalcitonin (PCT is considered to be a gold standard biomarker for the inflammatory response, and recent studies have shown that it may help to discover whether a seriously ill person is developing sepsis. C-reactive protein (CRP is also used as a marker of inflammation in the body, as its blood levels increase if there is any inflammation in the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of severe sepsis.

  20. Evaluation of reactivity monitoring techniques at the Yalina - Booster sub-critical facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becares Palacios, V.

    2014-07-01

    The management of long-lived radioactive wastes produced by nuclear reactors constitutes one of the main challenges of nuclear technology nowadays. A possible option for its management consists in the transmutation of long lived nuclides into shorter lived ones. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Systems (ADS) are one of the technologies in development to achieve this goal. An ADS consists in a subcritical nuclear reactor maintained in a steady state by an external neutron source driven by a particle accelerator. The interest of these systems lays on its capacity to be loaded with fuels having larger contents of minor actinides than conventional critical reactors, and in this way, increasing the transmutation rates of these elements, that are the main responsible of the long-term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. One of the key points that have been identified for the operation of an industrial-scale ADS is the need of continuously monitoring the reactivity of the subcritical system during operation. For this reason, since the 1990s a number of experiments have been conducted in zero-power subcritical assemblies (MUSE, RACE, KUCA, Yalina, GUINEVERE/FREYA) in order to experimentally validate these techniques. In this context, the present thesis is concerned with the validation of reactivity monitoring techniques at the Yalina-Booster subcritical assembly. This assembly belongs to the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research (JIPNR-Sosny) of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Experiments concerning reactivity monitoring have been performed in this facility under the EUROTRANS project of the 6th EU Framework Program in year 2008 under the direction of CIEMAT. Two types of experiments have been carried out: experiments with a pulsed neutron source (PNS) and experiments with a continuous source with short interruptions (beam trips). For the case of the first ones, PNS experiments, two fundamental techniques exist to measure the reactivity, known as the prompt

  1. Further Controversies About Brain Tissue Oxygenation Pressure-Reactivity After Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Donnelly, Joseph; Aries, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    arterial pressure and intracranial pressure. A new ORx index based on brain tissue oxygenation and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) has been proposed that similarly allows for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity. Conflicting results exist concerning its clinical utility. METHODS: Retrospective....... Higher mortality related to average CPP regardless of which index was used to calculate CPPopt. CONCLUSION: In the TBI setting, ORx does not appear to correlate with vascular pressure reactivity as assessed with PRx. Its potential use for individualizing CPP thresholds remains unclear....

  2. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  3. Collagen- and gelatine-based films sealing vascular prostheses: evaluation of the degree of crosslinking for optimal blood impermeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaghiele, M; Piccinno, A; Saponaro, M; Maffezzoli, A; Sannino, A

    2009-10-01

    The stiffness as well as the biodegradation rate of collagen and gelatine products can be modulated by performing a number of crosslinking treatments. In many biomedical applications, an optimal degree of crosslinking seems to exist, depending on the mechanical and/or biosynthesis properties of the host site. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal degree of crosslinking of collagen and gelatine films, to be used as sealants for vascular prostheses. Various crosslinking treatments, including exposure to aldehydes, dehydrothemal treatment, carbodiimide crosslinking and combinations of them, were performed on collagen and gelatine films, and the resulting increases in stiffness, degree of crosslinking and denaturation temperature were evaluated. Analogue crosslinking treatments were also performed on sealed prostheses, which were then tested for blood leakage. The experimental results showed that a good blood impermeability of both collagen and gelatine films was obtained for crosslinking density of about 1.2-1.3 x 10(-5) mol/cm(3), which could be yielded by a dehydrothermal crosslinking treatment (DHT). In particular, dehydrothermally treated gelatine-coated prostheses were found to perform better than analogue collagen-coated ones. The presence of glycerol in crosslinked collagen films was found to have plasticizing effects, which are likely to facilitate blood impermeability, and to increase the thermal stability of collagen.

  4. Evaluation of the perceptions and cosmetic satisfaction of breast cancer patients undergoing totally implantable vascular access device (TIVAD) placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberale, Gabriel; El Houkayem, Michel; Viste, Claire; Bouazza, Fikri; Moreau, Michel; El Nakadi, Issam; Veys, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Totally implantable vascular access devices (TIVADs) are widely used to administer chemotherapy to cancer patients. While great progress has been made with respect to breast surgical reconstruction to take into account both aesthetics and patients' perceptions of body integrity, these aspects have not been considered with regard to the impact of TIVAD. In order to address this practice gap, we have adapted our TIVAD implantation technique to improve cosmetic results. The aim of this study was to assess breast cancer patients' comfort level and aesthetic satisfaction with regard to TIVAD insertion. Patients with breast cancer admitted for chemotherapy at an outpatient clinic completed a previously validated survey evaluating three main domains: symptoms (pain, discomfort) related to the TIVAD itself in daily activity, information received before and during the surgical procedure, and cosmetic aspects regarding the port insertion site (scar, port, and catheter location). Between September 2010 and June 2011, 232 patients were evaluated. Cosmetic satisfaction with scar location was high (93.3 %). Information given to patients before and during the procedure had a major impact on both symptom perception in daily activity and on cosmetic satisfaction. Obtaining a more aesthetic scar by placing the TIVAD in the deltopectoral groove contributed to a high rate of cosmetic satisfaction. Furthermore, the relevance of information given to patients before and/or during surgery had a major impact on symptom perception. Therefore, we suggest including a pre-operative information session in the care pathway.

  5. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies.

  6. Digital Image Analysis for Morphometric Evaluation of Tissue Response after Implanting Alloplastic Vascular Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Roland; Hoene, Andreas; Walschus, Uwe; Jarchow, Raymond; Ueberrueck, Torsten; Patrzyk, Maciej; Schlosser, Michael; Wilhelm, Lutz

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of digital image analysis, using the KS400 software system, for the morphometric evaluation of the tissue response after prosthesis implantation in an animal model. Twenty-four female pigs aged 10 weeks were implanted with infrarenal Dacron® prostheses for 14, 21, 28, and 116 days. Following the explantation and investigation of the neointima region, the expression of beta-1-integrin, the proliferation rate by means of Ki-67 positive cells, and the intima thickness were evaluated as exemplary parameters of the tissue response after implantation. Frozen tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained and subsequently examined using computer-aided image analysis. A maximum expression of 32.9% was observed for beta-1-integrin 14 days after implantation, gradually declining over time to 9.8% after 116 days. The proliferation rate was found to be 19% on day 14, increasing to 39% on day 21 with a subsequent gradual decline to 5% after 116 days. The intima thickness increased from 189.9 [mu]m on day 14 to 1228.0 [mu]m on day 116. In conclusion, digital image analysis was found to be an efficient and reproducible method for the morphometric evaluation of a peri-prosthetic tissue response.

  7. Comparison of atherosclerotic indicators between cardio ankle vascular index and brachial ankle pulse wave velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinaka, Shigeo; Yabe, Akihisa; Yagi, Hiroshi; Ishimura, Kimihiko; Hara, Hitoshi; Iemua, Tomoyuki; Matsuoka, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Aortic pulse wave velocity has been used for evaluating atherosclerosis. Recently, the development of the volume plethysmographic method has made it possible to easily measure the index of the pulse wave velocity. The brachial ankle pulse wave velocity and cardio ankle vascular index are used for estimating the extent of atherosclerosis. The diagnostic usefulness of these indexes in predicting coronary artery disease was examined. The brachial ankle pulse wave velocity, the cardio ankle vascular index, and the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in 696 patients who had chest pain and underwent coronary angiography. Measurement values of brachial ankle pulse wave velocity were compared with those of cardio ankle vascular index in terms of the baseline covariates and the number of major coronary vessels involved (vessel disease). The brachial ankle pulse wave velocity was significantly correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure but not with the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The cardio ankle vascular index was correlated only with age and the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The average of both brachial ankle pulse wave velocity and cardio ankle vascular index values was greater in 3 vessel disease group than in 0 vessel disease group. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery disease was significantly higher in the cardio ankle vascular index than in the brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (area under the curve +/- standard error: 0.691 +/- 0.025 vs. 0.584 +/- 0.026; P cardio ankle vascular index are useful and that cardio ankle vascular index may have some advantages in its application to patients taking blood pressure-lowering medication because of the minimum effect of blood pressure on its measurement values. The cardio ankle vascular index has increased performance over brachial ankle pulse wave velocity in predicting the coronary artery disease.

  8. A synergistic approach to the design, fabrication and evaluation of 3D printed micro and nano featured scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Benjamin; Bulusu, Kartik; Plesniak, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-02-01

    3D bioprinting has begun to show great promise in advancing the development of functional tissue/organ replacements. However, to realize the true potential of 3D bioprinted tissues for clinical use requires the fabrication of an interconnected and effective vascular network. Solving this challenge is critical, as human tissue relies on an adequate network of blood vessels to transport oxygen, nutrients, other chemicals, biological factors and waste, in and out of the tissue. Here, we have successfully designed and printed a series of novel 3D bone scaffolds with both bone formation supporting structures and highly interconnected 3D microvascular mimicking channels, for efficient and enhanced osteogenic bone regeneration as well as vascular cell growth. Using a chemical functionalization process, we have conjugated our samples with nano hydroxyapatite (nHA), for the creation of novel micro and nano featured devices for vascularized bone growth. We evaluated our scaffolds with mechanical testing, hydrodynamic measurements and in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion (4 h), proliferation (1, 3 and 5 d) and osteogenic differentiation (1, 2 and 3 weeks). These tests confirmed bone-like physical properties and vascular-like flow profiles, as well as demonstrated enhanced hMSC adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Additional in vitro experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells also demonstrated improved vascular cell growth, migration and organization on micro-nano featured scaffolds.

  9. A synergistic approach to the design, fabrication and evaluation of 3D printed micro and nano featured scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Benjamin; Bulusu, Kartik; Plesniak, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-02-12

    3D bioprinting has begun to show great promise in advancing the development of functional tissue/organ replacements. However, to realize the true potential of 3D bioprinted tissues for clinical use requires the fabrication of an interconnected and effective vascular network. Solving this challenge is critical, as human tissue relies on an adequate network of blood vessels to transport oxygen, nutrients, other chemicals, biological factors and waste, in and out of the tissue. Here, we have successfully designed and printed a series of novel 3D bone scaffolds with both bone formation supporting structures and highly interconnected 3D microvascular mimicking channels, for efficient and enhanced osteogenic bone regeneration as well as vascular cell growth. Using a chemical functionalization process, we have conjugated our samples with nano hydroxyapatite (nHA), for the creation of novel micro and nano featured devices for vascularized bone growth. We evaluated our scaffolds with mechanical testing, hydrodynamic measurements and in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion (4 h), proliferation (1, 3 and 5 d) and osteogenic differentiation (1, 2 and 3 weeks). These tests confirmed bone-like physical properties and vascular-like flow profiles, as well as demonstrated enhanced hMSC adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Additional in vitro experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells also demonstrated improved vascular cell growth, migration and organization on micro-nano featured scaffolds.

  10. [Vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, H.F. de; Gijn, J. van

    2004-01-01

    Vascular dementia is one of the most frequently occurring dementia syndromes. Its prevalence is about 5% among subjects above 85 years of age. Elevated blood pressure and atherosclerosis are the most important risk factors. According to international criteria, vascular dementia usually occurs within

  11. Health improvement and prevention study (HIPS - evaluation of an intervention to prevent vascular disease in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Gawaine

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Improvement and Prevention Study (HIPS study aims to evaluate the capacity of general practice to identify patients at high risk for developing vascular disease and to reduce their risk of vascular disease and diabetes through behavioural interventions delivered in general practice and by the local primary care organization. Methods/Design HIPS is a stratified randomized controlled trial involving 30 general practices in NSW, Australia. Practices are randomly allocated to an 'intervention' or 'control' group. General practitioners (GPs and practice nurses (PNs are offered training in lifestyle counselling and motivational interviewing as well as practice visits and patient educational resources. Patients enrolled in the trial present for a health check in which the GP and PN provide brief lifestyle counselling based on the 5As model (ask, assess, advise, assist, and arrange and refer high risk patients to a diet education and physical activity program. The program consists of two individual visits with a dietician or exercise physiologist and four group sessions, after which patients are followed up by the GP or PN. In each practice 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years are invited to participate in the study, with the expectation that 40 will be eligible and willing to participate. Evaluation data collection consists of (1 a practice questionnaire, (2 GP and PN questionnaires to assess preventive care attitudes and practices, (3 patient questionnaire to assess self-reported lifestyle behaviours and readiness to change, (4 physical assessment including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure, (5 a fasting blood test for glucose and lipids, (6 a clinical record audit, and (7 qualitative data collection. All measures are collected at baseline and 12 months except the patient questionnaire which is also collected at 6 months. Study outcomes before and after the

  12. Validación transcultural del cuestionario PEQ (Prostesis Evaluation Questionnaire) para amputados vasculares protetizados

    OpenAIRE

    Benavent Cervera, José Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Actualmente no hay escalas específicas validadas en español para pacientes protetizados. El propósito de este trabajo es validar al español, un instrumento de fácil administración, específico para pacientes de miembro inferior amputados y protetizados, y que mida la calidad de vida relacionada con el uso de la prótesis. OBJETIVO. Obtener una versión culturalmente equivalente del cuestionario PEQ (Prostesis Evaluation Questionnaire) en español para su uso en pacientes amputados protetizados. M...

  13. Estudo da reatividade vascular em portadores de HIV com e sem uso de inibidor de protease Estudio de la reactividad vascular en portadores de VIH con y sin uso de inhibidor de proteasa Study of vascular reactivity in HIV patients whether or not receiving protease inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Nenrod Pereira Teixeira

    2009-10-01

    la función endotelial por la vasodilatación endotelio dependiente e independiente en pacientes VIH positivo y en grupo control. MÉTODOS: El estudio evaluó a 27 pacientes VIH positivo y a 16 del grupo control. La evaluación de la función endotelial se llevó a cabo mediante la vasodilatación de la arteria braquial endotelio dependiente (hiperemia reactiva e independiente (nitroglicerina SL. RESULTADOS: Pacientes VIH positivo en uso de inhibidor de proteasa (IP presentaron vasodilatación endotelio independiente significativamente menor que los subgrupos VIH negativo (p = 0,020 y VIH positivo sin uso de IP (p = 0,034. La variación del diámetro de la arteria braquial durante hiperemia reactiva no presentó significancia estadística en cualquier subgrupo. El análisis de regresión lineal múltiple evidenció que apenas el IP estaba asociado al delta relativo de la reactividad braquial por el vasodilatador, en los pacientes VIH positivo, a los 60 y 90 segundos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los pacientes VIH positivo en uso de IP presentan disfunción endotelio independiente cuando comparados a pacientes VIH positivo que no están en tratamiento con IP y a un grupo control.BACKGROUND: A great number of HIV-infected patients using antiretroviral drugs develop endothelial dysfunction and atherothrombosis, which lead to a high medical and social burden. Thus, it is important to identify pathophysiological mechanisms involved with the endothelial function in these patients, so that early intervention can be made to avoid disease progression. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate endothelial function using endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilation in HIV-positive patients and in a control group. METHODS: A total of 27 HIV-positive patients and 16 controls were evaluated. Endothelium-dependent (reactive hyperemia and independent (SL nitroglycerine vasodilation of the brachial artery was used to evaluate the endothelial function. RESULTS: HIV-positive patients receiving protease inhibitors

  14. Evaluation of intima-media thickness and vascular elasticity of the common carotid artery in patients with isolated systolic hypertension using ultrasound radiofrequency-data technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Hai-Jun; Wang, Yan; Zeng, Min-Xia; Luan, Yan-Yan; Hu, Bing

    2011-07-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) data technology is a newly developed method to evaluate vascular disease, especially subclinical atherosclerotic change. Data regarding predictors of intima-media thickness (IMT) and vascular elasticity of the common carotid artery (CCA) in subjects with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) using ultrasound RF-data technology are scarce. We evaluated the change in IMT and vascular elasticity of the CCA in patients with ISH at an early phase using US RF-data technology. Thirty-nine patients with ISH and 41 age-matched control subjects were the study population. The common carotid arterial systolic diameter (Ds), diastolic diameter (Dd), IMT, carotid distensibility (CD), local pulse wave velocity (PWVβ) and stiffness (β) were compared between the two groups, as were correlations between pulse pressure (PP) and parameters of vascular stiffness. Common carotid arterial Ds, Dd, IMT, PWVβ and β increased whereas CD decreased more significantly in the ISH group than in age-matched controls. The level of PP in the ISH group had significant positive correlations with PWVβ (r = 0·298, Ptechnology could be used to accurately and quantitatively evaluate increased IMT and decreased arterial elasticity of the CCA in patients with ISH compared with normal subjects. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  15. Evaluation of cerebrovascular CO2-reactivity and autoregulation in patients with post-traumatic diffuse brain swelling (diffuse injury III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahuquillo, J; Munar, F; Baguena, M; Poca, M A; Pedraza, S; Rodríguez-Baeza, A

    1998-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the status of autoregulation and CO2-reactivity soon after injury in patients with a post-traumatic diffuse bilateral brain swelling. A prospective study was carried out in 31 consecutively admitted patients with a severe head injury and a Diffuse Brain Injury type III, following the definition stated by the Traumatic Coma Data Bank classification. To evaluate CO2-reactivity, AVDO2 was measured before and after ventilator manipulations. Assuming a constant CMRO2 during the test, changes in 1/AVDO2 reflect changes in CBF. Patients with changes in estimated CBF below or equal to 1% were included in the impaired/abolished CO2-reactivity group. To test autoregulation, hypertension was induced using phenylephrine. Arterial and jugular blood samples were taken to calculate AVDO2 before and after a steady state of MABP was obtained. Cerebrovascular response to CO2 was globally preserved in all but two cases (6.5%). In contrast, autoregulation was globally preserved in 10 (32.3%) and impaired/abolished in 21 cases (67.7%). Our data do not support the premise that increasing cerebral perfusion pressure by inducing arterial hypertension is beneficial in those patients with a diffuse brain swelling in whom autoregulation is impaired or abolished. Clinical implications for treatment are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of reactive power support interactions among PV systems using sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Afshin; Eriksson, Robert; Soeder, Lennart [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Systems

    2012-07-01

    Growing trends in generating power from distributed PhotoVoltaic (PV) systems has accommodated more and more PV systems within load pockets in distribution grid. This high penetration has brought about new challenges such as voltage profile violation, reverse load flow and etc. A few remedies have been imposed by grid codes such as reactive power contribution of PV systems and active power curtailment. This study applies two analytical methods from control science to find the possibility of controllability among the PV systems in a distribution grid for voltage profile control at specific set-points through reactive poser regulation and active power curtailment. For this purpose, the voltage sensitivity matrix is used as the steady-state gain of the multi-variable system. The first method is Relative Gain Array (RGA), in which RGA of the voltage sensitivity matrix is utilized as a quantitative measure to address controllability and the level of voltage control interaction among PV systems. The second method is Condition Number (CN), in which Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the voltage sensitivity matrix is used as a mathematical measure to indicate the voltage control directionality among PV systems. Two radial test distribution grids with different feeder R/X ratio, overhead line and underground cable, which consist of five PV systems, are used to calculate load flow and, in turn, voltage sensitivity matrix. The results demonstrate that decentralized voltage control to specific set-points is basically impossible in the both system. It is also shown that voltage control directionality of the both systems is increased by reactive power regulation compared to active power curtailing. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of macrocirculatory endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasoreactivity in vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abularrage, Christopher J; Sidawy, Anton N; Aidinian, Gilbert; Singh, Niten; Weiswasser, Jonathan M; Arora, Subodh

    2005-09-01

    Macrocirculatory endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilatation is integral to tissue-bed oxygen delivery and homeostasis. Dysfunction of macrocirculatory vasoreactivity is a precursor to atherosclerosis and occurs in a similar fashion in multiple tissue beds long before the onset of symptoms. Impaired macrocirculatory vasodilatation has been shown to occur in certain disease states including diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, chronic renal failure, peripheral arterial atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysms, as well as secondary to smoking, advanced age, menopause, high-fat diet, and sedentary lifestyle. Brachial artery vasoreactivity is a noninvasive means of assessing macrocirculatory vasodilatory capacity that may help identify patients at increased risk for peripheral and cardiovascular disease and allow for objective assessment and monitoring of treatment. Endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity, or flow-mediated dilatation, is measured after brachial artery occlusion with a pneumatic blood pressure cuff, and endothelium-independent vasoreactivity is measured after the administration of sublingual nitroglycerin. The accuracy of brachial artery vasoreactivity is dependent on hematologic variables, as well as diurnal, day-to-day, ultrasound operator, and reader variations; however, the overall coefficient of variation is only 1.8%. We discuss the importance of the macrocirculation, investigative methods for evaluating macrocirculatory vasoreactivity, and review the literature of vasoreactivity in these different states.

  18. Evaluation of Human Semenogelin Membrane Strip Test for Species Cross-reactivity in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, A W; Lanka, S

    2016-09-01

    Semenogelins are proteins originating in the seminal vesicle and are useful markers for the presumptive identification of human semen. Detection of semenogelin can be done with a commercially available membrane test. In this study, a commercially available membrane test for human semenogelin proteins was used to assess for cross-reactivity in dog bodily fluids to allow for the potential utilization for detection of human semen in dog bodily fluids. The authors analyzed canine semen and other bodily fluids, including urine, saliva, vaginal secretions, fecal material, and blood. They also examined the distribution of human semenogelin I transcripts in the canine testis, prostate, and several bodily fluids by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. No cross-reactivity was observed in the canine bodily fluids tested except for a single rectal swab, which was negative on a second test. Further testing should be done to validate the use of this kit for screening samples from dogs suspected to have been victims of sexual abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. A Prospective Evaluation of Lymphedema-Specific Quality-of-Life Outcomes Following Vascularized Lymph Node Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ketan M; Lin, Chia-Yu; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2015-07-01

    Microsurgical techniques for the treatment of lymphedema rapidly increased in popularity. Although surgical success with vascularized lymph node (VLN) transfer has been demonstrated, limited studies have investigated the influence of microsurgical treatments on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) parameters. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate changes in HRQoL following VLN transfer for upper- and lower-extremity lymphedema using a validated instrument. An Institutional Review Board-approved prospective study was performed of patients who underwent VLN transfer for symptomatic upper- or lower-limb lymphedema. A validated lymphedema-specific questionnaire-lymphoedema quality-of-life study-was utilized to assess specific quality-of-life parameters at multiple time points during the 12-month perioperative period. For a comparison with HRQoL metrics, limb circumference measurements were obtained to assess circumference differentiation. Twenty-five patients met the study criteria. Limb circumference analysis revealed significant early improvements following VLN transfer, with continued improvement during the study period (upper-limb lymphedema: 24.4 %; lower-limb lymphedema: 35.2 %). These improvements were mirrored by improvements in all HRQoL domains and overall quality of life (p lymphedema with VLN transfer procedures effectively decrease limb circumference. This improvement is mirrored by improvements in patient-reported outcomes and quality of life. These changes can be observed as soon as 1 month postoperatively, and continued steady improvement can be expected.

  20. Noninvasive continuous versus intermittent arterial pressure monitoring: evaluation of the vascular unloading technique (CNAP device) in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julia Y; Prantner, Julia S; Meidert, Agnes S; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Schmid, Roland M; Saugel, Bernd

    2014-01-29

    Monitoring cardiovascular function in acutely ill patients in the emergency department (ED) is of paramount importance. Arterial pressure (AP) is usually monitored using intermittent oscillometric measurements with an upper arm cuff. The vascular unloading technique (VUT) allows continuous noninvasive AP monitoring. In this study, we compare continuous AP measurements obtained by VUT with intermittent oscillometric AP measurements in ED patients. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether continuous noninvasive AP monitoring allows detection of relevant hypotensive episodes that might be missed with intermittent AP monitoring. In a German university hospital, 130 ED patients who required AP monitoring were analyzed in this prospective method comparison study. Continuous AP monitoring was performed using VUT (CNAP technology; CNSystems Medizintechnik AG, Graz, Austria) over a 2-hour period. The oscillometric AP values were recorded simultaneously every 15 minutes for the comparison of both methods. For statistical evaluation, Bland-Altman plots accounting for repeated AP measurements per individual were used. The mean difference (±standard deviation) between AP measurements obtained by VUT and oscillometric AP measurements was -5 mmHg (±22 mmHg) for systolic AP (SAP), -2 mmHg (±15 mmHg) for diastolic AP (DAP), and -6 mmHg (±16 mmHg) for mean AP (MAP), respectively. In the interval between two oscillometric measurements, the VUT device detected hypotensive episodes (≥4 minutes) defined as either SAP monitoring allows immediate recognition of clinically relevant hypotensive episodes, which are missed or only belatedly recognized with intermittent AP measurement.

  1. Interpersonal motives and social-evaluative threat: Effects of acceptance and status stressors on cardiovascular reactivity and salivary cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Jordan, Kevin D

    2015-02-01

    Social-evaluative threat evokes increases in salivary cortisol and heightened cardiovascular reactivity. However, the types or content of social threats underlying these physiological responses are not clearly delineated in direct comparisons. Based in interpersonal theory, the present study manipulated high and low levels of acceptance threat (i.e., evaluation of likability, potential for inclusion) and status threat (i.e., evaluation of competence, leadership potential) during a modified Trier Social Stress Test, using a sample of 137 undergraduates (73 women). Both acceptance threat and status threat heightened salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to the task. Hence, concerns about social inclusion or connection with others and concerns about social standing or status can contribute independently to physiological stress responses. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Irregular vascular pattern by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and high serum Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein level predict poor outcome after successful radiofrequency ablation in patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Hitomi; Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Yasui, Yutaka; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Shoko; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2016-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is considered the most effective treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients unsuitable for resection. However, poor outcome after RFA has occasionally been reported worldwide. To predict such an outcome, we investigated imaging findings using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid and serum tumor markers before RFA. This study included 176 early-stage HCC patients who had initially achieved successful RFA. Patients were examined using CEUS; their levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin before RFA were measured. Sonazoid provided parenchyma-specific contrast imaging and facilitated tumor vascular architecture imaging through maximum intensity projection (MIP). Kaplan-Meier analysis examined cumulative rates of local tumor progression, intrasubsegmental recurrence, and survival; factors associated with these were determined with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Local tumor progression (n = 15), intrasubsegmental recurrence (n = 46), and death (n = 18) were observed. Irregular pattern in MIP classification and serum AFP-L3 level (>10%) before RFA were identified as independent risk factors for local tumor progression and intrasubsegmental recurrence. These two factors were independently associated with poor survival after RFA (irregular pattern in MIP: hazard ratio, (HR) = 8.26; 95% confidence interval, (CI) = 2.24-30.3; P = 0.002 and AFP-L3 > 10%: HR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.09-7.94; P = 0.033). Irregular MIP pattern by CEUS and high level of serum AFP-L3 were independent risk factors for poor outcome after successful RFA. The Patients with these findings should be considered as special high-risk group in early-stage HCC. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Vascular risk levels affect the predictive value of platelet reactivity for the occurrence of MACE in patients on clopidogrel. Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reny, Jean-Luc; Fontana, Pierre; Hochholzer, Willibald; Neumann, Franz Josef; Ten Berg, Jurriën; Janssen, Paul W; Geisler, Tobias; Gawaz, Meinrad; Marcucci, Rossella; Gori, Anna-Maria; Cuisset, Thomas; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Berdagué, Philippe; Gurbel, Paul A; Yong, Gerald; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Aradi, Dániel; Beigel, Roy; Campo, Gianluca; Combescure, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Prior studies have shown an association between high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (PR) and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). However, large intervention trials on PR-tailored treatments have been neutral. The role and usefulness of PR with regard to levels of cardiovascular risk are unclear. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data on MACE outcomes (acute coronary syndromes (ACS), ischaemic strokes, and vascular deaths) in relation to PR and its interaction with cardiovascular risk levels. PR was determined using ADP-induced light transmission aggregometry with a primary concentration of 20 µM ADP. Thirteen prospective studies totaled 6,478 clopidogrel-treated patients who experienced 421 MACE (6.5 %) during a median follow-up of 12 months. The strength of the association between the risk of MACE and PR increased significantly (p=0.04) with the number of risk factors present (age> 75 years, ACS at inclusion, diabetes, and hypertension). No association was detected in patients with no risk factor (p=0.48). In patients presenting one risk factor, only high-PR was associated with an increased risk of MACE (HR 3.2, p=0.001). In patients presenting ≥ 2 risk factors, the increase of risk started from medium-PR (medium-PR: HR=2.9, p=0.0004; high-PR: HR=3.7, p=0.0003). PR allowed the reclassification of 44 % of the total population to a different risk level for the outcome of MACE, mostly in intermediate or high risk patients. In conclusion, the magnitude of the association between PR and MACE risk is strongly dependent on the level of cardiovascular risk faced by patients on clopidogrel.

  4. Vascular ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Mette S; Larsen, Signe H; Hjortdal, Vibeke E

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular ring is a rare cause of recurrent respiratory infections, dysphagia and stridor. Surgical repair is considered safe but the long-term outcomes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mortality and morbidity following vascular ring surgery in a single...... age of 1.4 years (range 0.008-64 years) were operated for vascular ring. Median follow-up was 6.8 years (range 2.4-34 years). Presenting symptoms were stridor (52%), dysphagia or vomiting (52%) and recurrent respiratory infections (48%). There were no early or late deaths. Three months postoperatively...

  5. Kinetic evaluation of reactivity of bisphenol A derivatives as radical scavengers for methacrylate polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoma, Y; Fujisawa, S

    2000-11-01

    The reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DEST) 2,2'-biphenol (22'BP), 4,4'-biphenol (44'BP) and hydroquinone (HQ) as radical scavengers was examined in 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN)- and benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-induced methyl methacrylate (MMA) polymerization with respect to kinetic considerations. The initial rate of polymerization (IRP) was found to decrease in the order: 44'BP > BPA, DEST > 22'BP > HQ, while the stoichiometric factor (n) of free radicals trapped by phenolic moiety decreased in the order: 44'BP (2.3) > HQ (2.0) > BPA, DEST (1.8) > 22'BP (0.8). It was found that BPA was a more highly efficient inhibitor than HQ and that HQ acts as a retarder at higher concentrations in the BPO system. The high activity of BPA indicated that BPA is probably oxidized by a radical interaction in the dental resin system.

  6. Noninvasive evaluation of the vascular response to transplantation of alginate encapsulated islets using the dorsal skin-fold model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Rahul; Arora, Rajan P.; Alexander, Michael; White, Sean M.; Lamb, Morgan W.; Foster, Clarence E.; Choi, Bernard; Lakey, Jonathan R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Alginate encapsulation reduces the risk of transplant rejection by evading immune-mediated cell injury and rejection; however, poor vascular perfusion results in graft failure. Since existing imaging models are incapable of quantifying the vascular response to biomaterial implants after transplantation, in this study, we demonstrate the use of in vivo laser speckle imaging (LSI) and wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) to monitor the microvascular environment surrounding biomaterial implants. The vascular response to two islet-containing biomaterial encapsulation devices, alginate microcapsules and a high-guluronate alginate sheet, was studied and compared after implantation into the mouse dorsal window chamber (N = 4 per implant group). Images obtained over a 14-day period using LSI and WiFI were analyzed using algorithms to quantify blood flow, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and vascular density. Using our method, we were able to monitor the changes in the peri-implant microvasculature non-invasively without the use of fluorescent dyes. Significant changes in blood flow, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and vascular density were noted as early as the first week post-transplant. The dorsal window chamber model enables comparison of host responses to transplanted biomaterials. Future experiments will study the effect of changes in alginate composition on the vascular and immune responses. PMID:24176195

  7. Vascular anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Jyotsna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of vascular anomalies is an emerging multidisciplinary, super-specialisation field involving several surgical, medical and radiological specialties. Over the years, development in this field has been limited because of complex nomenclature and lack of consensus on the best practice for treatment of some of the more complex vascular anomalies. It was only in 1996 that the International Society of the Study of Vascular Anomalies defined nomenclature for the anomalies and gave clear guidelines on management, allowing for improved clinical practices. As in all fields of clinical medicine, the correct diagnosis of the vascular anomalies is essential to choose the appropriate treatment. This paper gives clear guidelines for diagnosis, understanding of the anomalies and discusses their management.

  8. Compilation and evaluation of gas phase diffusion coefficients of reactive trace gases in the atmosphere: volume 1. Inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Kalberer, M.

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion of gas molecules to the surface is the first step for all gas-surface reactions. Gas phase diffusion can influence and sometimes even limit the overall rates of these reactions; however, there is no database of the gas phase diffusion coefficients of atmospheric reactive trace gases. Here we compile and evaluate, for the first time, the diffusivities (pressure-independent diffusion coefficients) of atmospheric inorganic reactive trace gases reported in the literature. The measured diffusivities are then compared with estimated values using a semi-empirical method developed by Fuller et al. (1966). The diffusivities estimated using Fuller's method are typically found to be in good agreement with the measured values within ±30%, and therefore Fuller's method can be used to estimate the diffusivities of trace gases for which experimental data are not available. The two experimental methods used in the atmospheric chemistry community to measure the gas phase diffusion coefficients are also discussed. A different version of this compilation/evaluation, which will be updated when new data become available, is uploaded online (google.com/site/mingjintang/home/diffusion"target="_blank">https://sites.google.com/site/mingjintang/home/diffusion).

  9. Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak; O V Uspenskaya

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00463-8 Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the e...

  10. Vascular Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Hashemilar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo is a common complaint in neurology and medicine. The most common causes of vertigo are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Meniere’s disease, and vascular disorders. Vertigo of vascular origin is usually limited to migraine, transient ischemic attacks, and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Vascular causes lead to various central or peripheral vestibular syndromes with vertigo. This review provides an overview of epidemiology and clinical syndromes of vascular vertigo. Vertigo is an illusion of movement caused by asymmetrical involvement of the vestibular system by various causes. Migraine is the most frequent vascular disorder that causes vertigo in all age groups. Vertigo may occur in up to 25% of patients with migraine. The lifetime prevalence of migrainous vertigo is almost 1%. Cerebrovascular disorders are estimated to account for 3% to 7% of patients with vertigo. Vestibular paroxysmia has been diagnosed in 1.8% to 4% of cases in various dizziness units. Vasculitic disorders are rare in the general population, but vertigo may be seen in almost up to 50% of patients with different vasculitic syndromes. Conclusions: Migraine, cerebrovascular disorders especially involving the vertebrobasilar territory, cardiocirculatory diseases, neurovascular compression of the eighth nerve, and vasculitis are vascular causes of vertigo syndromes.

  11. Vascular Access Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Vascular Access Procedures A vascular access procedure inserts a flexible, ... the limitations of Vascular Access Procedures? What are Vascular Access Procedures? A vascular access procedure involves the insertion ...

  12. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adequacy Eating & Nutrition for Hemodialysis Vascular Access for Hemodialysis What is a vascular access? A vascular access ... Set Up the Vascular Access Well before Starting Hemodialysis Patients should set up a vascular access well ...

  13. What Is Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy What Is Vascular Disease? What Is Vascular Disease? Vascular disease is any abnormal condition of the blood ... Privacy Policy × Your ticket for the: What Is Vascular Disease? Title What Is Vascular Disease? USD Close Print

  14. An improvement of cerebral hemodynamics in a newly developed perfusion area evaluated by intra-arterial SPECT following vascular reconstructive surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nochide, Ichiro [Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and vascular reserve ({Delta}CBF) responding to acetazolamide loading by {sup 133}Xe SPECT. In combination, this study assessed the newly developed region of cerebral perfusion via bypass arteries after surgical vascular reconstruction in 11 hemispheres of 11 patients with atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease and adult onset moyamoya disease. In patients with atherosclerotic occlusive disease, the cerebral perfusion from bypass arteries mainly developed in the preoperatively low {Delta}CBF territory. Although rCBF did not significantly alter after vascular reconstruction, preoperatively low {Delta}CBF was significantly improved to the normal range in the promotion of postoperatively newly born perfusion from bypass arteries. In 21 hemispheres of 13 patients with adult onset moyamoya disease, the postoperatively newly born perfusion from bypass arteries was significantly developed in the regions with either preoperative low rCBF or low {Delta}CBF. Although both rCBF and {Delta}CBF were significantly improved after the operation, {Delta}CBF was not restored satisfactorily up to the normal range in contrast to the sufficient increase of rCBF, even where the perfusion from the bypass artery was observed after the reconstructive surgeries. Vascular reconstructive surgeries were beneficial for the improvement of {Delta}CBF in the atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease and rCBF in the adult-onset moyamoya disease, respectively. (author)

  15. Evaluation of a High-Throughput Peptide Reactivity Format Assay for Assessment of the Skin Sensitization Potential of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin Lin; Lam, Ai-Leen; Smith, Maree T; Ghassabian, Sussan

    2016-01-01

    The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate, and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium, and high concentrations) and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme, and non-sensitizers) with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF), cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA), and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA) containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7%) and glass (47.3%) vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further highlight

  16. Development and evaluation of a training module for the clinical introduction of the da Vinci robotic system in visceral and vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, A; Yetimoglu, C L; Nickkholgh, A; Kashfi, A; Kienle, P; Konstantinides, L; Ahmadi, M R; Fonouni, H; Schemmer, P; Friess, H; Gebhard, M M; Büchler, M W; Schmidt, J; Gutt, C N

    2006-09-01

    With the increasing use of the surgical robotic system in the clinical arena, appropriate training programs and assessment systems need to be established for mastery of this new technology. The authors aimed to design and evaluate a clinic-like training program for the clinical introduction of the da Vinci robotic system in visceral and vascular surgery. Four trainees with different surgical levels of experience participated in this study using the da Vinci telemanipulator. Each participant started with an initial evaluation stage composed of standardized visceral and vascular operations (cholecystectomy, gastrotomy, anastomosis of the small intestine, and anastomosis of the aorta) in a porcine model. Then the participants went on to the training stage with the rat model, performing standardized visceral and vascular operations (gastrotomy, anastomosis of the large and small intestines, and anastomosis of the aorta) four times in four rats. The final evaluation stage was again identical to the initial stage. The operative times, the number of complications, and the performance quality of the participants were compared between the two evaluation stages to assess the impact of the training stage on the results. The operative times in the final evaluation stage were considerably shorter than in the initial evaluation stage and, except for cholecystectomies, all the differences reached statistical significance. Also, significantly fewer complications and improved quality for each operation in the final evaluation stage were documented, as compared with their counterparts in the initial evaluation stage. These improvements were recorded at each level of experience. The presented experimental small and large animal model is a standardized and reproducible training method for robotic surgery that allows evaluation of the surgical performance while shortening and optimizing the learning-curve.

  17. Evaluation of blood flow distribution asymmetry and vascular geometry in patients with Fontan circulation using 4-D flow MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Kelly; Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Schnell, Susanne; Barker, Alex J.; Garcia, Julio; Chowdhary, Varun; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Lorenz, Ramona [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rose, Michael [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Robinson, Joshua D. [Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Cardiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Asymmetrical caval to pulmonary blood flow is suspected to cause complications in patients with Fontan circulation. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of 4-D flow MRI for characterizing the relationship between 3-D blood flow distribution and vascular geometry. We hypothesized that both flow distribution and geometry can be calculated with low interobserver variability and will detect a direct relationship between flow distribution and Fontan geometry. Four-dimensional flow MRI was acquired in 10 Fontan patients (age: 16 ± 4 years [mean ± standard deviation], range: 9-21 years). The Fontan connection was isolated by 3-D segmentation to evaluate flow distribution from the inferior vena cava (IVC) and superior vena cava (SVC) to the left and right pulmonary arteries (LPA, RPA) and to characterize geometry (cross-sectional area, caval offset, vessel angle). Flow distribution results indicated SVC flow tended toward the RPA while IVC flow was more evenly distributed (SVC to RPA: 78% ± 28 [9-100], IVC to LPA: 54% ± 28 [4-98]). There was a significant relationship between pulmonary artery cross-sectional area and flow distribution (IVC to RPA: R{sup 2}=0.50, P=0.02; SVC to LPA: R{sup 2}=0.81, P=0.0004). Good agreement was found between observers and for flow distribution when compared to net flow values. Four-dimensional flow MRI was able to detect relationships between flow distribution and vessel geometry. Future studies are warranted to investigate the potential of patient specific hemodynamic analysis to improve diagnostic capability. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of protocol-guided scheduled basal-nutritional-correction insulin over standard care for vascular surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbin, Megan; Dossa, Anar; de Lemos, Jane; Drummond, Isla; Paty, Breay; Taylor, Bobby

    2015-06-01

    Practice guidelines have recommended scheduled basal, nutritional and correction insulin to manage hyperglycemia in the hospital setting. For many decades, however, the primary practice has been sliding scale insulin. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an institution-specific basal-nutritional-correction insulin preprinted order (BNC-PPO). A retrospective, single-centre chart review was conducted on patients admitted to a vascular surgery service to compare inpatient glycemia control before and after implementation of the BNC-PPO. Patients were included if they were aged 19 years or more, admitted between June 2009 and December 2010 (for pre-BNC-PPO) or between April 2011 and August 2012 (for post-BNC-PPO), required insulin before admission for their diabetes mellitus (type 1 or 2) and were prescribed insulin during their admission. For the primary outcome, the mean (±SD) daily blood glucose during hospital stay was 9.83±1.74 mmol/L for the pre-BNC-PPO group and 8.79±1.60 mmol/L for the post-BNC-PPO group (p=0.005). Mean (±SD) severe hyperglycemia episodes per patient per day had decreased in the BNC-PPO group: 1.13±0.73 and 0.80±1.02 for the before and after groups, respectively (p=0.008). Hypoglycemia (blood glucose insulin-dependent diabetes patients. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Noninvasive continuous versus intermittent arterial pressure monitoring: evaluation of the vascular unloading technique (CNAP device) in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring cardiovascular function in acutely ill patients in the emergency department (ED) is of paramount importance. Arterial pressure (AP) is usually monitored using intermittent oscillometric measurements with an upper arm cuff. The vascular unloading technique (VUT) allows continuous noninvasive AP monitoring. In this study, we compare continuous AP measurements obtained by VUT with intermittent oscillometric AP measurements in ED patients. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether continuous noninvasive AP monitoring allows detection of relevant hypotensive episodes that might be missed with intermittent AP monitoring. Methods In a German university hospital, 130 ED patients who required AP monitoring were analyzed in this prospective method comparison study. Continuous AP monitoring was performed using VUT (CNAP technology; CNSystems Medizintechnik AG, Graz, Austria) over a 2-hour period. The oscillometric AP values were recorded simultaneously every 15 minutes for the comparison of both methods. For statistical evaluation, Bland-Altman plots accounting for repeated AP measurements per individual were used. Results The mean difference (±standard deviation) between AP measurements obtained by VUT and oscillometric AP measurements was -5 mmHg (±22 mmHg) for systolic AP (SAP), -2 mmHg (±15 mmHg) for diastolic AP (DAP), and -6 mmHg (±16 mmHg) for mean AP (MAP), respectively. In the interval between two oscillometric measurements, the VUT device detected hypotensive episodes (≥4 minutes) defined as either SAP oscillometric AP measurement. Conclusions VUT using the CNAP system for noninvasive continuous AP measurement shows reasonable agreement with intermittent oscillometric measurements in acutely ill ED patients. Continuous AP monitoring allows immediate recognition of clinically relevant hypotensive episodes, which are missed or only belatedly recognized with intermittent AP measurement. PMID:24472659

  20. Evaluation of the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire-Now factor structures: application of a cue reactivity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kevin M; Coffey, Scott F; Baschnagel, Joseph S; Drobes, David J; Saladin, Michael E

    2009-07-01

    The current study compared the psychometric properties and clinical/research utility of four distinct factor/subscale models of alcohol craving (three factor-derived models, and one rationally derived model) as measured by the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire-Now in social (n=52) and alcohol dependent (n=71) drinkers. All participants completed a self-report measure of alcohol abuse in addition to engaging in a structured interview and cue reactivity protocol. Participants provided self-reported craving, as well as desire to approach or avoid drinking, during a cue exposure task using separate analog scales. Factor/subscale models were compared in terms of internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and ability to predict cue-elicited approach and craving in addition to diagnostic status. All models demonstrated high levels of internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and the ability to predict both cue-elicited craving and alcohol dependence status. Specific strengths and weaknesses of each model are examined and the theoretical, clinical, and research utility of the current findings are discussed.

  1. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins: Evaluation of biological conservation by immune cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Daniela Regina; Souza, Fernanda Nunes; Meissner, Gabriel Otto; Morgon, Adriano Marcelo; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Boia-Ferreira, Mariana; Sade, Youssef Bacila; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Gremski, Waldemiro; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea

    2015-12-15

    Loxosceles spiders are responsible for serious human envenomations worldwide. The collection of symptoms found in victims after accidents is called loxoscelism and is characterized by two clinical conditions: cutaneous loxoscelism and systemic loxocelism. The only specific treatment is serum therapy, in which an antiserum produced with Loxosceles venom is administered to the victims after spider accidents. Our aim was to improve our knowledge, regarding the immunological relationship among toxins from the most epidemiologic important species in Brazil (Loxosceles intermedia, Loxosceles gaucho and Loxosceles laeta). Immunoassays using spider venoms and L. intermedia recombinant toxins were performed and their cross-reactivity assessed. The biological conservation of the main Loxosceles toxins (Phospholipases-D, Astacin-like metalloproteases, Hyaluronidase, ICK-insecticide peptide and TCTP-histamine releasing factor) were investigated. An in silico analysis of the putative epitopes was performed and is discussed on the basis of the experimental results. Our data is an immunological investigation in light of biological conservation throughout the Loxosceles genus. The results bring out new insights on brown spider venom toxins for study, diagnosis and treatment of loxoscelism and putative biotechnological applications concerning immune conserved features in the toxins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. C-reactive protein, marker for evaluation of systemic inflammatory response in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihu, D; Costin, N; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela; Blaga, Ligia Daniela; Pop, Raluca Bogdana

    2008-01-01

    Determination by a high sensitivity technique of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker of inflammation in women with preeclampsia compared to normal pregnancy and investigation of the relationship between CRP and the severity of the preeclamptic syndrome. The study included 40 women with preeclampsia and 40 control subjects with normal pregnancies in the last trimester of pregnancy. The serum CRP concentration was determined using the universal high sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. The serum CRP concentration was significantly higher (p preclampsia (5.69 +/- 1.8 mg/L) compared to normal pregnancy (2.89 +/- 1.2 mg/L). In women with preeclampsia, CRP correlated positively and significantly with diastolic blood pressure, proteinuria and uric acid levels. Maternal CRP values also correlated negatively and significantly with fetal weight at birth. Our results demonstrate that serum CRP is increased in preeclampsia and represents a marker of the severity of the preeclamptic syndrome and of fetal weight at birth. Taking into consideration these observations and the fact that CRP testing is rapid and relatively inexpensive, we recommend the use of this acute phase reagent in clinical practice, in all women with preeclampsia in order to establish the prognosis of the disease.

  3. Reactive nonsexually related acute genital ulcers: review of cases evaluated at Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Julia S; Bruce, Alison J; Wetter, David A; Ferguson, Sara B; Rogers, Roy S

    2010-07-01

    Reactive nonsexually related acute genital ulcers (RNSRAGU) occur in pubertal girls after an acute systemic infection. We sought to characterize RNSRAGU by reviewing the medical records of patients with this disorder. We searched our medical index database from 1997 to 2007 for RNSRAGU cases. Questionnaires were mailed to identified patients. The study included 10 patients; 5 responded to the questionnaire. The mean age at onset was 11.5 years. Vulvar ulcers were preceded by viral gastroenteritis (n = 3), viral upper respiratory tract infection (n = 3), streptococcal pharyngitis (n = 1), influenza (n = 1), and other nonspecific febrile illnesses (n = 2). Seven patients had oral involvement also; 6 had at least one recurrence; and 3 were hospitalized for pain control. Analgesics and topical corticosteroids were the most common treatments. Ulcerations resolved within several weeks in all patients. Retrospective study design, small study size, and 50% questionnaire response rate are limitations. Although rare, RNSRAGU should be considered when genital ulceration follows an acute systemic illness. Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of new tri-methacrylates as a reactive diluent in root canal sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Liao, Lingling; He, Jingwei; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a novel tri-methacrylate oligomer, GPTEMA, with three long-branched chain structures was synthesized through the reaction of glycerol propoxylate triglycidyl ether (GPTE) and methacrylic acid. The structure of GPTEMA was confirmed by FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and element analysis. The GPTEMA was used to partially or completely replace TEGDMA as reactive diluent and applied in a root canal sealant system containing Bis-GMA. The effects of GPTEMA on the polymerization behavior of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA/GPTEMA co-polymer and properties of its polymerizing product were investigated. Polymerization shrinkage, double bond conversion, glass transition temperature, flexural strength, flexural modulus, water sorption and diffusion coefficient of the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA/GPTEMA co-polymer were measured. The results illustrated that the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA/GPTEMA co-polymer attained lower polymerization shrinkage and higher double bond conversion. However, its T g, flexural strength and flexural modulus decreased with increasing content of GPTEMA, water sorption and diffusion coefficient increased with increasing content of GPTEMA.

  5. Evaluation of Novel Antimouse VEGFR2 Antibodies as Potential Antiangiogenic or Vascular Targeting Agents for Tumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Ran

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We generated a panel of eight rat IgG2a monoclonal antibodies with high affinity for mouse VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1, the main receptor that mediates the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. The antibodies (termed RAFL, Rat Anti Flk bound to dividing endothelial cells more strongly than they did to nondividing cells. Most of the RAFL antibodies blocked [125I]VEGF165 binding to VEGFR2. Three of eight antibodies localized to VEGFR2-positive tumor endothelium after intravenous injection into mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231 breast carcinomas, as judged by indirect immunohistochemistry. An average of 60% of vessels in the tumors was stained. The majority (50–80% of vessels were also stained in a variety of other human and murine tumors growing in mice. The antibodies did not bind detectably to the vascular endothelium in normal heart, lung, liver, and brain cortex, whereas the vascular endothelium in kidney glomerulus and pancreatic islets was stained. Treatment of mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231 tumors with RAFL-1 antibody inhibited tumor growth by an average of 48% and reduced vascular density by 65%, compared to tumors in mice treated with control IgG. Vascular damage was not observed in normal organs, including kidneys and pancreas. These studies demonstrate that anti-VEGFR2 antibodies have potential for vascular targeting and imaging of tumors in vivo.

  6. Rationale and design of the AdRem study : Evaluating the effects of blood pressure lowering and intensive glucose control on vascular retinal disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Ronald P.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Cruickshank, J. Kennedy; Hughes, Alun D.; Stanton, Alice; Lu Juming, [No Value; Patel, Anushka; Thom, Simon A. McG.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Lu, J.M.

    The ADVANCE Retinal Measurements (AdRem) Study is a large intervention study evaluating the effects of target driven intensive glucose control and placebo controlled blood pressure lowering on retinal vascular changes. AdRem is a sub-study of the ADVANCE Study (Action in Diabetes and Vascular

  7. Use of an innovative model to evaluate mobility in seniors with lower-limb amputations of vascular origin: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Corriveau Hélène; Moffet Hélène; Demers Émilie; Vincent Claude; Nadeau Sylvie; Mercier Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The mobility of older individuals has often been only partially assessed, without considering all important aspects such as potential (available) versus effective (used) mobilities and the physical and psychosocial factors that modulate them. This study proposes a new model for evaluating mobility that considers all important aspects, applied here to lower-limb amputees with vascular origin. This model integrates the concepts of potential mobility (e.g. balance, speed of m...

  8. High-on-Aspirin Residual Platelet Reactivity Evaluated Using the Multiplate® Point-of-Care Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărginean Alina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of aspirin non-responsiveness using whole blood multiple electrode aggregometry and to investigate the role of different clinical and laboratory variables associated with the lack of response. Methods: The present study included 116 aspirin treated patients presented with acute coronary syndromes or stroke. Response to aspirin was assessed by impedance aggregometry using arachidonic acid as agonist, in a final concentration of 0.5 mM (ASPI test. Results: In our data set 81% (n=94 were responders and 19% (n=22 non-responders showing high-on-aspirin platelet reactivity. Correlation analysis showed that the ward of admittance, low-density lipoproteins (LDL, concomitant antibiotic treatment, beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, history of myocardial infarction as well as PCI performed on Cardiology patients have different degrees of association with aspirin response. Conclusion: Concomitant treatment with beta-adrenergic receptor inhibitors, history of myocardial infarction and Cardiology ward admittance significantly increased the chance of responding to aspirin treatment whereas antibiotic therapy and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol seemed to increase the risk of high-on-aspirin residual platelet reactivity.

  9. Evaluation of a novel thermosensitive heparin-poloxamer hydrogel for improving vascular anastomosis quality and safety in a rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Zheng Zhao

    Full Text Available Despite progress in the design of advanced surgical techniques, stenosis recurs in a large percentage of vascular anastomosis. In this study, a novel heparin-poloxamer (HP hydrogel was designed and its effects for improving the quality and safety of vascular anastomosis were studied. HP copolymer was synthesized and its structure was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-NMR. Hydrogels containing HP were prepared and their important characteristics related to the application in vascular anastomosis including gelation temperature, rheological behaviour and micromorphology were measured. Vascular anastomosis were performed on the right common carotid arteries of rabbits, and the in vivo efficiency and safety of HP hydrogel to achieve vascular anastomosis was verified and compared with Poloxamer 407 hydrogel and the conventional hand-sewn method using Doppler ultrasound, CT angiograms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and histological technique. Our results showed that HP copolymer displayed special gel-sol-gel phase transition behavior with increasing temperature from 5 to 60 °C. HP hydrogel prepared from 18 wt% HP solution had a porous sponge-like structure, with gelation temperature at approximately 38 °C and maximum elastic modulus at 10,000 Pa. In animal studies, imaging and histological examination of rabbit common jugular artery confirmed that HP hydrogel group had similar equivalent patency, flow and burst strength as Poloxamer 407 group. Moreover, HP hydrogel was superior to poloxamer 407 hydrogel and hand-sewn method for restoring the functions and epithelial structure of the broken vessel junctions after operation. By combining the advantages of heparin and poloxamer 407, HP hydrogel holds high promise for improving vascular anastomosis quality and safety.

  10. Implementing clinical process management of vascular wounds in a tertiary facility: impact evaluation of a performance improvement project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avruscio G

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Giampiero Avruscio,1,* Ilaria Tocco-Tussardi,1,2,* Greta Bordignon,3 Vincenzo Vindigni2 1Angiology Unit, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2Clinic of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Neurosciences, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy; 3Clinical Management, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Chronic vascular wounds have a significant economic and social impact on our society calling for allocation of a great deal of attention and resources. Efforts should be oriented toward the achievement of the most effective and efficient clinical management. The Angiology Unit at the University Hospital of Padova, Italy, developed a performance improvement project to enhance the quality of practice for vascular ulcers.Methods: The project consisted in a multistep process comprising a critical revision of the previous clinical process management, staff education, tightening connections between operators and services, and creation of a position for a wound care nurse. The previous standard of practice was modified according to the results of revision and the current evidence-based practice.Results: The new standard of practice reached its full application in September 2015. The number of patients treated and the number of visits in 2015 remained almost unvaried from 2014. However, the total annual expenditure for treating vascular ulcers was reduced by ~60% from the previous year.Conclusion: Standardization of guidelines and practice is effective in creating an efficient clinical management and in reducing the economic burden of vascular ulcers. Keywords: chronic wounds, clinical process management, cost-effectiveness, vascular ulcers

  11. Vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John T; Thomas, Alan

    2015-10-24

    Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the exact nature of the relation between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment, and the paucity of identifiable tractable treatment targets. Although there is an established relation between vascular and degenerative Alzheimer's pathology, the mechanistic link between the two has not yet been identified. This Series paper critiques some of the key areas and controversies, summarises treatment trials so far, and makes suggestions for what progress is needed to advance our understanding of pathogenesis and thus maximise opportunities for the search for new and effective management approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the use of serum C-reactive protein concentration to predict outcome in puppies infected with canine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClure, Vanessa; van Schoor, Mirinda; Thompson, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective-To evaluate associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration with duration of hospitalization and with outcome in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis. Design-Prospective observational study. Animals-79 client-owned puppies with naturally acquired canine parvovirus...... infection. Procedures-All puppies received supportive care. Serum CRP concentration was measured at the time of admission, approximately every 10 to 12 hours for the first 48 hours, and then every 24 hours until discharge from the hospital or death. Associations between outcome and CRP concentration...... at various time points or changes in CRP concentration over time were assessed via multiple logistic regression. Associations of CRP concentration with survival time and duration of hospitalization among survivors were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Use of CRP concentration to predict...

  13. Application of primary cell cultures of laryngeal carcinoma and laser scanning cytometry in the evaluation of tumor reactivity to cisplatinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kupisz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsatisfactory effects of treatment of laryngeal carcinoma patients stimulate the clinicians as well as researchers to develop new more effective treatment models and to find new reliable prognostic factors. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the use of primary cell cultures of the laryngeal carcinoma and laser scanning cytometry (LSC in the assessment of tumor reactivity to cisplatinum. Nineteen primary cultures of laryngeal carcinoma cells established from fragments of laryngeal carcinoma infiltrations were cultured with or without cisplatin, stained with monoclonal antibodies against P53 and BCL-2 proteins and analyzed by LSC. Cisplatin added to the culture medium leads to the significant increase of P53 expression and decrease of BCL-2 expression. Moreover, changes of P53 and BCL-2 expressions were significantly correlated. Our findings of apoptosis regulatory mechanisms could be useful in patient qualification for the chemotherapeutic follow-up treatment.

  14. Evaluation of Front Morphological Development of Reactive Solute Transport Using Behavior Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Sheng Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While flowing through porous medium, ground water flow dissolves minerals thereby in creasing medium porosity and ultimately permeability. Reactive fluid flows preferentially into highly permeable zones, which are therefore dissolved most rapidly, producing a further preferential permeability enhancement. Accordingly, slight non-uniformities present in porous medium can be amplified and lead to fingering reaction fronts. The objective of this study is to investigate dissolution-induced porosity changes on reaction front morphology in homogeneous porous medium with two non-uniformities. Four controlling parameters, including up stream pressure gradient, reaction rate constant, non-uniformities spacing and non-uniformity strength ratio are comprehensively considered. By using a modified version of the numerical code, NSPCRT, to conduct a series of numerical simulations, front behavior diagrams are constructed to illustrate the morphologies of reaction fronts under various combinations of these four factors. Simulation results indicate that the two non-uniformities are inhibited into a planar front under low up stream pressure gradient, merge into a single-fingering front under inter mediate up stream pressure gradient, or grow into a double-fingers front under high up stream pressure gradient. More over, the two non-uniformities tend to develop intoadouble-fingering front as the non-uniformity strength ratio in creases from 0.2 to 1.0, and merge into a single-fingering front while the non-uniformity strength ratio in creases from 1.0 to 1.8. When the reaction rate constant is small, the two non-uniformities merge into a single front. Reaction rate constant significantly affects front advancing velocity. The front advancing velocity decreases with the reaction rate constant. Based on these results, front behavior diagrams which de fine the morphologies of the reaction fronts for these four parameters are constructed. Moreover, non

  15. Vascular function in health, hypertension, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann, Lasse; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    muscle, which can affect muscle function. Central aspects in the vascular impairments are alterations in the formation of prostacyclin, the bioavailability of NO and an increased formation of vasoconstrictors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regular physical activity effectively improves vascular...... to the formation of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. In essential hypertension and type II diabetes, the endothelial function and regulation of vascular tone is impaired with consequent increases in peripheral vascular resistance and inadequate regulation of oxygen supply to the skeletal...

  16. Evaluation of femoral head vascularization in slipped capital femoral epiphysis before and after cannulated screw fixation with use of contrast-enhanced MRI: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staatz, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Honnef, D.; Hohl, C.; Schmidt, T.; Guenther, R.W. [University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Kochs, A.; Roehrig, H. [University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    In this study we used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the vascularization of the femoral head in children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) before and after cannulated screw fixation. Eleven consecutive children with SCFE, seven boys and four girls, aged 10-15 years were included in the study. There were no preslips; four children had acute, three acute-on-chronic, and four chronic SCFE. The MRI examinations were performed in a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner with use of a coronal STIR sequence, a coronal contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo sequence, and a sagittal three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence. Morphology, signal intensities, and contrast-enhancement of the femoral head were assessed by two radiologists in consensus. Morphologic distortion of the physis, bone marrow edema within the metaphysis and epiphysis, and joint effusion were the preoperative MRI findings of SCFE in each child. In nine children, the vascularization of the femoral head before and after surgery was normal. In one child, a preoperative avascular zone in the superolateral aspect of the epiphysis revascularized completely after surgery. One child with severe SCFE developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head after open reduction of the slip. We conclude that MRI allows for accurate evaluation of the femoral head vascularization before and after surgery in children with SCFE. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of hepatic vascular endothelial injury during liver storage by molecular detection and targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Zhang, Shu-Hua; Cheng, Jia; Wang, Hong-Wei; Fei, Xiang; Jiao, Zi-Yu; Tang, Jie; Luo, Yu-Kun

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that lack of the high-energy phosphates during liver storage may potentially cause persistent injury to the vascular endothelium. Biopsies were obtained from livers obtained from beating heart human donors, stored either in the standard storage solution, that is, University of Wisconsin solution (UWS) or Celsior, and examined for various markers related to progressive endothelial injury. The expression of P2Y1 receptor, the major signal transduction machinery for adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate, decreased in hepatic vascular endothelial cells over time. Despite unaltered endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels, serine1177-phosphorylated eNOS, the active form of eNOS, progressively decreased with time. The production of nitric oxide enzyme decreased with time when liver tissues were examined in vitro. This also coincided with decreased interaction of eNOS with actin nucleating proteins like myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate and Rac1, which plays a role in modulating the cytoskeleton and helps position eNOS in a favorable cytosolic position for active enzymatic activity. Conversely, the interaction of eNOS with caveolin1 was significantly increased 6 H after ex vivo storage. Finally, we demonstrated by targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound that membrane-bound vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the hepatic vascular endothelial cell increased after 6 H of ex vivo storage. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence of a progressive hepatic vascular endothelial injury during the ex vivo storage. This may be a causative factor for ischemic cholangiopathy and delayed graft function post liver transplantation. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):51-57, 2015. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. OCT-based deep learning algorithm for the evaluation of treatment indication with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahs, Philipp; Radeck, Viola; Mayer, Christian; Cvetkov, Yordan; Cvetkova, Nadezhda; Helbig, Horst; Märker, David

    2018-01-01

    Intravitreal injections with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) medications have become the standard of care for their respective indications. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of the central retina provide detailed anatomical data and are widely used by clinicians in the decision-making process of anti-VEGF indication. In recent years, significant progress has been made in artificial intelligence and computer vision research. We trained a deep convolutional artificial neural network to predict treatment indication based on central retinal OCT scans without human intervention. A total of 183,402 retinal OCT B-scans acquired between 2008 and 2016 were exported from the institutional image archive of a university hospital. OCT images were cross-referenced with the electronic institutional intravitreal injection records. OCT images with a following intravitreal injection during the first 21 days after image acquisition were assigned into the 'injection' group, while the same amount of random OCT images without intravitreal injections was labeled as 'no injection'. After image preprocessing, OCT images were split in a 9:1 ratio to training and test datasets. We trained a GoogLeNet inception deep convolutional neural network and assessed its performance on the validation dataset. We calculated prediction accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristics. The deep convolutional neural network was successfully trained on the extracted clinical data. The trained neural network classifier reached a prediction accuracy of 95.5% on the images in the validation dataset. For single retinal B-scans in the validation dataset, a sensitivity of 90.1% and a specificity of 96.2% were achieved. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.968 on a per B-scan image basis, and 0.988 by averaging over six B-scans per examination on the validation dataset. Deep artificial neural networks show impressive performance on

  19. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complex and serious condition encompassing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), usually in the lower extremities.1,2. Thromboses can result from venous stasis, vascular injury or hypercoagulability, and those involving the deep veins proximal to the knee are ...

  20. Circulating microparticles from Crohn's disease patients cause endothelial and vascular dysfunctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leonetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microparticles (MPs are small vesicles released during cell activation or apoptosis. They are involved in coagulation, inflammation and vascular dysfunction in several diseases. We characterized circulating MPs from Crohn's Disease (CD patients and evaluated their effects on endothelial function and vascular reactivity after in vivo injection into mice. METHODS: Circulating MPs and their cellular origins were examined by flow cytometry from blood samples from healthy subjects (HS and inactive or active CD patients. MPs were intravenously injected into mice. After 24 hours, endothelial function and vascular reactivity were assessed. RESULTS: Circulating MP levels did not differ between HS and inactive CD patients except for an increase in leukocyte-derived MPs in CD. Active CD patients compared to HS displayed increased total circulating MPs, pro-coagulant MPs and those from platelets, endothelium, erythrocytes, leukocytes, activated leukocytes and activated platelets. A significant correlation was found between total levels of MPs, those from platelets and endothelial cells, and the Harvey-Bradshaw clinical activity index. MPs from CD, but not from HS, impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in mice aorta and flow-induced dilation in mice small mesenteric arteries, MPs from inactive CD patients being more effective than those from active patients. CDMPs induced vascular hypo-reactivity in aorta that was prevented by a nitric oxide (NO-synthase inhibitor, and was associated with a subtle alteration of the balance between NO, reactive oxygen species and the release of COX metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that MPs from CD patients significantly alter endothelial and vascular function and therefore, may play a role in CD pathophysiology, at least by contributing to uncontrolled vascular-dependent intestinal damage.

  1. Vascularized epiphyseal transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Marco; Delcroix, Luca; Romano, G Federico; Capanna, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    In skeletally immature patients, the transfer of vascularized epiphysis along with a variable amount of adjoining diaphysis may provide the potential for growth of such a graft, preventing future limb length discrepancy. This article describes the authors' experience with the vascularized transfer of the proximal fibular epiphysis in the reconstruction of large bone defects including the epiphysis in a series of 27 patients ranging in age from 2 to 11 years. The follow-up, ranging from 2 to 14 years, has been long enough to allow some evaluation of the validity, indications, and limits of this reconstructive option.

  2. Evaluation of a high-throughput peptide reactivity format assay for assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium and high concentrations and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme and non-sensitizers with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF, cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7% and glass (47.3% vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further

  3. Molecular biomarkers of vascular dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Kaczmarek

    Full Text Available Untreated and long-lasting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA may lead to important vascular abnormalities, including endothelial cell (EC dysfunction, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. We observed a correlation between microcirculatory reactivity and endothelium-dependent release of nitric oxide in OSA patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that OSA affects (microvasculature and we aimed to identify vascular gene targets of OSA that could possibly serve as reliable biomarkers of severity of the disease and possibly of vascular risk. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we evaluated gene expression in skin biopsies of OSA patients, mouse aortas from animals exposed to 4-week intermittent hypoxia (IH; rapid oscillations in oxygen desaturation and reoxygenation, and human dermal microvascular (HMVEC and coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC cultured under IH. We demonstrate a significant upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3; A20, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α?? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in skin biopsies obtained from OSA patients with severe nocturnal hypoxemia (nadir saturated oxygen levels [SaO2]<75% compared to mildly hypoxemic OSA patients (SaO2 75%-90% and a significant upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1 expression compared to control subjects. Gene expression profile in aortas of mice exposed to IH demonstrated a significant upregulation of eNOS and VEGF. In an in vitro model of OSA, IH increased expression of A20 and decreased eNOS and HIF-1α expression in HMVEC, while increased A20, VCAM-1 and HIF-1αexpression in HCAEC, indicating that EC in culture originating from distinct vascular beds respond differently to IH stress. We conclude that gene expression profiles in skin of OSA patients may correlate with disease severity and, if validated by further studies, could possibly predict vascular risk in OSA patients.

  4. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...

  5. Prospective study comparing three-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating the renal vascular anatomy in potential living renal donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Aftab A; Chugtai, Aamir; Haslam, Philip; Talbot, David; Rix, David A; Soomro, Naeem A

    2005-11-01

    To prospectively compare the accuracy of multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in evaluating the renal vascular anatomy in potential living renal donors. Thirty-one donors underwent multislice spiral CTA and gadolinium-enhanced MRA. In addition to axial images, multiplanar reconstruction and maximum intensity projections were used to display the renal vascular anatomy. Twenty-four donors had a left laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN), whereas seven had right open donor nephrectomy (ODN); LDN was only considered if the renal vascular anatomy was favourable on the left. CTA and MRA images were analysed by two radiologists independently. The radiological and surgical findings were correlated after the surgery. CTA showed 33 arteries and 32 veins (100% sensitivity) whereas MRA showed 32 arteries and 31 veins (97% sensitivity). CTA detected all five accessory renal arteries whereas MRA only detected one. CTA also identified all three accessory renal veins whereas MRA identified two. CTA had a sensitivity of 97% and 47% for left lumbar and left gonadal veins, whereas MRA had a sensitivity of 74% and 46%, respectively. Multislice spiral CTA with three-dimensional reconstruction was more accurate than MRA for both renal arterial and venous anatomy.

  6. Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and APACHE II score for risk evaluation in patients with severe pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkhorst, F M; Al-Nawas, B; Krummenauer, F; Forycki, Z F; Shah, P M

    2002-02-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide that is found elevated in patients with sepsis and severe infections. In healthy persons PCT serum levels are below 0.1 ng/mL. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serum PCT determination for risk evaluation in patients with pneumonia. We focused on the correlation of PCT with the clinical status of the patient and prognosis of the disease. In a prospective study, in a nonsurgical intensive care unit the following parameters were assessed regularly in 93 patients with documented pneumonia: C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC), body temperature, PCT and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. At the onset of infection 50% of the patients had elevated PCT levels above 2 ng/mL. The model of multivariate analysis of all tested parameters on days 0-5 stratified for clinical outcome (change in clinical classification or death) showed local significance for APACHE II score only. None of the other parameters in this model serves as an isolated indicator for change of clinical status or death. An intra-individual change of body temperature or CRP was never significantly associated with a change in the clinical status of the patient. Change in PCT on admission and at the end of the observation period significantly indicated a clinical change.

  7. Evaluation of Maize Tassel Powder Efficiency in Removal of Reactive Red 198 Dye from Synthetic Textile Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Dehvari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colored compounds which often are toxic and carcinogen is one of the environmental pollutants. These pollutants should be removed prior than discharge to the environment. The aim of this study was the evaluation of maize tassel powder efficiency for the removal of Reactive Red 198 dye from synthetic textile wastewater. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was performed in laboratory scale by using of batch reactors. In this study, the effect of adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye concentration and pH had been evaluated. Maximum adsorption wavelength (λmax and the concentration of dye were determined by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The adsorbent was prepared in laboratory condition and pulverized by standard ASTM sieves with the range of 40-60 mesh. The data were analyzed with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Results: The result showed that increasing of adsorbent dose led to increasing of the adsorption efficiency but adsorption efficiency was decreased with an elevation of pH from 3 to 9 and increasing of dye concentration from 25 to 50 mg/l. With increasing reaction time, adsorption efficiency increased and the most adsorption occurred in first 30 min of reaction. Obtained data were in good concordance with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order equation. Conclusion: Maize tassel powder is a natural and cheap adsorbent that can be used for the removal of contaminants in the environment.

  8. Evaluation of the cross‐reactivity of antigens in Glupearl 19S and other hydrolysed wheat proteins in cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masashi; Yagami, Akiko; Hara, Kazuhiro; Sano‐Nagai, Akiyo; Kobayashi, Tsukane

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background In Japan, over 2000 users of a facial soap containing Glupearl 19S (GP19S), a hydrolysed wheat protein (HWP), developed immediate‐type systemic wheat allergy (HWP‐IWA), and ∼70% of them developed associated contact urticaria. Objectives We investigated whether HWP‐IWA patients cross‐react with other HWPs, and analysed HWP antigenic characteristics. Methods We used 10 types of HWP that are commercially available as cosmetic ingredients, and 16 subjects with HWP‐IWA. We performed an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to evaluate the reactivity to each HWP, and western blotting to evaluate the characteristics of the antigens by using HWP‐IWA patients' serum IgE antibodies. We also performed prick tests with the HWPs. Results The patients reacted to four other HWPs in addition to GP19S, according to ELISA, and this was confirmed by strong reactions in the prick tests to the same four types of HWP. Smears of antigens with molecular weights ranging from the high range to the low range were seen on western blotting with the four HWPs that showed strong reactions in the ELISA and prick tests. Conclusions HWP‐IWA patients cross‐react with other HWPs. The antigens that they cross‐reacted to had a molecular weight distribution similar to that of GP19S present in the HWPs. PMID:27027256

  9. Evaluation of C-reactive protein as an inflammatory biomarker in rabbits for vaccine nonclinical safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destexhe, Eric; Prinsen, Menk K; van Schöll, Inge; Kuper, C Frieke; Garçon, Nathalie; Veenstra, Stéphane; Segal, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory reactions are one of the potential safety concerns that are evaluated in the framework of vaccine safety testing. In nonclinical studies, the assessment of the inflammation relies notably on the measurement of biomarkers. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase plasma protein of hepatic origin that could be used for that purpose in toxicity studies with rabbits. To evaluate the utility of CRP as an additional inflammatory biomarker in adjuvant or vaccine toxicity studies, rabbits were injected on Day 0 with saline, aluminium phosphate, aluminium hydroxide, Adjuvant System (AS)01, AS03, AS15, or diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B vaccine (DTPw-HB). Body weights, haematology parameters, CRP and fibrinogen levels were measured daily up to Day 7. Macroscopic changes at the injection site were also evaluated up to Day 7. At Day 7, a histopathological examination of the injection site was performed. Like fibrinogen, CRP levels rapidly increased after the injection of Adjuvant Systems or DTPw-HB, peaking at Day 1, and returning to baseline in less than a week. The magnitude of the CRP increase was consistently higher than that of fibrinogen with a larger fold increase from background, providing a more sensitive evaluation. The number of circulating heterophils was also increased on Day 1 after the injection of Adjuvant Systems or DTPw-HB. The highest increases in CRP levels were observed after the injection of DTPw-HB or AS03, and were also associated with the persistence of mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates (including heterophils) at the injection sites on Day 7. No increases in CRP levels and in circulating heterophils were observed after injection of the aluminium salt adjuvants. Our study supports the use of CRP as an accurate biomarker of acute inflammation in rabbits for vaccine toxicity studies and highlights an association between increased CRP levels and the recruitment of heterophils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Impaired vascular responses to relaxin in diet-induced overweight female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen, J. van; Koppen, A. van; Pertijs, J.C.L.M.; Gooi, J.H.; Parry, L.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Lotgering, F.K.; Smits, P.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Relaxin mediates renal and mesenteric vascular adaptations to pregnancy by increasing endothelium-dependent vasodilation and compliance and decreasing myogenic reactivity. Diet-induced overweight and obesity are associated with impaired endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling leading to a

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS USING ZERO-VALENT IRON: AN EVALUATION AT TWO SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geochemical and microbiological factors that control long-term performance of subsurface permeable reactive barriers were evaluated at the Elizabeth City, NC and the Denver Federal Center, CO sites. These groundwater treatment systems use zero-valent iron filings to intercept an...

  12. Evaluation of cellobiose dehydrogenase and laccase containing culture fluids of Termitomyces sp. OE147 for degradation of Reactive blue 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishabh Gangwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates culture filtrate, rich in cellobiose dehydrogenase and laccases, of Termitomyces sp. OE 147, in decolouration and degradation of Reactive blue (RB 21. About 35% decolouration was achieved at low volumes of the culture supernatant without addition of external redox mediators. An optimized dye to culture fluid ratio (75 ppm: 0.1 ml at a pH of 4–5 resulted in removal of colour by 60%. The degradation products of RB21 were analysed by Electron Spray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry and several small molecules (of m/z 106–199 were detected. These were concluded to be o-Xylene, 2,3-Dihydro-1H-isoindole, Isoindole-1,3-dione, 2,Benzenesulfonyl-ethanol, (4-Hydroxy-phenyl-sulfamic acid, 2,3-Dihydro-1H-isoindole-5-sulfonic acid and proposed to result from joint action of cellobiose dehydrogenase, laccase, peroxidases and unidentified oxidoreductases present in the culture fluids. Based on the products formed and the known reactions of these enzymes, a degradation pathway was proposed for RB21. The culture fluid was also effective in decolouration (by about 50% and detoxification (by ∼25% of the combined effluent collected from a local mill indicating a treatment process that bypasses use of H2O2 and toxic mediators.

  13. Pollen food allergy syndrome in Turkey: Clinical characteristics and evaluation of its association with skin test reactivity to pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Seςil Kepil; Özgüςlü, Selcan

    2017-09-17

    There is limited data regarding pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS) in Turkey. To investigate the clinical characteristics and possible risk factors of PFAS in Turkey, and to evaluate if there was an association between skin test reactivity to pollens and presence of PFAS. A total of 254 consecutive adult patients with pollen sensitivity were prospectively recruited. Patients were interviewed with a questionnaire including a list of pollen-associated foods. Patients were classified as having PFAS if they reported clear allergic symptoms compatible with PFAS. All participants underwent skin prick tests (SPT) to a panel of common aeroallergens, prick-to-prick tests with culprit fresh foods were performed in patients who gave consent. Self-reported PFAS was observed in 49 patients (19.3%). The most common culprit foods were kiwi, peach, tomato, melon and watermelon. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that potential risk factors for PFAS were having asthma (OR=2.392, P=0.044) and tree pollen sensitization (OR=2.904, P=0.004). There were no significant differences in the SPT wheal sizes to individual pollen extracts between patients with and without PFAS with a positive SPT result for that pollen extract (P> 0.05). PFAS is frequent in pollen sensitized adults in Turkey. The most commonly implicated foods are kiwi, peach,tomato, melon and watermelon, in our geographical region. SPT wheal sizes to pollen extracts seems to be similar in patients with and without PFAS.

  14. Performance of Transuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Final Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope; R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Gilles Youinou

    2011-09-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranics (TRU) in light-water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles are pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell and assembly calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code to assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells and assemblies containing typical UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Then, assembly calculations were performed evaluating the performance of heterogeneous arrangements of TRU-only FCM fuel pins along with UO2 pins.

  15. Evaluation of C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and cardiac troponin 1 levels in brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstructive syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planellas, Marta; Cuenca, Rafaela; Tabar, Maria-Dolores; Bertolani, Coralie; Poncet, Cyrill; Closa, Josep M; Lorente, Juan; Cerón, Jose J; Pastor, Josep

    2012-08-31

    Brachycephalic dogs have unique upper respiratory anatomy with abnormal breathing patterns similar to those in humans with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anatomical components, clinical signs and several biomarkers, used to determine systemic inflammation and myocardial damage (C-reactive protein, CRP; Haptoglobin, Hp; cardiac troponin I, cTnI), in dogs with brachycephalic upper airway obstructive syndrome (BAOS). Fifty brachycephalic dogs were included in the study and the following information was studied: signalment, clinical signs, thoracic radiographs, blood work, ECG, components of BAOS, and CRP, Hp and cTnI levels. A high proportion of dogs with BAOS (88%) had gastrointestinal signs. The prevalence of anatomic components of BAOS was: elongated soft palate (100%), stenotic nares (96%), everted laryngeal saccules (32%) and tracheal hypoplasia (29.1%). Increased serum levels of biomarkers were found in a variable proportion of dogs: 14% (7/50) had values of CRP > 20 mg/L, 22.9% (11/48) had values of Hp > 3 g/L and 47.8% (22/46) had levels of cTnI > 0.05 ng/dl. Dogs with everted laryngeal saccules had more severe respiratory signs (pdogs with BAOS that can be detected by cTnI concentration.

  16. Thoraco-abdominal high-pitch dual-source CT angiography: Experimental evaluation of injection protocols with an anatomical human vascular phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puippe, Gilbert D., E-mail: gilbert.puippe@usz.ch [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Winklehner, Anna [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Hasenclever, Peter; Plass, André [Division of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Frauenfelder, Thomas; Baumueller, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To experimentally evaluate three different contrast injection protocols at thoraco-abdominal high-pitch dual-source computed tomography angiography (CTA), with regard to level and homogeneity of vascular enhancement at different cardiac outputs. Materials and methods: A uniphasic, a biphasic as well as an individually tailored contrast protocol were tested using a human vascular phantom. Each protocol was scanned at 5 different cardiac outputs (3–5 L/min, steps of 0.5 L/min) using an extracorporeal cardiac pump. Vascular enhancement of the thoraco-abdominal aorta was measured every 5 cm. Overall mean enhancement of each protocol and mean enhancement for each cardiac output within each protocol were calculated. Enhancement homogeneity along the z-axis was evaluated for each cardiac output and protocol. Results: Overall mean enhancement was significantly higher in the uniphasic than in the other two protocols (all p < .05), whereas the difference between the biphasic and tailored protocol was not significant (p = .76). Mean enhancement among each of the 5 cardiac outputs within each protocol was significantly different (all p < .05). Only within the tailored protocol mean enhancement differed not significantly at cardiac outputs of 3.5 L/min vs. 5 L/min (484 ± 25 HU vs. 476 ± 19 HU, p = .14) and 4 vs. 5 L/min (443 ± 49 HU vs. 476 ± 19 HU, p = .05). Both, uniphasic and tailored protocol yielded homogenous enhancement at all cardiac outputs, whereas the biphasic protocol failed to achieve homogenous enhancement. Conclusion: This phantom study suggests that diagnostic and homogenous enhancement at thoraco-abdominal high-pitch dual-source CTA is feasible with either a uniphasic or an individually tailored contrast protocol.

  17. Coronary Artery Stent Evaluation Using a Vascular Model at 64-Detector Row CT: Comparison between Prospective and Retrospective ECG-Gated Axial Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Furui, Shigeru; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Miyazawa, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Yasunari; Konno, Kumiko [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kuwahara, Sadatoshi; Mehta, Dhruv [Philips Electronics Japan, Ltd. Medical Systems, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    We wanted to evaluate the performance of prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated axial scans for assessing coronary stents as compared with retrospective ECG-gated helical scans. As for a vascular model of the coronary artery, a tube of approximately 2.5-mm inner diameter was adopted and as for stents, three (Bx-Velocity, Express2, and Micro Driver) different kinds of stents were inserted into the tube. Both patent and stenotic models of coronary artery were made by instillating different attenuation (396 vs. 79 Hounsfield unit [HU]) of contrast medium within the tube in tube model. The models were scanned with two types of scan methods with a simulated ECG of 60 beats per minute and using display field of views (FOVs) of 9 and 18 cm. We evaluated the in-stent stenosis visually, and we measured the attenuation values and the diameter of the patent stent lumen. The visualization of the stent lumen of the vascular models was improved with using the prospective ECG-gated axial scans and a 9-cm FOV. The inner diameters of the vascular models were underestimated with mean measurement errors of -1.10 to -1.36 mm. The measurement errors were smaller with using the prospective ECG-gated axial scans (Bx-Velocity and Express2, p < 0.0001; Micro Driver, p = 0.0004) and a 9-cm FOV (all stents: p < 0.0001), as compared with the other conditions, respectively. The luminal attenuation value was overestimated in each condition. For the luminal attenuation measurement, the use of prospective ECG-gated axial scans provided less measurement error compared with the retrospective ECG-gated helical scans (all stents: p < 0.0001), and the use of a 9-cm FOV tended to decrease the measurement error. The visualization of coronary stents is improved by the use of prospective ECG-gated axial scans and using a small FOV with reduced blooming artifacts and increased spatial resolution.

  18. Phenotypic evaluation of the resistance in F1 carnation populations to vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Carolina Soto-Sedano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phytosanitary problems of the carnation crops in Colombia and in the entire world is vascular wilting produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Currently, an effective treatment against the pathogen does not exist; the search for resistant varieties has been the most successful method for control of this disease. Breeding programs are vital to solving the problem of the carnation fusariosis. The objective of this research was the phenotypic evaluation of carnation F1 populations, products of contrasting crossing, resistant per susceptible to F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, in order to determine if the resistance is inherited in the lines. This information will contribute to the selection of material and to the successful introduction of the resistant characteristic, whose expression is commercially acceptable, to the gene pool. The methodology adopted was a phenotypic evaluation of the response to the parasite in the population (450 individuals and in the parental. This evaluation estimated the area under the curve (AU DPC, using a scale of symptoms reported for carnation vascular wilt. Three different phenotypes were established with this evaluation. The moderately susceptible one is the predominant phenotype and an analysis of phenotypic frequencies was carried out on it. The results show that the individuals of the evaluated F1 population were distributed between two extreme ranges, resistant and susceptible; this shows that there is segregation for the trait resistant to F. oxysporum f.sp dianthi. We did not observe clearly differentiated classes, i.e. with complete absence or presence of the disease, indicating a possible control of the resistance in the evaluated carnation material, governed by more than one gene and with a possible additive genetic action

  19. Evaluation of blood pressure control using a new arterial stiffness parameter, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Kohji; Utino, Junji; Saiki, Atsuhito; Endo, Kei; Ohira, Masahiro; Nagayama, Daiji; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Mao; Takahara, Akira

    2013-02-01

    Arterial stiffness has been known to be a surrogate marker of arteriosclerosis, and also of vascular function. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) had been the most popular index and was known to be a predictor of cardiovascular events. But, it depends on blood pressure at measuring time. To overcome this problem, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is developed. CAVI is derived from stiffness parameter β by Hayashi, and the equation of Bramwell-Hill, and is independent from blood pressure at a measuring time. Then, CAVI might reflect the proper change of arterial wall by antihypertensive agents. CAVI shows high value with aging and in many arteriosclerotic diseases and is also high in persons with main coronary risk factors. Furthermore, CAVI is decreased by an administration of α1 blocker, doxazosin for 2-4 hours, Those results suggested that CAVI reflected the arterial stiffness composed of organic components and of smooth muscle cell contracture. Angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan decreased CAVI much more than that of calcium channel antagonist, amlodipine, even though the rates of decreased blood pressure were almost same. CAVI might differentiate the blood pressure-lowering agents from the point of the effects on proper arterial stiffness. This paper reviewed the principle and rationale of CAVI, and the possibilities of clinical applications, especially in the studies of hypertension.

  20. A comparison between visual and quantitative analysis in a prospective evaluation of labelled sup 111 In leucocyte imaging in vascular infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berridge, D.C.; Frier, M.; Perkins, A.C.; Wastie, M.L.; Hopkinson, B.R.; Makin, G.S. (Nottingham Univ. Hospital (UK))

    1989-07-01

    In a continuing evaluation of {sup 111}In-oxine labelled leucocyte imaging in vascular surgery, we have studied 16 patients with a clinical diagnosis of possible vascular graft infection. We have evaluated both visual and semi-quantitative analysis of the images obtained and have interpreted these in the light of the subsequent clinical outcome. Full length or multifocal uptake was seen in six patients, all of whom eventually required graft excision with two limbs surviving, and one death. These patients had a significantly higher uptake ratio than those with either localized or negative images. Of four patients showing localized uptake only, one required amputation for continuing sepsis. Six patients had negative images, and had normal DSA and CT scans. Uptake ratios could not distinguish between those with localized images and those with negative images. Computer generated vertical profiles aided separation of patients with presumed localized and negative images. Semi-quantitative analysis has proved to be a reliable method which should allow a more direct comparison of the efficacy of various investigative techniques and of the results of therapy, independent of intra-observer subjective bias. (author).

  1. H2O2 generated from mitochondrial electron transport chain in thoracic perivascular adipose tissue is crucial for modulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael M; Filgueira, Fernando P; Tostes, Rita C; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Akamine, Eliana H; Lobato, Nubia S

    2016-09-01

    The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases a variety of factors that affect vascular function. PVAT in the thoracic aorta shares characteristics with the brown adipose tissue, including a large amount of mitochondria. PVAT-derived factors influence both endothelial and smooth muscle function via several signaling mechanisms including the release/generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. Considering the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on vascular function and that mitochondria are an important source of ROS, we hypothesized that mitochondria-derived ROS in the PVAT modulates vascular reactivity. Vascular reactivity to norephinephrine (NE) was evaluated in thoracic aortic rings, with or without endothelium and/or PVAT, from male Wistar rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling, as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) removal, increased the contraction in vessels surrounded by PVAT. PVAT stimulated with NE exhibited increased protein expression, determined by Western blot analysis, of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and decreased protein expression of catalase. Ultimately, NE increased superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation in PVAT via increases in intracellular calcium. These results clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) in PVAT contributes to modulation of aortic muscle contraction by generating higher amounts of O2(-) that is, in turn, dismutated to hydrogen peroxide, which then acts as a pivotal signaling molecule regulating vascular smooth muscle contraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of an innovative model to evaluate mobility in seniors with lower-limb amputations of vascular origin: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corriveau Hélène

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mobility of older individuals has often been only partially assessed, without considering all important aspects such as potential (available versus effective (used mobilities and the physical and psychosocial factors that modulate them. This study proposes a new model for evaluating mobility that considers all important aspects, applied here to lower-limb amputees with vascular origin. This model integrates the concepts of potential mobility (e.g. balance, speed of movement, effective mobility (e.g. life habits, movements in living areas and factors that modulate these two types of mobility (e.g. strength, sensitivity, social support, depression. The main objective was to characterize potential and effective mobility as well as mobility modulators in a small sample of people with lower-limb amputations of vascular origin with different characteristics. The second objective of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of measuring all variables in the model in a residential context. Methods An observational and transversal design was used with a heterogeneous sample of 10 participants with a lower-limb amputation of vascular origin, aged 51 to 83, assessed between eight and 18 months after discharge from an acute care hospital. A questionnaire of participant characteristics and 16 reliable and valid measurements were used. Results The results show that the potential mobility indicators do not accurately predict effective mobility, i.e., participants who perform well on traditional measures done in the laboratory or clinic are not always those who perform well in the real world. The model generated 4 different profiles (categories of participants ranging from reduced to excellent potential mobility and low to excellent effective mobility, and characterized the modulating factors. The evaluations were acceptable in terms of the time taken (three hours and the overall measurements, with a few exceptions, which were

  3. Use of an innovative model to evaluate mobility in seniors with lower-limb amputations of vascular origin: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Demers, Emilie; Moffet, Hélène; Corriveau, Hélène; Nadeau, Sylvie; Mercier, Catherine

    2010-09-20

    The mobility of older individuals has often been only partially assessed, without considering all important aspects such as potential (available) versus effective (used) mobilities and the physical and psychosocial factors that modulate them. This study proposes a new model for evaluating mobility that considers all important aspects, applied here to lower-limb amputees with vascular origin. This model integrates the concepts of potential mobility (e.g. balance, speed of movement), effective mobility (e.g. life habits, movements in living areas) and factors that modulate these two types of mobility (e.g. strength, sensitivity, social support, depression). The main objective was to characterize potential and effective mobility as well as mobility modulators in a small sample of people with lower-limb amputations of vascular origin with different characteristics. The second objective of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of measuring all variables in the model in a residential context. An observational and transversal design was used with a heterogeneous sample of 10 participants with a lower-limb amputation of vascular origin, aged 51 to 83, assessed between eight and 18 months after discharge from an acute care hospital. A questionnaire of participant characteristics and 16 reliable and valid measurements were used. The results show that the potential mobility indicators do not accurately predict effective mobility, i.e., participants who perform well on traditional measures done in the laboratory or clinic are not always those who perform well in the real world. The model generated 4 different profiles (categories) of participants ranging from reduced to excellent potential mobility and low to excellent effective mobility, and characterized the modulating factors. The evaluations were acceptable in terms of the time taken (three hours) and the overall measurements, with a few exceptions, which were modified to optimize the data collected and the

  4. Assessment of Post-Occlusive Reactive Hyperaemia in the Evaluation of Endothelial Function in Patients with Lower Extremity Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carasca Cosmin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to assess endothelial function with photoplethysmography (PPG, by post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH combined with alprostadil challenge test in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD.

  5. Mixture Toxicity of SN2-Reactive Soft Electrophiles: 2—Evaluation of Mixtures Containing Ethyl α-Halogenated Acetates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooneyham, T.; Jeyaratnam, J.; Schultz, T. W.; Pöch, G.

    2011-01-01

    Four ethyl α-halogenated acetates were tested in (1) sham and (2) nonsham combinations and (3) with a nonreactive nonpolar narcotic. Ethyl iodoacetate (EIAC), ethyl bromoacetate (EBAC), ethyl chloroacetate (ECAC), and ethyl fluoroacetate (EFAC), each considered to be an SN2-H-polar soft electrophile, were selected for testing based on their differences in electro(nucleo)philic reactivity and time-dependent toxicity (TDT). Agent reactivity was assessed using the model nucleophile glutathione, with EIAC and EBAC showing rapid reactivity, ECAC being less reactive, and EFAC lacking reactivity at ≤250 mM. The model nonpolar narcotic, 3-methyl-2-butanone (3M2B), was not reactive. Toxicity of the agents alone and in mixture was assessed using the Microtox acute toxicity test at three exposure durations: 15, 30 and 45 min. Two of the agents alone (EIAC and EBAC) had TDT values >100%. In contrast, ECAC (74 to 99%) and EFAC (9 to 12%) had partial TDT, whereas 3M2B completely lacked TDT (halogenated acetonitriles with 3M2B. PMID:21452006

  6. Mixture toxicity of S(N)2-reactive soft electrophiles: 2-evaluation of mixtures containing ethyl α-halogenated acetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D A; Mooneyham, T; Jeyaratnam, J; Schultz, T W; Pöch, G

    2011-11-01

    Four ethyl α-halogenated acetates were tested in (1) sham and (2) nonsham combinations and (3) with a nonreactive nonpolar narcotic. Ethyl iodoacetate (EIAC), ethyl bromoacetate (EBAC), ethyl chloroacetate (ECAC), and ethyl fluoroacetate (EFAC), each considered to be an SN2-H-polar soft electrophile, were selected for testing based on their differences in electro(nucleo)philic reactivity and time-dependent toxicity (TDT). Agent reactivity was assessed using the model nucleophile glutathione, with EIAC and EBAC showing rapid reactivity, ECAC being less reactive, and EFAC lacking reactivity at ≤250 mM. The model nonpolar narcotic, 3-methyl-2-butanone (3M2B), was not reactive. Toxicity of the agents alone and in mixture was assessed using the Microtox acute toxicity test at three exposure durations: 15, 30 and 45 min. Two of the agents alone (EIAC and EBAC) had TDT values >100%. In contrast, ECAC (74 to 99%) and EFAC (9 to 12%) had partial TDT, whereas 3M2B completely lacked TDT (halogenated acetonitriles with 3M2B.

  7. Prospective Evaluation of the Optimal Duration of Bed Rest After Vascular Interventions Using a 3-French Introducer Sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Takeshi, E-mail: t.aramaki@scchr.jp; Moriguchi, Michihisa, E-mail: m.moriguchi@scchr.jp; Bekku, Emima, E-mail: e.bekku@scchr.jp [Shizuoka Cancer Center, Division of Interventional Radiology (Japan); Endo, Masahiro, E-mail: m.endo@scchr.jp; Asakura, Koiku, E-mail: k.asakura@scchr.jp [Shizuoka Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Boku, Narikazu, E-mail: n.boku@marianna-u.ac.jp [Shizuoka Cancer Center, Division of Medical Oncology (Japan); Yoshimura, Kenichi, E-mail: keyoshim@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Kobe University Hospital, Center for Clinical Research (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo assess optimal bed-rest duration after vascular intervention by way of the common femoral artery using 3F introducer sheaths.Materials and MethodsEligibility criteria for this single-center, prospective study included clinically necessary angiography, no coagulopathy or anticoagulant therapy, no hypersensitivity to contrast medium, age >20 years, and written, informed consent. Enrolled patients were assigned to one of three groups (105/group) with the duration of bed rest deceased sequentially. A sheath was inserted by way of the common femoral artery using the Seldinger technique. The first group (level 1) received 3 h of bed rest after the vascular intervention. If no bleeding or hematomas developed, the next group (level 2) received 2.5 h of bed rest. If still no bleeding or hematomas developed, the final group (level 3) received 2 h of bed rest. If any patient had bleeding or hematomas after bed rest, the study was terminated, and the bed rest of the preceding level was considered the optimal duration.ResultsA total of 105 patients were enrolled at level 1 between November 2010 and September 2011. Eight patients were excluded from analysis because cessation of bed rest was delayed. None of the remaining subjects experienced postoperative bleeding; therefore, patient enrollment at level 2 began in September 2011. However, puncture site bleeding occurred in the 52nd patient immediately after cessation of bed rest, necessitating study termination.ConclusionTo prevent bleeding, at least 3 h of postoperative bed rest is recommended for patients undergoing angiography using 3F sheaths.

  8. Endovascular image-guided treatment of in-vivo model aneurysms with asymmetric vascular stents (AVS): evaluation with time-density curve angiographic analysis and histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohatcu, A.; Ionita, C. N.; Paciorek, A.; Bednarek, D. R.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Rudin, S.

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we compare the results obtained from Time-Density Curve (TDC) analysis of angiographic imaging sequences with histological evaluation for a rabbit aneurysm model treated with standard stents and new asymmetric vascular stents (AVS) placed by image-guided endovascular deployment. AVSs are stents having a low-porosity patch region designed to cover the aneurysm neck and occlude blood flow inside. To evaluate the AVSs, rabbits with elastase-induced aneurysm models (n=20) were divided into three groups: the first (n=10) was treated with an AVS, the second (n=5) with a non-patch standard coronary stent, and third was untreated as a control (n=5). We used TDC analysis to measure how much contrast media entered the aneurysm before and after treatment. TDCs track contrast-media-density changes as a function of time over the region of interest in x-ray DSA cine-sequences. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and the explanted specimens were histologically evaluated. The first group showed an average reduction of contrast flow into the aneurysm of 95% after treatment with an AVS with fully developed thrombus at 28 days follow-up. The rabbits treated with standard stents showed an increase in TDC residency time after treatment and partial-thrombogenesis. The untreated control aneurysms displayed no reduction in flow and were still patent at follow-up. The quantitative TDC analysis findings were confirmed by histological evaluation suggesting that the new AVS has great potential as a definitive treatment for cerebro-vascular aneurysms and that angiographic TDC analysis can provide in-vivo verification.

  9. Evaluation of C-reactive protein, Haptoglobin and cardiac troponin 1 levels in brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstructive syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planellas Marta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachycephalic dogs have unique upper respiratory anatomy with abnormal breathing patterns similar to those in humans with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anatomical components, clinical signs and several biomarkers, used to determine systemic inflammation and myocardial damage (C-reactive protein, CRP; Haptoglobin, Hp; cardiac troponin I, cTnI, in dogs with brachycephalic upper airway obstructive syndrome (BAOS. Results Fifty brachycephalic dogs were included in the study and the following information was studied: signalment, clinical signs, thoracic radiographs, blood work, ECG, components of BAOS, and CRP, Hp and cTnI levels. A high proportion of dogs with BAOS (88% had gastrointestinal signs. The prevalence of anatomic components of BAOS was: elongated soft palate (100%, stenotic nares (96%, everted laryngeal saccules (32% and tracheal hypoplasia (29.1%. Increased serum levels of biomarkers were found in a variable proportion of dogs: 14% (7/50 had values of CRP > 20 mg/L, 22.9% (11/48 had values of Hp > 3 g/L and 47.8% (22/46 had levels of cTnI > 0.05 ng/dl. Dogs with everted laryngeal saccules had more severe respiratory signs (p Conclusions According to the low percentage of patients with elevated levels of CRP and Hp, BAOS does not seem to cause an evident systemic inflammatory status. Some degree of myocardial damage may occur in dogs with BAOS that can be detected by cTnI concentration.

  10. Evaluation of correct endogenous reactive oxygen species content for human sperm capacitation and involvement of the NADPH oxidase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Gabriella; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Brunati, AnnaMaria; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana; Clari, Giulio

    2011-12-01

    Generation of controlled amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues (Tyr) are two closely related changes involved in sperm capacitation. This study investigated the effect of altered endogenous ROS production on Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P), acrosome reaction (AR) and cell viability during sperm capacitation. The possible origin of the altered ROS production was also evaluated by apocynin (APO) or oligomycin (Oligo) addition. A total of 63 samples of purified sperm were analysed for ROS production by enhanced chemiluminescence, Tyr-P pattern by immunocytochemistry, and AR and viability by fluorochrome fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin and propidium iodide positivity, respectively. Samples were divided into four categories depending on the ability of sperm to produce ROS, expressed as Relative Luminescence Units (RLU), in capacitating conditions: low ROS production (LRP), range about 0.0-0.05 RLU; normal (NRP), 0.05-0.1 RLU; high (HRP), 0.1-0.4 RLU; very high (VHRP) 0.4-2.0 RLU. In NRP sperm heads, capacitation induced Tyr-P in 87.9 ± 4.3%, and the AR occurred in 62.5 ± 5.4% of cells; in LRP, HRP and VHRP Tyr-P labelling rarely spread over the head, acrosome-reacted cells only accounted for a small number of sperm, and the non-viable cells (NVC) were increased. The addition of APO, but not Oligo, drastically decreased ROS production in analysed samples. This study proposes the optimal threshold for endogenous ROS production for correct sperm viability and functioning, and indicates the direct involvement of APO-sensitive NADPH oxidase in ROS production.

  11. Evaluation of Fenton Oxidation Process Coupled with Biological Treatment for the Removal of Reactive Black 5 from Aqueous Solution

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    Pegah Bahmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of azo dyes is difficult due to their complex structures and low BOD to COD ratios. In the present study, the efficiency of using Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+ as a pretreatment process to enhance microbial transformation of reactive black 5 (RB5 in an aqueous system was evaluated. The RB5 with an initial concentration of 250 mg/L was decolorized up to 90% in 60 h by using a bacterial consortium. Fenton’s reagent at a Fe2+ concentration of 0.5 mM and H2O2 concentration of 2.9 mM (molar ratio, 1:5.8 was most effective for decolorization at pH = 3.0. The extent of RB5 removal by the combined Fenton–biotreatment was about 2 times higher than that of biotreatment alone. The production of some aromatic amines intermediates implied partial mineralization of the RB5 in Fenton treatment alone; in addition, decreasing of GC-MS peaks suggested that dearomatization occurred in Fenton-biological process. Fenton pretreatment seems to be a cost–effective option for the biotreatment of azo dyes, due mainly to the lower doses of chemicals, lower sludge generation, and saving of time. Our results demonstrated positive effects of inoculating bacterial consortium which was capable of dye biodegradation with a Fenton’s pretreatment step as well as the benefits of low time required for the biological process. In addition, the potential of field performance of Fenton-biological process because of using bacterial consortium is an other positive effect of it.

  12. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  13. Child maltreatment and autonomic nervous system reactivity: identifying dysregulated stress reactivity patterns by using the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Alves, Sonia; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2014-09-01

    Disruptions in stress response system development have been posited as mechanisms linking child maltreatment (CM) to psychopathology. Existing theories predict elevated sympathetic nervous system reactivity after CM, but evidence for this is inconsistent. We present a novel framework for conceptualizing stress reactivity after CM that uses the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. We predicted that in the context of a social-evaluative stressor, maltreated adolescents would exhibit a threat pattern of reactivity, involving sympathetic nervous system activation paired with elevated vascular resistance and blunted cardiac output (CO) reactivity. A sample of 168 adolescents (mean age =14.9 years) participated. Recruitment targeted maltreated adolescents; 38.2% were maltreated. Electrocardiogram, impedance cardiography, and blood pressure were acquired at rest and during an evaluated social stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Pre-ejection period (PEP), CO, and total peripheral resistance reactivity were computed during task preparation, speech delivery, and verbal mental arithmetic. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms were assessed. Maltreatment was unrelated to PEP reactivity during preparation or speech, but maltreated adolescents had reduced PEP reactivity during math. Maltreatment exposure (F(1,145) = 3.8-9.4, p = .053-models.

  14. Effectiveness of evaluating tumor vascularization using 3D power Doppler ultrasound with high-definition flow technology in the prediction of the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shia, Wei-Chung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Huang, Yu-Len; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Kuo, Shou-Jen

    2015-10-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced ultrasound (US) imaging of vascular flow and morphological features in the prediction of a pathologic complete response (pCR) and a partial response (PR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer.Twenty-nine consecutive patients with T2 breast cancer treated with six courses of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler US with high-definition flow (HDF) technology was used to investigate the blood flow in and morphological features of the tumors. Six vascularity quantization features, three morphological features, and two vascular direction features were selected and extracted from the US images. A support vector machine was used to evaluate the changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and pCR and PR were predicted on the basis of these changes.The most accurate prediction of pCR was achieved after the first chemotherapy cycle, with an accuracy of 93.1% and a specificity of 85.5%, while that of a PR was achieved after the second cycle, with an accuracy of 79.31% and a specificity of 72.22%.Vascularity data can be useful to predict the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Determination of changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 3D power Doppler US with HDF can generate accurate predictions of the patient response, facilitating early decision-making.

  15. Effectiveness of evaluating tumor vascularization using 3D power Doppler ultrasound with high-definition flow technology in the prediction of the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shia, Wei-Chung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Huang, Yu-Len; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Kuo, Shou-Jen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced ultrasound (US) imaging of vascular flow and morphological features in the prediction of a pathologic complete response (pCR) and a partial response (PR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with T2 breast cancer treated with six courses of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler US with high-definition flow (HDF) technology was used to investigate the blood flow in and morphological features of the tumors. Six vascularity quantization features, three morphological features, and two vascular direction features were selected and extracted from the US images. A support vector machine was used to evaluate the changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and pCR and PR were predicted on the basis of these changes. The most accurate prediction of pCR was achieved after the first chemotherapy cycle, with an accuracy of 93.1% and a specificity of 85.5%, while that of a PR was achieved after the second cycle, with an accuracy of 79.31% and a specificity of 72.22%. Vascularity data can be useful to predict the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Determination of changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 3D power Doppler US with HDF can generate accurate predictions of the patient response, facilitating early decision-making.

  16. A simple, non-invasive and inexpensive method for evaluating the displacement of local tissue surfaces: from vascular changes to muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Deriu, F; Artusio, E; Passatore, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a non-invasive, very inexpensive method of estimating tissue displacements of various origin that is easy and fast to set up. This technique utilizes an inductive proximity sensor (IPS), which is a non-contact length transducer measuring the distance between its probe and a metal target. Its working principle is based on the electromagnetic coupling originating between the sensor probe, a source of high-frequency magnetic field, and the metal target where parasitic currents take place. The linear working range of the IPS model used here is 0.1 to 6 mm probe-target distance, its resolution is about 2 microns. The IPS has been employed on rabbits and humans to measure the displacement of a target glued to the skin of various body areas with respect to the fixed probe of the sensor. Its high resolution, together with an extensive working range, allows the evaluation of numerous physiological events which produce displacements ranging from 2 microns -- to 9 mm, reflecting either tissue volume changes or movements. In particular, an interesting application is to monitor, through volume variations, the extent and the time course of local vascular modifications induced by manoeuvres which elicit changes in vasomotor tone; vascular filling, tissue swelling etc. Therefore, this measure may be considered a 'surface plethysmography' record. In addition, the contractions of skeletal muscles, under either isotonic or isometric conditions, can be estimated through this sensor. This system may therefore find applications for research purposes and practical demonstrations to students.

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Reactive-Dispersive Plume Model: TexAQS II 2006 Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Chul Han

    2015-04-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a reactive-dispersive plume model (RDPM) that combines a photo-chemistry model with a plume dilution driven by turbulent dispersion of a power-plant plume. The plume transport and turbulent dispersion are derived from a Gaussian plume model and the plume chemistry model uses 71 HxOy-NxOy-CH4 chemistry-related reactions and 184 NMHC-related reactions. Emissions from large-scale point sources have continuously increased due to the rapid industrial growth. To extensively understand and assess atmospheric impacts of the power-plant emissions, a general RDPM was applied to simultaneously simulate the dynamics and photo-chemistry of the Texas power-plant plumes. During the second Texas Air Quality Study 2006 (TexAQS II 2006) on 16 September 2006, pollutant concentrations were measured by NOAA WP-3D aircraft with successive transects across power-plant plumes in Texas, USA. The simulation performances of the RDPM were evaluated by a comparison study, using the observation data obtained from the measurements of a NOAA WP-3D flight during TexAQS II 2006 airborne field campaign. On 16 September, the WP-3D aircraft observed mainly meteorological parameters and particulate species concentrations, traversing the Monticello and Welsh power-plant plumes four times from transects A to D. In addition, some meteorological variables in an initial condition for model simulation were obtained from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model output for the specific objects. These power-plant plume cases were selected in this study, because a large number of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide concentrations inside the power-plant plumes were measured without any interruption of other emission sources. For the Monticello and Welsh power-plant plumes, the model-predicted concentrations showed good agreements with the observed concentrations of ambient species (e.g., nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, etc.) at the four transects. Based

  18. Longitudinal MRI evaluation of intracranial development and vascular characteristics of breast cancer brain metastases in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heling Zhou

    Full Text Available Longitudinal MRI was applied to monitor intracranial initiation and development of brain metastases and assess tumor vascular volume and permeability in a mouse model of breast cancer brain metastases. Using a 9.4T system, high resolution anatomic MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC perfusion MRI were acquired at different time points after an intracardiac injection of brain-tropic breast cancer MDA-MB231BR-EGFP cells. Three weeks post injection, multifocal brain metastases were first observed with hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, but isointensity on T1-weighted post contrast images, indicating that blood-tumor-barrier (BTB at early stage of brain metastases was impermeable. Follow-up MRI revealed intracranial tumor growth and increased number of metastases that distributed throughout the whole brain. At the last scan on week 5, T1-weighted post contrast images detected BTB disruption in 160 (34% of a total of 464 brain metastases. Enhancement in some of the metastases was only seen in partial regions of the tumor, suggesting intratumoral heterogeneity of BTB disruption. DSC MRI measurements of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV showed that rCBV of brain metastases was significantly lower (mean= 0.89±0.03 than that of contralateral normal brain (mean= 1.00±0.03; p<0.005. Intriguingly, longitudinal measurements revealed that rCBV of individual metastases at early stage was similar to, but became significantly lower than that of contralateral normal brain with tumor growth (p<0.05. The rCBV data were concordant with histological analysis of microvascular density (MVD. Moreover, comprehensive analysis suggested no significant correlation among tumor size, rCBV and BTB permeability. In conclusion, longitudinal MRI provides non-invasive in vivo assessments of spatial and temporal development of brain metastases and their vascular volume and permeability. The characteristic rCBV of brain metastases may have a diagnostic value.

  19. Retinal vascular caliber is associated with cardiovascular biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation: the POLA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Daien

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Retinal vascular caliber has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk and is predictive of cardiovascular pathology, including stroke and coronary heart disease. Oxidative stress, as well as inflammatory mechanisms, plays a major role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, plaque rupture and vascular thrombotic propensity. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between retinal vascular calibers and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in subjects free of cardiovascular pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from a community-dwelling cohort comprising 1224 individuals aged 60 years and over, without a history of coronary or peripheral artery disease or stroke. Retinal vascular caliber was measured from fundus photographs using semi-automated standardized imaging software. Oxidative stress was evaluated using plasma superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3 activities, and inflammatory state was assessed using plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and orosomucoid. RESULTS: In a multivariate model controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, larger retinal arteriolar caliber was independently related to higher level of GPx-3 activity (p = 0.003 whereas larger venular caliber was associated with higher levels of hsCRP (p = 0.0001 and orosomucoid (p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: In the present study, biomarkers of oxidative stress regulation and inflammation were independently associated with retinal vascular calibers. This suggests that an assessment of retinal vessels may offer early and non-invasive detection of subclinical vascular pathology.

  20. [Reactive arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloni, V; Fantini, F

    1990-01-01

    The term reactive arthritis was introduced to describe an acute non-purulent arthritis complicating an infection elsewhere in the body. Reactive arthritis can also be classified into HLA-B27 associated and non-associated forms. Rheumatic fever is an example of the HLA-B27 non-associated forms with genetic factors other than HLA-B27 involved. HLA-B27 associated reactive arthritis includes enteric, urogenic and idiopathic arthritides. The bacteria known to trigger post-enteritic reactive arthritis are: Yersinia, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile and Brucella; those known to trigger post-urethritic reactive arthritis are Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum, but often the germ remains unidentified. Mechanisms through which susceptibility to reactive arthritis is linked to HLA-B27 antigen are still incompletely understood, but a clue could be cross-reactivity between B27 and a surface antigen of pathogenic germs. The clinical profile of the disease is characterized by an asymmetrical oligoarthritis with involvement particularly of the peripheral joints of the lower limbs. The arthritis generally recovers without sequelae within a few weeks or months. Accompanying features can be the involvement of enthesis and tendon sheets in form of a talalgia or dactylitis. In some cases the arthritis can relapse and chronicize. In some cases, in addition, involvement of the axial skeleton can occur (spondylitis and/or sacroiliitis). Another feature of the disease is the frequent association with typical extra-articular manifestations such as uveitis and muco-cutaneous lesions.

  1. Light Microscopic Evaluation of Cardio-vasculare System in Alloksan-induced Diabetic Rats in Acute Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Bahçeci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the chronic complication of diabetes and acute effects of diabetes on heart and aorta is not clear. We aimed to determine acute effects of diabetes on cardio-vasculare system with light microscopy. We used 20 Spraque-Dawley rats and applied 150 mg/kg alloxan, intraperitoneally for inducing diabetes and 1 ml SF in control group. After 24 hours, venous blood samples were measured. Blood glucose levels higher than 250 mg/dl were accepted as DM and treated with 4 IU/d human insülin. After 7 days rats were sacrified under ketamin anaesthesia. Heart and aorta were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin. The sectiones were embedded in paraffin and were serially sectioned at 5 m thickness, then stained with Hematoxyline-Eosine (H&E and Heidenhein’s Azan modification.There was no histopathological changes in cardiac muscle cells in control group. But there was a heterogen appearance in cardiac muscle cells and we determined some hydropic degenerations in some of the cardiac muscle cells and a minimal fibrosis in perivasculare and interstitial area in diabetic group. All histological stratums of aorta were seen normally in control group. In diabetic group, there was a clear anisostosis in smooth muscle cells and decreased in nucleus of smooth muscle cells in tunica media. We concluted that DM is caused degeneration and fibrosis in cardiac muscle cells and effective on smooth muscle cells in aorta in acute period.

  2. Application evaluation of a polydimethylsiloxane low-viscosity for cryopreservation and radiation sterilization of human cadaveric vascular allografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauk-Dubitsky S.E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate potential cryo- and radioprotective properties of a polydimethylsiloxane of low viscosity to provide safe and reliable cryopreservation and radiation sterilization of human cadaveric vascular allografts. Material and methods. A consecutive experimental set-up was carried out to establish polydimethylsiloxane (further — PDMS protective endocellular properties. For this purpose a high-densitymesenchymal stem cells suspension was cryopreserved with 10% DMSO solution; PDMS exocellular protective properties were assessed by cyclic cryoconservation of ^femoral artery segments, while PDMS potential radioprotectiveproperties were assessed by gamma irradiation — induced sterilization of 3 cryopreserved femoral artery segments with gross length about 3cm, and for control grafts a slightly changed protocol with glycerin was used. In this study the dynamic viscosity of all cryopreserved vessels was analyzed with using specially designed experimental device, also electron scanning microscopy with lanthanide cells staining and routine hematoxylin — eosin cell staining were applied. Results. We have demonstrated a prominentexocellular protective effect of PDMS confirmed by a SEM and histological results, and also its mediated radioprotective effect, in particular because of its safer preliminary cryopreservation procedure. Conclusion. Use of PDMS for a cryopreservation and gamma sterilization showed its rationality, however requires further modification of protocols and additional researches.

  3. Evaluation of salivary oxidate stress biomarkers, nitric oxide and C-reactive protein in patients with oral lichen planus and burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Aznar-Cayuela, Cristina; Rubio, Camila P; Ceron, José J; López-Jornet, Pia

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress factors and C-reactive protein in the saliva of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This consecutive, cross-sectional study included 20 patients with OLP, 19 with burning mouth syndrome (BMS), and 31 control subjects. The oral cavity of each patient was examined and patients responded to a quality of life questionnaire (OHIP-14) and the xerostomia inventory. The following parameters were measured in whole non-stimulated saliva: trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); total antioxidant capacity (TAC); cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC); ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); C-reactive protein (CRP); nitric oxide; nitrates; and nitrites. The OLP group presented statistically significant differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) (29 600 cps) in comparison with the control group (39 679 cps) (P < 0.05). In the BMS group, ROS was 29 707 cps with significant difference in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). Significantly higher salivary nitric oxide (145.7 μmol) and nitrite (141.0 μmol) levels were found in OLP patients in comparison with control group (P < 0.05). Increases in nitric oxide and C-reactive protein were found in the saliva of OLP patients in comparison with BMS and control patients. Further studies are required to confirm these findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Evaluation with in vivo optical coherence tomography and histology of the vascular effects of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold at two years following implantation in a healthy porcine coronary artery model: implications of pilot results for future pre-clinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.D. Gogas (Bill); M. Radu (Maria); Y. Onuma (Yoshinobu); L. Perkins (Laura); J.C. Powers (Jennifer C.); J. Gomez-Lara (Josep); V. Farooq (Vasim); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); R. Diletti (Roberto); R. Rapoza (Richard); R. Virmani (Renu); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo quantify with in vivo OCT and histology, the device/vessel interaction after implantation of the bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS). We evaluated the area and thickness of the strut voids previously occupied by the polymeric struts, and the neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) area

  5. Time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla for evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of vascular malformations: description of distinct subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Simone; Uller, Wibke; Manger, Florentine; Fellner, Claudia; Zeman, Florian; Wohlgemuth, Walter A

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of arteriovenous and venous malformations using time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla. Time-resolved MRA with interleaved stochastic trajectories (TWIST) at 3.0 Tesla was studied in 83 consecutive patients with venous malformations (VM) and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Enhancement characteristics were calculated as percentage increase of signal intensity above baseline over time. Maximum percentage signal intensity increase (signalmax), time intervals between onset of arterial enhancement and lesion enhancement (tonset), and time intervals between beginning of lesion enhancement and maximum percentage of lesion enhancement (tmax) were analyzed. All AVMs showed a high-flow hemodynamic pattern. Two significantly different (p < 0.001) types of venous malformations emerged: VMs with arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) (median signalmax 737 %, IQR [interquartile range] = 511 - 1182 %; median tonset 5 s, IQR = 5 - 10 s; median tmax 35 s, IQR = 26 - 40 s) and without AVFs (median signalmax 284 %, IQR = 177-432 %; median tonset 23 s, IQR = 15 - 30 s; median tmax 60 s, IQR = 55 - 75 s). Quantitative evaluation of time-resolved MRA at 3.0 Tesla provides hemodynamic characterization of vascular malformations. VMs can be subclassified into two hemodynamic subgroups due to presence or absence of AVFs. • Time-resolved MRA at 3.0 Tesla provides quantitative hemodynamic characterization of vascular malformations. • Malformations significantly differ in time courses of enhancement and signal intensity increase. • AVMs show a distinctive high-flow hemodynamic pattern. • Two significantly different types of VMs emerged: VMs with and without AVFs.

  6. Performance of Trasuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Interim Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope; Brian Boer; Gilles Youinou; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranice (TRU) in light water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles would be pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code in order assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells containing typical UO2 and MOX fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Loading of TRU-only FCM fuel into a pin without significant quantities of uranium challenges the design from the standpoint of several key reactivity parameters, particularly void reactivity, and to some degree, the Doppler coefficient. These unit cells, while providing an indication of how a whole core of similar fuel would behave, also provide information of how individual pins of TRU-only FCM fuel would influence the reactivity behavior of a heterogeneous assembly. If these FCM fuel pins are included in a heterogeneous assembly with LEU fuel pins, the overall reactivity behavior would be dominated by the uranium pins while attractive TRU destruction performance of the TRU-only FCM fuel pins may be preserved. A configuration such as this would be similar to CONFU assemblies analyzed in previous studies. Analogous to the plutonium content limits imposed on MOX fuel, some amount of TRU-only FCM pins in an otherwise-uranium fuel assembly may give acceptable reactivity

  7. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...

  8. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...... into account. The book has arisen from various courses taught in Denmark and Iceland and is designed to give students a broad introduction to the area, with exercises throughout....

  9. Evaluation of decellularized human umbilical vein (HUV) for vascular tissue engineering - comparison with endothelium-denuded HUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Silvia; Schrammel, Siegfried; Huber, Georgine; Niemeyer, Markus; Schmid, Christof; Stangassinger, Manfred; Hoenicka, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Human umbilical vessels have been recognized as a valuable and widely available resource for vascular tissue engineering. Whereas endothelium-denuded human umbilical veins (HUVs) have been successfully seeded with a patient-derived neoendothelium, decellularized vessels may have additional advantages, due to their lower antigenicity. The present study investigated the effects of three different decellularization procedures on the histological, mechanical and seeding properties of HUVs. Vessels were decellularized by detergent treatment (Triton X-100, sodium deoxycholate, IGEPAL-CA630), osmotic lysis (3 m NaCl, distilled water) and peroxyacetic acid treatment. In all cases, nuclease treatments were required to remove residual nucleic acids. Decellularization resulted in a partial loss of fibronectin and laminin staining in the subendothelial layer and affected the appearance of elastic fibres. In addition to removing residual nucleic acids, nuclease treatment weakened all stainings and substantially altered surface properties, as seen in scanning electron micrographs, indicating additional non-specific effects. Detergent treatment and osmotic lysis caused failure stresses to decrease significantly. Although conditioned medium prepared from decellularized HUV did not severely affect endothelial cell growth, cells seeded on decellularized HUV did not remain viable. This may be attributed to the partial removal of essential extracellular matrix components as well as to changes of surface properties. Therefore, decellularized HUVs appear to require additional modifications in order to support successful cell seeding. Replacing the vessels' endothelium may thus be a superior alternative to decellularization when creating tissue-engineered blood vessels with non-immunogenic luminal interfaces. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. NT-proBNP levels, atherosclerosis and vascular function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: peripheral reactive hyperaemia index but not NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels; Hansen, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    for atherosclerosis is unclear. We examined the interrelationship between P-NT-proBNP, presence of atherosclerosis and/or vascular dysfunction in the coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria that received intensive multifactorial treatment. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: P-NT-proBNP was measured in 200 asymptomatic type 2 patients without known cardiac disease that received intensive multifactorial treatment for CV risk reduction. Patients were examined for coronary, carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis, as defined by coronary calcium score=400, carotid intima...

  11. NT-proBNP levels, atherosclerosis and vascular function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: peripheral reactive hyperaemia index but not NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels; Hansen, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    for atherosclerosis is unclear. We examined the interrelationship between P-NT-proBNP, presence of atherosclerosis and/or vascular dysfunction in the coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria that received intensive multifactorial treatment. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: P-NT-proBNP was measured in 200 asymptomatic type 2 patients without known cardiac disease that received intensive multifactorial treatment for CV risk reduction. Patients were examined for coronary, carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis, as defined by coronary calcium score≥400, carotid intima...

  12. Heterogeneous Vascular Bed Responses to Pulmonary Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeddin B. Abukabda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research links engineered nanomaterial (ENM exposure to adverse cardiovascular endpoints. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of ENM exposure on vascular reactivity in discrete segments so that we may determine the most sensitive levels of the vasculature where these negative cardiovascular effects are manifest. We hypothesized that acute nano-TiO2 exposure differentially affects reactivity with a more robust impairment in the microcirculation. Sprague-Dawley rats (8–10 weeks were exposed to nano-TiO2via intratracheal instillation (20, 100, or 200 µg suspended per 250 µL of vehicle 24 h prior to vascular assessments. A serial assessment across distinct compartments of the vascular tree was then conducted. Wire myography was used to evaluate macrovascular active tension generation specifically in the thoracic aorta, the femoral artery, and third-order mesenteric arterioles. Pressure myography was used to determine vascular reactivity in fourth- and fifth-order mesenteric arterioles. Vessels were treated with phenylephrine, acetylcholine (ACh, and sodium nitroprusside. Nano-TiO2 exposure decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation in the thoracic aorta and femoral arteries assessed via ACh by 53.96 ± 11.6 and 25.08 ± 6.36%, respectively. Relaxation of third-order mesenteric arterioles was impaired by 100 and 20 µg nano-TiO2 exposures with mean reductions of 50.12 ± 8.7 and 68.28 ± 8.7%. Cholinergic reactivity of fourth- and fifth-order mesenteric arterioles was negatively affected by nano-TiO2 with diminished dilations of 82.86 ± 12.6% after exposure to 200 µg nano-TiO2, 42.6 ± 12.6% after 100 µg nano-TiO2, and 49.4 ± 12.6% after 20 µg nano-TiO2. Endothelium-independent relaxation was impaired in the thoracic aorta by 34.05 ± 25% induced by exposure to 200 µg nano-TiO2 and a reduction in response of 49.31 ± 25% caused by 100 µg nano-TiO2

  13. Heterogeneous Vascular Bed Responses to Pulmonary Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukabda, Alaeddin B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research links engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure to adverse cardiovascular endpoints. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of ENM exposure on vascular reactivity in discrete segments so that we may determine the most sensitive levels of the vasculature where these negative cardiovascular effects are manifest. We hypothesized that acute nano-TiO2 exposure differentially affects reactivity with a more robust impairment in the microcirculation. Sprague-Dawley rats (8-10 weeks) were exposed to nano-TiO2via intratracheal instillation (20, 100, or 200 µg suspended per 250 µL of vehicle) 24 h prior to vascular assessments. A serial assessment across distinct compartments of the vascular tree was then conducted. Wire myography was used to evaluate macrovascular active tension generation specifically in the thoracic aorta, the femoral artery, and third-order mesenteric arterioles. Pressure myography was used to determine vascular reactivity in fourth- and fifth-order mesenteric arterioles. Vessels were treated with phenylephrine, acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside. Nano-TiO2 exposure decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation in the thoracic aorta and femoral arteries assessed via ACh by 53.96 ± 11.6 and 25.08 ± 6.36%, respectively. Relaxation of third-order mesenteric arterioles was impaired by 100 and 20 µg nano-TiO2 exposures with mean reductions of 50.12 ± 8.7 and 68.28 ± 8.7%. Cholinergic reactivity of fourth- and fifth-order mesenteric arterioles was negatively affected by nano-TiO2 with diminished dilations of 82.86 ± 12.6% after exposure to 200 µg nano-TiO2, 42.6 ± 12.6% after 100 µg nano-TiO2, and 49.4 ± 12.6% after 20 µg nano-TiO2. Endothelium-independent relaxation was impaired in the thoracic aorta by 34.05 ± 25% induced by exposure to 200 µg nano-TiO2 and a reduction in response of 49.31 ± 25% caused by 100 µg nano-TiO2. Femoral artery

  14. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-03-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques.

  15. Vascular injuries during gynecological laparoscopy: the vascular surgeon's advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Barbosa Barros

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Iatrogenic vascular problems due to laparoscopy are a well recognized problem and lead to significant repercussions. In this context, a ten-year review of cases topic is presented, based on experience gained while heading two important vascular surgery services. CASES: Five patients with vascular injuries during elective laparoscopy are described. These patients presented with seven lesions of iliac vessels. All cases were evaluated immediately and required laparotomy, provisional hemostasis and urgent attendance by a vascular surgeon. Direct suturing was performed in three cases. One aortoiliac bypass and one ilioiliac reversed venous graft were made. Venous lesions were sutured. One case of a point-like perforation of the small bowel was found. There were no deaths and no complications during the postoperative period. DISCUSSION: Important points on this subject are made, and advice is given. There needs to be immediate recognition of the vascular injury, and expert repair by a vascular surgeon is recommended, in order to significantly reduce the degree of complications.

  16. Evaluation of C-Reactive Protein, Endothelin-1, Adhesion Molecule(s, and Lipids as Inflammatory Markers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala El-Mesallamy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared lipids, the product of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA, the acute phase reactant high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, endothelin-1 (ET-1, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 between healthy controls, subjects with ischemic heart disease (IHD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM subjects who did not perform coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery as well as type 2 DM subjects who performed CABG. HbA1c, lipids, MDA, hsCRP, ET-1, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in the diabetic groups than in either healthy controls or IHD subjects. In the diabetic groups, there was a negative association among hsCRP and HDL-C. ET-1, ICAM-1 levels and TAG were positively correlated, as do the association between P-selectin, VCAM-1 and HbA1c%. Also a positive relation was found among hsCRP levels and ICAM-1, as well as MDA and ET-1. P-selectin and ICAM-1 were significantly positively correlated. This study indicates that increased level of oxidative stress marker, proinflammatory markers and their downstream effectors adhesion molecules occurs in type 2 DM.

  17. Genetic determinants of platelet reactivity during acetylsalicylic acid therapy in diabetic patients: evaluation of 27 polymorphisms within candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postula, M; Kaplon-Cieslicka, A; Rosiak, M; Kondracka, A; Serafin, A; Filipiak, K J; Czlonkowski, A; Opolski, G; Janicki, P K

    2011-11-01

    Decreased platelet responsiveness to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) reported previously in diabetic patients could be attributed to patient-based, clinical, genetic and cellular factors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the genomic polymorphism on the platelet reactivity in diabetic patients treated with ASA. The study cohort consisted of 295 Caucasians with diabetes type 2 who had been taking ASA tablets at the dose of 75 mg per day for at least 3 months for primary or secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI). Platelet reactivity analyzes were performed using VerifyNow ASA and PFA-100 assays. Genotyping for the selected 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 19 genes was performed using a Sequenom iPLEX platform. The results indicate that the statistically significant differences in platelet reactivity were observed in the PFA-100 assay for SNPs in following genes: TXBA2R (rs1131882), ADRA2A (rs4311994), PLA2G7 (rs7756935) and 9p21.3 (rs10120688) (P = 0.02, P = 0.03, P = 0.02, P = 0.03, respectively, all significance levels corrected for multiple comparisons). When using the VerifyNow ASA test, a weak nominal statistical significance (i.e. before multiple comparison testing) was observed for two SNPs in the GPVI gene: rs1671152 and rs1613662 [P = 0.025 (0.5) for both SNPs, corrected for multiple comparisons test]. The results from the present study suggest that the four analyzed genes may contribute to platelet reactivity measured with the PFA-100 assay in the diabetic population treated with ASA. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. Evaluation of a horizontal permeable reactive barrier for preventing upward diffusion of volatile organic compounds through the unsaturated zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba G; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; Hartog, Niels; Raoof, Amir; van Genuchten, Martinus Th

    2015-11-01

    Permeable reactive barriers are commonly used to treat contaminant plumes in the saturated zone. However, no known applications of horizontal permeable reactive barriers (HPRBs) exist for oxidizing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the unsaturated zone. In this study, laboratory column experiments were carried out to investigate the ability of a HPRB containing solid potassium permanganate, to oxidize the vapors of trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene, and ethanol migrating upward from a contaminated saturated zone. Results revealed that an increase in initial water saturation and HPRB thickness strongly affected the removal efficiency of the HPRB. Installing the HPRB relatively close to the water table was more effective due to the high background water content and enhanced diffusion of protons and/or hydroxides away from the HPRB. Inserting the HPRB far above the water table caused rapid changes in pH within the HPRB, leading to lower oxidation rates. The pH effects were included in a reactive transport model, which successfully simulated the TCE and toluene experimental observations. Simulations for ethanol were not affected by pH due to condensation of water during ethanol oxidation, which caused some dilution in the HRPB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mixture toxicity of SN2-reactive soft electrophiles: 1. Evaluation of mixtures containing α-halogenated acetonitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D A; Jeyaratnam, J; Mooneyham, T; Pöch, G; Schultz, T W

    2010-11-01

    The concept of multiple modes of toxic action denotes that an individual chemical can induce two or more toxic effects within the same series of concentrations, for example, reactive toxicity and narcosis. It appears that such toxicity confounds the ability to develop precise predictions of mixture toxicity and makes it more difficult to clearly link a dose-additive combined effect to agents in the mixture having a single common mechanism of toxic action. This initial study of a three-part series begins to examine this issue in greater detail by testing three α-halogenated acetonitriles: (1) in sham combinations, (2) in true combinations, and (3) with a nonreactive nonpolar narcotic. Iodo-, bromo-, and chloro-derivatives of acetonitrile were selected for testing based on their electro(nucleo)philic reactivity, via the S(N)2 mechanism, and their time-dependent toxicity individually. Reactivity of each agent was assessed in tests with the model nucleophile glutathione (GSH). Each acetonitrile was reactive with GSH, but the nonpolar narcotic 3-methyl-2-butanone was not. In addition, toxicity of the agents alone and in mixtures was assessed using the Microtox(®) acute toxicity test at three time points: 15, 30, and 45 min of exposure. Each of the three agents alone had time-dependent toxicity values of about 100%, making it likely that most of the toxicity of these agents, at these times, was due to reactivity. In contrast, the nonpolar narcotic agent lacked time-dependent toxicity. In mixture testing, sham combinations of each acetonitrile showed a combined effect consistent with predicted effects for dose-addition at each time point, as did the sham combination of the nonpolar narcotic. Mixture toxicity results for true acetonitrile combinations were also consistent with dose-addition, but the acetonitrile-nonpolar narcotic combinations were generally not consistent with either the dose-addition or independence models of combined effect. Based on current

  20. Myricitrin inhibits vascular adhesion molecule expression in TNF‑α‑stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Jie; Yang, Hai-Tao; Duan, Hong-Yan; Wu, Jin-Tao; Qian, Peng; Fan, Xian-Wei; Wang, Shanling

    2017-11-01

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules is thought to serve an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Myricitrin, a bioactive compound of Myrica cerifera, has been demonstrated to exhibit anti‑atherogenic effects. However, the effect of myricitrin on the expression of adhesion molecules in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of myricitrin on tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α)‑induced expression of adhesion molecules in VSMCs in vitro. The results revealed that myricitrin inhibited the adhesion of human THP‑1 monocyte cells to TNF‑α‑stimulated mouse MOVAS‑1 VSMC cells, and reduced the expression of adhesion molecules in TNF‑α‑stimulated MOVAS‑1 cells. In addition, myricitrin significantly inhibited the TNF‑α‑induced expression of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB p65, and prevented the TNF‑α‑induced degradation of nuclear factor of κ light chain enhancer in B‑cells inhibitor α. Furthermore, myricitrin inhibited the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species in TNF‑α‑stimulated MOVAS‑1 cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that myricitrin inhibits the expression of vascular cell adhesion protein‑1 and intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 in TNF‑α‑stimulated MOVAS‑1 cells potentially via the NF‑κB signaling pathway. Therefore, myricitrin may be an effective pharmacological agent for the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis.

  1. Reactive arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, A

    1999-01-01

    Reactive arthritis is one of the spondyloarthropathy family of clinical syndromes. The clinical features are those shared by other members of the spondyloarthritis family, though it is distinguished by a clear relationship with a precipitating infection. Susceptibility to reactive arthritis is closely linked with the class 1 HLA allele B27; it is likely that all sub-types pre-dispose to this condition. The link between HLA B27 and infection is mirrored by the development of arthritis in HLA B27-transgenic rats. In this model, arthritis does not develop in animals maintained in a germ-free environment. Infections of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and respiratory tract appear to provoke reactive arthritis and a wide range of pathogens has now been implicated. Although mechanistic parallels may exist, reactive arthritis is distinguished from Lyme disease, rheumatic fever and Whipple's disease by virtue of the distinct clinical features and the link with HLA B27. As in these conditions both antigens and DNA of several micro-organisms have been detected in joint material from patients with reactive arthritis. The role of such disseminated microbial elements in the provocation or maintenance of arthritis remains unclear. HLA B27-restricted T-cell responses to microbial antigens have been demonstrated and these may be important in disease pathogenesis. The importance of dissemination of bacteria from sites of mucosal infection and their deposition in joints has yet to be fully understood. The role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of reactive arthritis is being explored; in some circumstances, both the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects of certain antibiotics appear to be valuable. The term reactive arthritis should be seen as a transitory one, reflecting a concept which may itself be on the verge of replacement, as our understanding of the condition develops. Nevertheless it appropriately describes arthritis that is associated with demonstrable

  2. Plant Vascular Biology 2013: vascular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Robertas; Heo, Jung-Ok; Helariutta, Ykä

    2014-04-01

    About 200 researchers from around the world attended the Third International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2013) held in July 2013 at the Rantapuisto Conference Center, in Helsinki, Finland (http://www.pvb2013.org). The plant vascular system, which connects every organ in the mature plant, continues to attract the interest of researchers representing a wide range of disciplines, including development, physiology, systems biology, and computational biology. At the meeting, participants discussed the latest research advances in vascular development, long- and short-distance vascular transport and long-distance signalling in plant defence, in addition to providing a context for how these studies intersect with each other. The meeting provided an opportunity for researchers working across a broad range of fields to share ideas and to discuss future directions in the expanding field of vascular biology. In this report, the latest advances in understanding the mechanism of vascular trafficking presented at the meeting have been summarized.

  3. Dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging noninvasive evaluation of vascular disrupting treatment on rabbit liver tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Shao

    Full Text Available Evaluation of vascular disrupting treatment (VDT is generally based on tumor size and enhancement on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI which, unfortunately, may be limited in providing satisfactory information. The purpose of the study is to evaluate consecutive changes of 20 rabbit VX2 liver tumors after VDT by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI at a 3.0 T MR unit. Twenty four hours after intravenous injection of Combretastatin A-4-phosphate (CA4P at 20 mg/kg, DCE-MRI derived Maximum Slope of Increase (MSI and Positive Enhancement Integral (PEI decreased sharply due to sudden shutting down of tumor feeding vessels. DWI derived Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC in tumor periphery decreased because of ischemic cell edema. On day 4, an increase of MSI was probably caused by the recovery of blood supply. A remarkable increase of ADC represented a large scale of necrosis among tumors. On day 8, the blood perfusion further decreased and the extent of necrosis further increased, reflected by lower MSI and PEI values and higher ADC value. On day 12, a second decrease of ADC was noticed because the re-growth of periphery tumor. The experimental data indicate that the therapeutic effects of VDT may be noninvasively monitored with DCE-MRI (reflecting tumor blood perfusion and DWI (reflecting the changes of histology, which provide powerful measures for assessment of anticancer treatments.

  4. Time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla for evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of vascular malformations: description of distinct subgroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Simone; Fellner, Claudia; Wohlgemuth, Walter A. [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Uller, Wibke [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Manger, Florentine [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Zeman, Florian [University Hospital Regensburg, Center for Clinical Trials, Regensburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Quantitative evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of arteriovenous and venous malformations using time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla. Time-resolved MRA with interleaved stochastic trajectories (TWIST) at 3.0 Tesla was studied in 83 consecutive patients with venous malformations (VM) and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Enhancement characteristics were calculated as percentage increase of signal intensity above baseline over time. Maximum percentage signal intensity increase (signal{sub max}), time intervals between onset of arterial enhancement and lesion enhancement (t{sub onset}), and time intervals between beginning of lesion enhancement and maximum percentage of lesion enhancement (t{sub max}) were analyzed. All AVMs showed a high-flow hemodynamic pattern. Two significantly different (p < 0.001) types of venous malformations emerged: VMs with arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) (median signal{sub max} 737 %, IQR [interquartile range] = 511 - 1182 %; median t{sub onset} 5 s, IQR = 5 - 10 s; median t{sub max} 35 s, IQR = 26 - 40 s) and without AVFs (median signal{sub max} 284 %, IQR = 177-432 %; median t{sub onset} 23 s, IQR = 15 - 30 s; median t{sub max} 60 s, IQR = 55 - 75 s). Quantitative evaluation of time-resolved MRA at 3.0 Tesla provides hemodynamic characterization of vascular malformations. VMs can be subclassified into two hemodynamic subgroups due to presence or absence of AVFs. (orig.)

  5. Impact of cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder on the neural bases of emotional reactivity to and regulation of social evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Philippe R; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Weeks, Justin; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2014-11-01

    We examined whether Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) would modify self-reported negative emotion and functional magnetic resonance imaging brain responses when reacting to and reappraising social evaluation, and tested whether changes would predict treatment outcome in 59 patients with SAD who completed CBT or waitlist groups. For reactivity, compared to waitlist, CBT resulted in (a) increased brain responses in right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and middle occipital gyrus (MOG) when reacting to social praise, and (b) increases in right SFG and IPL and decreases in left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) when reacting to social criticism. For reappraisal, compared to waitlist, CBT resulted in greater (c) reductions in self-reported negative emotion, and (d) increases in brain responses in right SFG and MOG, and decreases in left pSTG. A linear regression found that after controlling for CBT-induced changes in reactivity and reappraisal negative emotion ratings and brain changes in reactivity to praise and criticism, reappraisal of criticism brain response changes predicted 24% of the unique variance in CBT-related reductions in social anxiety. Thus, one mechanism underlying CBT for SAD may be changes in reappraisal-related brain responses to social criticism. NCT00380731. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00380731?term=social+anxiety+cognitive+behavioral+therapy+Stanford&rank=1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation with Doppler vascular ultrasound in postoperative endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a prospective comparative study with angiotomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciliano Jose Franca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is usually incidental, and surgical treatment, when indicated, may be open or endovascular. The drawbacks of computed angiotomography (CTA and the advantages of Doppler ultrasonography have led to the development of alternative follow-up protocols, comparing the two methods. OBJECTIVE: To determine validity indices for Doppler ultrasonography and to correlate them with CTA results in a group of patients who had undergone elective endovascular treatment of AAAs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients were selected. The following three items were evaluated: 1 presence or absence of endoleak; 2 presence of blood flow in the aortoiliac segment; and 3 maximum AAA diameter. RESULTS: For the detection of endoleak, Doppler ultrasonography showed a sensitivity of 54.5%, a specificity of 92.8%, a positive predictive value of 85.7%, a negative predictive value of 92.8%, and an overall accuracy of 76%. For the evaluation of blood flow in the aortoiliac segment, values were 100, 97.8, 80, 97.8, and 98%, respectively. Maximum AAA diameter was similarly measured by both methods, with statistically significant differences (mean difference: 1.98 mm. Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.97, showing that Doppler ultrasonography and CTA yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: Doppler ultrasonography showed good validity indices and a moderate correlation with CTA in the postoperative evaluation of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of AAAs.

  7. Endothelial C-type natriuretic peptide maintains vascular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Amie J; Khambata, Rayomand S; Villar, Inmaculada; Bubb, Kristen J; Baliga, Reshma S; Lumsden, Natalie G; Xiao, Fang; Gane, Paul J; Rebstock, Anne-Sophie; Worthington, Roberta J; Simone, Michela I; Mota, Filipa; Rivilla, Fernando; Vallejo, Susana; Peiró, Concepción; Sánchez Ferrer, Carlos F; Djordjevic, Snezana; Caulfield, Mark J; MacAllister, Raymond J; Selwood, David L; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J

    2014-09-01

    The endothelium plays a fundamental role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by releasing factors that regulate local blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and the reactivity of leukocytes and platelets. Accordingly, endothelial dysfunction underpins many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Herein, we evaluated mice with endothelial-specific deletion of Nppc, which encodes C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and determined that this mediator is essential for multiple aspects of vascular regulation. Specifically, disruption of CNP leads to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, atherogenesis, and aneurysm. Moreover, we identified natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) as the cognate receptor that primarily underlies CNP-dependent vasoprotective functions and developed small-molecule NPR-C agonists to target this pathway. Administration of NPR-C agonists promotes a vasorelaxation of isolated resistance arteries and a reduction in blood pressure in wild-type animals that is diminished in mice lacking NPR-C. This work provides a mechanistic explanation for genome-wide association studies that have linked the NPR-C (Npr3) locus with hypertension by demonstrating the importance of CNP/NPR-C signaling in preserving vascular homoeostasis. Furthermore, these results suggest that the CNP/NPR-C pathway has potential as a disease-modifying therapeutic target for cardiovascular disorders.

  8. Endothelial C-type natriuretic peptide maintains vascular homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Amie J.; Khambata, Rayomand S.; Villar, Inmaculada; Bubb, Kristen J.; Baliga, Reshma S.; Lumsden, Natalie G.; Xiao, Fang; Gane, Paul J.; Rebstock, Anne-Sophie; Worthington, Roberta J.; Simone, Michela I.; Mota, Filipa; Rivilla, Fernando; Vallejo, Susana; Peiró, Concepción; Sánchez Ferrer, Carlos F.; Djordjevic, Snezana; Caulfield, Mark J.; MacAllister, Raymond J.; Selwood, David L.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    The endothelium plays a fundamental role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by releasing factors that regulate local blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and the reactivity of leukocytes and platelets. Accordingly, endothelial dysfunction underpins many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Herein, we evaluated mice with endothelial-specific deletion of Nppc, which encodes C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and determined that this mediator is essential for multiple aspects of vascular regulation. Specifically, disruption of CNP leads to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, atherogenesis, and aneurysm. Moreover, we identified natriuretic peptide receptor–C (NPR-C) as the cognate receptor that primarily underlies CNP-dependent vasoprotective functions and developed small-molecule NPR-C agonists to target this pathway. Administration of NPR-C agonists promotes a vasorelaxation of isolated resistance arteries and a reduction in blood pressure in wild-type animals that is diminished in mice lacking NPR-C. This work provides a mechanistic explanation for genome-wide association studies that have linked the NPR-C (Npr3) locus with hypertension by demonstrating the importance of CNP/NPR-C signaling in preserving vascular homoeostasis. Furthermore, these results suggest that the CNP/NPR-C pathway has potential as a disease-modifying therapeutic target for cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25105365

  9. Evaluation of novel reactive MgO activated slag binder for the immobilisation of lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2014-12-01

    Although Portland cement is the most widely used binder in the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) processes, slag-based binders have gained significant attention recently due to their economic and environmental merits. In the present study, a novel binder, reactive MgO activated slag, is compared with hydrated lime activated slag in the immobilisation of lead and zinc. A series of lead or zinc-doped pastes and mortars were prepared with metal to binder ratio from 0.25% to 1%. The hydration products and microstructure were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The major hydration products were calcium silicate hydrate and hydrotalcite-like phases. The unconfined compressive strength was measured up to 160 d. Findings show that lead had a slight influence on the strength of MgO-slag paste while zinc reduced the strength significantly as its concentration increased. Leachate results using the TCLP tests revealed that the immobilisation degree was dependent on the pH and reactive MgO activated slag showed an increased pH buffering capacity, and thus improved the immobilisation efficiency compared to lime activated slag. It was proposed that zinc was mainly immobilised within the structure of the hydrotalcite-like phases or in the form of calcium zincate, while lead was primarily precipitated as the hydroxide. It is concluded, therefore, that reactive MgO activated slag can serve as clinker-free alternative binder in the S/S process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Analysis of Total Leucocyte, C-Reactive Protein and Fibrinogen Concentrations to Evaluate The Leakage of Enterectomy Result

    OpenAIRE

    Adji, Dhirgo

    2012-01-01

    Enterectomy is an operative method that has very dangerous risk. The purpose of this research was done to see the physiological view after surgery, especially in the total leucocyte, C-reactive protein (CRP) andfibrinogen concentrations. Nine female, healthy local dogs, 10 kgs of body weight were used as experimental study. The dogs were adapted for a week into individual cages and fed commercial dog-food and water adlibitum. In the day of 7, all dogs were fasted 12 hours for anaesthesia prep...

  11. Colour Doppler ultrasonography evaluation of vascularization in the wrist and finger joints in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carotti, M. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Salaffi, F., E-mail: fsalaff@tin.it [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Morbiducci, J. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Ciapetti, A., E-mail: ciapetti.a@libero.it [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Bartolucci, L. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Gasparini, S. [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Ferraccioli, G. [Division of Rheumatology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Giuseppetti, G.M. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Grassi, W. [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the presence of blood flow by colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) in the wrist and finger joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy subjects and to define a cut-off value of CDUS resistive index (RI). Methods: Forty-three patients with RA and 43 healthy controls were examined by CDUS. The wrists, second and third metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints were evaluated in each patient and healthy subject. Spectral Doppler analysis was performed in order to characterize the type of flow and a mean RI was measured to define a cut-off level. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the screening method's performance. Results: Flow was detected in 219 of the 430 total joints (50.9%) of RA patients (111 in the wrists, 49 in the MCP and 30 in the PIP joints). Healthy subjects had a quantifiable flow in 45 of the 430 joints (10.5%) and, in particular, 39 (86.4%) in the wrist, 5 (11.14%) in the MCP and 1 (2.2%) in the PIP joints. The intra- and inter-reader agreements for the detection of Doppler signal were very good (kappa 0.82 and 0.89, respectively). Mean RI values were 0.72 {+-} 0.06 in RA patients and 0.86 {+-} 0.06 in healthy subjects (p < 0.01). At cut-off point of RI < 0.79 the sensitivity was 89.6% and the specificity was 78.8% (positive likelihood ratio 4.22). Conclusion: DUS is a useful tool for the detection of abnormal blood flow in inflammatory joints of RA patients.

  12. Role of Multidetector CT in Evaluation of Acute Chest Pain: Non-Cardiac Vascular and Pulmonary Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Rania S Sayed *, Hisham M Mansour **, Mohammad H Khaleel ***, Sherif H Abo Gamra ** and Merhan A Nasr

    2013-01-01

    Background: Triage of patients with acute chest pain is one of the most important issues currently facing physicians in the emergency department. Acute chest pain may be a symptom of a number of serious conditions and is generally considered a medical emergency. The causes of acute chest pain range from non-serious to life threatening. A rapid, accurate and cost-effective approach for the evaluation of emergency department patients with chest pain is needed. Aim of the work: This work aims to...

  13. Effects of Crataegus microphylla on vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Gökçe; Koç, Ebru; Karaca, Cetin; Altuğ, Tuncay; Ergin, Bülent; Demirci, Cihan; Melikoğlu, Gülay; Meriçli, Ali H; Kucur, Mine; Ozdemir, Osman; Uydeş Doğan, B Sönmez

    2013-03-01

    Vascular dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether chronic in vivo treatment of Crataegus microphylla (CM) extract in diabetic rats induced with streptozotocin (STZ, intraperitoneal, 65 mg/kg) preserves vascular function and to evaluate whether the reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), proinflammatory cytokines, and lipid peroxidation mediates its mechanisms of action. Starting at 4 weeks of diabetes, CM extract (100 mg/kg) was administrated to diabetic rats for 4 weeks. In aortic rings, relaxation to acetylcholine and vasoreactivity to noradrenaline were impaired, whereas aortic iNOS expression and plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), total nitrite-nitrate, and malondialdehite levels were increased in diabetic rats compared with controls. Chronic CM treatment significantly corrected all the above abnormalities in diabetic rats. In comparison, pretreatment of the aorta of diabetic rats with N-[3(aminomethyl) benzyl]-acetamidine, dihydrochloride (10(-5)  M), a selective inhibitor of iNOS, produced a similar recovery in vascular reactivity. These results suggest that chronic in vivo treatment of CM preserves endothelium-dependent relaxation and vascular contraction in STZ-induced diabetes, possibly by reducing iNOS expression in the aorta and by decreasing plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and by preventing lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of novel analogues of vitamin B6 as reactivators of tabun and paraoxon inhibited acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaso-Sokac, Dajana; Katalinić, Maja; Kovarik, Zrinka; Busić, Valentina; Kovac, Spomenka

    2010-09-06

    A series of novel pyridinium oximes was prepared by reactions of quaternization of pyridoxal oxime with substituted phenacyl bromides in acetone at room temperature. The structures of compounds were determined according to the data obtained by IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as by elemental analysis. We tested pyridoxal oxime (1) and five prepared oximes in 1mM concentration as reactivators of human erythrocytes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by organophosphorus compounds tabun and paraoxon: 1-phenacyl-3-hydroxy-4-hydroxyiminomethyl-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyridinium bromide (2), 1-(4'-chlorophenacyl)-3-hydroxy-4-hydroxyiminomethyl-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyridinium bromide (3), 1-(4'-fluorophenacyl)-3-hydroxy-4-hydroxyiminomethyl-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyridinium bromide (4), 3-hydroxy-4-hydroxyiminomethyl-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-1-(4'-methylphenacyl)pyridinium bromide (5), 3-hydroxy-4-hydroxyiminomethyl-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-1-(4'-methoxyphenacyl)pyridinium bromide (6). However, tested oximes were not efficient in reactivation of either tabun or paraoxon inhibited AChE. The maximum restored enzyme activity in 24h was below 25%. Therefore, this class of compounds cannot be considered as potential improvement in a search for new and more efficient antidotes against OP poisoning. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic periodontitis

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    Gani Dhruva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate systemic levels of inflammatory markers of cardiovascular diseases like C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in patients with chronic periodontitis, in comparison to periodontally healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 individuals, both males and females above the age of 30 years, were included in the study. Healthy controls (Group I, n = 14, chronic localized periodontitis (Group II, n = 14, and chronic generalized periodontitis (Group III, n = 14, all without any medical disorder, were recruited. Peripheral blood samples were taken and C-reactive protein (CRP levels were estimated in the serum samples by using the Particle-Enhanced Turbidimetric Immunoassay (PETIA technique. Serum samples of Interleukin-6 (IL-6 were assayed by using the Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (IMMULITE technique. Results: When mean CRP levels were compared between the groups, group III showed statistical significance when compared to group I (P = 0.04. Group III had a higher median IL-6 level (6.35 pg/mL than Group II (< 5.0 pg/ mL and group I (< 5.0 pg/mL. Differences in median values of IL-6 were not statistically significant in any group (P = 0.29. Conclusion: Periodontitis results in higher systemic levels of CRP and IL-6. These elevated inflammatory factors may increase inflammatory activity in atherosclerotic lesions and potentially increasing the risk for cardiovascular events.

  16. [Evaluation of the severity of vascular impairment in the lower extremities in patients with chronic kidney failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saková, R; Sulková, S

    2002-11-08

    Arterial ischemic disease represents highly serious complication for patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis. The aim of the study was to examine peripheral arteries in the group of haemodialysed patients and to estimate the incidence and seriousness of pathological findings. Total 82 sonographic examinations of arteries in lower extremities using Multi Dopplex II set with graphic registration of dopplex curves was done in 53 dialysed patients. Blood pressure values of four peripheral arteries at legs together with blood pressure values at the brachial artery were evaluated as the ankle-arm index (API). Character of changes of dopplex curves was classified as SO index (obliteration index). Also with normal API, changes in SO were identified. SO index was significantly higher (p = 0.034) in patients of the peritoneal dialysis program in comparison with haemodialysed patients, in persons with diabetes the value was only marginally higher. Patients who died later (of the cardiovascular complications), the SO index was significantly higher then in others (p < 0.0001), though the API values were not different. Repeated testing in 29 patients after 6 months brought about worsening of the SO index (p < 0.00001) in those patients where no changes of API were seen. No relation with any of the followed biochemical parameters was found. To estimate most accurately the conditions of the peripheral arteries in dialysed patients ankle-arm index was used together with evaluation of the shape of dopplex curves (index SO). Such detailed Doppler examination has proved identifiable changes of arteries in 73 out of 82 cases.

  17. Gender Differences in Bed Rest: Preliminary Analysis of Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Martin, David S.; Freeman-Perez, Sondra A.; Phillips, Tiffany; Ribeiro, L. Christine

    2008-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a recognized consequence of spaceflight. Numerous studies have shown that women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight as well as bed rest, the most commonly used ground-based analog for spaceflight. One of the possible mechanisms proposed to account for this is a difference in vascular responsiveness between genders. We hypothesized that women and men would have differing vascular responses to 90 days of 6-degree head down tilt bed rest. Additionally, we hypothesized that vessels in the upper and lower body would respond differently, as has been shown in the animal literature. Thirteen subjects were placed in bedrest for 90 days (8 men, 5 women) at the Flight Analogs Unit, UTMB. Direct arterial and venous measurements were made with ultrasound to evaluate changes in vascular structure and function. Arterial function was assessed, in the arm and leg, during a reactive hyperemia protocol and during sublingual nitroglycerin administration to gauge the contributions of endothelial dependent and independent dilator function respectively. Venous function was assessed in dorsal hand and foot veins during the administration of pharmaceuticals to assess constrictor and dilator function. Both gender and day effects are seen in arterial dilator function to reactive hyperemia, but none are seen with nitroglycerin. There are also differences in the wall thickness in the arm vs the leg during bed rest, which return toward pre-bed rest levels by day 90. More subjects are required, especially females as there is not sufficient power to properly analyze venous function. Day 90 data are most underpowered.

  18. Avaliação da capacidade funcional de idosos com acidente vascular encefálico Evaluación de la capacidad funcional de adultos mayores con accidente vascular encefálico Evaluation of functional capaciy in elders with encephalic vascular accident

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    Keila Cristianne Trindade da Cruz

    2009-10-01

    ó un promedio de 97,0. Los pacientes con acceso al servicio de salud presentaron valores superiores a aquellas personas que no tenían acceso (Test de Mann-Whitney. Fue observada una correlación negativa entre la MIF y sus dominios y la edad (Pearson. CONCLUSIÓN: El AVE causó alteración en la capacidad funcional de los sujetos de la investigación, lo que indica la necesidad de invertir en estrategias de rehabilitación que amenicen las pérdidas funcionales procedentes de la propia edad y, principalmente, de las secuelas del AVE.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional capacity of elders with encephalic vascular accident (EVA and to examine the association between sociodemographic variables and functional capacity. METHODS: Interviews with 44 elders who had EVA were conducted during their assessment and treatment in the data collection settings. The instrument contemplated clinical and social-demographic variables. Functional Independence Measure (FIM was used to measure the subjects' functional capacity. RESULTS: Most subjects were between 60 and 69 years of age. The MIF had good internal consistency reliability estimate. Subjects had a mean score of 97.0 on FIM. Mann-Whitney test indicated that participants who had access to health care services had higher FIM scores than individuals without health care access. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated a significantly negative correlation coefficient between age and FIM score. CONCLUSION: Encephalic vascular accident is associated with alterations in functional capacity of the sample of this study. This finding suggests the need for the use of effective rehabilitation strategies to help individuals who have decreased functional capacity due to normal aging and/or sequela to encephalic vascular accident.

  19. Vascular leakage induced by exposure to arsenic via increased production of NO, hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Chi

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that in situ exposure to arsenic induced increased vascular leakage. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species such as nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical (OH(-)) are known to affect vascular permeability. Therefore, the goal of our present studies is to investigate the functional impact of the generation of NO or OH(-) on arsenic-induced vascular leakage. Vascular permeability changes were evaluated by means of Evans blue (EB) assay. Rats were anesthetized and intravenously injected with EB. Permeability changes were induced in back skin by intradermal injections of sodium arsenite mixed with NOS inhibitor: N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or aminoguanidine (AG) and OH(-) scavenger: 1,3 Dimethyl-2 thiourea (DMTU). Experiments were also performed to determine whether DMTU mixed with L-NAME would further inhibit arsenic-induced vascular leakage as compared with attenuation effects by either DMTU or L-NAME. One hour after administration, EB accumulated in the skin was extracted and quantified. Both L-NAME (0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 micromol/site) and DMTU (0.05, 0.2 and 1.2 micromol/site) inhibited the increase in vascular leakage induced by arsenite. However, only high dose (1 micromol/site) of AG significantly attenuated arsenite-induced vascular leakage. In contrast, neither D-NAME (0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 micromol/site) nor AG (0.04 and 0.2 micromol/site) attenuated increased vascular leakage by arsenic. DMTU mixed with L-NAME caused no further inhibition of arsenic-induced vascular leakage by either DMTU or L-NAME. The techniques of India ink and immunostaining were used to demonstrate both vascular labeling and nitrotyrosine staining in tissue treated with arsenic. L-NAME apparently reduced the density of leaky vessels and the levels of peroxynitrite staining induced by arsenite. These results suggest that NO, OH(-) and peroxynitrite play a role in increased vascular permeability

  20. Effects of one resistance exercise session on vascular smooth muscle of hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim Dos Santos; Oliveira Carvalho, Vitor; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  1. Hypotensive effect and endothelium-dependent vascular action of leaves of Alpinia purpurata (Vieill K. Schum

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    Alessandra Tesch da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the chemical profile, vascular reactivity, and acute hypotensive effect (AHE of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Alpinia purpurata (Vieill K. Schum (EEAP. Its chemical profile was evaluated using HPLC-UV, ICP-OES, and colorimetric quantification of total flavonoids and polyphenols. The vascular reactivity of the extract was determined using the mesenteric bed isolated from WKY. AHE dose-response curves were obtained for both EEAP and inorganic material isolated from AP (IAP in WKY and SHR animals. Cytotoxic and mutagenic safety levels were determined by the micronucleus test. Rutin-like flavonoids were quantified in the EEAP (1.8 ± 0.03%, and the total flavonoid and polyphenol ratios were 4.1 ± 1.8% and 5.1 ± 0.3%, respectively. We observed that the vasodilation action of EEAP was partially mediated by nitric oxide (·NO. The IAP showed the presence of calcium (137.76 ± 4.08 μg mg-1. The EEAP and IAP showed an AHE in WKY and SHR animals. EEAP did not have cytotoxic effects or cause chromosomic alterations. The AHE shown by EEAP could result from its endothelium-dependent vascular action. Rutin-like flavonoids, among other polyphenols, could contribute to these biological activities, and the calcium present in EEAP could act in a synergistic way.

  2. Evaluation of the validity of the UN SADT H.4 test for solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, M; Schuurman, P; Malow, M; Krause, U; Wehrstedt, K-D

    2005-01-31

    Many self-accelerating decomposition temperatures (SADTs) of solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances have been determined with the UN test method H.4, which is a scaled down test in a small Dewar vessel. For solid organic peroxides and solid self-reactive substances Fierz has questioned this procedure in a recent paper. Fierz concluded that the Dewar test results should not be extrapolated to beyond 8l packages, owing to the thermal insulation value of solids. On the other hand, long term experience with the test, with a great variety of solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances show about equal critical temperatures in the small Dewar vessel and on 50 kg scale. In the present work, we first checked, by numerical simulations, the Dewar scale versus the larger scale, in a way comparable with Fierz' method: both scales are simulated by spheres, consisting of a number of annular layers, for the large scale the usual external heat loss term is used but for the small scale the outside heat transfer is strongly limited. The outcome of these simulations, covering a variety of physical parameters, supports the concerns expressed by Fierz. After this, we performed accurate cooling and heating experiments with solid organic peroxide in the usual Dewar vessel, provided with a large set of thermocouples. The results of these experiments showed that the simulation model for the Dewar vessel has to be changed from a spherical analogue to a short cylinder of solid material with heat exchange mainly via its top (U(top) approximately 3.5 W/(m(2)K), overall heat transfer coefficient) and some heat exchange (U(side) approximately 0.29 W/(m(2)K)) through its cylindrical and bottom part. With this "modified cylinder" model (being neither an infinitely long cylinder nor a slab) of the Dewar vessel, we found that the UN method H.4 enables an accurate prediction of the SADT, with small deviations of 0+/-2.5 degrees C. Further, by performing a truly three

  3. Pulmonary vascular input impedance is a combined measure of pulmonary vascular resistance and stiffness and predicts clinical outcomes better than pulmonary vascular resistance alone in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Kirby, K Scott; Claussen, Lori R; Chan, K Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated a method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero harmonic impedance value and PVR and suggested a correlation between higher-harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness. Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and pulmonary vascular stiffness from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared with PVR. Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main pulmonary artery were measured during right heart catheterization of patients with normal pulmonary artery hemodynamics (n = 14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects, 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y = 1.095x + 1.381, R2 = 0.9620). In addition, the modulus sum of the first 2 harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (y = 13.39x - 0.8058, R2 = 0.7962). Among a subset of patients with PAH (n = 25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (R(L)2 = 0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (R(L)2 = 0.3131). Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from pulse-wave Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and

  4. First-in-human experience using the Volcano VIBE-RX vascular imaging balloon catheter system (Volcano IVUS-guided Balloon Evaluation - New Zealand: VIBE-NZ Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Timothy; El-Jack, Seifeddin; Stewart, James T; Ormiston, John

    2013-09-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a proven and safe imaging modality used to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The Volcano VIBE™ RX Vascular Imaging Balloon Catheter is a novel rapid exchange, 0.014" wire-compatible multi-lumen conventional balloon catheter modified with the addition of an IVUS transducer proximal to the balloon, delivered via a standard 6 Fr sheath. We sought to evaluate the safety, balloon performance, and image quality of the VIBE™ RX in patients scheduled for coronary intervention. Patients aged >21 and <85 years with single or multivessel coronary disease scheduled for PCI due to coronary ischaemic symptoms were included. Those with angiographic features that precluded the safe or informative use of the device were excluded. Twenty-nine patients having angiography because of ischaemic symptoms underwent 44 VIBE RX imaging runs, with balloon dilation in 20. Successful device deployment was achieved in all but one patient. All images were adequate and reproducible. One patient had a non-ST-elevation MI felt to be due to the complexity of the procedure rather than directly related to the VIBE™ RX. The study demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of the VIBE™ RX for its intended purpose with minimal failure rate and no directly related complications.

  5. Evaluation of Three Devices for the Isolation of the Stromal Vascular Fraction from Adipose Tissue and for ASC Culture: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jonathan; Pratta, Anne-Sophie; Abbassi, Nacira; Fabre, Hugo; Rodriguez, Fanny; Debard, Cyrille; Adobati, Jacqueline; Boucher, Fabien; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric; Auxenfans, Céline; Damour, Odile; Mojallal, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) reside in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue (AT) and can be easily isolated. However, extraction of the SVF from lipoaspirate is a critical step in generating ASC, and semiautomated devices have been developed to enhance the efficacy and reproducibility of the outcomes and to decrease manipulation and contamination. In this study, we compared the reference method used in our lab for SVF isolation from lipoaspirate, with three medical devices: GID SVF-1™, Puregraft™, and Stem.pras®. Cell yield and their viability were evaluated as well as their phenotype with flow cytometry. Further on, we determined their proliferative potential using population doublings (PD), PD time (PDT), and clonogenicity assay (CFU-F). Finally, we checked their genetic stability using RT-qPCR for TERT mRNA assay and karyotyping as well as their multilineage potential including adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that all the devices allow the production of SVF cells with consistent yield and viability, in less time than the reference method. Expanded cells from the four methods showed no significant differences in terms of phenotype, proliferation capabilities, differentiation abilities, and genetic stability.

  6. Evaluation of Three Devices for the Isolation of the Stromal Vascular Fraction from Adipose Tissue and for ASC Culture: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Rodriguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs reside in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF of adipose tissue (AT and can be easily isolated. However, extraction of the SVF from lipoaspirate is a critical step in generating ASC, and semiautomated devices have been developed to enhance the efficacy and reproducibility of the outcomes and to decrease manipulation and contamination. In this study, we compared the reference method used in our lab for SVF isolation from lipoaspirate, with three medical devices: GID SVF-1™, Puregraft™, and Stem.pras®. Cell yield and their viability were evaluated as well as their phenotype with flow cytometry. Further on, we determined their proliferative potential using population doublings (PD, PD time (PDT, and clonogenicity assay (CFU-F. Finally, we checked their genetic stability using RT-qPCR for TERT mRNA assay and karyotyping as well as their multilineage potential including adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that all the devices allow the production of SVF cells with consistent yield and viability, in less time than the reference method. Expanded cells from the four methods showed no significant differences in terms of phenotype, proliferation capabilities, differentiation abilities, and genetic stability.

  7. Vascular complications in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervu, A; Quinones-Baldrich, W J

    1988-10-01

    Vascular complications may be seen secondary to trauma or in the perioperative period following elective surgery. Prompt recognition and correction of these problems are of utmost importance to assure functional viability of the affected extremity. Evaluation may be complicated by the presence of preexisting atherosclerotic occlusive disease in the elderly patient. Relevant points in the history and physical examination include mechanism of injury, preexisting disease, evaluation of motor and sensory function, and presence and character of pulses. Noninvasive vascular studies should be obtained in all patients. Absolute indications for angiography include absent pulses, signs and symptoms of ischemia, a bruit, and a posterior knee dislocation; decreased pulses, a significant hematoma, and proximity of the fracture fragment are relative indications. Controversial issues in the management of combined orthopedic and vascular injuries include the use of internal versus external fixation, the use of prosthetic versus autogenous material, and the need for venous reconstruction. Popliteal artery trauma is still associated with a high limb loss rate, and careful evaluation of knee injuries is necessary. Vascular compromise may also complicate joint replacement surgery. These complications are preventable, and management is greatly simplified by a detailed preoperative evaluation.

  8. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...... into account. The book has arisen from various courses taught in Denmark and Iceland and is designed to give students a broad introduction to the area, with exercises throughout......., the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  9. Cerebrovascular mental stress reactivity is impaired in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqvi Tasneem Z

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachial artery reactivity in response to shear stress is altered in subjects with hypertension. Since endothelial dysfunction is generalized, we hypothesized that carotid artery (CA reactivity would also be altered in hypertension. Purpose To compare (CA endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to mental stress in normal and hypertensive subjects. Methods We evaluated CA reactivity to mental stress in 10 young healthy human volunteers (aged 23 ± 4 years, 20 older healthy volunteers (aged 49 ± 11 years and in 28 patients with essential hypertension (aged 51 ± 13 years. In 10 healthy volunteers and 12 hypertensive subjects, middle cerebral artery (MCA PW transcranial Doppler was performed before and 3 minutes after mental stress. Results Mental stress by Stroop color word conflict, math or anger recall tests caused CA vasodilation in young healthy subjects (0.61 ± 0.06 to 0.65 ± 0.07 cm, p Conclusion Mental stress produces CA vasodilation and is accompanied by an increase in CA and MCA blood flow in healthy subjects. This mental stress induced CA vasodilation and flow reserve is attenuated in subjects with hypertension and may reflect cerebral vascular endothelial dysfunction. Assessment of mental stress induced CA reactivity by ultrasound is a novel method for assessing the impact of hypertension on cerebrovascular endothelial function and blood flow reserve.

  10. Reactive oxygen species: re-evaluation of generation, monitoring and role in stress-signaling in phototrophic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Renger, Gernot; Friedrich, Thomas; Kreslavski, Vladimir D; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Los, Dmitry A; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2014-06-01

    This review provides an overview about recent developments and current knowledge about monitoring, generation and the functional role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - H2O2, HO2, HO, OH(-), (1)O2 and O2(-) - in both oxidative degradation and signal transduction in photosynthetic organisms including microscopic techniques for ROS detection and controlled generation. Reaction schemes elucidating formation, decay and signaling of ROS in cyanobacteria as well as from chloroplasts to the nuclear genome in eukaryotes during exposure of oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms to oxidative stress are discussed that target the rapidly growing field of regulatory effects of ROS on nuclear gene expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interdisciplinary Evaluation of Broadly-Reactive HLA Class II Restricted Epitopes Eliciting HIV-Specific CD4+T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggert, M.; Norström, M.; Lundegaard, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Background: CD4+ T cells orchestrate immune protection by ‘‘helping’’ other cells of our immune system to clear viral infections. It is well known that the preferential infection and depletion of CD4+ T cells contributes to hampered systemic T cell help following HIV infection. However......, the functional and immunodominant discrepancies of CD4+ T cell responses targeting promiscuous MHC II restricted HIV epitopes remains poorly defined. Thus, utilization of interdisciplinary approaches might aid revealing broadly- reactive peptides eliciting CD4 + T cell responses. Methods: We utilized the novel...... epitopes improved the polyfunctionality compared with overlapping HIV Gag (p55) peptides. Conclusion: Using an unbiased approach where we have predicted peptides with same prerequisites, we demonstrate that HIV-specific CD4 + T cell immunodominance is heavily skewed, targeting particularly Gag and Nef....

  12. Use of Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Remedial Options for an Acid Mine Drainage Stream, With Emphasis on Prediction Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, R. L.; Kimball, B. A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in Southwestern Colorado, drains a sub-alpine watershed with numerous abandoned mines. A synoptic study conducted in 1999 indicates that the Mineral Creek watershed contributes 60% of the observed copper load for the Upper Animas River. In addition, zinc concentrations observed during the 1999 study exceed toxicity standards along the entire length of Mineral Creek. Given these findings, Mineral Creek is the potential site of future remedial actions to improve stream-water quality. Using the 1999 data, a reactive transport model was used to predict the effects of a small treatment system that neutralizes acidic inflow waters. Model application indicates that the treatment system would significantly improve water quality, producing higher pH values and lower dissolved metal concentrations downstream. Despite this progress, the results of model application may be of limited use for planning remediation, due to the potential uncertainty of model predictions (e.g. errors in the characterization of hydrologic and geochemical processes). An additional study was therefore conducted in 2005 to develop estimates of prediction uncertainty. The 2005 study implemented a paired-synoptic approach in which two synoptics were conducted under similar hydrologic conditions. The first synoptic was similar to the 1999 study in that the overall goal was to characterize stream-water quality under existing (acidic) conditions. The second synoptic study was conducted during a continuous sodium hydroxide injection that was designed to mimic a small treatment system. As in the initial model application, data collected under existing conditions (synoptic 1) will be used to calibrate the reactive transport model. Model inputs will then be modified to reflect the effects of treatment, and predictions of post-remediation water quality will be obtained by model application. The results of this application will then be compared to data from the post

  13. Collagen vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many specific conditions ...

  14. Evaluation of serum and gingival crevicular fluid C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels in patients with periodontitis and transient ischemic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Danisia; Teslaru, Silvia; Ungureanu, Didona; Hodorog, Diana; Alecu, C; Benghiac, Ana Gabriela; Zetu, L; Ancuţa, Codrina; Ancuţa, E; Nemţoi, A; Iordache, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances have suggested that periodontitis (PD), the paradigm of chronic infection in dental pathology, shares several pathogenic pathways with cardio- and cerebro-vascular disorders (CVD), based on inflammatory mediators including IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α. To assess pro-inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein - CRP, IL-6) in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients with PD and with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Prospective observational study on 143 patients classified as follows: 40 healthy subjects (group A), 50 PD patients (group B) and 53 PD-TIAs patients (group C). The predefined assessment protocol has included: current medical data, risk factors for CRP changes, periodontal status (clinical, orthopantomography, Schei Ruler technique), inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, IL-6). High serum CRP and IL-6 have been reported in both TIAs and PD, while statistically significant increase in GCF CRP only in PD-TIAs (p<0.05). Moreover, both generalized and localized chronic PD may be at higher risk for CVD, since CRP level was higher in these subgroups. However, no significant differences were reported in serum IL-6 between generalized and localized PD. A score function was demonstrated, including bone loss degree, bleeding index, collection site depth, serum and GCF IL-6 and CRP, tooth loss, allowing the classification of PD based on risk for developing TIAs. CRP and IL-6 are commonly involved in the pathways of PD and TIAs. Interdisciplinary assessment should be promoted in order to implement the stratification of PD patients according to the risk for TIAs as suggested by the proposed algorithm.

  15. Treatment of hemodialysis vascular access rupture irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade: Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of N-butyl cyanoacrylate seal-off technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Mei Jul; Liang, Huei Lung; Pan, Huay Ben [Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Matt Chiung Yu [Dept. of Radiology, Yuan' s General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China)

    2013-01-15

    The current study retrospectively evaluated whether the percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) seal-off technique is an effective treatment for controlling the angioplasty-related ruptures, which are irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for failed or failing hemodialysis vascular accesses. We reviewed 1588 interventions performed during a 2-year period for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites in 1569 patients. For the angioplasty-related ruptures, which could not be controlled with repeated prolonged balloon tamponade, the rupture sites were sealed off with an injection of a glue mixture (NBCA and lipiodol), via a needle/needle sheath to the rupture site, under a sonographic guidance. Technical success rate, complications and clinical success rate were reported. The post-seal-off primary and secondary functional patency rates were calculated by a survival analysis with the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty ruptures irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade occurred in 1588 interventions (1.3%). Two technical failures were noted; one was salvaged with a bailout stent-graft insertion and the other was lost after access embolization. Eighteen accesses (90.0%) were salvaged with the seal-off technique; of them, 16 ruptures were completely sealed off, and two lesions were controlled as acute pseudoaneurysms. Acute pseudoaneurysms were corrected with stentgraft insertion in one patient, and access ligation in the other. The most significant complication during the follow-up was delayed pseudoaneurysm, which occurred in 43.8% (7 of 16) of the completely sealed off accesses. Delayed pseudoaneurysms were treated with surgical revision (n = 2), access ligation (n = 2) and observation (n = 3). During the follow-up, despite the presence of pseudoaneurysms (acute = 1, delayed = 7), a high clinical success rate of 94.4% (17 of 18) was achieved, and they were utilized for hemodialysis at the mean of 411.0 days. The post

  16. Educational interventions for preventing vascular catheter bloodstream infections in critical care: evidence map, systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra; Cooper, Keith; Cooper, Tracey; Cleland, Jennifer; Jones, Jeremy; Shepherd, Jonathan; Clegg, Andrew; Graves, Nicholas; Welch, Karen; Cuthbertson, Brian H

    2014-02-01

    Bloodstream infections resulting from intravascular catheters (catheter-BSI) in critical care increase patients' length of stay, morbidity and mortality, and the management of these infections and their complications has been estimated to cost the NHS annually £19.1-36.2M. Catheter-BSI are thought to be largely preventable using educational interventions, but guidance as to which types of intervention might be most clinically effective is lacking. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of educational interventions for preventing catheter-BSI in critical care units in England. Sixteen electronic bibliographic databases - including MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), EMBASE and The Cochrane Library databases - were searched from database inception to February 2011, with searches updated in March 2012. Bibliographies of systematic reviews and related papers were screened and experts contacted to identify any additional references. References were screened independently by two reviewers using a priori selection criteria. A descriptive map was created to summarise the characteristics of relevant studies. Further selection criteria developed in consultation with the project Advisory Group were used to prioritise a subset of studies relevant to NHS practice and policy for systematic review. A decision-analytic economic model was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of educational interventions for preventing catheter-BSI. Seventy-four studies were included in the descriptive map, of which 24 were prioritised for systematic review. Studies have predominantly been conducted in the USA, using single-cohort before-and-after study designs. Diverse types of educational intervention appear effective at reducing the incidence density of catheter-BSI (risk ratios statistically significantly educational intervention in

  17. Time-Resolved Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Evaluation of Intracranial Vascular Lesions and Tumors: A Pictorial Essay of Our Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Chen-Hao; Chen, Wen-Hsien; Tsuei, Yuang-Seng; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (TR MRA) is a promising less invasive technique for the diagnosis of intracranial vascular lesions and hypervascular tumors. Similar to 4-dimensional computed tomographic angiography obtaining high frame rate images, TR MRA utilizes acceleration techniques to acquire sequential arterial and venous phase images for identifying, localizing, and classifying vascular lesions. Because of the good agreement with digital subtraction angiography for grading brain arteriovenous malformations with the Spetzler-Martin classification and the good sensitivity for visualizing arteriovenous fistulas, studies have suggested that TR MRA could serve as a screening or routine follow-up tool for diagnosing intracranial vascular disorders. In this pictorial essay, we report on the use of TR MRA at 3.0 T to diagnose intracranial vascular lesions and hypervascular tumors, employing DSA as the reference technique. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vascular birthmarks of infancy: resolving nosologic confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Jennifer L; Frieden, Ilona J

    2002-04-01

    The terminology describing congenital vascular birthmarks has been a source of confusion in the medical literature. Mulliken and Glowacki [1982: Plas. Recons. Surg. 69:412-422] published a biologic classification system which has become the most widely accepted framework for classifying vascular birthmarks and is accepted as the official classification schema by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). In this study, we evaluate the current nosology of vascular birthmarks used in standard medical genetics reference texts compared with the accepted Mulliken ISSVA framework. In five sources examined, a variety of terms were used to describe congenital vascular anomalies. The degree of agreement with accepted ISSVA classification varied both within and among texts, with agreement as low as 22% and as high as 75%. In all texts, hemangioma was the most commonly used term, appearing 79 times. Use of the term "hemangioma" had the lowest rate of agreement with the ISSVA classification criteria, with agreement in 23% of citations. The terms "vascular malformation" and "port-wine stain" were used less frequently, but with a much higher degree of agreement with the ISSVA classification: 82% and 66%, respectively. These results establish that nosologic confusion is widespread even in standard genetic reference texts. In particular, the term "hemangioma" is used imprecisely. The ISSVA classification system provides an extremely useful framework for geneticists to classify vascular birthmarks in their evaluation of infants and children with vascular anomalies in order to provide more accurate evaluation, prognosis, and genetic counseling. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on progression of arteriosclerosis in younger patients: evaluation by carotid duplex ultrasonography and cardio-ankle vascular index(CAVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun; Kurosu, Takumi; Kon, Tokuo; Tomaru, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate progression of arteriosclerosis using cardio-ankle vascular index(CAVI) and carotid duplex ultrasonography(DUS) in young and adolescent patients considered to be at risk of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the progression of arteriosclerosis using CAVI and carotid DUS in 240 young and adolescent patients. Dyslipidemia(DL), hypertension(HT), and diabetes mellitus(DM) were major cardiovascular risk factors. Patients were divided to 4 groups according to number of risk factors. In terms of risk factors, CAVI and CAVI difference(CAVI-D) were elevated only in the HT group(p=0.0290, p=0.0243 vs. no risk respectively). CAVI-D was positively associated with diastolic blood pressure(DBP). Mean IMT was positively associated with LDL-C or systolic blood pressure, and negatively with HDL-C. Plaque score was associated with LDL-C or DBP. In patients with the 3 risk factors, CAVI, CAVI-D and mean intima-media thickness(IMT) were significantly higher than in those without risk(p=0.0009, p=0.0042 and p=0.0151 respectively), and CAVI and CAVID were higher than in those with 1 risk(p=0.0204 and p=0.0231). Carotid plaque develops from around 30 years of age in Japan. Despite numbers of risk factors, there were no differences in CAVI, CAVI-D, mean IMT or plaque score between smoker and non-smoker groups. In conclusion, an increase in the number of risk factors also results in progression of arteriosclerosis in young and adolescent patients. HT was the most important risk factor for arteriosclerosis in these patients.

  20. Circulating miRNAs in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Show Promise as Biomarkers of Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly O. Kheyfets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of vascular function in pediatric pulmonary hypertension. Method. Fourteen pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension patients underwent simultaneous right heart catheterization (RHC and blood biochemical analysis. Univariate and stepwise multivariate linear regression was used to identify and correlate measures of reactive and resistive afterload with circulating miRNA levels. Furthermore, circulating miRNA candidates that classified patients according to a 20% decrease in resistive afterload in response to oxygen (O2 or inhaled nitric oxide (iNO were identified using receiver-operating curves. Results. Thirty-two circulating miRNAs correlated with the pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRi, pulmonary arterial distensibility, and PVRi decrease in response to O2 and/or iNO. Multivariate models, combining the predictive capability of multiple promising miRNA candidates, revealed a good correlation with resistive (r=0.97, P2−tailed<0.0001 and reactive (r=0.86, P2−tailed<0.005 afterloads. Bland-Altman plots showed that 95% of the differences between multivariate models and RHC would fall within 0.13 (mmHg−min/Lm2 and 0.0085/mmHg for resistive and reactive afterloads, respectively. Circulating miR-663 proved to be a good classifier for vascular responsiveness to acute O2 and iNO challenges. Conclusion. This study suggests that circulating miRNAs may be biomarkers to phenotype vascular function in pediatric PAH.

  1. Acute and chronic modulation of placental chorionic plate artery reactivity by reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Tracey A; Wareing, Mark; Shennan, Andrew H; Poston, Lucilla; Baker, Philip N; Greenwood, Susan L

    2009-07-15

    Control of vascular resistance and blood flow in the fetoplacental circulation is incompletely understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), physiological and pathophysiological regulators of vascular tone, are elevated in preeclampsia (PE), a disease of pregnancy characterized by increased fetoplacental vascular resistance. We tested the hypothesis that ROS modulate vascular reactivity in placental chorionic plate arteries. Wire myography was used to examine (1) the effects of acute exposure to ROS on arterial function in normal pregnancy and (2) the effects of maternal antioxidant supplementation on arterial reactivity in women at high risk for PE participating in the Vitamins in Pre-eclampsia (VIP) trial. ROS generated by xanthine plus xanthine oxidase enhanced basal tension, vasoconstriction in response to the thromboxane mimetic U46619, and relaxation in response to sodium nitroprusside. Hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite increased basal tone and relaxed preconstricted arteries (U44619), respectively. In women at risk for PE, chorionic plate artery constriction in response to U46619 was greater in the women receiving placebo compared to the women supplemented with the antioxidant vitamins C and E. ROS may regulate fetoplacental vascular resistance and blood flow in the short term, and chronic exposure to raised ROS could contribute to elevated fetoplacental vascular resistance in PE and fetal growth restriction (FGR).

  2. Evaluation of the accuracy of thermal dissociation CRDS and LIF techniques for atmospheric measurement of reactive nitrogen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Caroline C.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Veres, Patrick R.; Eilerman, Scott J.; Brock, Charles A.; Decker, Zachary C. J.; Zarzana, Kyle J.; Dube, William P.; Wild, Robert J.; Wooldridge, Paul J.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Brown, Steven S.

    2017-05-01

    The sum of all reactive nitrogen species (NOy) includes NOx (NO2 + NO) and all of its oxidized forms, and the accurate detection of NOy is critical to understanding atmospheric nitrogen chemistry. Thermal dissociation (TD) inlets, which convert NOy to NO2 followed by NO2 detection, are frequently used in conjunction with techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) to measure total NOy when set at > 600 °C or speciated NOy when set at intermediate temperatures. We report the conversion efficiency of known amounts of several representative NOy species to NO2 in our TD-CRDS instrument, under a variety of experimental conditions. We find that the conversion efficiency of HNO3 is highly sensitive to the flow rate and the residence time through the TD inlet as well as the presence of other species that may be present during ambient sampling, such as ozone (O3). Conversion of HNO3 at 400 °C, nominally the set point used to selectively convert organic nitrates, can range from 2 to 6 % and may represent an interference in measurement of organic nitrates under some conditions. The conversion efficiency is strongly dependent on the operating characteristics of individual quartz ovens and should be well calibrated prior to use in field sampling. We demonstrate quantitative conversion of both gas-phase N2O5 and particulate ammonium nitrate in the TD inlet at 650 °C, which is the temperature normally used for conversion of HNO3. N2O5 has two thermal dissociation steps, one at low temperature representing dissociation to NO2 and NO3 and one at high temperature representing dissociation of NO3, which produces exclusively NO2 and not NO. We also find a significant interference from partial conversion (5-10 %) of NH3 to NO at 650 °C in the presence of representative (50 ppbv) levels of O3 in dry zero air. Although this interference appears to be suppressed when sampling ambient air, we nevertheless recommend regular

  3. Clinical evaluation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for the early detection of postoperative complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frask, Agata; Orłowski, Michał; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Gajewski, Krzysztof; Michalik, Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Among the most common early complications after bariatric surgery are anastomosis leak and bleeding. In order to react quickly and perform accurate treatment before the clinical signs appear, early predictors should be found. In the study C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were investigated. Characterized by a relatively short half-life, they can predict surgical complications. To develop and implement certain standards for early detection of complications. The study involved 319 adults who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a surgical intervention for morbid obesity at the Department of General Surgery of Ceynowa Hospital in Wejherowo. Every patient had CRP and PCT levels measured before the surgery and on the 1 st and 2 nd postoperative day (POD). Early postoperative complications occurred in 19 (5.96%) patients. Septic and non-septic complications occurred in 3 and 16 patients respectively. Among the patients with septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder (p = 0.0221). Among the patients with non-septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 1 st and 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. Among the patients with septic and non-septic postoperative complications PCT level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. The CRP and PCT level are supposed to be relevant diagnostic markers to predict non-septic and septic complications after LSG.

  4. Intergranular Corrosion of Low Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel 429 Evaluated by the Optimized Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-lei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intergranular corrosion (IGC of Nb-Ti stabilized ferritic stainless steel (FSS 429 was investigated using the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR test combined with the microstructure observation. The results indicated that the optimized DL-EPR test condition for FSS 429 was the solution of 0.5 M H2SO4 + 0.0001 M KSCN with a scanning rate of 100 mV/min at 30°C. Based on this condition, the specimens aging at 400–700°C for different duration were tested and a time-temperature-sensitization (TTS curve for FSS 429 was obtained, which reveals the sensitization nose was located around 550°C. The critical Ir/Ia value was determined to be about 3% above which IGC occurred. After aging treatment, Cr depletion zone was detected using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, most possibly due to Cr segregation around intergranular TiC and NbC.

  5. Effects of cinacalcet on atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients receiving hemodialysis: the EValuation Of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David C; London, Gerard M; Parfrey, Patrick S; Block, Geoffrey A; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Dehmel, Bastian; Drüeke, Tilman B; Floege, Jürgen; Kubo, Yumi; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Goodman, William G; Moe, Sharon M; Trotman, Marie-Louise; Abdalla, Safa; Chertow, Glenn M; Herzog, Charles A

    2014-11-17

    Premature cardiovascular disease limits the duration and quality of life on long-term hemodialysis. The objective of this study was to define the frequency of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events attributable to atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic mechanisms, risk factors for these events, and the effects of cinacalcet, using adjudicated data collected during the EValuation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) Trial. EVOLVE was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet or matched placebo for up to 64 months. For this post hoc analysis, the outcome measure was fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events reflecting atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. During the trial, 1518 patients experienced an adjudicated cardiovascular event, including 958 attributable to nonatherosclerotic disease. Of 1421 deaths during the trial, 768 (54%) were due to cardiovascular disease. Sudden death was the most frequent fatal cardiovascular event, accounting for 24.5% of overall mortality. Combining fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, randomization to cinacalcet reduced the rates of sudden death and heart failure. Patients randomized to cinacalcet experienced fewer nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular events (adjusted relative hazard 0.84, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96), while the effect of cinacalcet on atherosclerotic events did not reach statistical significance. Accepting the limitations of post hoc analysis, any benefits of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in the context of hemodialysis may result from attenuation of nonatherosclerotic processes. Unique identifier: NCT00345839. URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. The Nature of EEG Reactivity to Light, Sound, and Pain Stimulation in Neurosurgical Comatose Patients Evaluated by a Quantitative Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Birger; Nøhr, Kristoffer B; Duez, Christophe H V; Ebbesen, Mads Q

    2017-11-01

    EEG reactivity (EEG-R) is regarded as an important parameter in coma prognosis but knowledge is sparse on the nature of EEG changes due to different kinds of stimulation and their prognostic significance. EEG-R was quantified in a study of 39 comatose neurosurgical patients. Six 30-second standardized visual, auditory, and painful stimulations were applied. EEG-R in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta band was normalized in z-scores as the power of a stimulation epoch relative to average power of 6 resting epochs. Outcome measure was 3 months Glasgow Outcome Scale. Increase in EEG activity was related to poor outcome, was more common (13.4% of tests), and grew continuously during the 30-second stimulation epoch. Decrease in EEG activity was related to good outcome, was rarer (2.5%), and peaked around 15 seconds. Pain was the most provocative stimulation (20.4%) followed by sound (8.7%) and eye-opening (6.7%). Discrimination between good (n = 6) and poor (n = 33) outcome was best in the theta and alpha bands for pain stimulation in the first 10-20 seconds and for sound stimulation in the first 5 to 10 seconds, eye-opening did not discriminate. Increase in activity predicted poor outcome with a high specificity 100% (CI = 52%-100%) and a modest sensitivity of 39% (CI = 23%-58%). Decrease in activity predicted good outcome with a high specificity of 100% (CI = 87%-100%) and a modest sensitivity of 33% (CI = 6%-76%). This quantitative study reveals new knowledge about the nature of EEG-R, which contribute to the development of more reliable and objective clinical procedures for outcome prediction.

  7. Vascular effects of maternal alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Magness, Ronald R

    2012-08-15

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant field of scientific exploration primarily because of its negative effects on the developing fetus, which is specifically defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Though the effects on the mother are less explored compared with those on the fetus, alcohol produces multiple effects on the maternal vascular system. Alcohol has major effects on systemic hemodynamic variables, endocrine axes, and paracrine factors regulating vascular resistance, as well as vascular reactivity. Alcohol is also reported to have significant effects on the reproductive vasculature including alterations in blood flow, vessel remodeling, and angiogenesis. Data presented in this review will illustrate the importance of the maternal vasculature in the pathogenesis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and that more studies are warranted in this field.

  8. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  9. Evaluating an Explicitly Coupled 3-D Soil Thermal-Hydrology and Carbon Nitrogen Reactive Transport Land Surface Model - CLM-PFLOTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F.; Painter, S. L.; Thornton, P. E.; Xu, X.; Tang, G.; Kumar, J.; Bisht, G.; Hammond, G. E.; Mills, R. T.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    In nature soil biophysical and biogeochemical processes are tightly coupled spatially and temporally. However due to constraints of both understanding of complexity of process interactions and computing ability, it still remains a challenge to represent fully coupled systems of soil thermal-hydrological dynamics and biogeochemical processes in land surface models (LSMs). In the Community Land Model (CLM), the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), soil C-N processes are asynchronously coupled to thermal and hydrological processes, and lateral processes are not explicitly considered. PFLOTRAN is an open source, state-of-the-art massively parallel 3-D subsurface flow and reactive transport code. In this study, we have implemented CLM soil thermal-hydrological-biogeochemical processes in PFLOTRAN to explicitly synchronize them spatially and temporally. The resulting coupled CLM-PFLOTRAN model is a LSM capable of resolving 3-D soil thermal-hydrological-biogeochemical processes. The aboveground (CLM) and subsurface (PFLOTRAN) coupling is modularized. Hydrology, thermal-hydrology, and reactive-transport can be assessed separately or fully. We tested the model in fully 3-D coupled mode at the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment-Arctic (NGEE-Arctic) field sites at the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), AK. The simulations show that representation of synchronous coupling and lateral flows impact prediction of ecosystem dynamics across these polygonal tundra sites. The model is also evaluated globally in 1-D column mode showing significant differences compared to CLM, especially in N-limit regions. The developed CLM-PFLOTRAN framework will be used for regional evaluation of climate change-caused ecosystem process responses and their feedbacks to climate system.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of a nurse-led internet-based vascular risk factor management programme: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greving, J P; Kaasjager, H A H; Vernooij, J W P; Hovens, M M C; Wierdsma, J; Grandjean, H M H; van der Graaf, Y; de Wit, G A; Visseren, F L J

    2015-05-20

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of an internet-based, nurse-led vascular risk factor management programme in addition to usual care compared with usual care alone in patients with a clinical manifestation of a vascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a randomised controlled trial (the Internet-based vascular Risk factor Intervention and Self-management (IRIS) study). Multicentre trial in a secondary and tertiary healthcare setting. 330 patients with a recent clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis in the coronary, cerebral, or peripheral arteries and with ≥2 treatable vascular risk factors not at goal. The intervention consisted of a personalised website with an overview and actual status of patients' vascular risk factors, and mail communication with a nurse practitioner via the website for 12 months. The intervention combined self-management support, monitoring of disease control and pharmacotherapy. Societal costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness. Patients experienced equal health benefits, that is, 0.86 vs 0.85 QALY (intervention vs usual care) at 1 year. Adjusting for baseline differences, the incremental QALY difference was -0.014 (95% CI -0.034 to 0.007). The intervention was associated with lower total costs (€4859 vs €5078, difference €219, 95% CI -€2301 to €1825). The probability that the intervention is cost-effective at a threshold value of €20,000/QALY, is 65%. At mean annual cost of €220 per patient, the intervention is relatively cheap. An internet-based, nurse-led intervention in addition to usual care to improve vascular risk factors in patients with a clinical manifestation of a vascular disease does not result in a QALY gain at 1 year, but has a small effect on vascular risk factors and is associated with lower costs. NCT00785031. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Chemical reactivities of bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padbury, G; Sligar, S S

    1985-07-05

    Ferric bleomycin was tested for its ability to catalyze a set of six oxidative reactions characteristic of the heme-containing proteins, cytochrome P-450 and chloroperoxidase. These reactions included peroxyacid decarboxylation and aliphatic hydroxylation as typical cytochrome P-450 chemistries. Peroxyacid-supported oxygen evolution and hydrogen peroxide-mediated chlorination were utilized as characteristic chloroperoxidase reactivities. A typical peroxidative reaction and heteroatom dealkylation, common to both O2 activating enzymes, were also studied. Bleomycin was found to catalyze peroxidation of o-dianisidine. The ferric drug complex was found competent in carrying out N-demethylation of N,N-dimethylaniline when peroxides or peroxyacids or iodosobenzene were used as the oxidants. N-Demethylation was not achieved when N,N-dimethylaniline-N-oxide was substituted as the oxidant under similar conditions. Hydroxylation of cumene and decarboxylation of phenylperacetic acid were not found to be catalyzed by bleomycin. Oxygen evolution from m-chloroperbenzoic acid and chlorination of monochlorodimedone from chloride ion and hydrogen peroxide were found to be catalyzed by bleomycin. Cytochrome P-450cam was also evaluated for O2 evolution, and halogenation activity and was found not to demonstrate such reactivities. The results of this initial survey, along with those of previous studies, appear to indicate that the chemical reactivity of bleomycin can be more closely aligned with the reactivities demonstrated by chloroperoxidase than those of cytochrome P-450.

  12. Vascular permeability alterations induced by arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Wang, Hsiu-Jen; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chang, Louis W

    2004-01-01

    The impact of arsenic on the integrity of blood vessels in vivo via in situ exposure (local injection) of arsenic was investigated. Vascular permeability changes were evaluated by means of the Evans blue assay and the India ink tracer techniques. Rats were intravenously injected with Evans blue followed by intradermal injections of various doses of sodium arsenite on the back skins of the animals. Evans blue at different time points was extracted and assayed as indices of vascular leakage. Skin at various time point injection sites was sampled for arsenic measurement via graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our time course study with Evans blue technique demonstrated a biphasic pattern of vascular permeability change: an early phase of permeability reduction and a later phase of permeability promotion at all dose levels tested. The India ink tracer technique also demonstrated a time-correlated increase in vascular labelling in the tissues examined, signifying an increase in vascular leakage with time. Moreover, we found that despite an early increase in tissue arsenic content at time of injection, tissue arsenic declined rapidly and returned to near control levels after 30-60 min. Thus, an inverse correlation between tissue arsenic content and the extent of vascular permeability was apparent. This study provides the first demonstration that in situ exposure to arsenic will produce vascular dysfunction (vascular leakage) in vivo.

  13. Coronary endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle proliferation are programmed by early-gestation dexamethasone exposure in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Kenneth A.; Roghair, Robert D.; Jung, Felicia; Scholz, Thomas D.; Lamb, Fred S.; Segar, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of the early-gestation ovine fetus to exogenous glucocorticoids induces changes in postnatal cardiovascular physiology. We sought to characterize coronary artery vascular function in this model by elucidating the contribution of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species to altered coronary vascular reactivity and examining the proliferative potential of coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone (dex, 0.28 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 48 h) was administered to pregnant ewes at 2...

  14. Uterine vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management.

  15. Vascular effects of phytoestrogens and alternative menopausal hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencel, V B; Benjamin, M M; Bahou, S N; Khalil, R A

    2012-02-01

    Phytoestrogens are estrogenic compounds of plant origin classified into different groups including isoflavones, lignans, coumestans and stilbenes. Isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein are the most studied and most potent phytoestrogens, and are found mainly in soy based foods. The effects of phytoestrogens are partly mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs): ERα, ERβ and possibly GPER. The interaction of phytoestrogens with ERs is thought to induce both genomic and non-genomic effects in many tissues including the vasculature. Some phytoestrogens such as genistein have additional non-ER-mediated effects involving signaling pathways such as tyrosine kinase. Experimental studies have shown beneficial effects of phytoestrogens on endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle, and extracellular matrix. Phytoestrogens may also affect other pathophysiologic vascular processes such as lipid profile, angiogenesis, inflammation, tissue damage by reactive oxygen species, and these effects could delay the progression of atherosclerosis. As recent clinical trials showed no vascular benefits or even increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CV events with conventional menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), phytoestrogens are being considered as alternatives to pharmacologic MHT. Epidemiological studies in the Far East population suggest that dietary intake of phytoestrogens may contribute to the decreased incidence of postmenopausal CVD and thromboembolic events. Also, the WHO-CARDIAC study supported that consumption of high soybean diet is associated with lower mortalities from coronary artery disease. However, as with estrogen, there has been some discrepancy between the experimental studies demonstrating the vascular benefits of phytoestrogens and the data from clinical trials. This is likely because the phytoestrogens clinical trials have been limited in many aspects including the number of participants enrolled, the clinical end points investigated, and the lack of

  16. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Their Role in Age-Related Vascular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhed, Yuliya; Daiber, Andreas; Steven, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is significantly increased in the older population. Risk factors and predictors of future cardiovascular events such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or diabetes are observed with higher frequency in elderly individuals. A major determinant of vascular aging is endothelial dysfunction, characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent signaling processes. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, loss of nitric oxide (•NO) signaling, loss of endothelial barrier function and infiltration of leukocytes to the vascular wall, explaining the low-grade inflammation characteristic for the aged vasculature. We here discuss the importance of different sources of ROS for vascular aging and their contribution to the increased cardiovascular risk in the elderly population with special emphasis on mitochondrial ROS formation and oxidative damage of mitochondrial DNA. Also the interaction (crosstalk) of mitochondria with nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases is highlighted. Current concepts of vascular aging, consequences for the development of cardiovascular events and the particular role of ROS are evaluated on the basis of cell culture experiments, animal studies and clinical trials. Present data point to a more important role of oxidative stress for the maximal healthspan (healthy aging) than for the maximal lifespan. PMID:26184181

  17. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Their Role in Age-Related Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Mikhed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is significantly increased in the older population. Risk factors and predictors of future cardiovascular events such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or diabetes are observed with higher frequency in elderly individuals. A major determinant of vascular aging is endothelial dysfunction, characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent signaling processes. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS leads to oxidative stress, loss of nitric oxide (•NO signaling, loss of endothelial barrier function and infiltration of leukocytes to the vascular wall, explaining the low-grade inflammation characteristic for the aged vasculature. We here discuss the importance of different sources of ROS for vascular aging and their contribution to the increased cardiovascular risk in the elderly population with special emphasis on mitochondrial ROS formation and oxidative damage of mitochondrial DNA. Also the interaction (crosstalk of mitochondria with nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidases is highlighted. Current concepts of vascular aging, consequences for the development of cardiovascular events and the particular role of ROS are evaluated on the basis of cell culture experiments, animal studies and clinical trials. Present data point to a more important role of oxidative stress for the maximal healthspan (healthy aging than for the maximal lifespan.

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow single-photon emission tomography with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and the acetazolamide test in the evaluation of vascular and Alzheimer`s dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavics, L.; Csernay, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Szent-Gyoergyi Medical University, Szeged (Hungary); Gruenwald, F.; Reichmann, K.; Menzel, C.; Schomburg, A.G.; Overbeck, B.; Biersack, H.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn (Germany); Horn, R.; Kitschenberg, A.; Hartmann, A. [Department of Neurology, University of Bonn (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The diagnostic potential of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) following systemic administration of the cerebral vasodilator acetazolamide (acetazolamide test) was evaluated by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in patients with Alzheimer`s disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VD). An initial, high-resolution SPET study was performed with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO, and after 2 days the patients were re-evaluated with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO following systemic administration of acetazolamide. Reconstructed SPET slices were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively by a semi-automatic rCBF map method. When {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO alone was used, bilateral hypoperfusion was found in the temporal and/or parietal regions in 33% (6/18) of the VD patients and in 70% (23/33) of the AD patients. The corresponding data obtained by quantitative evaluation were 41% (7/17) and 71% (15/21), respectively. The vascular reserve capacity, as determined with the acetazolamide test, was preserved visually in 22% (4/18) and quantitatively in 29% (5/17) of the VD patients, but in 73% (24/33) and 76% (16/21) of the AD patients. The differences in the perfusion patterns between the VD and AD patients were statistically significant (P<0.01, Fischer`s exact test). Of the VD patients with hypoperfusion (bilateral temporal and/or parietal), 4/6 (67%, visual evaluation) and 4/7 (57%, quantitative evaluation) had a decreased vascular reserve capacity as determined with the acetazolamide test. In the AD group of patients the corresponding results were 3/23 (13%) and 4/15 (27%). It is concluded that the acetazolamide test is promising in rCBF SPET to differe