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Sample records for vascular lesions affect

  1. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  2. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  3. Characterization of vascular lesions in pigs affected by porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, A R; Segalés, J

    2015-05-01

    Vascular lesions and their association with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were evaluated in multiple organs from 10 pigs affected with PCV2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD). Animals had vascular lesions in multiple organs, consisting of lymphohistiocytic lymphangitis and/or phlebitis, mild to severe necrotizing arteritis, and thrombosis within splenic arterioles and choroid plexus capillaries. Variable amounts of PCV2 nucleic acid detected by in situ hybridization were present within endothelial cells, tunica media myocytes, and perivascular and/or intralesional inflammatory cell infiltrates. PCV2 nucleic acid was detected within endothelial cells of both lymphatic and blood vessels without lesions in the associated tissues. Necrotizing arteritis was principally present in lymph nodes and kidney and consisted of degeneration, necrosis, and pyknosis of myocytes, often with intracytoplasmic, brightly eosinophilic inclusion bodies that were strongly positive for PCV2 nucleic acid. Segmental or circumferential fibrinoid necrosis was mainly present in vessels of the lymph node, spleen, and choroid plexus and was variably associated with PCV2 nucleic acid. Severe lymphangitis associated with strong intralesional PCV2 labeling was frequently detected within the mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes and the lamina propria of the ileum. In most tissues, medium and large lymphatics and/or veins often had disruption of the intima and mild mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration that was variably associated with PCV2 nucleic acid. The present study indicates that vasculitis is a frequent finding in natural cases of PCV2-SD and that PCV2 may have a direct cytopathic effect on tunica media myocytes of small- and medium-sized arteries as well as endothelium. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Luminal epithelium in endometrial fragments affects their vascularization, growth and morphological development into endometriosis-like lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dilu; Menger, Michael D; Wang, Hongbo; Laschke, Matthias W

    2014-02-01

    In endometriosis research, endometriosis-like lesions are usually induced in rodents by transplantation of isolated endometrial tissue fragments to ectopic sites. In the present study, we investigated whether this approach is affected by the cellular composition of the grafts. For this purpose, endometrial tissue fragments covered with luminal epithelium (LE(+)) and without luminal epithelium (LE(-)) were transplanted from transgenic green-fluorescent-protein-positive (GFP(+)) donor mice into the dorsal skinfold chamber of GFP(-) wild-type recipient animals to analyze their vascularization, growth and morphology by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry during a 14-day observation period. LE(-) fragments developed into typical endometriosis-like lesions with cyst-like dilated endometrial glands and a well-vascularized endometrial stroma. In contrast, LE(+) fragments exhibited a polypoid morphology and a significantly reduced blood perfusion after engraftment, because the luminal epithelium prevented the vascular interconnection with the microvasculature of the surrounding host tissue. This was associated with a markedly decreased growth rate of LE(+) lesions compared with LE(-) lesions. In addition, we found that many GFP(+) microvessels grew outside the LE(-) lesions and developed interconnections to the host microvasculature, indicating that inosculation is an important mechanism in the vascularization process of endometriosis-like lesions. Our findings demonstrate that the luminal epithelium crucially affects the vascularization, growth and morphology of endometriosis-like lesions. Therefore, it is of major importance to standardize the cellular composition of endometrial grafts in order to increase the validity and reliability of pre-clinical rodent studies in endometriosis research.

  5. Luminal epithelium in endometrial fragments affects their vascularization, growth and morphological development into endometriosis-like lesions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilu Feng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In endometriosis research, endometriosis-like lesions are usually induced in rodents by transplantation of isolated endometrial tissue fragments to ectopic sites. In the present study, we investigated whether this approach is affected by the cellular composition of the grafts. For this purpose, endometrial tissue fragments covered with luminal epithelium (LE+ and without luminal epithelium (LE− were transplanted from transgenic green-fluorescent-protein-positive (GFP+ donor mice into the dorsal skinfold chamber of GFP− wild-type recipient animals to analyze their vascularization, growth and morphology by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry during a 14-day observation period. LE− fragments developed into typical endometriosis-like lesions with cyst-like dilated endometrial glands and a well-vascularized endometrial stroma. In contrast, LE+ fragments exhibited a polypoid morphology and a significantly reduced blood perfusion after engraftment, because the luminal epithelium prevented the vascular interconnection with the microvasculature of the surrounding host tissue. This was associated with a markedly decreased growth rate of LE+ lesions compared with LE− lesions. In addition, we found that many GFP+ microvessels grew outside the LE− lesions and developed interconnections to the host microvasculature, indicating that inosculation is an important mechanism in the vascularization process of endometriosis-like lesions. Our findings demonstrate that the luminal epithelium crucially affects the vascularization, growth and morphology of endometriosis-like lesions. Therefore, it is of major importance to standardize the cellular composition of endometrial grafts in order to increase the validity and reliability of pre-clinical rodent studies in endometriosis research.

  6. Vascular lesions of head and neck: A literature review

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    Nazia Masoom Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular lesions are among the most common congenital and neonatal abnormalities. These anomalies can occur throughout the whole body, with 60%, however, being located in the head and neck region probably due to its intricate vascular anatomy of region. There is a significant confusion in the literature because of the use of confusing descriptive terminology for the same vascular entity and eponyms. Correct naming of lesion, appropriate classification, and clinical appearance of vascular lesions have a direct impact on understanding of etiologies of these complex lesions, diagnosis, and in treating patients. Thus, the aim of this article is to provide comprehensive knowledge about classifications and to have an insight of various important vascular lesions affecting head and neck region based on its pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management.

  7. LASER TREATMENT OF BENIGN CUTANEOUS VASCULAR LESIONS

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    Uroš Ahčan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital and acquired vascular lesions of the skin and subcutis are a common health problem from aesthetic and also from psycho-social point of view. However, recent advances in laser technology have enabled an efficient and safe treatment. This study presents our experience with treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions using modern laser systems. Most common benign cutaneous vascular lesions are described.Patients and methods. In years 2002 and 2003, 109 patients, 4 to 80 (mean 39 years old, Fitzpatrick skin type 1–4, with 210 benign cutaneous vascular lesions were treated using the Dualis VP® laser system (Fotona, Slovenia which incorporates the KTP and Nd:YAG lasers. Vascular lesions in the upper layers of the skin with diameter up to 1 mm were treated with the KTP laser (wavelength 532 nm. For larger vessels in deeper layer we used the Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm. Patients graded the pain during treatment on a scale of 1–10. Clinical outcomes were evaluated 1–3 months after the last treatment: according to the percentage of clearance of the lesion compared to the adjacent normal skin and for the presence of adverse effects. According to these criteria each lesion was assigned a score: poor (0–25%, fair (26–50%, good (51–75%, excellent (76–100%.Results. Immediate response after application of a laser beam with proper characteristics was whitish-grey discoloration of treated area. Treatment results after 1–3 months were excellent in 48.1%, good 40.9%, fair in 8.6% and poor in 2.4%. Patients without prior anaesthesia graded pain during treatment from 1 to 8 (mean 4.0 and patients with EMLA® anaesthesia from 1 to 6 (mean 2.6. Side effects were frequent but minimal and transient. Erythema disappeared in several days after treatment while crusting persisted for 14 days. 3 permanent hyperpigmentations, 2 permanent hypopigmentations, 2 hypertrophic scars and 1 beam sized atrophic scar were detected at last follow

  8. Vascular lesions of the vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökcan, Kürşat Mustafa; Dursun, Gürsel

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to present symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical course, management modalities, and consequences of vascular lesions of vocal fold. This study examined 162 patients, the majority professional voice users, with vascular lesions regarding their presenting symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical courses and treatment results. The most common complaint was sudden hoarseness with hemorrhagic polyp. Microlaryngoscopic surgery was performed in 108 cases and the main indication of surgery was the presence of vocal fold mass or development of vocal polyp during clinical course. Cold microsurgery was utilized for removal of vocal fold masses and feeding vessels cauterized using low power, pulsed CO(2) laser. Acoustic analysis of patients revealed a significant improvement of jitter, shimmer and harmonics/noise ratio values after treatment. Depending on our clinical findings, we propose treatment algorithm where voice rest and behavioral therapy is the integral part and indications of surgery are individualized for each patient.

  9. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

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    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14% had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.

  10. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S.; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju

    2014-01-01

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  11. [Gastric vascular lesions in cirrhosis: gastropathy and antral vascular ectasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Meritxell; Calvet, Xavier; Vergara, Mercedes; Bella, Maria Rosa; Junquera, Félix; Martinez-Bauer, Eva; Campo, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (GHP) is a complication of portal hypertension usually associated with liver cirrhosis. The pathogenesis is unclear but the presence of portal hypertension is an essential factor for its development. GHP may be asymptomatic or present as gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. Endoscopic lesions vary from a mosaic pattern to diffuse red spots; the most common location is the fundus. Treatment is indicated when there is acute or chronic bleeding, as secondary prophylaxis. There is insufficient evidence to recommend primary prophylaxis in patients who have never bled. Drugs that decrease portal pressure, such as non-cardioselective beta-blockers, and/or endoscopic ablative treatments, such as argon-beam coagulation, may be used. The role of transarterial intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) or bypass surgery has been insufficiently analyzed. Antral vascular ectasia (EVA) is a rare entity in liver cirrhosis, whose pathophysiology is still unknown. Clinical presentation is similar to that of GHP and endoscopy usually shows red spots in the antrum. Biopsy is often required to differentiate EVA from GHP. There is no effective medical therapy, so endoscopic ablative therapy and, in severe cases, antrectomy are recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation-induced vascular lesions of the skin: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flucke, U.E.; Requena, L.; Mentzel, T.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced cutaneous vascular neoplasms occur infrequently and comprise benign, so-called atypical vascular lesions (AVL) and angiosarcomas (AS), often being high-grade malignant tumors. Both arise most frequently within previously irradiated skin in breast-conserving-treated mammary cancer

  13. Management of vascular lesions using advanced laser technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofer Tzermias

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most widely used cutaneous applications of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (laser concerns the treatment of vascular lesions. During the past two decades, very significant advances in the application of laser technology in dermatology have occurred, with selective photothermolysis being the most important. This review focuses on the application of modern laser devices (Pulsed Dye Laser, or PDL; potassium titanyl phosphate laser, or KTP; diode laser; and neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser, or Nd:YAG, as well as the combination of laser and photodynamic therapy (PDT for the treatment of vascular lesions. In particular, both congenital (haemangiomas and port-wine stains and acquired vascular lesions (facial and leg telangiectasias, rosacea, Poikiloderma of Civatte, spider angioma, pyogenic granuloma, and venous lakes are discussed. The review of many recent research studies demonstrates that modern applications of lasers in dermatology constitute the finest method for the treatment of vascular lesions, combining the advantages of invasive therapy with the security offered by non-invasive therapy, while in certain cases they are the single and only choice for the treatment of these lesions.

  14. Benign vascular lesions of bone: radiologic and pathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, D.E.; Wold, L.E. [Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The benign vascular tumors of bone represent a diverse group of tumors that can present with a broad spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms. They can also present a significant diagnostic challenge due to their widely variable radiographic imaging and histologic features. Some of the tumors manifest as clearly benign lesions with tissue-specific diagnostic imaging features, while others have non-specific imaging features that may simulate malignant neoplasm. This article will provide a review of the nomenclature and the characteristic radiographic and pathologic features of the benign vascular lesions of bone. The information will aid in improving our diagnostic accuracy and enhance our understanding of the biologic potential of this diverse group of osseous lesions. (orig.)

  15. Benign vascular lesions of bone: radiologic and pathologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, D.E.; Wold, L.E.

    2000-01-01

    The benign vascular tumors of bone represent a diverse group of tumors that can present with a broad spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms. They can also present a significant diagnostic challenge due to their widely variable radiographic imaging and histologic features. Some of the tumors manifest as clearly benign lesions with tissue-specific diagnostic imaging features, while others have non-specific imaging features that may simulate malignant neoplasm. This article will provide a review of the nomenclature and the characteristic radiographic and pathologic features of the benign vascular lesions of bone. The information will aid in improving our diagnostic accuracy and enhance our understanding of the biologic potential of this diverse group of osseous lesions. (orig.)

  16. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO{sub 2} extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO{sub 2} observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO{sub 2} secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author).

  17. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO 2 extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO 2 observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO 2 secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author)

  18. Endovascular treatment of carotid-cavernous vascular lesions

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    GUILHERME BRASILEIRO DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the endovascular treatment of vascular lesions of the cavernous segment of the internal carotidartery (ICA performed at our institution. Methods: we conducted a descriptive, retrospective and prospective study of patients with aneurysms of the cavernous portion of the ICA or with direct carotid-cavernous fistulas (dCCF undergoing endovascular treatment. Results: we included 26 patients with intracavernous aneurysms and ten with dCCF. All aneurysms were treated with ICA occlusion. Those with dCCF were treated with occlusion in seven cases and with selective fistula occlusion in the remaining three. There was improvement of pain and ocular proptosis in all patients with dCCF. In patients with intracavernous aneurysms, the incidence of retro-orbital pain fell from 84.6% to 30.8% after treatment. The endovascular treatment decreased the dysfunction of affected cranial nerves in both groups, especially the oculomotor one. Conclusion: the endovascular treatment significantly improved the symptoms in the patients studied, especially those related to pain and oculomotor nerve dysfunction.

  19. High-field MR imaging of spinal cord vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blas, C.; Halimi, P.; Sigal, R.; Doyon, D.; Hurth, M.

    1986-01-01

    MR imaging (1.5T) was performed in 20 patients with spinal cord vascular malformations and hemangioblastomas. MR imaging findings were correlated with data obtained by other imaging modalities (myelography, CT and selective angiography). A diagnosis of vascular legions was suspected or established in 15 patients. Seven had a history of embolization or surgery prior to MR imaging. Six of seven hemangioblastomas were detected on MR imaging. The diagnosis was incorrect in one case because of the small size of the hemangioblastoma nodule, although the cystic part of the lesion was correctly identified. In three cases, the diagnosis was made first on MR imaging and then confirmed on angiography and surgery. Eleven vascular malformations were studied. Malformative thrombosis was found in four of the 11, as suggested by high-intensity signals on T1- and T2-weighted images

  20. Malignant vascular lesions of bone: radiologic and pathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, D.E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Wold, L.E. [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The malignant vascular tumors of bone represent an uncommon diverse group of tumors with widely variable clinical and radiographic presentations. Although the radiographic imaging features of the lytic osseous lesions typically seen with this group of tumors are relatively nonspecific, the propensity to develop multifocal disease in an anatomic region is a feature that can be helpful in suggesting the diagnosis of a vascular tumor. The differential diagnosis varies according to the age of the patient and presence of solitary or multifocal disease. The histologic features are variable and range from tumors with vasoformative features to those that mimic mesenchymal neoplasm or metastatic carcinoma. Familiarity with the radiographic and pathologic spectrum of disease is essential for making an accurate diagnosis in this diverse group of neoplasms. This paper will provide a review of the nomenclature for the malignant vascular tumors of bone and discuss the radiographic and pathologic differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors in Benign Vascular Lesions of the Orbit: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Elizabeth A; Garrity, James A; Castillo, Francisco; Engman, Steven J; Couch, Steven M; Salomão, Diva R

    2016-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the orbit, although not malignant, can cause morbidity because of their location near critical structures in the orbit. For the same reason, they can be challenging to remove surgically. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are increasingly being used to treat diseases with prominent angiogenesis. Our study aimed to determine to what extent VEGF receptors and their subtypes are expressed on selected vascular lesions of the orbit. Retrospective case series of all orbital vascular lesions removed by one of the authors (JAG) at the Mayo Clinic. A total of 52 patients who underwent removal of vascular orbital lesions. The pathology specimens from the patients were retrieved, their pathologic diagnosis was confirmed, demographic and clinical information were gathered, and sections from vascular tumors were stained with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 1 (VEGFR1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 3 (VEGFR3). The existence and pattern of staining with VEGF and its subtypes on these lesions. There were 28 specimens of venous malformations, 4 capillary hemangiomas, 7 lymphatic malformations, and 6 lymphaticovenous malformations. All samples stained with VEGF, 55% stained with VEGFR1, 98% stained with VEGFR2, and 96% stained with VEGFR3. Most (94%) of the VEGFR2 staining was diffuse. Most orbital vascular lesions express VEGF receptors, which may suggest a future target for nonsurgical treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute lesions that impair affective empathy

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    Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy—making inferences about how another person feels—engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

  3. Adolescents with vascular frontal lesion: A neuropsychological follow up case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Clara L; Yáñez, Guillermina; Catroppa, Cathy; Rojas, Sulema; Escartin, Erick; Hearps, Stephen J C; García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify clinically significant changes in cognitive functions in three adolescents who underwent surgery for resection of a focal vascular lesion in the frontal lobe. Cognitive functions, executive function, behavior regulation, emotion regulation, and social abilities were assessed prior to surgery, six and 24 months post-discharge. Significant clinical changes were observed during all the assessments. Cognitive changes after surgery are not homogeneous. Most of the significant clinical changes were improvements. Especially the significant clinical changes presented in EF domains were only improvements; these results suggest that EF were affected by the vascular lesion and benefitted by the surgery. After resection of a vascular lesion between 15 and 16 years of age the affected executive functions can continue the maturation process. Our results highlight the importance that assessments must include emotional aspects, even if deficits in these domains are not presented in the acute phase. Rehabilitation methods should promote the development of skills that help patients and their families to manage the emotional and behavioral changes that emerge once they are discharged from the hospital. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Transscleral diode photocoagulation of large retinal and choroidal vascular lesions.

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    Yun Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transscleral retinal photocoagulation with a diode laser is used in glaucoma refractory to medical and surgical treatment. Our main research question was how the technique performed in large vascular lesions associated with hemangiomas of the retina and choroid. METHODOLOGY/CLINICAL FINDINGS: Patient charts were retrieved from the hospital files for patients who underwent the procedure and were followed for at least 24 months. Five patients (6 eyes fit the criteria. Cases included Von Hippel's disease (2 eyes, Coats' disease (1 eye and choroidal hemangioma (3 cases. Transscleral diode laser treatment was performed under retrobulbar and topical anesthesia with a retinopexy probe (IRIS DioPexy, IRIS Medical Instruments, Mountain View, CA applied transsclerally under indirect ophthalmoscope visualization. We found an improvement in best-corrected visual acuity at 24 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transscleral photocoagulation may have a clinical application in these diseases as an alternate to the high cost of photodynamic therapy with photosensitizing agents.

  5. Fibulin-2 is present in murine vascular lesions and is important for smooth muscle cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ström, A.; Olin, A. I.; Aspberg, A.

    2006-01-01

    /hyaluronan complexes, an ECM network that has been suggested to be important during tissue repair. In this study we have analysed the presence of fibulin-2 in two different models of murine vascular lesions. We have also examined how the fibulin-2/versican network influences SMC migration. Methods: Presence of fibulin......Objective: The vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion, migration and proliferation-events that are important during the atherosclerotic process. Fibulin-2 is a member of the ECM protein family of fibulins and has been found to cross-link versican...... and is upregulated during SMC phenotypic modulation in cell culture. Moreover, treatments with peptides that block the interaction between versican and fibulin-2 inhibit SMC migration in vitro. Conclusions: Fibulin-2 can be produced by SMC as a response to injury and may participate in the ECM organisation...

  6. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of white matter lesions on MRI: the evaluation of vascular care in Alzheimer's disease (EVA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A

    2010-03-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs and prevents occurrence of new infarcts. A randomized controlled clinical trial, including 123 subjects, compared vascular care with standard care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions on MRI. Progression of WMLs, lacunes, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and global cortical atrophy were semiquantitatively scored after 2-year follow-up. Sixty-five subjects (36 vascular care, 29 standard care) had a baseline and a follow-up MRI and in 58 subjects, a follow-up scan could not be obtained due to advanced dementia or death. Subjects in the vascular care group had less progression of WMLs as measured with the WML change score (1.4 versus 2.3, P=0.03). There was no difference in the number of new lacunes or change in global cortical atrophy or medial temporal lobe atrophy between the 2 groups. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs. Treatment aimed at vascular risk factors in patients with early Alzheimer disease may be beneficial, possibly in an even earlier stage of the disease.

  7. Improved differentiation between MS and vascular brain lesions using FLAIR* at 7 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilsdonk, Iris D.; Wattjes, Mike P.; Lopez-Soriano, Alexandra; Jong, Marcus C. de; Graaf, Wolter L. de; Conijn, Mandy M.A.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, HZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Polman, Chris H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Geurts, Jeroen J.G. [VU University, Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geerlings, Mirjam I. [University Medical Center, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate whether a new magnetic resonance image (MRI) technique called T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) can differentiate between multiple sclerosis (MS) and vascular brain lesions, at 7 Tesla (T). We examined 16 MS patients and 16 age-matched patients with (risk factors for) vascular disease. 3D-FLAIR and T2*-weighted images were combined into FLAIR* images. Lesion type and intensity, perivascular orientation and presence of a hypointense rim were analysed. In total, 433 cerebral lesions were detected in MS patients versus 86 lesions in vascular patients. Lesions in MS patients were significantly more often orientated in a perivascular manner: 74 % vs. 47 % (P < 0.001). Ten MS lesions (2.3 %) were surrounded by a hypointense rim on FLAIR*, and 24 MS lesions (5.5 %) were hypointense on T2*. No lesions in vascular patients showed any rim or hypointensity. Specificity of differentiating MS from vascular lesions on 7-T FLAIR* increased when the presence of a central vessel was taken into account (from 63 % to 88 %), most obviously for deep white matter lesions (from 69 % to 94 %). High sensitivity remained (81 %). 7-T FLAIR* improves differentiation between MS and vascular lesions based on lesion location, perivascular orientation and presence of hypointense (rims around) lesions. circle A new MRI technique T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) was investigated. circle FLAIR* at 7-T MRI combines FLAIR and T2* images into a single image. circle FLAIR* at 7 T does not require enhancement with contrast agents. (orig.)

  8. Photoacoustic discrimination of vascular and pigmented lesions using classical and Bayesian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Jennifer A.; Holan, Scott H.; Feldman, Mary M.; Viator, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination of pigmented and vascular lesions in skin can be difficult due to factors such as size, subungual location, and the nature of lesions containing both melanin and vascularity. Misdiagnosis may lead to precancerous or cancerous lesions not receiving proper medical care. To aid in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of such pathologies, we develop a photoacoustic system to determine the nature of skin lesions in vivo. By irradiating skin with two laser wavelengths, 422 and 530 nm, we induce photoacoustic responses, and the relative response at these two wavelengths indicates whether the lesion is pigmented or vascular. This response is due to the distinct absorption spectrum of melanin and hemoglobin. In particular, pigmented lesions have ratios of photoacoustic amplitudes of approximately 1.4 to 1 at the two wavelengths, while vascular lesions have ratios of about 4.0 to 1. Furthermore, we consider two statistical methods for conducting classification of lesions: standard multivariate analysis classification techniques and a Bayesian-model-based approach. We study 15 human subjects with eight vascular and seven pigmented lesions. Using the classical method, we achieve a perfect classification rate, while the Bayesian approach has an error rate of 20%.

  9. Sclerotherapy and cryotherapy in the management of oral vascular lesions: a series of 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Melissa Rodrigues de; Jomaa, Sanaha; Mobile, Rafael Zancan; Uetanabaro, Lucas Caetano; Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Scariot, Rafaela; Moro, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Vascular anomalies such as hemangiomas or vascular malformations can produce negative esthetic effects in the maxillofacial region. These negative effects are the main complaints of patients. The clinical therapeutic efficacy of cryotherapy and sclerotherapy in the treatment of these lesions was evaluated in 10 patients who were clinically diagnosed with vascular lesions. Lesions were submitted to either cryotherapy or sclerotherapy, and follow-up showed that cryotherapy and sclerotherapy both were clinically effective in treating oral vascular lesions. Cryotherapy is an easy to perform method that requires only 1 session, but the high cost of the equipment is a limiting factor. Sclerotherapy is a noninvasive treatment widely accepted by patients, but more than 1 session is required.

  10. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular lesions-a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Kuiper, Roy; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; van Gool, Willem A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether vascular care slows dementia progression in patients with Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular lesions on neuroimaging. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial with 2-year follow-up. SETTING: Neurological and geriatric outpatient clinics in 10

  11. Management strategies for neoplastic and vascular brain lesions presenting during pregnancy: A series of 29 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Celestino Esteves Pereira; Jose Carlos Lynch

    2017-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of a brain tumor or intracranial vascular lesion during pregnancy is a rare event, but when it happens, it jeopardizes the lives of both the mother and infant. It also creates challenges of a neurosurgical, obstetric, and ethical nature. A multidisciplinary approach should be used for their care. Methods: Between 1986 and 2015, 12 pregnant women diagnosed with brain tumors and 17 women with intracranial vascular lesion underwent treatment at the Neurosurgery Departm...

  12. Dysglycemia, brain volume and vascular lesions on MRI in a memory clinic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exalto, L.G.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Vrenken, H.; Biessels, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is unclear, if the association between abnormalities in glucose metabolism (dysglycemia) and impaired cognitive functioning is primarily driven by degenerative or vascular brain damage. We therefore examined the relation between dysglycemia and brain volume and vascular lesions on MRI

  13. Vascular Care in Patients With Alzheimer Disease With Cerebrovascular Lesions Slows Progression of White Matter Lesions on MRI The Evaluation of Vascular Care in Alzheimer's Disease (EVA) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A.; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose-White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in

  14. Selected biological markers in various vascular lesions of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Gronkiewicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular anomalies are divided according to the contemporary system of classification into two groups: tumors and malformations. However, there is no consensus on juvenile angiofibroma’s place in that system. The general characteristics of selected markers of angiogenesis and tissue remodeling are presented in the series in the context of current knowledge in the field of pathophysiology of vascular lesions. The mentioned markers are currently the subjects of multidirectional studies in oncology, as they take part in the process of neoangiogenesis and proliferation of tumors. Nevertheless, they have not been widely examined in vascular lesions. The indirect goal of that series is to indicate the possible research direction on vascular lesions to determine their molecular profile, to create a more specific system of classification, and above all to develop new diagnostic and treatment methods.

  15. Management strategies for neoplastic and vascular brain lesions presenting during pregnancy: A series of 29 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Celestino Esteves; Lynch, Jose Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of a brain tumor or intracranial vascular lesion during pregnancy is a rare event, but when it happens, it jeopardizes the lives of both the mother and infant. It also creates challenges of a neurosurgical, obstetric, and ethical nature. A multidisciplinary approach should be used for their care. Between 1986 and 2015, 12 pregnant women diagnosed with brain tumors and 17 women with intracranial vascular lesion underwent treatment at the Neurosurgery Department of the Servidores do Estado Hospital and Rede D'Or/São Luis. The Neurosurgery Department teamed up with Obstetrics Anesthesiology Departments in establishing the procedures. The patients' records, surgical descriptions, imaging studies, and histopathological material were reviewed. Among 12 patients presenting with brain tumors, there were neither operative mortality nor fetal deaths. Among the vascular lesions, aneurysm rupture was responsible for bleeding in 6 instances. Arteriovenous malformation was diagnosed in 7 patients. In this subgroup, the maternal and fetal mortality rates were 11.7% and 23.7%, respectively. We can assert that the association between a brain tumor and vascular lesions with pregnancy is a very unusual event, which jeopardizes both the lives of the mother and infant. It remains incompletely characterized due to the rare nature of these potentially devastating events. Knowing the exact mechanism responsible for the interaction of pregnancy and with these lesions will improve the treatment of these patients.

  16. 3D-CT vascular setting protocol using computer graphics for the evaluation of maxillofacial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAVALCANTI Marcelo de Gusmão Paraiso

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the aspect of a mandibular giant cell granuloma in spiral computed tomography-based three-dimensional (3D-CT reconstructed images using computer graphics, and demonstrate the importance of the vascular protocol in permitting better diagnosis, visualization and determination of the dimensions of the lesion. We analyzed 21 patients with maxillofacial lesions of neoplastic and proliferative origins. Two oral and maxillofacial radiologists analyzed the images. The usefulness of interactive 3D images reconstructed by means of computer graphics, especially using a vascular setting protocol for qualitative and quantitative analyses for the diagnosis, determination of the extent of lesions, treatment planning and follow-up, was demonstrated. The technique is an important adjunct to the evaluation of lesions in relation to axial CT slices and 3D-CT bone images.

  17. 3D-CT vascular setting protocol using computer graphics for the evaluation of maxillofacial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, M G; Ruprecht, A; Vannier, M W

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present the aspect of a mandibular giant cell granuloma in spiral computed tomography-based three-dimensional (3D-CT) reconstructed images using computer graphics, and demonstrate the importance of the vascular protocol in permitting better diagnosis, visualization and determination of the dimensions of the lesion. We analyzed 21 patients with maxillofacial lesions of neoplastic and proliferative origins. Two oral and maxillofacial radiologists analyzed the images. The usefulness of interactive 3D images reconstructed by means of computer graphics, especially using a vascular setting protocol for qualitative and quantitative analyses for the diagnosis, determination of the extent of lesions, treatment planning and follow-up, was demonstrated. The technique is an important adjunct to the evaluation of lesions in relation to axial CT slices and 3D-CT bone images.

  18. Effectiveness of Sclerotherapy with Ethanol Amine Oleate in Benign Oral and Perioral Vascular Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeza Pradhan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular lesions presentation very with age & anatomical location. There are no parameters to assess its therapeutic efficacy. Objective: This prospective experimental study was designed to find out the effectiveness of Sclerotherapy with Ethanol Amine Oleate in the treatment of Benign Oral and Perioral Vascular Lesions. Methods: In this study, 32 patients, aged 1½ to 40 years with oral and perioral vascular lesions were included. Diagnosis was made by accurate history, clinical examination and in some cases Color Doppler examination, MRI and/or Angiogram were done for confirmation. Intralesional injection of Ethanol Amine Oleate was given at an interval of 2weeks between each session. Photographs were also taken during subsequent session to document the effect of injection. Results: At 8weeks after the final Sclerotherapeutic session, the results were graded as: Excellent: for extinguished and symmetrical appearance obtained; Good: for definitive reduction obtained; Fair: for slight reduction obtained and Poor: for lesion unchanged or worsened. Results with grades, excellent and good are considered effective. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated 8 weeks after the final Sclerotherapeutic session. Out of 32 patients, 34.4% had excellent result, 53.1% had good result, 6.3% had fair result and 6.3% had poor result. Conclusion: Sclerotherapy with Ethanol Amine Oleate is a safe and less invasive method with minimal risk to the patient. It can be the treatment of choice for symptomatic Vascular lesions. Key words: Vascular Lesions (VLs; Sclerotherapy; Ethanol Amine Oleate (EAO. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v4i2.8641 BSMMU J 2011; 4(2:110-115

  19. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography of vascular lesions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, H; Shimizu, T; Tanaka, Y; Narabayashi, I; Tamai, H

    2000-01-01

    We applied three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography to vascular lesions in children and evaluated the clinical usefulness of this technique. Ten patients, whose ages ranged from 1 month to 16 years, underwent 3D MR angiography for 12 vascular lesions, including lesions in seven pulmonary arteries, two thoracic aortae, a pair of renal arteries, and one iliac artery. Three-dimensional MR angiography was performed with body-or pelvic-phased array coils on a 1.5-T scanner using fast spoiled gradient echo sequence. Data were acquired with the following parameters: TE, 1.9 ms; TR, 10.1 ms; flip angle, 20-60 degrees ; 1 or 2 NEX; field of view, 24-48 x 18-40 cm; matrix, 256 or 512 x 128 or 256; slice thickness, 1.2-7.5 mm; and 12, 28, or 60 partitions. Vascular imaging was enhanced with 20% gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The examination was performed under breath-holding in six patients and with shallow breathing in four patients. In a comparative study with other noninvasive methods, 3D MR angiography was superior in seven of nine cases to other noninvasive examinations and in two cases, all methods evaluated the lesions. Furthermore, six cases were compared with conventional angiography. In five of the six cases, both methods depicted the lesions similarly, and in one case, MR angiography was more effective. A quantitative comparison of vascular diameter in the MR image was made with that in the conventional angiographic image. The correlation between them was excellent: y = 1.145x-2.090 (r = 0.987; P children.

  20. Analysis of affective disorders in patients with vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zakharchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The outpatient records of 147 patients followed up for diagnosed vascular dementia were analyzed to assess the relationship between affective disorders and severe cognitive impairments. It was found that 7% of the examinees had a history of depressive states. Estimating the development time for vascular dementia could divide the patients into 2 groups: 1 60% of the patients in whom cognitive impairments began to determine its clinical picture just within the first 2 years after identification of affective disorders and 2 40%, in whom cognitive impairments occurred 10—20 years later. In both groups, mental disorders occurred at an equal age in the presence of depressive disorders; in Group 1, vascular dementia developed nearly twice as often as that in Group 2. At the same time, the occurrence of cognitive impairments in Group 1 patients just in the early disease stages is indicative of the organic genesis of affective disorders, as confirmed by the moderately rapid progression of psychopathological symptoms, such as sharpening of personality traits, increased rigidity of psychic processes, emotional lability, variations in affective symptomatology, inadequate remissions, and the presence of neurological symptoms. Another type of a ratio of depressive to severe cognitive disorders was found in the elderly persons in Group 2. The long existence of affective disorders without signs of cognitive diminution leads one to say that they have recurrent depressive disorder with further addition of a comorbid vascular process. These patients showed a fairly high severity of affective pathology that was responsible for more frequent admissions, as well as a phase course with relatively pure remissions without any clear intellectual-mnestic reduction and a predominance of hysterical character traits.

  1. Unexpected diagnosis of superficial neurofibroma in a lesion with imaging features of a vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Patrick; Reid, Janet; Morrison, Stuart [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vidimos, Allison [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Dermatology, Cleveland, OH (United States); DiFiore, John [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma is a pathognomonic, often disabling feature of neurofibromatosis type I. Although the target-like appearance of deep plexiform neurofibroma on T2-weighted MRI has been well-described, a second superficial form of plexiform neurofibroma has differing imaging features. We report a 15-year-old boy who presented with multiple cutaneous lesions exhibiting clinical and imaging characteristics of a venolymphatic malformation. These lesions were histologically proved to represent superficial plexiform neurofibromas. We wish to emphasize the unique MR findings of superficial plexiform neurofibromas; these findings are different from the imaging characteristics of the deep form and can be confused with a low-flow vascular malformation. (orig.)

  2. Gastroschisis, destructive brain lesions, and placental infarction in the second trimester suggest a vascular pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkerth, Rebecca D; Habbe, Donald M; Boyd, Theonia K; McMillan, Kristin; Gromer, Jessica; Sens, Mary Ann; Elliott, Amy J

    2013-01-01

    The cause and pathogenesis of gastroschisis are uncertain. We report the autopsy and placental pathology of a stillbirth at 20 gestational weeks, in which gastroschisis was accompanied by destructive lesions in the cerebral cortex and brainstem, as well as cardiac calcification, consistent with ischemic injury during the 2nd trimester. An important potential underlying mechanism explaining the fetal abnormalities is the presence of infarcts in the placenta, indicative at this gestational age of maternal vascular underperfusion. The association of gastroschisis with ischemic lesions in the brain, heart, and placenta in this case supports the concept that gastroschisis, at least in some instances, may result from vascular event(s) causing disruption of the fetal abdominal wall and resulting in the extrusion of the abdominal organs, as well as hypoxic-ischemic brain and cardiac injury.

  3. Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Showing Vascular Skin Lesions Predominantly on the Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Korekawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old Japanese man presented with dark blue papules and nodules on his face. There were multiple soft papules and nodules, dark blue in color, compressive, and ranging in size from 2 to 10 mm. A few similar lesions were seen on the patient's right dorsal second toe and right buccal mucosa. There were no skin lesions on his trunk and upper limbs. The patient's past history did not include gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia. Histopathological examination showed dilated vascular spaces lined by the normal epithelium extending beneath the dermis and into the subcutaneous fat. Endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract to check for colon involvement was not performed. X-ray images of the limbs revealed no abnormalities in the bones or joints. Laboratory investigations did not show anemia. Although we failed to confirm a diagnosis by endoscopy, the skin lesions, histopathological findings, lack of abnormal X-ray findings, and the presence of oral lesions as a part of gastrointestinal tract guided the diagnosis of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS. Skin lesions of BRBNS occur predominantly on the trunk and upper limbs. However, the present case showed multiple skin lesions predominantly on the face. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to know about a possible atypical distribution of skin lesions in BRBNS.

  4. Imaging assessment of isolated lesions affecting cranial nerve III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Martins, Jose Carlos Tadeu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the anatomy and main pathologic conditions affecting cranial nerve III using imaging studies, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging methods are essential in the evaluation of patients with suspected lesions of the oculomotor nerve once signs and symptoms are unspecific and a large number of diseases can affect cranial nerve III. A brief review of the literature is also presented. (author)

  5. Evaluation of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography in pediatric body vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasunori; Katayama, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography in the pediatric body vascular lesions. This study examined the usefulness of three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (3D-enhanced MRA) for pediatric body vascular lesions. Fifteen 3D-enhanced MRAs were performed on fourteen pediatric patients aged from one month to fifteen years, using a 3D fast SPGR sequence. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images were obtained from the imaging data in all cases, and eleven MIP images were obtained after subtraction of precontrast-enhanced imaging data from postcontrast-enhanced imaging data. In six cases, MIP and MPR images were correlated with cine or digital subtraction angiographies, and the eleven subtracted MIP images were compared with those before subtraction. Clinical usefulness was demonstrated in fourteen (93%) of the fifteen cases, and in seven (64%) of the eleven cases in which subtraction was performed, image quality was improved. In comparison with cine or digital subtraction angiographies, however, only one (17%) MRA was superior. It was considered that 3D-enhanced MRA was useful for pediatric body vascular lesions because of advantages such as lower invasiveness compared with that of conventional angiography, absence of radiation exposure, safety of contrast media, easy availability of MPR images, and short scanning time. In conclusion, if a pediatric body vascular lesion is suspected, 3D-enhanced MRA should be performed before conventional angiography. It also seems that 3D-enhanced MRA may be useful for follow-up. (author)

  6. Evaluation of a liquid embolization agent (Onyx) for transcatheter embolization for renal vascular lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennert, Janine; Herold, T.; Schreyer, A.G.; Jung, E.M.; Mueller-Wille, R.; Zorger, N. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum der Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Banas, B.; Feuerbach, S. [Medizinische Klinik, Nephrologie, Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Lenhart, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Sozialstiftung Bamberg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the therapeutic outcome after endovascular treatment of renal vascular lesions using the liquid embolization agent, Onyx. Materials and methods: between 2004 and 2008 nine patients with renal vascular lesions were treated with transcatheter arterial embolization using Onyx. The renal vascular lesions consisted of 4 AV-fistulas, a pseudoaneurysm, bleeding from a single subsegmental artery, diffuse parenchymal bleeding after trauma, septic embolizations and multiple aneurysms in endocarditis. All patients underwent selective angiography of the renal artery. A dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-compatible microcatheter was used and Onyx was injected. The technical and clinical success rate, examination time and procedure-related complications were documented. Results: the overall technical and clinical success rate was 100%. One patient had to be treated twice due to recurrent bleeding after an accidental puncture with a drainage catheter. No loss of viable renal tissue occurred in 4 cases. In 4 patients mild to moderate parenchyma loss was noted. In one patient having diffuse renal bleeding, occlusion of the main renal artery was performed. No procedure-related complications were noted. The mean examination time was 16.17 min when treating with Onyx alone and 60 min when using a combination of Onyx and coils. Within an average follow-up period of 21 months, no recurrent renal bleeding or recurrent AV-fistulas occurred. Conclusion: Onyx is an effective embolization agent for the treatment of renal vascular lesions. It allows controlled and quick application with low complication rates and a short examination time as a standalone agent or in combination with coils. (orig.)

  7. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of pit pattern and vascular pattern analyses in colorectal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshiki; Kashida, Hiroshi; Kudo, Shin-ei; Misawa, Masashi; Ikehara, Nobunao; Hamatani, Shigeharu

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to compare the usefulness of magnifying narrow band imaging (NBI) and magnifying chromoendoscopy in the diagnosis of colorectal lesions. The subjects were 1185 patients who underwent a complete colonoscopic examination and endoscopic or surgical treatment, from January 2006 to February 2008. A total of 1473 lesions were evaluated (53 hyperplastic polyps, 1317 adenomas, 103 submucosally invasive cancers). The digital images with NBI or chromoendoscopy were recorded and diagnosed independently from each other by two endoscopists who were blinded to the final pathological diagnosis. We could differentiate between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions with sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 98.5% and accuracy of 98.2% according to the vascular pattern. By recognizing an irregular or sparse pattern with NBI, massively invasive submucosal cancer could be diagnosed with the sensitivity and specificity of 94.9% and 76.0%. Using chromoendoscopy, we could differentiate between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions with sensitivity of 86.8% and specificity of 99.2%. We were able to differentiate between massively invasive cancers and slightly invasive cancers using the pit patterns with sensitivity of 89.7% and specificity of 88.0%. The specificity was superior to that of NBI colonoscopy. Both NBI and chromoendoscopy can be useful for distinguishing between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. In the diagnosis of submucosal cancer, pit pattern diagnosis was slightly superior to vascular pattern diagnosis. It is desirable to perform chromoendoscopy in addition to NBI for distinguishing between slightly and massively invasive submucosal cancer lesions and determining the treatment.

  9. Angiographic findings of collateral vessels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Gi Seok; Yeon, Kung Mo

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the angiographic findings of collateral vessels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid arteries and to evaluate the extent of angiographic assessment needed before embolization. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery, which were 6 cases of arteriovenous malformation, 2 cases of carotid cavernous fistula, 1 case of hemangioma and 1 case of arteriovenous malformation with carotid cavernous fistula. The previously ligated arteries are proximal external carotid artery (n = 5), branches of external carotid artery (n = 2) and common carotid artery (n = 3). Common carotid artery or internal carotid artery (n = 9), vertebral artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), costocervical trunk (n = 2), thyrocervical trunk (n = 2) were assessed by conventional angiography. Angiography of both carotid and vertebral arteries was performed in 5 cases. The collateral vascular channels were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery (n = 8), vertebral artery (n = 5), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), deep cervical artery (n = 2) and ascending cervical artery (n = 1). Embolization were performed in 9 cases with operative cannulation (n = 4), embolization via collateral branches of ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 1), embolization via collateral branches of contralateral external carotid artery (n = 3) and balloon occlusion via direct puncture (n = 1). The collateral channels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery, contralateral or ipsilateral external carotid artery, vertebral artery, deep cervical artery and ascending cervical artery on angiography. Complete angiographic assessment of possible collateral channels is mandatory for the

  10. Pediatric head and neck lesions: assessment of vascularity by MR digital subtraction angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, Weng Kong; Woodhouse, Neil; Coley, Stuart C; Griffiths, Paul D

    2004-08-01

    Pediatric head and neck lesions can be difficult to characterize on clinical grounds alone. We investigated the use of dynamic MR digital subtraction angiography as a noninvasive adjunct for the assessment of the vascularity of these abnormalities. Twelve patients (age range, 2 days to 16 years) with known or suspected vascular abnormalities were studied. Routine MR imaging, time-of-flight MR angiography, and MR digital subtraction angiography were performed in all patients. The dynamic sequence was acquired in two planes at one frame per second by using a thick section (6-10 cm) selective radio-frequency spoiled fast gradient-echo sequence and an IV administered bolus of contrast material. The images were subtracted from a preliminary mask sequence and viewed as a video-inverted cine loop. In all cases, MR digital subtraction angiography was successfully performed. The technique showed the following: 1) slow flow lesions (two choroidal angiomas, eyelid hemangioma, and scalp venous malformation); 2) high flow lesions that were not always suspected by clinical examination alone (parotid hemangioma, scalp, occipital, and eyelid arteriovenous malformations plus a palatal teratoma); 3) a hypovascular tumor for which a biopsy could be safely performed (Burkitt lymphoma); and 4) a hypervascular tumor of the palate (cystic teratoma). Our early experience suggests that MR digital subtraction angiography can be reliably performed in children of all ages without complication. The technique provided a noninvasive assessment of the vascularity of each lesion that could not always have been predicted on the basis of clinical examination or routine MR imaging alone.

  11. Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease with and without freezing of gait: a comparative analysis of vascular lesions using brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, M J; Cabello, J P; Pastor, C; Muñoz-Torrero, J J; Carrasco, S; Ibañez, R; Vaamonde, J

    2014-05-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is one of the most disabling and enigmatic symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Vascular lesions, observed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, may produce or exacerbate this symptom. The study includes 22 patients with Parkinson's disease subjects, 12 with freezing of gait and 10 without. All patients underwent an MRI scan and any vascular lesions were analysed using the modified Fazekas scale. Patients with FOG scored higher on the modified Fazekas scale than the rest of the group. Although the two groups contained the same percentage of patients with vascular lesions (50% in both groups), lesion load was higher in the group of patients with FOG. Vascular lesions in the periventricular area and deep white matter seem to be the most involved in the development of FOG. Vascular lesions may contribute to the onset or worsening of FOG in patients with PD. This study suggests that cerebral vascular disease should be considered in patients with FOG. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Presenting as an Enlarging Vascular Lesion within the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A. Emamaullee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE is a rare vascular neoplasm with variable malignant potential that most often presents within the liver. Many patients present with bilobar or extrahepatic disease, and the current treatment paradigm involves liver transplantation, with favorable long term results. Up to 25% of patients are diagnosed incidentally following imaging for other indications, and confirmation of diagnosis requires histologic analysis, as there are no classical imaging features to distinguish hepatic EHE (HEHE from other solid hepatic lesions. Here we describe a case of microscopic HEHE that was diagnosed following splenectomy for an enlarging vascular tumor within the spleen. Due to the unexpected diagnosis of EHE within the spleen and coexisting but stable appearing liver hemangiomata, a left hepatic lobectomy was performed. Explant histology revealed benign hemangiomata and diffuse, microscopic HEHE. The patient ultimately underwent liver transplantation. HEHE can be a challenging diagnosis, and this case emphasizes that any enlarging vascular lesion, even within the spleen, should prompt a high index of suspicion for HEHE in the setting of known hemangiomata.

  13. Impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesions in apoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdekhasti, Narges; Brandsch, Corinna; Hirche, Frank; Kühn, Julia; Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Huebbe, Patricia; Wolffram, Siegfried; Rimbach, Gerald; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-10-15

    Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein, and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols. Compared with the control group, mice fed the chocolate liquor had larger plaque areas in the descending aorta and aortic root, which were attributed to a higher mass of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagen. Vascular lipid deposits and calcification areas did not differ between the two groups. The aortic tissue level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA was 5-fold higher in the mice fed chocolate liquor than in the control mice. Chocolate-fed mice exhibited an increased hepatic saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio than the controls. Although the chocolate liquor contained 14 µg/kg of vitamin D 2 , the chocolate liquor-fed mice did not have measurable 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 in the serum. These mice even showed a 25% reduction in the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 compared with the control mice. Overall, present data may contribute to our understanding how chocolate constituents can impact vascular lesion development. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. The analysis of the contrast enhanced lesions on cerebro-vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Tomoaki; Nishiguchi, Takashi; Hyoutani, Genhachi; Miyamoto, Kazuki; Komai, Norihiko

    1989-01-01

    The contrast enhancement of cerebro-vascular diseases on CT is thought to be due to the increase of the cerebral blood volume (CBV) and/or the disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB). However, it is difficult to differentiate these two conditions only by contrast enhanced CT. We employed dynamic CT (DCT) to analyse these lesions with respect to the patterns of time-density curve and peak height (PH) of the curve upon the theoretical basis that flattening of the latter part of the time-density curve reflected the degree of BBB disruption and PH reflected the CBV. In all cases of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (11 cases), the contrast enhanced lesion around the hematoma showed marked BBB disruption according to the results of DCT. In 11 cases of cerebral infarction, patterns of BBB disruption and CBV varied at the contrast enhanced lesions according to the result of DCT. However, all contrast enhanced lesions with increased PH were associated with hemorrhagic infarction. Thus, the precise analysis of DCT provides appropriate therapeutic schedules by predicting the occurrence of hemorrhagic infarction. (author)

  15. Exploring ischemia-induced vascular lesions and potential pharmacological intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, G; Obrenovich, M E; Seyidova, D; de la Torre, J C

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes in vessels under the influence of ischemia play an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, most important of which are stroke and myocardial infarction or myocardial insult. Over the years, information has been gathered, which implicate a role for ischemic vascular changes in the pathogenesis of crush-syndrome, atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. When blood vessels are damaged they become unresponsive to a stimulus, which normally elicits vasodilatation and can lead to intraluminal thrombosis and ischemic events. The aim of this review is to explore the structural changes seen in vessels affected by ischemia reperfusion injury. With ischemia, the development of observable changes to vascular structure is multifactorial. One key factor is reperfusion ischemic injury. Moreover, the duration of the ischemic event is an important factor when determining both the prognosis and the type of morphological change that is observable in affected vessel walls. In this regard, the deleterious progression of blood flow impairment and its severity depends on the specific organ involved and the type of tissue affected. Further, there are regional differences within affected tissues and the degree of microvascular injury is well correlated with differences in the nature and severity of the ischemic event. Any method aimed at preventing and treating ischemic reperfusion injuries in vessels, based on these investigations, should likewise be able to decrease the early signs of brain, cerebrovascular and heart injury and preserve normal cellular architecture.

  16. Phosphocalcic Markers and Calcification Propensity for Assessment of Interstitial Fibrosis and Vascular Lesions in Kidney Allograft Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Berchtold

    Full Text Available Renal interstitial fibrosis and arterial lesions predict loss of function in chronic kidney disease. Noninvasive estimation of interstitial fibrosis and vascular lesions is currently not available. The aim of the study was to determine whether phosphocalcic markers are associated with, and can predict, renal chronic histological changes. We included 129 kidney allograft recipients with an available transplant biopsy in a retrospective study. We analyzed the associations and predictive values of phosphocalcic markers and serum calcification propensity (T50 for chronic histological changes (interstitial fibrosis and vascular lesions. PTH, T50 and vitamin D levels were independently associated to interstitial fibrosis. PTH elevation was associated with increasing interstitial fibrosis severity (r = 0.29, p = 0.001, while T50 and vitamin D were protective (r = -0.20, p = 0.025 and r = -0.23, p = 0.009 respectively. On the contrary, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 and Klotho correlated only modestly with interstitial fibrosis (p = 0.045 whereas calcium and phosphate did not. PTH, vitamin D and T50 were predictors of extensive fibrosis (AUC: 0.73, 0.72 and 0.68 respectively, but did not add to renal function prediction. PTH, FGF23 and T50 were modestly predictive of low fibrosis (AUC: 0.63, 0.63 and 0.61 but did not add to renal function prediction. T50 decreased with increasing arterial lesions (r = -0.21, p = 0.038. The discriminative performance of T50 in predicting significant vascular lesions was modest (AUC 0.61. In summary, we demonstrated that PTH, vitamin D and T50 are associated to interstitial fibrosis and vascular lesions in kidney allograft recipients independently of renal function. Despite these associations, mineral metabolism indices do not show superiority or additive value to fibrosis prediction by eGFR and proteinuria in kidney allograft recipients, except for vascular lesions where T50 could be of relevance.

  17. Osteoblastomatosis of bone. A benign, multifocal osteoblastic lesion, distinct from osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma, radiologically simulating a vascular tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakos, Michael; El-Khoury, Georges Y.; McDonald, Douglas J.; Buckwalter, Joseph A.; Sundaram, Murali; DeYoung, Barry; O'Brien, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Two adult patients are described with multifocal osteolytic lesions radiologically simulating a vascular tumor. One patient had multiple bones involved. Histologically, the individual lesions had the features of the nidus of osteoid osteoma/osteoblastoma. A review of the English language medical literature yielded only one other reported case with similar features. The process is designated as osteoblastomatosis to indicate its bone-forming character, prominent osteoblast proliferation, and multiplicity. The cases are distinguished from multifocal/multicentric osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma, and from benign and malignant vascular tumors. (orig.)

  18. [Processes of logical thought in a case of cerebral vascular lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Men ndez, R; Aguado Balsas, A M

    Reasoning and logical thought processes have traditionally been attributed to frontal lobe function or,on the other hand, have been considered as diffuse functions of the brain. However, there is today evidence enough about the possibility to find dissociations in thought processes, depending on logical structure of the experimental tasks and referring to different areas of the brain, frontal and post rolandic ones. To study possible dissociations between thought structures corresponding to categorical and relational logic, on one hand, and propositional logic on the other hand. The case of a brain injured patient with vascular etiology, localized in left frontal parietal cortex, is presented. A specific battery of reasoning tests has been administered. . A differential performance at some reasoning experimental tasks has been found depending on such logical conceptual structures. The possibility of establishing dissociations among certain logical thought and intelectual functions depending on localization of possible brain lesion (frontal versus temporal) is discussed.

  19. Identification of discrete vascular lesions in the extremities using post-mortem computed tomography angiography – Case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haakma, Wieke; Rohde, Marianne; Uhrenholt, Lars; Pedersen, Michael; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2017-01-01

    In this case report, we introduced post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) in three cases suffering from vascular lesions in the upper extremities. In each subject, the third part of the axillary arteries and veins were used to catheterize the arms. The vessels were filled with a barium

  20. Vascular lesions of the lumbar epidural space: magnetic resonance imaging features of epidural cavernous hemangioma and epidural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Júnior Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic features in two cases with respectively lumbar epidural hematoma and cavernous hemangioma of the lumbar epidural space. Enhanced MRI T1-weighted scans show a hyperintense signal rim surrounding the vascular lesion. Non-enhanced T2-weighted scans showed hyperintense signal.

  1. Affection of blood supply of focal hepatic mass on apparent diffusion coefficient of the lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zaizhi; Wu Yulin; Xu Zhongfei; Yang Zhenghan; Chen Min; Zhou Cheng; Xie Jingxia

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the affection of lesion blood supply on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of focal hepatic mass. Methods: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with different b values was performed in 87 patients with 159 focal hepatic lesions. ADCs of lesion, liver, spleen, gallbladder were measured in every case. Results: On DWI with small b value and small b value remainder, ADCs were affected by blood perfusion of tissues or lesions. The mean ADC of hypervascular lesions was significantly higher than that of hypovascular lesions on DWI with small b value, and hemoangiomas got the highest mean ADC. The mean ADC of hepatic cysts was not affected by b value. Conclusion: Blood perfusion affects ADC of tissue or focal hepatic lesion, particularly on DWI with small b value, and to some degree, DWI and ADC can reflect the blood supply of focal hepatic lesion

  2. Histological responses of cutaneous vascular lesions following photodynamic therapy with talaporfin sodium: a chicken comb model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Takafumi; Nakajima, Tatsuo; Ogata, Hisao; Kishi, Kazuo

    2009-09-01

    Mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6 (Talaporfin sodium) is a novel photosensitizer, and is currently being used in photodynamic therapy for various malignant tumors in combination with irradiation with a 664 nm laser. An interesting characteristic of Talaporfin sodium is that the skin photosensitivity after injection of this agent disappears faster than any other existing photosensitizers. This study examined the vascular events that occurred postirradiation in the chicken comb as a capillary malformation model after photosensitization with Talaporfin sodium. A single intravenous bolus injections of Talaporfin sodium was administered to the chickens, and a 1 cm diameter area of the comb of each animal was irradiated with a 664 nm visible red laser. The gross changes in the chicken combs were recorded for 7-14 days after photodynamic therapy. For the histological examination, HE, PTAH and Azan stained sections were analyzed. All treated chicken combs had blanched after photodynamic therapy. Microscopy demonstrated an absence of erythrocytes and the vessel lumina were obliterated, leaving the normal overlying epidermis completely intact. Concomitantly with selective destruction of the capillaries in the target area, moderate invasion of inflammatory cells and a slight increase in the stroma were observed. In the chicken comb model, photodynamic therapy with Talaporfin sodium effectively achieved selective destruction of the microvasculature while leaving the epidermis intact. Our results strongly suggest that photodynamic therapy with Talaporfin sodium could be a feasible method to treat dermal hypervascular lesions.

  3. Assessment of intracranial vessels in association with carotid atherosclerosis and brain vascular lesions in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Csaba; Kardos, Zsófia; Sepsi, Mariann; Sas, Attila; Kostyál, László; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Hodosi, Katalin; Kerekes, György; Tamási, László; Valikovics, Attila; Bereczki, Dániel; Szekanecz, Zoltán

    2017-09-26

    Stroke has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We assessed patients with RA and healthy control subjects by transcranial Doppler (TCD), carotid ultrasonography and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Altogether, 41 female patients with RA undergoing methotrexate (MTX) or biologic treatment and 60 age-matched control subjects underwent TCD assessment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and basilar artery. Pulsatility index (PI), resistivity (resistance) index (RI) and circulatory reserve capacity (CRC) were determined at rest (r) and after apnoea (a) and hyperventilation (h). The presence of carotid plaques and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were also determined. Intracerebral vascular lesions were investigated by brain MRI. MCA PI and RI values at rest and after apnoea were significantly increased in the total and MTX-treated RA populations vs control subjects. MCA CRC was also impaired, and basilar artery PI was higher in RA. More patients with RA had carotid plaques and increased cIMT. Linear regression analysis revealed that left PI(r) and RI(r) correlated with disease duration and that left PI(r), RI(r), PI(a), PI(h) and basilar PI correlated with disease activity. Right CRC inversely correlated with 28-joint Disease Activity Score. Disease activity was an independent determinant of left PI(a) and right CRC. Compared with long-term MTX treatment alone, the use of biologics in combination with MTX was associated with less impaired cerebral circulation. Impaired cerebral circulation was also associated with measures of carotid atherosclerosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show increased distal MCA and basilar artery occlusion in RA as determined by TCD. Patients with RA also had CRC defects. We also confirmed increased carotid plaque formation and increased cIMT. Biologics may beneficially influence some parameters in the intracranial vessels.

  4. Assessment of T2- and T1-weighted MRI brain lesion load in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, A.; Oster, M.; Cohen, S.; Daffertshofer, M.; Schwartz, A.; Hennerici, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy (SVE) have shown little or no correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability, which could be due to the low specificity of T2-weighted MRI. Recent studies have indicated that T1-weighted MRI may be more specific than T2-weighted MRI for severe tissue destruction. We studied 37 patients with a diagnosis of SVE and 11 normal controls with standardised T1- and T2-weighted MRI. All patients underwent detailed clinical assessment including a neuropsychological test battery and computerised gait analysis. Both the T2- and T1-weighted total MRI lesion loads different between patients and controls different, particularly T1. The ratio of T2-/T1-weighted lesion load was lower in controls than in patients. There was no overall correlation of T1- or T2-weighted lesion load with clinical disability, but group comparison of patients with severe and mild clinical deficits showed different lesion loads. We suggest that T1- and T2-weighted MRI lesion loads demonstrate relevant structural abnormality in patients with SVE. (orig.)

  5. [The magneto-, photo- and laser therapy of headaches in patients with vascular brain lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshin, V D; Miasnikov, I G; Belousova, T E

    1994-01-01

    To manage vascular cephalalgia, a combined approach is proposed: segmentally oriented magnetic, photo- and photomagnetic therapy plus intravenous laser treatment. The effect was directly correlated with cerebral hemodynamic condition, damage to vegetative innervation segmental-peripheral link and physiotherapeutic factors.

  6. Vascular brain lesions, brain atrophy, and cognitive decline. The Second Manifestations of ARTerial diseased-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, M.; Geerlings, M.I.; van der Graaf, Y.; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Vincken, K.L.; Kappelle, L.J.; Muller, M.; Biessels, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between brain atrophy and vascular brain lesions (i.e., white matter lesions [WMLs] or brain infarcts), alone or in combination, with decline in memory and executive functioning over 4 years of follow-up in 448 patients (57 ± 9.5 years) with symptomatic atherosclerotic

  7. Relationship between vascular endothelium and periodontal disease in atherosclerotic lesions: Review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffi, Marco Aurélio Lumertz; Furtado, Mariana Vargas; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne; Montenegro, Márlon Munhoz; Ribeiro, Ingrid Webb Josephson; Kampits, Cassio; Haas, Alex Nogueira; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies suggest that periodontal infection and the ensuing increase in the levels of inflammatory markers may be associated with myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular disease. The present article aimed at reviewing contemporary data on the pathophysiology of vascular endothelium and its association with periodontitis in the scenario of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25632316

  8. Pelvic injuries in combination with vascular lesions of branches from the iliac artery: Outcome - Incidence - Treatment strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H.; Klemt, C.; Uhrmeister, P.

    2002-01-01

    The acute haemorrhagic shock is one of the leading causes for death following severe pelvic injuries. Typical bleeding sources are fractured spongiosa surfaces, lesions of the major venous plexus or ruptures of branches originating from the iliac artery. This study characterizes the population...... from active hemorrhage because of vascular lacerations of iliac artery branches. Average of ISS, PTS, part of multiple injured patients, prevalence of rotary and vertical unstable fractures as well as mortality of patients with accompanying arterial injury was found to be much higher when compared...

  9. Inflammatory and vascular placental lesions are associated with neonatal amplitude integrated EEG recording in early premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Paz-Levy

    Full Text Available Placental histologic examination can assist in revealing the mechanism leading to preterm birth. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between intrauterine pathological processes, morbidity and mortality of premature infants, and their long term outcome. Neonatal brain activity is increasingly monitored in neonatal intensive care units by amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG and indices of background activity and sleep cycling patterns were correlated with long term outcome. We hypothesized an association between types of placental lesions and abnormal neonatal aEEG patterns.To determine the association between the placental lesions observed in extreme preterm deliveries, and their neonatal aEEG patterns and survival.This prospective cohort study included extreme premature infants, who were born ≤ 28 weeks of gestation, their placentas were available for histologic examination, and had a continues aEEG, soon after birthn = 34. Infants and maternal clinical data were collected. aEEG data was assessed for percentage of depressed daily activity in the first 3 days of life and for sleep cycling. Associations of placental histology with clinical findings and aEEG activity were explored using parametric and non-parametric statistics.Twenty two out of the 34 newborns survived to discharge. Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM or chorioamnionitis were associated with placental lesions consistent with fetal amniotic fluid infection (AFI or maternal under perfusion (MUP (P < 0.05. Lesions consistent with fetal response to AFI were associated with absence of SWC pattern during the 1st day of life. Fetal-vascular-thrombo-occlusive lesions of inflammatory type were negatively associated with depressed cerebral activity during the 1st day of life, and with aEEG cycling during the 2nd day of life (P<0.05. Placental lesions associated with MUP were associated with depressed neonatal cerebral activity during the first 3 days of life (P = 0

  10. Retrospective Study on Laser Treatment of Oral Vascular Lesions Using the "Leopard Technique": The Multiple Spot Irradiation Technique with a Single-Pulsed Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hidetaka; Ohshiro, Takafumi; Romeo, Umberto; Noguchi, Tadahide; Maruoka, Yutaka; Gaimari, Gianfranco; Tomov, Georgi; Wada, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Kae; Ohshiro, Toshio; Asamura, Shinichi

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of laser treatment of oral vascular lesions using the multiple spot irradiation technique with a single-pulsed wave. In laser therapy for vascular lesions, heat accumulation induced by excessive irradiation can cause adverse events postoperatively, including ulcer formation, resultant scarring, and severe pain. To prevent heat accumulation and side effects, we have applied a multiple pulsed spot irradiation technique, the so-called "leopard technique" (LT) to oral vascular lesions. This approach was originally proposed for laser treatment of nevi. It can avoid thermal concentration at the same spot and spare the epithelium, which promotes smooth healing. The goal of the study was to evaluate this procedure and treatment outcomes. The subjects were 46 patients with 47 oral vascular lesions treated with the LT using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), including 24 thick lesions treated using a combination of the LT and intralesional photocoagulation. All treatment outcomes were satisfactory without serious complications such as deep ulcer formation, scarring, bleeding, or severe swelling. Laser therapy with the LT is a promising less-invasive treatment for oral vascular lesions.

  11. Vascular and hypoxic tissue lesions in cranial computerized tomography and their differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckein, D

    1982-09-01

    CT findings and differential diagnosis in cerebral infarctions caused by vascular stenosis or occlusion, by emboli or arterial thrombosis are discussed; also in cerebral and sinus venous thrombosis. Brain damage due to hypoxia, to a combination of hypoxia and sinus venous thrombosis or to one of hypoxia and hyperpyrexia are presented.

  12. Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

    2013-11-01

    This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunohistochemical examination of plexiform-like complex vascular lesions in the lungs of broiler chickens selected for susceptibility to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, Krishna R; Erf, Gisela F; Anthony, Nicholas B; Wideman, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a disease of unknown cause that is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, and by extensive vascular remodelling. In human IPAH patients, remodelling of the pulmonary vasculature results in the formation of plexiform lesions in the terminal pulmonary arterioles. Various molecules are expressed in the human plexiform lesions, including alpha smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, survivin, tenascin, collagen, fibronectin, and various immune/inflammatory cells such as, cytotoxic lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, MHC class II cells, and monocytes/macrophages are also present. Plexiform lesions rarely develop in the lungs of laboratory animals, but plexiform-like complex vascular lesions (CVL) do develop spontaneously in the lungs of broiler chickens from an IPAH-susceptible line. To examine angioproliferative and immune-system-related activities associated with CVL in broiler lungs, paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung sections from 8-week-old to 24-week-old broiler chickens were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific for angioproliferative molecules and immune/inflammatory cells. The CVL in the lungs of broiler chickens exhibited positive staining for both angioproliferative molecules and immune/inflammatory cells. These observations combined with the close histological resemblance of broiler CVL to the plexiform lesions of human IPAH patients further validates chickens from our IPAH-susceptible line as an excellent animal model of spontaneous plexogenic arteriopathy.

  14. Lesion detection and vascular assessment with modified CTAP and MR imaging of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeni, R.F.; Werthmuller, W.C.; Warren, R.S.; Mulvihill, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a special CT arterial portography (CTAP) method with immediate and delayed scans compared to MR imaging of liver with fat-saturation images and angiographic portogram to determine whether CTAP and MR imaging could obviate the angiographic portogram and which imaging method best detects lesions. In 13 patients, CTAP was obtained on a FASTRAK CT scanner in an immediate and delayed dynamic mode with 0.4-sec sections. These CT results were compared to the angiographic portogram and MR results of T1-weighted SR (TR 300, TE 20, NEX 4) and T2-weighted SE (TR 2,000--2,500; TE 20/70; NEX 2) W=with and without fat saturation. CT/MR features analyzed included lesion detection, involvement of portal and hepatic veins, and adenopathy. Features were ranked from 0 = definitely normal to 4 = definitely abnormal

  15. Computerized transverse tomography of vascular lesions of the brain. I. Arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressman, B.D.; Kirkwood, J.R.; Davis, D.O.

    1975-01-01

    Computerized transverse tomography (CTT) of the brain is a recently developed method which allows non-invasive roentgenologic evaluation of intracranial disease. Since its inception, major attention has been given to the diagnosis and evaluation of tumors, clots, infarcts, venticular size, and orbital lesions. The purpose of this report is to discuss the application of CTT to the diagnosis and evaluation of intracerebral arteriovenous malformations. (U.S.)

  16. The role of white matter lesions in cognitive impairment of vascular origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, D.

    2003-01-01

    Abnormalities involving the cerebral white matter, in particular the centrum semiovale, are a subject of great current interest. Partly this is because modern neuroimaging methods detect white matter changes with increasing frequency in persons older than 60 years and also because these abnormalities may be associated with specific neuro behavioral deficits, including cognitive impairment. The significance of these changes, as well as their pathophysiological background is incompletely understood. The aim of this paper is to critically review the existing knowledge about the role of the white matter lesions, based on the critical analysis of over 100 publications (most appearing in the last decade). (author)

  17. NINJ2 SNP may affect the onset age of first-ever ischemic stroke without increasing silent cerebrovascular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong-Eog

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate if single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 12p13 and within 11 kb of the gene NINJ2 would be associated with earlier-onset (vs. late-onset first-ever ischemic stroke and increase silent cerebrovascular lesions prior to the manifestation of the stroke. Methods We prospectively enrolled 164 patients (67.6 ± 12.9 years, 92 men admitted with first-ever ischemic strokes. All patients underwent genotyping of rs11833579 and rs12425791 as well as systemic investigations including magnetic resonance (MR imaging and other vascular workup. Stroke-related MR lesions were registered on a brain-template-set using a custom-built software package 'Image_QNA': high-signal-intensity ischemic lesions on diffusion, T2-weighted, or fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR MR images, and low signal intensity hemorrhagic lesions on gradient-echo MR images. Results The rs11833579 A/A or G/A genotype was independently associated with the first-ever ischemic stroke before the age 59 vs. 59 or over, after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and prior medication of antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs, increasing the risk by about 2.5 fold. In the quantitative MR lesion maps from age-sex matched subgroups (n = 124 or 126, there was no difference between the patients with the rs11833579 A/A or G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype. Unexpectedly, the extent of leukoaraiosis on FLAIR-MR images tended to be smaller in the corona radiata and centrum semiovale of the patients with the rs12425791 A/A or G/A genotype than in those with the G/G genotype (P = 0.052. Neither the rs11833579 nor the rs12425791 genotype significantly affected initial stroke severity; however the latter was associated with relatively low modified Rankin scale scores at 1 year after stroke. Conclusions The rs11833579 A/A or G/A genotype may bring forward the onset age of first-ever ischemic stroke without increasing silent cerebrovascular lesions

  18. Vascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, cerebral white matter lesions and cerebral perfusion in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Hasan, D.; Krenning, E.P.; Bots, M.L.; Grobbee, D.E.; Swieten, J.C. van; Harskamp, F. van; Hofman, A.

    1996-01-01

    We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)

  19. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectrum of Parenchymal, Meningeal, and Vascular Lesions at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulouis, Grégoire; de Boysson, Hubert; Zuber, Mathieu; Guillevin, Loïc; Meary, Eric; Costalat, Vincent; Pagnoux, Christian; Naggara, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included. A systematic imaging review was performed blinded to clinical data. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 45 years (±12.9). Patients initially presented focal deficit(s) (83%), headaches (53%), cognitive disorder (40%), and seizures (38.3%). The most common magnetic resonance imaging finding observed in 42% of patients was multiterritorial, bilateral, distal acute stroke lesions after small to medium artery distribution, with a predominant carotid circulation distribution. Hemorrhagic infarctions and parenchymal hemorrhages were also frequently found in the cohort (55%). Acute convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage was found in 26% of patients and 42% demonstrated pre-eminent leptomeningeal enhancement, which is found to be significantly more prevalent in biopsy-proven patients (60% versus 28%; P =0.04). Seven patients had tumor-like presentations. Seventy-seven percent of magnetic resonance angiographic studies were abnormal, revealing proximal/distal stenoses in 57% and 61% of patients, respectively. Adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a heterogenous disease, with multiterritorial, distal, and bilateral acute stroke being the most common pattern of parenchymal lesions found on magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings suggest a higher than previously thought prevalence of hemorrhagic transformation and other hemorrhagic

  20. Patient with rapidly evolving neurological disease with neuropathological lesions of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Lewy body dementia, chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy and meningothelial meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Tiple, Dorina; Bizzarro, Alessandra; Ladogana, Anna; Colaizzo, Elisa; Capellari, Sabina; Rossi, Marcello; Parchi, Piero; Masullo, Carlo; Pocchiari, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of rapidly evolving neurological disease in a patient with neuropathological lesions of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy and meningothelial meningioma. The coexistence of severe multiple pathologies in a single patient strengthens the need to perform accurate clinical differential diagnoses in rapidly progressive dementias. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  1. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Veenstra

    Full Text Available Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1, a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF, a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2 by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response.

  2. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Alexander A; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S

    2013-01-01

    Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1), a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF), a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2) by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response.

  3. MRI in Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism; Study on the lesion of substantia nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aotsuka, Akiyo; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1991-06-01

    We examined the magnetic resonance (MR) image of midbrain and striatum in 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 10 patients with vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and 10 age-matched control subjects. Studies were performed on a high field strength (1.5 tesla) MRI unit. T2-weighted spin echo pulse sequence (TR 2500 ms/TE 40 ms) was used. Intensity profiles of a straight line perpendicular to the pars compacta through the center of the red nucleus were made on an image of the midbrain. We measured the width of the valley at half-height between the peaks of intensity representing the red nucleus and the crus cerebri-pars reticulata complex and used this as an index of the width of the pars compacta signal. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 2.7 mm in the PD group and 4.3 mm in controls. The difference between the means was highly significant (p<0.01). While not significant statistically, there was a trend toward narrowing of the width of pars compacta signal of substantia nigra in the PD group as the Yahr's grade or disease duration progressed. In hemiparkinsonism, MRI revealed significant narrowing of the pars compacta signal on the contra-lateral side to the clinical predominant side. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 3.9 mm in the VP group, but the decrease was not significant. MRI in VP group showed multiple high intensity area in the basal ganglia and the white matter, and periventricular hyperintensity area (PVHIA). There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of restoration of the signal intensity in the lateral portion of the substantia nigra among PD, VP and control groups. The low signal intensity in the posterolateral putamen was not found in the 3 groups. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal has been attributed either to atrophy of the pars compacta or to increased deposition of iron in this region. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal reflected pathophysiology of PD. (J.P.N.).

  4. Contact area affects frequency-dependent responses to vibration in the peripheral vascular and sensorineural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine; Miller, G R; Waugh, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with development of peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunctions. These disorders and symptoms associated with it are referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Although the symptoms of the disorder have been well characterized, the etiology and contribution of various exposure factors to development of the dysfunctions are not well understood. Previous studies performed using a rat-tail model of vibration demonstrated that vascular and peripheral nervous system adverse effects of vibration are frequency-dependent, with vibration frequencies at or near the resonant frequency producing the most severe injury. However, in these investigations, the amplitude of the exposed tissue was greater than amplitude typically noted in human fingers. To determine how contact with vibrating source and amplitude of the biodynamic response of the tissue affects the risk of injury occurring, this study compared the influence of frequency using different levels of restraint to assess how maintaining contact of the tail with vibrating source affects the transmission of vibration. Data demonstrated that for the most part, increasing the contact of the tail with the platform by restraining it with additional straps resulted in an enhancement in transmission of vibration signal and elevation in factors associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury. In addition, there were also frequency-dependent effects, with exposure at 250 Hz generating greater effects than vibration at 62.5 Hz. These observations are consistent with studies in humans demonstrating that greater contact and exposure to frequencies near the resonant frequency pose the highest risk for generating peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunction.

  5. Usage of fMRI for pre-surgical planning in brain tumor and vascular lesion patients: Task and statistical threshold effects on language lateralization☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Tanvi N.; Andreoli, Matthew J.; Nair, Veena A.; Yin, Peng; Young, Brittany M.; Kundu, Bornali; Pankratz, Joshua; Radtke, Andrew; Holdsworth, Ryan; Kuo, John S.; Field, Aaron S.; Baskaya, Mustafa K.; Moritz, Chad H.; Meyerand, M. Elizabeth; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive pre-surgical tool used to assess localization and lateralization of language function in brain tumor and vascular lesion patients in order to guide neurosurgeons as they devise a surgical approach to treat these lesions. We investigated the effect of varying the statistical thresholds as well as the type of language tasks on functional activation patterns and language lateralization. We hypothesized that language lateralization indices (LIs) would be threshold- and task-dependent. Materials and methods Imaging data were collected from brain tumor patients (n = 67, average age 48 years) and vascular lesion patients (n = 25, average age 43 years) who received pre-operative fMRI scanning. Both patient groups performed expressive (antonym and/or letter-word generation) and receptive (tumor patients performed text-reading; vascular lesion patients performed text-listening) language tasks. A control group (n = 25, average age 45 years) performed the letter-word generation task. Results Brain tumor patients showed left-lateralization during the antonym-word generation and text-reading tasks at high threshold values and bilateral activation during the letter-word generation task, irrespective of the threshold values. Vascular lesion patients showed left-lateralization during the antonym and letter-word generation, and text-listening tasks at high threshold values. Conclusion Our results suggest that the type of task and the applied statistical threshold influence LI and that the threshold effects on LI may be task-specific. Thus identifying critical functional regions and computing LIs should be conducted on an individual subject basis, using a continuum of threshold values with different tasks to provide the most accurate information for surgical planning to minimize post-operative language deficits. PMID:25685705

  6. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einzmann, Helena J. R.; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ13C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests. PMID:25392188

  7. Characterization of cutaneous vascular lesions by Doppler ultrasound as an adjunct method for diagnosis and classification in the Hospital Nacional de Ninos: September 2007-June 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides Sanchez, Milton Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    The sonographic features and the Doppler valuation are characterized and studied in the service of ultrasound of the Hospital Nacional de Ninos in the study period September 2007 - June 2008. The documented findings are correlated in each lesion with the clinical diagnosis by the attending physician. Injuries are classified based on data obtained by Doppler valuation. The classification system currently accepted is used. A basic study protocol is established by Doppler ultrasound to provide enough information and that systematically vascular lesions are evaluated [es

  8. Headache, migraine, and structural brain lesions and function: population based Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing-MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, T.; Mohamed, S.; Zhu, Y.C.; Dufouil, C.; Tzourio, Ch.; Kurth, T.; Zhu, Y.C.; Dufouil, C.; Tzourio, Ch.; Kurth, T.; Maillard, P.; Mazoyer, B.; Zhu, Y.C.; Chabriat, H.; Bousser, M.G.; Tzourio, Ch.; Zhu, Y.C.; Chabriat, H.; Bousser, M.G.; Mazoyer, B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association of overall and specific headaches with volume of white matter hyper-intensities, brain infarcts, and cognition. Design: Population based, cross sectional study. Setting: Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing study, Nantes, France. Participants: 780 participants (mean age 69, 58.5% women) with detailed headache assessment. Main outcome measures: Brain scans were evaluated for volume of white matter hyper-intensities (by fully automated imaging processing) and for classification of infarcts (by visual reading with a standardised assessment grid). Cognitive function was assessed by a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination. Results: 163 (20.9%) participants reported a history of severe headache and 116 had migraine, of whom 17 (14.7%) reported aura symptoms. An association was found between any history of severe headache and increasing volume of white matter hyper-intensities. The adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest third for total volume of white matter hyper-intensities was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.1, P for trend 0.002) for participants with any history of severe headache when compared with participants without severe headache being in the lowest third. The association pattern was similar for all headache types. Migraine with aura was the only headache type strongly associated with volume of deep white matter hyper-intensities (highest third odds ratio 12.4, 1.6 to 99.4, P for trend 0.005) and with brain infarcts (3.4, 1.2 to 9.3). The location of infarcts was predominantly outside the cerebellum and brain stem. Evidence was lacking for cognitive impairment for any headache type with or without brain lesions. Conclusions: In this population based study, any history of severe headache was associated with an increased volume of white matter hyper-intensities. Migraine with aura was the only headache type associated with brain infarcts. Evidence that headache of any type by itself or in

  9. Prevention of ethanol-induced vascular injury and gastric mucosal lesions by sucralfate and its components: possible role of endogenous sulfhydryls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, S.; Brown, A.

    1987-09-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that sucralfate, which contains eight sulfate and aluminum molecules on a sucrose and its other components might decrease ethanol-induced vascular injury and hemorrhagic mucosal lesions through a sulfhydryl (SH)-sensitive process. Experiments performed in rats revealed that the entire sucralfate molecule is not a prerequisite for protection against ethanol-induced mucosal vascular injury and erosions. It appears that sulfate and sucrose octasulfate are potent components of sucralfate, although an equimolar amount of sucralfate is at least twice as effective in gastroprotection than its components. The SH alkylator N-ethylmaleimide abolished the gastroprotection by sucralfate, suggesting SH-sensitive process in the mucosal protection which seems to be associated with the prevention of rapidly developing vascular injury in the stomach of rats given ethanol.

  10. Dorsomedial striatum lesions affect adjustment to reward uncertainty, but not to reward devaluation or omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carmen; Glueck, Amanda C; Conrad, Shannon E; Morón, Ignacio; Papini, Mauricio R

    2016-09-22

    The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been implicated in the acquisition of reward representations, a proposal leading to the hypothesis that it should play a role in situations involving reward loss. We report the results of an experiment in which the effects of DMS excitotoxic lesions were tested in consummatory successive negative contrast (reward devaluation), autoshaping training with partial vs. continuous reinforcement (reward uncertainty), and appetitive extinction (reward omission). Animals with DMS lesions exhibited reduced lever pressing responding, but enhanced goal entries, during partial reinforcement training in autoshaping. However, they showed normal negative contrast, acquisition under continuous reinforcement (CR), appetitive extinction, and response facilitation in early extinction trials. Open-field testing also indicated normal motor behavior. Thus, DMS lesions selectively affected the behavioral adjustment to a situation involving reward uncertainty, producing a behavioral reorganization according to which goal tracking (goal entries) became predominant at the expense of sign tracking (lever pressing). This pattern of results shows that the function of the DMS in situations involving reward loss is not general, but restricted to reward uncertainty. We suggest that a nonassociative, drive-related process induced by reward uncertainty requires normal output from DMS neurons. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wider stall space affects behavior, lesion scores, and productivity of gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak-Johnson, J L; DeDecker, A E; Levitin, H A; McGarry, B M

    2015-10-01

    Limited space allowance within the standard gestation stall is an important welfare concern because it restricts the ability of the sow to make postural adjustments and hinders her ability to perform natural behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the impacts of increasing stall space and/or providing sows the freedom to access a small pen area on sow well-being using multiple welfare metrics. A total of 96 primi- and multiparous crossbred sows were randomly assigned in groups of 4 sows/treatment across 8 replicates to 1 of 3 stall treatments (TRT): standard stall (CTL; dimensions: 61 by 216 cm), width-adjustable stall (flex stall [FLX]; dimensions: adjustable width of 56 to 79 cm by 216 cm), or an individual walk-in/lock-in stall with access to a small communal open-pen area at the rear of the stall (free-access stall [FAS]; dimensions: 69 by 226 cm). Lesion scores, behavior, and immune and productivity traits were measured at various gestational days throughout the study. Total lesion scores were greatest for sows in FAS and least for sows in FLX ( pregnancy progressed, lesion scores increased among sows in CTL ( postural behaviors and sham chew behavior were affected by TRT ( changes in postural behaviors, lesion severity scores, and other sow traits. Moreover, compromised welfare measures found among sows in various stall environments may be partly attributed to the specific constraints of each stall system such as restricted stall space in CTL, insufficient floor space in the open-pen area of the FAS system, and gate design of the FLX (e.g., direction of bars and feeder space). These results also indicate that parity and gestational day are additional factors that may exacerbate the effects of restricted stall space or insufficient pen space, further compromising sow well-being.

  12. What affects detectability of lesion–deficit relationships in lesion studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Inoue

    2014-01-01

    Our simulations offer a quantitative basis for interpreting lesion studies in cognitive neuroscience. We suggest ways in which lesion simulation and analysis frameworks could be productively extended.

  13. Bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib differentially affect the vascular molecular pathways and functionality of human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover-Proaktor, Ayala; Granot, Galit; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Pasvolsky, Oren; Shapira, Saar; Raz, Oshrat; Raanani, Pia; Leader, Avi

    2018-05-09

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), nilotinib, ponatinib, and dasatinib (but not bosutinib or imatinib), are associated with vascular adverse events (VAEs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Though the mechanism is inadequately understood, an effect on vascular cells has been suggested. We investigated the effect of imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, and ponatinib on tube formation, cell viability, and gene expression of human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found a distinct genetic profile in HUVECs treated with dasatinib, ponatinib, and nilotinib compared to bosutinib and imatinib, who resembled untreated samples. However, unique gene expression and molecular pathway alterations were detected between dasatinib, ponatinib, and nilotinib. Angiogenesis/blood vessel-related pathways and HUVEC function (tube formation/viability) were adversely affected by dasatinib, ponatinib, and nilotinib but not by imatinib or bosutinib. These results correspond to the differences in VAE profiles of these TKIs, support a direct effect on vascular cells, and provide direction for future research.

  14. Ten days of repeated local forearm heating does not affect cutaneous vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Michael A; Brunt, Vienna E; Jensen, Krista Nicole; Lorenzo, Santiago; Minson, Christopher T

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether 10 days of repeated local heating could induce peripheral adaptations in the cutaneous vasculature and to investigate potential mechanisms of adaptation. We also assessed maximal forearm blood flow to determine whether repeated local heating affects maximal dilator capacity. Before and after 10 days of heat training consisting of 1-h exposures of the forearm to 42°C water or 32°C water (control) in the contralateral arm (randomized and counterbalanced), we assessed hyperemia to rapid local heating of the skin ( n = 14 recreationally active young subjects). In addition, sequential doses of acetylcholine (ACh, 1 and 10 mM) were infused in a subset of subjects ( n = 7) via microdialysis to study potential nonthermal microvascular adaptations following 10 days of repeated forearm heat training. Skin blood flow was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler red blood cell flux divided by mean arterial pressure. Maximal cutaneous vasodilation was achieved by heating the arm in a water-spray device for 45 min and assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated as forearm blood flow divided by mean arterial pressure. Repeated forearm heating did not increase plateau percent maximal CVC (CVC max ) responses to local heating (89 ± 3 vs. 89 ± 2% CVC max , P = 0.19), 1 mM ACh (43 ± 9 vs. 53 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.76), or 10 mM ACh (61 ± 9 vs. 85 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.37, by 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA). There was a main effect of time at 10 mM ACh ( P = 0.03). Maximal FVC remained unchanged (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02 FVC, P = 0.30). No differences were observed in the control arm. Ten days of repeated forearm heating in recreationally active young adults did not improve the microvascular responsiveness to ACh or local heating. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show for the first time that 10 days of repeated

  15. Overexpression of Mitofusin 2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanhong; Chen Kuanghueih; Gao Wei; Li Qian; Chen Li; Wang Guisong; Tang Jian

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies have implies that Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which was progressively reduced in arteries from ApoE -/- mice during the development of atherosclerosis, may take part in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Then we investigated the in vivo role of Mfn2 on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits using adenovirus expressing Mitofusin 2 gene (AdMfn2). By morphometric analysis we found overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and intima/media ratio by 66.7% and 74.6%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that local Mfn2 treatment suppresses the development of atherosclerosis in vivo in part by attenuating the smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by lipid deposition and vascular injury

  16. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  17. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Johanna M; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  18. Deconstructing empathy: Neuroanatomical dissociations between affect sharing and prosocial motivation using a patient lesion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shdo, Suzanne M; Ranasinghe, Kamalini G; Gola, Kelly A; Mielke, Clinton J; Sukhanov, Paul V; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2017-02-14

    Affect sharing and prosocial motivation are integral parts of empathy that are conceptually and mechanistically distinct. We used a neurodegenerative disease (NDG) lesion model to examine the neural correlates of these two aspects of real-world empathic responding. The study enrolled 275 participants, including 44 healthy older controls and 231 patients diagnosed with one of five neurodegenerative diseases (75 Alzheimer's disease, 58 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 42 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 28 progressive supranuclear palsy, and 28 non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA). Informants completed the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale's Sensitivity to the Expressive Behavior of Others (RSMS-EX) subscale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index's Empathic Concern (IRI-EC) subscale describing the typical empathic behavior of the participants in daily life. Using regression modeling of the voxel based morphometry of T1 brain scans prepared using SPM8 DARTEL-based preprocessing, we isolated the variance independently contributed by the affect sharing and the prosocial motivation elements of empathy as differentially measured by the two scales. We found that the affect sharing component uniquely correlated with volume in right>left medial and lateral temporal lobe structures, including the amygdala and insula, that support emotion recognition, emotion generation, and emotional awareness. Prosocial motivation, in contrast, involved structures such as the nucleus accumbens (NaCC), caudate head, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which suggests that an individual must maintain the capacity to experience reward, to resolve ambiguity, and to inhibit their own emotional experience in order to effectively engage in spontaneous altruism as a component of their empathic response to others. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Activation tagging of the two closely linked genes LEP and VAS independently affects vascular cell number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Keller, Beat

    2002-01-01

    report that in addition to this leafy petiole phenotype, the size of the vascular bundles is increased in all aerial organs in let as a result of an increase in the number of xylem, phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. This vascular phenotype is caused by activation tagging of the two genes VASCULAR......-promoting factor. The activation tagging of VAS only resulted in a specific increase in phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. We conclude that activation tagging of LEP and VAS results in additive phenotypes. Insertional mutants for LEP and VAS display wild-type vascular development, indicating the relevance...... of activation tagging for functional analysis of novel genes involved in plant development....

  20. Perturbing phosphoinositide homeostasis oppositely affects vascular differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gujas, Bojan; Cruz, Tiago M D; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Vermeer, Joop E M; Munnik, Teun; Rodriguez-Villalon, Antia

    2017-01-01

    The plant vascular network consists of specialized phloem and xylem elements that undergo two distinct morphogenetic developmental programs to become transport-functional units. Whereas vacuolar rupture is a determinant step in protoxylem differentiation, protophloem elements never form a big

  1. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lesão vascular da placenta condicionando RCIU e hidropisia fetal não imune em gestação gemelar Placental vascular lesion as cause of IUGR and nonimmune fetal hydrops in twin pregnanc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ricardo Gonçalves Baptista Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As lesões vasculares da placenta constituem um grupo de entidades distintas, mas inter-relacionadas, em que se incluem os corioangiomas e a corangiomatose multifocal difusa. O corioangioma é uma lesão nodular expansiva com incidência de cerca de 1%. A corangiomatose multifocal difusa é rara (0,2% e predominante em placentas em idade gestacional inferior a 32 semanas. Os autores apresentam um caso de gestação gemelar monocoriônica/biamniótica, no qual um dos fetos, à 26ª semana de gestação, apresentou quadro de restrição de crescimento intrauterino, hidropisia e anemia associado à formação tumoral da placenta com vascularização aumentada verificada pela doplervelocimetria. O estudo anatomopatológico da placenta permitiu o diagnóstico de corangiomatose multifocal difusa. Este raro caso de corioangiomatose multifocal difusa com forma de apresentação pré-natal mimetizando a de um corioangioma comprova que a detecção ultrassonográfica de um tumor da placenta com vascularização aumentada deve suscitar outras hipótese diagnóstica, além do corioangioma.Placenta vascular lesions are a group of distinct yet related entities that include chorangiomas and diffuse multifocal chorangiomatosis. Chorangioma is an expansive nodular lesion with an incidence of about 1%. Diffuse multifocal chorangiomatosis is rare (0.2% and mostly seen in placentas before the 32nd gestational week. The authors present a case of a monochorionic/biamniotic twin pregnancy, in which, at the 26th gestational week, one fetus developed intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, hydrops, and anemia associated with a tumor of the placenta with increased vascularization in the Doppler study. Pathological examination of the placenta diagnosed diffuse multifocal chorangiomatosis. This rare case report of diffuse multifocal chorangiomatosis with prenatal manifestations resembling those of a chorangioma proves that prenatal ultrasound detection of a placenta tumor

  3. Experimental investigation of factors affecting the absolute recovery coefficients in iodine-124 PET lesion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentzen, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The use of recovery coefficients (RCs) in 124 I PET lesion imaging is a simple method to correct the imaged activity concentration (AC) primarily for the partial-volume effect and, to a minor extent, for the prompt gamma coincidence effect. The aim of this phantom study was to experimentally investigate a number of various factors affecting the 124 I RCs. Three RC-based correction approaches were considered. These approaches differ with respect to the volume of interest (VOI) drawn, which determines the imaged AC and the RCs: a single voxel VOI containing the maximum value (maximum RC), a spherical VOI with a diameter of the scanner resolution (resolution RC) and a VOI equaling the physical object volume (isovolume RC). Measurements were performed using mainly a stand-alone PET scanner (EXACT HR + ) and a latest-generation PET/CT scanner (BIOGRAPH mCT). The RCs were determined using a cylindrical phantom containing spheres or rotational ellipsoids and were derived from images acquired with a reference acquisition protocol. For each type of RC, the influence of the following factors on the RC was assessed: object shape, background activity spill in and iterative image reconstruction parameters. To evaluate the robustness of the RC-based correction approaches, the percentage deviation between RC-corrected and true ACs was determined from images acquired with a clinical acquisition protocol of different AC regimes. The observed results of the shape and spill-in effects were compared with simulation data derived from a convolution-based model. The study demonstrated that the shape effect was negligible and, therefore, was in agreement with theoretical expectations. In contradiction to the simulation results, the observed spill-in effect was unexpectedly small. To avoid variations in the determination of RCs due to reconstruction parameter changes, image reconstruction with a pixel length of about one-third or less of the scanner resolution and an OSEM 1 x 32 algorithm

  4. Imaging assessment of isolated lesions affecting cranial nerve III; Avaliacao por imagem das lesoes isoladas do III par craniano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem (CBR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: cidbh@cidbh.com.br; Martins, Jose Carlos Tadeu [Sociedade Brasileira de Neuroradiologia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this study is to review the anatomy and main pathologic conditions affecting cranial nerve III using imaging studies, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging methods are essential in the evaluation of patients with suspected lesions of the oculomotor nerve once signs and symptoms are unspecific and a large number of diseases can affect cranial nerve III. A brief review of the literature is also presented. (author)

  5. Lesion type and reader experience affect the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI: A multiple reader ROC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Pascal A.T., E-mail: patbaltzer@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Imge-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kaiser, Werner Alois [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07740 Jena (Germany); Dietzel, Matthias, E-mail: dietzelmatthias2@hotmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    reader experience (P = 0.005) on diagnostic performance. Conclusions: Non-mass lesion type and low reader experience negatively affect the diagnostic performance of breast MRI in a non-screening setting.

  6. Surgical approaches to complex vascular lesions: the use of virtual reality and stereoscopic analysis as a tool for resident and student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Schmitt, Paul J; Sukul, Vishad; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2012-08-01

    Virtual reality training for complex tasks has been shown to be of benefit in fields involving highly technical and demanding skill sets. The use of a stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality environment to teach a patient-specific analysis of the microsurgical treatment modalities of a complex basilar aneurysm is presented. Three different surgical approaches were evaluated in a virtual environment and then compared to elucidate the best surgical approach. These approaches were assessed with regard to the line-of-sight, skull base anatomy and visualisation of the relevant anatomy at the level of the basilar artery and surrounding structures. Overall, the stereoscopic 3D virtual reality environment with fusion of multimodality imaging affords an excellent teaching tool for residents and medical students to learn surgical approaches to vascular lesions. Future studies will assess the educational benefits of this modality and develop a series of metrics for student assessments.

  7. Dorsal bundle lesions do not affect latent inhibition of conditioned suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, E; Preston, G C; Rawlins, J N; Winocur, G; Gray, J A

    1984-01-01

    Three experiments are reported which examine the effects of lesions of the dorsal ascending noradrenergic bundle (DB) on latent inhibition using a conditioned suppression procedure in rats. In none of the experiments did the DB lesion have any effect, despite changes in the extent of latent inhibition and in the control procedures used to assess it. The results are discussed in relation to the attentional theory of DB function.

  8. Social brains in context: lesions targeted to the song control system in female cowbirds affect their social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sarah E; Schmidt, Marc F; White, David J

    2013-01-01

    Social experiences can organize physiological, neural, and reproductive function, but there are few experimental preparations that allow one to study the effect individuals have in structuring their social environment. We examined the connections between mechanisms underlying individual behavior and social dynamics in flocks of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We conducted targeted inactivations of the neural song control system in female subjects. Playback tests revealed that the lesions affected females' song preferences: lesioned females were no longer selective for high quality conspecific song. Instead, they reacted to all cowbird songs vigorously. When lesioned females were introduced into mixed-sex captive flocks, they were less likely to form strong pair-bonds, and they no longer showed preferences for dominant males. This in turn created a cascade of effects through the groups. Social network analyses showed that the introduction of the lesioned females created instabilities in the social structure: males in the groups changed their dominance status and their courtship patterns, and even the competitive behavior of other female group-mates was affected. These results reveal that inactivation of the song control system in female cowbirds not only affects individual behavior, but also exerts widespread effects on the stability of the entire social system.

  9. Estimating the Global Incidence of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review for Central Nervous System Vascular Lesions and Meta-Analysis of Ruptured Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joshua D; Bond, Kamila M; Mekary, Rania A; Dewan, Michael C; Rattani, Abbas; Baticulon, Ronnie; Kato, Yoko; Azevedo-Filho, Hildo; Morcos, Jacques J; Park, Kee B

    2018-04-09

    There is increasing acknowledgement that surgical care is important in global health initiatives. In particular, neurosurgical care is as limited as 1 per 10 million people in parts of the world. We performed a systematic literature review to examine the worldwide incidence of central nervous system vascular lesions and a meta-analysis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) to define the disease burden and inform neurosurgical global health efforts. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to estimate the global epidemiology of central nervous system vascular lesions, including unruptured and ruptured aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistulas, developmental venous anomalies, and vein of Galen malformations. Results were organized by World Health Organization regions. After literature review, because of a lack of data from particular World Health Organization regions, we determined we could only provide an estimate of aSAH. Using data from studies with aSAH and 12 high-quality stroke studies from regions lacking data, we meta-analyzed the yearly crude incidence of aSAH per 100,000 persons. Estimates were generated via random-effects models. From an initial yield of 1492 studies, 46 manuscripts on aSAH incidence were included. The final meta-analysis included 58 studies from 31 different countries. We estimated the global crude incidence for aSAH to be 6.67 per 100,000 persons with a wide variation across WHO regions from 0.71 to 12.38 per 100,000 persons. Worldwide, almost 500,000 individuals will suffer from aSAH each year, with almost two-thirds in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An analysis of vascular surgery in elderly patients to determine whether age affects treatment strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of arterial disease increases with age. Increasing life expectancy in the western world will intensify demands on vascular surgeons with regard to increasing caseload, expanding patient selection criteria, and more complex and minimally-invasive treatment options. We analysed our arterial cases over the past 31 years (n = 6,144) and compared our methods of intervention and complication rates in the elderly population (>75) with the younger cohort, in order to determine whether age should influence our management strategies.

  11. Multifocal manifestation does not affect vascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma: implications for patient selection in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhe, Florian; Angele, Martin K; Rentsch, Markus; Graeb, Christian; Gerbes, Alexander; Löhrs, Udo; Beuers, Ulrich; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2007-01-01

    Liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) improves patient survival when tumor size and number are limited according to the Milan criteria. However, the impact of tumor size vs. the number of lesions for tumor recurrence after OLT is unclear. Microvascular invasion appears to be a significant risk factor for tumor recurrence. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to investigate tumor differentiation and microvascular invasion in relation to tumor number and size and their impact on survival after transplantation. In 97 adult HCC patients who underwent OLT between June 1985 and December 2005 the incidence of microvascular invasion, tumor differentiation, and the number and size of tumor lesions were analyzed retrospectively. Their impact on survival was studied by multivariate analysis. Microvascular invasion was the only independent negative predictor of survival after OLT for HCC (p = 0.025). Tumor size > 5 cm was predictive for microvascular invasion (p = 0.007). In contrast, tumor number did not affect the incidence of microvascular invasion or cumulative survival. The size of the largest HCC lesion, but not the number of tumors, determined microvascular invasion, a predictor of the outcome following OLT for HCC. Thus, the number of HCC lesions should not be applied to patient selection prior to OLT. These data support the extension of the Milan criteria for the selection of HCC patients for OLT with regard to tumor number, but not tumor size.

  12. Performing concurrent operations in academic vascular neurosurgery does not affect patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygourakis, Corinna C; Lee, Janelle; Barba, Julio; Lobo, Errol; Lawton, Michael T

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Concurrent surgeries, also known as "running two rooms" or simultaneous/overlapping operations, have recently come under intense scrutiny. The goal of this study was to evaluate the operative time and outcomes of concurrent versus nonconcurrent vascular neurosurgical procedures. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 1219 procedures performed by 1 vascular neurosurgeon from 2012 to 2015 at the University of California, San Francisco. Data were collected on patient age, sex, severity of illness, risk of mortality, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, procedure type, admission type, insurance, transfer source, procedure time, presence of resident or fellow in operating room (OR), number of co-surgeons, estimated blood loss (EBL), concurrent vs nonconcurrent case, severe sepsis, acute respiratory failure, postoperative stroke causing neurological deficit, unplanned return to OR, 30-day mortality, and 30-day unplanned readmission. For aneurysm clipping cases, data were also obtained on intraoperative aneurysm rupture and postoperative residual aneurysm. Chi-square and t-tests were performed to compare concurrent versus nonconcurrent cases, and then mixed-effects models were created to adjust for different procedure types, patient demographics, and clinical indicators between the 2 groups. RESULTS There was a significant difference in procedure type for concurrent (n = 828) versus nonconcurrent (n = 391) cases. Concurrent cases were more likely to be routine/elective admissions (53% vs 35%, p returns to the OR (3.3% vs 6.9%; all p return to the OR and 30-day mortality were significantly lower in concurrent cases (odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.98, p = 0.0431, and odds ratio 0.81, p fashion. After adjusting for patient demographics, procedure type, and clinical indicators, concurrent cases had longer procedure times, but equivalent patient outcomes, as compared with nonconcurrent vascular neurosurgical procedures.

  13. A magnesium based phosphate binder reduces vascular calcification without affecting bone in chronic renal failure rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Neven

    Full Text Available The alternative phosphate binder calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate (CaMg effectively reduces hyperphosphatemia, the most important inducer of vascular calcification, in chronic renal failure (CRF. In this study, the effect of low dose CaMg on vascular calcification and possible effects of CaMg on bone turnover, a persistent clinical controversy, were evaluated in chronic renal failure rats. Adenine-induced CRF rats were treated daily with 185 mg/kg CaMg or vehicle for 5 weeks. The aortic calcium content and area% calcification were measured to evaluate the effect of CaMg. To study the effect of CaMg on bone remodeling, rats underwent 5/6th nephrectomy combined with either a normal phosphorus diet or a high phosphorus diet to differentiate between possible bone effects resulting from either CaMg-induced phosphate deficiency or a direct effect of Mg. Vehicle or CaMg was administered at doses of 185 and 375 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Bone histomorphometry was performed. Aortic calcium content was significantly reduced by 185 mg/kg/day CaMg. CaMg ameliorated features of hyperparathyroid bone disease. In CRF rats on a normal phosphorus diet, the highest CaMg dose caused an increase in osteoid area due to phosphate depletion. The high phosphorus diet combined with the highest CaMg dose prevented the phosphate depletion and thus the rise in osteoid area. CaMg had no effect on osteoblast/osteoclast or dynamic bone parameters, and did not alter bone Mg levels. CaMg at doses that reduce vascular calcification did not show any harmful effect on bone turnover.

  14. MicroRNA-125b Affects Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Function by Targeting Serum Response Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Increasing evidence links microRNAs to the pathogenesis of peripheral vascular disease. We recently found microRNA-125b (miR-125b to be one of the most significantly down‑regulated microRNAs in human arteries with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO of the lower extremities. However, its function in the process of ASO remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression, regulatory mechanisms, and functions of miR-125b in the process of ASO. Methods: Using the tissue explants adherent method, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs were prepared for this study. A rat carotid artery balloon injury model was constructed to simulate the development of vascular neointima, and a lentiviral transduction system was used to overexpress serum response factor (SRF or miR-125b. Quantitative real‑time PCR (qRT‑PCR was used to detect the expression levels of miR‑125b and SRF mRNA. Western blotting was performed to determine the expression levels of SRF and Ki67. In situ hybridization analysis was used to analyze the location and expression levels of miR-125b. CCK-8 and EdU assays were used to assess cell proliferation, and transwell and wound closure assays were performed to measure cell migration. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell apoptosis, and a dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to examine the effects of miR‑125b on SRF. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses were performed to analyze the location and expression levels of SRF and Ki67. Results: miR-125b expression was decreased in ASO arteries and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. miR-125b suppressed VSMC proliferation and migration but promoted VSMC apoptosis. SRF was determined to be a direct target of miR-125b. Exogenous miR-125b expression modulated SRF expression and inhibited vascular neointimal formation in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a specific role of the mi

  15. Renal vascular lesions as a marker of poor prognosis in patients with lupus nephritis. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Nefrite Lupica (GISNEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, G; Bertani, T; Boeri, V; Faraggiana, T; Mazzucco, G; Monga, G; Sacchi, G

    1991-08-01

    The frequency of renal vascular lesions (RVL) and their relevance in the progression of renal damage were evaluated by the Pathology Group of the "Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Nefrite Lupica" (GISNEL). Of 285 patients with lupus nephritis collected from 20 nephrology centers in Italy and classified according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 79 cases (27.7%) with RVL were identified and classified as follows: (1) lupus vasculopathy (n = 27); (2) hemolytic-uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (HUS/TTP) malignant hypertension-like lesions (n = 24); (3) vasculitis (n = 8); (4) arterio-arteriosclerosis (n = 20). At the time of renal biopsy, patients with RVL had mean serum creatinine levels significantly higher than patients without RVL (201.8 +/- 195.9 mumol/L [2.2 +/- 2.2 mg/dL] v 108.1 +/- 108.0 mumol/L [1.2 +/- 1.2 mg/dL]; P less than 0.01). Hypertension was more frequent in patients with RVL than in those without (68.4% v 30.5%; P less than 0.01). The probability of kidney survival assessed according to the Kaplan-Meier method at 5 and 10 years was, respectively, 74.3% +/- 5.9% and 58.0% +/- 8.9% in patients with RVL, compared with 89.6% +/- 2.7% and 85.9% +/- 3.7% in patients without RVL. However, the two groups did not differ significantly as regards overall survival, the probability of survival at 5 and 10 years being 86.5% +/- 4.5% and 78.8% +/- 6.6% in patients with RVL and 92.2% +/- 2.2% and 83.3% +/- 4.4% in patients without RVL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Identification of chemical components of combustion emissions that affect pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilkop, Steven K; Campen, Matthew J; Lund, Amie K; McDonald, Jacob D; Mauderly, Joe L

    2012-04-01

    Combustion emissions cause pro-atherosclerotic responses in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE/⁻) mice, but the causal components of these complex mixtures are unresolved. In studies previously reported, ApoE⁻/⁻ mice were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 50 consecutive days to multiple dilutions of diesel or gasoline exhaust, wood smoke, or simulated "downwind" coal emissions. In this study, the analysis of the combined four-study database using the Multiple Additive Regression Trees (MART) data mining approach to determine putative causal exposure components regardless of combustion source is reported. Over 700 physical-chemical components were grouped into 45 predictor variables. Response variables measured in aorta included endothelin-1, vascular endothelin growth factor, three matrix metalloproteinases (3, 7, 9), metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, heme-oxygenase-1, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Two or three predictors typically explained most of the variation in response among the experimental groups. Overall, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide were most highly predictive of responses, although their rankings differed among the responses. Consistent with the earlier finding that filtration of particles had little effect on responses, particulate components ranked third to seventh in predictive importance for the eight response variables. MART proved useful for identifying putative causal components, although the small number of pollution mixtures (4) can provide only suggestive evidence of causality. The potential independent causal contributions of these gases to the vascular responses, as well as possible interactions among them and other components of complex pollutant mixtures, warrant further evaluation.

  17. Expression of p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions: correlation with clinical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chang Wei; Wang, Li Dong; Jiao, Lian Hua; Liu, Bin; Zheng, Shu; Xie, Xin Ji

    2002-01-01

    The growth and metastasis of tumors depend on the development of an adequate blood supply via angiogenesis. Recent studies indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the tumor suppressor p53 are fundamental play-markers of the angiogenic process. Overexpression of iNOS and VEGF has been shown to induce angiogenesis in tumors. P53 suppresses angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF and iNOS. The correlation of expression of p53, VEGF and iNOS and clinical features in gastric carcinogenesis, however, has not been well characterized. The expression of p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions and its relation with the clinical features was determined with immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method) on 55 randomly selected GC patients and 60 symptom-free subjects from the mass survey in the high-incidence area for GC in Henan, northern China. The positive immunostainig rates for p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric carcinomas were 51%, 44% and 51%, respectively, and correlated well with TNM stages, but did not show significant difference among the groups with different degrees of gastric wall invasion depth by GC. A positive immunostaining reaction for the iNOS protein was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.019; Spearman correlation coefficient). P53 protein accumulation was higher in the poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma than in well-differentiated one. In gastric biopsies, no positive immunosatining was observed for p53, iNOS and VEGF in the histologically normal tissue and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG). However, p53, iNOS and VEGF positive immunostaining was observed in the tissues with different severities of lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS), and the positive rates increased with the lesion progression from CAG to IM to DYS. A high coincidental positive and negative immunostaining

  18. Low selenium status affects arsenic metabolites in an arsenic exposed population with skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Pei, Qiuling; Sun, Guifan; Zhang, Sichum; Liang, Jiang; Gao, Yi; Zhang, Xinrong

    2008-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low selenium status plays important roles in arsenism development. However, no study has been reported for humans suffering from chronic arsenic exposure with low selenium status. Sixty-three subjects were divided into 2 experimental groups by skin lesions (including hyperkeratosis, depigmentation, and hyperpigmentation). Total urine and serum concentrations of arsenic and selenium were determined by ICP-MS with collision/reaction cell. Arsenic species were analysed by ICP-MS coupled with HPLC. The mean concentration of As in the drinking waters was 41.5 microg/l. The selenium dietary intake for the studied population was 31.7 microg Se/d, and which for the cases and controls were 25.9 and 36.3 microg Se/d, respectively. Compared with the controls, the skin lesions cases had lower selenium concentrations in serum and urine (41.4 vs 49.6 microg/l and 71.0 vs 78.8 microg/l, respectively), higher inorganic arsenic (iAs) in serum (5.2 vs 3.4 microg/l, PiAs in serum and urine (20.2) vs 16.9% and 18.3 vs 14.5%, respectively, PiAs and its inhibition to be biotransformed to DMA occurred in human due to chronic exposure of low selenium status.

  19. Tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet derived growth factor β receptors in coronary artery lesions: implications for vascular remodelling after directional coronary atherectomy and unstable angina pectoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, J; Deguchi, J; Takuwa, Y; Hara, K; Ikari, Y; Tamura, T; Ohno, M; Kurokawa, K

    1998-01-01

    Background—Growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) have been postulated to be important mediators of neointimal proliferation observed in atherosclerotic plaques and restenotic lesions following coronary interventions. Binding of PDGF to its receptor results in intrinsic receptor tyrosine kinase activation and subsequent cellular migration, proliferation, and vascular contraction.
Aims—To investigate whether the concentration of PDGF β receptor tyrosine phosphorylation obtained from directional coronary atherectomy (DCA) samples correlate with atherosclerotic plaque burden, the ability of diseased vessels to remodel, coronary risk factors, and clinical events.
Methods—DCA samples from 59 patients and 15 non-atherosclerotic left internal thoracic arteries (LITA) were analysed for PDGF β receptor tyrosine phosphorylation content by receptor immunoprecipitation and antiphosphotyrosine western blot. The amount of PDGF β receptor phosphorylation was analysed in relation to angiographic follow up data and clinical variables.
Results—PDGF β receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in the 59 DCA samples was greater than in the 15 non-atherosclerotic LITA (mean (SD) 0.84 (0.67) v 0.17 (0.08) over a control standard, p atherectomy;  restenosis PMID:9616351

  20. Exposure of wide cerebellomedullary cisterns for vascular lesion surgeries in cerebellomedullary cisterns: opening of unilateral cerebellomedullary fissures combined with lateral foramen magnum approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshio; Kawashima, Masatou; Inoue, Kohei; Matsushima, Ken; Miki, Koichi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify microsurgical anatomic features of the cerebellomedullary fissure (CMF), the natural cleavage plane between the cerebellum and the medulla, and its relationship to the cerebellomedullary cistern (CMC) and to describe a surgical technique that uses the unilateral trans-CMF approach for CMC surgeries. In the anatomic study, 2 formalin-fixed cadaver heads were used. In the clinical study, 3 patients with vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms and 3 patients with glossopharyngeal neuralgia were surgically treated through the unilateral trans-CMF approach combined with the transcondylar fossa approach, which is a lateral foramen magnum approach. The CMC was present at the lateral end of the CMF. The CMF was closed by arachnoidal adhesion, and the cerebellar hemisphere was superiorly attached to the cerebellar peduncle. After the unilateral CMF was completely opened, the cerebellar hemisphere was easily retracted rostrodorsally. Clinically, almost completely opening the unilateral CMF markedly enabled the retraction of the biventral lobule to obtain a wide surgical field safely for vascular CMC lesions. We present 2 representative cases. Combined unilateral trans-CMF/lateral foramen magnum approaches provide a wide and close surgical field in the CMC, allowing easy and safe CMC surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High-throughput identification of small molecules that affect human embryonic vascular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazão, Helena; Rosa, Susana; Barata, Tânia; Costa, Ricardo; Pitrez, Patrícia R.; Honório, Inês; De Vries, Margreet R.; Papatsenko, Dimitri; Benedito, Rui; Saris, Daniel; Khademhosseini, Ali; Quax, Paul H.A.; Pereira, Carlos F.; Mercader, Nadia; Fernandes, Hugo; Ferreira, Lino

    2017-01-01

    Birth defects, which are in part caused by exposure to environmental chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs, affect 1 in every 33 babies born in the United States each year. The current standard to screen drugs that affect embryonic development is based on prenatal animal testing; however, this approach

  2. Insulin-resistance HCV infection-related affects vascular stiffness in normotensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perticone, Maria; Maio, Raffaele; Tassone, Eliezer Joseph; Tripepi, Giovanni; Di Cello, Serena; Miceli, Sofia; Caroleo, Benedetto; Sciacqua, Angela; Licata, Anna; Sesti, Giorgio; Perticone, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS. Arterial stiffness evaluated as pulse wave velocity, is an early marker of vascular damage and an independent predictor for cardiovascular events. We investigated if the insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia chronic hepatitis C virus infection-related could influence arterial stiffness. METHODS. We enrolled 260 outpatients matched for age, body mass index, gender, ethnicity: 52 with never-treated uncomplicated chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV(+)), 104 never-treated hypertensives (HT) and 104 healthy subjects (NT). Pulse wave velocity was evaluated by a validated system employing high-fidelity applanation tonometry. We also measured: fasting plasma glucose and insulin, total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, e-GFR-EPI, HOMA, quantitative HCV-RNA. RESULTS. HCV(+) patients with respect to NT had an increased pulse wave velocity (7.9 ± 2.1 vs 6.4 ± 2.1 m/s; P direct correlation between HOMA and pulse wave velocity in HCV(+) patients, similar to that observed in hypertensives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Methane transport and emissions from soil as affected by water table and vascular plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bhullar, Gurbir S; Iravani, Majid; Edwards, Peter J; Olde Venterink, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Background: The important greenhouse gas (GHG) methane is produced naturally in anaerobic wetland soils. By affecting the production, oxidation and transport of methane to the atmosphere, plants have a major influence upon the quantities emitted by wetlands. Different species and functional plant groups have been shown to affect these processes differently, but our knowledge about how these effects are influenced by abiotic factors such as water regime and temperature remains limited. Here...

  4. Preintervention lesion remodelling affects operative mechanisms of balloon optimised directional coronary atherectomy procedures: a volumetric study with three dimensional intravascular ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Birgelen, C; Mintz, G; de Vrey, E A; Serruys, P; Kimura, T; Nobuyoshi, M; Popma, J; Leon, M; Erbel, R; de Feyter, P J

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To classify atherosclerotic coronary lesions on the basis of adequate or inadequate compensatory vascular enlargement, and to examine changes in lumen, plaque, and vessel volumes during balloon optimised directional coronary atherectomy procedures in relation to the state of adaptive remodelling before the intervention.
DESIGN—29 lesion segments in 29 patients were examined with intravascular ultrasound before and after successful balloon optimised directional coronary atherectomy procedures, and a validated volumetric intravascular ultrasound analysis was performed off-line to assess the atherosclerotic lesion remodelling and changes in plaque and vessel volumes that occurred during the intervention. Based on the intravascular ultrasound data, lesions were classified according to whether there was inadequate (group I) or adequate (group II) compensatory enlargement.
RESULTS—There was no significant difference in patient and lesion characteristics between groups I and II (n = 10 and 19), including lesion length and details of the intervention. Quantitative coronary angiographic data were similar for both groups. However, plaque and vessel volumes were significantly smaller in group I than in II. In group I, 9 (4)% (mean (SD)) of the plaque volume was ablated, while in group II 16 (11)% was ablated (p = 0.01). This difference was reflected in a lower lumen volume gain in group I than in group II (46 (18) mm3 v 80 (49) mm3 (p atherectomy procedures. Plaque ablation was found to be particularly low in lesions with inadequate compensatory vascular enlargement.


Keywords: intravascular ultrasound; ultrasonics; remodelling; coronary artery disease; atherectomy PMID:10648496

  5. Effects of JPEG data compression on magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of small vessels ischemic lesions of the brain; Efeitos da compressao de dados JPEG na avaliacao de lesoes vasculares cerebrais isquemicas de pequenos vasos em ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriki, Paulo Eduardo de Aguiar; Abdala, Nitamar; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes; Carrete Junior, Henrique; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: paulokuriki@gmail.com

    2006-01-15

    Objective: to establish the maximum achievable JPEG compression ratio without affecting quantitative and qualitative magnetic resonance imaging analysis of ischemic lesion in small vessels of the brain. Material and method: fifteen DICOM images were converted to JPEG with a compression ratio of 1:10 to 1:60 and were assessed together with the original images by three neuro radiologists. The number, morphology and signal intensity of the lesions were analyzed. Results: lesions were properly identified up to a 1:30 ratio. More lesions were identified with a 1:10 ratio then in the original images. Morphology and edges were properly evaluated up toa 1:40 ratio. Compression did not affect signal. Conclusion: small lesions were identified ( < 2 mm ) and in all compression ratios the JPEG algorithm generated image noise that misled observers to identify more lesions in JPEG images then in DICOM images, thus generating false-positive results.(author)

  6. How Phosphorus Availability Affects the Impact of Nitrogen Deposition on Sphagnum and Vascular Plants in Bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Berendse, F.; Klees, H.

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate the impact of high nitrogen (N) deposition on intact bog vegetation, as affected by phosphorus (P) availability, we conducted a 4-year fertilization experiment with N and P at six sites, one with moderate N deposition and five with high N deposition. During the growing season, N (40 kg

  7. Methane transport and emissions from soil as affected by water table and vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Gurbir S; Iravani, Majid; Edwards, Peter J; Olde Venterink, Harry

    2013-09-08

    The important greenhouse gas (GHG) methane is produced naturally in anaerobic wetland soils. By affecting the production, oxidation and transport of methane to the atmosphere, plants have a major influence upon the quantities emitted by wetlands. Different species and functional plant groups have been shown to affect these processes differently, but our knowledge about how these effects are influenced by abiotic factors such as water regime and temperature remains limited. Here we present a mesocosm experiment comparing eight plant species for their effects on internal transport and overall emissions of methane under contrasting hydrological conditions. To quantify how much methane was transported internally through plants (the chimney effect), we blocked diffusion from the soil surface with an agar seal. We found that graminoids caused higher methane emissions than forbs, although the emissions from mesocosms with different species were either lower than or comparable to those from control mesocosms with no plant (i.e. bare soil). Species with a relatively greater root volume and a larger biomass exhibited a larger chimney effect, though overall methane emissions were negatively related to plant biomass. Emissions were also reduced by lowering the water table. We conclude that plant species (and functional groups) vary in the degree to which they transport methane to the atmosphere. However, a plant with a high capacity to transport methane does not necessarily emit more methane, as it may also cause more rhizosphere oxidation of methane. A shift in plant species composition from graminoids to forbs and/or from low to high productive species may lead to reduction of methane emissions.

  8. Hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide differentially affect normal and tumor-derived vascular endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Bianco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: endothelial cells play a key role in vessels formation both under physiological and pathological conditions. Their behavior is influenced by blood components including gasotransmitters (H2S, NO and CO. Tumor cells are subjected to a cyclic shift between pro-oxidative and hypoxic state and, in this scenario, H2S can be both cytoprotective and detrimental depending on its concentration. H2S effects on tumors onset and development is scarcely studied, particularly concerning tumor angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated that H2S is proangiogenic for tumoral but not for normal endothelium and this may represent a target for antiangiogenic therapeutical strategies. Methods: in this work, we investigate cell viability, migration and tubulogenesis on human EC derived from two different tumors, breast and renal carcinoma (BTEC and RTEC, compared to normal microvascular endothelium (HMEC under oxidative stress, hypoxia and treatment with exogenous H2S. Results: all EC types are similarly sensitive to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide; chemical hypoxia differentially affects endothelial viability, that results unaltered by real hypoxia. H2S neither affects cell viability nor prevents hypoxia and H2O2-induced damage. Endothelial migration is enhanced by hypoxia, while tubulogenesis is inhibited for all EC types. H2S acts differentially on EC migration and tubulogenesis. Conclusions: these data provide evidence for a great variability of normal and altered endothelium in response to the environmental conditions. Keywords: Hydrogen sulfide, Human microvascular endothelial cells, Human breast carcinoma-derived EC, Human renal carcinoma-derived EC, Tumor angiogenesis

  9. Vascular affection in relation to oxidative DNA damage in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Aziz, Rokayaa; Fawzy, Mary Wadie; Khalil, Noha; Abdel Atty, Sahar; Sabra, Zainab

    2018-02-01

    Obesity has become an important issue affecting both males and females. Obesity is now regarded as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related diseases. Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of cardiovascular disease. Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration has been used to express oxidation status. Twenty-seven obese patients with metabolic syndrome, 25 obese patients without metabolic syndrome and 31 healthy subjects were included in our study. They were subjected to full history and clinical examination; fasting blood sugar (FBS), 2 hour post prandial blood sugar (2HPP), lipid profile, urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and carotid duplex, A/B index and tibial diameters were all assessed. There was a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.027) in diameter of the right anterior tibial artery among the studied groups, with decreased diameter of the right anterior tibial artery in obese patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome; the ankle brachial index revealed a lower index in obese patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome. There was a statistically insignificant difference ( p = 0.668) in the 8-oxodG in the studied groups. In obese patients with metabolic syndrome there was a positive correlation between 8-oxodG and total cholesterol and LDL. Urinary 8-oxodG is correlated to total cholesterol and LDL in obese patients with metabolic syndrome; signifying its role in the mechanism of dyslipidemia in those patients. Our study highlights the importance of anterior tibial artery diameter measurement and ankle brachial index as an early marker of atherosclerosis, and how it may be an earlier marker than carotid intima-media thickness.

  10. Factors affecting the precision of lesion sizing with contrast-enhanced spectral mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travieso-Aja, M Del Mar; Naranjo-Santana, P; Fernández-Ruiz, C; Severino-Rondón, W; Maldonado-Saluzzi, D; Rodríguez Rodríguez, M; Vega-Benítez, V; Luzardo, O P

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the precision of the pre-surgical measurement of the size of breast cancer by contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). This was a retrospective study of 204 breast cancers. Variables related to tumour biology and anthropometric variables were recorded and considered when evaluating the efficacy of CESM in predicting tumour size. Microscopic measurement of the largest diameter of the tumour at pathology was chosen as the reference standard. The mean size of tumours at pathology was 20.7±15.8 mm, while at CESM it was 23.6±16.7 mm (Bland-Altman 2.9 mm overestimation, 2.9 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -10.3-16.2 mm). Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.83 (p<0.0001). The concordance analysis indicated that 37.8% of the measurements were concordant, 47% were overestimated, and 15.2% were underestimated. Tumour size, nodal involvement, breast density, and breast size significantly modified the sizing accuracy. Quality of tumour size prediction with CESM is good, and this appears to be a promising imaging technique in the surgical planning of breast cancer. Biological tumour features, and anthropological characteristics of the patients do, however, affect the diagnostic precision and should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The somatotopic localisation of the descending cortical tract in the cerebral peduncle: a study using MRI of changes following Wallerian degeneration in the cerebral peduncle after a supratentorial vascular lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waragai, M.; Watanabe, H.; Iwabuchi, S.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effects of Wallerian degeneration in the cerebral peduncle shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following a supratentorial vascular lesion, to identify the somatotopic localisation of the descending cortical tracts. Patients with a lesion involving a large area of a cerebral hemisphere has an area of abnormal signal intensity in the whole cerebral peduncle, suggesting Wallerian degeneration of all the whole descending cortical tracts. With a small lesion confined to the precentral gyrus, corona radiata, or posterior limb of the internal capsule there was an abnormal signal at the centre of the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the precentrospinal tract. Those with a small lesion confined to the paracentral gyrus had an abnormal area slightly lateral to the centre of the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the parietospinal tract. Patients with a lesion of the parietal or temporal lobes, not including the paracentral or precentral gyri, corona radiata, or the posterior limb of the internal capsule, had an abnormal area laterally in the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the parietopontine or temporopontine tract. (orig.)

  12. Agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment inhibits T cell responses in LDLr deficient mice without affecting atherosclerotic lesion development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C Foks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules are mainly expressed on T cells and antigen presenting cells and strongly orchestrate adaptive immune responses. Whereas co-stimulatory molecules enhance immune responses, signaling via co-inhibitory molecules dampens the immune system, thereby showing great therapeutic potential to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Signaling via co-inhibitory T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT directly inhibits T cell activation and proliferation, and therefore represents a novel therapeutic candidate to specifically dampen pro-atherogenic T cell reactivity. In the present study, we used an agonistic anti-TIGIT antibody to determine the effect of excessive TIGIT-signaling on atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: TIGIT was upregulated on CD4(+ T cells isolated from mice fed a Western-type diet in comparison with mice fed a chow diet. Agonistic anti-TIGIT suppressed T cell activation and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. However, agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment of LDLr(-/- mice fed a Western-type diet for 4 or 8 weeks did not affect atherosclerotic lesion development in comparison with PBS and Armenian Hamster IgG treatment. Furthermore, elevated percentages of dendritic cells were observed in the blood and spleen of agonistic anti-TIGIT-treated mice. Additionally, these cells showed an increased activation status but decreased IL-10 production. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the inhibition of splenic T cell responses, agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment does not affect initial atherosclerosis development, possibly due to increased activity of dendritic cells.

  13. The Upregulation of Integrin αDβ2 (CD11d/CD18) on Inflammatory Macrophages Promotes Macrophage Retention in Vascular Lesions and Development of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Moammir H; Cui, Kui; Das, Mitali; Brown, Kathleen E; Ardell, Christopher L; Febbraio, Maria; Pluskota, Elzbieta; Han, Juying; Wu, Huaizhu; Ballantyne, Christie M; Smith, Jonathan D; Cathcart, Martha K; Yakubenko, Valentin P

    2017-06-15

    Macrophage accumulation is a critical step during development of chronic inflammation, initiating progression of many devastating diseases. Leukocyte-specific integrin α D β 2 (CD11d/CD18) is dramatically upregulated on macrophages at inflammatory sites. Previously we found that CD11d overexpression on cell surfaces inhibits in vitro cell migration due to excessive adhesion. In this study, we have investigated how inflammation-mediated CD11d upregulation contributes to macrophage retention at inflammatory sites during atherogenesis. Atherosclerosis was evaluated in CD11d -/- /ApoE -/- mice after 16 wk on a Western diet. CD11d deficiency led to a marked reduction in lipid deposition in aortas and isolated macrophages. Macrophage numbers in aortic sinuses of CD11d -/- mice were reduced without affecting their apoptosis and proliferation. Adoptive transfer of fluorescently labeled wild-type and CD11d -/- monocytes into ApoE -/- mice demonstrated similar recruitment from circulation, but reduced accumulation of CD11d -/- macrophages within the aortas. Furthermore, CD11d expression was significantly upregulated on macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions and M1 macrophages in vitro. Interestingly, expression of the related ligand-sharing integrin CD11b was not altered. This difference defines their distinct roles in the regulation of macrophage migration. CD11d-deficient M1 macrophages demonstrated improved migration in a three-dimensional fibrin matrix and during resolution of peritoneal inflammation, whereas migration of CD11b -/- M1 macrophages was not affected. These results prove the contribution of high densities of CD11d to macrophage arrest during atherogenesis. Because high expression of CD11d was detected in several inflammation-dependent diseases, we suggest that CD11d/CD18 upregulation on proinflammatory macrophages may represent a common mechanism for macrophage retention at inflammatory sites, thereby promoting chronic inflammation and disease development

  14. Deletion of Batf3-dependent antigen-presenting cells does not affect atherosclerotic lesion formation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gil-Pulido

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the main underlying cause for cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke and its development might be influenced by immune cells. Dendritic cells (DCs bridge innate and adaptive immune responses by presenting antigens to T cells and releasing a variety of cytokines. Several subsets of DCs can be discriminated that engage specific transcriptional pathways for their development. Basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like 3 (Batf3 is required for the development of classical CD8α+ and CD103+ DCs. By crossing mice deficient in Batf3 with atherosclerosis-prone low density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr-/--deficient mice we here aimed to further address the contribution of Batf3-dependent CD8α+ and CD103+ antigen-presenting cells to atherosclerosis. We demonstrate that deficiency in Batf3 entailed mild effects on the immune response in the spleen but did not alter atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aorta or aortic root, nor affected plaque phenotype in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice fed a high fat diet. We thus provide evidence that Batf3-dependent antigen-presenting cells do not have a prominent role in atherosclerosis.

  15. A new method for automated high-dimensional lesion segmentation evaluated in vascular injury and applied to the human occipital lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Jager, Rolf; Kennard, Christopher; Husain, Masud; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-07-01

    Making robust inferences about the functional neuroanatomy of the brain is critically dependent on experimental techniques that examine the consequences of focal loss of brain function. Unfortunately, the use of the most comprehensive such technique-lesion-function mapping-is complicated by the need for time-consuming and subjective manual delineation of the lesions, greatly limiting the practicability of the approach. Here we exploit a recently-described general measure of statistical anomaly, zeta, to devise a fully-automated, high-dimensional algorithm for identifying the parameters of lesions within a brain image given a reference set of normal brain images. We proceed to evaluate such an algorithm in the context of diffusion-weighted imaging of the commonest type of lesion used in neuroanatomical research: ischaemic damage. Summary performance metrics exceed those previously published for diffusion-weighted imaging and approach the current gold standard-manual segmentation-sufficiently closely for fully-automated lesion-mapping studies to become a possibility. We apply the new method to 435 unselected images of patients with ischaemic stroke to derive a probabilistic map of the pattern of damage in lesions involving the occipital lobe, demonstrating the variation of anatomical resolvability of occipital areas so as to guide future lesion-function studies of the region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The vascularization of a gastric tube as a substitute for the esophagus is affected by its diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierie, J P; de Graaf, P W; van Vroonhoven, T J; Obertop, H

    1998-10-01

    The stomach is used for reconstruction of the upper gastrointestinal tract after esophageal resection for cancer. The whole stomach can be used, but also a wide or narrow gastric tube can be constructed. Short-term functional results are superior after use of a narrow tube. Healing of the cervical esophagogastrostomy can be impaired, leading to leakage and stricture. The decreased vascularization at the site of the anastomosis may be one reason. It was hypothesized that the quality of the vascularization of the gastric tube, used as a substitute for the oesophagus after esophagectomy, depends on its diameter. The vascularization of postmortem specimens was studied using angiography. Whole stomachs (3), wide (3) and narrow gastric tubes (3) were constructed. In a patient with an anastomotic stricture of a narrow tube with a cervical esophagogastrostomy vascularisation was evaluated by angiography. After infusion of contrast through the supplying arteries, the whole stomachs and wide gastric tubes showed adequate vascularization, whereas the narrow gastric tube showed poor vascularization especially at the site of the anastomosis. In narrow gastric tubes, the right gastroepiploic artery was the only feeding artery. In the patient's angiography, a limited contrast visualization of the proximal end of the gastric tube could be demonstrated. Although a narrow gastric tube is favoured by some surgeons, the use of whole stomach or a type of gastric tube with preservation of the right gastric artery may lead to a better anastomotic healing.

  17. Genetic ablation of soluble TNF does not affect lesion size and functional recovery after moderate spinal cord injury in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellman, Ditte Gry; Degn, Matilda; Lund, Minna Christiansen

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is followed by an instant increase in expression of the microglial-derived proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) within the lesioned cord. TNF exists both as membrane-anchored TNF (mTNF) and as cleaved soluble TNF (solTNF). We previously demonstra......, and MHCII), lesion size, and functional outcome after moderate SCI were comparable between genotypes. Collectively, our data demonstrate that genetic ablation of solTNF does not significantly modulate postlesion outcome after SCI....

  18. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    OpenAIRE

    Herrington Lee C; Horsley Ian G; Rolf Christer

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later veri...

  19. The water channel AQP1 is expressed in human atherosclerotic vascular lesions and AQP1 deficiency augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wintmo, P.; Johansen, S. H.; Hansen, P. B. L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) promotes endothelial cell migration. It was hypothesized that AQP1 promotes neovascularization and growth of atherosclerotic plaques. Methods: AQP1 immunoreactivity and protein abundance was examined in human and murine atherosclerotic lesions and aortic...... minipumps for 4 weeks. Results: In human atherosclerotic lesions and AAA, AQP1 immunoreactive protein was associated with intralesional small vessels. In ApoE-/- mouse aorta, APQ1 mRNA levels were increased with time on WD (n = 7-9, P ... increased with time on WD but was not different between ApoE-/- and AQP1-/-ApoE-/- mice at either 8 or 16 weeks (n = 13-15). Baseline blood pressure and ANGII-induced hypertension were not different between genotypes. Conclusion: AQP1 is expressed in atherosclerotic lesion neovasculature in human and mouse...

  20. The genetic background affects the vascular response in T-type calcium channels 3.2 deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Hansen, Pernille B L

    2016-01-01

    -type channels are the dominant Ca(2+) entry pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells, however, T-type calcium channels are also expressed in the cardiovascular system where they play a functional role in the regulation of both contraction and vasodilation in (Chen et al. 2003; Hansen et al. 2001). This article...... is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  1. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  2. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  3. PPARα activation differently affects microparticle content in atherosclerotic lesions and liver of a mouse model of atherosclerosis and NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Morgane; Leroyer, Aurélie S; Majd, Zouher; Lalloyer, Fanny; Vallez, Emmanuelle; Bantubungi, Kadiombo; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Delerive, Philippe; Boulanger, Chantal M; Staels, Bart; Tailleux, Anne

    2011-09-01

    Atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are complex pathologies characterized by lipid accumulation, chronic inflammation and extensive tissue remodelling. Microparticles (MPs), small membrane vesicles produced by activated and apoptotic cells, might not only be biomarkers, but also functional actors in these pathologies. The apoE2-KI mouse is a model of atherosclerosis and NAFLD. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARα decreases atherosclerosis and components of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in the apoE2-KI mouse. (1) To determine whether MPs are present in atherosclerotic lesions, liver and plasma during atherosclerosis and NASH progression in apoE2-KI mice, and (2) to study whether PPARα activation modulates MP concentrations. ApoE2-KI mice were fed a Western diet to induce atherosclerosis and NASH. MPs were isolated from atherosclerotic lesions, liver and blood and quantified by flow cytometry. An increase of MPs was observed in the atherosclerotic lesions and in the liver of apoE2-KI mice upon Western diet feeding. PPARα activation with fenofibrate decreased MP levels in the atherosclerotic lesions in a PPARα-dependent manner, but did not influence MP concentrations in the liver. Here we report that MPs are present in atherosclerotic lesions and in the liver of apoE2-KI mice. Their concentration increased during atherosclerosis and NASH development. PPARα activation differentially modulates MP levels in a tissue-specific manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Absence of IL-1β positively affects neurological outcome, lesion development and axonal plasticity after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boato Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Precise crosstalk between the nervous and immune systems is important for neuroprotection and axon plasticity after injury. Recently, we demonstrated that IL-1β acts as a potent inducer of neurite outgrowth from organotypic brain slices in vitro, suggesting a potential function of IL-1β in axonal plasticity. Here, we have investigated the effects of IL-1β on axon plasticity during glial scar formation and on functional recovery in a mouse model of spinal cord compression injury (SCI. We used an IL-1β deficiency model (IL-1βKO mice and administered recombinant IL-1β. In contrast to our hypothesis, the histological analysis revealed a significantly increased lesion width and a reduced number of corticospinal tract fibers caudal to the lesion center after local application of recombinant IL-1β. Consistently, the treatment significantly worsened the neurological outcome after SCI in mice compared with PBS controls. In contrast, the absence of IL-1β in IL-1βKO mice significantly improved recovery from SCI compared with wildtype mice. Histological analysis revealed a smaller lesion size, reduced lesion width and greatly decreased astrogliosis in the white matter, while the number of corticospinal tract fibers increased significantly 5 mm caudal to the lesion in IL-1βKO mice relative to controls. Our study for the first time characterizes the detrimental effects of IL-1β not only on lesion development (in terms of size and glia activation, but also on the plasticity of central nervous system axons after injury.

  5. Multifocal manifestation does not affect vascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma: implications for patient selection in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhe, Florian; Angele, Martin K.; Rentsch, Markus; Graeb, Christian; Gerbes, Alexander; Löhrs, Udo; Beuers, Ulrich; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) improves patient survival when tumor size and number are limited according to the Milan criteria. However, the impact of tumor size vs. the number of lesions for tumor recurrence after OLT is unclear. Microvascular

  6. Lesion Size Is Exacerbated in Hypoxic Rats Whereas Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Increase in Injured Normoxic Rats: A Prospective Cohort Study of Secondary Hypoxia in Focal Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, Eric Peter; Frostell, Arvid; Mulder, Jan; Mitsios, Nicholas; Damberg, Peter; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Risling, Mårten; Svensson, Mikael; Morganti-Kossmann, Maria Cristina; Bellander, Bo-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a severe insult shown to exacerbate the pathophysiology, resulting in worse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a hypoxic insult in a focal TBI model by monitoring brain edema, lesion volume, serum biomarker levels, immune cell infiltration, as well as the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 73, including sham and naive) were used. The rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated. A controlled cortical impact device created a 3-mm deep lesion in the right parietal hemisphere. Post-injury, rats inhaled either normoxic (22% O2) or hypoxic (11% O2) mixtures for 30 min. The rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-injury. Serum was collected for S100B measurements using ELISA. Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to determine lesion size and edema volume. Immunofluorescence was employed to analyze neuronal death, changes in cerebral macrophage- and neutrophil infiltration, microglia proliferation, apoptosis, complement activation (C5b9), IgG extravasation, HIF-1α, and VEGF. The hypoxic group had significantly increased blood levels of lactate and decreased pO2 (p hypoxic animals (p hypoxic group at 1 day after trauma (p = 0.0868). No differences were observed between the groups in cytotoxic and vascular edema, IgG extravasation, neutrophils and macrophage aggregation, microglia proliferation, or C5b-9 expression. Hypoxia following focal TBI exacerbated the lesion size and neuronal loss. Moreover, there was a tendency to higher levels of S100B in the hypoxic group early after injury, indicating a potential validity as a biomarker of injury severity. In the normoxic group, the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was found elevated, possibly indicative of neuro-protective responses occurring in this less severely injured group. Further studies are

  7. Toxicity of aerosol propellants in the respiratory and circulatory systems. VI. Influence of cardiac and pulmonary vascular lesions in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, R E; Aviado, D M

    1975-01-01

    Three propellants were selected for investigation in rats because of their non-uniform effect in mice and monkeys. Trichlorofluoromethane (FC 11) provoked arrhythmia in all three animal species, dichlorodifluoromethane (FC 12) in monkeys and rats but not in mice, and difluoroethane (FC 152a) only in rats. In rats the alterations in heart rate and electrocardiographic pattern during inhalation of these propellants are largely brought about by release of catecholamines from the adrenal gland, because adrenalectomy or prior injection of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs decreased the incidence of cardiac effects. Rats that have pulmonary vascular thrombosis or cardiac necrosis become more sensitive to proarrhythmic activity of these propellants.

  8. The use of JJ stent in the management of deep endometriosis lesion, affecting or potentially affecting the ureter: a review of our practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingertner, A S; Rodriguez, B; Ziane, A; Gibon, E; Thoma, V; Osario, F; Haddad, C; Wattiez, A

    2008-08-01

    With the increasing number of operative laparoscopies performed for the treatment of deep pelvic endometriosis, technical difficulties and risk of complications inevitably increase. We report our experience using JJ stents, in women treated for deep pelvic endometriosis, with regard to prevention and management of ureteral lesions. Descriptive retrospective analysis between March 2004 and March 2007. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital, Strasbourg, France. Cases of women who underwent laparoscopic surgery for severe endometriosis and who needed a JJ stent in their management were recorded. Laparoscopic surgery was performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at CMCO-SIHCUS and Hautepierre Hospitals, Strasbourg, which are referral centres in the treatment of deep endometriosis. To evaluate the contribution of JJ stent in the prevention and management of ureteral lesions from endometriotic origin and/or iatrogenic origin in women treated for deep pelvic endometriosis. A total of 145 women had surgery for deep pelvic endometriosis. Seventeen (11.7%) women had a JJ ureteral stent inserted. In 82.4% of women, the stent was inserted pre- or peroperatively. We noted three ureteral complications, of which only one needed management by laparotomy. Except in extreme cases, management of ureteral endometriosis should be performed laparoscopically. Ureteral lesions whether iatrogenic, or secondary to endometriotic disease, can be treated by cystoscopy, JJ stent and laparoscopy. The combination of these three elements is the optimal management and is unlikely to cause subsequent complications. Laparotomy and its associated morbidity should be avoided.

  9. Genetic Ablation of Soluble TNF Does Not Affect Lesion Size and Functional Recovery after Moderate Spinal Cord Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditte Gry Ellman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI is followed by an instant increase in expression of the microglial-derived proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF within the lesioned cord. TNF exists both as membrane-anchored TNF (mTNF and as cleaved soluble TNF (solTNF. We previously demonstrated that epidural administration of a dominant-negative inhibitor of solTNF, XPro1595, to the contused spinal cord resulted in changes in Iba1 protein expression in microglia/macrophages, decreased lesion volume, and improved locomotor function. Here, we extend our studies using mice expressing mTNF, but no solTNF (mTNFΔ/Δ, to study the effect of genetic ablation of solTNF on SCI. We demonstrate that TNF levels were significantly decreased within the lesioned spinal cord 3 days after SCI in mTNFΔ/Δ mice compared to littermates. This decrease did, however, not translate into significant changes in other pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-5, IL-2, CXCL1, CCL2, or CCL5, despite a tendency towards increased IL-10 and decreased IL-1β, TNFR1, and TNFR2 levels in mTNFΔ/Δ mice. In addition, microglial and leukocyte infiltration, activation state (Iba1, CD11b, CD11c, CD45, and MHCII, lesion size, and functional outcome after moderate SCI were comparable between genotypes. Collectively, our data demonstrate that genetic ablation of solTNF does not significantly modulate postlesion outcome after SCI.

  10. Lesions of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus differentially affect sign- and goal-tracking conditioned responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Joshua L.; Fraser, Kurt M.; Akil, Huda; Flagel, Shelly B.

    2015-01-01

    Recently evidence has emerged suggesting a role for the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) in the processing of reward-associated cues. However, the specific role of the PVT in these processes has yet to be elucidated. Here we use an animal model that captures individual variation in response to discrete reward-associated cues to further assess the role of the PVT in stimulus-reward learning. When rats are exposed to a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, wherein a discrete cue predicts food reward, two distinct conditioned responses emerge. Some rats, termed sign-trackers, approach and manipulate the cue; whereas others, termed goal-trackers, approach the location of reward delivery upon cue presentation. For both sign- and goal-trackers the cue is a predictor; but only for sign-trackers is it also an incentive stimulus. We investigated the role of the PVT in the acquisition and expression of these conditioned responses using an excitotoxic lesion. Results indicate that PVT lesions prior to acquisition amplify the differences between phenotypes—increasing sign-tracking and attenuating goal-tracking behavior. Lesions of the PVT after rats had acquired their respective conditioned responses also attenuated the expression of the goal-tracking response, and increased the sign-tracking response, but did so selectively in goal-trackers. These results suggest that the PVT acts to suppress the attribution of incentive salience to reward cues, as disruption of the functional activity within this structure enhances the tendency to sign-track. PMID:26228683

  11. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT-deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  12. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijia; Fu, Chunxiang; Gou, Jiqing; Sun, Liang; Huhman, David; Zhang, Yunwei; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O -methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT -deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  13. FFA STUDY OF MACULAR LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vinayagamurthy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Macula is an important portion of retina that occupies the posterior pole of retina. Any disease that affects macula results in significant loss of central vision, form vision and colour vision to an extent. Macular lesions can be hereditary as well as acquired. Macular lesions occur in both younger and older individuals. Anatomically, a macular lesions can vary from a simple lesion like an RPF defect to a vision-threatening lesions like choroidal neovascular membrane. Many screening tests that are sensitive and specific are available to assess the functioning of macula called as ‘macular function test’. But, the greater understanding of the retinal vascular led to the usage of fluorescein angiogram in the detection and screening of macular, retinovascular and optic disc lesions. Through fundus fluorescein angiogram is a thirty-year-old procedure; it is still in vogue in almost all parts of the world. It has its own merits. The aim of the study is to study the role of fluorescein angiography in the evaluation of macular lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based prospective randomised study was done, which included 50 patients. Detailed patient history was taken and thorough ocular and systemic examination was done. All patients were examined by ophthalmoscopy (direct and indirect and slit-lamp examination with 90D followed by fluorescein angiography. Ophthalmoscopic and fluorescein angiography findings were analysed and categorised. Patients were advised proper ocular and systemic treatment and follow up. RESULTS 50 cases with macular lesions were analysed and categorised into conditions like ARMD, CSR, macular oedema, CME, degenerations and dystrophies and miscellaneous conditions. FFA altered the diagnosis in 8% cases and categorised the cases in all cases. 16% patients developed adverse reactions like allergy, vomiting and nausea. On statistical analysis, FFA proved to be cheap and superior diagnostic tool in confirming

  14. 5,7-DHT lesion of the dorsal raphe nuclei impairs object recognition but not affective behavior and corticosterone response to stressor in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieben, Cindy K J; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Blokland, Arjan

    2006-04-03

    Previous studies with acute tryptophan depletion, leading to transient central 5-HT reductions, showed no effects on affective behavior but impaired object memory. In the present study, the behavioral effects of a 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) lesion in the dorsal raphe were evaluated in animal models of anxiety (open field test), depression (forced swimming test), behavioral inhibition (discrete fixed interval test) and cognition (object recognition task). The corticosterone response to a stress condition was examined at several intervals after 5,7-DHT treatment. The substantial reduction in neuronal 5-HT markers in the dorsal raphe did not affect anxiety-related, depressive-like or impulsive behavior. Compared to the SHAM group, the lesioned rats showed a lower response latency to obtain a reward, indicating a quick and accurate reaction to a stimulus. No differences were found in the progressive ratio test for food motivation. A marked impairment in object recognition was found. The 5,7-DHT treatment did not affect the corticosterone response to a stressful situation. Overall, these results corroborate studies with acute tryptophan depletion suggesting a role of 5-HT in object memory, but not affective behavior.

  15. Retrospective analysis of the treatment of melasma lesions exhibiting increased vascularity with the 595-nm pulsed dye laser combined with the 1927-nm fractional low-powered diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Elizabeth R C; Stout, Ashlyn B; Friedman, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Melasma presents a significant challenge to laser surgeons. Aggressive treatments often result in rebound melasma or post-inflammatory pigmentary alteration. Recent reports suggest melasma pathogenesis may have a vascular component. Spectrocolorimetry can detect subtle or sub-clinical telangiectatic erythema within melasma lesions. For certain patients identified by spectrocolorimetry, effective melasma treatment may include vascular-targeted therapy together with pigment-specific treatment modalities. Such combined therapies may reduce the likelihood of melasma recurrence. To evaluate the efficacy of treating melasma lesions exhibiting subtle or sub-clinical telangiectatic erythema with the 595-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) combined with the 1927-nm fractional low-powered diode laser (FDL). A retrospective review was performed over a 2-year period as follows. Evaluated patients (n = 11) include 10 women and 1 man, average age of 38.7 years, and Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV. Each patient exhibited melasma lesions with subtle or sub-clinical telangiectatic erythema identified by spectrocolorimetry. Each underwent a series of treatments (average of four) at approximate 4-6 week intervals of the PDL followed by the FDL. Treatments were performed same-day, sequentially, with 10-15 minute interim time allowance for skin cooling. The following PDL parameters were utilized: 10 mm spot, 10-20 ms pulse duration, 7.5-8.5 J/cm 2 fluence, 30/30 DCD. Eight passes with the FDL (Clear + Brilliant ® Permea™, Solta Medical, Hayward, CA) were then performed utilizing a "low" treatment level. Clinical endpoint was mild erythema and edema. Patients were encouraged to practice strict photoprotection and apply topical skin lightening agents, but compliance was not measured. An independent physician evaluated photographs taken at baseline and at follow-up after last treatment session (average follow-up of 96 days). A quartile improvement score was used to grade the

  16. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrington Lee C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group. Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03 subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases

  17. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Ian G; Herrington, Lee C; Rolf, Christer

    2010-02-25

    The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group). Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03) subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases.

  18. Studies of the endothelial origin of cells in systemic angioendotheliomatosis and other vascular lesions of the brain and meninges using ulex europaeus lectin stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelper, R L; Olson, S P; Carroll, T J; Hart, M N; Witters, E

    1986-01-01

    Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) is a plant lectin which binds specifically to alpha-L-fucose moieties on the surface glycoproteins of human endothelial cells. The binding is completely inhibited by preincubation of the lectin with fucose. UEA-I can be conjugated directly to fluorescein or peroxidase and can be used to stain endothelium of paraffin embedded tissues. UEA-I staining was evaluated on normal and infarcted brain, systemic angioendotheliomatosis, metastatic epidural angiosarcoma, hemangioendothelioma, hemangioblastoma, angioblastic meningioma of both the hemangioblastic and hemangiopericytic types, and vascular meningioma. The endothelium, but not neuropil of normal and infarcted brain was positive for UEA-I. The tumor cells of hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma also stained. However, no staining was seen in malignant intravascular cells of angioendotheliomatosis, the stromal cells of hemangioblastoma, or pericytes of angioblastic meningioma. It is concluded that the malignant cells in angioendotheliomatosis, the stromal cells of hemangioblastoma and the pericytes of angioblastic meningioma do not produce surface glycoproteins characteristic of endothelial cells.

  19. The Vascular Pathogen Verticillium longisporum Does Not Affect Water Relations and Plant Responses to Drought Stress of Its Host, Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a host-specific vascular pathogen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) that causes economic crop losses by impairing plant growth and inducing premature senescence. This study investigates whether plant damage through Verticillium stem striping is due to impaired plant water relations, whether V. longisporum affects responses of a susceptible B. napus variety to drought stress, and whether drought stress, in turn, affects plant responses to V. longisporum. Two-factorial experiments on a susceptible cultivar of B. napus infected or noninfected with V. longisporum and exposed to three watering levels (30, 60, and 100% field capacity) revealed that drought stress and V. longisporum impaired plant growth by entirely different mechanisms. Although both stresses similarly affected plant growth parameters (plant height, hypocotyl diameter, and shoot and root dry matter), infection of B. napus with V. longisporum did not affect any drought-related physiological or molecular genetic plant parameters, including transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency, relative leaf water content, leaf proline content, or the expression of drought-responsive genes. Thus, this study provides comprehensive physiological and molecular genetic evidence explaining the lack of wilt symptoms in B. napus infected with V. longisporum. Likewise, drought tolerance of B. napus was unaffected by V. longisporum, as was the level of disease by drought conditions, thus excluding a concerted action of both stresses in the field. Although it is evident that drought and vascular infection with V. longisporum impair plant growth by different mechanisms, it remains to be determined by which other factors V. longisporum causes crop loss.

  20. Enriched vascularity in ameloblastomas, an indeterminate entity: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Hegde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascularity is a highly essential element that is required for the growth, development, and functioning of the body and variations in it can cause pathologies. It is one of the prime features of a proliferating lesion, where it aids in the growth of the lesion through its nutrition supply. Highly increased vascularity in a disease can itself affect the prognosis of the lesion, and in malignancies, it can induce tumor seeding and secondaries. Most of the pathologies including tumors, related to blood vessels, and vascularity are well established. There are some conditions, wherein altered vascularity is one of the prime components along with other diagnostic components of an established disease. In such cases, these lesions are diagnosed with special names, with varying biological behavior and prognosis in comparison to that of established entity. However, there still are few similar conditions whose nature is uncertain due to the rarity of the lesion and the insufficient scientific evidence which eludes the diagnostician. Here is the report of two cases of ameloblastoma, an established entity, with significant vascularity whose nature is indeterminate.

  1. Glyoxalase 1 overexpression does not affect atherosclerotic lesion size and severity in ApoE-/- mice with or without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanssen, Nordin M J; Brouwers, Olaf; Gijbels, Marion J

    2014-01-01

    are higher in rupture-prone plaques. We here investigated whether overexpression of human GLO1 in ApoE(-/-) mice could reduce the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We crossed C57BL/6 ApoE(-/-) mice with C57BL/6 GLO1 overexpressing mice (huGLO1(+/-)) to generate ApoE(-/-) (n = 16) and Apo......E(-/-) huGLO1(+/-) (n = 20) mice. To induce diabetes, we injected a subset with streptozotocin (STZ) to generate diabetic ApoE(-/-) (n = 8) and ApoE(-/-) huGLO1(+/-) (n = 13) mice. All mice were fed chow and sacrificed at 25 weeks of age. The GLO1 activity was three-fold increased in huGLO1(+/-) aorta......, but aortic root lesion size and phenotype did not differ between mice with and without huGLO1(+/-) overexpression. We detected no differences in gene expression in aortic arches, in AGE levels and cytokines, in circulating cells, and endothelial function between ApoE(-/-) mice with and without huGLO1...

  2. Does Lesion Size Affect the Value of Shear Wave Elastography for Differentiating Between Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Chang, Cai; Chen, Min; Gao, Yi; Chen, Ya-Ling; Zhou, Shi-Chong; Li, Jia-Wei; Zhi, Wen-Xiang

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography (SWE) combined with conventional ultrasonography (US) for differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules of different sizes. A total of 445 thyroid nodules from 445 patients were divided into 3 groups based on diameter (group 1, ≤ 10 mm; group 2, 10-20 mm; and group 3, > 20 mm). The mean elasticity index of the whole lesion was automatically calculated, and the threshold for differentiation between benign and malignant nodules was constructed by a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Diagnostic performances of conventional US and SWE were compared by using pathologic results as reference standards. The mean elasticity was significantly higher in malignant versus benign nodules for all size groups. The differences in mean elasticity in the size groups were not statistically significant for malignant or benign nodules. The specificity of US combined with SWE for group 1 was significantly higher than that for groups 2 and 3 (77.8% versus 62.9% and 53.3%; P < .05), and compared with group 1, the sensitivity was significantly higher for groups 2 and 3 (92.4% and 94.3% versus 80.7%; P < .05). When SWE was added, the specificity increased and the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy decreased for group 1, and the sensitivity increased and the specificity decreased for groups 2 and 3; however, the differences were not significant. Combined with SWE, US yielded higher specificity for nodules of 10 mm and smaller and higher sensitivity for nodules larger than 10 mm. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor in dogs with haemangiosarcoma and haematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, Meike; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Neumann, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    Splenic haemangiosarcomas are frequently seen in dogs. Because of their bad prognosis differentiation from other benign splenic lesions are of prognostic importance. However, because haemangiosarcoma is a tumour of the vascular system, it was hypothesised that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) might play a major role in tumour growth and might thus be increased in the blood of affected dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of differences in serum VEGF concentrations between dogs with splenic haemangiosarcomas and those with non-malignant splenic lesions (haematomas) and healthy subjects using a canine ELISA. Serum VEGF levels were significantly higher in dogs with splenic masses compared with healthy dogs, but did not differ significantly between dogs with haemangiosarcomas and haematomas. VEGF has a potential clinical utility as a diagnostic marker for dogs with splenic lesions but may not be useful to differentiate among the various splenic lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity: findings on MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.Y.; Ahn, J.M.; Yoon, H.K.; Do, Y.S.; Kim, S.H.; Choo, S.W.; Choo, I.W.; Suh, Y.L.; Kim, S.M.; Kang, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the findings of intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity on MR imaging and to correlate these findings with histopathologic examination.Design and patients. The findings on MR imaging and the medical records of 14 patients with an intramuscular vascular malformation of the extremity were retrospectively studied. All patients underwent surgical excision. Diagnoses were based on the results of pathologic examination. Findings on MR imaging were noted and correlated with the histopathologic findings.Results. Intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity showed multi-septate, honeycomb, or mixed appearance on MR imaging. Multi-septate areas correlated with dilated and communicating vascular spaces with flattened endothelium. Honeycomb areas corresponded to vascular spaces with inconspicuous small lumina and thickened vascular walls. Areas of increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images were found in all intramuscular vascular malformations. Infiltrative margins were more commonly seen in intramuscular lymphaticovenous malformations. Adherence to neurovascular structures and orientation of the lesion along the long axis of the affected muscle were more commonly seen in intramuscular venous malformations.Conclusions. Intramuscular vascular malformations showed either a multi-septate, honeycomb, or mixed appearance, reflecting the size of the vascular spaces and the thickness of the smooth muscles of the vessel walls. Prediction of the subtype of an intramuscular vascular malformation of an extremity on MR imaging seems to be difficult, although there are associated findings that may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of each subtype. (orig.)

  5. Early experience of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, T.; Yousuf, K.; Karim, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is prevalent affecting up to 16% of the population aged 55 years or older. Endovascular intervention for the treatment of limb ischemia has become the first line therapy but in Pakistan it is in embryonic stage due to dearth of trained persons and dedicated centres. This study was conducted to evaluate procedural success and early outcome of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease. Methods: A prospective single arm multicentre study was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease and National Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2014. A total of 25 patients were enrolled in the study that underwent endovascular treatment. Out of 25 patients 23 (92%) had critical limb ischemia (CLI) as per TASC II classification (A to D) and 2 (8%) had carotid lesion with history of TIA. Patients of acute limb ischemia and stroke were excluded. Ankle brachial index (ABI) was classified as normal (0.9-1.3), mild (0.7-0.9), moderate (0.4-0.69), severe (<0.4). Outcome was taken as immediate success and symptoms, amputation of limb among CLI patients and incidence of stroke in patients with carotid artery lesion at end of six months. Results: Among aortoiliac, femoropopliteal and tibioperoneal lesions, tibioperoneal lesions at six months were found to be more symptomatic 6 (86%) and amputation 4 (57%). Two carotid lesions at follow up were asymptomatic without stroke. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular lesions, i.e., aortoiliac, femoropopliteal tibioperoneal and carotid lesions were satisfactory in immediate outcome. Tibioperoneal lesions were more symptomatic and limb amputation at six months. (author)

  6. High fructose-mediated attenuation of insulin receptor signaling does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Islam; Poulose, Ninu; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Segar, Lakshman

    2016-11-15

    Insulin resistance is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Although high fructose is known to induce insulin resistance, it remains unclear as to how fructose regulates insulin receptor signaling and proliferative phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which play a major role in atherosclerosis. Using human aortic VSMCs, we investigated the effects of high fructose treatment on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation, insulin versus platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phosphorylation of Akt, S6 ribosomal protein, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cell cycle proteins. In comparison with PDGF (a potent mitogen), neither fructose nor insulin enhanced VSMC proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. d-[ 14 C(U)]fructose uptake studies revealed a progressive increase in fructose uptake in a time-dependent manner. Concentration-dependent studies with high fructose (5-25mM) showed marked increases in IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, a key adapter protein in insulin receptor signaling. Accordingly, high fructose treatment led to significant diminutions in insulin-induced phosphorylation of downstream signaling components including Akt and S6. In addition, high fructose significantly diminished insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation. Nevertheless, high fructose did not affect PDGF-induced key proliferative signaling events including phosphorylation of Akt, S6, and ERK and expression of cyclin D1 protein. Together, high fructose dysregulates IRS-1 phosphorylation state and proximal insulin receptor signaling in VSMCs, but does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling. These findings suggest that systemic insulin resistance rather than VSMC-specific dysregulation of insulin receptor signaling by high fructose may play a major role in enhancing atherosclerosis and neointimal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aerobic exercise training differentially affects ACE C- and N-domain activities in humans: Interactions with ACE I/D polymorphism and association with vascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cléber Rene; Fernandes, Tiago; Lemos, José Ribeiro; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Alves, Guilherme Barreto; Mota, Glória de Fátima Alves da; Dias, Rodrigo Gonçalves; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Krieger, José Eduardo; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have linked angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism (II, ID and DD) to physical performance. Moreover, ACE has two catalytic domains: NH2 (N) and COOH (C) with distinct functions, and their activity has been found to be modulated by ACE polymorphism. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of the interaction between aerobic exercise training (AET) and ACE I/D polymorphism on ACE N- and C-domain activities and vascular reactivity in humans. A total of 315 pre-selected healthy males were genotyped for II, ID and DD genotypes. Fifty completed the full AET (II, n = 12; ID, n = 25; and DD, n = 13), performed in three 90-minute sessions weekly, in the four-month exercise protocol. Pre- and post-training resting heart rate (HR), peak O 2 consumption (VO 2 peak), mean blood pressure (MBP), forearm vascular conduction (FVC), total circulating ACE and C- and N-domain activities were assessed. One-way ANOVA and two -way repeated-measures ANOVA were used. In pre-training, all variables were similar among the three genotypes. In post-training, a similar increase in FVC (35%) was observed in the three genotypes. AET increased VO 2 peak similarly in II, ID and DD (49±2 vs. 57±1; 48±1 vs. 56±3; and 48±5 vs. 58±2 ml/kg/min, respectively). Moreover, there were no changes in HR and MBP. The DD genotype was also associated with greater ACE and C-domain activities at pre- and post-training when compared to II. AET decreased similarly the total ACE and C-domain activities in all genotypes, while increasing the N-domain activity in the II and DD genotypes. However, interestingly, the measurements of N-domain activity after training indicate a greater activity than the other genotypes. These results suggest that the vasodilation in response to AET may be associated with the decrease in total ACE and C-domain activities, regardless of genotype, and that the increase in N-domain activity is dependent on the DD

  8. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  9. Concentric structure of thalamic lesions in acute necrotizing encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, M.; Nakano, I.; Hayashi, M.; Kuwashima, M.; Yoshida, K.; Nakai, Y.; Itoh, M.; Takashima, S.

    2002-01-01

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANE) is characterized by multiple, symmetrical brain lesions affecting the bilateral thalami, putamina and cerebral white matter, which often show a concentric structure on CT and MRI. To reveal the pathological substrate of this finding, comparison was made between CT and necropsy findings of three fatal cases of ANE. Cranial CT demonstrated a concentric structure of the thalamocerebral lesions in one patient who died 3.5 days after the onset of encephalopathy, but not in the other two patients who died within 30 h. Neuropathological examination of postmortem brains revealed laminar changes of vascular and parenchymal pathology in all the cases. Excessive permeability of blood vessels and resultant vasogenic edema became more prominent with increasing depth from the cerebral surface. The deep portion of the lesions showed severe perivascular hemorrhage, accounting for the central high density on the CT images of one patient. (orig.)

  10. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Crespo, Javier; Peña, Esther; Padró, Teresa; Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Badimon, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke. Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls. Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions. Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger cerebral lesions

  11. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Chiva-Blanch

    cerebral lesions associate with deeper vessel injury affecting vascular smooth muscle cells.

  12. Cutaneous vascular anomalies associated with neural tube defects: nomenclature and pathology revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugans, Todd; Sheridan, Rachel M; Adams, Denise; Gupta, Anita

    2011-07-01

    Lumbosacral cutaneous vascular anomalies associated with neural tube defects are frequently described in the literature as "hemangiomas." The classification system for pediatric vascular anomalies developed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies provides a framework to accurately diagnose these lesions. To apply this classification to vascular cutaneous anomalies overlying myelodysplasias. A retrospective analysis of patients with neural tube defects and lumbosacral cutaneous vascular lesions was performed. All eligible patients had detailed histopathologic analysis of skin and spinal cord/placode lesions. Clinical and radiologic features were analyzed. Conventional histology and GLUT-1 immunostaining were performed to differentiate infantile capillary hemangiomas from capillary vascular malformations. Ten cases with cutaneous lesions associated with neural tube defects were reviewed. Five lesions were diagnosed as infantile capillary hemangiomas based upon histology and positive GLUT-1 endothelial reactivity. These lesions had a strong association with dermal sinus tracts. No reoperations were required for residual intraspinal vascular lesions, and overlying cutaneous vascular anomalies involuted with time. The remaining 5 lesions were diagnosed as capillary malformations. These occurred with both open and closed neural tube defects, did not involute, and demonstrated enlargement and darkening due to vascular congestion. The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies scheme should be used to describe the cutaneous vascular lesions associated with neural tube defects: infantile capillary hemangiomas and capillary malformations. We advocate that these lesions be described as "vascular anomalies" or "stains" pending accurate diagnosis by clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluations.

  13. Arabidopsis thickvein mutation affects vein thickness and organ vascularization, and resides in a provascular cell-specific spermine synthase involved in vein definition and in polar auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Nicole K; Nelson, Timothy

    2005-06-01

    Polar auxin transport has been implicated in the induction of vascular tissue and in the definition of vein positions. Leaves treated with chemical inhibitors of polar auxin transport exhibited vascular phenotypes that include increased vein thickness and vascularization. We describe a recessive mutant, thickvein (tkv), which develops thicker veins in leaves and in inflorescence stems. The increased vein thickness is attributable to an increased number of vascular cells. Mutant plants have smaller leaves and shorter inflorescence stems, and this reduction in organ size and height is accompanied by an increase in organ vascularization, which appears to be attributable to an increase in the recruitment of cells into veins. Furthermore, although floral development is normal, auxin transport in the inflorescence stem is significantly reduced in the mutant, suggesting that the defect in auxin transport is responsible for the vascular phenotypes. In the primary root, the veins appear morphologically normal, but root growth in the tkv mutant is hypersensitive to exogenous cytokinin. The tkv mutation was found to reside in the ACL5 gene, which encodes a spermine synthase and whose expression is specific to provascular cells. We propose that ACL5/TKV is involved in vein definition (defining the boundaries between veins and nonvein regions) and in polar auxin transport, and that polyamines are involved in this process.

  14. Vascular quality of care pilot study: how admission to a vascular surgery service affects evidence-based pharmacologic risk factor modification in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenhof N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Naomi Steenhof,1,2 Francesca Le Piane,1 Kori Leblanc,1–3 Naomi R Eisenberg,4 Yvonne Kwan,1 Christine Malmberg,1,6 Alexandra Papadopoulos,5,7 Graham Roche-Nagle4,7,8 1Department of Pharmacy, University Health Network, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, University Health Network, 4Division of Vascular Surgery, University Health Network, 5Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 6Victoria General Hospital, Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC, 7Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, University Health Network, 8Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD guidelines recommend aggressive risk factor modification to improve cardiovascular outcomes. Recommended pharmacologic therapies include antiplatelets, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, and HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins. Purpose: We studied the degree to which patient admission to a vascular surgery service increased the use of these therapies. Patients and methods: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of 150 patients with PAD admitted to the vascular surgery service at a large Canadian tertiary care hospital. The use of recommended pharmacologic therapies at the time of admission and discharge were compared. A multidisciplinary clinical team established criteria by which patients were deemed ineligible to receive any of the recommended therapies. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs were considered an alternative to ACE inhibitors. Results: Prior to hospital admission, 64% of patients were on antiplatelet therapy, 67% were on an ACE inhibitor or ARB, and 71% were on a statin. At the time of discharge, 91% of patients were on an antiplatelet (or not, with an acceptable reason, 77% were on an ACE inhibitor or an ARB (or not, with an acceptable reason, and 85% were on a statin (or not, with an acceptable reason. While new

  15. The effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinole treatment on gonadal micro-vascularization and affected fertility examined by SEM and 3D-morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlbacher, K M T; Minnich, B

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the reproductive system in nude rats with special emphasis on how Δ 9 -THC impacts the vascularization of testes which in turn indirectly influences fertility. Basically, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) causes not only negative (psychoactive) effects in the human body as cannabinole administration in medical use (dose-dependent) offers multiple new treatment opportunities such as pain relief or containment of various cancers. Concerning the reproductive system it strongly influences CB-receptors along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis resulting in reduced plasma testosterone levels. There is also altered sperm quality parameters reported such as sperm motility or sperm count. On the other hand Δ 9 -THC effects endothelial growth factors (VEGF, Ang-1 etc.) respectively acts on their specific receptors which in turn modify angiogenesis and vascularization of tissues and organs (e.g. tumorous tissues). This leads to new therapeutical strategies in the suppression of various cancers by inhibiting (neo-)vascularization and in turn famishment of tumorous tissues (lack of nutrition supply). Here we studied the micro-vascularization of gonads in a long-term THC-treated nude rat model by vascular corrosion casting, SEM and 3D-morphometry. (paper)

  16. The effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinole treatment on gonadal micro-vascularization and affected fertility examined by SEM and 3D-morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlbacher, K. M. T.; Minnich, B.

    2015-10-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the reproductive system in nude rats with special emphasis on how Δ9-THC impacts the vascularization of testes which in turn indirectly influences fertility. Basically, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) causes not only negative (psychoactive) effects in the human body as cannabinole administration in medical use (dose-dependent) offers multiple new treatment opportunities such as pain relief or containment of various cancers. Concerning the reproductive system it strongly influences CB-receptors along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis resulting in reduced plasma testosterone levels. There is also altered sperm quality parameters reported such as sperm motility or sperm count. On the other hand Δ9-THC effects endothelial growth factors (VEGF, Ang-1 etc.) respectively acts on their specific receptors which in turn modify angiogenesis and vascularization of tissues and organs (e.g. tumorous tissues). This leads to new therapeutical strategies in the suppression of various cancers by inhibiting (neo-)vascularization and in turn famishment of tumorous tissues (lack of nutrition supply). Here we studied the micro-vascularization of gonads in a long-term THC-treated nude rat model by vascular corrosion casting, SEM and 3D-morphometry.

  17. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  18. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... with the literature from South Africa over the last four decades, and reflects the high rate of interpersonal violence in the country.14,15 As expected, cervical ... via the intact circle of Willis in young patients is the most likely explanation for the lack of strokes. Five patients were referred to the Durban vascular ...

  19. Vascular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields ...

  20. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  1. Duration of streptozotocin-induced diabetes differentially affects p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation in renal and vascular dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Akanksha

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study we tested the hypothesis that progression of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes (14-days to 28-days would produce renal and vascular dysfunction that correlate with altered p38- mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK phosphorylation in kidneys and thoracic aorta. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats (350–400 g were randomized into three groups: sham (N = 6, 14-days diabetic (N = 6 and 28-days diabetic rats (N = 6. Diabetes was induced using a single tail vein injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, I.V. on the first day. Rats were monitored for 28 days and food, water intake and plasma glucose levels were noted. At both 14-days and 28-days post diabetes blood samples were collected and kidney cortex, medulla and aorta were harvested from each rat. Results The diabetic rats lost body weight at both 14-days (-10% and 28-days (-13% more significantly as compared to sham (+10% group. Glucose levels were significantly elevated in the diabetic rats at both 14-days and 28-days post-STZ administration. Renal dysfunction as evidenced by renal hypertrophy, increased plasma creatinine concentration and reduced renal blood flow was observed in 14-days and 28-days diabetes. Vascular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased carotid blood flow was observed in 14-days and 28-days diabetes. We observed an up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, prepro endothelin-1 (preproET-1 and phosphorylated p38-MAPK in thoracic aorta and kidney cortex but not in kidney medulla in 28-days diabetes group. Conclusion The study provides evidence that diabetes produces vascular and renal dysfunction with a profound effect on signaling mechanisms at later stage of diabetes.

  2. Benign fibroosseous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Köseoğlu Seçgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibroosseous lesions represent a group of lesions that share the same basic evolutive mechanism and are characterized by replacement of normal bone with a fibrous connective tissue that gradually undergoes mineralization. These lesions are presented by a variety of diseases including developmental, reactive-dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Depending on the nature and amount of calcified tissue, they can be observed as radiolucent, mixed or radiopaque. Their radiographic features could be well-defined or indistinguishable from the surrounding bone tissue. They can be asymptomatic as in osseous dysplasias and can be detected incidentally on radiographs, or they can lead to expansion in the affected bone as in ossifying fibroma. All fibroosseous lesions seen in the jaws and face are variations of the same histological pattern. Therefore, detailed clinical and radiographic evaluation in differential diagnosis is important. In this review, fibroosseous benign lesions are classified as osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and fibroosseous tumors; and radiographic features and differential diagnosis of these lesions are reviewed taking into account this classification.

  3. Biomarkers of drug-induced vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brott, D.; Gould, S.; Jones, H.; Schofield, J.; Prior, H.; Valentin, J.P; Bjurstrom, S.; Kenne, K.; Schuppe-Koistinen, I.; Katein, A.; Foster-Brown, L.; Betton, G.; Richardson, R.; Evans, G.; Louden, C.

    2005-01-01

    In pre-clinical safety studies, drug-induced vascular injury is an issue of concern because there are no obvious diagnostic markers for pre-clinical or clinical monitoring and there is an intellectual gap in our understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. While vasodilatation and increased shear stress appear to play a role, the exact mechanism(s) of injury to the primary targets, smooth muscle and endothelial cells are unknown. However, evaluation of novel markers for potential clinical monitoring with a mechanistic underpinning would add value in risk assessment and management. This mini review focuses on the progress to identify diagnostic markers of drug-induced vascular injury. Von Willebrand factor (vWF), released upon perturbation of endothelial cells, is transiently increased in plasma prior to morphological evidence of damage in dogs or rats treated with vascular toxicants. Therefore, vWF might be a predictive biomarker of vascular injury. However, vWF is not an appropriate biomarker of lesion progression or severity since levels return to baseline values when there is morphological evidence of injury. A potential mechanistically linked biomarker of vascular injury is caveolin-1. Expression of this protein, localized primarily to smooth muscle and endothelial cells, decreases with the onset of vascular damage. Since vascular injury involves multiple mediators and cell types, evaluation of a panel rather than a single biomarker may be more useful in monitoring early and severe progressive vascular injury

  4. Imaging and therapeutic approach of hemangiomas and vascular malformations in the pediatric age group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, J; Garel, L [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QB (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    Terminology regarding the vascular lesions of the soft tissues remains confusing. A single classification is necessary in order to decide on the proper investigation and the best treatment. At the Workshop on Vascular Anomalies in Rome in June 1996, the membership accepted the Mulliken and Glowacki classification, which differentiates vascular lesions into vascular tumors, including hemangiomas and vascular malformations. At Sainte-Justine, we have set up a multidisciplinary clinic for the discussion of problem patients with vascular anomalies, both in terms of diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we present our experience regarding the classification, the imaging modalities and the treatment of vascular anomalies. In our experience, Doppler ultrasound should be the initial imaging modality for recognizing vascular tumors from vascular malformations. CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging is best to evaluate the extent of the lesions prior to treatment. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to establish a correct diagnosis and define accordingly the appropriate treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  5. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  6. Apical surgery vs apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment: A prospective cohort clinical study of teeth affected by persistent periapical lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Prati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This prospective clinical study analyzed the 24-month outcome of conventional apical surgery retro-filled with calcium-silicate cement versus apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment by means of clinical and radiographic criteria. Materials and methods: This study included 83 teeth affected by persistent periapical lesions in 68 patients. Mean age was 52 years (median = 51 years; range 19–81 years. Twenty-eight cases were treated with apical surgery, 16 cases with apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment and 39 cases with orthograde retreatment in previously treated teeth established as control group. Periapical index score (PAI was used as radiographic criteria. Teeth were examined at 6 months, 1 and 2 years and classified as healed (without any symptoms and PAI ≤ 2, healing (without any symptoms and PAI = 3 or diseased (with symptoms or PAI ≥ 4 and not functional on the basis of radiographic and clinical criteria. At 24 months evaluation, healed and healing were considered as success and diseased and fracture as failure. Multilevel GLM model and an ordered logistic regression as statistical analysis was made with level of significance set at p < 0.05. Results: Total drop-out was 7% (n = 6. After 6–9 months, 6 teeth (3 from apical surgery, 2 from simultaneous treatment and 1 from orthograde retreatment were extracted for root fracture. Twenty-four-month success rate of apical surgery group was 78% (n = 17, apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment presented 81% (n = 10 and orthograde retreatment success was 80% (n = 24. There was no statistically difference between the groups at 24 months (p = 0.890. Conclusions: Both surgical techniques revealed a high percentage of healing, similar to that reported by previous studies. Apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment showed a faster healing after 12 months comparing to the control group. Riassunto: Scopo: In

  7. Vascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D B; Ricci, M A

    1998-04-01

    Surgeon-interpreted diagnostic ultrasound has become the preferred screening test and often the definitive test for the diagnosis of arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and venous thrombosis. As a modality for surveillance, its noninvasive quality makes it particularly appealing as the test of choice to screen patients for abdominal aortic aneurysms or to perform follow-up examinations on those patients with a carotid endartectomy or in situ bypass grafts. The increasing reliance on intraoperative duplex imaging of vascular procedures demands that the surgeon learn the skills to perform the studies without a technologist or radiologist to interpret the examination.

  8. Photocoagulation of disciform macular lesions with krypton laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, A C; Grey, R H

    1979-01-01

    Ten vascular disciform mucular lesions were treated by krypton laser photocoagulation. In 8 the lesion resolved after therapy, and in 7 the retina remained flat for 6 months. On those patients treated successfully 6 had a visual acuity of 6/12 or better. The morphology of the laser lesion differed from that of the argon lesion in that there is no evidence of thermal coagulation of the inner retina near the foveola. Images PMID:574396

  9. Patrones de infiltración leucocitaria y de expresión tisular de quimioquinas, factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular y mediadores del metabolismo oxidativo en lesiones inflamatorias y neoplásicas de cervix

    OpenAIRE

    Carrero Castillo, Yenddy Nayghit

    2012-01-01

    En nuestro trabajo de investigación sobre el patrón de infiltración leucocitaria de epitelio y estroma uterino y de la expresión tisular de quimioquinas, factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular y metabolitos oxidativos en pacientes con displasia epitelial, con cervicitis sin alteración displásica y controles sanos se concluye que: La progresión en el grado de displasia epitelial se asocia a una mayor y selectiva infiltración de linfocitos sin modificaciones en la estirpe monicitaria y la re...

  10. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  11. Pediatric interventional radiology: vascular interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery. (author)

  12. CD1a, HAM56, CD68 and S-100 are present in lesional skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune blistering diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous research on autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABD has primarily focused on the humoral immune response; moreover, little attention has been given to the potential role of the antigen presenting cells (APCs in lesional skin. Aim: The purpose of our study was to immunophenotype selected APC in the lesional skin of ABDs, utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC stains. Materials and Methods: We utilized IHC to stain for dendritic cells (DC, staining with CD1a, CD68, HAM56, and S-100 in lesional skin from 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the EPF endemic area, and 15 healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABD, including 30 patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus (PF and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH and 2 with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA. Results: Cells stained by CD68, HAM56 and S-100 were present in the majority of the ABD skin biopsies; these cells were located primarily in perivascular infiltrates surrounding dermal vessels subjacent to the blisters. However, these cells were also noted within the blisters, in vessels supplying dermal eccrine glands and ducts, and in areas of dermal endothelial-mesenchymal cell junction-like structures, especially in BP cases. In our CD1a staining, the number and location of positive staining cells varied with each disease, being abundant in most ABD in the epidermis suprajacent to the blisters, or in the epidermis surrounding the blister site if the blister site epidermis was missing. In the control biopsies, most did not display positive IHC staining, with the exception of a few CD1a positive cells in the epidermis Conclusion: Our findings confirm positive IHC staining for APCs in areas of the skin besides the disease blisters. Our findings suggest that the antigen presentation in ABD proceeds in areas distant from the blister site

  13. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal; Adams, Denise M.; Gupta, Anita; Lim, Foong-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  14. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal [MLC 5031 Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adams, Denise M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics and Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gupta, Anita [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  15. Lesions of cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus neurons fail to affect cocaine or heroin self-administration or conditioned place preference in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Steidl

    Full Text Available Cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA is known to contribute to reward. Although it is known that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg provides an important source of excitatory input to the dopamine system, the specific role of PPTg cholinergic input to the VTA in cocaine reward has not been previously determined. We used a diphtheria toxin conjugated to urotensin-II (Dtx::UII, the endogenous ligand for urotensin-II receptors expressed by PPTg cholinergic but not glutamatergic or GABAergic cells, to lesion cholinergic PPTg neurons. Dtx::UII toxin infusion resulted in the loss of 95.78 (±0.65% of PPTg cholinergic cells but did not significantly alter either cocaine or heroin self-administration or the development of cocaine or heroin conditioned place preferences. Thus, cholinergic cells originating in PPTg do not appear to be critical for the rewarding effects of cocaine or of heroin.

  16. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor is affected by hypoxia inducible factor-1α in peritoneum of endometriosis mice treated with genistein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvi Wafda Nur Amellia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the genistein is able to decrease the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α in mouse model of endometriosis. Forty female mice (Mus musculus were divided into eight groups (n = 5 each, including the control (untreated group, endometriosis group, and endometriosis groups treated with various doses of genistein (50; 100; 200; 300; 400; and 500 mg/day. VEGF-A and HIF-1α analyses were performed by immunohistochemistry. We found significant increases in the VEGF-A and HIF-α expressions in endometriosis group compared to the control group. The increased expressions of VEGF-A and HIF-1α were significantly (p < 0.05 attenuated by the administration of all doses of genistein. In conclusion, in mouse model of endometriosis, genistein potentially inhibits the increase in angiogenesis in peritoneal tissue. Therefore, this result may provide a novel anti-angiogenic treatment strategy for the therapy of endometriosis.

  17. Bem-estar subjetivo e senso de ajustamento psicológico em idosos que sofreram acidente vascular cerebral: uma revisão Subjective well being and perceived psychological adjustment among old people affected by stroke: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóris Firmino Rabelo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento dos estudos brasileiros e estrangeiros publicados entre 1996 e 2005 que relacionavam bem-estar subjetivo, senso de ajustamento psicológico e acidente vascular cerebral, com o objetivo de identificar variáveis mediadoras dessa relação em idosos. Estudos transversais e prospectivos indicaram que os afetados por acidente vascular cerebral apresentam menor bem-estar subjetivo quando comparados com a população geral. Boa capacidade cognitiva, suporte social efetivo, continuidade de uma ocupação produtiva, manutenção da competência em atividades instrumentais de vida diária e humor positivo são fatores que podem melhorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico. Variáveis que podem piorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico são incapacidade funcional, déficits cognitivos, depressão, dificuldade em restabelecer a identidade e restrição à possibilidade de desempenhar atividades e papéis que contribuem para a auto-definição. O conhecimento das implicações psicológicas de sofrer acidente vascular cerebral pode beneficiar pacientes, familiares e profissionais no gerenciamento do evento.We gathered data from Brazilian and foreign studies published between 1996 and 2005 which related subjective well-being, sense of psychological adjustment and stroke. The objective was identifying mediator variables of this relation among old people. Prospective and cross-sectional studies indicated that those affected by stroke showed less subjective well-being than the general population. Good cognitive capacity, effective social support, continuity of a productive occupation, keeping the competence in instrumental activities of daily living and good mood are factors which can affect positively the subjective and psychological well-being. Variables which can affect negatively the subjective and psychological well-being are functional incapacity, cognitive deficits, depression, difficulty in re-establishing the identity and

  18. Treatment of the diabetic foot from a vascular surgeon's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B B; Shah, D M; Darling, R C; Leather, R P

    1993-11-01

    Diabetic foot lesions are caused by neurologic, orthopaedic, immunologic, and vascular derangements. Whereas some lesions may be initially caused by trauma and others directly caused by vascular disease, improvement of arterial perfusion often plays an important role in the successful salvage of these limbs. Fortunately, in the last several years, there has been a major improvement in the identification and treatment of those patients in whom correction of arterial occlusive disease is necessary for healing.

  19. Traumatismos vasculares revisão de 5 anos Vascular Trauma a five year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Antunes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende avaliar a casuística dos traumatismos vasculares agudos admitidos no Serviço de Cirurgia Vascular dos Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra (HUC durante o período de 5 anos, compreendido entre Julho de 2004 e Junho de 2009. Foram avaliados 97 doentes, sendo a principal causa de traumatismo as lesões iatrogénicas, seguida dos acidentes de viação. No grupo de doentes não relacionados com procedimentos coronários percutâneos verificou-se que no membro superior as artérias umeral e radial foram as mais afectadas, enquanto no membro inferior foram as artérias femoral superficial e poplítea. A isquémia aguda foi a principal forma de apresentação. Relativamente ao tratamento deste grupo de doentes, a RATT (ressecção e anastomose topo-topo e o enxerto foram os mais utlizados no membro superior, enquanto a trombectomia e o bypass foram as técnicas mais aplicadas a nível do membro inferior. Não houve mortalidade mas a morbilidade foi elevada, predominando as lesões neurológicas nos traumatismos do membro superior, e a amputação nos do membro inferior. Os resultados deste trabalho foram concordantes com o que está publicado na literatura em que se demonstra um aumento progressivo dos traumatismos de origem iatrogénica.This review intended to evaluate the series of acute vascular trauma in the Vascular Surgery Service of the Coimbra University Hospital in the period between July 2004 and June 2009. A total of 97 patients were evaluated with iatrogenic lesions being the main cause of trauma injuries, followed by traffic accidents. In group of patients not related with percutaneous coronary angioplasty, it was found that brachial and radial arteries were the most affected in upper limb, while in the lower limb were the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries. The main clinical manifestation was acute ischemic limb. In this group, resection with end-to-end anastomosis and grafts were the main treatment

  20. Osteochondral lesions of the humeral trochlea in the young athlete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Kelley W. [Pediatric Radiology of America, Roanoke, VA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Diagnostic Imaging of Atlanta, P.C., Marietta, GA (United States); Marshall, David L.; Busch, Michael T. [Children' s Orthopaedics of Atlanta, P.C., Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Williams, Joseph P. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Diagnostic Imaging of Atlanta, P.C., Marietta, GA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the variety of osteochondral abnormalities of the humeral trochlea in the pediatric athlete. Patients with trochlear abnormalities were identified through keyword search of radiology dictations from 1999 to 2007. The patient's medical record, imaging studies, and surgical reports were reviewed. The osteochondral lesions were categorized based on the imaging appearance. Surgical results were reviewed in conjunction with the imaging findings. Eighteen patients were identified. Trochlear lesions were stratified into two imaging groups: Osteochondral injury/osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) vs. avascular necrosis (AVN). The osteochondral injury group was stratified into medial and lateral trochlear abnormalities. The medial lesions (n=3) were small (<6 mm) and were located on the posterior articular surface of the medial trochlea. The lateral lesions (n=10) were larger (10-14 mm), circumscribed, and were located on the posterior inferior aspect of the lateral trochlea. Trochlear AVN (n=5) affected development of the lateral trochlea (type A) or both the medial and lateral aspects of the trochlea (type B). AVN occurred exclusively in athletes with history of remote distal humeral fracture. Seven of the 18 patients underwent elbow arthroscopy. Surgical findings and treatment regimens are summarized. Trochlear lesions should be considered in throwing athletes presenting with medial elbow pain and flexion contracture/extension block. Medial trochlear osteochondral injuries may result from posteromedial olecranon abutment. Lateral OCD lesions occur in a characteristic vascular watershed zone resulting from the unique blood supply of the trochlea. Trochlear AVN may be unmasked years following treated distal humeral fracture when the athletic demands upon the adolescent elbow increase, revealing the altered growth and biomechanics. (orig.)

  1. Osteochondral lesions of the humeral trochlea in the young athlete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Kelley W.; Marshall, David L.; Busch, Michael T.; Williams, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the variety of osteochondral abnormalities of the humeral trochlea in the pediatric athlete. Patients with trochlear abnormalities were identified through keyword search of radiology dictations from 1999 to 2007. The patient's medical record, imaging studies, and surgical reports were reviewed. The osteochondral lesions were categorized based on the imaging appearance. Surgical results were reviewed in conjunction with the imaging findings. Eighteen patients were identified. Trochlear lesions were stratified into two imaging groups: Osteochondral injury/osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) vs. avascular necrosis (AVN). The osteochondral injury group was stratified into medial and lateral trochlear abnormalities. The medial lesions (n=3) were small (<6 mm) and were located on the posterior articular surface of the medial trochlea. The lateral lesions (n=10) were larger (10-14 mm), circumscribed, and were located on the posterior inferior aspect of the lateral trochlea. Trochlear AVN (n=5) affected development of the lateral trochlea (type A) or both the medial and lateral aspects of the trochlea (type B). AVN occurred exclusively in athletes with history of remote distal humeral fracture. Seven of the 18 patients underwent elbow arthroscopy. Surgical findings and treatment regimens are summarized. Trochlear lesions should be considered in throwing athletes presenting with medial elbow pain and flexion contracture/extension block. Medial trochlear osteochondral injuries may result from posteromedial olecranon abutment. Lateral OCD lesions occur in a characteristic vascular watershed zone resulting from the unique blood supply of the trochlea. Trochlear AVN may be unmasked years following treated distal humeral fracture when the athletic demands upon the adolescent elbow increase, revealing the altered growth and biomechanics. (orig.)

  2. colour-flow ultrasound in the detection of penetrating vascular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the sensitivity of colour-flow ultrasound in the detection of penetrating vascular injuries of ... Colour-flow ultrasound is sensitive in detecting vascular injuries and is suitable as a screening .... injury, ultrasound appears to be sensitive in detecting these lesions. However there is a risk of missing more central.

  3. Prevalence of computed tomographic subchondral bone lesions in the scapulohumeral joint of 32 immature dogs with thoracic limb lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Rachel; Reese, Shona L; Cuddy, Laura C; Berry, Clifford R; Pozzi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondrosis is a common developmental abnormality affecting the subchondral bone of immature, large breed dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe CT lesions detected in scapulohumeral joints of 32 immature dogs undergoing CT for thoracic limb lameness. Eight dogs (14 scapulohumeral joints) had arthroscopy following imaging. Thirteen dogs (19 scapulohumeral joints) were found to have CT lesions, including 10 dogs (16 scapulohumeral joints) with subchondral bone lesions and 3 dogs with enthesopathy of the supraspinatus tendon. In one dog, subchondral bone lesions appeared as large oval defects within the mid-aspect of the glenoid cavities, bilaterally. These lesions resembled osseous cyst-like lesions commonly identified in the horse. This is the first report of such a presentation of a subchondral bone lesion in the glenoid cavity of a dog. In all dogs, small, focal, round or linear lucent defects were visible within the cortical bone at the junction of the greater tubercle and intertubercular groove. These structures were thought to represent vascular channels. Findings from this study support the use of CT as an adjunct modality for the identification and characterization of scapulohumeral subchondral bone lesions in immature dogs with thoracic limb lameness. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  4. Imaging findings and therapeutic alternatives for peripheral vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Santos, Daniela dos; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral vascular malformations represent a spectrum of lesions that appear through the lifetime and can be found in the whole body. Such lesions are uncommon and are frequently confounded with infantile hemangioma, a common benign neoplastic lesion. In the presence of such lesions, the correlation between the clinical and radiological findings is extremely important to achieve a correct diagnosis, which will guide the best therapeutic approach. The most recent classifications for peripheral vascular malformations are based on the blood flow (low or high) and on the main vascular components (arterial, capillary, lymphatic or venous). Peripheral vascular malformations represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and complementary methods such as computed tomography, Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, in association with clinical findings can provide information regarding blood flow characteristics and lesions extent. Arteriography and venography confirm the diagnosis, evaluate the lesions extent and guide the therapeutic decision making. Generally, low flow vascular malformations are percutaneously treated with sclerosing agents injection, while in high flow lesions the approach is endovascular, with permanent liquid or solid embolization agents. (author)

  5. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N G

    2012-04-01

    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  6. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  7. Management of vascular anomalies: Review of institutional management algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit K Makhija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vascular anomalies are congenital lesions broadly categorised into vascular tumour (haemangiomas and vascular dysmorphogenesis (vascular malformation. The management of these difficult problems has lately been simplified by the biological classification and multidisciplinary approach. To standardise the treatment protocol, an algorithm has been devised. The study aims to validate the algorithm in terms of its utility and presents our experience in managing vascular anomalies. Materials and Methods: The biological classification of Mulliken and Glowacki was followed. A detailed algorithm for management of vascular anomalies has been devised in the department. The protocol is being practiced by us since the past two decades. The data regarding the types of lesions and treatment modality used were maintained. Results and Conclusion: This study was conducted from 2002 to 2012. A total of 784 cases of vascular anomalies were included in the study of which 196 were haemangiomas and 588 were vascular malformations. The algorithmic approach has brought an element of much-needed objectivity in the management of vascular anomalies. This has helped us to define the management of particular lesion considering its pathology, extent and aesthetic and functional consequences of ablation to a certain extent.

  8. Vascular Adventitia Calcification and Its Underlying Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Previous research on vascular calcification has mainly focused on the vascular intima and media. However, we show here that vascular calcification may also occur in the adventitia. The purpose of this work is to help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. The calcified lesions were examined by Von Kossa staining in ApoE-/- mice which were fed high fat diets (HFD for 48 weeks and human subjects aged 60 years and older that had died of coronary heart disease, heart failure or acute renal failure. Explant cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCswere obtained from rat adventitia and media, respectively. After calcification induction, cells were collected for Alizarin Red S staining. Calcified lesions were observed in the aorta adventitia and coronary artery adventitia of ApoE-/-mice, as well as in the aorta adventitia of human subjects examined. Explant culture of fibroblasts, the primary cell type comprising the adventitia, was successfully induced for calcification after incubation with TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml + mineralization media for 4 days, and the phenotype conversion vascular adventitia fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was identified. Culture of SMCs, which comprise only a small percentage of all cells in the adventitia, in calcifying medium for 14 days resulted in significant calcification.Vascular calcification can occur in the adventitia. Adventitia calcification may arise from the fibroblasts which were transformed into myofibroblasts or smooth muscle cells.

  9. OCT investigation of dental lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiac, Eugen; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Scrieciu, Monica; Mercuţ, Rǎzvan; Mercuţ, Veronica; Vǎtu, Mihaela

    2018-03-01

    There are several important non carious lesions affecting the tooth structure, lesions which may be classified into four clinical forms of dental wear: abfraction, erosion, attrition and abrasion, and different types of root resorption. Search for new, non-invasive and fast methods able to detect and describe such injuries is of utmost importance. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) proved itself as an appropriate investigation method for several medical fields including ophthalmology, dermatology, cardiology etc. Our study reveals OCT preliminary investigations as a promising tool for detecting and evaluating of the mentioned lesions.

  10. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilecki, Stanisław; Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Świętaszczyk, Cyprian; Junik, Roman; Lasek, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed. A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint. People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression

  11. Lipidomics in vascular health: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms that convert a healthy vascular wall to an atherosclerotic wall is of major importance since the consequences may lead to a shortened lifespan. Classical risk factors (age, smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) may result in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions by processes including inflammation and lipid accumulation. Thus, the evaluation of blood lipids and the full lipid complement produced by cells, organisms, or tissues (lipidomics) is an issue of importance. In this review, we shall describe the recent progress in vascular health research using lipidomic advances. We will begin with an overview of vascular wall biology and lipids, followed by a short analysis of lipidomics. Finally, we shall focus on the clinical implications of lipidomics and studies that have examined lipidomic approaches and vascular health.

  12. Cold induced changes in the water balance affect immunocytolocalization pattern of one of the aquaporins in the vascular system in the leaves of maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska-Kos, Anna; Szczepanik, Jarosław; Sowiński, Paweł

    2016-10-20

    Chilling stress is known to affect the water balance in plants, which often manifests itself in the decrease of the water potential in different organs. Relationships between chilling, assimilate transport and water balance are far from being understood. Although aquaporins play a key role in regulating water balance in plants, especially under stress conditions, the role of individual aquaporins in stress response remains unclear. In this report we show the specific localization within plasma membranes of one of the aquaporins (PIP2;3) in the leaves of two maize inbred lines differing in their chilling-sensitivity. This form of aquaporin has been also observed in thick-walled sieve elements - an additional type of sieve tubes of unclear function found only in monocotyledons. Moderate chilling (about 15°C) caused significant reduction of labelling in these cells accompanied by a steep decrease in the water potential in leaves of chilling-sensitive maize line. Our results suggest that both PIP2;3 and thick-walled sieve tubes may be an unknown element of the mechanism of the response of maize to cold stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. CT diagnosis of sellar and juxtasellar lesions, 3. Non-tumorous lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1982-08-01

    A study is made of the usefulness and limitations of the CT diagnosis of sellar and juxtasellar lesions other than tumors. This study is based on 112 verified cases at Nagoya University Hospital from October, 1976, to December, 1981. The lesions included in this study are classified into four groups: vascular, inflammatory, traumatic lesion, and congenital anomaly. Although cerebral angiography is the cardinal method for the diagnosis of vascular lesions, CT is useful for the evaluation of a giant aneurysm, the localization of bleeding, or infarction by a ruptured aneurysm. Radiation brain necrosis, a special form of vascular lesion, can also be diagnosed if the critical analysis is made after previous irradiation. CT findings are helpful for the local diagnosis of acute inflammatory lesions, such as basal meningitis or abscess, but specific diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical signs and CSF study. Abnormal CT findings are obtained from a chronic inflammatory process, such as arachnoiditis adhesiva, glanuloma, or mucocele. Differential diagnosis is necessary with brain tumors. The CT findings of an arachnoid cyst are often diagnostic. Metrizamide or air cisternography, either combined with CT or without it, is important for the diagnosis of basal meningoencephalocele and hypothalamic hamaroma. Pneumocephalus and an intracranial foreign body resulting from a head injury can be diagnosed by plain skull and CT. The diagnosis of CSF leakage or prolapse cerebri associated with a skull-base fracture has been most difficult, but even it is possible by a combination of polytomography and high-resolution CT with metrizamide cisternography.

  14. Serial 5-Year Evaluation of Side Branches Jailed by Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds Using 3-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography: Insights From the ABSORB Cohort B Trial (A Clinical Evaluation of the Bioabsorbable Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System in the Treatment of Patients With De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Yoshinobu; Grundeken, Maik J; Nakatani, Shimpei; Asano, Taku; Sotomi, Yohei; Foin, Nicolas; Ng, Jaryl; Okamura, Takayuki; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; de Winter, Robbert J; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Koolen, Jacques; Christiansen, Evald; Whitbourn, Robert; McClean, Dougal; Smits, Pieter; Windecker, Stephan; Ormiston, John A; Serruys, Patrick W

    2017-09-01

    The long-term fate of Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) struts jailing side branch ostia has not been clarified. We therefore evaluate serially (post-procedure and at 6 months, 1, 2, 3, and 5 years) the appearance and fate of jailed Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold struts. We performed 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic analysis of the ABSORB Cohort B trial (A Clinical Evaluation of the Bioabsorbable Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System in the Treatment of Patients With De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions) up to 5 years using a novel, validated cut-plane analysis method. We included 29 patients with a total of 85 side branch ostia. From the 12 ostia which could be assessed in true serial fashion, 7 showed a pattern of initial decrease in the ostial area free from struts, followed by an increase in strut-free ostial area toward the end of the 5 years of follow-up. In a repeated-measures analysis with time as fixed variable and ostial area free from struts as dependent variable, we showed a numeric decrease in the estimated ostial area free from struts from 0.75 mm 2 (baseline) to 0.68 mm 2 (first follow-up visit at 6 months or 1 year) and 0.63 mm 2 (second follow-up visit at 2 or 3 years). However, from the second visit to the 5-year follow-up visit, there was a statistically significant increase from 0.63 to 0.89 mm 2 ( P =0.001). Struts overlying an ostium divided the ostium into compartments, and the number of these compartments decreased over time. This study showed that in most cases, the side branch ostial area free from struts initially decreased. However, with full scaffold bioresorption, the ostial area free from scaffold increased between 2 to 3 years and 5 years in the vast majority of patients. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00856856. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Expression of angiopoietin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 correlates with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis and affects survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 are major regulators of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, respectively, and thus may affect prognosis of OSCC. We sought to determine the associations between Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 expression and survival of OSCC. METHODS: Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 expression was determined immunohistochemically in tumor tissues from 112 patients with OSCC; OSCC-adjacent noncancerous oral tissue from 85 OSCC patients; and normal oral mucosa from 37 cancer-free individuals. A log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare survival among different groups with expression of Ang-2 and VEGFR-3. RESULTS: Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 expression was upregulated in OSCC compared to nontumor tissue (all P<0.05. High Ang-2 expression positively correlated with microvessel density (MVD (P<0.01, and high VEGFR-3 expression positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (P<0.01 and lymphatic vessel density (LVD (P<0.01. The patients with high expression of Ang-2 alone or in combination with VEGFR-3 had a significantly worse survival than in patients with low expression of Ang-2 or any other co-expression status (all P<0.05, respectively. Furthermore, multivariable analysis showed that patients with high expression of Ang-2 alone or in combination with VEGFR-3 had a significantly increased risk of death compared with those with low expression of Ang-2 or any other co-expression status (HR, 2.7, 95% CI, 1.1-6.2 and 5.0, 1.3-15.4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that increased expression in tumors of Ang-2 may individually, or in combination with VEGFR-3, predict poor prognosis of OSCC.

  16. Diagnosis and management of vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xindong; Zheng Lianzhou

    2011-01-01

    Vascular disorders mainly include hemangiomas and vascular malformations, and constitute some of the most difficult diagnostic and therapeutic enigmas that can be encountered in the clinical practice. The clinical presentations are extremely variable and can range from an asymptomatic birthmark to life-threatening congestive heart failure. Attributing any of these extremely varied symptoms that a patients may present with to a vascular malformation may be a challenge to the most experienced clinical. This problem is compounded by the extreme rarity of these vascular lesions. If a clinician meets such a patient once every few years, it will be extremely difficult for the physicians to gain a steep learning curve. In such circumstances, it is difficult to formulate a standard of diagnosis and treatment for these vascular disorders. This paper aims to make a comprehensive and detailed description of the classification and diagnosis of the vascular disorders, the common used embolization agents, the concepts of interventional diagnosis and management and the therapies of various hemangiomas and vascular malformations. (authors)

  17. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: study of hepatic vascular alterations with multi-detector row helical CT and reconstruction programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memeo, Maurizio; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Scaldapane, Arnaldo; Rotondo, Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Suppressa, Patrizia; Cirulli, Anna; Sabba', Carlo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate hepatic alterations in patients affected by Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) by using multidetector row helical CT (MDCT) and new reconstruction programs. Materials and methods: An MDCT multiphasic study of the liver was performed in 105 consecutive patients: 89 considered to be affected by HHT and 16 with suspicion of disease alone. The scan delay was determined by using a test bolus of contrast material. The CT examination was performed with a triphasic technique (double arterial phase and portal venous phase). multiplanar and angiographic reconstructions were then obtained, and the images checked for the presence of shunts, hepatic perfusion disorders, vascular lesions (telangiectasis and large confluent vascular masses), indirect signs of portal hypertension, and anatomical vascular variants. Results: Hepatic vascular alterations were found in 78/105 cases (67/89) patients affected by HHT and 11/16 patients with clinical suspicion alone). Therefore HHT diagnosis was excluded in 5 patients. 78/100 (78%) patients with HHT had intrahepatic vascular alterations: arterioportal shunts in 40/78 (51.2%) arteriosystemic shunts in 16/78 (20.5%) and both shunt types in 22/78 (28.3%). Intraparenchymal perfusion disorders were found in 46/78 (58.9%) patients. Telangiectasis were recognised in 50/78 (64.1%) patients. Large confluent vascular masses (LCVMs) were identified in 20/78 (25.6%) patients. indirect signs of portal hypertension were found in 46/78 (58.9%) cases. Variant hepatic arterial anatomy was present in 38/100 cases (38%). Conclusions: Multiphasic MDCT and the new reconstruction programs enable the identification and characterisation of the complex vascular alterations typical of HHT [it

  18. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  19. Human genetics of diabetic vascular complications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Diabetic vascular complications (DVC) affecting several important organ systems of human body such as the ..... cohort with nominal significance, and a recent meta-analysis ..... Whereas it is generally thought that lysine acetylation is.

  20. Lesion size affects diagnostic performance of IOTA logistic regression models, IOTA simple rules and risk of malignancy index in discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Legge, A; Testa, A C; Ameye, L; Van Calster, B; Lissoni, A A; Leone, F P G; Savelli, L; Franchi, D; Czekierdowski, A; Trio, D; Van Holsbeke, C; Ferrazzi, E; Scambia, G; Timmerman, D; Valentin, L

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the ability to discriminate between benign and malignant adnexal masses of different size using: subjective assessment, two International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) logistic regression models (LR1 and LR2), the IOTA simple rules and the risk of malignancy index (RMI). We used a multicenter IOTA database of 2445 patients with at least one adnexal mass, i.e. the database previously used to prospectively validate the diagnostic performance of LR1 and LR2. The masses were categorized into three subgroups according to their largest diameter: small tumors (diameter IOTA simple rules and the RMI were applied to each of the three groups. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+, LR-), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) were used to describe diagnostic performance. A moving window technique was applied to estimate the effect of tumor size as a continuous variable on the AUC. The reference standard was the histological diagnosis of the surgically removed adnexal mass. The frequency of invasive malignancy was 10% in small tumors, 19% in medium-sized tumors and 40% in large tumors; 11% of the large tumors were borderline tumors vs 3% and 4%, respectively, of the small and medium-sized tumors. The type of benign histology also differed among the three subgroups. For all methods, sensitivity with regard to malignancy was lowest in small tumors (56-84% vs 67-93% in medium-sized tumors and 74-95% in large tumors) while specificity was lowest in large tumors (60-87%vs 83-95% in medium-sized tumors and 83-96% in small tumors ). The DOR and the AUC value were highest in medium-sized tumors and the AUC was largest in tumors with a largest diameter of 7-11 cm. Tumor size affects the performance of subjective assessment, LR1 and LR2, the IOTA simple rules and the RMI in discriminating correctly between benign and malignant adnexal masses. The likely explanation, at least in part, is

  1. Case of radiation necrosis with vascular changes on main cerebral arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Y; Okada, H; Mineura, K; Kodama, N [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    A 64-year-old woman had received radiotherapy, following surgery of a chromophobe pituitary adenoma. Six years after irradiation she began to complain of headache and dementia. Right vertebrogram demonstrated a right temporal mass lesion, stenosis and dilatation of middle cerebral artery and posterior communicating artery in the field of irradiation. CT scan showed the irregular low density area at the right temporal region, and the irregular enhancement after an intravenous injection of contrast medium was seen at the small part of affected area. From these findings, radiation necrosis at the right temporal lobe was diagnosed. Reports of vascular changes of the main cerebral arteries due to radiation are rare.

  2. Laser therapy and sclerotherapy in the treatment of oral and maxillofacial hemangioma and vascular malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Bogdan; BǎciuÅ£, Mihaela; BǎciuÅ£, Grigore; Crişan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Moldovan, Iuliu; Vǎcǎraş, Sergiu; Mitre, Ileana; Barbur, Ioan; Magdaş, Andreea; Dinu, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    Hemangioma and vascular malformations in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery is a pathology more often found in recent years in patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the laser photocoagulation performed with a diode laser (Ga-Al-As) 980 nm wavelength in the treatment of vascular lesions which are located on the oral and maxillofacial areas, using color Doppler ultrasonography for evaluation of the results. We also made a comparison between laser therapy and sclerotherapy in order to establish treatment protocols and recommendations associated with this pathology. We conducted a controlled study on a group of 92 patients (38 male and 54 female patients, with an average age of 36 years) having low flow hemangioma and vascular malformations. Patients in this trial received one of the methods of treatment for vascular lesions such as hemangioma and vascular malformations: laser therapy or sclerotherapy. After laser therapy we have achieved a reduction in size of hemangioma and vascular malformations treated with such a procedure, and the aesthetic results were favorable. No reperfusion or recanalization of laser treated vascular lesions was observed after an average follow-up of 6 to 12 months. In case of sclerotherapy a reduction in the size of vascular lesions was also obtained. The 980 nm diode laser has been proved to be an effective tool in the treatment of hemangioma and vascular malformations in oral and maxillofacial area. Laser therapy in the treatment of vascular lesions was more effective than the sclerotherapy procedure.

  3. Angiogenesis and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of benign and malignant breast lesions: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Peifang; Bao Runxian; Niu Yun; Yu Yong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI features of early-phase enhancement rate, enhancement amplitude, and signal intensity (SI) time course are associated with the microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of malignant and benign breast lesions. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with histopathologically verified breast lesions underwent dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. SI changes during dynamic scanning were assessed quantitatively. Early-phase enhancement rate and enhancement amplitude were calculated. Time-SI curves of the lesions were obtained and classified according to their shapes as type I (which was steady enhancement to the end of the dynamic data acquisition at 7.5 min), type II (plateau of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement), or type III (washout of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement). the mean MVD and VEGF expression of the lesions were measured with immuno-histochemical staining method in all the histologic specimens by pathologists without the knowledge of the results of the MR examination. The relationships among dynamic contrast enhanced MRI features, MVD, and VEGF expression of benign and malignant breast lesions were analyzed. Results: Histology revealed 21 malignancies and 17 benign lesions. The mean MVD and VEGF expression for 21 malignant lesions were statistically higher than the mean MVD and VEGF expression for 17 benign lesions. High VEGF expression of benign and malignant breast lesions showed an association with increased MVD. Among all 38 lesions, greater (> 60%) MR early-phase enhancement rate and time-SI curve type II and III showed an association with increased MVD and higher VEGF expression level. All the differences mentioned above showed statistical significance except that the difference between VEGF expression and the distribution of curve types had no statistical significance. No significant relationships were observed between the mean of enhancement

  4. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  5. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Radiological study of cerebro-vascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misri, H.T.; Kabawe, Bassam

    1991-01-01

    The role of computerized tomography scanner in studying the cerebro-vascular accidents has been discussed. One hundred fifty patients with cerebro-vascular accidents were studied at Aleppo University Hospital between 1989-1990. Clinical history and physical examination were recorded, as well as, computerized tomography scanning in all cases without using the contrast media mostly. Relationship between the density of the lesion (inforctionor hemorrhage) and the time has been found. This relationship can help in forensic medicine. (author). 29 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Lesion patterns in patients with cryptogenic stroke with and without right-to-left-shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, R; Sadikovic, S; Esposito, L; Schwarze, J; Bockelbrink, A; Hemmer, B; Sander, D; Poppert, H

    2009-10-01

    Despite numerous studies, the role of patent foramen ovale (PFO) as a risk factor for stroke due to paradoxical embolism is still controversial. On the assumption that specific lesion patterns, in particular multiple acute ischaemic lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, indicate a cardioembolic origin, we compared the MRI findings in stroke patients with right-to-left shunt (RLS) and those without. The records of 486 patients with diagnosis of cerebral ischaemia were reviewed. For detection of RLS, contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) was carried out in all patients. An MRI scan of the brain was performed in all patients. Affected vascular territories were divided into anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, vertebrobasilar artery system including posterior cerebral artery, brain stem and cerebellar stroke, and strokes occurring in more than one territory. We did not find a specific difference in neuroradiological lesion patterns in patients with RLS compared with patients without RLS. In particular, 23 of 165 patients (13.9%) with RLS showed multiple ischaemic lesions on MRI in comparison with 45 of 321 patients (14.0%) without RLS (P = 0.98). These findings also applied for the subgroup of cryptogenic strokes with and without RLS. We found no association between an ischaemic lesion pattern that is considered as being typical for stroke due to cardiac embolism and the existence of PFO. Therefore, our findings do not provide any support for the common theory of paradoxical embolism as a major cause of stroke in PFO carriers.

  8. Dynamic computed tomography scanning of benign bone lesions: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, E.; Neff, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The majority of benign bone lesions can be evaluated adequately using conventional radiologic techniques. However, it is not always possible to differentiate reliably between different types of benign bone lesions on the basis of plain film appearances alone. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) scanning provides a means for further characterizing such lesions by assessing their degree of vascularity. Thus, it may help in distinguishing an osteoid osteoma, which has a hypervascular nidus, from a Brodie's abscess, which is avascular. Dynamic CT scanning may also help in the differentiation between a fluid-containing simple bone cyst, which is avascular, and other solid or semi-solid benign bone lesions which slow varying degrees of vascularity. However, because of the additional irradiation involved, dynamic CT scanning should be reserved for evaluation of selected patients with benign bone lesions in whom the plain film findings are not definitive and in whom the CT findings may have a significant influence on management. (orig.)

  9. Structural and functional imaging for vascular targeted photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Buhong; Gu, Ying; Wilson, Brian C.

    2017-02-01

    Vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) has been widely used for the prevention or treatment of vascular-related diseases, such as localized prostate cancer, wet age-related macular degeneration, port wine stains, esophageal varices and bleeding gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. In this study, the fundamental mechanisms of vascular responses during and after V-PDT will be introduced. Based on the V-PDT treatment of blood vessels in dorsal skinfold window chamber model, the structural and functional imaging, which including white light microscopy, laser speckle imaging, singlet oxygen luminescence imaging, and fluorescence imaging for evaluating vascular damage will be presented, respectively. The results indicate that vessel constriction and blood flow dynamics could be considered as the crucial biomarkers for quantitative evaluation of vascular damage. In addition, future perspectives of non-invasive optical imaging for evaluating vascular damage of V-PDT will be discussed.

  10. Bone lesions in Chinese POEMS syndrome patients: imaging characteristics and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengdan; Huang, Xufei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jian; Zhou, Daobin; Jin, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Bone lesion is crucial for diagnosing and management of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, and skin change (POEMS) syndrome, a rare plasma cell disorder. This study is to compare the effectiveness of X-ray skeletal survey (SS) and computed tomography (CT) for detecting bone lesions in Chinese POEMS syndrome patients, and to investigate the relationship between bone lesion features and serum markers. Methods. SS and chest/abdomen/pelvic CT images of 38 Chinese patients (26 males, 12 females, aged 21-70 years) with POEMS syndrome recruited at our medical center between January 2013 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Bone lesions identified by CT were further categorized according to the size (10 mm) and appearance (osteosclerotic, lytic, mixed). The percentage of plasma cells in bone marrow smears, type of immunoglobulin, platelet (Plt), and levels of serum bone metabolic markers and inflammatory factors including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), beta-isomerized C-telopeptide (β-CTx), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and interleukin (IL)-6 levels were also recorded. Results. Of the 38 POEMS syndrome patients, the immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes were IgA in 25 patients (65.8%; 25/38) and IgG in 13 patients (34.2%; 13/38), and the light chain isotypes were λ in 35 patients (92.1%; 35/38) and κ in 3 patients (7.9%; 3/38). There were 23 patients with thrombocytosis. More patients with bone lesions were detected by CT than by SS (97.4% vs. 86.8%). The most commonly affected location was the pelvis (89.5%), followed by the spine, clavicle/scapula/sternum/ribs, skull, and long bones. Of the 38 POEMS syndrome patients, 35 (94.6%) had osteosclerotic and 32 (86.5%) had mixed lesions. Osteosclerotic lesions were typically scattered, variable in size, and plaque-like, whereas mixed lesions were pouch-shaped or soup bubble-like with a clear sclerotic margin and were

  11. Bone lesions in Chinese POEMS syndrome patients: imaging characteristics and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengdan Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Bone lesion is crucial for diagnosing and management of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, and skin change (POEMS syndrome, a rare plasma cell disorder. This study is to compare the effectiveness of X-ray skeletal survey (SS and computed tomography (CT for detecting bone lesions in Chinese POEMS syndrome patients, and to investigate the relationship between bone lesion features and serum markers. Methods. SS and chest/abdomen/pelvic CT images of 38 Chinese patients (26 males, 12 females, aged 21–70 years with POEMS syndrome recruited at our medical center between January 2013 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Bone lesions identified by CT were further categorized according to the size (10 mm and appearance (osteosclerotic, lytic, mixed. The percentage of plasma cells in bone marrow smears, type of immunoglobulin, platelet (Plt, and levels of serum bone metabolic markers and inflammatory factors including alkaline phosphatase (ALP, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH, beta-isomerized C-telopeptide (β-CTx, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and interleukin (IL-6 levels were also recorded. Results. Of the 38 POEMS syndrome patients, the immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes were IgA in 25 patients (65.8%; 25/38 and IgG in 13 patients (34.2%; 13/38, and the light chain isotypes were λ in 35 patients (92.1%; 35/38 and κ in 3 patients (7.9%; 3/38. There were 23 patients with thrombocytosis. More patients with bone lesions were detected by CT than by SS (97.4% vs. 86.8%. The most commonly affected location was the pelvis (89.5%, followed by the spine, clavicle/scapula/sternum/ribs, skull, and long bones. Of the 38 POEMS syndrome patients, 35 (94.6% had osteosclerotic and 32 (86.5% had mixed lesions. Osteosclerotic lesions were typically scattered, variable in size, and plaque-like, whereas mixed lesions were pouch-shaped or soup bubble-like with a clear sclerotic margin and were

  12. MRI Patterns of Isolated Lesions in the Medulla Oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Schaefer, Pamela; Gonzalez, Gilberto; Rapalino, Otto

    2017-01-01

    Isolated lesions of the medulla oblongata are difficult to diagnose due to their rarity and high biopsy risk. Several individual case reports have been published, but a systematic descriptive study is lacking. Our study has three objectives that 1) provide a differential diagnosis, 2) describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and 3) propose a stepwise MRI-based approach to the isolated lesions of the medulla oblongata in nonstroke patients. We performed an institutional Review Board-approved retrospective analysis of 34 consecutive cases of isolated medullary lesions from nonstroke causes identified from our imaging database between January 2000 and May 2015. Eleven were excluded due to lack of pretreatment or follow-up MRI. MR studies were reviewed by two blinded neuroradiologists. The diagnosis, demographic data, and MR findings were reported using frequencies and proportions. An MRI-based diagnostic algorithm was proposed. Most lesions were neoplasms (47%), followed by vascular malformations (15%), demyelinating/inflammatory lesions (15%), others (12%), unknown (8%), and infection (3%). Five MRI patterns were identified: 1) cystic lesion, 2) exophytic noncystic lesion, 3) intrinsic lesion with T2 hypointensity, 4) enhancing intrinsic lesion, and 5) nonenhancing intrinsic lesion. All showing patterns 1 and 2 were neoplasms or cysts. All showing pattern 3 were vascular malformations. Patterns 4 and 5 comprised of multiple etiologies. Neoplasms are the most common cause of isolated medullary lesions in nonstroke patients. Other differential diagnoses include vascular malformations, demyelinating/inflammatory lesions, and infections. A stepwise MRI-based approach can help differentiate between various etiologies. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  13. Carotid ultrasonographic and brain computerized tomographic findings in patients with vascular ocular syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushima, Chikage; Shimizu, Souichirou; Takasaki, Masaru; Iwasaki, Takuya; Usui, Masahiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    To clarify the characteristics of cerebrovascular lesions in subtypes of vascular ocular syndrome, including amaurosis fugax (AF), retinal artery occlusion (RAO), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO), 93 patients with vascular ocular syndrome were studied by means of carotid ultrasonography (US) and brain computerized tomography (CT). The subjects comprised 21 patients with AF, 37 with RAO, and 35 with RVO who were sequentially given these diagnoses by the department of ophthalmology. On the basis of US findings, carotid lesions were defined as the presence of plaque or stenotic changes. CT findings were assessed for the presence and distribution of low-density areas (LDAs). Mean age was similar in each group, ranging from 64.5 to 67.4 years. The RAO group had high rates of men, hypertension, and smokers. US showed that the prevalence of carotid lesions ipsilateral to the affected eye was high in the RAO group and that severe stenosis and ulcerated plaque were present in 28.6% of the AF group and 45.9% of the RAO group. On CT examination, cerebral infarctions appeared as LDAs in about 10% of the patients in each group, and the incidence and distribution of LDAs were similar. Of 13 patients with cerebral infarction, only 2 were presumably due to carotid lesions; the others had a variety of causes. The discrepancy between US and CT findings was attributed to the small number of patients with cerebral infarction, since most patients had visual defects as an initial symptom. Our results suggest that extracranial carotid lesions, considered to be a major risk factor for stroke, should be carefully assessed in patients with AF or RAO to prevent further stroke. (author)

  14. Estrogen-induced DNA synthesis in vascular endothelial cells is mediated by ROS signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felty Quentin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since estrogen is known to increase vascular endothelial cell growth, elevated estrogen exposure from hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptives has the potential to contribute in the development of abnormal proliferative vascular lesions and subsequent thickening of the vasculature. How estrogen may support or promote vascular lesions is not clear. We have examined in this study whether estrogen exposure to vascular endothelial cells increase the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and estrogen-induced ROS is involved in the growth of endothelial cells. Methods The effect of estrogen on the production of intracellular oxidants and the role of estrogen-induced ROS on cell growth was studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. ROS were measured by monitoring the oxidation of 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin by spectrofluorometry. Endothelial cell growth was measured by a colorimetric immunoassay based on BrdU incorporation into DNA. Results Physiological concentrations of estrogen (367 fmol and 3.67 pmol triggered a rapid 2-fold increase in intracellular oxidants in endothelial cells. E2-induced ROS formation was inhibited to basal levels by cotreatment with the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone (2 μM and xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol (50 μM. Inhibitors of NAD(PH oxidase, apocynin and DPI, did not block E2-induced ROS formation. Furthermore, the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, did not prevent the increase in E2-induced ROS. These findings indicate both mitochondria and xanthine oxidase are the source of ROS in estrogen treated vascular endothelial cells. E2 treated cells showed a 2-fold induction of BrdU incorporation at 18 h which was not observed in cells exposed to vehicle alone. Cotreatment with ebselen (20 μM and NAC (1 mM inhibited E2-induced BrdU incorporation without affecting the basal levels of DNA synthesis. The observed inhibitory effect of NAC and ebselen on E2-induced DNA synthesis was also shown

  15. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.

  16. Arabidopsis thickvein Mutation Affects Vein Thickness and Organ Vascularization, and Resides in a Provascular Cell-Specific Spermine Synthase Involved in Vein Definition and in Polar Auxin Transport1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Nicole K.; Nelson, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Polar auxin transport has been implicated in the induction of vascular tissue and in the definition of vein positions. Leaves treated with chemical inhibitors of polar auxin transport exhibited vascular phenotypes that include increased vein thickness and vascularization. We describe a recessive mutant, thickvein (tkv), which develops thicker veins in leaves and in inflorescence stems. The increased vein thickness is attributable to an increased number of vascular cells. Mutant plants have smaller leaves and shorter inflorescence stems, and this reduction in organ size and height is accompanied by an increase in organ vascularization, which appears to be attributable to an increase in the recruitment of cells into veins. Furthermore, although floral development is normal, auxin transport in the inflorescence stem is significantly reduced in the mutant, suggesting that the defect in auxin transport is responsible for the vascular phenotypes. In the primary root, the veins appear morphologically normal, but root growth in the tkv mutant is hypersensitive to exogenous cytokinin. The tkv mutation was found to reside in the ACL5 gene, which encodes a spermine synthase and whose expression is specific to provascular cells. We propose that ACL5/TKV is involved in vein definition (defining the boundaries between veins and nonvein regions) and in polar auxin transport, and that polyamines are involved in this process. PMID:15894745

  17. The current approach to the diagnosis of vascular anomalies of the head and neck: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goei, Sinny; Singh, Aarti; Ghosh, Sujoy; Gupta, Sunta [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, Delhi (India); Gupta, Swati; Prakash, Anjali [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Lok Nayak Jaiprakash Hospital, Delhi (India); Narang, Poonam [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Govind Ballabh Pant Hospital, Delhi (India)

    2015-06-15

    Throughout the years, various classifications have evolved for the diagnosis of vascular anomalies. However, it remains difficult to classify a number of such lesions. Because all hemangiomas were previously considered to involute, if a lesion with imaging and clinical characteristics of hemangioma does not involute, then there is no subclass in which to classify such a lesion, as reported in one of our cases. The recent classification proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA, 2014) has solved this problem by including non-involuting and partially involuting hemangioma in the classification. We present here five cases of vascular anomalies and discuss their diagnosis in accordance with the ISSVA (2014) classification. A non-involuting lesion should not always be diagnosed as a vascular malformation. A non-involuting lesion can be either a hemangioma or a vascular malformation depending upon its clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics.

  18. The current approach to the diagnosis of vascular anomalies of the head and neck: A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goei, Sinny; Singh, Aarti; Ghosh, Sujoy; Gupta, Sunta; Gupta, Swati; Prakash, Anjali; Narang, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the years, various classifications have evolved for the diagnosis of vascular anomalies. However, it remains difficult to classify a number of such lesions. Because all hemangiomas were previously considered to involute, if a lesion with imaging and clinical characteristics of hemangioma does not involute, then there is no subclass in which to classify such a lesion, as reported in one of our cases. The recent classification proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA, 2014) has solved this problem by including non-involuting and partially involuting hemangioma in the classification. We present here five cases of vascular anomalies and discuss their diagnosis in accordance with the ISSVA (2014) classification. A non-involuting lesion should not always be diagnosed as a vascular malformation. A non-involuting lesion can be either a hemangioma or a vascular malformation depending upon its clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics

  19. Relational databases for rare disease study: application to vascular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan A; Coltrera, Marc D

    2008-01-01

    To design a relational database integrating clinical and basic science data needed for multidisciplinary treatment and research in the field of vascular anomalies. Based on data points agreed on by the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) Vascular Anomalies Task Force. The database design enables sharing of data subsets in a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant manner for multisite collaborative trials. Vascular anomalies pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Our understanding of these lesions and treatment improvement is limited by nonstandard terminology, severity assessment, and measures of treatment efficacy. The rarity of these lesions places a premium on coordinated studies among multiple participant sites. The relational database design is conceptually centered on subjects having 1 or more lesions. Each anomaly can be tracked individually along with their treatment outcomes. This design allows for differentiation between treatment responses and untreated lesions' natural course. The relational database design eliminates data entry redundancy and results in extremely flexible search and data export functionality. Vascular anomaly programs in the United States. A relational database correlating clinical findings and photographic, radiologic, histologic, and treatment data for vascular anomalies was created for stand-alone and multiuser networked systems. Proof of concept for independent site data gathering and HIPAA-compliant sharing of data subsets was demonstrated. The collaborative effort by the ASPO Vascular Anomalies Task Force to create the database helped define a common vascular anomaly data set. The resulting relational database software is a powerful tool to further the study of vascular anomalies and the development of evidence-based treatment innovation.

  20. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    games. The great variability among the incidence rates may be explained by differences among sports, countries, competitive levels, ages and methodology used in the studies. Sports injuries have been defined as those occurring when athletes are practicing sports and that result in tissue alterations or damages, affecting the operation of the corresponding structures. Contact sports such as soccer, rugby, martial arts, basketball, handball and hockey generate greater risk of injuries. The probability of lesions is higher during competition than in training.

  1. Imaging pattern of calvarial lesions in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garfinkle, Jarred; Melancon, Denis; Cortes, Maria; Tampieri, Donatella [Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital-McGill University Health Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Calvarial lesions often present themselves as clinically silent findings on skull radiographs or as palpable masses that may cause localized pain or soreness. This review aims to explore the radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of calvarial neoplastic, inflammatory, and congenital lesions that are common in adults in order to facilitate a structured approach to their diagnosis and limit the differential diagnosis. In addition to reviewing the literature, we reviewed the records of 141 patients of the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital with radiologically documented calvarial lesions between 2001 and June 2009. CT is ideal for detecting bony lesions and is helpful in precisely localizing a lesion pre-surgically. MRI is best at identifying intradiploic lesions before they affect the cortical tables and is able to establish extraosseous involvement, especially when paramagnetic contrast is employed. (orig.)

  2. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  3. [Bile duct lesions in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, J R; Ungeheuer, A; Feussner, H

    1994-09-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is both resulting in a slightly higher incidence of biliary lesions and a change of prevalence of the type of lesions. Damage to the biliary system occurs in 4 different types: The most severe case is the lesion with a structural defect of the hepatic or common bile duct with (IVa) or without (IVb) vascular injury. Tangential lesions without structural loss of the duct should be denominated as type III (IIIa with additional lesion to the vessels, type IIIb without). Type II comprehends late strictures without obvious intraoperative trauma to the duct. Type I includes immediate biliary fistulae of usually good prognosis. The increasing prevalence of structural defects of the bile ducts appears to be a peculiarity of laparoscopic cholecystectomy necessitating highly demanding operative repair. In the majority of cases, hepatico-jejunostomy or even intraparenchymatous anastomoses are required. Adaptation of well proven principles of open surgery is the best prevention of biliary lesions in laparoscopic cholecystectomy as well as the readiness to convert early to the open procedure.

  4. Arteriographic evaluation, in the perispheric vascular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino, Jairo Hernando; Granados, Ana Maria; Lopera B, Jorge; Prada W, Angela Maria

    1993-01-01

    136 patients were angiographically studied under the suspicion of perispheric vascular lesion submitted to the radiology department of the San Vicente de Paul University Hospital (H.U.S.VP.) Medellin Colombia. The majority of the patients were young with wounds caused by gunshots (79.4%). the must frequent angiographic indication was the proximity of the wound to a vascular path (44.5%). 63% of the patients with angiography indicative of abnormality needed surgery from which 21% were because of the proximity of the wound to a vascular path and 76% because of the mayor findings when admitted to the hospital. the possible complications as a result of the angiographic procedure were revised only find inc two mayor reactions to the contrast media. there were no late complications. Angiography is highlighting sensitive (100%) specific (98.5%) and secure in the evaluation of patients with perispheric vascular trauma. Due to the high number of false negatives when the physical examination is performed, every patient with a wound near a vascular path must be evaluated angiographically

  5. Endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovina, Marija M; Potpara, Tatjana S

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelium has important regulatory functions in the cardiovascular system and a pivotal role in the maintenance of vascular health and metabolic homeostasis. It has long been recognized that endothelial dysfunction participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from early, preclinical lesions to advanced, thrombotic complications. In addition, endothelial dysfunction has been recently implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Considering that states of insulin resistance (eg, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and T2DM) represent the most prevalent metabolic disorders and risk factors for atherosclerosis, it is of considerable scientific and clinical interest that both metabolic and vascular disorders have endothelial dysfunction as a common background. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with established cardiovascular disease, and a growing body of evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction also imparts adverse prognosis in states of insulin resistance. In this review, we discuss the association of insulin resistance and T2DM with endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of the endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders. We also address current therapeutic strategies for the improvement of endothelial dysfunction.

  6. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary......The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  7. Diffuse and vascular hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimeyer, S.; Grenacher, L.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to focal liver lesions, diffuse and vascular disorders of the liver represent a wide spectrum of liver diseases which are from the radiological point of view often difficult or nearly impossible to diagnose. Classical diagnostic methods are computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in addition to ultrasound. Diffuse parenchymal damage caused by diseases of various etiologies is therefore difficult to evaluate because it often lacks characteristic morphological features. For hepatic steatosis, hemochromatosis/siderosis as an example of a diffuse storage disease and sarcoidosis and candidiasis as infectious/inflammatory diseases, an image-based diagnosis is appropriate in some cases. For most diffuse liver diseases, however only nonspecific changes are visualized. Vascular pathologies of the liver, such as the Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis, however, can usually be diagnosed very clearly using radiology and there is also a very effective interventional radiological treatment. Chronic diseases very often culminate in liver cirrhosis which is highly associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. (orig.) [de

  8. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taourel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)], E-mail: p-taourel@chu-montpellier.fr; Vernhet, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Suau, A.; Granier, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Lopez, F.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Nimes (France); Aufort, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)

    2007-10-15

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications.

  9. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taourel, P.; Vernhet, H.; Suau, A.; Granier, C.; Lopez, F.M.; Aufort, S.

    2007-01-01

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications

  10. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  11. [Menopause: Hypertension and vascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, J M

    Hypertension is the main cardiovascular risk factor affecting 25% of women. Hormone changes and hypertension after menopause may lead to higher target organ damage and cardiovascular disease such as increased arterial stiffness, coronary diseases, chronic heart failure and stroke. The physiopathological mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in menopausal women are controversial. There are pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences in both sexes, the women have more coughing when using the converting-enzyme inhibitors, more cramps when using thiazide diuretics and more oedema in the inferior limbs when using calcium antagonists. The aim of this review is to analyse possible physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypertension after menopause and to gain a better understanding of the biological effects mediated by vascular ageing in women when the level of oestrogen protective effect decreases over the vascular system. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Progenitor cells in pulmonary vascular remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Michael E.; Frid, Maria G.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Intimal thickening and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and fibroproliferative changes in the adventitia are commonly observed, as is the extension of smooth muscle into the previously non-muscularized vessels. A majority of these changes are associated with the enhanced presence of α-SM-actin+ cells and inflammatory cells. Atypical abundances of functionally distinct endothelial cells, particularly in the intima (plexiform lesions), and also in the perivascular regions, are also described. At present, neither the origin(s) of these cells nor the molecular mechanisms responsible for their accumulation, in any of the three compartments of the vessel wall, have been fully elucidated. The possibility that they arise from either resident vascular progenitors or bone marrow–derived progenitor cells is now well established. Resident vascular progenitor cells have been demonstrated to exist within the vessel wall, and in response to certain stimuli, to expand and express myofibroblastic, endothelial or even hematopoietic markers. Bone marrow–derived or circulating progenitor cells have also been shown to be recruited to sites of vascular injury and to assume both endothelial and SM-like phenotypes. Here, we review the data supporting the contributory role of vascular progenitors (including endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and fibrocytes) in vascular remodeling. A more complete understanding of the processes by which progenitor cells modulate pulmonary vascular remodeling will undoubtedly herald a renaissance of therapies extending beyond the control of vascular tonicity and reduction of pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:22034593

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Oscar M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used in the management of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies for diagnosing and assessing extent of lesions and for evaluating response to therapy. MR imaging studies often involve a combination of T1- and T2-weighted images in addition to MR angiography and fat-suppressed post-contrast sequences. The MR imaging features of these vascular anomalies when combined with clinical findings can aid in diagnosis. In cases of complex vascular malformations and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies, MR imaging can be used to evaluate accompanying soft-tissue and bone anomalies. This article reviews the MR imaging protocols and appearances of the most common pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies. (orig.)

  14. Vascular gastric anomalies as a cause of relapsing bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Gradimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relatively rare, gastric vascular anomalies can be recognized as a source of both chronic and acute blood loss, most often presenting as long term iron deficiency anemia, rarely as severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Case report. We present five patients with various gastric vascular anomalies, diagnosed during the year of 2003. in the Clinical Hospital Center Zemun. The diagnosis was based on endoscopic appearances, clinical history and characteristic histological findings. Gastric vascular anomalies presented in our review were: portal hypertensive gastropathy, gastric antral vascular ectasia, angiodysplasia, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and Dieulafoy lesion. The used treatment modalities included surgery and various endoscopic techniques (schlerotherapy, argon plasma coagulation. Conclusion. Patients presented with chronic iron deficiency anemia or acute and recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage should be considered as having one of gastric vascular anomalies.

  15. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  16. Vein of Galen malformation: What to do when vascular access is not feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenteno Marco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (GVAM is a rare congenital vascular lesion, with high morbidity and mortality without treatment, endovascular management is the best alternative available today.

  17. Vascular permeability and iron deposition biomarkers in longitudinal follow-up of cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girard, Romuald; Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Vascular permeability and iron leakage are central features of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) pathogenesis. The authors aimed to correlate prospective clinical behavior of CCM lesions with longitudinal changes in biomarkers of dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative permeability (...

  18. Diagnostic dilemma in vascular mal-formation of the upper lip: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    richard

    2014-09-08

    Sep 8, 2014 ... Radiography, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos. *Corresponding author: ... To present a case of vascular lesion on the upper lip and its management. Methods: We .... midline of the face without bone involvement.

  19. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  20. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevostyanova, V. V., E-mail: sevostyanova.victoria@gmail.com; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  1. Serial 5-Year Evaluation of Side Branches Jailed by Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds Using 3-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography: Insights From the ABSORB Cohort B Trial (A Clinical Evaluation of the Bioabsorbable Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System in the Treatment of Patients With De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onuma, Y.; Grundeken, M.J.; Nakatani, S.; Asano, T.; Sotomi, Y.; Foin, N.; Ng, J.; Okamura, T.; Wykrzykowska, J.J.; Winter, R.J. de; Geuns, R.J.M. van; Koolen, J.; Christiansen, E.; Whitbourn, R.; McClean, D.; Smits, P; Windecker, S.; Ormiston, J.A.; Serruys, P.W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term fate of Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) struts jailing side branch ostia has not been clarified. We therefore evaluate serially (post-procedure and at 6 months, 1, 2, 3, and 5 years) the appearance and fate of jailed Absorb

  2. Serial 5-Year Evaluation of Side Branches Jailed by Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds Using 3-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography Insights From the ABSORB Cohort B Trial (A Clinical Evaluation of the Bioabsorbable Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System in the Treatment of Patients With De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onuma, Yoshinobu; Grundeken, Maik J.; Nakatani, Shimpei; Asano, Taku; Sotomi, Yohei; Foin, Nicolas; Ng, Jaryl; Okamura, Takayuki; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J.; de Winter, Robbert J.; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Koolen, Jacques; Christiansen, Evald; Whitbourn, Robert; McClean, Dougal; Smits, Pieter; Windecker, Stephan; Ormiston, John A.; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2017-01-01

    Background-The long-term fate of Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) struts jailing side branch ostia has not been clarified. We therefore evaluate serially (post-procedure and at 6 months, 1, 2, 3, and 5 years) the appearance and fate of jailed Absorb

  3. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  4. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  5. Vascular function in health, hypertension, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann, Lasse; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    muscle, which can affect muscle function. Central aspects in the vascular impairments are alterations in the formation of prostacyclin, the bioavailability of NO and an increased formation of vasoconstrictors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regular physical activity effectively improves vascular......, the increase in muscle blood flow required for oxygen supply during exercise is achieved through a substantial increase in vasodilators locally formed in the active muscle tissue that overcome the vasoconstrictor signals. Most of the vasodilator signals are mediated via endothelial cells, which lead...... to the formation of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. In essential hypertension and type II diabetes, the endothelial function and regulation of vascular tone is impaired with consequent increases in peripheral vascular resistance and inadequate regulation of oxygen supply to the skeletal...

  6. Lower limb vascular dysfunction in cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ayala Melo Di Alencar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related vascular insufficiency affecting the lower limbs is uncommon, and early signs and symptoms can be confused with musculoskeletal injuries. This is also the case among professional cyclists, who are always at the threshold between endurance and excess training. The aim of this review was to analyze the occurrence of vascular disorders in the lower limbs of cyclists and to discuss possible etiologies. Eighty-five texts, including papers and books, published from 1950 to 2012, were used. According to the literature reviewed, some cyclists receive a late diagnosis of vascular dysfunction due to a lack of familiarity of the medical team with this type of dysfunction. Data revealed that a reduced blood flow in the external iliac artery, especially on the left, is much more common than in the femoral and popliteal arteries, and that vascular impairment is responsible for the occurrence of early fatigue and reduced performance in cycling.

  7. Intestinal lesions in pigs affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome Lesões entéricas em suínos afetados por síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento dos suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Zlotowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of mesenteric lymph nodes and intestines from 79 unthrifty 3- to 5-month-old postweaning pigs, confirmed as naturally affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, were studied. Pigs originated from 12 farms in southern Brazil and were selected on the basis of clinical signs and/or gross lesions suggestive of enteric disorder. Lymphohistiocytic infiltrates of varying intensity were associated with anti-porcine circovirus type 2 (anti-PCV2 immunostaining (IS in samples of intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes from all pigs. Although most findings were similar to those described in PCV2-associated enteritis, anti-PCV2 IS in association with depletion of the goblet cell mucin stores (24 pigs, diffuse ileal villous atrophy and fusion (18 pigs, and dilatation of the lymphatic vessels (11 pigs combined or not with lymphangitis were also observed. PCV2 antigen was immunohistochemically demonstrated in the cytoplasm and nuclei from intralesional epithelial cells, histiocytes, and endothelial-like cells in intestinal tissues. Together these findings imply an association with PCV2. The presence of co-infections by Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira spp., Mycobacterium spp., Salmonella spp., rotavirus, parvovirus, coronavirus and enteric calicivirus with PCV2 in the intestinal lesions was investigated.Amostras de linfonodos mesentéricos e intestinos de 79 leitões desmamados refugos, entre 3 e 5 meses de idade e confirmados como naturalmente afetados pela síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento foram estudadas. Os suínos eram oriundos de 12 criações no sul do país e foram selecionados em função dos sinais clínicos e/ou lesões macroscópicas sugestivos de doença entérica. Infiltrados linfoistiocíticos de intensidades variáveis foram associados com marcação positiva anti-circovirus suíno tipo 2 (anti-PCV2 em amostras de intestinos e linfonodos mesentéricos de todos os 79 animais. Embora a maioria dos achados

  8. [The treatment of decubitus lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, G; Moroni, S; Bona, F

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a plan for pharmacological treatment of pressure sores in patients affected by neurological pathologies: cerebrovascular accidents, head injuries, spinal cord injuries. This plan is easily applicable to all pressure sores included between first and third degree of the Reuler and Cooney classification. Authors identified some drugs specifically usefull in different cutaneous lesion degrees. Skin lesions and employed medicines are described as follows: Erythema: semi occlusive bandage with porous adsorbing membrane. This dressing must be left in for five days at least. Excoriation: bactericidal or bacteriostatic medicines if it's situated in a non pressed area while the same dressing utilized for erythema if it's localized in a pressed area. Pressure sores: if there is local infection cleanse the wound from bacterial defilement using topic antibiotics apply compresses with vitamin C if the cutaneous lesion is larger than deeper, Cadexomero lodico if it's deeper than larger. Fistulas: wadding with tablets of collagen. Necrobiosis: complete or partial surgical removal of eschar preceded by the use of enzymatic drugs when eschar is firmly adherent to subcutaneous tissues. The first group collects 9 patients with stroke and head injury: 8 with sacral and 1 with heel pressure sores. First degree pressure sores heal within 45 days and third degree lesions within 160 days. The second group collects 10 spinal cord injury patients mostly with complete lesion among which: 7 sacral, 1 heel, 1 ischiatic and 1 malleolar lesions. First degree pressure sores heal within 30 days, third degree pressure sores heal within 200 days. Healing time are considered acceptable. Pressure sores recovery swiftness can be related to different factors such as pressure sores sterness, neurological pathology and arising of clinical complication (hyperthermia, infections, low serum albumin values, etc).

  9. Long-term engraftment of bone marrow-derived cells in the intimal hyperplasia lesion of autologous vein grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yanpeng; Guthrie, Steve; Xia, Shen-Ling; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Zhang, Li; Xue, Jing; Lee, Pui; Grant, Maria; Scott, Edward; Segal, Mark S

    2008-03-01

    Intimal hyperplasia of autologous vein grafts is a critical problem affecting the long-term patency of many types of vascular reconstruction. Within intimal hyperplasia lesions, smooth muscle cells are a major component, playing an essential role in the pathological process. Given that bone marrow-derived cells may differentiate into smooth muscle cells in the neointima of injured arteries, we hypothesized that the bone marrow may serve as a source for some of the smooth muscle cells within intimal hyperplasia lesions of vein grafts. To test this hypothesis, we used an established mouse model for intimal hyperplasia in wild-type mice that had been transplanted with bone marrow from a green fluorescent protein (GFP+/+) transgenic mouse. High-resolution confocal microscopy analysis performed 2 and 8 weeks after grafting demonstrated expression of GFP in 5.4 +/- 0.8% and 11.9 +/- 2.3%, respectively, of smooth muscle cells within intimal hyperplasia lesions. By 16 weeks, GFP expression in smooth muscle cells was not detected by immunohistochemistry; however, real-time PCR revealed that 20.2 +/- 1.7% of the smooth muscle cells captured from the neointima lesion by laser capture microdissection at 16 weeks contained GFP DNA. Our results suggest that bone marrow-derived cells differentiated into smooth muscle cells within the intimal lesion and may provide a novel clinical approach for decreasing intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts.

  10. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  11. Measuring Cutaneous Lesions: Trends in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shali; Blalock, Travis W

    2018-03-01

    Knowing the size of a cutaneous lesion can be important for tracking its progression over time, selecting the proper treatment modality, surgical planning, determining prognosis, and accurate billing. However, providers vary in their consistency, accuracy, and methods of measuring cutaneous lesions. To investigate the clinical practices of US dermatologists and dermatologic surgeons regarding how they determine the size of cutaneous lesions. A survey was electronically distributed to members of the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery. Four hundred twenty-six dermatologists completed the online survey. When a lesion is suspected to be malignant, 85% of respondents obtained exact measurements most, if not all, of the time; however, only 8% did for benign lesions. Most providers determined lesion sizes themselves rather than delegating to staff. When performing visual estimation, approximately three-quarters believed that they were accurate to within 1 to 2 mm. The top reasons for obtaining exact measurements were for tracking atypical pigmented lesions, determining treatment pathways, and accurate billing. The majority of respondents believed that lesion size affected management decisions; however, the need for exact measurement remains controversial, particularly for benign lesions. Future studies may investigate whether taking exact versus estimated measurements has an effect on outcomes.

  12. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Wynne, J; Garner, M M; Nyaoke, A; Keel, M K

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Vascular complications after the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, J.M.; Laurian, C.

    1980-01-01

    Vascular complications after this treatment are rare. Artery stenosis or occlusions, more often iliac, are well recognized complications of postoperative radiotherapy. These segmental lesions, sometimes, are pathological lesions similar to arteriosclerotic changes. These lesions may be corrected later on after the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. The venous complications often present later and tall within the context of post thrombotic syndrome. Conservative treatment is indicated alone. A well recognized complication, lymphedema is usually mild; a superimposed iliofemoral thrombophlebitis often may be suspected [fr

  14. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  15. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  16. Non-fatal hemorrhage from pontine vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junkoh; Aoyama, Ikuhiro; Gi, Hidefuku; Handa, Hajime

    1982-01-01

    Pontine vascular malformations have usually been found at autopsy as an incidental finding or as a cause of a fatal hemorrhage. In recent years, however, computerized tomography (CT) has made it possible to visualize these lesions while the patinents are still alive. In this paper, we report 2 cases with non-fatal hemorrhages from pontine vascular malformation. The first case was a 31-year-old housewife with cheif complaints of a sensory disturbance of the left half of the body, double vision, nausea, and vomiting of 2 weeks' duration. CT revealed a small high-density mass, which was partially slightly contrast-enhanced, in the right lower pontine tegmentum, affecting the medial and lateral lemnisci, abducens, facial and acoustic nerves, brachium pontis, medial longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers, and parepontine reticular formation. The second case was a 52-year-old female clerk with chief complaints of a sensory disturbance of the right half of the body and gait disturbance of 7 months' duration. CT revealed a small high-density mass, which was partially contrast-enhanced, in the left midpontine tegmentum, affecting the medial and lateral lemnisci, lateral spinothalamic tract, ventral ascending tract of V, and brachium pontis. Although there was no evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, both cases were deterirating progressively, probably due to tepeated small intraparenchymal hemorrhages. They were treated by radiation therapy in order to prevent further rebleeding. Fortunately, their symptoms gradually subsided, and both of them were doing well 2 years and one and a half years respectively after radiation therapy. The value of radiation therapy for this disease entity has not yet been established, but it may be worthwhile when the symptoms are worsening and there is no other suitable treatment. (J.P.N.)

  17. Petrous apex lesions outcome in 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatara M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Petrous apex lesions of temporal bone progress slowly. Most of the time not only destruct this area but also involve neighbouring element. The symptoms of the neighbouring neuro-vasculare involvement we can recognize these lesions. The most common symptoms of involvement of the petrous apex are: headache, conductive hearing loss or sensorineural type, paresthesia and anesthesia of the trigeminal nerve, paresia and paralysis of the facial nerve, abducent nerve. In retrospective study which has been in the ENT and HNS wards of Amiralam hospital, 148 patients have been operated due to temporal bone tumor; from these numbers, 21 (13.6% patients had petrous apex lesions of temporal bone. Eleven (52.9% patients of these 21 persons were men and the remaining 10 (47-6% were women. The average age of the patients was 37 years. The common pathology of these patients were glomus jugulare tumors, hemangioma, schwannoma, meningioma, congenital cholesteatoma, giant cell granuloma. The kind of operations that have been done on these patients were: infratemporal, translabyrinthine and middle fossa approaches. The conclusion of this study shows that petrous apex area is an occult site. The symptoms of this lesion are not characteristic, meticulous attention to the history and physical examination are very helpful to recognition of these lesions and it's extention.

  18. Vascular malformations in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Shamdeen, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Splinter haemorrhages, Osler's nodes, Janeway lesions and Roth spots: the peripheral stigmata of endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Karishma; Buckley, Jim; de Wolff, Jacob

    2013-09-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious endo-vascular infection, potentially affecting not only native heart valves, but also intra-vascularly implanted foreign materials such as valvular prostheses and pacemaker electrodes (Westphal et al, 2009).

  20. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  1. Interventional management of high-flow vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Robert J; Nassiri, Naiem; Drury, Jennifer E

    2013-03-01

    High-flow vascular malformations are among the most challenging lesions in the field of interventional radiology. For an optimal long-term result, the clinician must have a full understanding of the types of lesions, their natural history, appropriate diagnostic studies, indications for treatment, and all the treatment options, including surgery, embolization, laser, and pharmacotherapy. Surgery should, in general, be used primarily for lesions that are completely resectable or are so bulky that embolization would not provide a satisfactory result. Embolization techniques are directed at elimination of the nidus of the lesion, using a variety of penetrating embolic agents both by direct puncture and transcatheter approaches. This paper reviews the principles and techniques primarily involving embolization for lesions occurring in various parts of the body, emphasizing the lessons learned in treating more than 2000 patients over a 30-year period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetic resonance vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axel, L

    1989-01-01

    The basis principles of MRI are reviewed in order to understand how blood flow effects arise in conventional imaging. Then some of the ways these effects have ben used in MRI techniques specifically designed for vascular imaging, are considered. (author)

  3. Validation of a gating technique for radiotherapy treatment of injuries affected by respiratory motion; Validacion de una atecnica de gating para el tratamiento con radioterapia externa de lesiones afectadas por el movimiento respiratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Ortega, J.; Castro Tejero, P.

    2011-07-01

    The use of gating techniques for the treatment of lesions that are involved respiratory motion may bring an increase in the dose administered. tumors and decreased the dose to adjacent healthy organs. In the study presented shows the steps taken to validate the respiratory gating technique using the RPM system (Real-time Position Management) from Varian. (Author)

  4. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and collagen vascular diseases - high resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Neto, Armando Leao; Mogami, Roberto; Marchiori, Edson; Capone, Domenico

    1996-01-01

    The aspects of the thorax high-resolution computed tomography of 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 patients with collagen vascular diseases are described and characterized mainly by the presence of reticular lesions with little cysts predominantly in the periphery and lower lobes. They may be associated with ground-glass lesions that, as usual, means areas of alveolitis. (author)

  5. Complicação vascular de osteocondroma: relato de caso Vascular complication of osteochondroma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio André Tornquist

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteocondromas ou exostoses são os tumores benignos mais comuns do tecido ósseo. Eles surgem durante o período de crescimento e, raramente, são responsáveis por complicações vasculares. No presente relato, reportamos um caso de paciente com osteocondroma no membro inferior e complicação vascular provocada pela compressão da artéria poplítea. O paciente apresentava queixas de dor em membro inferior direito quando foi investigado com angiografia e radiografia, que identificaram a lesão vascular e a tumoração óssea. Os tratamentos cirúrgicos simultâneos de ambas as lesões foram realizados com boa evolução pós-operatória.Osteochondromas or exostoses are the most common benign tumors of the bone. They occur during the growth period and are rarely responsible for vascular complications. We report a case of a patient with osteochondroma in the lower limb and vascular complication caused by compression of the popliteal artery. The patient complained of pain at the right lower limb during angiography and radiography screening, which identified the vascular lesion and the bone tumor. A simultaneous surgical treatment of both lesions was performed with good postoperative evolution.

  6. Contribution of bone and brain scintigraphy to diagnosis of the extension and nature of skull lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, M.; Tovar, G. de; Derome, P.

    The combination of bone and brain scintigraphy provides a vast amount of information in the study of lesions of the skull. It is especially valuable as a means to circumscribe the invasion of the bones, distinguish between bone and intracranial invasion, diagnose the nature of the lesion, estimate its degree of vascularization and detect remote localisations [fr

  7. Ultrasonography and computed tomography in the study of orbital tumors and pseudo-tumoral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marins, J.L.C.; Pereira, R.M.; Prando, A.; Selos Moreira, A.R. de

    1987-01-01

    The computerized tomography and the ultrasonography in the ocular and orbital patologies were considered as complementary each other. the ultrasonography method as choice for the detection of the eye lesions in the adult, particularly of vascular origin and in the follow-up of inflammatory and pseudo-tumoral lesions was chosen. (L.M.J.) [pt

  8. Role of endovascular treatment in vascular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.M.; Haq, T.U.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate retrospectively the results, complications and follow-up of patients after endovascular treatment of vascular injuries. Methods: Fifty transcatheter embolisation procedures (TCE) were performed in 46 patients between 1999 and 2008 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Injuries in 14 (30.4%) patients were due to road traffic accident; iatrogenic in 13 (28%); accidental in 6 (13%). Firearms, bomb blasts and earthquake contributed to injuries in 8(17%), 4(8.8%) and 1(2.2%) patients respectively. All patients underwent angiography and had evidence of either active haemorrhage, pseudo-aneurysm, abnormal vascularity or arteriovenous fistula. Follow-up ranged from 1 day to 6 years with mean of 10.5 months. Medical record files, lab results and imaging reports were utilised for the study. Procedure was declared as technically successful when there was cessation of extravasation, occlusion of fistula or exclusion of pseudo-aneurysm in the post-embolisation angiograms. Treatment was deemed clinically successful if there was resolution of the indication for which the procedure was done. Results: Transcatheter embolisation was technically successful in occluding vascular lesions in all 46 (100%) patients. Lesions recurred in 4 (9%) patients who underwent initially successful TCE. These patients were treated effectively with repeated TCE. Three patients died during the same hospital stay and 3 patients died after being discharged from the hospital. All these patients were treated successfully with TCE and had factors other then TCE contributing to their mortality. Conclusion: Transcatheter embolisation for vascular injuries was found to be a satisfactory procedure, with low morbidity and mortality rates. (author)

  9. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  10. A CD1d-dependent lipid antagonist to NKT cells ameliorates atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice by reducing lesion necrosis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Kanellakis, Peter; Hosseini, Hamid; Cao, Anh; Deswaerte, Virginie; Tipping, Peter; Toh, Ban-Hock; Bobik, Alex; Kyaw, Tin

    2016-02-01

    Atherosclerosis-related deaths from heart attacks and strokes remain leading causes of global mortality, despite the use of lipid-lowering statins. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop additional therapies. Reports that NKT cells promote atherosclerosis and an NKT cell CD1d-dependent lipid antagonist (DPPE-PEG350, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N[methoxy(polyethyleneglycol)-350]) reduces allergen-induced inflammation led us to investigate its therapeutic potential in preventing the development and progression of experimental atherosclerosis. DPPE-PEG350 was administered to hyperlipidaemic ApoE(-/-) mice with/without established atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis and immune cells were assessed in the aortic sinus lesions. Lesion expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) responsible for inflammatory immune cell recruitment as well as mRNA expression of IFNγ and its plasma levels were investigated. Necrotic cores and lesion smooth muscle and collagen contents important in plaque stability were determined as were plasma lipid levels. DPPE-PEG350 reduced atherosclerosis development and delayed progression of established atherosclerosis without affecting plasma lipids. CD4 and CD8 T cells and B cells in atherosclerotic lesions were decreased in DPPE-PEG350-treated mice. Lesion MCP-1 and VCAM-1 protein expression and necrotic core size were reduced without affecting lesion smooth muscle and collagen content. IFNγ and lymphocytes were unaffected by the treatment. The attenuation of progression of established atherosclerosis together with reduced development of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidaemic mice by the NKT antagonist, without affecting NKT cell or other lymphocyte numbers, suggests that targeting lesion inflammation via CD1d-dependent activation of NKT cells using DPPE-PEG350 has a therapeutic potential in treating atherosclerosis. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  11. Human genetics of diabetic vascular complications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diabetic vascular complications (DVC) affecting several important organ systems of human body such as the cardiovascular system constitute a major public health problem. There is evidence demonstrating that genetic factors contribute to the risk of DVC genetic variants, structural variants, and epigenetic changes play ...

  12. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia secondary to vascular compression in a patient with multiple sclerosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaitour Emil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is an uncommon, painful syndrome, characterized by paroxysms of pain in the sensory distribution of the 9th cranial nerve. Idiopathic glossopharyngeal neuralgia may be due to compression of the glossopharyngeal nerve by adjacent vessels, while secondary glossopharyngeal neuralgia is associated with identifiable lesions affecting the glossopharyngeal nerve at different levels of its neuroanatomic pathway. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is rare in the general population, but is more common in patients with multiple sclerosis. Case presentation A 56-year-old Caucasian woman with multiple sclerosis and migraine presented to our facility with intermittent lancinating pain to the right of her throat, tongue, and the floor of her mouth that had been occurring for the past year. The pain was intense, sharp, and stabbing, which lasted two to six seconds with radiation to the right ear. Initially, the attacks were infrequent, however, they had become more intense and frequent over time. Our patient reported weight loss, headache, painful swallowing, and the inability to maintain sleep due to painful attacks. A neurological examination revealed a right-handed woman with trigger points in the back of the tongue and throat on the right side. She also had dysphagia, hoarseness, and pain in the distribution of the right glossopharyngeal nerve. Mild right hemiparesis, hyperreflexia, dysmetria, and an ataxic gait were present. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain was consistent with multiple sclerosis and magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated a loop of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery compressing the right glossopharyngeal nerve. She responded satisfactorily to carbamazepine. Microvascular decompression and Gamma Knife® radiosurgery were discussed in case of failure of the medical treatment; however, she declined these options. Conclusions Glossopharyngeal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis may

  13. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  14. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  15. A Sequential Approach in Treatment of Endo-Perio Lesion A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kambale, Sharanappa; Aspalli, Nagaveni; Munavalli, Anil; Ajgaonkar, Nishant; Babannavar, Roopa

    2014-01-01

    Endo-perio lesions primarily occur by way of the intimate anatomic and vascular connections between the pulp and the periodontium. Endodontic-periodontal combined lesion is a clinical dilemma because making a differential diagnosis and deciding a prognosis are difficult. An untreated primary endodontic lesion may become secondarily involved with periodontal breakdown, which clinically present unusual signs and symptoms. This may delay the diagnosis and hence the correct treatment. This case r...

  16. Application of radiosurgical techniques to produce a primate model of brain lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Kunimatsu, Jun; Miyamoto, Naoki; Ishikawa, Masayori; Shirato, Hiroki; Tanaka, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral analysis of subjects with discrete brain lesions provides important information about the mechanisms of various brain functions. However, it is generally difficult to experimentally produce discrete lesions in deep brain structures. Here we show that a radiosurgical technique, which is used as an alternative treatment for brain tumors and vascular malformations, is applicable to create non-invasive lesions in experimental animals for the research in systems neuroscience. We deliver...

  17. Treino de vibração de corpo inteiro na função motora em pacientes acometidos por acidente vascular cerebral : Whole body vibration training in motor function in patients affected with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Teresa Silva

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: O Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) é um problema de saúde pública relevante em virtude de sua alta frequência e de grande impacto na população. Os sobreviventes apresentam sequelas que implicam algum grau de dependência e um elevado custo social. Minimizar as sequelas e aumentar a recuperação funcional tem sido um ponto importante para os profissionais da reabilitação. O objetivo do artigo 1 foi verificar os efeitos do treino de vibração de corpo inteiro nos pacientes acometidos por A...

  18. Curious Vascular Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal Jghaimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sinusoidal hemangioma is a rare variant of acquired cavernous hemangioma predominantly occurring in females. Very few case reports have been described in the literature. Case Report. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman who noticed a slowly growing, cutaneous nodule on the left breast. Local excision of the lesion was performed and histology allowed to find a sinusoidal hemangioma. No recurrence was noticed. Conclusion. The very few reports of such a lesion in the literature reflect either rarity of such lesions or unfamiliarity of this subset among the pathologists.

  19. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  20. Endo-periodontal lesion – endodontic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivoinovici, R; Suciu, I; Dimitriu, B; Perlea, P; Bartok, R; Malita, M; Ionescu, C

    2014-01-01

    Endo-perio lesions might be interdependent because of the vascular and anatomic connections between the pulp and the periodontium. The aim of this study is to emphasise that primary endodontic lesion heals after a proper instrumentation, disinfection and sealing of the endodontic space. The primary endodontic lesion with a secondary periodontal involvement first requires an endodontic therapy and, in the second stage, a periodontal therapy. The prognosis is good, with an adequate root canal treatment; it depends on the severity of the periodontal disease, appropriate healing time and the response to the treatment. A correct diagnosis is sometimes difficult; an accurate identification of the etiologic factors is important for an adequate treatment. Primary perio-endo lesion may heal after a proper disinfection and sealing of the endodontic system, the one-year follow-up radiograph showing bonny repair. Invasive periodontal procedures should be avoided at that moment. The microorganisms and by-products from the infected root canal may cross accessory and furcal canals and determine sinus tract and loss of attachment. In both clinical cases presented in this article, successful healing was obtained after a proper disinfection and sealing of the endodontic system. PMID:25713618

  1. Endo-periodontal lesion--endodontic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivoinovici, R; Suciu, I; Dimitriu, B; Perlea, P; Bartok, R; Malita, M; Ionescu, C

    2014-01-01

    Endo-perio lesions might be interdependent because of the vascular and anatomic connections between the pulp and the periodontium. The aim of this study is to emphasise that primary endodontic lesion heals after a proper instrumentation, disinfection and sealing of the endodontic space. The primary endodontic lesion with a secondary periodontal involvement first requires an endodontic therapy and, in the second stage, a periodontal therapy. The prognosis is good, with an adequate root canal treatment; it depends on the severity of the periodontal disease, appropriate healing time and the response to the treatment. A correct diagnosis is sometimes difficult; an accurate identification of the etiologic factors is important for an adequate treatment. Primary perio-endo lesion may heal after a proper disinfection and sealing of the endodontic system, the one-year follow-up radiograph showing bonny repair. Invasive periodontal procedures should be avoided at that moment. The microorganisms and by-products from the infected root canal may cross accessory and furcal canals and determine sinus tract and loss of attachment. In both clinical cases presented in this article, successful healing was obtained after a proper disinfection and sealing of the endodontic system.

  2. How does spa treatment affect cardiovascular function and vascular endothelium in patients with generalized osteoarthritis? A pilot study through plasma asymmetric di-methyl arginine (ADMA) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Fatih; Ozkuk, Kagan; Seringec Karabulut, Serap; Bekpinar, Seldag; Karagulle, Mufit Zeki; Erdogan, Nergis

    2018-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of spa treatment on vascular endothelium and clinical symptoms of generalized osteoarthritis. Forty generalized osteoarthritis (GOA) patients referred to a government spa hospital, and 40 GOA patients followed on university hospital locomotor system disease ambulatory clinics were included as study and control groups, respectively. Study group received spa treatment including thermal water baths, physical therapy modalities, and exercises. Control group was followed with home exercises for 15 days. Plasma ADMA, L-arginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio, routine blood analyses, 6-min walking test, including fingertip O2 saturation, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, were measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Groups were evaluated with VAS pain, patient, and physician global assessment; HAQ; and WOMAC at the beginning, at the end, and after 1 month of treatment. In study group, L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio showed statistically significant increase after treatment. Plasma ADMA levels did not change. There is no significant difference in intergroup comparison. Study group displayed statistically significant improvements in all clinical parameters. The study showed that spa treatment does not cause any harm to the vascular endothelium through ADMA. Significant increase in plasma L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio suggests that balneotherapy may play a preventive role on cardiovascular diseases. Balneotherapy provides meaningful improvements on clinical parameters of GOA.

  3. How does spa treatment affect cardiovascular function and vascular endothelium in patients with generalized osteoarthritis? A pilot study through plasma asymmetric di-methyl arginine (ADMA) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Fatih; Ozkuk, Kagan; Seringec Karabulut, Serap; Bekpinar, Seldag; Karagulle, Mufit Zeki; Erdogan, Nergis

    2017-12-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of spa treatment on vascular endothelium and clinical symptoms of generalized osteoarthritis. Forty generalized osteoarthritis (GOA) patients referred to a government spa hospital, and 40 GOA patients followed on university hospital locomotor system disease ambulatory clinics were included as study and control groups, respectively. Study group received spa treatment including thermal water baths, physical therapy modalities, and exercises. Control group was followed with home exercises for 15 days. Plasma ADMA, L-arginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio, routine blood analyses, 6-min walking test, including fingertip O2 saturation, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, were measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Groups were evaluated with VAS pain, patient, and physician global assessment; HAQ; and WOMAC at the beginning, at the end, and after 1 month of treatment. In study group, L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio showed statistically significant increase after treatment. Plasma ADMA levels did not change. There is no significant difference in intergroup comparison. Study group displayed statistically significant improvements in all clinical parameters. The study showed that spa treatment does not cause any harm to the vascular endothelium through ADMA. Significant increase in plasma L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio suggests that balneotherapy may play a preventive role on cardiovascular diseases. Balneotherapy provides meaningful improvements on clinical parameters of GOA.

  4. Overview of vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisset, G.S. III

    1998-01-01

    Vascular disease in the pediatric population is a poorly understood process which is often underestimated in its incidence. The common beginnings of such ubiquitous diseases as atherosclerosis manifest themselves at a cellular level shortly after birth. Other common systemic disorders, including congestive heart failure and sepsis, are also intricately associated with dysfunctional vasculature. Progress in the understanding of normal and pathophysiologic processes within the vascular system begins with the 'control center' - the endothelial cell. The purpose of this review is to consolidate a body of knowledge on the processes that occur at the cellular level within the blood vessel wall, and to simplify the understanding of how imbalances in these physiologic parameters result in vascular disease. (orig.)

  5. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: an overview and update on a rare vascular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sardaro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor, described for the first time in 1975 by Dail and Liebow as an aggressive bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma. The etiology is still a dilemma. Studies about suggestive hypothesis are ongoing. Most of the times it affects lung, liver and bones, although this kind of tumor may involve the head and neck area, breast, lymph nodes, mediastinum, brain and meninges, the spine, skin, abdomen and many other sites. Because of its heterogeneous presentation, as it represents less than 1% of all the vascular tumors, it is often misdiagnosed and not suitably treated, leading to a poor prognosis in some cases. Over 50-76% of the patients are asymptomatic. A small number of them complains respiratory symptoms. Bone metastases might cause pathological fractures or spine compression, if they arise in vertebrae. Imaging is necessary to determine morphological data, the involvement of surrounding tissues, and potentially the cleavage plan. It is important to recognize the expression of vascular markers (Fli-1 and CD31 are endothelial-specific markers, and the microscopic evidence of vascular differentiation to make a correct diagnosis, as many pulmonary diseases show multiple nodular lesions. Because of its rarity, there is no standard for treatment. We focused on radiotherapy as a good therapeutic option: despite the poor prognosis, evidence is in favor of radiotherapy which offers local pain control with good tolerance and better quality of life at least at a one-year follow-up in most of cases. Further studies are needed to establish the standard radiation dose to be used for locoregional control of such a complex and extremely rare disease.

  6. Spindle Cell Hemangioendothelioma of the Temporal Muscle Resected with Zygomatic Osteotomy: A Case Report of an Unusual Intramuscular Lesion Mimicking Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Minagawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spindle cell hemangioendothelioma (SCH was originally described by Weiss and Enzinger (1986 as a low-grade angiosarcoma resembling both cavernous hemangioma and Kaposi's sarcoma. Recent studies suggest that SCH is a benign neoplasm or reactive lesion accompanying a congenital or acquired vascular malformation. Most SCHs present as one or more nodules affecting the dermis or subcutis of the distal extremities. Few reports describe SCH of the head and neck region; even fewer note intramuscular SCH. Here, we describe a case of SCH involving the temporal muscle mimicking soft tissue sarcoma, who had a successful surgical treatment with a coronal approach and zygomatic osteotomy.

  7. Scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts and histologic examination of pulmonary microvasculature in dogs with dirofilariosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Wakao, Yoshito

    2002-11-01

    To characterize structural changes in pulmonary vessels of dogs with dirofilariosis. 8 dogs with dirofilariosis and 2 unaffected control dogs. Pulmonary artery pressure was measured in affected dogs, and dogs then were euthanatized. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine vascular corrosion casts of pulmonary vasculature. Tissue sections of pulmonary vasculature were evaluated by use of histologic examination. Pulmonary artery pressure was higher in dogs with severely affected pulmonary vessels. In tissue sections, dilatation, as well as lesions in the tunica intima and proliferative lesions resulting in constriction or obstruction, were frequently observed in branches of the pulmonary artery. Numerous dilated bronchial arteries were observed around affected pulmonary arteries. Hyperplastic venous sphincters were observed in small pulmonary veins and venules. In corrosion casts, affected pulmonary lobar arteries had dilatation, pruning, abnormal tapering, constriction, and obstruction. In small arteries and arterioles, surface structures representing aneurisms and edema were seen. Bronchial arteries were well developed and extremely dilated, and they formed numerous anastomoses with pulmonary arteries at all levels, from the pulmonary trunk to peripheral vessels. Capillaries in the lungs were dilated with little structural change. Small pulmonary veins and venules had irregular annular constrictions that were caused by hyperplastic smooth muscle cells of venous sphincters. Scanning electron microscopy of microvascular casts delineated links between the bronchial and pulmonary circulations in dogs with dirofilariosis. Results of scanning electron microscopy provided a structural explanation for the development of pulmonary circulatory disturbances and pulmonary hypertension in dogs affected by dirofilariosis.

  8. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  9. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  10. Three-dimensional vascular mapping of the breast by using contrast-enhanced MRI: association of unilateral increased vascularity with ipsilateral breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgüç, Şebnem; Başara, Işıl; Coşkun, Teoman; Pekindil, Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to retrospectively compare three-dimensional vascular maps of both breasts obtained by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and determine the association of one-sided vascular prominence with ipsilateral breast cancer. MRI was performed using gadolinium in 194 cases. Two readers scored vascular density using maximum intensity projections (MIPs). Dynamic fat-saturated T1-weighted gradientecho MIPs were acquired. Two readers evaluated the MIPs, and vessels greater than 2 mm in diameter and longer than 3 cm were counted. The difference in vessel numbers detected in the two breasts determined the score. A total of 54 patients had malignant lesions (prevalence, 28%), including invasive ductal carcinoma (n=40), invasive mixed ductal-lobular carcinoma (n=5), invasive lobular carcinoma (n=3), ductal carcinoma in situ (n=3), mucinous carcinoma (n=1), medullary carcinoma (n=1), and leukemic metastasis (n=1). In 62 patients, there were benign lesions (fibroadenomas, fibrocysts), and four patients had inflammation (granulomatous mastitis in two patients, breast tuberculosis in two patients). There were 78 normal cases. When a difference of at least two vessels was scored as vascular asymmetry, the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), and negative (-LR) of unilaterally increased vascularity associated with ipsilateral malignancy were 69%, 92%, 8.72, and 0.34, respectively. When four infection and three post-operative cases with vascular asymmetry were excluded; prevalence, specificity, and +LR increased to 29%, 97%, and 22.8, respectively, with the same sensitivity and -LR. Differences in mean vascularity scores were evaluated with regard to tumor size. T1 and T2 tumors were not significantly different from each other. The mean score of T3 tumors differed significantly from T1 and T2 tumors. MRI vascular mapping is an effective method for determining breast tissue vascularization. Ipsilateral increased vascularity was commonly associated with

  11. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  12. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors as Modulators of Vascular Function and Their Application in Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf A. Khalil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance and hypertension (HTN. In VSM, activation of surface receptors by vasoconstrictor stimuli causes an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, which forms a complex with calmodulin, activates myosin light chain (MLC kinase and leads to MLC phosphorylation, actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Vasoconstrictor agonists could also increase the production of diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C (PKC. PKC is a family of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isozymes that have different distributions in various blood vessels, and undergo translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or the nucleus during cell activation. In VSM, PKC translocation to the cell surface may trigger a cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and MAPK kinase (MEK, a pathway that ultimately increases the myofilament force sensitivity to [Ca2+]i, and enhances actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. PKC translocation to the nucleus may induce transactivation of various genes and promote VSM growth and proliferation. PKC could also affect endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the extracellular matrix further affecting vascular reactivity and remodeling. In addition to vasoactive factors, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic factors could affect PKC activity. Increased PKC expression and activity have been observed in vascular disease and in certain forms of experimental and human HTN. Targeting of vascular PKC using PKC inhibitors may function in

  13. A case of radiation necrosis with vascular changes on main cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yasuhiko; Okada, Hitoshi; Mineura, Katsuyoshi; Kodama, Namio

    1982-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman had received radiotherapy, following surgery of a chromophobe putuitary adenoma. Six years after irradiation she began to complain of headache and dementia. Right vertebrogram demonstrated a right temporal mass lesion, stenosis and dilatation of middle cerebral artery and posterior communicating artery in the field of irradiation. CT scan showed the irregular low density area at the right temporal region, and the irregular enhancement after an intravenous injection of contrast medium was seen at the small part of affected area. From these findings, radiation necrosis at the right temporal lobe was diagnosed. As vascular changes of the main cerebral arteries due to radiation are rare, we discussed on them from ever reported literature. (author)

  14. Halting angiogenesis by non-viral somatic gene therapy alleviates psoriasis and murine psoriasiform skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John Robert; Wallbrecht, Katrin; Schön, Margarete

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated angiogenesis is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, a common skin disorder that affects approximately 2% of the population. Studying both human psoriasis in 2 complementary xenotransplantation models and psoriasis-like skin lesions in transgenic mice......-15) by in vivo electroporation reduced cutaneous angiogenesis and vascularization in all 3 models. As demonstrated using red fluorescent protein-coupled RDD, the treatment resulted in muscular expression of the gene product and its deposition within the cutaneous hyperangiogenic connective tissue....... High-resolution ultrasound revealed reduced cutaneous blood flow in vivo after electroporation with RDD but not with control plasmids. In addition, angiogenesis- and inflammation-related molecular markers, keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal thickness, and clinical disease scores were downregulated...

  15. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  16. The vascular basement membrane in the healthy and pathological brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Maj S; Routhe, Lisa J; Moos, Torben

    2017-10-01

    The vascular basement membrane contributes to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs). The BCECs receive support from pericytes embedded in the vascular basement membrane and from astrocyte endfeet. The vascular basement membrane forms a three-dimensional protein network predominantly composed of laminin, collagen IV, nidogen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans that mutually support interactions between BCECs, pericytes, and astrocytes. Major changes in the molecular composition of the vascular basement membrane are observed in acute and chronic neuropathological settings. In the present review, we cover the significance of the vascular basement membrane in the healthy and pathological brain. In stroke, loss of BBB integrity is accompanied by upregulation of proteolytic enzymes and degradation of vascular basement membrane proteins. There is yet no causal relationship between expression or activity of matrix proteases and the degradation of vascular matrix proteins in vivo. In Alzheimer's disease, changes in the vascular basement membrane include accumulation of Aβ, composite changes, and thickening. The physical properties of the vascular basement membrane carry the potential of obstructing drug delivery to the brain, e.g. thickening of the basement membrane can affect drug delivery to the brain, especially the delivery of nanoparticles.

  17. Stroke Lesions in a Large Upper Limb Rehabilitation Trial Cohort Rarely Match Lesions in Common Preclinical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwardson, Matthew A.; Wang, Ximing; Liu, Brent; Ding, Li; Lane, Christianne J.; Park, Caron; Nelsen, Monica A.; Jones, Theresa A; Wolf, Steven L; Winstein, Carolee J; Dromerick, Alexander W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke patients with mild-moderate upper extremity (UE) motor impairments and minimal sensory and cognitive deficits provide a useful model to study recovery and improve rehabilitation. Laboratory-based investigators use lesioning techniques for similar goals. Objective Determine whether stroke lesions in an UE rehabilitation trial cohort match lesions from the preclinical stroke recovery models used to drive translational research. Methods Clinical neuroimages from 297 participants enrolled in the Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) study were reviewed. Images were characterized based on lesion type (ischemic or hemorrhagic), volume, vascular territory, depth (cortical gray matter, cortical white matter, subcortical), old strokes, and leukoaraiosis. Lesions were compared with those of preclinical stroke models commonly used to study upper limb recovery. Results Among the ischemic stroke participants, median infarct volume was 1.8 mL, with most lesions confined to subcortical structures (61%) including the anterior choroidal artery territory (30%) and the pons (23%). Of ICARE participants, stroke patients, but they represent a clinically and scientifically important subgroup. Compared to lesions in general stroke populations and widely-studied animal models of recovery, ICARE participants had smaller, more subcortically-based strokes. Improved preclinical-clinical translational efforts may require better alignment of lesions between preclinical and human stroke recovery models. PMID:28337932

  18. Aggressive Angiomyxoma of the Vulva: A Bizarre Perineal Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamantia Zizi-Sermpetzoglou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, slowly growing, and benign tumour of mesenchymal origin, which affects women of reproductive age and is associated with a high risk of local recurrence. Case Presentation. A case of a 47-year-old white female is presented herein, with a large polypoid, gelatinous mass on the right labia majora, measuring 26 × 21 × 6 cm. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of spindle and stellate-shaped cells embedded in a myxoid matrix. Another specific feature was the presence of variable-sized thin-walled capillaries and thick-walled vascular channels. The patient underwent wide local excision of the tumour with clear margins and developed local recurrence 18 months later. Discussion. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva needs to be distinguished from benign myxoid tumors with a low risk of local recurrence as well as from malignant myxoid neoplasms. Usually wide local excision with tumour-free margins and occasionally hormonal manipulation is the treatment of choice.

  19. Current concepts in the classification, diagnosis and treatment of vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernemann, Ulrike; Kramer, Ulrich; Miller, Stephan; Bisdas, Sotirios; Rebmann, Hans; Breuninger, Helmut; Zwick, Christine; Hoffmann, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Patients with extended vascular anomalies may suffer from significant aesthetic and functional impairment and represent a challenge to therapeutic planning, which is best met by an interdisciplinary concept. In agreement with the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA), vascular lesions are classified into haemangiomas as proliferating endothelial tumours on the one hand and congenital vascular malformations on the other. According to the preponderant vascular channels and hemodynamic characteristics, malformations are subdivided into low flow (venous, lymphatic and capillary) lesions and high-flow malformations. Diagnostic imaging should be targeted at the specific structural and functional informations required for treatment planning. The imaging modality of choice to provide these informations is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supplemented by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with high spatial and temporal resolution. Treatment indications for haemangiomas depend on the proliferative behaviour of the lesion and comprise β-blockers in order to induce involution as well as cryotherapy, laser and open surgery. Interventional radiological procedures have evolved as an essential element in an interdisciplinary treatment plan for vascular malformations and include percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and OK-432 for venous and lymphatic malformations and transarterial embolization for high-flow lesions.

  20. Current concepts in the classification, diagnosis and treatment of vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernemann, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.ernemann@med.uni-tuebingen.d [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiological Clinic, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Kramer, Ulrich; Miller, Stephan [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Radiological Clinic, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany); Bisdas, Sotirios [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiological Clinic, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Rebmann, Hans [Department of Paediatrics, Children' s Hospital, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany); Breuninger, Helmut [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany); Zwick, Christine [Department of Hand, Plastic, Reconstructive and Burns Surgery, BG Trauma Clinic Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany); Hoffmann, Juergen [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Patients with extended vascular anomalies may suffer from significant aesthetic and functional impairment and represent a challenge to therapeutic planning, which is best met by an interdisciplinary concept. In agreement with the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA), vascular lesions are classified into haemangiomas as proliferating endothelial tumours on the one hand and congenital vascular malformations on the other. According to the preponderant vascular channels and hemodynamic characteristics, malformations are subdivided into low flow (venous, lymphatic and capillary) lesions and high-flow malformations. Diagnostic imaging should be targeted at the specific structural and functional informations required for treatment planning. The imaging modality of choice to provide these informations is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supplemented by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with high spatial and temporal resolution. Treatment indications for haemangiomas depend on the proliferative behaviour of the lesion and comprise {beta}-blockers in order to induce involution as well as cryotherapy, laser and open surgery. Interventional radiological procedures have evolved as an essential element in an interdisciplinary treatment plan for vascular malformations and include percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and OK-432 for venous and lymphatic malformations and transarterial embolization for high-flow lesions.

  1. Atorvastatin restores arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction in rats: Modulation of nitric oxide signaling and inflammatory mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, Manickam; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Kannan, Kandasamy; Suresh, Subramaniyam; Gupta, Priyanka; Vijayakaran, Karunakaran; Sankar, Palanisamy; Kurade, Nitin Pandurang; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether atorvastatin, an extensively prescribed statin for reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases, can reduce the risk of arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation in rats and whether the modulation could be linked to improvement in vascular NO signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91 st day, blood was collected for measuring serum C-reactive protein. Thoracic aorta was isolated for assessing reactivity to phenylephrine, sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine; evaluating eNOS and iNOS mRNA expression and measuring NO production, while abdominal aorta was used for ELISA of cytokines, chemokine and vascular cell adhesion molecules. Histopathology was done in aortic arches. Arsenic did not alter phenylephrine-elicited contraction. Atorvastatin inhibited E max of phenylephrine, but it augmented the contractile response in aortic rings from arsenic-exposed animals. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was not altered with any treatment. However, arsenic reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and affected aortic eNOS at the levels of mRNA expression, protein concentration, phosphorylation and NO production. Further, it increased aortic iNOS mRNA expression, iNOS-derived NO synthesis, production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, VCAM, sICAM) and serum C-reactive protein and aortic vasculopathic lesions. Atorvastatin attenuated these arsenic-mediated functional, biochemical and structural alterations. Results show that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation by restoring endothelial function with improvement in NO signaling and attenuating production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cell adhesion molecules. - Highlights: • We evaluated if atorvastatin reduce arsenic

  2. Atorvastatin restores arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction in rats: Modulation of nitric oxide signaling and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, Manickam; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Kannan, Kandasamy; Suresh, Subramaniyam; Gupta, Priyanka; Vijayakaran, Karunakaran; Sankar, Palanisamy; Kurade, Nitin Pandurang; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath, E-mail: snsarkar1911@rediffmail.com

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated whether atorvastatin, an extensively prescribed statin for reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases, can reduce the risk of arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation in rats and whether the modulation could be linked to improvement in vascular NO signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91{sup st} day, blood was collected for measuring serum C-reactive protein. Thoracic aorta was isolated for assessing reactivity to phenylephrine, sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine; evaluating eNOS and iNOS mRNA expression and measuring NO production, while abdominal aorta was used for ELISA of cytokines, chemokine and vascular cell adhesion molecules. Histopathology was done in aortic arches. Arsenic did not alter phenylephrine-elicited contraction. Atorvastatin inhibited E{sub max} of phenylephrine, but it augmented the contractile response in aortic rings from arsenic-exposed animals. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was not altered with any treatment. However, arsenic reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and affected aortic eNOS at the levels of mRNA expression, protein concentration, phosphorylation and NO production. Further, it increased aortic iNOS mRNA expression, iNOS-derived NO synthesis, production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, VCAM, sICAM) and serum C-reactive protein and aortic vasculopathic lesions. Atorvastatin attenuated these arsenic-mediated functional, biochemical and structural alterations. Results show that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation by restoring endothelial function with improvement in NO signaling and attenuating production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cell adhesion molecules. - Highlights: • We evaluated if atorvastatin reduce arsenic

  3. Major Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder: A Reappraisal to Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kumral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Major vascular neurocognitive disorder (NCD is the second leading form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for 17-20% of all dementias. Vascular NCD is a progressive disease caused by reduced cerebral blood flow related to multiple large volume or lacunar infarcts that induce a sudden onset and stepwise decline in cognitive abilities. Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, there is still controversy in the terminology of vascular NCD. Only after the release of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5 (2013 did the American Psychiatric Association define vascular dementia as “major vascular NCD”. This review includes an overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, types, diagnostic and clinical features of major vascular NCD, and current treatment options of vascular NCD regarding to DSM-5 criteria

  4. Enhancing brain lesions after endovascular treatment of aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, J P; Marotta, T; O'Kelly, C

    2014-01-01

    present 7 patients from 5 different institutions that developed MR imaging-enhancing brain lesions after endovascular therapy of aneurysms, detected after a median time of 63 days. The number of lesions ranged from 4-46 (median of 10.5), sized 2-20 mm, and were mostly in the same vascular territory used......Complications of endovascular therapy of aneurysms mainly include aneurysm rupture and thromboembolic events. The widespread use of MR imaging for follow-up of these patients revealed various nonvascular complications such as aseptic meningitis, hydrocephalus, and perianeurysmal brain edema. We...

  5. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  7. Vascular Surgery and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of robotics to Vascular surgery has not progressed as rapidly as of endovascular technology, but this is changing with the amalgamation of these two fields. The advent of Endovascular robotics is an exciting field which overcomes many of the limitations of endovascular therapy like vessel tortuosity and operator fatigue. This has much clinical appeal for the surgeon and hold significant promise of better patient outcomes. As with most newer technological advances, it is still limited by cost and availability. However, this field has seen some rapid progress in the last decade with the technology moving into the clinical realm. This review details the development of robotics, applications, outcomes, advantages, disadvantages and current advances focussing on Vascular and Endovascular robotics

  8. [Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Andreozzi, Paola; Chiriac, Iulia Maria; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vulcano, Achiropita; Servello, Adriana; Marigliano, Benedetta; Marigliano, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?Depression is the most common comorbidity in the elderly, and it is a major determinant of disability. The late-onset depression in highly associated to cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptoms may follow vascular brain damage, especially when mood regulating areas are affected. However depression is strongly associated to vascular disease even when there is no manifest brain damage. Recently great attention has been given to chronic inflammation, both related to depression and vascular disease. Both experimental and clinical evidence shows that a rise in the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids in depressed patients is associated with defect in serotonergic function. Chronic inflammation may underlie many forms of depression associated with vascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The importance of the inflammation hypothesis of depression lies is that psychotropic drugs may have central anti-inflammatory action, and that new generation of central anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful in depression treatment.

  9. Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 negatively regulates TNFα-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing ERK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Li, Jinqing; Dong, Xiaoyu; Potts, Jay D.; Tang, Dong-Qi; Li, Dong-Sheng; Cui, Taixing

    2010-01-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) appear to be critical regulators of a multitude of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and inflammation. We have recently demonstrated that a DUB of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) inhibits vascular lesion formation via suppressing inflammatory responses in vasculature. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Herein, we report that a posttranscriptional up-regulation of UCH-L1 provides a negative feedback to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In rat adult VSMCs, adenoviral over-expression of UCH-L1 inhibited TNFα-induced activation of ERK and DNA synthesis. In contrast, over-expression of UCH-L1 did not affect platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation and activation of growth stimulating cascades including ERK. TNFα hardly altered UCH-L1 mRNA expression and stability; however, up-regulated UCH-L1 protein expression via increasing UCH-L1 translation. These results uncover a novel mechanism by which UCH-L1 suppresses vascular inflammation.

  10. Transarterial embolization in head and neck lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1985-01-01

    The transarterial embolization procedures have been performed in a total of 38 patients with head and neck lesions, including 5 carotid-cavernous fistulas, 1 internal carotid aneurysm, 10 meningiomas, 16 nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, 1 post-traumatic epistaxis and 5 other vascular tumors, over the 18 months-period. Six cases of C-C fistula and ICA aneurysm were treated with the detachable balloon catheter technique. The meningiomas, angiofibromas and all other lesions were embolized with superselection of the branches of the external carotid artery such as the internal maxillary, the middle meningeal, the ascending pharyngeal the facial or other branches, using Berenstein superselective catheters or conventional angiographic catheters. The PVA (polyvinyl alcohol foam) and/or Gelfoam particles were used as embolic materials in these cases. Most of the lesions were successfully embolized with minor transient complications such as pain, headache, vomiting, fever and etc. But in 4 cases occurred the serious complications; one cerebral hemorrhage, two cerebral infarctions, and one acute laryngeal edema. The selection of the embolic materials and the catheters, and the complications are briefly discussed

  11. Transarterial embolization in head and neck lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-06-15

    The transarterial embolization procedures have been performed in a total of 38 patients with head and neck lesions, including 5 carotid-cavernous fistulas, 1 internal carotid aneurysm, 10 meningiomas, 16 nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, 1 post-traumatic epistaxis and 5 other vascular tumors, over the 18 months-period. Six cases of C-C fistula and ICA aneurysm were treated with the detachable balloon catheter technique. The meningiomas, angiofibromas and all other lesions were embolized with superselection of the branches of the external carotid artery such as the internal maxillary, the middle meningeal, the ascending pharyngeal the facial or other branches, using Berenstein superselective catheters or conventional angiographic catheters. The PVA (polyvinyl alcohol foam) and/or Gelfoam particles were used as embolic materials in these cases. Most of the lesions were successfully embolized with minor transient complications such as pain, headache, vomiting, fever and etc. But in 4 cases occurred the serious complications; one cerebral hemorrhage, two cerebral infarctions, and one acute laryngeal edema. The selection of the embolic materials and the catheters, and the complications are briefly discussed.

  12. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  13. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  14. Long-term outcome of arterial lesions in Behçet disease: a series of 101 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, David; Asli, Bouchra; Wechsler, Bertrand; Houman, Habib; Geri, Guillaume; Desseaux, Kristel; Piette, Jean-Charles; Huong, Du Le Thi; Amoura, Zahir; Salem, Tara Ben; Cluzel, Philippe; Koskas, Fabien; Resche-Rigon, Mathieu; Cacoub, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The vasculitis of Behçet disease (BD) is distinctive because of involvement of both arteries and veins of all sizes. The concept of vasculo-Behçet disease has been adopted for cases in which vascular manifestations are present and often dominate the clinical features. While venous manifestations are frequent and have been reported in many publications, data regarding arterial lesions in patients with BD are rare and often isolated. In this study, we report the main characteristics, treatment, and long-term outcome of 101 patients with arterial lesions among a cohort of 820 (12.3%) BD patients. Factors that affect prognosis were assessed by multivariate analysis. There were 93 (91.2%) male patients; the median (Q1-Q3) age at diagnosis of BD was 33 (27-41) years. Arterial lesions included aneurysms (47.3%), occlusions (36.5%), stenosis (13.5%), and aortitis (2.7%). Lesions mainly involved the aorta (n = 25) and femoral (n = 23) and pulmonary (n = 21) arteries. Patients with arterial lesions were more frequently male (91.2% vs. 62.4%, respectively; p = 0.017) and had higher rates of venous involvement (80.4% vs. 29.8%, respectively; p < 0.001) compared to patients without arterial manifestations. Thirty-nine (38.6%) patients achieved complete remission. In multivariate analysis, the presence of venous involvement (odds ratio [OR], 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-1.11) and arterial occlusive lesions (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.01-1.25) were negatively associated with complete remission. The use of immunosuppressants (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 0.87-13.23) was associated with the occurrence of complete remission. The 20-year survival rate was significantly lower in BD patients with arterial involvement than in those without arterial lesions (73% vs. 89%, respectively; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the long-term outcome of arterial lesions in BD is poor, especially in the case of occlusive lesions and associated venous involvement. The use of immunosuppressants improved the

  15. A sequential approach in treatment of endo-perio lesion a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambale, Sharanappa; Aspalli, Nagaveni; Munavalli, Anil; Ajgaonkar, Nishant; Babannavar, Roopa

    2014-08-01

    Endo-perio lesions primarily occur by way of the intimate anatomic and vascular connections between the pulp and the periodontium. Endodontic-periodontal combined lesion is a clinical dilemma because making a differential diagnosis and deciding a prognosis are difficult. An untreated primary endodontic lesion may become secondarily involved with periodontal breakdown, which clinically present unusual signs and symptoms. This may delay the diagnosis and hence the correct treatment. This case report describes diagnosis and treatment protocol for an endo-perio lesion of primary endodontic with secondary periodontal involvement.

  16. Clinical presentations and MRI findings of angiographically occult vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takayuki; Oyama, Hirofumi; Iwakoshi, Takayasu

    1994-01-01

    Various clinical features as well as MRI findings of AOVM (angiographically occult vascular malformation) were studied. Amongst out patients, since January 1988, there have been 30 cases of symptomatic AOVM (20 males, 10 females) including 4 cases with multiple lesions. The age ranged from 3 to 60 years of age, with a mean of 33.4 years. The locations of symptomatic lesions were in the cerebral hemisphere (15), the thalamus (4), the brain stem (8) and in the cerebellum (3). The initial presentations of these 30 cases were either by hemorrhage (18), convulsive seizure (9) or by progressive neurological deficits (3). The initial presentation was not related to the patient's age and the size of the lesion, but apparently related to the location of AOVM. Most of the lesions in the cerebral hemisphere presented seizures, but all of the lesions in the thalamus, the brain stem and the cerebellum disclosed hemorrhage as an initial presentation. In fact it was noticed that brain stem lesions tend to cause repetitive hemorrhage in a relatively short period. AOVM lesions were clearly visualized with T2-weighted MRI images, consisting of high intensity cores with surrounding low intensity rims. Most of the symptomatic lesions were partially enhanced by Gd-DTPA with varied intensity. Dynamic changes in size and enhancement pattern on MRI were occasionally seen, usually accompanied with episodes such as hemorrhage or neurological deterioration. Although AOVMs were angiographically negative some strands indicating draining veins were observed on MRI in several cases. In contrast, none of the nonsymptomatic lesions (22 lesions) demonstrated enhancement effects with Gd-DTPA. (author)

  17. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival lesions are frequently seen in the eye clinic, because the conjunctiva is readily ... anti-histamine drops and mast cell stabilisers can be used. e more severe cases have to be .... Ehlers J, Shah C . The Wills Eye Manual. Office and.

  18. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  19. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  20. Automated tracking of the vascular tree on DSA images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperin, N.; Hoffmann, K.R.; Doi, K.

    1990-01-01

    Determination of the vascular tree structure is important for reconstruction of three-dimensional vascular tree from biplane images, for assessment of the significance of a lesion, and for planning treatment for arteriovenous malformation. To automate these analyses, the authors of this paper are developing a method to determine the vascular tree structure from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images. The authors have previously described a vessel tracking method, based on the double-square-box technique. To improve the tracking accuracy, they have developed and integrated with the previous method a connectivity test and guided-sector-search technique. The connectivity test, based on region growing techniques, eliminates tracking across nonvessel regions. The guided sector-search method incorporates information from a larger are of the image to guide the search for the next tracking point

  1. Vascular risk levels affect the predictive value of platelet reactivity for the occurrence of MACE in patients on clopidogrel. Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reny, Jean-Luc; Fontana, Pierre; Hochholzer, Willibald; Neumann, Franz Josef; Ten Berg, Jurriën; Janssen, Paul W; Geisler, Tobias; Gawaz, Meinrad; Marcucci, Rossella; Gori, Anna-Maria; Cuisset, Thomas; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Berdagué, Philippe; Gurbel, Paul A; Yong, Gerald; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Aradi, Dániel; Beigel, Roy; Campo, Gianluca; Combescure, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Prior studies have shown an association between high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (PR) and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). However, large intervention trials on PR-tailored treatments have been neutral. The role and usefulness of PR with regard to levels of cardiovascular risk are unclear. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data on MACE outcomes (acute coronary syndromes (ACS), ischaemic strokes, and vascular deaths) in relation to PR and its interaction with cardiovascular risk levels. PR was determined using ADP-induced light transmission aggregometry with a primary concentration of 20 µM ADP. Thirteen prospective studies totaled 6,478 clopidogrel-treated patients who experienced 421 MACE (6.5 %) during a median follow-up of 12 months. The strength of the association between the risk of MACE and PR increased significantly (p=0.04) with the number of risk factors present (age> 75 years, ACS at inclusion, diabetes, and hypertension). No association was detected in patients with no risk factor (p=0.48). In patients presenting one risk factor, only high-PR was associated with an increased risk of MACE (HR 3.2, p=0.001). In patients presenting ≥ 2 risk factors, the increase of risk started from medium-PR (medium-PR: HR=2.9, p=0.0004; high-PR: HR=3.7, p=0.0003). PR allowed the reclassification of 44 % of the total population to a different risk level for the outcome of MACE, mostly in intermediate or high risk patients. In conclusion, the magnitude of the association between PR and MACE risk is strongly dependent on the level of cardiovascular risk faced by patients on clopidogrel.

  2. Verruco-papillary lesions in relation to human papilloma virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plethora of pathologic conditions may affect the normal morphologic characteristics and intactness of the oral mucosa, presenting as surface alterations.The prevalence of the different types of HPV worldwide has implications for the effectiveness of HPV vaccinations against HPV-induced carcinogenesis. This article discusses HPV related lesions with emphasis on verrucopapillary lesions.

  3. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  4. Maxillomandibular giant osteosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino LEDESMA-MONTES

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs are a group of rarely reported intraosseous lesions. Their precise diagnosis is important since they can be confused with malignant neoplasms. Objective This retrospective study aimed to record and analyze the clinical and radiographic Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs detected in the maxillomandibular area of patients attending to our institution. Materials and Methods: Informed consent from the patients was obtained and those cases of 2.5 cm or larger lesions with radiopaque or mixed (radiolucid-radiopaque appearance located in the maxillofacial bones were selected. Assessed parameters were: age, gender, radiographic aspect, shape, borders, size, location and relations to roots. Lesions were classified as radicular, apical, interradicular, interradicular-apical, radicular-apical or located in a previous teeth extraction area. Additionally, several osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs were assessed. Results Seventeen radiopacities in 14 patients were found and were located almost exclusively in mandible and were two types: idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis. GOLs were more frequent in females, and in the anterior and premolar zones. 94.2% of GOLs were qualified as idiopathic osteosclerosis and one case was condensing osteitis. All studied cases showed different osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs. The most common were: Microdontia, hypodontia, pulp stones, macrodontia and variations in the mental foramina. Conclusions GOLs must be differentiated from other radiopaque benign and malignant tumors. Condensing osteitis, was considered an anomalous osseous response induced by a chronic low-grade inflammatory stimulus. For development of idiopathic osteosclerosis, two possible mechanisms could be related. The first is modification of the normal turnover with excessive osseous deposition. The second mechanism will prevent the normal bone resorption, arresting the

  5. Scintigraphic assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier of human brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Front, D.

    1978-01-01

    Assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier was performed by sequential scintigraphy in 43 patients with brain tumours. The blood-tumour barrier was evaluated by use of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, and vascularity using sup(99m)Tc-labelled red blood cells. Three groups of tumours were found: tumours with low vascularity and permeable barrier, tumours with high vascularity and permeable barrier, and tumours with low vascularity and relatively impermeable barrier. The first group indicates that when vessels are permeable, there may be a rapid penetration of large amounts of pertechnetate into the tumour even when vascularity is not increased. In the other two groups penetration of pertechnetate into the tumour is affected by vascularity, as it determines the total area where passage of the radiopharmaceutical takes place. It is suggested that the permeability of the blood-tumour barrier and the amount of vascularity may have an effect on the success of chemotherapy in brain tumours. (author)

  6. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yun Ma

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification.

  7. Convergence Analysis of Micro-Lesions (CAML: An approach to mapping of diffuse lesions from carotid revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson C. Rosen

    Full Text Available Carotid revascularization (endarterectomy, stenting prevents stroke; however, procedure-related embolization is common and results in small brain lesions easily identified by diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI. A crucial barrier to understanding the clinical significance of these lesions has been the lack of a statistical approach to identify vulnerable brain areas. The problem is that the lesions are small, numerous, and non-overlapping. Here we address this problem with a new method, the Convergence Analysis of Micro-Lesions (CAML technique, an extension of the Anatomic Likelihood Analysis (ALE. The method combines manual lesion tracing, constraints based on known lesion patterns, and convergence analysis to represent regions vulnerable to lesions as probabilistic brain atlases. Two studies were conducted over the course of 12 years in an active, vascular surgery clinic. An analysis in an initial group of 126 patients at 1.5 T MRI was cross-validated in a second group of 80 patients at 3T MRI. In CAML, lesions were manually defined and center points identified. Brains were aligned according to side of surgery since this factor powerfully determines lesion distribution. A convergence based analysis, was performed on each of these groups. Results indicated the most consistent region of vulnerability was in motor and premotor cortex regions. Smaller regions common to both groups included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial parietal regions. Vulnerability of motor cortex is consistent with previous work showing changes in hand dexterity associated with these procedures. The consistency of CAML also demonstrates the feasibility of this new approach to characterize small, diffuse, non-overlapping lesions in patients with multifocal pathologies. Keywords: Embolization, DWI, ALE

  8. Location of Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions of the Capitellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christine C; Roberts, Susanne; Mintz, Douglas; Fabricant, Peter D; Hotchkiss, Robert N; Daluiski, Aaron

    2018-04-17

    The location of capitellar osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions in the sagittal plane guides the surgical approach, and lesion location in the coronal plane influences surgical management. Although most lesions have been reported to occur between 4 o'clock and 4:30 (120° to 135° anterior to the humerus), some lesions are located elsewhere in the capitellum. The primary aim was to define the region of the capitellum affected by OCD lesions using a novel clock-face localization system. We reviewed 104 magnetic resonance imaging examinations diagnosing a nontraumatic capitellar OCD lesion. In the sagittal plane, lesion margins were recorded as degrees on the capitellum and converted into a clock-face format in which 0° corresponds to 12:00 with the forearm facing to the right. The 0° axis (12-o'clock axis) was defined as a line parallel to the anterior humeral line that intersects the capitellum center. The following coronal measurements were recorded: lesion width, capitellar width, and distance between the lateral capitellum and lateral lesion. Two independent observers took measurements. In the sagittal plane, average lesion location was 92° to 150° (3:04-5:00, clock face) and ranged from 52.1° to 249.5° (1:44-8:19, clock face). Average lesion dimensions were 10.7 mm (mediolateral width) and 5.2 mm (anteroposterior depth). Interrater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98). Using a magnetic resonance imaging-based clock-face localization system, we found that capitellar OCD lesions affect a broad region of the capitellum in the sagittal plane. The clock-face localization system allows for precise description of capitellar OCD lesion location, which may facilitate intraoperative decision and longitudinal monitoring. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. White matter lesions in watershed territories studied with MRI and parenchymography: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkner, K; Lovblad, K.O.; Yilmaz, H; Alimenti, A.; Delavelle, J; Ruefenacht, D.A. [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Sekoranja, L; Sztajzel, R [University Hospital of Geneva, Clinic of Neurology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2005-06-01

    Brain aging affects an increasing segment of the population and the role of chronic cerebrovascular disease is considered to be one of the main parameters involved. For this purpose we compared retrospectively MRI data with digitized subtraction angiography (DSA) data in a group of 50 patients focusing onto the watershed area of the carotid artery vascular territories. In order to evaluate the presence of white matter lesions (WML) in the hemispheric watershed areas, coronal fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery or axial T2 weighted MRI images of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular insufficiency areas were compared with the capillary phase of DSA studies in anterior-posterior projection. Presence of cerebrovascular occlusive disease was evaluated on DSA using North American symptomatic carotid endarterectomy trial criteria and including evaluation of collateral vascular supply. Pathological MRI findings in the region of the watershed territories correlated overall in 66% of cases with a defect or delayed filling on DSA. In the case of asymmetrical MRI findings, there was a pathological finding of the capillary phase in the watershed area in 92% of DSA studies. Hypoperfusion in the capillary phase of the watershed area as seen on DSA correlated with the stenosis degree of the concerned carotid artery. Our findings suggest that asymmetrical findings of WML in the watershed areas as seen on MRI are caused by hemodynamic effect and a differentiation between small vessel disease and a consequence of distant stenosis may be possible under such conditions. (orig.)

  10. Radiography of osseous lesions of the bovine locomotor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blond, L.; Beauregard, G.; Mulon, P.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography is the ancillary test of choice for lameness in cattle. Osseous lesions due to osteoporosis, osteitis or osteomyelitis and sequestrae can be visualised. Radiography is the only ancillary examination that provides a thorough investigation of the lesion affecting a bovine presented with a non-weight bearing suspected fracture and limb inflammation associated with soft tissue crepitation. Radiography is the only method to ensure that the fracture is not open. It facilitates follow-up of healing of osseous lesions. The period of time required for immobilisation can be adjusted depending on the type of lesions [it

  11. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities and 4D MR angiograms for the estimation of collateral blood flow in anterior cerebral artery ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Gawlitza

    Full Text Available To assess FLAIR vascular hyperintensities (FVH and dynamic (4D angiograms derived from perfusion raw data as proposed magnetic resonance (MR imaging markers of leptomeningeal collateral circulation in patients with ischemia in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA.Forty patients from two tertiary care university hospitals were included. Infarct volumes and perfusion deficits were manually measured on DWI images and TTP maps, respectively. FVH and collateral flow on 4D MR angiograms were assessed and graded as previously specified.Forty-one hemispheres were affected. Mean DWI lesion volume was 8.2 (± 13.9; range 0-76.9 ml, mean TTP lesion volume was 24.5 (± 17.2, range 0-76.7 ml. FVH were observed in 26/41 (63.4% hemispheres. Significant correlations were detected between FVH and TTP lesion volume (ρ = 0.4; P<0.01 absolute (ρ = 0.37; P<0.05 and relative mismatch volume (ρ = 0.35; P<0.05. The modified ASITN/SIR score correlated inversely with DWI lesion volume (ρ = -0.58; P<0.01 and positively with relative mismatch (ρ = 0.29; P< 0.05. ANOVA of the ASITN/SIR score revealed significant inter-group differences for DWI (P<0.001 and TTP lesion volumes (P<0.05. No correlation was observed between FVH scores and modified ASITH/SIR scores (ρ = -0.16; P = 0.32.FVH and flow patterns on 4D MR angiograms are markers of perfusion deficits and tissue at risk. As both methods did not show a correlation between each other, they seem to provide complimentary instead of redundant information. Previously shown evidence for the meaning of these specific MR signs in internal carotid and middle cerebral artery stroke seems to be transferrable to ischemic stroke in the ACA territory.

  12. Vascular remodeling and mineralocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K T; Sun, Y; Campbell, S E; Slight, S H; Ganjam, V K

    1995-01-01

    Circulating mineralocorticoid hormones are so named because of their important homeostatic properties that regulate salt and water balance via their action on epithelial cells. A broader range of functions in nonclassic target cellular sites has been proposed for these steroids and includes their contribution to wound healing following injury. A chronic, inappropriate (relative to intravascular volume and dietary sodium intake) elevation of these circulating hormones evokes a wound healing response in the absence of tissue injury--a wound healing response gone awry. The adverse remodeling of vascularized tissues seen in association with chronic mineralocorticoid excess is the focus of this review.

  13. Bilateral lesions of suprachiasmatic nuclei affect circadian rhythms in [3H]-thymidine incorporation into deoxyribonucleic acid in mouse intestinal tract, mitotic index of corneal epithelium, and serum corticosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheving, L.E.; Tsai, T.H.; Powell, E.W.; Pasley, J.N.; Halberg, F.; Dunn, J.

    1983-01-01

    Investigations into the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the coordination of circadian rhythms have presented differing results. Several reports have shown that ablation of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNA) alters the phase and amplitude of rhythms but does not abolish them. The present study investigates the effect of SCNA on the rhythms in cell proliferation in various regions of the intestinal tract as measured by the incorporation of [ 3 H]-thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid, in the mitotic activity of the corneal epithelium, and in serum corticosterone levels. The study involved mice with verified lesions of the SCN (six to 13 mice per time point) and control groups of both sham-operated and unoperated mice (seven of each per time point). The mice were killed in groups that represented seven time points over a single 24 hr span (3 hr intervals with the 0800 hr sampled both at start and end of the series). The tissues examined were the tongue, esophagus, gastric stomach, and colon for DNA synthesis, the corneal epithelium for mitotic index, and blood serum for corticosterone level. The most consistent result of SCNA was a phase advance in the rhythms in cell proliferation in the tongue, esophagus, gastric stomach, colon, and corneal epithelium. A reduction in rhythm amplitude occurred in the tongue, esophagus, and corneal epithelium; however, there was an amplitude increase for the stomach, colon, and serum corticosterone. The mesor (rhythm-adjusted mean) was increased by SCNA in all tissues except the corneal epithelium. These findings further support the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclear area in the control of rhythms in cell proliferation and corticosterone production, by acting as a ''phase-resetter'' and as a modulator of rhythm amplitude

  14. High-Flow Vascular Malformation in the Sigmoid Mesentery Successfully Treated with a Combination of Transarterial and Transvenous Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamo, Minobu, E-mail: kamomino@luke.ac.jp; Yagihashi, Kunihiro [St. Luke’s International Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Okamoto, Takeshi; Nakamura, Kenji; Fujita, Yoshiyuki [St. Luke’s International Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology (Japan); Kurihara, Yasuyuki [St. Luke’s International Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Mesenteric high-flow vascular malformation can cause various clinical symptoms and demand specific therapeutic interventions owing to its peculiar hemodynamics. We report a case of high-flow vascular malformation in the sigmoid mesentery which presented with ischemic colitis. The main trunk of the inferior mesenteric vein was occluded. After partially effective transarterial embolization, transvenous embolization was performed using a microballoon catheter advanced to the venous component of the lesion via the marginal vein. Complete occlusion of the lesion was achieved. Combination of transarterial and transvenous embolization may allow us to apply endovascular treatment to a wider variety of high-flow lesions in the area and possibly avoid the bowel resection.

  15. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Angiomatous lesion and delayed cyst formation after gamma knife surgery for intracranial meningioma: case report and review of literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; He, Min; Chen, Hongxu; Liu, Yi; Li, Qiang; Li, Lin; Li, Jin; Chen, Haifeng; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Gamma Knife has become a major therapeutic method for intracranial meningiomas, vascular malformations and schwannomas with exact effect. In recent years an increasing number of delayed complications after Gamma Knife surgery have been reported, such as secondary tumors, cystic changes or cyst formation. But angiomatous lesion and delayed cyst formation after Gamma Knife for intracranial lesion has rarely been reported. Here we report the first case of angiomatous lesion and delayed cyst formation following Gamma Knife for intracranial meningioma and discuss its pathogenesis.

  17. Colposcopy in pre-malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma: Linking threads of clinical, histopathological and colposcopic inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naphade Ujwala

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the degree of abnormality in colposcopic findings can be predicted by the vascular patterns of the lesion, the major advantage of colposcopy is to outline the most suspicious lesion for histologic diagnosis by directed biopsy, which is the mainstay in establishing the correct diagnosis. Colposcopy is valuable in the detection of early cancerous lesions. However the final diagnosis must rely on a meticulous histopathological examination by an expert pathologist.

  18. Vascular damage after acute local irradiation: a light and electron microscope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verola, O.; Brocheriou, C.

    1986-01-01

    A pig model was used to examine histological and ultrastructural changes after high-dose local irradiation. This model was chosen to simulate accidents which have occurred in man, enabling the determination of several post-irradiation phases. After an initial phase, with superficial lesions, ischaemic necrosis occurred 3 weeks after irradiation as the result of early vascular alterations. After 2 months, expanding necrosis became obvious in the deep muscle, preceded by an initial spread of vascular lesions: these alterations were obvious from the 30th day by light microscopy but could be detected by electron microscopy from the 9th day. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Focal Steatosis and Focal Spared Lesion of the Liver Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography with Sonazoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, K.; Watanabe, M.; Ikehara, T.; Kogame, M.; Shinohara, M.; Shinohara, M.; Ishii, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Sumino, Y.; Shiozawa, K.; Makino, H.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to investigate the hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesion of the liver using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid. The subjects were 47 patients with focal steatosis and focal spared lesion. We evaluated enhancement patterns (hyper enhancement, iso enhancement, and hypo enhancement) in the vascular phase and the presence or absence of a hypoechoic area in the post vascular phase for these lesions using CEUS. Of the 24 patients with focal steatosis, the enhancement pattern was iso enhancement in 19 and hypo enhancement in 5. Hypoechoic areas were noted in the post vascular phase in 3 patients. Of the 23 patients with focal spared lesions, the enhancement pattern was iso enhancement in 18 and hyper enhancement in 5. No hypoechoic areas were noted in the post vascular phase in any patient. The hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesions in non diffuse fatty liver can be observed using low-invasive procedures in real-time by CEUS. It was suggested that differences in the dynamics of enhancement in the vascular phase of CEUS were influenced by the fat deposits in the target lesion, the surrounding liver parenchyma, and the third inflow.

  20. Endothelial chimerism and vascular sequestration protect pancreatic islet grafts from antibody-mediated rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chia; Pouliquen, Eric; Broisat, Alexis; Andreata, Francesco; Racapé, Maud; Bruneval, Patrick; Kessler, Laurence; Ahmadi, Mitra; Bacot, Sandrine; Saison-Delaplace, Carole; Marcaud, Marina; Van Huyen, Jean-Paul Duong; Loupy, Alexandre; Villard, Jean; Demuylder-Mischler, Sandrine; Morelon, Emmanuel; Tsai, Meng-Kun; Kolopp-Sarda, Marie-Nathalie; Koenig, Alice; Mathias, Virginie; Ghezzi, Catherine; Dubois, Valerie; Defrance, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Humoral rejection is the most common cause of solid organ transplant failure. Here, we evaluated a cohort of 49 patients who were successfully grafted with allogenic islets and determined that the appearance of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) did not accelerate the rate of islet graft attrition, suggesting resistance to humoral rejection. Murine DSAs bound to allogeneic targets expressed by islet cells and induced their destruction in vitro; however, passive transfer of the same DSAs did not affect islet graft survival in murine models. Live imaging revealed that DSAs were sequestrated in the circulation of the recipients and failed to reach the endocrine cells of grafted islets. We used murine heart transplantation models to confirm that endothelial cells were the only accessible targets for DSAs, which induced the development of typical microvascular lesions in allogeneic transplants. In contrast, the vasculature of DSA-exposed allogeneic islet grafts was devoid of lesions because sprouting of recipient capillaries reestablished blood flow in grafted islets. Thus, we conclude that endothelial chimerism combined with vascular sequestration of DSAs protects islet grafts from humoral rejection. The reduced immunoglobulin concentrations in the interstitial tissue, confirmed in patients, may have important implications for biotherapies such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. PMID:29202467

  1. Characterizing stroke lesions using digital templates and lesion quantification tools in a web-based imaging informatics system for a large-scale stroke rehabilitation clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximing; Edwardson, Matthew; Dromerick, Alexander; Winstein, Carolee; Wang, Jing; Liu, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we presented an Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) imaging informatics system that supports a large-scale phase III stroke rehabilitation trial. The ePR system is capable of displaying anonymized patient imaging studies and reports, and the system is accessible to multiple clinical trial sites and users across the United States via the web. However, the prior multicenter stroke rehabilitation trials lack any significant neuroimaging analysis infrastructure. In stroke related clinical trials, identification of the stroke lesion characteristics can be meaningful as recent research shows that lesion characteristics are related to stroke scale and functional recovery after stroke. To facilitate the stroke clinical trials, we hope to gain insight into specific lesion characteristics, such as vascular territory, for patients enrolled into large stroke rehabilitation trials. To enhance the system's capability for data analysis and data reporting, we have integrated new features with the system: a digital brain template display, a lesion quantification tool and a digital case report form. The digital brain templates are compiled from published vascular territory templates at each of 5 angles of incidence. These templates were updated to include territories in the brainstem using a vascular territory atlas and the Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualization (MIPAV) tool. The digital templates are displayed for side-by-side comparisons and transparent template overlay onto patients' images in the image viewer. The lesion quantification tool quantifies planimetric lesion area from user-defined contour. The digital case report form stores user input into a database, then displays contents in the interface to allow for reviewing, editing, and new inputs. In sum, the newly integrated system features provide the user with readily-accessible web-based tools to identify the vascular territory involved, estimate lesion area

  2. [Thrombosis in vascular accesses for haemodialysis: rescue treatment using invasive vascular radiological techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Medina, J; Lacasa Pérez, N; Muray Cases, S; Pérez Garrido, I; García Medina, V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to communicate our experience in the salvage of thrombosed haemodialysis vascular accesses using interventional radiology techniques. In the last four years, we have treated, by radiological means, 101 thrombosed haemodialysis vascular accesses. There were 44 autologous arteriovenous fistulas (43.56%) and 57 PTFE grafts (56.44%). There were 69 men (68.3%) and 32 women (31.7%). The mean age was 67.73 years (range 33-84). The mean vascular access age was 23.79 months (range 1-132). Manual catheter-directed aspiration was used. Fragmented, triturated or pushed the thrombus against the pulmonary circulation was avoided in all cases. 78 accesses were salvaged (77.2%). Autologous fistulas average and PTFE grafts success rate were 84.44% and 71.42% respectively. Angioplasty in one or more lesions after thromboaspiration was performed in all accesses, except six (5.9%). Metallic endoprostheses were implanted in 14 accesses (13.9%). Mean follow-up was 9 months (range 0-44). Primary patency was 42.3% +/- 5 at 6 months and 32% +/- 4 at one year. Autologous fistulas patency was better than PTFE grafts patency (p better than PTFE grafts. This justifies interventional radiology techniques in these situations.

  3. Iliopsoas compartment lesions: a radiologic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Demarchi, Guilherme Tadeu Sauaia; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Novack, Paulo Rogerio; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The iliopsoas compartment, a posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum, is comprised of the psoas major, psoas minor and iliac muscles. The symptoms picture in patients presenting with pathological involvement of this compartment may show a wide range of nonspecific clinical presentations that may lead to delayed diagnosis. However, in the search of an etiological diagnosis, it is already known that inflammation, tumors, and hemorrhages account for almost all the lesions affecting the iliopsoas compartment. By means of a retrospective analysis of radiological studies in patients with iliopsoas compartment lesions whose diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological evaluation or clinical follow-up, we have reviewed its anatomy as well as the main forms of involvement, with the purpose of identifying radiological signs that may help to narrow down the potential differential diagnoses. As each lesion is approached we will discuss the main radiological findings such as presence of gas in pyogenic abscesses, bone destruction and other bone changes of vertebral bodies in lesions secondary to tuberculosis, involvement of fascial planes in cases of neoplasms, and differences in signal density and intensity of hematomas secondary to hemoglobin degradation, among others. So, we have tried to present cases depicting the most frequent lesions involving the iliopsoas compartment, with emphasis on those signs that can lead us to a more specific etiological diagnosis. (author)

  4. Iliopsoas compartment lesions: a radiologic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Demarchi, Guilherme Tadeu Sauaia; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Novack, Paulo Rogerio; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: ar.leao@uol.com.br; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    The iliopsoas compartment, a posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum, is comprised of the psoas major, psoas minor and iliac muscles. The symptoms picture in patients presenting with pathological involvement of this compartment may show a wide range of nonspecific clinical presentations that may lead to delayed diagnosis. However, in the search of an etiological diagnosis, it is already known that inflammation, tumors, and hemorrhages account for almost all the lesions affecting the iliopsoas compartment. By means of a retrospective analysis of radiological studies in patients with iliopsoas compartment lesions whose diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological evaluation or clinical follow-up, we have reviewed its anatomy as well as the main forms of involvement, with the purpose of identifying radiological signs that may help to narrow down the potential differential diagnoses. As each lesion is approached we will discuss the main radiological findings such as presence of gas in pyogenic abscesses, bone destruction and other bone changes of vertebral bodies in lesions secondary to tuberculosis, involvement of fascial planes in cases of neoplasms, and differences in signal density and intensity of hematomas secondary to hemoglobin degradation, among others. So, we have tried to present cases depicting the most frequent lesions involving the iliopsoas compartment, with emphasis on those signs that can lead us to a more specific etiological diagnosis. (author)

  5. Interventional vascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, H.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The papers published during this past year in the area of interventional vascular radiology presented some useful modifications and further experiences both in the area of thromboembolic therapy and in dilation and thrombolysis, but no new techniques. As an introductory subject, an excellent monograph reviewing the current spectrum of pharmacoangiography was presented in Radiographics. Although the presented material is primarily in diagnostic application of various pharmacologic agents used today to facilitate demonstration of certain diagnostic criteria of various disease processes, both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive reaction to these agents are widely used in various therapeutic vascular procedures. This monograph should be reviewed by every angiographer whether or not he or she performs interventional procedures, and it would be very convenient to have this table available in the angiography suite. In a related subject, Bookstein and co-workers have written an excellent review concerning pharmacologic manipulations of various blood coagulative parameters during angiography. Understanding the proper method of manipulation of the bloodclotting factors during angiography, and especially during interventional angiography, is extremely important. Particularly, the method of manipulating the coagulation with the use of heparin and protamine and modification of the platelet activity by using aspirin and dipyridamole are succinctly reviewed. The systemic and selective thrombolytic activities of streptokianse are also discussed

  6. Pulmonary arterial lesions in explanted lungs after transplantation correlate with severity of pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Jørn; Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Boesgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vascular findings are largely unreported in end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Pulmonary vascular lesions in explanted lungs from 70 patients with COPD/emphysema or α-1-antitrypsin deficiency were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were stratified...... of pulmonary vascular lesions in COPD correlate with the severity of PH. Morphologic lesions similar to those characteristic of IPAH can be observed as PH in COPD progresses to levels characteristic of IPAH....... by the presence and severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) assessed by right-heart catheterization in 3 hemodynamically distinct groups: (1) non-PH (mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP]50 mm Hg; median HE Grade 4 (range 3-6), with generalized arterial dilatation and plexiform lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The extent...

  7. Vascular pattern formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpella, Enrico; Helariutta, Ykä

    2010-01-01

    Reticulate tissue systems exist in most multicellular organisms, and the principles underlying the formation of cellular networks have fascinated philosophers, mathematicians, and biologists for centuries. In particular, the beautiful and varied arrangements of vascular tissues in plants have intrigued mankind since antiquity, yet the organizing signals have remained elusive. Plant vascular tissues form systems of interconnected cell files throughout the plant body. Vascular cells are aligned with one another along continuous lines, and vascular tissues differentiate at reproducible positions within organ environments. However, neither the precise path of vascular differentiation nor the exact geometry of vascular networks is fixed or immutable. Several recent advances converge to reconcile the seemingly conflicting predictability and plasticity of vascular tissue patterns. A control mechanism in which an apical-basal flow of signal establishes a basic coordinate system for body axis formation and vascular strand differentiation, and in which a superimposed level of radial organizing cues elaborates cell patterns, would generate a reproducible tissue configuration in the context of an underlying robust, self-organizing structure, and account for the simultaneous regularity and flexibility of vascular tissue patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oncogenic osteomalacia: a clinicopathologic study of 17 bone lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. K.; Unni, K. K.; Beabout, J. W.; Hodgson, S. F.

    1994-01-01

    Oncogenic osteomalacia is an unusual and rare clinicopathologic syndrome characterized by mesenchymal tumors that apparently produce osteomalacia and biochemical abnormalities consisting of hypophosphatemia, normocalcemia, and increased levels of alkaline phosphatase. We collected from the Mayo Clinic files and from our consultation files the records for 17 cases of osteomalacia associated with bone lesions. There were five cases of fibrous dysplasia, three of hemangiopericytoma, and two of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. There was one case each of osteosarcoma, chondroblastoma, chondromyxoid fibroma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, giant cell tumor, metaphyseal fibrous defect, and hemangioma. In this study we can figure out that the most common characteristic histologic features of our cases were hemangiopericytomatous vascular proliferation, fine lace-like stromal calcification, and stromal giant cells. In most of the cases, the clinical and biochemical symptoms and signs resolved soon after complete resection of the lesion. When the lesion recurred or metastasized, the symptoms and signs also recurred. PMID:7848576

  9. Localization of lesions in aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Kei; Watanabe, Shunzo; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirobumi.

    1984-01-01

    Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions, as demonstrated by computed tomography for 127 cases with various types of aphasia were superimposed onto standardized marices. The relationship between the foci of the lesions and the types of aphasia was investigated. Broca aphasics (n=39) : Since the accumulated site of the lesions highly involved the deep structures of the lower part of the precentral gyrus as well as the insula and lenticular nucleus, only 60% of the Broca aphasics had lesions on these areas. This finding has proved to have little localizing value. Wernicke aphasics (n=23) : The size of the lesion was significantly smaller than Broca's aphasia. At least 70% of the patients had the superior temporal lesions involving Wernicke's area and subcortical lesions of the superior and middle temporal gyri. Amnestic aphasics (n=18) : The size of the lesion was smaller than any other types. While there was some concentration of the lesions (maximum 40%) in the area of the subcortical region of the anterior temporal gyrus adjacent to Wernicke's area and the lenticular nucleus, the lesions were distributed throughout the left hemisphere. Amnestic aphasia was thought to be the least localizable. Conduction aphasics (n=11) : The lesions were relatively small in size. Many patients had posterior speech area lesions involving at least partially Wernicke's area. In particular, more than 80% of the conduction aphasics had lesions of the supramarginal gyrus and it's adjacent deep structures. Global aphasics (n=36) : In general, the size of the lesion was very large and 70% of the global aphasics had extensive lesions involving both Broca's and Wernicke's areas. However, there were observations showing that the lesions can be small and confined. (J.P.N.)

  10. Radiological findings and interventions for iatrogenic vascular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Ho; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Sang Wook; Lee, Jong Seog; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jong Hyo; Han, Man Chung

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiological findings and effectiveness of radiological interventions in patients with iatrogenic vascular injuries. We analyzed 50 patients with iatrogenic vascular injuries treated with radiological intervention. The causes of injuries were surgery (n=20), cardiovascular intervention (n=15), non-cardiovascular radiological intervention (n=14), and endoscopic intervention (n=1). The injury had resulted in hemorrhage in 35 cases. The iliac and/or femoral, hepatic, and renal vessels were commonly injured. Angiography, ultrasonography with Doppler examination, CT, and CT angiography were performed to diagnose vascular injuries and guide the radiological intervention. The mean follow-up period was 23 months and in 16 cases was more than one year. the major radiological findings were extravasation, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous shunt, or vascular obstruction. To control these lesions, radiological interventions such as embolization (n=36), local urokinase administration, stent insertion, foreign body removal, ultrasonography-guided compression, or stent-graft insertion were performed. The clinical problems were immediately controlled by the single trials of radiological interventions and did not recur in 40 cases (80%). Radiological examinations and interventions are useful in cases with iatrogenic vascular injuries. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs

  11. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  12. Vascular hemichorea: case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Martínez Alfonzo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chorea rarely complicates ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral vascular lesions. Clinical symptoms usually involve one side of the body while the injury is situated on the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Spontaneous remission is the norm, but sometimes symptomatic treatment is required. A 58-year-old male patient who suffers from untreated high blood pressure, type II obesity, smokes 6 packs of cigarettes per year and has a moderate intake of alcohol is presented. The patient’s recent history began three days before he appeared at the Emergency Department. His symptoms were ceaseless, involuntary movements in his left arm and foot during day and night with no restriction of voluntary movements. Physical examination and laboratory tests revealed no other findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hyperintensity in the right posterolateral thalamic region consistent with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Symptomatic therapy was indicated and his underlying conditions were addressed. The importance of this case lies on the low prevalence as well as the scarcity of publications regarding vascular causes of hemichorea, including diagnosis, therapy and prognosis.

  13. Late vascular effects in irradiated mice brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Maki, Yutaka; Phillips, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The whole brains of mice were irradiated with 250 kVp X-ray at 120 rad min -1 (1.6 mm Cu HVL, TSD 50 cm) and a histological study was done. The dose range of X-irradiation was from 1300 to 2500 rads. i.e., 1300, 1500, 1750, 2000, and 2500 rads. In the microscopic examination, the mice were killed at the regular postirradiation intervals of between 15 and 20, 31 and 40, 41 and 50, 51 and 60, 61 and 70, 71 and 80, 81 and 90, 139 and 177 weeks. A histological examination was performed by a morphometric estimation of vascular lesion in which the degree of the damage to the arterial system was scored through whole serial brain sections. Necrosis (encephalomalacia), atrophy, cell infiltration, and telangiectatic vascular change of the brain, caused as a result of the fibrinoid necrosis of the large artery were observed. Incidence of the fibrinoid necrosis increased dose dependently between 41 and 87 weeks after irradiation. Mean score of fibrinoid necrosis increased dose dependently approximately 60 weeks after irradiation. It is suggested that scores of large vessel damage do relate to dose at 41 - 87 weeks and can be used to quantify the vessel injury and a fibrinoid necrosis of the large vessels may relate to the incidence of radionecrosis. (author)

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  15. T cells in vascular inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L Lintermans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the human vasculature is a manifestation of many different diseases ranging from systemic autoimmune diseases to chronic inflammatory diseases, in which multiple types of immune cells are involved. For both autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases several observations support a key role for T lymphocytes in these disease pathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous studies in several autoimmune diseases have demonstrated a significant role for a specific subset of CD4+ T cells termed effector memory T cells. This expanded population of effector memory T cells may contribute to tissue injury and disease progression. These cells exert multiple pro-inflammatory functions through the release of effector cytokines. Many of these cytokines have been detected in the inflammatory lesions and participate in the vasculitic reaction, contributing to recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, NK cells, B cells and T cells. In addition, functional impairment of regulatory T cells paralyzes anti-inflammatory effects in vasculitic disorders. Interestingly, activation of effector memory T cells in uniquely dependent on the voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channel providing an anchor for specific drug targeting. In this review, we focus on the CD4+ T cells in the context of vascular inflammation and describe the evidence supporting the role of different T cell subsets in vascular inflammation. Selective targeting of pathogenic effector memory T cells might enable a more tailored therapeutic approach that avoids unwanted adverse side effects of generalized immunosuppression by modulating the effector functions of T cell responses to inhibit the development of vascular inflammation.

  16. A pediatric patient with refractory seizures and a mesial temporal lobe lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa eMcGinley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 12 year old adolescent presented with refractory seizures and was found to have a mesial temporal lobe lesion. The patient underwent biopsy and was diagnosed with an arteriorvenous malformation. Supratentorial lesions in the pediatric population can have a large variety of underlying etiologies and it can challenging to differentiate on neuroimaging. In this report we discuss the key features on MRI of several neoplastic, vascular, and infectious processes that can aide in the diagnosis.

  17. Dynamic MR imaging of liver lesions with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SH-U-555A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Jiro; Ito, Naoki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko; Kotake, Fumio

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic MRI with SH-U-555 (SPIO) was evaluated. Dynamic MRI was performed for 17 patients with 22 lesions. Dynamic study with T2 * -weighted imaging (T2 * dynamic) and T1-weighted imaging (T1 dynamic) were performed in 8 cases (10 lesions) and 9 cases (12 lesion), respectively. T2 * dynamic MR images were obtained before and 30, 90, 180, 270, 360, and 450 seconds and 31 minutes after the intravenous injection of SPIO, and T1 dynamic MR images were obtained before and 0, 40, 80, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, 480 seconds and 28 minutes after the injection of SPIO. The signal intensity of each lesion was measured before and after the injection of SPIO. The enhancement ratio of the lesions was calculated and evaluated. The enhancement ratio of hypervascular lesions decreased rapidly in the first phase of T2 * dynamic MRI, while that of hypovascular lesions decreased gradually. The enhancement ratio of hypervascular lesions increased in the first phase of T1 dynamic MRI and decreased gradually, while that of hypovascular lesions lacked the increase in the first phase, in contrast to hypervascular lesions. However, the changing of signal intensity could not be recognized on images with T2 * dynamic and T1 dynamic study. In conclusion, quantitative analysis using the enhancement ratio made it possible to anticipate lesion vascularity. (author)

  18. MRI of paraventricular white matter lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis by diffusion-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Ohashi Hospital); Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko

    1994-09-01

    Magnetic resonance images in some cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed abnormal signals in both the paraventriculer white matter and in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule. We examined T[sub 2]- and diffusion-weighted MR images of these lesions in 18 cases of ALS. There were symmetrical high-signal areas in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule in all of the cases. The high-signal areas in the internal capsule corresponded to the pyramidal tracts in the anatomical atlas by Talairach. In 5 of the cases of ALS, T[sub 2]-weighted MR images showed discrete paraventricular white matter lesions as well. The mean age of the ALS patients with paraventricular white matter lesions was higher than that of the ALS patients without such lesions. Proton densities calculated from the conventional MR images were higher in both the capsular and paraventricular lesions. The diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the pyramidal tract in the internal capsular lesions were within the normal range, where as the diffusion coefficients in the paraventricular lesions were increased in all directions. Thus, diffusion anisotropy was lost in the paraventricular lesions. These findings are similar to those observed in the white matter lesions of cerebro-vascular origin. As a result, the pathology of the paraventricular lesions in ALS was confirmed to be different from that of the internal capsular lesions. (author).

  19. MRI of paraventricular white matter lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis by diffusion-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao; Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images in some cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed abnormal signals in both the paraventriculer white matter and in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule. We examined T 2 - and diffusion-weighted MR images of these lesions in 18 cases of ALS. There were symmetrical high-signal areas in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule in all of the cases. The high-signal areas in the internal capsule corresponded to the pyramidal tracts in the anatomical atlas by Talairach. In 5 of the cases of ALS, T 2 -weighted MR images showed discrete paraventricular white matter lesions as well. The mean age of the ALS patients with paraventricular white matter lesions was higher than that of the ALS patients without such lesions. Proton densities calculated from the conventional MR images were higher in both the capsular and paraventricular lesions. The diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the pyramidal tract in the internal capsular lesions were within the normal range, where as the diffusion coefficients in the paraventricular lesions were increased in all directions. Thus, diffusion anisotropy was lost in the paraventricular lesions. These findings are similar to those observed in the white matter lesions of cerebro-vascular origin. As a result, the pathology of the paraventricular lesions in ALS was confirmed to be different from that of the internal capsular lesions. (author)

  20. A pro-inflammatory role of deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis (CYLD) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Lv, Jiaju; Han, Liping; Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Wang, Wenjuan; Li, Siying; Wang, Xing Li; Tang, Dongqi; Cui, Taixing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cyld deficiency suppresses pro-inflammatory phenotypic switch of VSMCs. ► Cyld deficiency inhibits MAPK rather than NF-kB activity in inflamed VSMCs. ► CYLD is up-regulated in the coronary artery with neointimal hyperplasia. -- Abstract: CYLD, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), is a critical regulator of diverse cellular processes, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to inflammatory responses, via regulating multiple key signaling cascades such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. CYLD has been shown to inhibit vascular lesion formation presumably through suppressing NF-κB activity in vascular cells. However, herein we report a novel role of CYLD in mediating pro-inflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via a mechanism independent of NF-κB activity. Adenoviral knockdown of Cyld inhibited basal and the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (Icam-1) and interleukin-6 (Il-6) in rat adult aortic SMCs (RASMCs). The CYLD deficiency led to increases in the basal NF-κB transcriptional activity in RASMCs; however, did not affect the TNFα-induced NF-κB activity. Intriguingly, the TNFα-induced IκB phosphorylation was enhanced in the CYLD deficient RASMCs. While knocking down of Cyld decreased slightly the basal expression levels of IκBα and IκBβ proteins, it did not alter the kinetics of TNFα-induced IκB protein degradation in RASMCs. These results indicate that CYLD suppresses the basal NF-κB activity and TNFα-induced IκB kinase activation without affecting TNFα-induced NF-κB activity in VSMCs. In addition, knocking down of Cyld suppressed TNFα-induced activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-activated kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in RASMCs. TNFα-induced RASMC migration and monocyte adhesion to

  1. A pro-inflammatory role of deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis (CYLD) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shuai [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Lv, Jiaju [Department of Urology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Han, Liping; Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Wang, Wenjuan; Li, Siying [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tang, Dongqi, E-mail: tangdq@pathology.ufl.edu [Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610-0275 (United States); Cui, Taixing, E-mail: taixing.cui@uscmed.sc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyld deficiency suppresses pro-inflammatory phenotypic switch of VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyld deficiency inhibits MAPK rather than NF-kB activity in inflamed VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYLD is up-regulated in the coronary artery with neointimal hyperplasia. -- Abstract: CYLD, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), is a critical regulator of diverse cellular processes, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to inflammatory responses, via regulating multiple key signaling cascades such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. CYLD has been shown to inhibit vascular lesion formation presumably through suppressing NF-{kappa}B activity in vascular cells. However, herein we report a novel role of CYLD in mediating pro-inflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via a mechanism independent of NF-{kappa}B activity. Adenoviral knockdown of Cyld inhibited basal and the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha})-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (Icam-1) and interleukin-6 (Il-6) in rat adult aortic SMCs (RASMCs). The CYLD deficiency led to increases in the basal NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity in RASMCs; however, did not affect the TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Intriguingly, the TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B phosphorylation was enhanced in the CYLD deficient RASMCs. While knocking down of Cyld decreased slightly the basal expression levels of I{kappa}B{alpha} and I{kappa}B{beta} proteins, it did not alter the kinetics of TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B protein degradation in RASMCs. These results indicate that CYLD suppresses the basal NF-{kappa}B activity and TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B kinase activation without affecting TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity in VSMCs. In addition, knocking down of Cyld suppressed TNF{alpha}-induced activation of mitogen activated protein

  2. Cardiac and vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, S.; Ley-Zaporozhan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of the heart and great vessels show a high degree of variation. There are numerous variants and defects with only few clinical manifestations and are only detected by chance, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Other cardiovascular malformations are manifested directly after birth and need prompt mostly surgical interventions. At this point in time echocardiography is the diagnostic modality of choice for morphological and functional characterization of malformations. Additional imaging using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is only required in a minority of cases. If so, the small anatomical structures, the physiological tachycardia and tachypnea are a challenge for imaging modalities and strategies. This review article presents the most frequent vascular, cardiac and complex cardiovascular malformations independent of the first line diagnostic imaging modality. (orig.) [de

  3. Analysis of pulmonary coin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O; Kim, K. H.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    For A long time the solitary pulmonary nodule has remained a difficult problem to solve and has attracted a great deal of attension in recent years. Circumscribed coin lesions of the lung were generally peripheral in location with respect to the pulmonary hilus. Because of this, important clinical problem in management and diagnosis arise. Such a lesion is discovered through roentgenologic examination. So the roentgenologists is the first be in a position to offer advise. This presentation is an attempt to correlate a useful diagnosis with roentgenologic findings of pulmonary coin lesion which enables us to get differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesion. Histologically proven 120 cases of the pulmonary coin lesion during the period of 8 years were reviewed through plain film, tomogram, bronchoscopy, variable laboratory findings, and clinical history. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female sex ratio was 3 : 1. In age distribution, most of the malignant pulmonary coin lesion appeared in 6th decade (39%) and 5th decade (27%). In benign lesion, the most cases were in 3 rd decade. 2. Pathological cell type are as follows: Primary bronchogenic cancer 43.3%, tuberculoma 25.8%, inflammatory lesion 17.5%, benign tumor 10%, and bronchial adenoma, harmartoma, A.V. malformation, mesothelioma, are 1 case respectively. As a result benign and malignant lesion showed equal distribution (49.1% : 50.3%). 3. In symptom analysis ; cough is the most common (43.5%) symptom in malignant lesion, next follows hemoptysis (20.9%) and chest pain (14.5%). In benign lesion, most of the patient (32.7%) did not complain any symptom. 4. In malignant lesion, the most common nodular size was 4 cm (32.3%), and in benign lesion 2 cm sized coin was most common (39.3%). 5. In general, margin of nodule was very sharp and well demarcated in benign lesion (83.3%), and in malignant lesion that was less demarcated and poorly defined. 6. Most case of calcification (82.7%) was seen in benign

  4. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  5. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  6. Imaging Spectrum and Pitfalls of (11)C-Methionine Positron Emission Tomography in a Series of Patients with Intracranial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kimiteru; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kazoo

    2016-01-01

    (11)C-methionine (Met) positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the most commonly used PET tracers for evaluating brain tumors. However, few reports have described tips and pitfalls of (11)C-Met PET for general practitioners. Physiological (11)C-Met uptake, anatomical variations, vascular disorders, non-tumorous lesions such as inflammation or dysplasia, benign brain tumors and patient condition during (11)C-Met PET examination can potentially affect the image interpretation and cause false positives and negatives. These pitfalls in the interpretation of (11)C-Met PET images are important for not only nuclear medicine physicians but also general radiologists. Familiarity with the spectrum and pitfalls of (11)C-Met images could help prevent unfavorable clinical results caused by misdiagnoses.

  7. Imaging spectrum and pitfalls of 11C-methionine position emission tomography in a series of patients with intracranial lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kimiteru; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kazoo

    2016-01-01

    11 C-methionine (Met) positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the most commonly used PET tracers for evaluating brain tumors. However, few reports have described tips and pitfalls of 11 C-Met PET for general practitioners. Physiological 11 C-Met uptake, anatomical variations, vascular disorders, non-tumorous lesions such as inflammation or dysplasia, benign brain tumors and patient condition during 11 C-Met PET examination can potentially affect the image interpretation and cause false positives and negatives. These pitfalls in the interpretation of 11 C-Met PET images are important for not only nuclear medicine physicians but also general radiologists. Familiarity with the spectrum and pitfalls of 11 C-Met images could help prevent unfavorable clinical results caused by misdiagnoses

  8. Uremia does not affect neointima formation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarup, Annemarie; Nielsen, Carsten H; Bisgaard, Line S

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a major complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD leads to uremia, which modulates the phenotype of aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Phenotypic modulation of SMCs plays a key role in accelerating atherosclerosis. We investigated the hypothesis...... that uremia potentiates neointima formation in response to vascular injury in mice. Carotid wire injury was performed on C57BL/6 wt and apolipoprotein E knockout (Apoe-/-) mice two weeks after induction of uremia by 5/6 nephrectomy. Wire injury led to neointima formation and downregulation of genes encoding...... classical SMC markers (i.e., myocardin, α-smooth muscle actin, SM22-alpha, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain) in both wt and Apoe-/-mice. Contrary to our expectations, uremia did not potentiate neointima formation, nor did it affect intimal lesion composition as judged from magnetic resonance imaging...

  9. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. The CIRSE registry of closure devices

  10. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  11. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  12. The vascular secret of Klotho

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, Ewa; Olgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Klotho is an evolutionarily highly conserved protein related to longevity. Increasing evidence of a vascular protecting effect of the Klotho protein has emerged and might be important for future treatments of uremic vascular calcification. It is still disputed whether Klotho is locally expressed ...

  13. Education on, Exposure to, and Management of Vascular Anomalies During Otolaryngology Residency and Pediatric Otolaryngology Fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Robert; Jabbour, Noel; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Bauman, Nancy; Darrow, David H; Elluru, Ravindhra; Grimmer, J Fredrik; Perkins, Jonathan; Richter, Gresham; Shin, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    The field of vascular anomalies presents diverse challenges in diagnosis and management. Although many lesions involve the head and neck, training in vascular anomalies is not universally included in otolaryngology residencies and pediatric otolaryngology (POTO) fellowships. To explore the education in, exposure to, and comfort level of otolaryngology trainees with vascular anomalies. A survey was distributed to 39 POTO fellows and 44 residents in postgraduate year 5 who matched into POTO fellowships from April 22 through June 16, 2014. Survey responses from trainees on exposure to, education on, and comfort with vascular anomalies. Forty-four residents in postgraduate year 5 who applied to POTO fellowships and 39 POTO fellows were emailed the survey. Fourteen respondents were unable to be contacted owing to lack of a current email address. Thirty-six of 69 residents and fellows (18 fellows and 18 residents [52%]) responded to the survey. Twenty-seven trainees (75%) reported no participation in a vascular anomalies clinic during residency; 6 of these 27 individuals (22%) trained at institutions with a vascular anomalies clinic but did not participate in the clinic, and 28 of the 36 respondents (78%) reported that they had less than adequate or no exposure to vascular anomalies in residency. Among POTO fellows, 11 of 17 (65%) did not participate in a vascular anomalies clinic during fellowship, even though 8 of the 11 had a vascular anomalies clinic at their fellowship program. During fellowship training, 12 of 18 fellows (67%) reported that they had adequate exposure to vascular anomalies. Only 20 respondents (56%) felt comfortable distinguishing among diagnoses of vascular anomalies, and only 4 residents (22%) and 9 fellows (50%) felt comfortable treating patients with vascular anomalies. All fellows believed that training in vascular anomalies was important in fellowship, and 100% of respondents indicated that increased exposure to diagnosis and management of

  14. Treatment of metastatic brain lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zaytsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Increasing survival in patients with secondary brain damage, and identifying the factors of favorable and adverse prognosis.Material and method. In P. A. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute from 2007 to 2013 there were treated 268 patients with brain metastases. The mean age was 55.8 years (from 24 to 81 years. Metastases of colorectal cancer identified in 7.8%, cases of lung cancer in 34%, melanoma 9.3 %, breast cancer in 26%, kidney cancer in 11%, with non-identified primary tumor in 4.5%, other tumors accounted for 6.7%. Solitary metastasis was diagnosed in 164 (61,19% patients, oligometastasis (2-3 - 72 (26,87% patients with polymetastasis (more than 3 – 32 (11,94% patients. In 106 (39,55% of patients with brain metastases it was the only manifestation of the generalization process. To control the radical removal of the tumor in 93 (34,7% patients we used the method of fluorescence navigation (FN with the drug Alasens. In 66 (24,6% patients intraoperatively was held a session of photodynamic therapy (PDT. In 212 (79,1% cases, the removal of metastasis performed totally, 55 (20,9% patients stated Subtotal removal.Results. The observation period for the patients ranged from 3 to 79 months. Survival median among the entire group of patients with metastatic brain lesion was 12 months. Overall survival was significantly dependent on RPA class, the volume of postoperative treatment, histological type of primary tumor, number of intracerebral metastases and the timing of the relapse-free period.Conclusions. Factors that affects the overall survival are the features of the histology of the primary lesion, multiplicity of metastatic lesions, RPA class and the synchronous nature of the metastasis. The median of overall survival of patients who did not receive after surgical treatment of a particular type of therapy was only 4 months. If to use the combined treatment (surgical treatment with the irradiation of the whole brain median

  15. Social media in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Gates, Lindsay; Mitchell, Erica L; Muhs, Bart E

    2013-04-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in the use of social media to expand the visibility of various specialties in medicine. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest updates on some current applications of social media in the practice of vascular surgery as well as existing limitations of use. This investigation demonstrates that the use of social networking sites appears to have a positive impact on vascular practice, as is evident through the incorporation of this technology at the Cleveland Clinic and by the Society for Vascular Surgery into their approach to patient care and physician communication. Overall, integration of social networking technology has current and future potential to be used to promote goals, patient awareness, recruitment for clinical trials, and professionalism within the specialty of vascular surgery. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vascular cognitive impairments in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Rogova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of development of cognitive impairments (CIs, the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and renal failure-induced factors in patients with Stages I–IV chronic kidney disease (CKD and to assess an association of CIs with the signs of vascular wall remodeling in them. Patients and methods. Fifty-one patients aged 53±10 years with CKD were examined. Among them, there were 20 patients with Stages I–II CKD: a glomerular filtration rate (GFR of і60 ml/min/1.73 m2, signs of renal lesion; 20 with Stages III CKD: a GFR of <60–30 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 11 with Stages VI CKD: a GFR of <30–15 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results and discussion. CIs were more common in the patients with Stages III–IV than in those with Stages I–II, as shown by the scores of the mini-mental state examination (p<0.001, the frontal assessment battery (p=0.001, and the regulatory function test (p<0.001. These tests showed that the magnitude of CIs increased with the higher stage of CKD. Stages III–IV CKD is an independent predictor of CIs in persons with predialysis-stage kidney lesion. CIs were found to be related to hyperhomocysteinemia, anemia, abdominal obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, and patient age. The signs of atherosclerotic lesion of the common carotid arteries and the indicators of arterial stiffness were also associated with the incidence and magnitude of CIs in CKD. The detection of CIs in patients with early CKD allows one to timely initiate adequate therapy aimed particularly at improving cerebral circulation, eliminating the impact of risk factors, and slowing down the vascular remodeling. The management tactics for patients with CKD must involve the identification and correction of cardiovascular risk factors, and duplex scanning of the wall of the common carotid arteries may be used as a noninvasive method to assess the risk of the development and progression of CIs in predialysis CKD. 

  17. Clinicopathological Study of 252 Jaw Bone Periapical Lesions From a Private Pathology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Lin

    2010-11-01

    Conclusion: Granulomas and cysts were the two most common periapical lesions. Periapical lesions occurred more frequently in female patients and in those in their fourth to fifth decades. The most commonly affected site for periapical lesions was the maxillary anterior region, and the most frequently involved tooth was the maxillary lateral incisor.

  18. Contrast-enhanced color Doppler US in breast cancer: Tumoral vascularity correlated with angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun A; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Yun, Ki Jung; Lee, Kwang Man; Park, Ki Han; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Won, Jong Jin [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To evaluate the effects of contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) on the depiction of vascularity and flow pattern in breast cancer and to determine the relationship between tumoral vascularity and angiogenesis. Twenty-one patients with breast cancer were prospectively evaluated with CDUS before and after injection of the contrast agent (SH U 508A, 2.5g, 300 mg/ml ). The tumoral vascularity was expressed as percentage of color Doppler area, which was measured quantitatively by a computerized program (Ultrasonic Imaging Tool; Soongsil University, Seoul, Korea). The flow pattern (four-patterns; spotty, linear, branching, marginal) of the vascularity was analyzed. After surgery, tumor angiogenesis was assessed by microvessel density. The relationship between the vascularity on CDUS and microvessel density was statistically analyzed. At unenhanced CDUS, tumoral flow signals were detected in 12 lesions (48%); at contrast-enhanced CDUS, 18 lesions (86%). All These 18 lesions showed increased signals, compared with those at unenhanced CDUS. The percentage color Doppler area was 1.86 {+-} 0.48% at unenhanced CDUS and 5.23 {+-} 1.18% at contrast-enhanced CDUS. The flow patterns before contrast injection were spotty pattern in 11 tumors and linear pattern in one; after contrast injection, spotty in 8, linear in 4, branching in 5, and marginal in one. The tumoral vascularity at contrast-enhanced CDUS showed no significant correlation with microvessel density. Contrast-enhanced CDUS seems to be a valuable tool in the depiction of vascularity and characterization of flow pattern in breast cancer. However, tumoral vascularity on CDUS may not reflect tumoral angiogenesis.

  19. Neurosurgical Management of Nonmissile Penetrating Cranial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Luciano Ferreira; Pereira, Benedito Jamilson A; Holanda, Rafael Rodrigues; Neto, José Targino; de Holanda, Carlos Vanderlei M; Giudicissi Filho, Miguel; de Oliveira, Nathalia Ribeiro Cunha; de Oliveira, Jean G

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to present a case series of nonmissile penetrating (NMP) injuries and to establish a workflow for an uncommon mechanism of traumatic head injury through the analysis of each case, classification of the type of lesion, management, and outcome score at follow-up. From January 1991 to December 2008, 36,000 patients presenting with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were admitted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Antônio Targino, Campina Grande-PB, Brazil. From these patients, 11 presenting with lesions caused by NMP objects were selected. Among the 11 patients, 9 were men and 2 were women. Their ages ranged from 7 to 74 years old (mean age ± SD, 29.1 ± 22.99 years). All patients underwent neuroradiologic evaluation. The entry point was classified as natural (orbit) or artificial (skull transfixation), and we also divided the patients presenting with secondary parenchymal or vascular damage from those presenting with only lesions caused by the primary penetration into the cranium and meninges. All patients were neurosurgically treated with removal of the foreign body through craniotomy, except the patient whose object (pen) was removed without craniotomy with local anesthesia. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission was a statistically significant factor on prognosis, and any patient who presented with a GCS score of 15 evolved satisfactorily, and there were no deaths in this group of patients (P = 0.04). TBIs caused by NMP objects are unusual and caused by aggression, self-inflicted harm (in the case of psychiatric patients), and accident. The foreign body may enter into the skull through a natural hole (orbit, nose, mouth, or ear) or crosses the skull, causing a fracture and creating an artificial hole. Preoperative neuroradiologic assessment is paramount for the correct neurosurgical approach. The main prognostic factor for these patients is the GCS score at admission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Frequency and characteristics of dual pathology in patients with lesional epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, F; Cook, M J; Watson, C; Andermann, F; Fish, D R; Shorvon, S D; Bergin, P; Free, S; Dubeau, F; Arnold, D L

    1995-11-01

    We studied 167 patients who had identifiable lesions and temporal or extratemporal partial epilepsy. Pathology included neuronal migration disorders (NMDs) (48), low-grade tumors (52), vascular malformations (34), porencephalic cysts (16), and gliotic lesions as a result of cerebral insults early in life (17). MRI volumetric studies using thin (1.5- or 3-mm) coronal images were performed in all patients and in 44 age-matched normal controls. An atrophic hippocampal formation (HF), indicating dual pathology, was present in 25 patients (15%). Abnormal HF volumes were present in those with lesions involving temporal (17%) but also extratemporal (14%) areas. Age at onset and duration of epilepsy did not influence the presence of HF atrophy. However, febrile seizures in early childhood were more frequently, although not exclusively, found in patients with hippocampal atrophy. The frequency of hippocampal atrophy in our patients with low-grade tumors (2%) and vascular lesions (9%) was low. Dual pathology was far more common in patients with NMDs (25%), porencephalic cysts (31%), and reactive gliosis (23.5%). Some structural lesions, such as NMDs, are more likely to be associated with hippocampal atrophy, independent of the distance of the lesion from the HF. In other types of lesions, such as vascular malformations, dual pathology was found when the lesion was close to the HF. A common pathogenic mechanism during pre- or perinatal development may explain the occurrence of concomitant mesial temporal sclerosis and other structural lesions because of either (1) associated developmental abnormalities or (2) predisposition to prolonged febrile convulsions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The value of T1-weighted images in the differentiation between MS, white matter lesions, and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Sehlen, S.

    1989-07-01

    The aim of the study was to define reliable criteria for the differentiation of MR imaging between patients with MS and with 'vascular' white matter lesions/SAE. We examined 35 patients with proven MS according to the Poser criteria and 35 patients with other white matter lesions and/or SAE. The result is that with MR a differentiation can be achieved provided that T1-weighted spin-echo sequences are included and the different pattern of distribution is considered. MS plaques are predominantly located in the subependymal region, vascular white matter lesions are mainly located in the water-shed of the superficial middle cerebral branches and the deep perforating long medullary vessels in the centrum semiovale. Infratentorial lesions are more often seen in MS. Confluence at the lateral ventricles is frequently accompanied by confluent abnormalities around the third ventricle, Sylvian aqueduct, and fourth ventricle, which is uncommon in SAE. In MS many lesions visible on T2-weighted images have a cellular or intracellular composition that renders them visible also on T1-weighted ones as regions with low signal intensity and more or less distinct boundary. 'Vascular' white matter lesions and SAE mainly represent demyelination and can therefore be seen on T2-weighted images, but corresponding low signal intensity lesions on T1-weighted images are uncommon. In some exceptions there are such lesions with low signal representing lacunar infarcts or widened Virchow-Robin-spaces. (orig.).

  2. Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzi Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the first discovered gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO affects a number of cellular processes, including those involving vascular cells. This brief review summarizes the contribution of NO to the regulation of vascular tone and its sources in the blood vessel wall. NO regulates the degree of contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells mainly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, although cGMP-independent signaling [S-nitrosylation of target proteins, activation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA or production of cyclic inosine monophosphate (cIMP] also can be involved. In the blood vessel wall, NO is produced mainly from l-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS but it can also be released non-enzymatically from S-nitrosothiols or from nitrate/nitrite. Dysfunction in the production and/or the bioavailability of NO characterizes endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  3. Vascular disease in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, Keren; Mani, Venkatesh; Jeyachandran, Devi; Fayad, Zahi A; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best. We review major postmortem and in vitro studies documenting cocaine-induced vascular toxicity. PubMed and Academic Search Complete were used with relevant terms. Findings consist of the major mechanisms of cocaine-induced vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and accelerated atherosclerosis, emphasizing acute, chronic, and secondary effects of cocaine. The etiology underlying cocaine's acute and chronic vascular effects is multifactorial, spanning hypertension, impaired homeostasis and platelet function, thrombosis, thromboembolism, and alterations in blood flow. Early detection of vascular disease in cocaine addiction by multimodality imaging is discussed. Treatment may be similar to indications in patients with traditional risk-factors, with few exceptions such as enhanced supportive care and use of benzodiazepines and phentolamine for sedation, and avoiding β-blockers. Given the vascular toxicity cocaine induces, further compounded by smoking and alcohol comorbidity, and interacting with aging of the crack generation, there is a public health imperative to identify pre-symptomatic markers of vascular impairments in cocaine addiction and employ preventive treatment to reduce silent disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [The future of vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K; Luther, B

    2014-10-01

    In the future vascular medicine will still have a great impact on health of people. It should be noted that the aging of the population does not lead to a dramatic increase in patient numbers, but will be associated with a changing spectrum of co-morbidities. In addition, vascular medical research has to include the intensive care special features of vascular patients, the involvement of vascular medicine in a holistic concept of fast-track surgery, a geriatric-oriented intensive monitoring and early geriatric rehabilitation. For the future acceptance of vascular medicine as a separate subject area under delimitation of cardiology and radiology is important. On the other hand, the subject is so complex and will become more complex in future specialisations that mixing of surgery and angiology is desirable, with the aim to preserve the vascular surgical knowledge and skills on par with the medical and interventional measures and further develop them. Only large, interdisciplinary guided vascular centres will be able to provide timely diagnosis and therapy, to deal with the growing multi-morbidity of the patient, to perform complex therapies even in an acute emergency and due to sufficient number of cases to present with well-trained and experienced teams. These requirements are mandatory to decrease patients' mortality step by step. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Contemporary vascular smartphone medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Thomas; O'Neill, Stephen; Johns, Neil; Brady, Richard R W

    2013-08-01

    Use of smartphones and medical mHealth applications (apps) within the clinical environment provides a potential means for delivering elements of vascular care. This article reviews the contemporary availability of apps specifically themed to major vascular diseases and the opportunities and concerns regarding their integration into practice. Smartphone apps relating to major vascular diseases were identified from the app stores for the 6 most popular smartphone platforms, including iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, Windows, and Samsung. Search terms included peripheral artery (arterial) disease, varicose veins, aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, amputation, ulcers, hyperhydrosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular malformation, and lymphatic disorders. Forty-nine vascular-themed apps were identified. Sixteen (33%) were free of charge. Fifteen apps (31%) had customer satisfaction ratings, but only 3 (6%) had greater than 100. Only 13 apps (27%) had documented medical professional involvement in their design or content. The integration of apps into the delivery of care has the potential to benefit vascular health care workers and patients. However, high-quality apps designed by clinicians with vascular expertise are currently lacking and represent an area of concern in the mHealth market. Improvement in the quality and reliability of these apps will require the development of robust regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karki, Rajendra; Kim, Seong-Bin; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  7. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, Rajendra [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City (United States); Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong-Bin [Jeollanamdo Development Institute for Korean Traditional Medicine, Jangheung gun, Jeollanamdo (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Wook, E-mail: dbkim@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  8. The value of MDCT in diagnosis of hyaline-vascular Castleman's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Rengui; Zhu, Xuejun; Gao, Li; Chen, Jiuhong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon entity characterized by a massive growth of lymphoid tissue. There are two types: the hyaline-vascular (HV) type and the plasma cell (PC) type. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis and planning of treatment for hyaline-vascular CD. Materials and methods: Fifty-two cases of confirmed hyaline-vascular CD were retrospectively reviewed. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MDCT scans had been performed in all patients, followed by surgery and pathological analysis of the lesion. Original MDCT transverse and reconstructed images were used for image interpretation. Features of the lesion and its adjacent structures were identified. Results: The lesion was present in the thorax of 24 patients and the abdomen in 28. Obvious features of hyaline-vascular CD (especially feeding vessels and draining veins) and its adjacent structures were demonstrated on 52 patients. Conclusion: On MDCT imaging, original MDCT transverse and reconstructed images provide an excellent tool for diagnosis of hyaline-vascular CD and have high value in the determination of a treatment plan

  9. Management of Preinvasive Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Maria G; Corzo, Camila; Iniesta, Maria; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2017-12-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma is considered the precursor lesion of high-grade serous carcinoma, and found in both low-risk and high-risk populations. Isolated serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations are detected in ∼2% of patients undergoing risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and even with removal of the tubes and ovaries the rate of developing primary peritoneal carcinoma following remains up to 7.5%. Postoperative recommendations after finding incidental STICs remain unclear and surgical staging, adjuvant chemotherapy, or observation have been proposed. Discovery of STIC should prompt consideration of hereditary cancer program referral for BRCA1/2 mutation screening.

  10. Overdiagnosing Vascular Dementia using Structural Brain Imaging for Dementia Work-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Feyen, Bart F. E.; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesizing that non-significant cerebrovascular lesions on structural brain imaging lead to overdiagnosis of a vascular etiology of dementia as compared to autopsy-confirmed diagnosis, we set up a study including 71 patients with autopsy-confirmed diagnoses. Forty-two patients in the population

  11. New aspects of vascular remodelling: the involvement of all vascular cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John C; Deighan, Clare; Briones, Ana M; Shafaroudi, Majid Malekzadeh; McBride, Melissa; Adler, Jeremy; Arribas, Silvia M; Vila, Elisabet; Daly, Craig J

    2005-07-01

    Conventionally, the architecture of arteries is based around the close-packed smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix. However, the adventitia and endothelium are now viewed as key players in vascular growth and repair. A new dynamic picture has emerged of blood vessels in a constant state of self-maintenance. Recent work raises fundamental questions about the cellular heterogeneity of arteries and the time course and triggering of normal and pathological remodelling. A common denominator emerging in hypertensive remodelling is an early increase in adventitial cell density suggesting that adventitial cells drive remodelling and may initiate subsequent changes such as re-arrangement of smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix. The organization of vascular smooth muscle cells follows regular arrangements that can be modelled mathematically. In hypertension, new patterns can be quantified in these terms and give insights to how structure affects function. As with smooth muscle, little is known about the organization of the vascular endothelium, or its role in vascular remodelling. Current observations suggest that there may be a close relationship between the helical organization of smooth muscle cells and the underlying pattern of endothelial cells. The function of myoendothelial connections is a topic of great current interest and may relate to the structure of the internal elastic lamina through which the connections must pass. In hypertensive remodelling this must present an organizational challenge. The objective of this paper is to show how the functions of blood vessels depend on their architecture and a continuous interaction of different cell types and extracellular proteins.

  12. Focal hepatic lesions: contrast-enhancement patterns at pulse-inversion harmonic US using a microbubble contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-A; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Young-Hwan; Kim, Hye-Won; Juhng, Seon-Kwan; Won, Jong-Jin [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    To analyze the contrast-enhancement patterns obtained at pulse-inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI) of focal hepatic lesions, and to thus determine tumor vascularity and the acoustic emission effect. We reviewed pulse-inversion images in 90 consecutive patients with focal hepatic lesions, namely hepatocellular carcinoma (HHC) (n=43), metastases (n=30), and hemangioma (n=17). Vascular and delayed phase images were obtained immediately and five minutes following the injection of a microbubble contrast agent. Tumoral vascularity at vascular phase imaging and the acoustic emission effect at delayed phase imaging were each classified as one of four patterns. Vascular phase images depicted internal vessels in 93% of HCCs, marginal vessels in 83% of metastases, and peripheral enhancement in 71% of hemangiomas. Delayed phase images showed inhomogeneous enhancement in 86% of HCCs; hypoechoic, decreased enhancement in 93% of metastases; and hypoechoic and reversed echogenicity in 65% of hemangiomas. Vascular and delayed phase enhancement patterns were associated with a specificity of 91% or greater, and 92% or greater, respectively, and with positive predictive values of 71% or greater, and 85% or greater, respectively. Contrast-enhancement patterns depicting tumoral vascularity and the acoustic emission effect at PIHI can help differentiate focal hepatic lesions.

  13. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  14. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PAPULOSQUAMOUS SKIN LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdari Balaji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Papulosquamous lesions form the largest group of skin diseases. Since, they are all characterized by scaling papules or plaques, clinical confusion may result in their diagnosis, hence definitive histopathological analysis is important for their differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study includes skin biopsies from 108 clinically diagnosed /suspected non-infectious, erythematous, papulosquamous skin diseases which were received in the Department of Pathology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam for a period of two years from January 2016 to December 2017. The specimens obtained were subjected to formalin fixation and was subjected to routine processing and sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The lesions were classified as Lichen Planus, Psoriasis, along with rare conditions like Pityriasis Rosea, Parapsoriasis, Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris, Prurigo Nodularis and Lichen Simplex chronicus and clinicopathological correlation was done. RESULTS A total of 108 cases were studied. Lichen planus (51 cases- 47.22% was the most common lesions followed by Psoriasis (34 cases - 31.48% and with majority of cases in the age group of 21 to 30 years (25 cases– 23.15%. Females were more commonly affected with a male to female ratio of 0.89:1. Out of 108 cases, clinicopathological correlation was seen in 68 cases (62.96%. CONCLUSION The importance of specific histopathological diagnosis lies in distinguishing these lesions into different entities as the treatment and prognosis varies widely and is disease-specific.

  15. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  16. Radiographic diagnosis of an expansile bone lesion in a dog [osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.; Berg, J.; Schelling, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    An old dog had an expansile lesion affecting the ulnar diaphysis. The lesion had clinical and radiographic features typical of a bone cyst; however, computed X-ray tomography indicated that the lesion had a tissue content incompatible with a true cyst. The histological diagnosis was osteosarcoma. This report emphasises the highly variable radiological appearance of canine osteosarcoma; biopsy is required to establish the diagnosis because the radiological signs may mimic a lesion of different aetiology

  17. Constructal vascularized structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetkin, Erdal

    2015-06-01

    Smart features such as self-healing and selfcooling require bathing the entire volume with a coolant or/and healing agent. Bathing the entire volume is an example of point to area (or volume) flows. Point to area flows cover all the distributing and collecting kinds of flows, i.e. inhaling and exhaling, mining, river deltas, energy distribution, distribution of products on the landscape and so on. The flow resistances of a point to area flow can be decreased by changing the design with the guidance of the constructal law, which is the law of the design evolution in time. In this paper, how the flow resistances (heat, fluid and stress) can be decreased by using the constructal law is shown with examples. First, the validity of two assumptions is surveyed: using temperature independent Hess-Murray rule and using constant diameter ducts where the duct discharges fluid along its edge. Then, point to area types of flows are explained by illustrating the results of two examples: fluid networks and heating an area. Last, how the structures should be vascularized for cooling and mechanical strength is documented. This paper shows that flow resistances can be decreased by morphing the shape freely without any restrictions or generic algorithms.

  18. Imaging characteristics of malignant and benign lesions of skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Surov, A.

    2017-01-01

    There are many different tumors and tumor-like lesions with variable biological behavior that may affect the skeletal musculature. The aim of this study was to review the different intramuscular lesions and to provide a classification based on their radiological patterns. Intramuscular lesions can present as solid, liquid, semiliquid or fat equivalent manifestations and also as diffuse muscle enlargement and muscle calcification. Additionally, lesions with mixed patterns of the aforementioned alterations can also occur. Benign and malignant muscle lesions can often manifest with identical radiological patterns, which is why a certain differentiation is often difficult. A systematic radiological description and when possible assignment with respect to etiology and dignity depending on the patient history is necessary in order to recommend a subsequent histological confirmation or to avoid unnecessary confirmation. (orig.) [de

  19. Acute cerebral vascular accident associated with hyperperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soin, J.S.; Burdine, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Cerebral radionuclide angiography can demonstrate decreased or normal radioactivity in the affected region during the arterial phase in patients who have sustained a cerebral vascular accident and thus enhances the diagnostic specificity of the static brain image. In an occasional patient, however, a seemingly paradoxical pattern of regional hyperperfusion with a return to normal or subnormal perfusion following the acute phase has been observed. This phenomenon, called luxury perfusion, has been defined using intra-arterial 133 Xe for semiquantitative cerebral blood flow measurements and should be kept in mind as a potentially misleading cerebral imaging pattern

  20. AT1-receptor mediated vascular damage in myocardium, kidneys and liver in rats Lesão vascular mediada pelo receptor AT1 esses efeitos em miocárdio, rins e fígado de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Fernandez Vailati

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The systemic aspect of vascular damage induced by angiotensin II (ANG II has been poorly explored in the literature. Considering the presence of ANG II and its specific receptor AT1, in several organs, all tissues might be potentially affected by its effects. The aims of this study were: To evaluate the early histological changes in the heart, liver and kidneys, produced by ANG II infusion, to evaluate the protective effect of losartan. Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control (no treatment, treated with ANG II, and treated with ANG II + losartan. ANG II was continuously infused over 72 hours by subcutaneous osmotic pumps. Histological sections of the myocardium, kidneys and liver were stained and observed for the presence of necrosis. There were ANG II-induced perivascular inflammation and necrosis of the arteriolar wall in the myocardium, kidney, and liver by, which were partially prevented by losartan. There was no significant correlation between heart and kidney damage. Tissue lesion severity was lower than that of vascular lesions, without statistical difference between groups. ANG II causes vascular injury in the heart, kidneys and liver, indicating a systemic vasculotoxic effect; the mechanisms of damage/protection vary depending on the target organ; perivascular lesions may occur even when anti-hypertensive doses of losartan are used.O aspecto sistêmico da lesão vascular induzida pela angiotensina II (ANG II tem sido pouco explorada na literatura. Considerando a presença de ANG II e de seu receptor AT1 em diversos órgãos, todos os tecidos poderiam ser potencialmente afetados por esses efeitos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: avaliar as alterações histológicas iniciais no coração, fígado e rins, produzidas pela infusão de ANG II, e avaliar o efeito protetor do losartan. Ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: controle (sem tratamento, tratados com ANG II, e tratados com ANG II + losartan. A ANG II foi

  1. Gender, Estrogen, and Obliterative Lesions in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Assaggaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender has been shown to impact the prevalence of several lung diseases such as cancer, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Controversy over the protective effects of estrogen on the cardiopulmonary system should be of no surprise as clinical trials of hormone replacement therapy have failed to show benefits observed in experimental models. Potential confounders to explain these inconsistent estrogenic effects include the dose, cellular context, and systemic versus local tissue levels of estrogen. Idiopathic PAH is disproportionately found to be up to 4 times more common in females than in males; however, estrogen levels cannot explain why males develop PAH sooner and have poorer survival. Since the sex steroid hormone 17β-estradiol is a mitogen, obliterative processes in the lung such as cell proliferation and migration may impact the growth of pulmonary tissue or vascular cells. We have reviewed evidence for biological differences of sex-specific lung obliterative lesions and highlighted cell context-specific effects of estrogen in the formation of vessel lumen-obliterating lesions. Based on this information, we provide a biological-based mechanism to explain the sex difference in PAH severity as well as propose a mechanism for the formation of obliterative vascular lesions by estrogens.

  2. The role of retinopathy distribution and other lesion types for the definition of examination intervals during screening for diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Giovanni; Erlandsen, Mogens; Hunter, Andrew; Bek, Toke

    2017-06-01

    It has previously been shown that the intervals between screening examinations for diabetic retinopathy can be optimized by including individual risk factors for the development of the disease in the risk assessment. However, in some cases, the risk model calculating the screening interval may recommend a different interval than an experienced clinician. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of factors unrelated to diabetic retinopathy and the distribution of lesions for discrepancies between decisions made by the clinician and the risk model. Therefore, fundus photographs from 90 screening examinations where the recommendations of the clinician and a risk model had been discrepant were evaluated. Forty features were defined to describe the type and location of the lesions, and classification and ranking techniques were used to assess whether the features could predict the discrepancy between the grader and the risk model. Suspicion of tumours, retinal degeneration and vascular diseases other than diabetic retinopathy could explain why the clinician recommended shorter examination intervals than the model. Additionally, the regional distribution of microaneurysms/dot haemorrhages was important for defining a photograph as belonging to the group where both the clinician and the risk model had recommended a short screening interval as opposed to the other decision alternatives. Features unrelated to diabetic retinopathy and the regional distribution of retinal lesions may affect the recommendation of the examination interval during screening for diabetic retinopathy. The development of automated computerized algorithms for extracting information about the type and location of retinal lesions could be expected to further optimize examination intervals during screening for diabetic retinopathy. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Vascular low-flow malformations in children: current concepts for classification, diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Stefan; Casati, Bettina; Staudenherz, Anton; Paya, Kurosh

    2005-01-01

    Congenital vascular malformations (CVM) are made of dysplastic vessels with no cellular proliferation. Low- or slow-flow malformations (LFM) consist predominantly of venous and/or lymphatic vessels. Correct terminology is necessary for differentiating vascular malformations from tumours such as haemangiomas, in order to prevent ineffective or even adverse therapy. The role of the radiologist in the management of patients is two-fold: making the diagnosis with the use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and performing sclerotherapy, which is the treatment of choice. Prior to sclerotherapy, percutaneous phlebography is necessary to visualize the dynamic situation inside the lesion and the flow into the adjacent vascular system. The double-needle technique is a useful therapy option reducing the risk of embolisation of the sclerosing agent. Large lesions might need subsequent surgical treatment. A multidisciplinary approach is substantial for optimal patient management

  4. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchanov, Juri; Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf; Endres, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  5. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katchanov, Juri [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Endres, Matthias [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  6. 27.12 MHz Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Cutaneous Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As surgical and/or ablative modalities, radiofrequency (RF has been known to produce good clinical outcomes in dermatology. Recently, 27.12 MHz RF has been introduced and has several advantages over conventional 4 or 6 MHz in terms of the precise ablation and lesser pain perception. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 27.12 MHz RF for the treatment of benign cutaneous lesions. Twenty female patient subjects were enrolled. Digital photography and a USB microscope camera were used to monitor the clinical results before one session of treatment with 27.12 MHz RF and after 1 and 3 weeks. Treated lesions included telangiectasias, cherry and spider angiomas, skin tags, seborrheic keratoses, lentigo, milium, dilated pore, acne, piercing hole, and one case of neurofibroma. For vascular lesions, clinical results were excellent for 33.3%, good for 44.4%, moderate for 11.1%, and poor for 11.1%. For nonvascular lesions (epidermal lesions and other benign cutaneous lesions, clinical results were excellent for 48.3%, good for 45.2%, moderate for 3.2%, and poor for 3.2%. No serious adverse events were observed. Mild adverse events reported were slight erythema, scale, and crust. The 27.12 MHz RF treatment of benign vascular and nonvascular lesions appears safe and effective after 3 weeks of follow-up.

  7. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

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    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  8. Association between homocyst(e)ine levels and risk of vascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Eugene D

    2003-03-01

    Homocyst(e)ine is a novel risk factor in vascular disease. First observations of vascular lesions in children with high blood homocyst(e)ine levels due to severe inborn enzyme deficiencies led to the hypothesis that elevated blood homocyst(e)ine levels might be a risk factor for vascular disease. A substantial body of evidence on the role of the homocyst(e)ine in the development of coronary and carotid artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, deep vein thrombosis and other disorders has been accumulated over the last 30 years. Cross-sectional and case-control studies provide initial and the strongest support for the hypothesis, followed by results from the prospective cohorts. Infrequent cases of homozygous mutations of the key enzymes in the homocyst(e)ine metabolism chain are able to produce extreme homocyst(e)inemia and early vascular lesions. More frequently, heterozygous enzyme mutations and deficiencies of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 cause mild to moderate homocyst(e)inemia, which is still strongly associated with the increased risk of vascular events. Elevated homocyst(e)ine levels may be effectively managed with adequate folate, B12 and B6 intake in doses comparable to or above FDA recommendations. Whether correction of elevated homocyst(e)ine levels with vitamins is helpful in prevention and treatment of vascular events remains unknown and is under investigation in ongoing clinical trials (VISP, VITATOPS). No consensus on homocyst(e)ine management is available at the present time.

  9. Pulsed dye laser application in ablation of vascular ectasias of the larynx: a preliminary animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Peak; Wang, Zhi; Perrault, Donald F., Jr.; McMillan, Kathleen; Pankratov, Michail M.

    1995-05-01

    Vascular ectasias (dilatation) and vascular lesions of the larynx are difficult to treat with exciting modalities. Varix (enlarged vessel) of the vocal folds, vocal fold hemorrhage, vascular polyp, hemangioma, intubation or contact granuloma are common problems which disturb voice. Current applications of CO2 laser and cautery often damage the delicate vocal fold cover. The 585 nm dermatologic pulsed dye laser may be an ideal substitute. Two adult canines were examined under anesthesia via microlaryngoscopy technique. Pulsed dye laser (SPTL-1a, Candela Laser Corp., Wayland, MA) energy was delivered via the micromanipulator with the 3.1-mm spot size in single pulses of 6, 8, and 10 Joules/cm2 and applied to the vessels of the vocal folds, epiglottis, and arytenoid cartilage. Endoscopic examination was carried out immediately after the treatment and at 4 weeks postoperatively. The animals were sacrificed at 3 weeks, larynges excised, and whole organ laryngeal section were prepared for histology. Pulsed dye laser thrombosed vessels of the vocal fold using 6 or 8 Joules/cm2. Vascular break and leakage occurred at 10 Joules/cm2. Follow up examination showed excellent vessel obliteration or thrombosis without scarring or injury to the overlying tissues. Histologic examination shows vascular thrombosis without inflammation and fibrosis in the vocal fold cover. Pulsed dye laser may have promise in treatment of vascular lesions of the larynx and upper airway.

  10. Noninvasive diagnosis of allograft vascular disease after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bacal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive values of noninvasive tests for the detection of allograft vascular disease. METHODS: We studied 39 patients with mean ages of 48±13 years and a follow-up period of 86±13 months. The diagnosis of allograft vascular disease was made by cine-coronary arteriography, and it was considered as positive if lesions existed that caused > or = 50% obstruction of the lumen. Patients underwent 24h Holter monitoring, thallium scintigraphy, a treadmill stress test, and dobutamine stress echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were determined in percentages for each method, as compared with the cine-coronary arteriography results. RESULTS: Allograft vascular disease was found in 15 (38% patients. The Holter test showed 15.4% sensitivity, 95.5% specificity. For the treadmill stress test, sensitivity was 10%, specificity was 100%. When thallium scintigraphy was used, sensitivity was 40%, specificity 95.8%. On echocardiography with dobutamine, we found a 63.6% sensitivity, 91.3% specificity. When the dobutamine echocardiogram was associated with scintigraphy, sensitivity was 71.4%, specificity was 87%. CONCLUSION: In this group of patients, the combination of two noninvasive methods (dobutamine echocardiography and thallium scintigraphy may be a good alternative for the detection of allograft vascular disease in asymptomatic patients with normal ventricular function.

  11. VIDEOLARYNGOSCOPIC SURGEY IN BENIGN LARYNGEAL LESIONS-OUR EXPERIENCE

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    Satheesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Benign laryngeal lesions are commonly encountered causes of dysphonia and are often surgically correctable. A prospective study on 62 cases selected for videolaryngoscopic surgery was undertaken in a single unit in the department of ENT, Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. The male: female ratio was 1.8:1 and the most common affected age group was 35-45 yrs. The most common benign lesion was vocal polyp. Preoperative voice assessment and 70 degree endoscopy was done. Follow up visits were done at 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks and voice assessment and laryngoscopic appearances were noted. 98% reported excellent improvement of voice. The varieties of benign lesions which cause hoarseness are sources of concern and worry as it can affect the self esteem of a person. Thus videolaryngoscopic surgery (VLS coupled with voice therapy offers cost effective and safe management in benign laryngeal lesions

  12. Computed-tomographic and conventional linear-tomographic evaluation of tracheobronchial lesions for laser photoresection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlberg, J.L.; Sandler, M.A.; Kvale, P.; Beute, G.H.; Madrazo, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Laser therapy is a new modality for treatment of airway lesions. The authors examined 18 patients prior to laser photoresection of tracheobronchial lesions. Thirteen had cancers involving the distal trachea, carina, and/or proximal bronchi; five had benign lesions of the middle or proximal trachea. Each patient was examined by conventional linear tomography (CLT) and computed tomography (CT). CT was valuable in patients who had lesions of the distal trachea, carina, and/or proximal bronchi. Its particular usefulness, and its advantage relative to CLT, consisted in its ability to delineate vascular structures adjacent to the planned area of photoresection. Neither CLT nor CT was helpful in evaluation of benign lesions of the proximal trachea

  13. Hemorrhage and vascular abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    While many brain lesions have a similar appearance on MRI and CT, this is not true of hemorrhage. On CT, acute hemorrhage becomes hyperdense within an hour as the clot forms. This lasts for several days and then fades to isodensity and eventually hypodensity. On MRI, hemorrhage less than 12 to 24 hours old may not be distinguishable from vasogenic edema. Its appearance subsequently is an evolving pattern of variable signal intensity which depends on the specific form of hemoglobin which is present, or whether the red cells are intact or lysed, on the operating field strength, on the type of signal (that is, spin echo or gradient echo), and on contrast (that is, T 1 - or T 2 -weighing). The appearance of hemorrhage also depends on the compartment of the brain involved---subarachnoid, subdural, or intraparenchymal. Finally, for parenchymal hematomas, different zones may be defined from the inner core to the outer rim which all vary in appearance depending on field strength and imaging technique

  14. [Multicentric hyaline vascular Castleman's disease. A POEMS type variant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Ramos, Abraham Edgar; Cruz-Domínguez, María del Pilar; Vera-Lastra, Olga Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Castleman's disease is an atypical lymphoproliferative disorder which may be compatible with paraneoplastic manifestations of POEMS syndrome. a 53 year old man with a history of type 2 diabetes, hypothyroidism and Addison's disease presented with numbness and weakness in limbs, dyspnea, skin hardening, Raynaud's phenomenon, weight loss and fatigue. A physical exam showed tachypnea, generalized cutaneous hyperpigmentation and skin hardening of extremities, muscle weakness, hypoesthesia and hyporeflexia. Laboratory showed hyperprolactinemia, low testosterone, hypothyroidism and Addison's disease. Electrophoresis of proteins showed polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Somatosensory evoked potentials reported peripheral neuropathy and severe axonal polyneuropathy by electromyography. Chest X-rays showed bilateral reticular infiltrates and mediastinal widening. An echocardiogram displayed moderate pulmonary hypertension. Skin biopsy had no evidence of scleroderma. CT reported axillar, mediastinal and retroperitoneal nodes. The mediastinal lesion biopsy reported hyaline vascular Castleman's disease, multicentric variety. He was treated with rituximab. the case meet criteria for multicentric hyaline vascular Castleman's disease, POEMS variant, treated with rituximab.

  15. [Relevance of contrast ultrasound with microbubbles in vascular medecine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Ney, Barbara; Alatri, Adriano; Calanca, Luca; Mazzolai, Lucia

    2016-12-07

    Application of ultrasound contrast media has become a standard in diagnostic imaging in cardiology and in the characterization of focal lesions in multiple organs, especially of the liver. In the past years there was a growing body of evidence for their usefulness in vascular medicine. The development of contrast media, microbubbles with a stabilizing envelope and filled with gaz, small enough to pass through pulmonary capillaries made real-time imaging of organ perfusion possible. Ultrasound contrast media are rapidly eliminated by exhalation and can safely be administered to patients with renal failure. The objective of this review is to describe the basic principles of ultrasound contrast imaging and to inform about vascular applications of contrast ultrasound.

  16. HRCT of the lung in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Roos, N.; Schmitz-Linneweber, B.; Gaubitz, M.; Peters, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Collagen vascular diseases, representing systemic soft tissue disorders, may cause a broad spectrum of pathologic changes of the respiratory tract. The type and extent of manifestations can vary considerably among individuals and entities. This survey describes the chest radiographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of individual lesions of the respiratory tract. It includes fibrosing alveolitis (alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis) and bronchial (bronchitis/bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis), pleural and vascular manifestations, as well as lymphadenopathy and abnormalities related to therapy. We present typical patterns of changes in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS, scleroderma), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, Sharp syndrome), Sjoegren syndrome, overlap syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, we describe findings which are specific for individual entities such as esophageal involvement in PSS, acute pneumonitis and pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE, lymphoproliferative disease in Sjoegren syndrome and necrobiotic nodules in RA. (orig.) [de

  17. Embolization with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug in TIPS Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattynama, Peter M. T.; Wils, Alexandra; Linden, Edwin van der; Dijk, Lukas C. van

    2007-01-01

    Vessel embolization can be a valuable adjunct procedure in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). During the creation of a TIPS, embolization of portal vein collaterals supplying esophageal varices may lower the risk of secondary rebleeding. And after creation of a TIPS, closure of the TIPS itself may be indicated if the resulting hepatic encephalopathy severely impairs mental functioning. The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP; AGA Medical, Golden Valley, MN) is well suited for embolization of large-diameter vessels and has been employed in a variety of vascular lesions including congenital arteriovenous shunts. Here we describe the use of the AVP in the context of TIPS to embolize portal vein collaterals (n = 8) or to occlude the TIPS (n = 2)

  18. Static, dynamic and first-pass MR imaging of musculoskeletal lesions using gadodiamide injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstraete, K.L.; Vanzieleghem, B.; Deene, Y. de; Palmans, H.; Greef, D. de; Kristoffersen, D.T.; Uyttendaele, D.; Roels, J.; Hamers, J.; Kunnen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Forty-five patients with known or suspected musculoskeletal tumors were examined with static and dynamic MR imaging to evaluate the safety, tolerability and diagnostic utility of gadodiamide injection and to assess the diagnostic value of dynamic MR imaging and parametric 'first-pass' (FP) images. The proportion of patients presenting more diagnostic information on the contrast-enhanced compared to the precontrast spin-echo examinations was determined. The dynamic enhancement characteristics were evaluated with time-intensity curves and parametric images of the FP enhancement rate. The tolerance of gadodiamide injection was good. Contrast enhancement was useful for delineating tumour from muscle, and differentiating viable from necrotic tissue and cystic from solid lesions. Malignant tumors showed a significantly higher slope value, earlier onset of enhancement, and higher maximum enhancement than benign lesions. However, slope values could not be used to predict the malignant potential of a lesion, due to overlap between highly vascular benign and low vascular malignant lesions. By displaying highly vascular areas, parametric FP images provided useful information on the most active part in a tumour before biopsy and for assessing the incorporation of bone-chip allografts. Static, dynamic and FP MR imaging using gadodiamide injection appears safe and provides useful information for diagnosis, biospy and follow-up of musculoskeletal lesions. (orig.)

  19. Arterial complications of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleton, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a relatively rare genetic syndrome that occurs owing to disorders in the metabolism of fibrillary collagen. These defects affect the soft connective tissues resulting in abnormalities in the skin, joints, hollow organs, and blood vessels. Patients with these defects frequently present at a young age with spontaneous arterial complications involving the medium-sized arteries. Complications involving the hollow organs, such as spontaneous colonic perforation, are observed as well. Given the fragility of the soft tissue, open and endovascular intervention on patients with vascular EDS is fraught with high complication rates. A PubMed search was performed to identify manuscripts published related to vascular EDS. This search included more than 747 articles. These findings were cross-referenced using key terms, including endovascular, embolization, surgery, genetics, pathophysiology, connective tissue disorders, vascular complications, systematic review, type III collagen, and COL3A1. The references in key articles and review articles were evaluated for additional resources not identified in the PubMed search. Care must be taken to balance the risk of intervention vs the risk of continued observation. Life-threatening hemorrhage, however, mandates intervention. With careful, altered approaches to tissue handling, endovascular approaches may provide a safer option for managing the arterial complications observed in patients with vascular EDS. Additional hope may also be found in the use of pharmacologic agents that reduce the incidence and severity of the arterial complications. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ftr82 Is Critical for Vascular Patterning during Zebrafish Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Wei Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular components and signaling pathways are required for the proper growth of blood vessels. Here, we report for the first time that a teleost-specific gene ftr82 (finTRIM family, member 82 plays a critical role in vasculature during zebrafish development. To date, there has been no description of tripartite motif proteins (TRIM in vascular development, and the role of ftr82 is unknown. In this study, we found that ftr82 mRNA is expressed during the development of vessels, and loss of ftr82 by morpholino (MO knockdown impairs the growth of intersegmental vessels (ISV and caudal vein plexus (CVP, suggesting that ftr82 plays a critical role in promoting ISV and CVP growth. We showed the specificity of ftr82 MO by analyzing ftr82 expression products and expressing ftr82 mRNA to rescue ftr82 morphants. We further showed that the knockdown of ftr82 reduced ISV cell numbers, suggesting that the growth impairment of vessels is likely due to a decrease of cell proliferation and migration, but not cell death. In addition, loss of ftr82 affects the expression of vascular markers, which is consistent with the defect of vascular growth. Finally, we showed that ftr82 likely interacts with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and Notch signaling. Together, we identify teleost-specific ftr82 as a vascular gene that plays an important role for vascular development in zebrafish.

  1. The adventitia: Essential role in pulmonary vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Kurt R; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia; Anwar, Adil; Li, Min; Riddle, Suzette; Frid, Maria

    2011-01-01

    A rapidly emerging concept is that the vascular adventitia acts as a biological processing center for the retrieval, integration, storage, and release of key regulators of vessel wall function. It is the most complex compartment of the vessel wall and comprises a variety of cells including fibroblasts, immunomodulatory cells, resident progenitor cells, vasa vasorum endothelial cells, and adrenergic nerves. In response to vascular stress or injury, resident adventitial cells are often the first to be activated and reprogrammed to then influence tone and structure of the vessel wall. Experimental data indicate that the adventitial fibroblast, the most abundant cellular constituent of adventitia, is a critical regulator of vascular wall function. In response to vascular stresses such as overdistension, hypoxia, or infection, the adventitial fibroblast is activated and undergoes phenotypic changes that include proliferation, differentiation, and production of extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules, release of reactive oxygen species, chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and metalloproteinases that, collectively, affect medial smooth muscle cell tone and growth directly and that stimulate recruitment and retention of circulating inflammatory and progenitor cells to the vessel wall. Resident dendritic cells also participate in "sensing" vascular stress and actively communicate with fibroblasts and progenitor cells to simulate repair processes that involve expansion of the vasa vasorum, which acts as a conduit for further delivery of inflammatory/progenitor cells. This review presents the current evidence demonstrating that the adventitia acts as a key regulator of pulmonary vascular wall function and structure from the "outside in." © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  2. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  3. Limb vascular function in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Gliemann, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Throughout life, women are subjected to both acute fluctuations in sex hormones, associated with the menstrual cycle, and chronic changes following the onset of menopause. Female sex hormones, and in particular estrogen, strongly influence cardiovascular function such as the regulation of vascular...... studies. Physical activity should be recommended for women of all ages, but the most essential timing for maintenance of vascular health may be from menopause and onwards....

  4. Facial vascular malformations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelle, F.O.; Lallemand, D.; Chaumont, P.; Teillac, D.; Manach, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present their experience with conventional and digital angiography of vascular malformations of the head and neck in children. 22 hemangioendotheliomas, 8 venous angiomas, and 3 arteriovenous fistula were studied. 22 patients were embolised. DSA offers many advantages during the diagnostic as well as during the therapeutic phase of angiography. Embolization appears to have a major role in treatment of such vascular malformations. (orig.)

  5. Resorptive tooth root lesions in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Kortegaard, Hanne E; Choong, Siew Shean; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2011-03-01

    Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature. seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. Dental disease, Malayan tapir, radiology, resorptive lesions, Tapirus indicus.

  6. Angiogenesis, Cancer, and Vascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Moriya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have revealed that the angiogenic response to ischemic injury declines with age, which might account for the increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD among the elderly. While impairment of angiogenesis with aging leads to delayed wound healing or exacerbation of atherosclerotic ischemic diseases, it also inhibits the progression of cancer. Age-related changes of angiogenesis have been considered to at least partly result from vascular aging or endothelial cell senescence. There is considerable evidence supporting the hypothesis that vascular cell senescence contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related CVD, suggesting that vascular aging could be an important therapeutic target. Since therapeutic angiogenesis is now regarded as a promising concept for patients with ischemic CVD, it has become even more important to understand the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying impairment of angiogenesis in older patients. To improve the usefulness of therapeutic angiogenesis, approaches are needed that can compensate for impaired angiogenic capacity in the elderly while not promoting the development or progression of malignancy. In this review, we briefly outline the mechanisms of angiogenesis and vascular aging, followed by a description of how vascular aging leads to impairment of angiogenesis. We also examine potential therapeutic approaches that could enhance angiogenesis and/or vascular function in the elderly, as well as discussing the possibility of anti-senescence therapy or reversal of endothelial cell senescence.

  7. Injuries as a result of sports and vacation activities: Fractures with concomitant vascular injuries. Diagnosis and treatment concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlickewei, W.; Kuner, E.H.; Goetze, B.; Spillner, G.

    1989-01-01

    Extremity fractures with concomitant vascular injuries are surgical emergencies. Especially injuries of the upper extremities require a preoperative angiographic examination for the localization of the vascular lesion. In vascular lesions of the lower extremities a primary angiography is not necessary, if there is an opportunity for an intraoperative radiologic evaluation. In our traumatological department 104 patients were treated over the last 15 years with that combined injury. The concept of immediate stabilization of the fracture with simultaneous or postponed arterial repair has been proved to be appropriate. The fasziotomy as prophylactic procedure of a postischemic compartment syndrome is also a part of our concept during the last years. The late results in our mostly young patients depended on the degree of soft tissue damage and the time of ischemia. The often untreatable nerve lesions contributed to a loss of use of about 30% in the late courses. (orig.) [de

  8. The cerebral lesions of Wilson's disease on computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.

    1983-01-01

    M. Wilson is often being mistaken as such for several years and kept for psychosis or another extrapyramidal disease. When the disease causes neuro-psychiatric symptoms a certain part of cases shows typical lesions in CT mainly affecting the Nucleus lentiformis and frontal cortex. From our own material two cases of M. Wilson are shown and compared with two other cases with identical patterns of lesions following toxic and hypoxic brain damage. (orig.) [de

  9. Risk factors for vascular dementia: Hypotension as a key point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita Moretti, Paola Torre, Rodolfo M Antonello, Davide Manganaro, Cristina Vilotti, Gilberto PizzolatoDepartment of Internal Medicine and Clinical Neurology University of Trieste, ItalyAbstract: Physiologically, the cerebral autoregulation system allows maintenance of constant cerebral blood flow over a wide range of blood pressure. In old people, there is a progressive reshape of cerebral autoregulation from a sigmoid curve to a straight line. This implies that any abrupt change in blood pressure will result in a rapid and significant change in cerebral blood flow. Hypertension has often been observed to be a risk factor for vascular dementia (VaD and sometimes for Alzheimer disease although not always. Indeed, high blood pressure may accelerate cerebral white matter lesions, but white matter lesions have been found to be facilitated by excessive fall in blood pressure, including orthostatic dysregulation and postprandial hypotension. Many recent studies observed among other data, that there was a correlation between systolic pressure reduction and cognitive decline in women, which was not accounted for by other factors. Baseline blood pressure level was not significantly related to cognitive decline with initial good cognition. Some researchers speculate that blood pressure reduction might be an early change of the dementing process. The most confounding factor is that low pressure by itself might be a predictor of death; nevertheless, the effect of low blood pressure on cognition is underestimated because of a survival bias. Another explanation is that clinically unrecognized vascular lesions in the brain or atherosclerosis are responsible for both cognitive decline and blood pressure reduction. We discuss the entire process, and try to define a possible mechanism that is able to explain the dynamic by which hypotension might be related to dementia.Keywords: vascular dementia, hypotension, low blood pressure, alzheimer disease

  10. The surface chemistry determines the spatio-temporal interaction dynamics of quantum dots in atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Bernd; Hirn, Stephanie; Mildner, Karina; Coletti, Raffaele; Massberg, Steffen; Reichel, Christoph A; Rehberg, Markus; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Krombach, Fritz

    2018-03-01

    To optimize the design of nanoparticles for diagnosis or therapy of vascular diseases, it is mandatory to characterize the determinants of nano-bio interactions in vascular lesions. Using ex vivo and in vivo microscopy, we analyzed the interactive behavior of quantum dots with different surface functionalizations in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice. We demonstrate that quantum dots with different surface functionalizations exhibit specific interactive behaviors with distinct molecular and cellular components of the injured vessel wall. Moreover, we show a role for fibrinogen in the regulation of the spatio-temporal interaction dynamics in atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings emphasize the relevance of surface chemistry-driven nano-bio interactions on the differential in vivo behavior of nanoparticles in diseased tissue.

  11. Aboveground persistence of vascular plants in relationship to the levels of airborne nutrient deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, R.J.J.; Ozinga, W.A.; Berg, van den L.J.L.; Noordwijk, E.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Groenendael, van J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether high atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects aboveground persistence of vascular plants. We combined information on local aboveground persistence of vascular plants in 245 permanent plots in the Netherlands with estimated level of nitrogen deposition at the time of

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of port wine stain vascular anatomy from serial histological sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smithies, D. J.; van Gemert, M. J.; Hansen, M. K.; Milner, T. E.; Nelson, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    Port wine stains (PWSs) treated with a flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser show a variability in clinical response that is incompletely understood. To identify any vascular structure that might adversely affect treatment response, we obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction of the vascular anatomy

  13. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  14. Preoperative nonpalpable breast lesions localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardellin, G; Natale, F; Perin, B

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of real time sonography and mammography are examined in localizing with a hookwire (introduced via a straight needle) the nonpalpable breast lesions. The method, used for surgery or biopsy, was successful in a series of 13 patients with nonpalpable breast lesions, 4 affectd by carcinoma. 18 refs.

  15. Methane dynamics in Northern Wetlands: Significance of vascular plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joabsson, Anna

    2001-09-01

    The studies presented illustrate several different aspects of the impact of vascular plants on methane emissions from northern natural wetlands. The subject has been approached on different scales, ranging from the study of microbial substrates in the vicinity of a single plant root, to an attempt to extrapolate some of the results to the entire northern hemisphere north of 50 meridian. The main overall conclusions from the papers are that vascular plants affect net methane emissions 1) by offering an efficient route of transport to the atmosphere so that methane oxidation in oxic surface soils is avoided, and 2) by being sources of methanogenic substrate. The degree to which vascular wetland plants affect methane emissions seems to be dependent on species-specific differences in both the capacity to act as gas conduits and the exudation of labile carbon compounds to the soil. An intimate coupling between vascular plant production and methane emission was found in an Arctic tundra wetland, although other environmental variables (water table, temperature) also contributed significantly to the explained variation in methane exchange. Studies of vascular plant extidation of organic acids suggest that the available pool of methanogenic substrates is both qualitatively and quantitatively correlated to vascular plant production (photosynthetic rate). On global scales, vascular plant production as a single factor does not seem to be sufficient to explain the majority of variation in methane flux patterns. Based on comparable experiments at five different sites in the northwestern Eurasian and Greenlandic North, we suggest that mean seasonal soil temperature is the best predictor of methane exchange on broad spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Gregory C.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are ultimately responsible for determining vascular luminal diameter and blood flow. Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium are a critical mechanism regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Processes influencing intracellular calcium are therefore important regulators of vascular function with physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review we discuss the major dynamic calcium signals identified and characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  17. Vascular factors in suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerskov, Simon; Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Guo, Xinxin; Kern, Silke; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examined clinical and imaging findings of suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in relation to vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WMLs), using a nested case-control design in a representative, population-based sample. Methods: From a population-based sample, 1,235 persons aged 70 years or older were examined with CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000. We identified 55 persons with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., radiologic findings consistent with iNPH. Among these, 26 had clinical signs that fulfilled international guideline criteria for probable iNPH. These cases were labeled suspected iNPH. Each case was matched to 5 controls from the same sample, based on age, sex, and study cohort. Data on risk factors were obtained from clinical examinations and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, overweight, history of coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, and WMLs on CT were examined. Risk factors associated with iNPH with a p value <0.1 in χ2 tests were included in conditional logistic regression models. Results: In the regression analyses, suspected iNPH was related to moderate to severe WMLs (odds ratio [OR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–17.6), while hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was related to hypertension (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.8), moderate to severe WMLs (OR 6.5; 95% CI: 2.1–20.3), and DM (OR 4.3; 95% CI: 1.1–16.3). Conclusions: Hypertension, WMLs, and DM were related to clinical and imaging features of iNPH, suggesting that vascular mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology. These findings might have implications for understanding disease mechanisms in iNPH and possibly prevention. PMID:26773072

  18. Atherosclerosis is a vascular stem cell disease caused by insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traunmüller, Friederike

    2018-07-01

    The present article proposes the hypothesis that when multipotent vascular stem cells are exposed to excessive insulin in a rhythmic pattern of sharply rising and falling concentrations, their differentiation is misdirected toward adipogenic and osteogenic cell lineages. This results in plaque-like accumulation of adipocytes with fat and cholesterol deposition from adipocyte debris, and osteogenic (progenitor) cells with a calcified matrix in advanced lesions. The ingrowth of capillaries and infiltration with macrophages, which upon uptake of lipids turn into foam cells, are unspecific pro-resolving reactions. Epidemiological, histopathological, pharmacological, and experimental evidence in favour of this hypothesis is summarised. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  20. Injuries to the vascular endothelium: vascular wall and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial injury has multiple elements, and this article focuses on ischemia-related processes that have particular relevance to ischemic stroke. Distinctions between necrotic and apoptotic cell death provide a basic science context in which to better understand the significance of classical core and penumbra concepts of acute stroke, with apoptotic processes particularly prominent in the penumbra. The mitochondria are understood to serve as a reservoir of proteins that mediate apoptosis. Oxidative stress pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prominent in endothelial injury, both ischemic and nonischemic, with prominent roles of enzyme- and nonenzymemediated pathways; mitochondria once again have a critical role, particularly in the nonenzymatic pathways generating ROS. Inflammation also contributes to vascular endothelial injury, and endothelial cells have the capacity to rapidly increase expression of inflammatory mediators following ischemic challenge; this leads to enhanced leukocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by selectins and adhesion molecules. Preconditioning consists of a minor version of an injurious event, which in turn may protect vascular endothelium from injury following a more substantial event. Presence of the blood-brain barrier creates unique responses to endothelial injury, with permeability changes due to impairment of endothelial-matrix interactions compounding altered vasomotor tone and tissue perfusion mediated by nitric oxide. Pharmacological protection against vascular endothelial injury can be provided by several of the phosphodiesterases (cilostazol and dipyridamole), along with statins. Optimal clinical responses for protection of brain vascular endothelium may use preconditioning as a model, and will likely require combined protection against apoptosis, ROS, and inflammation.

  1. Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, S.; Knopp, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability. (orig.)

  2. The Development of Robotic Technology in Cardiac and Vascular Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pourdjabbar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine for over a decade, and over that period its use has been expanded to interventional cardiology and percutaneous coronary and peripheral vascular interventions. The safety and feasibility of robotically assisted interventions has been demonstrated in multiple studies ranging from simple to complex coronary lesions, and in the treatment of iliofemoral and infrapopliteal disease. These studies have shown a reduction in operator exposure to harmful ionizing radiation, and the use of robotics has the intuitive benefit of alleviating the occupational hazard of operator orthopedic injuries. In addition to the interventional operator benefits, robotically assisted intervention has the potential to also be beneficial for patients by allowing more accurate lesion length measurement, stent placement, and patient radiation exposure; however, more investigation is required to elucidate these benefits fully.

  3. Erythropoietin Attenuates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension through Interplay between Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Heme Oxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, Rosa Laura E; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Wagener, Frank A D T G; Affara, Nada; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Pennings, Sebastiaan W C; Takens, Janny; Berger, Rolf M F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). METHODS: Rats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO in the pre...

  4. Erythropoietin Attenuates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension through Interplay between Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Heme Oxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, Rosa Laura E.; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.; Affara, Nada; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Pennings, Sebastiaan W. C.; Takens, Janny; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Methods Rats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO i...

  5. CT findings of benign omental lesions following abdominal cancer surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yun; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jin Han; Kwon, Hee Jin; Ha, Dong Ho; Oh, Jong Young [Diagnostic Radiology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The greater omentum is the largest peritoneal fold and can be the origin of primary pathologic conditions, as well as a boundary and conduit for disease processes. Most diseases involving the omentum manifest with nonspecific and overlapping features on computed tomography (CT). In particular, varying benign disease processes of traumatic, inflammatory, vascular, or systemic origin can occur in the omentum during the follow-up period after surgery for intra-abdominal malignancy. It can be challenging for radiologists due to various spectrum of CT findings. Thus, we reviewed the CT findings of various benign omental lesions after surgery for intra-abdominal malignancy.

  6. Radiological characteristics of splenic lesions: how to distinguish them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    The spleen is often overlooked in studies of the upper abdomen probably due to the low frequency in which it occurs when compared to other abdominal solid organs. In this study we describe the main forms of splenic involvement by malignant or benign neoplasms, vascular, inflammatory and traumatic lesions, as well as congenital anomalies and variants of normality. We aimed to evaluate some characteristics and radiological aspects that permit the definition of the nature of splenic changes with considerable precision in order to allow an accurate diagnosis and increase radiologist's confidence on different situations. (author)

  7. Contrast enhancement of cranial lesions in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewander, R; Bergstroem, M; Bergvall, U [Kungliga Karolinska Mediko-Kirurgiska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    The time course of enhancement in apparently normal brain tissue, edema and focal lesions during 30 to 60 min after intravenous injection of vascular contrast medium was evaluated in a series of 41 pateints with differnt intracranial lesions. The attenuation of apparently normal unenhanced brain tissue varied with the level of the scan, mainly an effect of beam hardening. Different types of enhancement response are discussed in terms of a 3-compartment model. The differential diagnostic potential of contrast enhancement in the early phase needs further evaluation using instruments with short scanning time, while the late phase of enhancement must be recorded with the use of a reliable head fixation to provide reproducibility of repeat measurements.

  8. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities predict early ischemic recurrence in TIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Kim, Chi Kyung; Kim, Tae Jung; Oh, Kyungmi; Han, Moon-Ku; Ko, Sang-Bae; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate the relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensity (FVH) and early ischemic lesion recurrence (follow-up diffusion-weighted imaging [FU-DWI] [+]) in patients with lesion-negative TIA. We recruited consecutive patients with lesion-negative TIA within 24 hours of symptom onset, who underwent follow-up MRI during the acute period. FVH was defined as a focal or serpentine high signal intensity on FLAIR images. Other potential confounders were adjusted to evaluate the relationship between FVH and FU-DWI (+). Furthermore, to compare clinical outcomes between the FU-DWI (+) and FU-DWI (-) groups, we assessed 1-year recurrent ischemic stroke or TIA. Among 392 patients with lesion-negative TIA, 82 patients had FU-DWI (+) on the follow-up MRI. In the multivariate analysis, FVH remained an independent predictor of FU-DWI (+) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.45-9.29, p TIA. As FU-DWI (+) frequently occurs during the acute period and has a subsequent worse outcome after discharge, additional radiologic or clinical markers for it are necessary. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Vascular origin of vildagliptin-induced skin effects in Cynomolgus monkeys: pathomechanistic role of peripheral sympathetic system and neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Peter; Bentley, Phil; Sahota, Pritam; Schoenfeld, Heidi; Martin, Lori; Longo, Linda; Spaet, Robert; Moulin, Pierre; Pantano, Serafino; Dubost, Valerie; Lapadula, Dan; Burkey, Bryan; Kaushik, Virendar; Zhou, Wei; Hayes, Michael; Flavahan, Nick; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Busch, Steve

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to characterize skin lesions in cynomolgus monkeys following vildagliptin (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor) treatment. Oral vildagliptin administration caused dose-dependent and reversible blister formation, peeling and flaking skin, erosions, ulcerations, scabs, and sores involving the extremities at ≥5 mg/kg/day and necrosis of the tail and the pinnae at ≥80 mg/kg/day after 3 weeks of treatment. At the affected sites, the media and the endothelium of dermal arterioles showed hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Skin lesion formation was prevented by elevating ambient temperature. Vildagliptin treatment also produced an increase in blood pressure and heart rate likely via increased sympathetic tone. Following treatment with vildagliptin at 80 mg/kg/day, the recovery time after lowering the temperature in the feet of monkeys and inducing cold stress was prolonged. Ex vivo investigations showed that small digital arteries from skin biopsies of vildagliptin-treated monkeys exhibited an increase in neuropeptide Y-induced vasoconstriction. This finding correlated with a specific increase in NPY and in NPY1 receptors observed in the skin of vildagliptin-treated monkeys. Present data provide evidence that skin effects in monkeys are of vascular origin and that the effects on the NPY system in combination with increased peripheral sympathetic tone play an important pathomechanistic role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous toxicity. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  10. Cigarette smoke exposure promotes arterial thrombosis and vessel remodeling after vascular injury in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marco R; Sawalich, Matthias; Humboldt, Tim; Leifheit, Maren; Meurrens, Kris; Berges, An; Xu, Haiyan; Lebrun, Stefan; Wallerath, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros; Schleef, Raymond; Schaefer, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. However, in terms of the vessel wall, the underlying pathomechanisms of cigarette smoking are incompletely understood, partly due to a lack of adequate in vivo models. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were exposed to filtered air (sham) or to cigarette mainstream smoke at a total particulate matter (TPM) concentration of 600 microg/l for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h, for 5 days/week. After exposure for 10 +/- 1 weeks, arterial thrombosis and neointima formation at the carotid artery were induced using 10% ferric chloride. Mice exposed to mainstream smoke exhibited shortened time to thrombotic occlusion (p < 0.01) and lower vascular patency rates (p < 0.001). Morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of neointimal lesions demonstrated that mainstream smoke exposure increased the amount of alpha-actin-positive smooth muscle cells (p < 0.05) and dose-dependently increased the intima-to-media ratio (p < 0.05). Additional analysis of smooth muscle cells in vitro suggested that 10 microg TPM/ml increased cell proliferation without affecting viability or apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (100 and 500 microg TPM/ml) appeared to be cytotoxic. Taken together, these findings suggest that cigarette smoking promotes arterial thrombosis and modulates the size and composition of neointimal lesions after arterial injury in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Unveiling the 'unique bone': a study of the distribution of focal clavicular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, S.; Saifuddin, A.

    2008-01-01

    Clavicle is a unique bone for many reasons. There is no study discussing the differential diagnosis of clavicular lesions based on the site of occurrence or age at presentation. This study aims to determine whether the distribution of lesions affecting the clavicle and age at presentation aid in the differential diagnosis of focal clavicular lesions. Clinical notes, imaging and histopathological reports of the clavicular lesions between Jan 1999 and Jan 2006 were reviewed. Virtually, all patients had been referred as suspected neoplasm. Fifty-nine patients were identified. Patients 50 years (n=18) had predominantly malignant lesions. The lesions most commonly affected the medial third (n=35) and were predominantly non-neoplastic or benign. The middle third was affected in 15 patients and showed both benign and malignant lesions. The lateral third was least affected with predominance of malignant lesions. The clavicle is not a primary common site for any particular tumour; hence, diagnosis of the lesions can be challenging. Our study has suggested that few factors like age and site of the lesions may be helpful in diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Extra-vascular type of oral intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson′s tumor of lower lip: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Sarode

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH is an unusual reactive lesion of vascular origin, which rarely occurs in the oral cavity. Pathogenetically, is it divided into true, mixed and extra-vascular types. We report a case of extra-vascular IPEH of the lower lip in 54-year-old female patient. Patient gives history of trauma 4 months back with lesion developing at the site to trauma. The lesion was 3 cm × 4 cm in size with soft to firm in consistency. Histologically, it is characterized by an exuberant papillary endothelial cell proliferation toward the lumen of an enlarged blood vessel from the area of an organizing thrombus. The lesion was surgically excised under local anesthesia. The patient was followed for 1-year with no evidence of recurrence. This paper discusses the various aspects of IPEH of the oral cavity such as pathogenesis, clinical features, histopathology treatment, and prognosis.

  13. ROLE OF MULTIDETECTOR CT IN EVALUATION OF NECK LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Mathur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To find out the role of multidetector computed tomography in the evaluation of neck lesions with respect to evaluation of the size, location and extent of tumour. Extension of tumour infiltrating into surrounding vascular and visceral structures. To correlate the findings of MD-CT with final diagnosis by biopsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data for the study was collected from patients with suspected neck lesions attending Department of Radio-diagnosis, J.L.N. Medical College and Associated Group of Hospitals, Ajmer, Rajasthan. A prospective study was conducted over a period (From 1st March 2014 to 31 Aug. 2015 on patients with clinically suspected neck lesions or patients who were diagnosed to have neck lesion on ultrasound and were referred to CT for further characterisation. The patients presented with symptoms of palpable neck mass and neck pain. Patients were evaluated using multidetector CT. A provisional diagnosis was made after CT scan and these findings were correlated with histopathology/surgical findings as applicable. RESULT In the present study, 97 out of 100 cases were correctly characterised by computed tomography giving an accuracy of 97%. One case of buccal carcinoma was wrongly diagnosed as benign lesion and another case of malignant lymph node was inaccurately diagnosed as benign lymph node, also another case of benign lymph node was inaccurately diagnosed as malignant lymph node. CONCLUSION Multidetector Computed Tomography of the neck has improved the localisation and characterisation of neck lesions. Accurate delineation of disease by CT scan provides a reliable preoperative diagnosis, plan for radiotherapy ports and posttreatment followup. However, histopathology still remains the gold standard as CT is not 100% accurate.

  14. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Odontogenic Cysts: Is There Any Impression on Clinical Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, Donia; Farhadi, Sareh; Shahabi, Zahra; Sarshar, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    The recent scientific reports have shown that angiogenesis can affect biological behavior of pathologic lesions. Regarding unique clinical outcome of Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), the present study was aimed to compare angiogenesis in Odontogenic keratocyst and Dentigerous cyst (DC). In this experimental study, tissue sections of 46 samples of OKC and DC were stained through immunohistochemical method using Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) antibody. VEGF expression was evaluated in epithelial cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The average percentage of stained cells in any samples was categorized to 3 groups as follows: SCORE 0: 10% of cells or less are positive. SCORE 1: 10 to 50% of cells are positive. SCORE 2: more than 50% of cells are positive. Mann-U-Whitney, T-test and chi-square was used for statistical analysis. The average of VEGF expression in 24 samples of DC was 20.2% and in 22 samples of OKC was 52.6%, respectively. The average of VEGF expression in these two cysts had statistical significant differences. (PV= 0.045). There was significant statistical differences between two cysts in the terms of VEGF SCORE (PV= 0.000). OKC samples had significantly higher SCORE for the purpose of VEGF incidence than DC. Also, there were no differences between VEGF expression in epithelial cells of two cysts (PV= 0.268) there were significant statistical differences between two cysts in terms of endothelial cell staining. The endothelial cell staining was significantly higher in OKC than DC (PV= 0.037%). Regarding higher expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth factor in OKC than DC, it seems that angiogenesis may have great impression on clinical outcome of OKC.

  15. Changing activity in MS lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermode, A.G.; Tofts, P.S.; Thompson, A.J.; Rudge, P.; MacManus, D.G.; Kendall, B.E.; Moseley, I.F.; Kingsley, D.P.E.; McDonald, W.I.

    1989-01-01

    Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted MRI is a discriminating test for a defective blood-brain barrier, with MS lesions showing considerable variation in the pattern of enhancement. Since little is known of the changes in the blood-brain barrier in the active plaque over time, the natural history of blood-brain barrier disturbance in the MS lesion was examined to confirm earlier reports that Gd-DTPA enhancement is a consistent early event in new lesions of relapsing/remitting MS. This knowledge is essential for the use of MRI in monitoring treatment. (author). 9 refs

  16. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  17. Lesions of reuniens and rhomboid thalamic nuclei impair radial maze win-shift performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembrook, Jacqueline R; Mair, Robert G

    2011-08-01

    The reuniens (Re) and rhomboid (Rh) nuclei are major sources of thalamic input to hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. We compared effects of lesions in ReRh and other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex on tasks affected by lesions in terminal fields innervated by these nuclei, including: visuospatial reaction time (VSRT), a measure of sensory guided responding; serial VSRT, a measure of action sequence learning; and win/shift radial arm maze (RAM) measures of spatial memory. ReRh lesions affected RAM, but not VSRT or serial VSRT performance. The effects of caudal intralaminar lesions were doubly dissociated from ReRh lesions, affecting VSRT, but not RAM or serial VSRT performance. Rostral intralaminar lesions did not produce significant impairments, other than a subgroup with larger lesions that were impaired performing a delayed RAM task. Combined lesions damaging all three sites produced RAM deficits comparable to ReRh lesions and VSRT deficits comparable to caudal intralaminar lesions. Thus there was no indication that deficits produced by lesions in one site were exacerbated significantly by the cumulative effect of damage in other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex. The effects of ReRh lesions provide evidence that these nuclei affect memory functions of hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The double dissociation observed between the effects of ReRh and caudal intralaminar nuclei provides evidence that different nuclei within the midline-intralaminar complex affect distinct aspects of cognition consistent with the effects of lesions in the terminal fields they innervate. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Achados de imagem e alternativas terapêuticas das malformações vasculares periféricas Imaging findings and therapeutic alternatives for peripheral vascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Moretti Monsignore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As malformações vasculares periféricas compreendem um espectro de lesões que se tornam aparentes no decorrer da vida e podem ser encontradas em praticamente todo o corpo. São pouco comuns e frequentemente confundidas com o hemangioma infantil. Estas doenças são completamente distintas tanto em relação à história clínica como ao prognóstico e às formas de tratamento. Nestas lesões, a história evolutiva e as características do exame físico são de extrema importância para o adequado diagnóstico clinicorradiológico, que guiará a melhor alternativa terapêutica. As classificações mais recentes dividem as malformações vasculares periféricas levando em consideração o fluxo sanguíneo (alto e baixo e os componentes vasculares envolvidos (arteriais, capilares, linfáticos e venosos. As malformações vasculares periféricas representam um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico, e exames complementares como tomografia computadorizada, ultrassonografia com Doppler e ressonância magnética, em conjunto com a história clínica, podem trazer informações quanto às características de fluxo e à extensão das lesões. Arteriografia e flebografia confirmam o diagnóstico, avaliam a sua extensão e orientam a decisão terapêutica. Malformações de baixo fluxo geralmente são tratadas por abordagem percutânea e injeção de agente esclerosante, enquanto para as malformações de alto fluxo o acesso é endovascular com uso de agentes embolizantes permanentes líquidos ou sólidos.Peripheral vascular malformations represent a spectrum of lesions that appear through the lifetime and can be found in the whole body. Such lesions are uncommon and are frequently confounded with infantile hemangioma, a common benign neoplastic lesion. In the presence of such lesions, the correlation between the clinical and radiological findings is extremely important to achieve a correct diagnosis, which will guide the best therapeutic approach. The

  19. The Vascular Biology of Atherosclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, R; Jones, H. P

    2006-01-01

    .... Despite this fact, most individuals are asymptomatic until many decades later. Autopsy studies of coronary arteries from healthy, young American soldiers killed during the Korean conflict revealed surprisingly advanced atherosclerotic lesions...

  20. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and va