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  1. Direct means of obtaining CAVI0-a corrected cardio-ankle vascular stiffness index (CAVI)-from conventional CAVI measurements or their underlying variables.

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    Spronck, Bart; Mestanik, Michal; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Jurko, Alexander; Jurko, Tomas; Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark

    2017-09-21

    Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as measured using the VaSera device (CAVI VS , Fukuda Denshi), has been proposed as a stiffness index that does not depend on blood pressure. We have recently shown theoretically that CAVI VS still exhibits blood pressure dependence, and proposed the corrected index CAVI 0 . The present study aims to establish a method of calculating [Formula: see text] either (i) from VaSera-reported values of cardiac-brachial and brachial-ankle pulse transit times (tb and tba, respectively) and blood pressure, or (ii) directly from CAVI VS . To derive this method, the relationship among CAVI VS and its scale constants a and b, tb, tba, and blood pressure has to be established. From data of 497 subjects, eight candidate CAVI parameters were defined and calculated, containing all combinations of left or right tb/tba/blood pressure. Candidates were evaluated through correlation with measured left and right CAVI VS . Correlations were compared statistically. Once the correct candidates were determined, two constants (a and b) required for converting CAVI VS to CAVI 0 were estimated through linear regression. Left and right CAVI VS are calculated using left and right tba; however, both left and right CAVI VS are calculated using right brachial blood pressures and right tb. Constants a and b for conversion of CAVI VS to CAVI 0 were estimated to be 0.842 [0.836 0.848] and 0.753 [0.721 0.786] (mean [95%CI]), respectively. Equations to estimate CAVI 0 from CAVI VS , and to directly calculate CAVI 0 from the VaSera output are provided in this paper, as well as in a directly usable spreadsheet supplement. Our results permit straightforward calculation of [Formula: see text] during a study, as well as retrospective estimation of [Formula: see text] from CAVI VS in already published studies or where the original transit time values are not available, paving the way for thorough comparison of CAVI 0 to CAVI VS in clinical and research settings. Novelty and

  2. Relationship between Blood Stasis Syndrome Score and Cardioankle Vascular Index in Stroke Patients

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    Ki-Ho Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis syndrome (BSS in traditional Asian medicine has been considered to correlate with the extent of atherosclerosis, which can be estimated using the cardioankle vascular index (CAVI. Here, the diagnostic utility of CAVI in predicting BSS was examined. The BSS scores and CAVI were measured in 140 stroke patients and evaluated with respect to stroke risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CAVI for the diagnosis of BSS. The BSS scores correlated significantly with CAVI, age, and systolic blood pressure (SBP. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that CAVI was a significant associate factor for BSS (OR 1.55, P=0.032 after adjusting for the age and SBP. The ROC curve showed that CAVI and age provided moderate diagnostic accuracy for BSS (area under the ROC curve (AUC for CAVI, 0.703, P<0.001; AUC for age, 0.692, P=0.001. The AUC of the “CAVI+Age,” which was calculated by combining CAVI with age, showed better accuracy (0.759, P<0.0001 than those of CAVI or age. The present study suggests that the CAVI combined with age can clinically serve as an objective tool to diagnose BSS in stroke patients.

  3. Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index and Indices of Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Akihiko Ando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI is used to test vascular function and is an arterial stiffness marker and potential predictor of cardiovascular events. This study aimed to analyze the relation between objective indices of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN and the CAVI. One hundred sixty-six patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in this study. We used nerve conduction studies (NCSs and the coefficient of variation of the R-R interval to evaluate DPN. We estimated arteriosclerosis by the CAVI. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed between neuropathy indices and the CAVI. In univariate analysis, the CAVI showed significant associations with sural sensory nerve conduction velocity and median F-wave conduction velocity. Multiple linear regression analysis for the CAVI showed that sural nerve conduction velocity and median F-wave conduction velocity were significant explanatory variables second only to age. In multiple linear regression analysis for sural nerve conduction velocity among neuropathy indices, the CAVI remained the most significant explanatory variable. In multiple linear regression analysis for median nerve F-wave conduction velocity among neuropathy indices, the CAVI remained the second most significant explanatory variable following HbA1c. These results suggest a close relationship between macroangiopathy and DPN.

  4. Cardio-ankle vascular index and subclinical heart disease.

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    Schillaci, Giuseppe; Battista, Francesca; Settimi, Laura; Anastasio, Fabio; Pucci, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between arterial stiffness, measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV), and the left ventricle is confounded by the effects of blood pressure. We evaluated the relationship between carotid-femoral PWV and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), a less pressure-dependent measurement of the stiffness constant (β) of the aorta and the iliac, femoral and tibial arteries, and obtained prognostically relevant measurements of left ventricular structure and systolic function. CAVI, carotid-femoral PWV and echocardiographic left ventricular mass and systolic function were determined in 133 subjects with either hypertension or high-normal blood pressure (33% treated; 56 ± 16 years, blood pressure 145/89 ± 21/12 mm Hg). Carotid-femoral PWV exhibited a direct relationship with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.33/0.26, P 0.1). Both CAVI and PWV correlated significantly with left ventricular mass index (r = 0.31, P0.1). In a multivariate regression model, CAVI was independently associated with inappropriate left ventricular mass (β = 0.40, P < 0.001), along with body mass index. CAVI also demonstrated a negative relationship with left ventricular midwall fractional shortening (r = -0.41, P = 0.001) that was independent of age, sex, blood pressure and left ventricular mass in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion, a high CAVI is associated with inappropriately high left ventricular mass and low midwall systolic function. As a marker of arterial diastolic-to-systolic stiffening, CAVI may have a relationship with left ventricular structure and function that is independent of blood pressure levels.

  5. Association of Metabolic Syndrome with the Cardioankle Vascular Index in Asymptomatic Korean Population

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    Nam, Su-Hyun; Lee, Yun-Ah; Rho, Jun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a cluster of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors. The cardioankle vascular index (CAVI) reflects arterial stiffness and may be used as an indicator of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the association of CAVI with metabolic syndrome. Methods. A total of 1,144 adults were included in this study. We measured CAVIs and examined blood samples to identify metabolic syndrome according to WHO Asia Pacific criteria and NCEP-ATPIII criteria. AST, ALT, r-GTP, BUN, creatinine, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and uric acid were also measured. Results. CAVI values were significantly higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome than those without metabolic syndrome and increased according to the number of metabolic syndrome components present. Subjects with high fasting blood sugar levels or high blood pressure showed high CAVI values. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, and uric acid were independent predictors of CAVI. Conclusion. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had high CAVIs, which indicated arterial stiffness, and were closely associated with an increase in the number of metabolic risk factors. The individual risk factors for metabolic syndrome have the synergistic effect of elevating arterial stiffness in asymptomatic Korean population. PMID:26273666

  6. Arterial stiffness evaluation by cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertension and diabetes mellitus subjects.

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    Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Jinbo; Zhao, Hongwei; Fu, Xiaobao; Shang, Guangyun; Zhou, Yingyan; Yu, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xujing; Wang, Guang; Shi, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for vascular diseases. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of arterial stiffness. In the present study, we investigated the possible risk factors involving CAVI in hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects. One thousand sixty-three subjects (M/F 533/530) from Shougang Corporation Examination Center were divided into four groups: healthy group (n = 639); hypertension group (n = 312); DM group (n = 58); and hypertension with DM group (n = 54). CAVI was measured by VS-1000 apparatus. Our results showed that CAVI was significantly higher in hypertension subjects with DM than in healthy and hypertension group, respectively (8.59 ± 1.08 vs 7.23 ± 1.10; 8.59 ± 1.08 vs 7.94 ± 1.33; both P hypertension subjects with DM compared with healthy and hypertension groups. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyles With the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in a General Mediterranean Population.

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    Elosua-Bayés, Marc; Martí-Lluch, Ruth; García-Gil, María Del Mar; Camós, Lourdes; Comas-Cufí, Marc; Blanch, Jordi; Ponjoan, Anna; Alves-Cabratosa, Lia; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel

    2018-06-01

    The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) assesses arterial stiffness. We aimed to describe the distribution of CAVI in a Mediterranean population, to determine the proportion of CAVI ≥ 9 by sex and coronary risk level, and to assess the association of CAVI with classic cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle patterns. This cross-sectional study was based on the population of Girona province. The CAVI was measured using the VaSera VS-1500. Of 2613 individuals included in this study, the prevalence of CAVI ≥ 9 was 46.8% in men and 36.0% in women and significantly increased with coronary risk: from 21.1% and 24.8%, respectively to 76.7%, in the low-risk group, and 61.9% in the high-risk group. The CAVI increased with age in both sexes, being higher in men across all age groups. In men, CAVI ≥ 9 was associated with hypertension (OR, 2.70; 95%CI, 1.90-3.87) and diabetes (OR, 2.38; 95%CI, 1.52-3.78), body mass index (BMI) ≤ 25 to < 30 (OR, 0.44; 95%CI, 0.27-0.72) and BMI ≥ 30 (OR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.14-0.58), and physical activity (OR, 0.66; 95%CI, 0.47-0.92). In women, CAVI ≥ 9 was associated with hypertension (OR, 2.22; 95%CI, 1.59-3.09), hypercholesterolemia (OR, 1.40; 95%CI, 1.01-1.94), and BMI ≥ 30 (OR, 0.38; 95%CI, 0.20-0.71). The CAVI increases with age and is higher in men than in women. This index is associated with classic risk factors and coronary risk. It could be a good predictive biomarker, but further follow-up studies are required to assess its added value to cardiovascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Cardiorespiratory Fitness is a Strong Predictor of the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in Hypertensive Middle-aged and Elderly Japanese Men.

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    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Kawakami, Ryoko; Oshima, Satomi; Gando, Yuko; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with arterial stiffening, evaluated using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), independent of visceral fat (VF) in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men. We also examined whether the relationship between CRF and the CAVI is modified by age and/or hypertension. The CAVI was determined in 157 Japanese men (age range, 30-79 years), including 96 hypertensive subjects (61.1%). CRF was assessed by measuring the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). The subjects were divided into low- and high-CRF groups, and the VF area was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. The VO2peak correlated with the CAVI following adjustment for age and body mass index in the middle-aged and elderly groups (all the subjects: r=-0.285, p<0.001; middle-aged: r=-0.240, p=0.040; elderly: r=-0.225, p=0.049). VF also correlated with the CAVI (r=0.230, p=0.004). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (β=0.406, pmen.

  9. Blood pressure-independent effect of candesartan on cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome

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    Kanako Bokuda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Kanako Bokuda1, Atsuhiro Ichihara1,2, Mariyo Sakoda1, Asako Mito1, Kenichiro Kinouchi1, Hiroshi Itoh11Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Endocrinology and Anti-Aging Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs are known to reduce the cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. This study was designed to examine the effect of an ARB candesartan on subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI in comparison with calcium channel blockers (CCBs alone in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS. A total of 53 consecutive hypertensive patients with MetS were randomly assigned to the candesartan group, in which candesartan was added on, or the CCBs group, in which CCBs were added on. Clinical and biological parameters were obtained before and after the 12-month treatment period. The primary measure of efficacy was the %change in CAVI. When treated with candesartan, but not CCBs, CAVI significantly decreased from 8.7 to 7.7 by 11%. Blood pressure (BP significantly decreased with both treatments, but the differences between groups were not significant. The changes in other parameters remained unchanged in both the groups. Analysis of covariance found that both the BP reduction and the therapy difference contributed to the decrease in CAVI, but the BP reduction was not involved in the decrease in CAVI caused by the difference in the therapy. Candesartan may be a better antihypertensive drug than CCBs to that subclinical atherosclerosis of patients with MetS.Keywords: albuminuria, ambulatory blood pressure, calcium channel blockers, carotid ­intima-media thickness

  10. Cardio-ankle vascular index is associated with cardiovascular target organ damage and vascular structure and function in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome, LOD-DIABETES study: a case series report.

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    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel Ángel; Recio-Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Patino-Alonso, María Carmen; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gómez-Sánchez, Leticia; Gomez-Sanchez, Marta; Rodríguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose Angel; García-Ortiz, Luís

    2015-01-16

    The cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of the overall stiffness of the artery from the origin of the aorta to the ankle. This index can estimate the risk of atherosclerosis. We aimed to find the relationship between CAVI and target organ damage (TOD), vascular structure and function, and cardiovascular risk factors in Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. We included 110 subjects from the LOD-Diabetes study, whose mean age was 61 ± 11 years, and 37.3% were women. Measurements of CAVI, brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV), and ankle brachial index (ABI) were taken using the VaSera device. Cardiovascular risk factors, renal function by creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, and albumin creatinine index were also obtained, as well as cardiac TOD with ECG and vascular TOD and carotid intima media thickness (IMT), carotid femoral PWV (cf-PWV), and the central and peripheral augmentation index (CAIx and PAIx). The Framingham-D'Agostino scale was used to measure cardiovascular risk. Mean CAVI was 8.7 ± 1.3. More than half (54%) of the participants showed one or more TOD (10% cardiac, 13% renal; 48% vascular), and 13% had ba-PWV ≥ 17.5 m/s. Patients with any TOD had the highest CAVI values: 1.15 (CI 95% 0.70 to 1.61, p < 0.001) and 1.14 (CI 95% 0.68 to 1.60, p < 0.001) when vascular TOD was presented, and 1.30 (CI 95% 0.51 to 2.10, p = 0.002) for the cardiac TOD. The CAVI values had a positive correlation with HbA1c and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and a negative correlation with waist circumference and body mass index. The positive correlations of CAVI with IMT (β = 0.29; p < 0.01), cf-PWV (β = 0.83; p < 0.01), ba-PWV (β = 2.12; p < 0.01), CAIx (β = 3.42; p < 0.01), and PAIx (β = 5.05; p = 0.04) remained after adjustment for cardiovascular risk, body mass index, and antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic drugs. The

  11. Differences in cardio-ankle vascular index in a general Mediterranean population depending on the presence or absence of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors.

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    Martí-Lluch, Ruth; Garcia-Gil, Maria Del Mar; Camós, Lourdes; Comas-Cufí, Marc; Elosua-Bayés, Marc; Blanch, Jordi; Ponjoan, Anna; Alves-Cabratosa, Lia; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel

    2017-09-01

    The main aim of this study is to describe the differences in the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in individuals with metabolic cardiovascular risk factors or a previous history of vascular diseases (WCVRF) compared to healthy individuals (free of risk factors and previous history of vascular diseases; FCVRF) in a general Mediterranean population. The secondary aim is to describe the proportion of CAVI≥9 depending on the cardiovascular risk category in both CVRF groups by sex. The study is a descriptive analysis of 2613 participants randomly selected in the Girona province (Catalonia, Spain). CAVI mean differences between sexes and age categories in both CVRF groups followed the same pattern, the FCVRF group (men 25.2%; women 14.4%) in turn had a lower prevalence of CAVI≥9 than the WCVRF group (men 57.9%; women 51.8%). The percentage of men and women with CAVI≥9 with low risk was 13.9% and 11.3% in the FCVRF group, and 31.8% and 42.0% in the WCVRF group; with moderate risk, it was 55.8% and 10.0% in the FCVRF group and 60.3% and 49.0% in the WCVRF group. In both sexes, FCVRF groups had a lower prevalence of CAVI≥9 as well as lower mean CAVI scores, across all 10 year-age categories from 40 to 69 years, than WCVRF groups. Moreover, CAVI≥9 was frequent in individuals with low and moderate coronary risk in the WCVRF group but also in the FCVRF group. These results suggest that CAVI assessment to detect asymptomatic arteriosclerosis could be a useful tool to improve cardiovascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [DESIDENT CaviCide a new disinfectant].

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    Severa, J; Klaban, V

    2009-01-01

    The properties of the new disinfection agent DESIDENT CaviCide, such as characteristics, disinfection efficiency, biological degradability and ecotoxicity are described. Also areas and forms of usage this biocidal agent are mentioned.

  13. Production systems, diversity and richness of cavy culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess existing cavy (Cavia porcellus) production systems of Cameroon western highlands and rain forest agro-ecological zones, a household ... for a well designed and comprehensive national breeding program for cavies, and increased capacity building of farmers to address mortality rates and health issues.

  14. Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Vascular Function and Structure Markers and Gender Difference in a Real-World Population of China-From Beijing Vascular Disease Patients Evaluation Study (BEST) Study.

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    Liu, Huan; Liu, Jinbo; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhou, Yingyan; Li, Lihong; Wang, Hongyu

    2018-03-01

    The study was done to establish the relationship between serum uric acid (UA) and vascular function and structure parameters including carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV), carotid radial pulse wave velocity (CR-PWV), cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI), ankle brachial index (ABI), and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and the gender difference in a real-world population from China. A total of 979 subjects were enrolled (aged 60.86±11.03 years, male 416 and female 563). Value of UA was divided by 100 (UA/100) for analysis. Body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), UA, and UA/100 were significantly higher in males compared with females (all p<0.05); pulse pressure (PP), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were lower in males than females (all p<0.05). All vascular parameters including CF-PWV, CR-PWV, CAVI, ABI, and CIMT were higher in males than females (all p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that UA/100 was independently positively linearly correlated with CAVI (B=0.143, p=0.001) and negatively correlated with ABI in the male population (B=-0.012, p=0.020). In people with higher UA, the risk of higher CF-PWV was 1.593 (p<0.05). 1. All vascular parameters were higher in males than females. There was no gender difference in the relationship between UA and vascular markers except in ABI. 2. UA was independently linearly correlated with CAVI. 3. In people with higher UA level, the risk of higher CF-PWV increased. Therefore, higher UA may influence the vascular function mainly instead of vascular structure.

  15. Body Mass Index and Operating Times in Vascular Procedures

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    M. Durup-Dickenson

    Full Text Available : Introduction: The influence of body mass index (BMI on operating times in central and peripheral vascular surgical procedures was investigated. Report: A national cohort of Danish patients who underwent a vascular procedure between 1983 and 2012 was used for analysis. Data were analysed with pairwise comparisons of BMI groups for operating times using the independent samples Kruskall–Wallis test. Discussion: A total of 3,255 carotid endarterectomies; 6,885 central vascular procedures; and 4,488 peripheral bypasses were included for the analysis. Median operating times for carotid endarterectomy and central vascular procedures were, respectively, 5 and 15 minutes longer in obese patients than in normal weight patients. This represents a 7% and 10% increase in median operating times, respectively. Linear and multi-adjusted linear regressions were conducted adjusting for confounders, showing a significant correlation between BMI and operating time. Obesity significantly increased the operating times in carotid endarterectomy and central vascular procedures. These may have ramifications for the individual operative stress but not necessarily on logistical operation planning. Keywords: Body mass index (BMI, Obesity, Operating time, Surgery, Vascular surgical procedures

  16. Improved assessment of arterial stiffness using corrected cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI0) in overweight adolescents with white-coat and essential hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Měšťaník, M.; Jurko, A.; Spronck, B.; Avolio, A.P.; Butlin, M.; Jurko, T.; Višnovcová, Z.; Měšťaníková, A.; Langer, Peter; Tonhajzerová, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 8 (2017), s. 665-672 ISSN 0036-5513 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : atherosclerosis * hypertension * pulse wave analysis Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: Medical engineering Impact factor: 1.446, year: 2016

  17. VASCULAR REMODELING AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN DIFFERENT ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

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    E. D. Golovanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of the long-term antihypertensive monotherapy with indapamide (Arifon Retard, 1,5 mg/d, metoprolol tartrate (Egilok Retard, 50 mg/d and combined therapy with indapamide and perindopril (Noliprel Forte, 1 tab/d: perindopril 4 mg and indapamide 1,25 mg on pulse wave velocity (PWV, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI and the sympathetic system activity.Material and methods. 88 patients, aged 30-59 y.o. (32 normotensive patients, 56 with arterial hypertension [HT] of 1-2 grades were examined. Biological age (BA was determined by the linear regression and the vascular wall age (VWA was estimated with the use of volume sphygmography (“VaSera-1000”, “Fucuda Denshi”, Japan. 39 patients with HT were randomized into 3 parallel groups with studied therapies lasted for 6 months. PWV, CAVI of the vessels of elastic, muscular and mixed types, blood pressure, measured in upper and lower extremities and heart rate variability (HRV were determined before and at the end of the therapies.Results. BA and VWA were elevated in all of patients with HT as compared with normotensive patients. The reduction in PWV and CAVI of the vessels of elastic and mixed types, HRV increase were found in patients with Arifon Retard monotherapy. Monotherapy with metoprolol significantly improved HVR without any influence on the vascular remodeling. Noliprel Forte significantly decreased in blood pressure in the upper and lower extremities, PWV and CAVI of the vessels of all types, decreased in VWA and increased in parasympathetic drive.Conclusion. Long-term therapy with Arifon Retard and Noliprel Forte resulted in decrease in vascular remodeling and increase in HRV simultaneously with significant antihypertensive effect in patients with HT. Metoprolol low doses therapy resulted in normalization of autonomic drive independently on antihypertensive action.

  18. A neurodegenerative vascular burden index and the impact on cognition

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    Sebastian eHeinzel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of vascular burden factors have been identified to impact vascular function and structure as indicated by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. On the basis of their impact on IMT, vascular factors may be selected and clustered in a vascular burden index (VBI. Since many vascular factors increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD, a multifactorial neurodegenerative VBI may be related to early pathological processes in AD and cognitive decline in its preclinical stages.We investigated an elderly cohort at risk for neurodegeneration (TREND study, n = 1102 for the multifactorial influence of vascular burden factors on IMT measured by ultrasound. To create a VBI for this cohort, vascular factors and their definitions (considering medical history, medication and/or blood marker data were selected based on their statistical effects on IMT in multiple regressions including age and sex. The impact of the VBI on cognitive performance was assessed using the Trail-Making Test (TMT and the CERAD neuropsychological battery.IMT was significantly predicted by age (standardized β = .26, sex (.09; males > females and the factors included in the VBI: obesity (.18, hypertension (.14, smoking (.08, diabetes (.07, and atherosclerosis (.05, whereas other cardiovascular diseases or hypercholesterolemia were not significant. Individuals with 2 or more VBI factors compared to individuals without had an odds ratio of 3.17 regarding overly increased IMT (≥1.0 mm. The VBI showed an impact on executive control (log(TMT B-A, p = .047 and a trend towards decreased global cognitive function (CERAD total score, p = .057 independent of age, sex and education.A VBI established on the basis of IMT may help to identify individuals with overly increased vascular burden linked to decreased cognitive function indicating neurodegenerative processes. The longitudinal study of this risk cohort will reveal the value of the VBI as prodromal marker for cognitive decline and

  19. The correlation of vascularization index and flow index of thyroid cancer ultrasound with tumor malignancy

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    Bing Liao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of ultrasound vascularization index and flow index of thyroid cancer with tumor malignancy. Methods: A total of 140 patients with thyroid nodule who accepted surgical resection in our hospital between May 2013 and June 2016 were selected as the research subjects, the patients with malignant thyroid nodule were included in the malignant group of the research and patients with benign thyroid nodule were included in the benign group of research. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography was conducted before operation to determine vascularization index (VI, flow index (FI and vascularization flow index (VFI; tumor tissues were collected after operation to detect the expression of angiogenesis as well as cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion-related molecules. Results: VI, FI and VFI levels of tumor tissue of malignant group were significantly higher than those of benign group; VEGF, MK, Ang-2, IGF-II, Bcl-2, Livin, Wip1, S100A4, TCF, β-catenin and SATB1 protein expression in tumor tissue of malignant group were significantly higher than those of benign group and positively correlated with VI, FI and VFI levels while CCNG2 and p27 protein expression were significantly lower than those of benign group and negatively correlated with VI, FI and VFI levels. Conclusion: Ultrasound vascularization index and flow index of thyroid cancer increase significantly and are closely related to the angiogenesis as well as cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion.

  20. Determinants of participation in cavy marketing: Evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Franklin Simtowe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder supply chain participation remains low despite the potential welfare gains that would result from choosing a market-oriented production. Yet, studies on determinants of market participation for commodities with underdeveloped value chains are scanty. Employing a double-hurdle model, this paper examines factors determining households’ participation in cavy marketing among cavy farmers from Sud-Kivu province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We find that wealthier households participated less in cavy marketing while those producing more cavies were more likely to participate in their marketing. Moreover, smaller households tended to sell more cavies, while households with other livestock sold fewer cavies. The findings underscore the significance of increasing the participation in the cavy supply chains by farmers through the promotion of appropriate husbandry practices that enhance cavy productivity and production and that enable farmers to participate in markets as sellers.

  1. State stiffness parameters of the vascular wall in hypertensive patients complex therapy cytoprotector and sartans

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    V. P. Mikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized study of the state of stiffness parameters arteries wall (CAVI — cardio-ankle vascular index, AI (augmentation index PEP (duration of the voltage of the left ventricle using «VaSera-1000» («Fukuda Denshi», Japan in primary hypertension patients (80 not treated with systemic antihypertensive therapy. The effect of long-term (3 months was be marketed. Losartan combined with Mexicor 300mg/day or mildronate 1000 mg/day for the specified parameters. It sets the initial reduction the properties of the arterial wall in patients with hypertension, in contrast to healthy individuals. Mexicor or mildronat accompanied by improvement east-cal properties of the arterial wall, reducing CAVI and AI in 3 months on 9.4% and 8.9%, 14.9% and 15.4%, respectively. In the control group-term change CAVI and AI no. Mexicor led to a more pronounced increase in PEP, than mildronate, respectively, on 23.7% and 18.9%. Losartan monotherapy results in a less pronounced decrease in the stiffness of the vessel wall.

  2. Hemodynamic comparison of mild and severe preeclampsia: concept of stroke systemic vascular resistance index.

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    Scardo, J; Kiser, R; Dillon, A; Brost, B; Newman, R

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare baseline hemodynamic parameters of mild and severe preeclampsia. Patients admitted to the Medical University Labor and Delivery Unit with the diagnosis of preeclampsia who had not received prior antihypertensive or magnesium sulfate therapy were recruited for noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring with thoracic electrical bioimpedance. After stabilization in the lateral recumbent position, hemodynamic monitoring was begun. Baseline hemodynamic parameters, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), cardiac index (CI), and stroke index (SI) were recorded. Stroke systemic vascular resistance index (SSVRI), the resistance imposed by vasculature on each beat of the heart, was calculated for each patient by multiplying SVRI by HR. For statistical analysis, unpaired Student's t-tests (two-tailed) were utilized (P preclampsia appears to be a more intensely vasoconstricted state than mild preeclampsia. Although CI is inversely proportional to SVRI, increased HR in severe preeclampsia prevents this expected decrease in cardiac output.

  3. Brachial index does not reflect upper extremity functionality following surgery for vascular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Simsek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Vascular injuries to the upper extremities requiring surgical repair are common after accidents. However, neither postoperative functionality nor hemodynamic status of the extremity are routinely described. We evaluated the postoperative functional and hemodynamic status of patients with vascular traumas in the upper extremities. METHODS: 26 patients who suffered penetrating vascular traumas in the upper extremities from November 2008 to December 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. Data on first approach, surgical technique employed and early postoperative outcomes were recorded. Further data on the post-discharge period, including clinical functional status of the arm, Doppler ultrasonography and brachial-brachial index were also evaluated. RESULTS: Average follow up was 33.5±10.8 months. Right (1.05±0.09 and left (1.04±0.08 brachial indexes were measured during follow up,. Doppler ultrasonography showed arterial occlusion in 4 patients (15%. Near-normal brachial-brachial indexes was observed in all four of these patients with occlusion of one of the upper extremity arteries, even though they exhibited limited arm function for daily work. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of the postoperative outcomes of this small series of patients with penetrating vascular traumas in the upper extremity revealed that 15% of them suffered occlusion of one artery of the upper extremity. Artery occlusion did not correlate with brachial-brachial Doppler index, probably due to rich collateral circulation, but occlusion was associated with an extremity that was dysfunctional for the purposes of daily work. The result of the brachial-brachial index does not therefore correlate with functionality.

  4. Genetic diversity and structure of domestic cavy (Cavia porcellus populations from smallholder farms in southern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basengere Ayagirwe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although domestic cavies are widely used in sub-Saharan Africa as a source of meat and income, there are only a few studies of their population structure and genetic relatedness. This seminal study was designed with the main objective to assess the genetic diversity and determine the population structure of cavy populations from Cameroon to guide the development of a cavy improvement program. Sixteen microsatellite markers were used to genotype 109 individuals from five cavy populations (Wouri, Moungo and Nkongsamba in the Littoral region, and Mémé and Fako in the Southwest region of Cameroon. Twelve markers worked in the five populations with a total of 17 alleles identified, with a range of 2.9 to 4.0 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity (from 0.022 to 0.277 among populations was lower than expected heterozygosity (from 0.42 to 0.54. Inbreeding rates between individuals of the populations and between individuals in each population were 59.3% and 57.2%, respectively, against a moderate differentiation rate of 4.9%. All the tested loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for locus 3. Genetic distances between populations were small (from 0.008 to 0.277, with a high rate of variability among individuals within each population (54.4%. Three distinct genetic groups were structured. This study has shown that microsatellites are useful for the genetic characterization of cavy populations in Cameroon and that the populations investigated have sufficient genetic diversity that can be used to be deployed as a basis for weight, prolificacy and disease resistance improvement. The genetic of diversity in Southern Cameroon is wide and constitute an opportunity for cavy breeding program.

  5. Application of the Red List Index for conservation assessment of Spanish vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Juan Carlos Moreno; Lozano, Felipe Domínguez; Gómez, Manuel Marrero; Baudet, Ángel Bañares

    2015-06-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Index (RLI) is used to measure trends in extinction risk of species over time. The development of 2 red lists for Spanish vascular flora during the past decade allowed us to apply the IUCN RLI to vascular plants in an area belonging to a global biodiversity hotspot. We used the Spanish Red Lists from 2000 and 2010 to assess changes in level of threat at a national scale and at the subnational scales of Canary Islands, Balearic Islands, and peninsular Spain. We assigned retrospective IUCN categories of threat to 98 species included in the Spanish Red List of 2010 but absent in the Spanish Red List of 2000. In addition, we tested the effect of different random and taxonomic and spatial Spanish samples on the overall RLI value. From 2000 to 2010, the IUCN categories of 768 species changed (10% of Spanish flora), mainly due to improved knowledge (63%), modifications in IUCN criteria (14%), and changes in threat status (12%). All measured national and subnational RLI values decreased during this period, indicating a general decline in the conservation status of the Spanish vascular flora. The Canarian RLI value (0.84) was the lowest, although the fastest deterioration in conservation status occurred on peninsular Spain (from 0.93 in 2000 to 0.92 in 2010). The RLI values based on subsamples of the Spanish Red List were not representative of RLI values for the entire country, which would discourage the use of small areas or small taxonomic samples to assess general trends in the endangerment of national biotas. The role of the RLI in monitoring of changes in biodiversity at the global and regional scales needs further reassessment because additional areas and taxa are necessary to determine whether the index is sufficiently sensitive for use in assessing temporal changes in species' risk of extinction. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index may improve the definition of ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perel, Azriel

    2013-01-24

    The recent Berlin definition has made some improvements in the older definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), although the concepts and components of the definition remained largely unchanged. In an effort to improve both predictive and face validity, the Berlin panel has examined a number of additional measures that may reflect increased pulmonary vascular permeability, including extravascular lung water. The panel concluded that although extravascular lung water has improved face validity and higher values are associated with mortality, it is infeasible to mandate on the basis of availability and the fact that it does not distinguish between hydrostatic and inflammatory pulmonary edema. However, the results of a multi-institutional study that appeared in the previous issue of Critical Care show that this latter reservation may not necessarily be true. By using extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index, both of which are derived from transpulmonary thermodilution, the authors could successfully differentiate between patients with ARDS and other patients in respiratory failure due to either cardiogenic edema or pleural effusion with atelectasis. This commentary discusses the merits and limitations of this study in view of the potential improvement that transpulmonary thermodilution may bring to the definition of ARDS.

  7. New noninvasive index for evaluation of the vascular age of healthy and sick people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Ilya; Kuznik, Boris I.; Kaminsky, Alexander V.; Shenkman, Louis; Kustovsjya, Evgeniya M.; Maximova, Olga G.

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a study on 861 healthy and sick subjects and demonstrated that some calculated parameters based on measurement of the dynamic light scattering (DLS) signal from the finger correlate highly with chronological age ranging from 1.5 to 85 years old. Measurements of DLS signals were obtained during both occlusion and nonocclusion of blood flow in the finger. For the nonocclusion case we found that the low-frequency component of the DLS signal significantly correlates with the biological age while the high-frequency component of the DLS signal resembles the arterial pulse-wave and does correlate with age. However, the most prominent correlation between the DLS characteristics and age was noted with the stasis stage measurements. We propose that the observed age-related phenomena are caused by alterations in local blood viscosity and interactions of the endothelial cells with erythrocytes. Further, a new noninvasive index based on the age-related optical characteristics was introduced. This noninvasive index may be used as a research and diagnostic tool to examine the endothelial and thrombolytic properties of the vascular system.

  8. Effects of domestication on biobehavioural profiles: a comparison of domestic guinea pigs and wild cavies from early to late adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Domestication can lead to marked alterations in the biobehavioural profile of a species. Furthermore, during ontogeny, the individual phenotype of an animal can be shaped by the environment in important phases such as adolescence. We investigated differences in biobehavioural profiles between domestic guinea pigs and their ancestor, the wild cavy, over the course of adolescence. At this age, comparisons between the two groups have not been conducted yet. Male guinea pigs and cavies were subjected to a series of tests twice: during the early and late phase of adolescence. We analysed emotional and social behaviours as well as cortisol reactivity and testosterone levels. Results Concerning emotional behaviour, cavies were more explorative and showed more anxiety-like behaviour in the open field test and dark-light test. They also were more risk-taking when having to jump off an elevated platform. Regarding social behaviour, cavies showed less social activity towards unfamiliar females and infants. Furthermore, while guinea pigs and cavies did not differ in basal cortisol levels, cavies showed distinctly higher and prolonged cortisol responses when exposed to an unfamiliar environment. Cavies also had lower basal testosterone titres. No substantial changes in biobehavioural profiles were revealed over the course of adolescence in both groups. Conclusions Domestication led to a substantial shift in the biobehavioural profile of the guinea pig regarding all investigated domains in early and late adolescence. Hence, the differentiation between guinea pigs and cavies emerges early in ontogeny, well before the attainment of sexual maturity. The young individuals already show adaptations that reflect the differences between the natural habitat of cavies and the man-made housing conditions guinea pigs are exposed to. Higher levels of exploration and risk-taking and lower levels of anxiety-like behaviour are necessary for cavies in order to cope with their

  9. Increased pulsatility index supports diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism versus idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, L M; Ferrairó, J I T; Torres, I M; Costa, J F V; Muñoz, R B; Martin, A L

    2017-12-29

    The diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism (VP) is based on a series of clinical criteria and neuroimaging findings. An increase in transcranial Doppler ultrasonography pulsatility index (PI) has been described as a frequent finding in patients with VP. We aimed to confirm this association and to determine the PI value with the highest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of VP. PI was determined in all patients admitted to Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe due to parkinsonism between January 2012 and June 2016. We assessed the probability of having VP based on PI values in patients with a definite diagnosis of either VP or idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). A ROC curve was created to determine the PI value with the highest sensitivity and specificity. We assessed a total of 146 patients with suspected parkinsonism; 54 (37%) were diagnosed with IPD and 15 (10%) with VP. Patients with VP were significantly older than those with IPD (mean age of 79 vs 68.5, P=.00144) and had a higher PI (median of 1.29 [IQR: 1.09-1.38] vs 0.96 [IQR: 0.89-1.16], P=.01328). In our sample, a PI of 1.09 conferred 84% sensitivity and 70% specificity. In our series, the PI was significantly higher in patients with VP than in those with IPD. We therefore support the use of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography for the initial assessment of elderly patients with akinetic-rigid syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary patterns, involvement in physical activity and body mass index of Romanian adults having cardio-vascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Lotrean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of a healthy diet, an active lifestyle and appropriate body weight are important components of cardio-vascular disease prevention and control. This study aimed to assess several dietary patterns, involvement in physical activity and body mass index (BMI of Romanian adults hospitalized because of diagnoses of cardio-vascular diseases (CVD. The study was performed in 2014 in 1 hospital setting from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It involved 80 adult patients (45 to 78 years old hospitalized with diagnoses of CVD. Anonymous questionnaire assessing several lifestyle related behaviours were filled in by the participants; based on their weight and height, the BMI was calculated. The results show that 76.2% of the participants recognize the role of consumption of fruits and vegetables for cardio-vascular diseases prevention and control, but only 5% meet the recommendations of eating at least 5 portions of fruits and vegetables (around 400 g daily. The majority of the subjects know that the consumption of animal fat increases the risk for cardio-vascular diseases, but, only one out of two patients declared their constant preoccupation for avoiding products rich in saturated fatty acids, such as animal fat, high fat dairy products and high fat meat. Around 80% of the participants know the risk of obesity for cardio-vascular diseases, but 81.2% have a BMI higher than 25. A percentage of 60% of the patients declared that they received general information from health care professionals about diet, physical activity and cardio-vascular disease prevention, while one quarter followed an educational program for this issue and only one out of ten patients followed a personalized program for loosing weight. Comprehensive educational and counselling programs for promoting healthy nutrition and achievement of an appropriate body weight are needed for Romanian adults having CVD

  11. Prognostic value of brachioradialis muscle oxygen saturation index and vascular occlusion test in septic shock patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Corral, J; Claverias, L; Bodí, M; Pascual, S; Dubin, A; Gea, J; Rodriguez, A

    2016-05-01

    To compare rSO2 (muscle oxygen saturation index) static and dynamic variables obtained by NIRS (Near Infrared Spectroscopy) in brachioradialis muscle of septic shock patients and its prognostic implications. Prospective and observational study. Intensive care unit. Septic shock patients and healthy volunteers. The probe of a NIRS device (INVOS 5100) was placed on the brachioradialis muscle during a vascular occlusion test (VOT). Baseline, minimum and maximum rSO2 values, deoxygenation rate (DeOx), reoxygenation slope (ReOx) and delta value. Septic shock patients (n=35) had lower baseline rSO2 (63.8±12.2 vs. 69.3±3.3%, p<0.05), slower DeOx (-0.54±0.31 vs. -0.91±0.35%/s, p=0.001), slower ReOx (2.67±2.17 vs. 9.46±3.5%/s, p<0.001) and lower delta (3.25±5.71 vs. 15.1±3.9%, p<0.001) when compared to healthy subjects (n=20). Among septic shock patients, non-survivors showed lower baseline rSO2 (57.0±9.6 vs. 69.8±11.3%, p=0.001), lower minimum rSO2 (36.0±12.8 vs. 51.3±14.8%, p<0.01) and lower maximum rSO2 values (60.6±10.6 vs. 73.3±11.2%, p<0.01). Baseline rSO2 was a good mortality predictor (AUC 0.79; 95%CI: 0.63-0.94, p<0.01). Dynamic parameters obtained with VOT did not improve the results. Septic shock patients present an important alteration of microcirculation that can be evaluated by NIRS with prognostic implications. Monitoring microvascular reactivity in the brachioradialis muscle using VOT with our device does not seem to improve the prognostic value of baseline rSO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Postprandial Effects of Breakfast Glycemic Index on Vascular Function among Young Healthy Adults: A Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women, aged 20–40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They consumed three experimental breakfasts in randomized order, each one separated by a 1-week washout period: (1 control conditions (only water; (2 low GI (LGI breakfast (29.4 GI and 1489 KJ energy; and (3 high GI (HGI breakfast (64.0 GI and 1318 KJ energy. Blood samples were collected at 60 and 120 min after each breakfast to determine glucose and insulin levels. Vascular parameters were measured at 15 min intervals. Augmentation index (AIx was studied as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes comprised glucose, insulin, heart rate (HR and pulse pressures (PPs. We found a trend toward increased AIx, HR and PPs for the HGI versus the LGI breakfast. A significant interaction between the type of breakfast consumed and all measured parameters was identified (p < 0.05 except for central PP. Stratifying data by sex, this interaction remained significant for AIx and augmentation pressure only in males (p < 0.05. In conclusion, breakfast GI could affect postprandial vascular responses in young healthy adults.

  13. Computerized Audio-Visual Instructional Sequences (CAVIS): A Versatile System for Listening Comprehension in Foreign Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman-Centeno, Josefina R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the development and evaluation of CAVIS, which consists of an Apple microcomputer used with audiovisual dialogs. Includes research on the effects of three conditions: (1) computer with audio and visual, (2) computer with audio alone and (3) audio alone in short-term and long-term recall. (EKN)

  14. Extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index may improve the definition of ARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Perel, Azriel

    2013-01-01

    The recent Berlin definition has made some improvements in the older definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), although the concepts and components of the definition remained largely unchanged. In an effort to improve both predictive and face validity, the Berlin panel has examined a number of additional measures that may reflect increased pulmonary vascular permeability, including extravascular lung water. The panel concluded that although extravascular lung water has improve...

  15. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L. [and others

    1994-12-08

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility.

  16. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility

  17. Overexpression of thrombospondin-1 reduces growth and vascular index but not perfusion in glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Michael; Quistorff, Bjørn; Tenan, Mirna

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of antiangiogenic therapy on perfusion of human tumors and the mechanisms by which tumors can adapt to these treatments and recur. Here, we examined the effects of serial passaging of LN-229 human glioma xenografts overexpressing thrombospondin (TSP)-1 on tumor...... vascularity was estimated by noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy measuring blood volume at 800 +/- 10 nm and by histological vessel scores in CD31-immunostained cryosections. The tumor perfusion was assessed by noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry. Overexpression of TSP-1 significantly inhibited tumor....... Elucidation of the mechanisms that allow this to happen has important consequences for the understanding of tumor recurrence after antiangiogenic therapy....

  18. Leukocyte subtype counts and its association with vascular structure and function in adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk. MARK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Gomez-Sanchez

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between leukocyte subtype counts and vascular structure and function based on carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, central augmentation index and cardio-ankle vascular index by gender in intermediate cardiovascular risk patients.This study analyzed 500 subjects who were included in the MARK study, aged 35 to 74 years (mean: 60.3±8.4, 45.6% women.Brachial ankle Pulse Wave Velocity (ba-PWV estimate by equation, Cardio-AnkleVascular Index (CAVI using the VaSera device and Carotid ultrasound was used to measure carotid Intima Media Thickness (IMT. The Mobil-O-Graph was used to measure the Central Augmentation Index (CAIx.Total leukocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts were positively correlated with IMT (p < 0.01 in men. Monocyte count was positively correlated with CAIx in women (p < 0.01. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the IMT mean maintained a positive association with the neutrophil count (β = 1.500, p = 0.007 in men. CAIx maintained a positive association with the monocyte count (β = 2.445, p = 0.022 in women.The results of this study suggest that the relationship between subtype circulating leukocyte counts and vascular structure and function, although small, may be different by gender. In men, the neutrophil count was positively correlated with IMT and in women, the monocyte count with CAIx, in a large sample of intermediate-risk patients. These association were maintained after adjusting for age and other confounders.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01428934.

  19. Reduced cerebral oxygen–carbohydrate index during endotracheal intubation in vascular surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Andreas; Overgaard, Anders; Winther-Olesen, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Brain activation reduces balance between cerebral consumption of oxygen versus carbohydrate as expressed by the so-called cerebral oxygen-carbohydrate-index (OCI). We evaluated whether preparation for surgery, anaesthesia including tracheal intubation and surgery affect OCI. In patients undergoing...... aortic surgery, arterial to internal jugular venous (a-v) concentration differences for oxygen versus lactate and glucose were determined from before anaesthesia to when the patient left the recovery room. Intravenous anaesthesia was supplemented with thoracic epidural anaesthesia for open aortic surgery...

  20. High pulmonary vascular resistance in addition to low right ventricular stroke work index effectively predicts biventricular assist device requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Ono, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Although the right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI) is a good index for RV function, a low RVSWI is not necessarily an indicator for the need for a right ventricular assist device at the time of left VAD implantation. We here aimed to determine a more precise indicator for the need for a biventricular assist device (BiVAD). In total, 116 patients (mean age, 38 ± 14 years), who underwent hemodynamic assessments preoperatively including 12 BiVAD patients, and had been followed at our institute from 2003 to 2015, were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that RVSWI and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were independent predictors of BiVAD requirement (P 5 g/m, PVR 5, PVR > 3.7), (3) RV failure (RVSWI 3.7), and examined. Most of the patients in Group 4 (75 %), with acutely depressed hemodynamics and inflammatory responses in the myocardium, required BiVAD. Overall, patients with BiVAD had a worse survival rate as compared with those with LVAD alone. In conclusion, high PVR in addition to low RVSWI effectively predicts BiVAD requirement.

  1. Novel Application of a Multiscale Entropy Index as a Sensitive Tool for Detecting Subtle Vascular Abnormalities in the Aged and Diabetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Tsai Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have shown the successful use of pressure-induced reactive hyperemia as a tool for the assessment of endothelial function, its sensitivity remains questionable. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and sensitivity of a novel multiscale entropy index (MEI in detecting subtle vascular abnormalities in healthy and diabetic subjects. Basic anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters, serum lipid profiles, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were recorded. Arterial pulse wave signals were acquired from the wrist with an air pressure sensing system (APSS, followed by MEI and dilatation index (DI analyses. MEI succeeded in detecting significant differences among the four groups of subjects: healthy young individuals, healthy middle-aged or elderly individuals, well-controlled diabetic individuals, and poorly controlled diabetic individuals. A reduction in multiscale entropy reflected age- and diabetes-related vascular changes and may serve as a more sensitive indicator of subtle vascular abnormalities compared with DI in the setting of diabetes.

  2. Within-litter differences in personality and physiology relate to size differences among siblings in cavies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A; Trillmich, F

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of an animal's early life potentially contribute to long-term individual differences in physiology and behaviour. From several studies on birds and mammals it is known that the early family environment is one of the most prominent factors influencing early development. Most of these studies were conducted on highly altricial species. Here we asked whether in the highly precocial cavy (Cavia aperea) the size rank within a litter, i.e. whether an individual is born as the heaviest, the lightest or an intermediate sibling, affects personality traits directly after birth and after independence. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual states (early growth, baseline cortisol and resting metabolic rate) differ between siblings of different size ranks and assessed their relation to personality traits. Siblings of the same litter differed in personality traits as early as three days after birth. Pups born heaviest in the litter were more explorative and in general more risk-prone than their smaller siblings. Physiological state variables were tightly correlated with personality traits and also influenced by the size rank within litter, suggesting that the size relative to littermates constitutes an important factor in shaping an individual's developmental trajectory. Our data add valuable information on how personalities are shaped during early phases of life and indicate the stability of developmentally influenced behavioural and physiological traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Domestication effects on behavioural traits and learning performance: comparing wild cavies to guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, Vera; Guenther, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The domestication process leads to a change in behavioural traits, usually towards individuals that are less attentive to changes in their environment and less aggressive. Empirical evidence for a difference in cognitive performance, however, is scarce. Recently, a functional linkage between an individual's behaviour and cognitive performance has been proposed in the framework of animal personalities via a shared risk-reward trade-off. Following this assumption, bolder and more aggressive animals (usually the wild form) should learn faster. Differences in behaviour may arise during ontogeny due to individual experiences or represent adaptations that occurred over the course of evolution. Both might singly or taken together account for differences in cognitive performance between wild and domestic lineages. To test for such possible linkages, we compared wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs, both kept in a university stock for more than 30 years under highly comparable conditions. Animals were tested in three behavioural tests as well as for initial and reversal learning performance. Guinea pigs were less bold and aggressive than their wild congeners, but learnt an association faster. Additionally, the personality structure was altered during the domestication process. The most likely explanation for these findings is that a shift in behavioural traits and their connectivity led to an altered cognitive performance. A functional linkage between behavioural and cognitive traits seems to exist in the proposed way only under natural selection, but not in animals that have been selected artificially over centuries.

  4. Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia : EEG global power independently predicts vascular impairment and brain symmetry index reflects severity of cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V.A.; Mariën, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J.T.M.; Saerens, Jos; Van Putten, Michel J.A.M.; de Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  5. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia : EEG Global Power Independently Predicts Vascular Impairment and Brain Symmetry Index Reflects Severity of Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose:Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  6. Virkemidler i arbejdsmiljøindsatsen: Afslutningsrapport fra Center for forskning i virkemidler og arbejdsmiljøindsatser (CAVI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Møller, Niels; Refslund, Bjarke

    This report presents CAVI's research processes and results. It focuses especially on the four key sub-projects within the overall project framework: • The joint project in which we have worked to develop theory and general understandings of how the policy instruments and work environment initiati...... to perform the work in a safe manner. The results show that cooperation between peers has a significant impact on companies' approach to the work environment, and particularly the development of mutual trust in the network is crucial for a successful outcome.......This report presents CAVI's research processes and results. It focuses especially on the four key sub-projects within the overall project framework: • The joint project in which we have worked to develop theory and general understandings of how the policy instruments and work environment...... initiatives are put into practice in companies. • Organisation of work environment activities in the companies (the AMO project) where the focus has been on both the formal work environment organisation, including the 2010 reform of the legislation on the establishment of an internal work environment...

  7. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  8. Pulmonary venous flow index as a predictor of pulmonary vascular resistance variability in congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary flow: a comparative study before and after oxygen inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivan Romero; Mendonça, Maria Alayde; Andrade, José Lázaro; Moises, Valdir; Campos, Orlando; Silva, Célia Camelo; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

    2013-09-01

    There is no definitive and reliable echocardiographic method for estimating the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to differentiate persistent vascular disease from dynamic pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the pulmonary venous blood flow velocity-time integral (VTIpv) and PVR. Eighteen patients (10 females; 4 months to 22 years of age) with congenital heart disease and left to right shunt were studied. They underwent complete cardiac catheterization, including measurements of the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio, before and after 100% oxygen inhalation. Simultaneous left inferior pulmonary venous flow VTIpv was obtained by Doppler echocardiography. The PVR decreased significantly from 5.0 ± 2.6 W to 2.8 ± 2.2 W (P = 0.0001) with a significant increase in the Qp:Qs ratio, from 3.2 ± 1.4 to 4.9 ± 2.4 (P = 0.0008), and the VTIpv increased significantly from 22.6 ± 4.7 cm to 28.1 ± 6.2 cm (P = 0.0002) after 100% oxygen inhalation. VTIpv correlated well with the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio (r = -0.74 and 0.72, respectively). Diagnostic indexes indicated a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 75%, accuracy of 83%, a positive predictive value of 92% and a negative predictive value of 60%. The VTIpv correlated well with the PVR. The measurement of this index before and after oxygen inhalation may become a useful noninvasive test for differentiating persistent vascular disease from dynamic and flow-related pulmonary hypertension. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) in comparison with fasting plasma glucose improved diabetes prediction in patients with normal fasting glucose: The Vascular-Metabolic CUN cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, David; Sánchez-Íñigo, Laura; Pastrana-Delgado, Juan; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the potential role of the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) as a predictor of diabetes in a White European cohort, and compared it to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and triglycerides. 4820 patients of the Vascular-Metabolic CUN cohort (VMCUN cohort) were examined and followed up for 8.84years (±4.39). We performed a Cox proportional hazard ratio with repeated-measures analyses to assess the risk of developing type 2 diabetes across quartiles of FPG, triglycerides and the TyG index (ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dl)×fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)/2]), and plotted a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for discrimination. There were 332 incident cases of type 2 diabetes involving 43,197.32person-years of follow-up. We observed a progressively increased risk of diabetes in subjects with TyG index levels of 8.31 or more. Among those with normal fasting glucose at baseline, index in the fourth quartile were 6.87 times more likely to develop diabetes (95% CI, 2.76-16.85; P for trendindex, 0.66 (0.60-0.72) for FPG and 0.71 (0.65-0.77) for TG, in subjects with normal fasting glucose (p=0.017). Our data suggest that the TyG index is useful for the early identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. The TyG index seems to be a better predictor than FPG or triglycerides of the potential development of type 2 diabetes in normoglycemic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of two methods for calculating the mean vascularization index of ovarian stroma on the basis of spatio-temporal image correlation high-definition flow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudla, Marek J; Kandzia, Tomasz; Alcázar, Juan Luis

    2013-11-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the agreement between two different methods for calculating the mean vascularization index (VI) of ovarian stroma using spatio-temporal image correlation-high definition flow (STIC-HDF) technology. Stored 4-D STIC-HDF volume data for ovaries of 34 premenopausal women were assessed retrospectively. We calculated the mean VI from the VI values derived for each 3-D volume within the STIC sequence. Then, the examiner subjectively selected the two volumes with the highest and lowest color signals, respectively. We averaged these two values. Agreement between VI measurements was estimated by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients. The intra-class correlation coefficient for the VI was 0.999 (95% confidence interval: 0.999-1.000). The mean time needed to calculate the mean VI using the entire 4-D STIC sequence was significantly longer than the mean time needed to calculate the average value from the volumes with the highest and lowest color signals determined by the operator (p < 0001). We conclude that there is significant agreement between the two methods. Calculating the average VI from the highest and lowest values is less time consuming than calculating the mean VI from the complete STIC sequence. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavie (Cavia porcellus) and mitigation strategies using guava (Psidium guajava) leaves essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoula, Ferdinand; Guemdjo Tekam, Maryvonne; Kenfack, Augustave; Tadondjou Tchingo, Cyrille D'Alex; Nouboudem, Sandrine; Ngoumtsop, Herman; Tsafack, Borice; Teguia, Alexis; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Galeotti, Marco; Tchoumboue, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Climate changes, particularly the increase of temperature are among the main causes behind the decline of fertility in humans as well as animals. In this study, the effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavies and mitigation strategies using guava leaves essential oil (GLEO) were studied. For this purpose, 40 male cavies aged 2.5-3 months and weighing between 348 and 446g were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each and subjected to the following temperatures: Ambient temperature (20-25°C) for the control group, 35°C for group 1, 45°C for group 2 and 45°C+100µl GLEO/kg body weight, administered by gavage to animals for group 3. Exposure time of heat was 7h per day for 60 days. Results reveal that the relative weights of testes, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles were hardly affected by the temperature levels considered (P>0.05). The mass and individual sperm motility was significantly lower (Pleaves essential oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epididymal sperm from Spix's yellow-toothed cavies sperm successfully cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréia M; Praxedes, Erica C G; Campos, Lívia B; Bezerra, Luana G P; Moreira, Samara S J; Maia, Keilla M; Souza, Ana L P; Silva, Alexandre R

    2018-04-01

    As a non-threatened hystricognath rodent species, Spix's yellow-toothed cavies can be used as a model for the development of assisted reproductive techniques for the conservation of closely related species. The objective was to establish a functional protocol for cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from these cavies. Twelve sexually mature males, ∼2 y old and weighing ∼300 g, were euthanized. Sperm were recovered by retrograde flushing of the vas deferens and cauda epididymis with Tris extender. Thereafter, sperm were extended in Tris plus 20% egg yolk, with 3%, 6% or 9% glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), placed in 0.25 mL straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Sperm concentration, motility (using computer-assisted sperm analysis; CASA), plasma membrane integrity, osmotic response, morphology and sperm binding-ability were determined in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. For most sperm endpoints, glycerol was a more desirable cryoprotectant than DMSO. Data (mean ± SEM) were similar with use of 3%, 6%, and 9% glycerol (P > 0.05) in osmotic response (40.66 ± 6.3%, 42.5 ± 7.1%, and 39.5 ± 5.0% respectably), and membrane integrity (55.17 ± 5.5%, 68.4 ± 4.1%, and 59.1 ± 4.9% respectably). Among concentrations assessed, the use of 6% glycerol resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) post-thaw values for total motility (60.9 ± 4.4%), rapid subpopulation motility (27.7 ± 3.1%) and sperm-binding capability (227.0 ± 20.2). In conclusion, epididymal sperm from the Spix's yellow-toothed cavies (G. spixii) are optimally cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  14. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  15. NONINVASIVE EVALUATION OF VASCULAR WALL STIFFNESSIN HEALTHY ADOLESCENTS, THE RISK FACTORS FOR ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Filippov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the main indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in healthy ado-lescents with such risk factors (RF for arterial hypertension (AH as a family history on hypertension and smoking. Identify changes in the initial elastic-elastic properties of the arteries at the preclinical stage of development of hypertension.Material and methods. It was formed two groups of comparison. Age studied from 13 to 17 years (mean age (15.00 ± 0.31 years. The first group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents whose parents suffer from hypertension from a young age. The second group consisted of 30 healthy smokers teenager from healthy parents. The control group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents from healthy parents. Determines the basic stiffness of the vascular wall: PWV, CAVI, SAI.Results. A significant in crease in the indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in the two comparison groups relative to the control. PWV: 6,89 ± 0,56 (first group, 7.13 ± 0.55 (second group and 5.5 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.L-CAVI: 5,46 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.84 ± 0.61 (second group and 4.32 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.R-CAVI: 5,63 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.89 ± 0.56 (second group and 4.49 ± 0.41(control, p < 0.05. R-AI: 0,89 ± 0,09 (first group, 0.95 ± 0.12 (second group and 0.62 ± 0.1 (control, p < 0.05.Smoking teenagers and adolescents with family history of hypertension, there are changes in the initial stiffness of the vessel wall, which requires the allocation of at-riskfor the development of hypertension and prevention activities at the preclinical stage of development ofthe disease.

  16. The clinical usefulness of extravascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability index to diagnose and characterize pulmonary edema: a prospective multicenter study on the quantitative differential diagnostic definition for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by features other than increased pulmonary vascular permeability. Pulmonary vascular permeability combined with increased extravascular lung water content has been considered a quantitative diagnostic criterion of ALI/ARDS. This prospective, multi-institutional, observational study aimed to clarify the clinical pathophysiological features of ALI/ARDS and establish its quantitative diagnostic criteria. Methods The extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and the pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were measured using the transpulmonary thermodilution method in 266 patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 mmHg and bilateral infiltration on chest radiography, in 23 ICUs of academic tertiary referral hospitals. Pulmonary edema was defined as EVLWI ≥ 10 ml/kg. Three experts retrospectively determined the pathophysiological features of respiratory insufficiency by considering the patients' history, clinical presentation, chest computed tomography and radiography, echocardiography, EVLWI and brain natriuretic peptide level, and the time course of all preceding findings under systemic and respiratory therapy. Results Patients were divided into the following three categories on the basis of the pathophysiological diagnostic differentiation of respiratory insufficiency: ALI/ARDS, cardiogenic edema, and pleural effusion with atelectasis, which were noted in 207 patients, 26 patients, and 33 patients, respectively. EVLWI was greater in ALI/ARDS and cardiogenic edema patients than in patients with pleural effusion with atelectasis (18.5 ± 6.8, 14.4 ± 4.0, and 8.3 ± 2.1, respectively; P edema or pleural effusion with atelectasis patients (3.2 ± 1.4, 2.0 ± 0.8, and 1.6 ± 0.5; P edema patients. A PVPI value of 2.6 to 2.85 provided a definitive diagnosis of ALI/ARDS (specificity, 0.90 to 0.95), and a value < 1.7 ruled out an ALI/ARDS diagnosis (specificity, 0.95). Conclusion

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 208 ... Vol 15, No 1 (2013), Management of Medical Wastes: Public Awareness and Associated Health Risks, Abstract ... for Better Livelihood: Prospects of Domestic Cavy in Mixed Production Systems of Tanzania, Abstract ... as Indicators of Environmental Stress: The Case of Mindu Catchment Area, Abstract.

  18. Effects of metabolic syndrome on arterial function in different age groups: the Advanced Approach to Arterial Stiffness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouchian, Jirar; Labat, Carlos; Gautier, Sylvie; Bäck, Magnus; Achimastos, Apostolos; Blacher, Jacques; Cwynar, Marcin; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pall, Denes; Fantin, Francesco; Farkas, Katalin; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Hakobyan, Zoya; Jankowski, Piotr; Jelakovic, Ana; Kobalava, Zhanna; Konradi, Alexandra; Kotovskaya, Yulia; Kotsani, Marina; Lazareva, Irina; Litvin, Alexander; Milyagin, Viktor; Mintale, Iveta; Persson, Oscar; Ramos, Rafael; Rogoza, Anatoly; Ryliskyte, Ligita; Scuteri, Angelo; Sirenko, Yuriy; Soulis, Georges; Tasic, Nebojsa; Udovychenko, Maryna; Urazalina, Saule; Wohlfahrt, Peter; Zelveian, Parounak; Benetos, Athanase; Asmar, Roland

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the Advanced Approach to Arterial Stiffness study was to compare arterial stiffness measured simultaneously with two different methods in different age groups of middle-aged and older adults with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). The specific effects of the different MetS components on arterial stiffness were also studied. This prospective, multicentre, international study included 2224 patients aged 40 years and older, 1664 with and 560 without MetS. Patients were enrolled in 32 centres from 18 European countries affiliated to the International Society of Vascular Health & Aging. Arterial stiffness was evaluated using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) in four prespecified age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-74, 75-90 years. In this report, we present the baseline data of this study. Both CF-PWV and CAVI increased with age, with a higher correlation coefficient for CAVI (comparison of coefficients P Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted values of CF-PWV and CAVI were weakly intercorrelated (r = 0.06, P Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted values for CF-PWV but not CAVI were higher in presence of MetS (CF-PWV: 9.57 ± 0.06 vs. 8.65 ± 0.10, P age on CAVI and CF-PWV and suggests that age may have a more pronounced effect on CAVI, whereas MetS increases CF-PWV but not CAVI. This important finding may be due to heterogeneous effects of MetS components on CAVI. The clinical significance of these original results will be assessed during the longitudinal phase of the study.

  19. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... with the literature from South Africa over the last four decades, and reflects the high rate of interpersonal violence in the country.14,15 As expected, cervical ... via the intact circle of Willis in young patients is the most likely explanation for the lack of strokes. Five patients were referred to the Durban vascular ...

  20. Vascular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields ...

  1. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can stabilize the hemodynamic instability due to mesenteric traction syndrome--evaluation with continuous measurement of the systemic vascular resistance index using a FloTrac® sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Motoshi; Taruishi, Chieko; Sudani, Tomoko; Suzuki, Akira; Iida, Hiroki

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of the stabilizing effect of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil against hemodynamic instability due to mesenteric traction syndrome (MTS) by continuous measurement of systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) using a FloTrac(®) sensor was evaluated. Prospective randomized trial. A single-center study performed in an educational hospital. Two prospective studies were carried out, each with 40 patients scheduled for elective open abdominal surgery. Twenty patients received 50 mg of flurbiprofen axetil after the recognition of MTS by the anesthesiologist (group FT). The remaining patients served as controls (groups CP and CT). SVRI data was collected every 20 seconds for 1 hour after starting the laparotomy. The average SVRI prior to skin incision was taken as the baseline. Following 3 values were devised to evaluate MTS: the S-value (sum total of changes in SVRI from baseline), the T-value (period during which SVRI remained 20% or more below baseline), and the M-value (maximum change in SVRI from baseline). In group FP, decrease in SVRI was smaller than in group CP, and statistical differences in the 3 values were found. In group FT, SVRI recovered earlier than in group CT, and statistical differences were found in S-value and T-value. However, the M-value had no statistical differences. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can stabilize the hemodynamic instability due to MTS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reconstructive vascular surgery below the knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L B; Jelnes, R; Sager, P

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 38 consecutive patients with advanced peripheral vascular disease (i.e. rest pain) reconstructive vascular surgery was performed with the distal anastomosis below the knee. Ankle/arm pressure index (AAI) was 0.28 (0.11-0.47) preoperatively; accumulated graft patency rate was 0.47 (SD...

  3. Vascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D B; Ricci, M A

    1998-04-01

    Surgeon-interpreted diagnostic ultrasound has become the preferred screening test and often the definitive test for the diagnosis of arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and venous thrombosis. As a modality for surveillance, its noninvasive quality makes it particularly appealing as the test of choice to screen patients for abdominal aortic aneurysms or to perform follow-up examinations on those patients with a carotid endartectomy or in situ bypass grafts. The increasing reliance on intraoperative duplex imaging of vascular procedures demands that the surgeon learn the skills to perform the studies without a technologist or radiologist to interpret the examination.

  4. Correlation study between cerebral vascular pulsation index and hypertensive retinopathy%脑血管搏动指数与高血压视网膜病变的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄雪芬; 窦汝香; 刘源

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between cerebral vascular pulsation index(PI) and hypertensive retinopathy in order to guide the early diagnosis and treatment of disease. Methods Ninety-one patients with hypertension from September 2015 to July 2014 and 85 healthy vol-unteers were included. They were divided into several groups:group A,healthy volunteers;group B,pa-tients with retinopathy but without retinopathy;group C,patients with retinopathy complicated with reti-nopathy of grade Ⅰ;group D,patients with retinopathy complicated with retinopathy of grade Ⅱ;group E,patients with retinopathy complicated with retinopathy of grade Ⅲ;group F,patients with retinopathy complicated with retinopathy of grade IV according to Keith-Wagnar standard group. PI values were de-tected,and the statistical analysis was carried out. Results The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of PI to hypertensive retinopathy were respectively 0. 876 and 0. 807,and the accurate rate of detection was 85. 7% . PI was significantly correlated with the grade of hypertensive retinopathy,the correlation coeffi-cient rs = 0. 858 (P ﹤ 0. 05). The difference was significant( P ﹤ 0. 05 )among each group. Conclusions The cerebral vascular pulsation index PI is positively correlated with the severity of hyper-tension retinopathy,and has the early prediction value of retinopathy.%目的:研究脑血管搏动指数(PI)与高血压视网膜病变的相关性。方法纳入高血压住院患者91例、健康志愿者85例,入院时间均在2014年7月至2015年9月。参考 Keith-Wagnar 标准分组:A 组为健康志愿者,B 组为高血压未合并视网膜病变患者,C 组为高血压合并视网膜病变Ⅰ级患者,D 组为高血压合并视网膜病变Ⅱ级患者,E 组为高血压合并视网膜病变Ⅲ级患者,F 组为高血压合并视网膜病变Ⅳ级患者。检测各组 PI 值,行统计分析。结果 PI 对高血压视网膜病变的诊断敏感性为0.876

  5. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  6. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  7. The vascular surgery workforce: a survey of consultant vascular surgeons in the UK, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, D W; Beard, J D; Shearman, C P; Wyatt, M G

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the demographics, training, and practice characteristics of consultant vascular surgeons across the UK to provide an assessment of current, and inform future prediction of workforce needs. A questionnaire was developed using a modified Delphi process to generate questionnaire items. The questionnaire was emailed to all consultant vascular surgeons (n = 450) in the UK who were members of the Vascular Society of Great Britain & Ireland. 352 consultant vascular surgeons from 95 hospital trusts across the UK completed the survey (78% response rate). The mean age was 50.6 years old, the majority (62%) were mid-career, but 24% were above the age of 55. Currently, 92% are men and only 8% women. 93% work full-time, with 60% working >50 hours, and 21% working >60 hours per week. The average team was 5 to 6 (range 2-10) vascular surgeons, with 23% working in a large team of ≥8. 17% still work in small teams of ≤3. Over 90% of consultant vascular surgeons perform the major index vascular surgery procedures (aneurysm repair, carotid endarterectomy, infra-inguinal bypass, amputation). While 84% perform standard endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), <50% perform more complex endovascular aortic therapy. The majority of vascular surgeons "like their job" (85%) and are "satisfied" (69%) with their job. 34% of consultant vascular surgeons indicated they were "extremely likely" to retire within the next 10 years. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the new specialty of vascular surgery as practiced in the UK. There is a need to plan for a significant expansion in the consultant vascular surgeon workforce in the UK over the next 10 years to maintain the status quo. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NT-proBNP levels, atherosclerosis and vascular function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: peripheral reactive hyperaemia index but not NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels; Hansen, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    for atherosclerosis is unclear. We examined the interrelationship between P-NT-proBNP, presence of atherosclerosis and/or vascular dysfunction in the coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria that received intensive multifactorial treatment. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: P-NT-proBNP was measured in 200 asymptomatic type 2 patients without known cardiac disease that received intensive multifactorial treatment for CV risk reduction. Patients were examined for coronary, carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis, as defined by coronary calcium score=400, carotid intima...

  9. Relation of epicardial adipose tissue with arterial compliance and stiffness in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Levent; Cirakoglu, Omer Faruk; Ağaç, Mustafa Tarik; Erkan, Hakan; Korkmaz, Ayca Ata; Acar, Zeydin; Kul, Selim; Hatem, Engin; Çelik, Şükrü

    2014-09-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the association between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and arterial function in patients with asymptomatic hypertension. Patients with hypertension (n = 155) were enrolled consecutively. Patients with decreased arterial compliance (AC) and increased cardioankle vascular index (CAVI) had higher EAT values compared with those with normal AC and CAVI (6.23 ± 1.67 vs 4.91 ± 1.40, P arterial function in patients with asymptomatic hypertension. The link between EAT and arterial stiffness deserves further investigation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vascular comorbidities before and after the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis. In this combined case-control and cohort study, all Danish born citizens with onset of multiple sclerosis 1980-2005 were identified from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry...... and randomly matched with controls regarding year of birth, gender, and municipality on January 1st in the year of multiple sclerosis (MS) onset (index date). Individual-level information on comorbidities was obtained from several independent nationwide registries and linked to the study population by unique...

  11. NT-proBNP levels, atherosclerosis and vascular function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: peripheral reactive hyperaemia index but not NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels; Hansen, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at cardiovascular (CV) risk factor reduction in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria can diminish fatal and non-fatal CV. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the utility of P-NT-proBNP in screening for ath......-media thickness (CIMT)>0.90 mm, ankle-brachial index...

  12. Estimating the extent of subclinical arteriosclerosis of persons with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus among Japanese urban workers and their families: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekata, Tsukasa; Shirai, Kohji; Tanabe, Naohito; Miyanishi, Kunio; Nakata, Mitsuko; Suzuki, Kenji; Arai, Chikao; Ishizuka, Norio

    2016-02-24

    Diabetes mellitus (hereafter called diabetes) is considered to accelerate arteriosclerosis leading to coronary heart disease and stroke. Thus, it is important to quantitatively estimate the extent of subclinical arteriosclerosis. A new method called cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is developed to reflect arterial stiffness independently from blood pressure at the time of measurement. Then, we examined if CAVI scores could discriminate the extent of arteriosclerosis between persons with prediabetes (or borderline diabetes) and with diabetes among Japanese urban workers and their families. Subjects were 9881 men and 12033 women of company employees and their families who participated in cardiovascular disease screening in Japan. Persons having diabetes and prediabetes were defined based on the criteria set by American Diabetes Association. CAVI scores were measured by VaSera VS-1000. We applied the established age-sex specific cutoff points of CAVI scores above which were determined to be abnormally high or advanced level of arteriosclerosis. To examine the association of prediabetes and diabetes with CAVI scores, CAVI scores of screening participants were converted to a binary variable: 1 for less than cutoff points and 2 for equal or greater than cutoff points or abnormally high CAVI scores. Logistic regression method was used to examine the association of prediabetes and diabetes with CAVI scores after adjusting for major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Prevalence of abnormally high CAVI scores was significantly higher after 40 years of age among persons with diabetes than either among persons with prediabetes or among normal persons in both genders. Significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of abnormally high CAVI scores appeared among persons with prediabetes: 1.29 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.48) for men and 1.14 (CI, 1.01-1.28) for women, and among persons with diabetes: 2.41 (CI, 1.97-2.95) for men and 2.52 (CI, 1.94-3.28) for women

  13. Vascular and valvular calcifications in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Bruzzone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vascular and valvular calcifications are a frequent complication in dialyzed patients and are connected to an increased morbi-mortality. Many radiological methods (TAC multiple slices and with electrons emission have been used to investigate the presence of vascular calcifications in this population, but only few works have been focused on simple radiology. Objectives: The objectives of this work are to evaluate vascular calcifications by means of Kauppila index in hemodialysis prevalent patients, identify linked risk factors and determine their association with heart valves calcification. Methods: 95 stable patients under hemodialysis were surveyed during a period of 6 months longer. Abdominal Rx simple profile were performed on all patients to evaluate calcification of abdominal aorta by Kauppila index and twodimensional echocardiogram to detect valvular calcifications. Data were collected about sex, age, diabetes, Hypertension, tabaquism, dislipemia and bone-mineral metabolism. Results: 64.5% of the patients showed vascular calcifications. Average Kauppila index was 6.25. Age and time on dialysis correlated with vascular calcifications. In 31.6 % of individuals valvular calcifications were found, which presented significant association with diabetes and Kauppila Index. Conclusions: Vascular and valvular calcifications were frequent in the surveyed population. Kauppila index correlated with age, time on dialysis and valvular calcifications. Heart valves calcification was associated with diabetes.

  14. Long-chain n-3 PUFA supplied by the usual diet decrease plasma stearoyl-CoA desaturase index in non-hypertriglyceridemic older adults at high vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Heras, Ana M; Mayneris-Perxachs, Jordi; Cofán, Montserrat; Serra-Mir, Mercè; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, Carmen; Fitó, Montserrat; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel-Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Sala-Vila, Aleix

    2018-02-01

    The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored. We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial. After adjustment for confounders, including changes in fasting triglycerides, plasma SCD1 index increased in parallel with body weight (0.221 [95% confidence interval, 0.021 to 0.422], P = 0.031) and BMI (0.115 [0.027 to 0.202], P = 0.011). Additionally, dietary LCn-3PUFA (but not MUFA or plant-derived PUFA) were associated with decreased plasma SCD1 index (-0.544 [-1.044 to -0.043], P = 0.033, for each 1 g/d-increase in LCn-3PUFA). No associations were found for other food groups, but there was a trend for fatty fish intake (-0.083 [-0.177 to 0.012], P = 0.085, for each 10 g/d-increase). Our data add clinical evidence on the down-regulation of plasma SCD1 index by LCn-3PUFA in the context of realistic changes in fish consumption in the customary, non-supplemented diet. http://www.Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  16. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  17. Vascular training and endovascular practice in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liapis, C.D.; Avgerinos, E.D.; Sillesen, H.

    2009-01-01

    specialties was distributed to a VS educator within 14 European countries. European Vascular and Endovascular Monitor (EVEM) data also were processed to correlate endovascular practice with training models. RESULTS: Fourteen questionnaires were gathered. Vascular training in Europe appears in 3 models: 1....... Mono-specialty (independence): 7 countries, 2. Subspecialty: 5 countries, 3. An existing specialty within general surgery: 2 countries. Independent compared to non-independent certification shortens overall training length (5.9 vs 7.9 years, p=0.006), while increasing overall training devoted......% respectively. Countries with independent vascular certification, despite their lower average endovascular index (procedures per 100,000 population), reported a higher growth rate of aortic endovascular procedures (VS independent 132% vs VS non-independent 87%), within a four-year period (2003-2007). Peripheral...

  18. Vascular malformations in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Shamdeen, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  20. Magnetic resonance vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axel, L

    1989-01-01

    The basis principles of MRI are reviewed in order to understand how blood flow effects arise in conventional imaging. Then some of the ways these effects have ben used in MRI techniques specifically designed for vascular imaging, are considered. (author)

  1. Effect of 103Pd on proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Quanyong; Zhu Jun; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at the effect of γ-emitting radionuclide 103 Pd on the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular SMCs (smooth muscle cells) in vitro. The cavy aortic SMCs were cultured with culture medium M-199. The experiments were carried out in two groups, one for proliferation test and the other for apoptosis test. In each group, 103 Pd solutions with various radioactivities were respectively added to the culture solution to irradiate SMCs for 72 h, while non-radioactive palladium solution was added to the control. 3 H-thymidine incorporation test and liquid scintillator were used to detect the effect of 103 Pd on the proliferation of SMCs. Flow cytometer was used to detect the apoptotic SMCs. The inhibition rate of SMCs proliferation by 1.85 MBq 103 Pd solution was 2.3%, which was not significant, while the inhibition rate increased from 41.6% to 91.3% as the 103 Pd activity increased from 7.40 MBq to 37 MBq. The apoptosis rate of SMCs was extremely low (less than 4.0%) by 103 Pd with activity from 1.85 MBq to 37 MBq. The results suggest that the proliferation of SMCs can be repressed effectively in a dose-dependent fashion by 103 Pd in vitro. The mechanism of its inhibiting over neointima proliferation is likely to inhibit SMCs proliferation rather than to induce its apoptosis by 103 Pd. 103 Pd can be used as a γ-emitting intravascular brachytherapy radionuclide to inhibit SMCs proliferation

  2. Overview of vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisset, G.S. III

    1998-01-01

    Vascular disease in the pediatric population is a poorly understood process which is often underestimated in its incidence. The common beginnings of such ubiquitous diseases as atherosclerosis manifest themselves at a cellular level shortly after birth. Other common systemic disorders, including congestive heart failure and sepsis, are also intricately associated with dysfunctional vasculature. Progress in the understanding of normal and pathophysiologic processes within the vascular system begins with the 'control center' - the endothelial cell. The purpose of this review is to consolidate a body of knowledge on the processes that occur at the cellular level within the blood vessel wall, and to simplify the understanding of how imbalances in these physiologic parameters result in vascular disease. (orig.)

  3. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  4. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  5. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  6. Arterial Stiffness Is Associated with Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy in Diabetes Patients in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Yeboah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Peripheral sensory neuropathy (PSN is among microvascular complications of diabetes that make patients prone to ulceration and amputation. Arterial stiffness is a predictor of cardiovascular diseases and microvascular complications associated with diabetes. We investigated the association between PSN and arterial stiffness, measured as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI. Method. In a case-control design, arterial stiffness was measured in 240 diabetes patients and 110 nondiabetic control. Large-fibre nerve function was assessed by vibration perception threshold (VPT using a neurothesiometer. PSN was defined as the VPT > 97.5th percentile from age- and gender-adjusted models in nondiabetic controls. Results. The overall prevalence of PSN was 16.6% in the entire study participants. Compared to non-PSN participants, PSN patients had higher levels of PWVao (9.5 ± 1.7 versus 8.7 ± 1.2 m/s, p=0.016 and CAVI (8.4 ± 1.3 versus 7.6 ± 1.1, p=0.001. In multiple regression models, VPT was associated with PWVao (β=0.14, p=0.025 and CAVI (β=0.12, p=0.04. PSN patients had increased odds of CAVI (OR = 1.51 (1.02–2.4, p=0.043, but not PWVao (OR = 1.25 (0.91–1.71, p=0.173. Conclusion. PWVao and CAVI were associated with VPT and PSN in diabetes patients in Ghana. Patients having PSN have increased odds of CAVI, independent of other conventional risk factors.

  7. Major Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder: A Reappraisal to Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kumral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Major vascular neurocognitive disorder (NCD is the second leading form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for 17-20% of all dementias. Vascular NCD is a progressive disease caused by reduced cerebral blood flow related to multiple large volume or lacunar infarcts that induce a sudden onset and stepwise decline in cognitive abilities. Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, there is still controversy in the terminology of vascular NCD. Only after the release of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5 (2013 did the American Psychiatric Association define vascular dementia as “major vascular NCD”. This review includes an overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, types, diagnostic and clinical features of major vascular NCD, and current treatment options of vascular NCD regarding to DSM-5 criteria

  8. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  9. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  10. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  11. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  12. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  13. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  15. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  16. Vascular Surgery and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of robotics to Vascular surgery has not progressed as rapidly as of endovascular technology, but this is changing with the amalgamation of these two fields. The advent of Endovascular robotics is an exciting field which overcomes many of the limitations of endovascular therapy like vessel tortuosity and operator fatigue. This has much clinical appeal for the surgeon and hold significant promise of better patient outcomes. As with most newer technological advances, it is still limited by cost and availability. However, this field has seen some rapid progress in the last decade with the technology moving into the clinical realm. This review details the development of robotics, applications, outcomes, advantages, disadvantages and current advances focussing on Vascular and Endovascular robotics

  17. Pulmonary function vascular index predicts prognosis in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corte, Tamera J.; Wort, Stephen J.; MacDonald, Peter S.; Edey, Anthony; Hansell, David M.; Renzoni, Elisabetta; Maher, Toby M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Bandula, Steven; Bresser, Paul; Wells, Athol U.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality in fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). We hypothesize that baseline KCO (diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and 6-month decline in KCO reflect PH, thus predicting mortality

  18. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14% had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.

  19. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  20. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  1. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  2. Review of gestational diabetes mellitus effects on vascular structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Louise A; Chik, Constance L; Ryan, Edmond A

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dysfunction has been described in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, previous gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Factors contributing to vascular changes remain uncertain. The aim of this review was to summarize vascular structure and function changes found to occur in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify factors that contribute to vascular dysfunction. A systematic search of electronic databases yielded 15 publications from 1998 to March 2014 that met the inclusion criteria. Our review confirmed that previous gestational diabetes mellitus contributes to vascular dysfunction, and the most consistent risk factor associated with previous gestational diabetes mellitus and vascular dysfunction was elevated body mass index. Heterogeneity existed across studies in determining the relationship of glycaemic levels and insulin resistance to vascular dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  4. Clinical Characterization of Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia: A Potential Manifestation of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Tekola, Bezawit; Patrie, James; Cornella, Scott; Caldwell, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia is a relatively common endoscopic finding. Past studies have shown an association of gastric antral vascular ectasia with cirrhosis and autoimmune disorders. We aimed to re-examine these associations and to investigate a possible association of gastric antral vascular ectasia with features of the metabolic syndrome. There were 135 patients with a diagnosis of gastric antral vascular ectasia from years 1995-2013 seen at the University of Virginia who were identified from a clinical data repository and age and sex matched to a cohort of patients without gastric antral vascular ectasia undergoing endoscopy within the same time frame as the index cases. The groups were compared for comorbidities including autoimmune disease, cirrhosis, vascular disease, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, and cirrhosis due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Sixty-four percent of gastric antral vascular ectasia patients were cirrhotic, compared with 14% of controls (P correlation of gastric antral vascular ectasia with features of metabolic syndrome such as diabetes, BMI, vascular disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis. The pathophysiology of gastric antral vascular ectasia remains uncertain, but we speculate that it may be a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  6. Vascular remodeling and mineralocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K T; Sun, Y; Campbell, S E; Slight, S H; Ganjam, V K

    1995-01-01

    Circulating mineralocorticoid hormones are so named because of their important homeostatic properties that regulate salt and water balance via their action on epithelial cells. A broader range of functions in nonclassic target cellular sites has been proposed for these steroids and includes their contribution to wound healing following injury. A chronic, inappropriate (relative to intravascular volume and dietary sodium intake) elevation of these circulating hormones evokes a wound healing response in the absence of tissue injury--a wound healing response gone awry. The adverse remodeling of vascularized tissues seen in association with chronic mineralocorticoid excess is the focus of this review.

  7. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  8. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  9. VASCULAR REMODELING IN HYPERTENSION: ANGIOGENESIS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Haisheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim — cross-sectional study of changes in various segments of the vascular bed in arterial hypertension (AH, defining the role of inducers and inhibitors of angiogenesis in these processes.Materials and methods. The study included 99 patients with arterial hypertension of I–II degree, average age of 63.2 ± 2.6 years, diseaseduration 9.2 ± 7.2 years.Results. It was found that patients with arterial hypertension have disorders in all segments of vascular bed: endothelial dysfunction (highvWF, microcirculatory disorders, and increased pulse wave velocity (PWV of elastic-type vessels. The level of angioginesis factors doesnot depend on such parameters as gender, age, body mass index. Smoking and duration of hypertension influence on vascular endothelialgrowth factor raise and endostatin levels are higher in patients with family history of cardiovascular diseases. Duration of disease is directlycorrelated with microcirculatory disorders and the PWV, correlation between microcirculatory disorders and pulse wave velocity indicatetheir common processes.

  10. Glycemic markers and relation with arterial stiffness in Caucasian subjects of the MARK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Gomez-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Effect of prediabetes and normal glucose on arterial stiffness remains controversial. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of fasting plasma glucose (FPG, postprandial glucose (PG and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI in Caucasian adults. The secondary aim was to analyse this relationship by glycaemic status.Cross-sectional study. Setting: Primary care. Participants: 2,233 subjects, 35-74 years. Measures: FPG (mg/dL and HbA1c (% of all subjects were measured using standard automated enzymatic methods. PG (mg/dL was self-measured at home two hours after meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner for one day using an Accu-chek ® glucometer. CAVI was measured using a VaSera VS-1500® device (Fukuda Denshi, and baPWV was calculated using a validated equation.CAVI and baPWV values were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes mellitus than in glucose normal and prediabetes groups (p<0.001. FPG, PG and HbA1c were positively associated with CAVI and baPWV. The β regression coefficient for: HbA1c was 0.112 (CI 95% 0.068 to 0.155 with CAVI, 0.266 (CI 95% 0.172 to 0.359 with baPWV; for PG was 0.006 (CI 95% 0.004 to 0.009 and for FPG was 0.005 (CI 95% 0.002 to 0.008 with baPWV; and for PG was 0.002 (CI 95% 0.001 to 0.003 and 0.003 (CI 95% 0.002 to 0.004 with CAVI (p<0.01 in all cases. When analysing by hyperglycaemic status, FPG, PG and HbA1c were positively associated with CAVI and baPWV in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.FPG, PG and HbA1c show a positive association with CAVI and baPWV, in Caucasian adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors. When analysing by hyperglycaemic status, the association is only maintained in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01428934. Registered 2 September 2011. Retrospectively registered. Last updated September 8, 2016.

  11. Interventional vascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, H.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The papers published during this past year in the area of interventional vascular radiology presented some useful modifications and further experiences both in the area of thromboembolic therapy and in dilation and thrombolysis, but no new techniques. As an introductory subject, an excellent monograph reviewing the current spectrum of pharmacoangiography was presented in Radiographics. Although the presented material is primarily in diagnostic application of various pharmacologic agents used today to facilitate demonstration of certain diagnostic criteria of various disease processes, both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive reaction to these agents are widely used in various therapeutic vascular procedures. This monograph should be reviewed by every angiographer whether or not he or she performs interventional procedures, and it would be very convenient to have this table available in the angiography suite. In a related subject, Bookstein and co-workers have written an excellent review concerning pharmacologic manipulations of various blood coagulative parameters during angiography. Understanding the proper method of manipulation of the bloodclotting factors during angiography, and especially during interventional angiography, is extremely important. Particularly, the method of manipulating the coagulation with the use of heparin and protamine and modification of the platelet activity by using aspirin and dipyridamole are succinctly reviewed. The systemic and selective thrombolytic activities of streptokianse are also discussed

  12. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  14. Vascular pattern formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpella, Enrico; Helariutta, Ykä

    2010-01-01

    Reticulate tissue systems exist in most multicellular organisms, and the principles underlying the formation of cellular networks have fascinated philosophers, mathematicians, and biologists for centuries. In particular, the beautiful and varied arrangements of vascular tissues in plants have intrigued mankind since antiquity, yet the organizing signals have remained elusive. Plant vascular tissues form systems of interconnected cell files throughout the plant body. Vascular cells are aligned with one another along continuous lines, and vascular tissues differentiate at reproducible positions within organ environments. However, neither the precise path of vascular differentiation nor the exact geometry of vascular networks is fixed or immutable. Several recent advances converge to reconcile the seemingly conflicting predictability and plasticity of vascular tissue patterns. A control mechanism in which an apical-basal flow of signal establishes a basic coordinate system for body axis formation and vascular strand differentiation, and in which a superimposed level of radial organizing cues elaborates cell patterns, would generate a reproducible tissue configuration in the context of an underlying robust, self-organizing structure, and account for the simultaneous regularity and flexibility of vascular tissue patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  17. Congestive index of portal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Ho; Kim, H. K.; Lee, S. C.; Han, S. H.; Han, K. H.; Chung, J. B.; Choi, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    In patients with portal hypertension, the blood flow volume is maintained despite decreased blood flow velocity due to enlargement of the vascular cross sectional area. Thus, the 'congestion index' of the portal vein, which is the ratio between the cross sectional area (cm2) and the blood flow velocity (cm/sec) determined by a Doppler ultrasonography, may be a sensitive index by which to assess portal hypertension. We performed Doppler ultrasonography on 24 normal subjects, 14 patients with biopsy proved chronic active hepatitis and 55 patients with liver cirrhosis in order to assess the diagnostic value of the congestion index. The cross sectional area of the portal vein was significantly enlarged and the mean blood flow velocity was significantly reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis compared with controls. However, the blood flow volume was no difference. The congestion index of the portal vein was significantly increased in patients with liver cirrhosis (0.113+0.035) compared with patients with chronic active hepatitis(0.078+0.029) (p<0.001) and controls (0.053+0.016) (p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and predictability of the congestion index for detection of patients with the cirrhosis of the liver were 76.4%, 100% and 100% respectively, when the normal range was set at mean+2SD. The results suggest that the congestion index of the portal vein may pla a significant role in diagnosis of portal hypertensive patients

  18. Vascular Stiffness and Increased Pulse Pressure in the Aging Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Steppan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging leads to a multitude of changes in the cardiovascular system, including systolic hypertension, increased central vascular stiffness, and increased pulse pressure. In this paper we will review the effects of age-associated increased vascular stiffness on systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, augmentation index, and cardiac workload. Additionally we will describe pulse wave velocity as a method to measure vascular stiffness and review the impact of increased vascular stiffness as an index of vascular health and as a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, we will discuss the underlying mechanisms and how these may be modified in order to change the outcomes. A thorough understanding of these concepts is of paramount importance and has therapeutic implications for the increasingly elderly population.

  19. Vascular Risk Factors and Clinical Progression in Spinocerebellar Ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Y. Lo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contributions of vascular risk factors to spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA are not known.Methods: We studied 319 participants with SCA 1, 2, 3, and 6 and repeatedly measured clinical severity using the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA for 2 years. Vascular risk factors were summarized by CHA2DS2-VASc scores as the vascular risk factor index. We employed regression models to study the effects of vascular risk factors on ataxia onset and progression after adjusting for age, sex, and pathological CAG repeats. Our secondary analyses took hyperlipidemia into account.Results: Nearly 60% of SCA participants were at low vascular risks with CHA2DS2-VASc = 0, and 31% scored 2 or greater. Higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores were not associated with either earlier onset or faster progression of ataxia. These findings were not altered after accounting for hyperlipidemia. Discussion: Vascular risks are not common in SCAs and are not associated with earlier onset or faster ataxia progression.

  20. Cardiac and vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, S.; Ley-Zaporozhan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of the heart and great vessels show a high degree of variation. There are numerous variants and defects with only few clinical manifestations and are only detected by chance, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Other cardiovascular malformations are manifested directly after birth and need prompt mostly surgical interventions. At this point in time echocardiography is the diagnostic modality of choice for morphological and functional characterization of malformations. Additional imaging using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is only required in a minority of cases. If so, the small anatomical structures, the physiological tachycardia and tachypnea are a challenge for imaging modalities and strategies. This review article presents the most frequent vascular, cardiac and complex cardiovascular malformations independent of the first line diagnostic imaging modality. (orig.) [de

  1. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. The CIRSE registry of closure devices

  2. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  3. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  4. The vascular secret of Klotho

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, Ewa; Olgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Klotho is an evolutionarily highly conserved protein related to longevity. Increasing evidence of a vascular protecting effect of the Klotho protein has emerged and might be important for future treatments of uremic vascular calcification. It is still disputed whether Klotho is locally expressed ...

  5. Social media in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Gates, Lindsay; Mitchell, Erica L; Muhs, Bart E

    2013-04-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in the use of social media to expand the visibility of various specialties in medicine. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest updates on some current applications of social media in the practice of vascular surgery as well as existing limitations of use. This investigation demonstrates that the use of social networking sites appears to have a positive impact on vascular practice, as is evident through the incorporation of this technology at the Cleveland Clinic and by the Society for Vascular Surgery into their approach to patient care and physician communication. Overall, integration of social networking technology has current and future potential to be used to promote goals, patient awareness, recruitment for clinical trials, and professionalism within the specialty of vascular surgery. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vascular disease in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, Keren; Mani, Venkatesh; Jeyachandran, Devi; Fayad, Zahi A; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best. We review major postmortem and in vitro studies documenting cocaine-induced vascular toxicity. PubMed and Academic Search Complete were used with relevant terms. Findings consist of the major mechanisms of cocaine-induced vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and accelerated atherosclerosis, emphasizing acute, chronic, and secondary effects of cocaine. The etiology underlying cocaine's acute and chronic vascular effects is multifactorial, spanning hypertension, impaired homeostasis and platelet function, thrombosis, thromboembolism, and alterations in blood flow. Early detection of vascular disease in cocaine addiction by multimodality imaging is discussed. Treatment may be similar to indications in patients with traditional risk-factors, with few exceptions such as enhanced supportive care and use of benzodiazepines and phentolamine for sedation, and avoiding β-blockers. Given the vascular toxicity cocaine induces, further compounded by smoking and alcohol comorbidity, and interacting with aging of the crack generation, there is a public health imperative to identify pre-symptomatic markers of vascular impairments in cocaine addiction and employ preventive treatment to reduce silent disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The future of vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K; Luther, B

    2014-10-01

    In the future vascular medicine will still have a great impact on health of people. It should be noted that the aging of the population does not lead to a dramatic increase in patient numbers, but will be associated with a changing spectrum of co-morbidities. In addition, vascular medical research has to include the intensive care special features of vascular patients, the involvement of vascular medicine in a holistic concept of fast-track surgery, a geriatric-oriented intensive monitoring and early geriatric rehabilitation. For the future acceptance of vascular medicine as a separate subject area under delimitation of cardiology and radiology is important. On the other hand, the subject is so complex and will become more complex in future specialisations that mixing of surgery and angiology is desirable, with the aim to preserve the vascular surgical knowledge and skills on par with the medical and interventional measures and further develop them. Only large, interdisciplinary guided vascular centres will be able to provide timely diagnosis and therapy, to deal with the growing multi-morbidity of the patient, to perform complex therapies even in an acute emergency and due to sufficient number of cases to present with well-trained and experienced teams. These requirements are mandatory to decrease patients' mortality step by step. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Contemporary vascular smartphone medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Thomas; O'Neill, Stephen; Johns, Neil; Brady, Richard R W

    2013-08-01

    Use of smartphones and medical mHealth applications (apps) within the clinical environment provides a potential means for delivering elements of vascular care. This article reviews the contemporary availability of apps specifically themed to major vascular diseases and the opportunities and concerns regarding their integration into practice. Smartphone apps relating to major vascular diseases were identified from the app stores for the 6 most popular smartphone platforms, including iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, Windows, and Samsung. Search terms included peripheral artery (arterial) disease, varicose veins, aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, amputation, ulcers, hyperhydrosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular malformation, and lymphatic disorders. Forty-nine vascular-themed apps were identified. Sixteen (33%) were free of charge. Fifteen apps (31%) had customer satisfaction ratings, but only 3 (6%) had greater than 100. Only 13 apps (27%) had documented medical professional involvement in their design or content. The integration of apps into the delivery of care has the potential to benefit vascular health care workers and patients. However, high-quality apps designed by clinicians with vascular expertise are currently lacking and represent an area of concern in the mHealth market. Improvement in the quality and reliability of these apps will require the development of robust regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of volume vascularization index and flow index: A phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.N.C. Schulten-Wijman; P.C. Struijk (Pieter); C.A. Brezinka (Christoph); N. de Jong (Nico); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasonography provides indices to quantify moving blood within a volume of interest (e.g. ovary, endometrium, tumor or placenta). The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of ultrasound instrument settings on

  10. Constructal vascularized structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetkin, Erdal

    2015-06-01

    Smart features such as self-healing and selfcooling require bathing the entire volume with a coolant or/and healing agent. Bathing the entire volume is an example of point to area (or volume) flows. Point to area flows cover all the distributing and collecting kinds of flows, i.e. inhaling and exhaling, mining, river deltas, energy distribution, distribution of products on the landscape and so on. The flow resistances of a point to area flow can be decreased by changing the design with the guidance of the constructal law, which is the law of the design evolution in time. In this paper, how the flow resistances (heat, fluid and stress) can be decreased by using the constructal law is shown with examples. First, the validity of two assumptions is surveyed: using temperature independent Hess-Murray rule and using constant diameter ducts where the duct discharges fluid along its edge. Then, point to area types of flows are explained by illustrating the results of two examples: fluid networks and heating an area. Last, how the structures should be vascularized for cooling and mechanical strength is documented. This paper shows that flow resistances can be decreased by morphing the shape freely without any restrictions or generic algorithms.

  11. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  12. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  14. Limb vascular function in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Gliemann, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Throughout life, women are subjected to both acute fluctuations in sex hormones, associated with the menstrual cycle, and chronic changes following the onset of menopause. Female sex hormones, and in particular estrogen, strongly influence cardiovascular function such as the regulation of vascular...... studies. Physical activity should be recommended for women of all ages, but the most essential timing for maintenance of vascular health may be from menopause and onwards....

  15. Facial vascular malformations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelle, F.O.; Lallemand, D.; Chaumont, P.; Teillac, D.; Manach, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present their experience with conventional and digital angiography of vascular malformations of the head and neck in children. 22 hemangioendotheliomas, 8 venous angiomas, and 3 arteriovenous fistula were studied. 22 patients were embolised. DSA offers many advantages during the diagnostic as well as during the therapeutic phase of angiography. Embolization appears to have a major role in treatment of such vascular malformations. (orig.)

  16. Moss and vascular plant indices in Ohio wetlands have similar environmental predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Adams, Jean V.; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Mosses and vascular plants have been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities may determine if similar management practices would simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM) and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities, interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar wetland management practices may result in qualitatively the same ecological response for three vastly different wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and mosses).

  17. Angiogenesis, Cancer, and Vascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Moriya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have revealed that the angiogenic response to ischemic injury declines with age, which might account for the increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD among the elderly. While impairment of angiogenesis with aging leads to delayed wound healing or exacerbation of atherosclerotic ischemic diseases, it also inhibits the progression of cancer. Age-related changes of angiogenesis have been considered to at least partly result from vascular aging or endothelial cell senescence. There is considerable evidence supporting the hypothesis that vascular cell senescence contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related CVD, suggesting that vascular aging could be an important therapeutic target. Since therapeutic angiogenesis is now regarded as a promising concept for patients with ischemic CVD, it has become even more important to understand the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying impairment of angiogenesis in older patients. To improve the usefulness of therapeutic angiogenesis, approaches are needed that can compensate for impaired angiogenic capacity in the elderly while not promoting the development or progression of malignancy. In this review, we briefly outline the mechanisms of angiogenesis and vascular aging, followed by a description of how vascular aging leads to impairment of angiogenesis. We also examine potential therapeutic approaches that could enhance angiogenesis and/or vascular function in the elderly, as well as discussing the possibility of anti-senescence therapy or reversal of endothelial cell senescence.

  18. [Central blood pressure and vascular damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José Antonio; Pascual, José María

    2015-07-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between central blood pressure and vascular damage. This cross-sectional study involved 393 never treated hypertensive patients (166 women). Clinical blood pressure (BP), 24h blood pressure (BP24h) and central blood pressure (CBP) were measured. Vascular organ damage (VOD) was assessed by calculating the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), wave pulse pressure velocity and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Patients with VOD had higher values of BP, BP24h, and CBP than patients without ACR. When comparing several systolic BP, systolic BP24h had a higher linear correlation with CBP (Z Steiger test: 2.26; P=.02) and LVMI (Z Steiger test: 3.23; P=.01) than PAC. In a multiple regression analysis corrected by age, sex and metabolic syndrome, all pressures were related with VOD but systolic BP24h showed the highest correlation. In a logistic regression analysis, having the highest tercile of systolic BP24h was the stronger predictor of VOD (multivariate odds ratio: 3.4; CI 95%: 2.5-5.5, P=.001). CBP does not have more correlation with VOD than other measurements of peripheral BP. Systolic BP24h is the BP measurement that best predicts VOD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Gregory C.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are ultimately responsible for determining vascular luminal diameter and blood flow. Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium are a critical mechanism regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Processes influencing intracellular calcium are therefore important regulators of vascular function with physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review we discuss the major dynamic calcium signals identified and characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  20. Vascular dysfunction in women with a history of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction: insights into future vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinon, Yoav; Kingdom, John C P; Odutayo, Ayodele; Moineddin, Rahim; Drewlo, Sascha; Lai, Vesta; Cherney, David Z I; Hladunewich, Michelle A

    2010-11-02

    Women with a history of placental disease are at increased risk for the future development of vascular disease. It is unknown whether preexisting endothelial dysfunction underlies both the predisposition to placental disease and the later development of vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess vascular function in postpartum women and to determine whether differences emerged depending on the presentation of placental disease. Women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia (n=15), late-onset preeclampsia (n=9), intrauterine growth restriction without preeclampsia (n=9), and prior normal pregnancy (n=16) were studied 6 to 24 months postpartum. Flow-mediated vasodilatation and flow-independent (glyceryl trinitrate-induced) vasodilatation were studied through the use of high-resolution vascular ultrasound examination of the brachial artery. Arterial stiffness was assessed by pulse-wave analysis (augmentation index). Laboratory assessment included circulating angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, placental growth factor, and soluble endoglin). Flow-mediated vasodilatation was significantly reduced in women with previous early-onset preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction compared with women with previous late-onset preeclampsia and control subjects (3.2±2.7% and 2.1±1.2% versus 7.9±3.8% and 9.1±3.5%, respectively; Pwomen with previous early-onset preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, but not among late preeclamptic women and control subjects (P=0.0105). Circulating angiogenic factors were similar in all groups. Only women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction without preeclampsia exhibit impaired vascular function, which might explain their predisposition to placental disease and their higher risk of future vascular disease.

  1. Prefabrication of axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone by an arteriovenous loop: A better model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Qingshan; Shang Hongtao; Wu Wei; Chen Fulin; Zhang Junrui; Guo Jiaping; Mao Tianqiu

    2012-01-01

    The most important problem for the survival of thick 3-dimensional tissues is the lack of vascularization in the context of bone tissue engineering. In this study, a modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) was developed to prefabricate an axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone in rabbit, with comparison of the arteriovenous bundle (AVB) model. An arteriovenous fistula between rabbit femoral artery and vein was anastomosed to form an AVL. It was placed in a circular side groove of the coral block. The complex was wrapped with an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene membrane and implanted beneath inguinal skin. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks, the degree of vascularization was evaluated by India ink perfusion, histological examination, vascular casts, and scanning electron microscopy images of vascular endangium. Newly formed fibrous tissues and vasculature extended over the surfaces and invaded the interspaces of entire coral block. The new blood vessels robustly sprouted from the AVL. Those invaginated cavities in the vascular endangium from scanning electron microscopy indicated vessel's sprouted pores. Above indexes in AVL model are all superior to that in AVB model, indicating that the modified AVL model could more effectively develop vascularization in larger tissue engineering bone. - Highlights: ► A modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) model in rabbit was developed in this study. ► Axial prevascularization was induced in a larger coral block by using the AVL. ► The prefabrication of axial vascularized coral bone is superior as vascular carrier.

  2. Injuries to the vascular endothelium: vascular wall and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial injury has multiple elements, and this article focuses on ischemia-related processes that have particular relevance to ischemic stroke. Distinctions between necrotic and apoptotic cell death provide a basic science context in which to better understand the significance of classical core and penumbra concepts of acute stroke, with apoptotic processes particularly prominent in the penumbra. The mitochondria are understood to serve as a reservoir of proteins that mediate apoptosis. Oxidative stress pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prominent in endothelial injury, both ischemic and nonischemic, with prominent roles of enzyme- and nonenzymemediated pathways; mitochondria once again have a critical role, particularly in the nonenzymatic pathways generating ROS. Inflammation also contributes to vascular endothelial injury, and endothelial cells have the capacity to rapidly increase expression of inflammatory mediators following ischemic challenge; this leads to enhanced leukocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by selectins and adhesion molecules. Preconditioning consists of a minor version of an injurious event, which in turn may protect vascular endothelium from injury following a more substantial event. Presence of the blood-brain barrier creates unique responses to endothelial injury, with permeability changes due to impairment of endothelial-matrix interactions compounding altered vasomotor tone and tissue perfusion mediated by nitric oxide. Pharmacological protection against vascular endothelial injury can be provided by several of the phosphodiesterases (cilostazol and dipyridamole), along with statins. Optimal clinical responses for protection of brain vascular endothelium may use preconditioning as a model, and will likely require combined protection against apoptosis, ROS, and inflammation.

  3. Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, S.; Knopp, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability. (orig.)

  4. Pediatric interventional radiology: vascular interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery. (author)

  5. Reimbursement in hospital-based vascular surgery: Physician and practice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Jennifer L; Zwolak, Robert M; Goodney, Philip P; Rutherford, Gretchen A; Powell, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine change in value of a vascular surgery division to the health care system during 6 years at a hospital-based academic practice and to compare physician vs hospital revenue earned during this period. Total revenue generated by the vascular surgery service line at an academic medical center from 2010 through 2015 was evaluated. Total revenue was measured as the sum of physician (professional) and hospital (technical) net revenue for all vascular-related patient care. Adjustments were made for work performed, case complexity, and inflation. To reflect the effect of these variables, net revenue was indexed to work relative value units (wRVUs), case mix index, and consumer price index, which adjusted for work, case complexity, and inflation, respectively. Differences in physician and hospital net revenue were compared over time. Physician work, measured in RVUs per year, increased by 4%; case complexity, assessed with case mix index, increased by 10% for the 6-year measurement period. Despite stability in payer mix at 64% to 69% Medicare, both physician and hospital vascular-related revenue/wRVU decreased during this period. Unadjusted professional revenue/wRVU declined by 14.1% (P = .09); when considering case complexity, physician revenue/wRVU declined by 20.6% (P = .09). Taking into account both case complexity and inflation, physician revenue declined by 27.0% (P = .04). Comparatively, hospital revenue for vascular surgery services decreased by 13.8% (P = .07) when adjusting for unit work, complexity, and inflation. At medical centers where vascular surgeons are hospital based, vascular care reimbursement decreased substantially from 2010 to 2015 when case complexity and inflation were considered. Physician reimbursement (professional fees) decreased at a significantly greater rate than hospital reimbursement for vascular care. This trend has significant implications for salaried vascular surgeons in hospital

  6. A microestrutura e o desenvolvimento dos órgãos genitais masculinos de preás (Galea spixii criados em cativeiro The microstructure and development of male genital organs of Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii bred in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R.S. Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O preá do semiárido nordestino (Galea spixii é um roedor pertencente à família Caviidae. São encontrados nas regiões da Caatinga e do Cerrado Brasileiro e se reproduz ao longo do ano, apresentando um período de gestação de 48 dias e uma ninhada de 2 a 4 crias. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar histologicamente os componentes estruturais dos órgãos genitais de preás machos relacionando com a evolução cronológica destes órgãos na espécie. Foram utilizados para análise animais ao nascimento e aos 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 e aos 150 dias de idade. Fragmentos do epidídimo, ducto deferente, pênis e glândulas sexuais acessórias foram coletados, fixados e processados para descrição em microscopia de luz. O epidídimo apresentou epitélio colunar simples e em cada fase sexual notou-se diferença quanto ao tamanho do lúmen tubular e à presença de espermatozóides no lúmen aos 45 dias de idade. O epitélio do ducto deferente no preá mostrou-se pseudo-estratificado colunar com crescente presença de estereocilios com o avanço da idade. A glândula vesicular no preá apresentou uma mucosa com pregueamento variado, de acordo com a fase do desenvolvimento sexual. A próstata mostrou-se pouco desenvolvida, com lúmen pequeno nos preás ao nascimento e aos 15 dias de idade; aos 45 dias mostrou-se com um pregueamento do epitélio variável. Os órgãos genitais masculinos do preá passaram por transformações morfológicas no decorrer da idade e com o desenvolvimento sexual, isso colaborou para a determinação do início da fase da puberdade, que na espécie em estudo foi aos 45 dias de idade.The Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid is a rodent that does belong to the family Caviidae. They are found in regions of the Caatinga and Cerrado, and reproduces throughout the year, with a gestation period of 48 days and a litter of 2 to 4 pups. The aim of this study was to

  7. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  8. Imaging after vascular gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, Hannu I.; Yang, Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    Targets for cardiovascular gene therapy currently include limiting restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stent placement, inhibiting vein bypass graft intimal hyperplasia/stenosis, therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiac and lower-limb ischemia, and prevention of thrombus formation. While catheter angiography is still standard method to follow-up vascular gene transfer, other modern imaging techniques, especially intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging provide complementary information about the therapeutic effect of vascular gene transfer in humans. Although molecular imaging of therapeutic gene expression in the vasculatures is still in its technical development phase, it has already offered basic medical science an extremely useful in vivo evaluation tool for non- or minimally invasive imaging of vascular gene therapy

  9. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  10. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  11. Vascular malforma- tions part 1 — normal and abnormal vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    to form the primitive vascular plexus. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels by sprouting or splitting of ... The differentiation of primitive vessels into arteries, veins or capillaries is determined by flow patterns .... identify, but it is probable that as time progresses further specific genetic defects related to the development ...

  12. Genetic Regulation of Vascular Development: Building the Zebrafish Vascular Tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L.J.M. Herpers (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe extensive networks of blood and lymphatic vessels within the vertebrate body are essential for the transport and delivery of fluids, gases, macromolecules and cells, and play important roles in facilitating immune responses. The development of the vascular tree requires a highly

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 406 ... P.W Hodkinson, S. de Vries, L.A Wallis ... Vol 54, No 3 (2016), Liberal transfusion strategies still the trend in burn surgery, Abstract PDF ... Vol 54, No 4 (2016), Management of acute complex traumatic wound with a .... managed by a vascular subspecialistled vascular trauma service, Abstract PDF.

  14. [Vascular access guidelines for hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Hernández, J A; González Parra, E; Julián Gutiérrez, J M; Segarra Medrano, A; Almirante, B; Martínez, M T; Arrieta, J; Fernández Rivera, C; Galera, A; Gallego Beuter, J; Górriz, J L; Herrero, J A; López Menchero, R; Ochando, A; Pérez Bañasco, V; Polo, J R; Pueyo, J; Ruiz, Camps I; Segura Iglesias, R

    2005-01-01

    Quality of vascular access (VA) has a remarkable influence in hemodialysis patients outcomes. Dysfunction of VA represents a capital cause of morbi-mortality of these patients as well an increase in economical. Spanish Society of Neprhology, aware of the problem, has decided to carry out a revision of the issue with the aim of providing help in comprehensión and treatment related with VA problems, and achieving an homogenization of practices in three mayor aspects: to increase arteriovenous fistula utilization as first vascular access, to increment vascular access monitoring practice and rationalise central catheters use. We present a consensus document elaborated by a multidisciplinar group composed by nephrologists, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologysts, infectious diseases specialists and nephrological nurses. Along six chapters that cover patient education, creation of VA, care, monitoring, complications and central catheters, we present the state of the art and propose guidelines for the best practice, according different evidence based degrees, with the intention to provide help at the professionals in order to make aproppiate decissions. Several quality standars are also included.

  15. Image Quality in Vascular Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Struelens, L.

    2005-01-01

    In vascular radiology, the radiologists use the radiological image to diagnose or treat a specific vascular structure. From literature, we know that related doses are high and that large dose variability exists between different hospitals. The application of the optimization principle is therefore necessary and is obliged by the new legislation. So far, very little fieldwork has been performed and no practical instructions are available to do the necessary work. It's indisputable that obtaining quantitative data is of great interest for optimization purposes. In order to gain insight into these doses and the possible measures for dose reduction, we performed a comparative study in 7 hospitals. Patient doses will be measured and calculated for specific procedures in vascular radiology and evaluated against their most influencing parameters. In view of optimization purposes, a protocol for dose audit will be set-up. From the results and conclusions in this study, experimentally based guidelines will be proposed, in order to improve clinical practice in vascular radiology

  16. Vascular aspects of multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'haeseleer, Miguel; Cambron, Melissa; Vanopdenbosch, Ludo; De Keyser, Jacques

    Three types of vascular dysfunction have been described in multiple sclerosis (MS). First, findings from epidemiological studies suggest that patients with MS have a higher risk for ischaemic stroke than people who do not have MS. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but might involve endothelial

  17. Arterial stiffness and peripheral vascular resistance in offspring of hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels Henrik; Carlsen, Rasmus K; Khatir, Dinah S

    2018-01-01

    AIM: Established essential hypertension is associated with increased arterial stiffness and peripheral resistance, but the extent of vascular changes in persons genetically predisposed for essential hypertension is uncertain. METHODS: Participants from the Danish Hypertension Prevention Project...... (DHyPP) (both parents hypertensive) (n = 95, 41 ± 1 years, 53% men) were compared with available spouses (n = 45, 41 ± 1 years) using measurements of ambulatory blood pressure (BP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), pulse wave velocity, central BP and augmentation index (AIx) in addition to forearm...... than men (P hypertension display increased AIx and LVMI, although vascular stiffness...

  18. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  19. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  20. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  1. ESRD QIP - Vascular Access - Payment Year 2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, performance rates, vascular access topic measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the vascular...

  2. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  3. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  4. Vascular neurocognitive disorders and the vascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V. Albu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dementias are clinical neurodegenerative diseases characterized by permanent and progressive transformation of cognitive functions such as memory, learning capacity, attention, thinking, language, passing judgments, calculation or orientation. Dementias represent a relatively frequent pathology, encountered at about 10% of the population of 65-year olds and 20% of the population of 80-year olds. This review presents the main etiological forms of dementia, which include Alzheimer form of dementia, vascular dementia, dementia associated with alpha-synucleionopathies, and mixed forms. Regarding vascular dementia, the risk factors are similar to those for an ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, age, alcohol consumption, cerebral atherosclerosis/ arteriosclerosis. Several studies show that efficient management of the vascular risk factors can prevent the expression and/ or progression of dementia. Thus, lifestyle changes such as stress reduction, regular physical exercise, decreasing dietary fat, multivitamin supplementation, adequate control of blood pressure and serum cholesterol, and social integration and mental stimulation in the elderly population are important factors in preventing or limiting the symptoms of dementia, a disease with significant individual, social, and economic implications.

  5. Vascularized osseous graft for scaphoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Daza, Carlos Hernan; Mathoulin, Cristophe

    2004-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for treatment of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid is osteo-synthesis with Kirschnet wires and cortical sponge grafts. Results reported by different teams using this procedure show no more than 90% osseous consolidation, especially in cases where vascularisation of the proximal fragment of the scaphoid is compromised. Here we present a series of ten cases of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid, treated using a new surgical technique involving a vascularized osseous graft of the distal radius. Using this procedure we obtained 100% consolidation, with no complications either during the procedure or immediately post-operatively. Patients returned to work in week 15 on average. In 4 cases we observed discomfort in the area of the scar, which was successfully treated using local cortisone injection. The results obtained are very similar to those seen in the literature on the different techniques for vascularized osseous grafts for pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid

  6. [Menopause: Hypertension and vascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, J M

    Hypertension is the main cardiovascular risk factor affecting 25% of women. Hormone changes and hypertension after menopause may lead to higher target organ damage and cardiovascular disease such as increased arterial stiffness, coronary diseases, chronic heart failure and stroke. The physiopathological mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in menopausal women are controversial. There are pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences in both sexes, the women have more coughing when using the converting-enzyme inhibitors, more cramps when using thiazide diuretics and more oedema in the inferior limbs when using calcium antagonists. The aim of this review is to analyse possible physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypertension after menopause and to gain a better understanding of the biological effects mediated by vascular ageing in women when the level of oestrogen protective effect decreases over the vascular system. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Multifocal tuberculous osteomyelitis/osteochondritis of ribs in patient with ... Vol 94, No 6 (2017), Musculoskeletal pain and backpack usage among .... Vol 77, No 12 (2000), Neuro-vascular injuries associated with limb fractures, Abstract PDF.

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 10, No 64 (2011), Assessments of lysosomal membrane responses to ... loop mediated isothermal amplification platform for pathogen diagnosis, Abstract PDF ... expansion factor (VEF) in non-smoker patients with vascular heart disease ...

  9. Vascular diagnostics for Raynaud's phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsdale G

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Graham Dinsdale, Ariane L Herrick Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK Abstract: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP is common, and in most patients is primary (idiopathic when due to reversible vasospasm and does not progress to irreversible tissue injury. However, in those patients for whom RP is secondary to an underlying disease (eg, systemic sclerosis or atherosclerosis, progression to digital ulceration or critical ischemia can occur. Therefore, the key question for the clinician is “Why does this patient have RP?” Vascular diagnostics play a key role in answering this. In this review, we firstly discuss the different vascular investigations relevant to clinical practice: nail fold capillaroscopy (including the different methodologies for examining the nail fold capillaries, and the role of capillaroscopy in helping to differentiate between primary and systemic sclerosis-related RP, thermography (available in specialist centers, and evaluation of large vessel disease (for example, due to atherosclerosis. We then discuss research tools, mainly laser Doppler methods, including laser Doppler imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging. These are commercially available as complete imaging systems and are (relatively easy to use. The main current goal in vascular imaging research is to validate these novel state-of-the-art techniques as outcome measures of digital vascular disease, and then apply them in early and later phase studies of new treatment approaches, thus facilitating drug development programs. Keywords: Raynaud's phenomenon, systemic sclerosis, nail fold capillaroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler, angiography

  10. The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome: implications for eye diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Vascular dysregulation refers to the regulation of blood flow that is not adapted to the needs of the respective tissue. We distinguish primary vascular dysregulation (PVD, formerly called vasospastic syndrome) and secondary vascular dysregulation (SVD). Subjects with PVD tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, increased pain sensitivity, prolonged sleep onset time, altered gene expression in the lymphocytes, signs of oxidative stress, slightly increased endothelin-1 plasma level, low body mass index and often diffuse and fluctuating visual field defects. Coldness, emotional or mechanical stress and starving can provoke symptoms. Virtually all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. In subjects with PVD, retinal vessels are stiffer and more irregular, and both neurovascular coupling and autoregulation capacity are reduced while retinal venous pressure is often increased. Subjects with PVD have increased risk for normal-tension glaucoma, optic nerve compartment syndrome, central serous choroidopathy, Susac syndrome, retinal artery and vein occlusions and anterior ischaemic neuropathy without atherosclerosis. Further characteristics are their weaker blood–brain and blood-retinal barriers and the higher prevalence of optic disc haemorrhages and activated astrocytes. Subjects with PVD tend to suffer more often from tinnitus, muscle cramps, migraine with aura and silent myocardial ischaemic and are at greater risk for altitude sickness. While the main cause of vascular dysregulation is vascular endotheliopathy, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is also involved. In contrast, SVD occurs in the context of other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, retrobulbar neuritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and giant cell arteritis. Taking into consideration the high prevalence of PVD in the population and potentially linked pathologies, in the current article, the authors provide

  11. Readability of informed consent forms in vascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, I.; Vigil, D.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the readability of the informed consent forms prepared for vascular and interventional radiology. The 18 informed consent forms were analyzed using the Gramatica tool employed in Microsoft Word 97 For Windows which combines the statistics on legibility in terms of three sections: scores, averages and legibility (Flech index, passive voice, sentence complexity and vocabulary complexity). For each, the integrated readability index was also manually calculated. All the documents present a Flesch index of over 10; the sentence complexity indexes are less than or equal to 20, demonstrating that the sentences are not long or complicated in structure. Finally, the integrated readability index of all of them is well over 70. The forms posses acceptable legibility indexes, but their evaluation should be completed by an opinion poll of the patients for whom they are written. Moreover, it must be kept in mind that these documents, like the procedures performed, are changing continually. Thus, it is necessary to update and modify the information to be provided to the patients. (Author) 11 refs

  12. Prefabrication of axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone by an arteriovenous loop: a better model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing-shan; Shang, Hong-tao; Wu, Wei; Chen, Fu-lin; Zhang, Jun-rui; Guo, Jia-ping; Mao, Tian-qiu

    2012-08-01

    The most important problem for the survival of thick 3-dimensional tissues is the lack of vascularization in the context of bone tissue engineering. In this study, a modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) was developed to prefabricate an axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone in rabbit, with comparison of the arteriovenous bundle (AVB) model. An arteriovenous fistula between rabbit femoral artery and vein was anastomosed to form an AVL. It was placed in a circular side groove of the coral block. The complex was wrapped with an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene membrane and implanted beneath inguinal skin. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks, the degree of vascularization was evaluated by India ink perfusion, histological examination, vascular casts, and scanning electron microscopy images of vascular endangium. Newly formed fibrous tissues and vasculature extended over the surfaces and invaded the interspaces of entire coral block. The new blood vessels robustly sprouted from the AVL. Those invaginated cavities in the vascular endangium from scanning electron microscopy indicated vessel's sprouted pores. Above indexes in AVL model are all superior to that in AVB model, indicating that the modified AVL model could more effectively develop vascularization in larger tissue engineering bone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microcirculatory disorders in scleroderma systematica: an association with vascular wall stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana Yuryevna Ruzhentsova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of regulation of peripheral vascular tone and their association with the endothelial structure and function of large vessels in patients with scleroderma systematica (SDS. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 25 patients with SDS (mean age, 47±2.6 years; mean disease duration, 8.3+1.7 years and 15 apparently healthy individuals matched for age and gender. Comprehensive examination involved laboratory and instrumental studies, laser Doppler study to evaluate endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation, as well as applanation tonometry calculating the pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. Results. All the patients were found to have impaired peripheral vascular responsiveness as compared to the controls. The examination established a relationship between the magnitude of endothelium-dependent vasodilation and the stiffness index of large vessels. There was no association between endothelium-independent vasodilation and vascular elasticity parameters.

  14. Retinal vascular diameters in relation to physical activity in Danish children - The CHAMPS Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Kristian; Tarp, Jakob; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to determine associations between retinal vascular caliber and physical activity (PA) in a school-based child cohort. In a prospective study we created a childhood cumulative average PA-index using objectively measured PA (accelerometry) assessed at four periods between 2009...

  15. Pulmonary vascular input impedance is a combined measure of pulmonary vascular resistance and stiffness and predicts clinical outcomes better than pulmonary vascular resistance alone in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Kirby, K Scott; Claussen, Lori R; Chan, K Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated a method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero harmonic impedance value and PVR and suggested a correlation between higher-harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness. Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and pulmonary vascular stiffness from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared with PVR. Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main pulmonary artery were measured during right heart catheterization of patients with normal pulmonary artery hemodynamics (n = 14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects, 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y = 1.095x + 1.381, R2 = 0.9620). In addition, the modulus sum of the first 2 harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (y = 13.39x - 0.8058, R2 = 0.7962). Among a subset of patients with PAH (n = 25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (R(L)2 = 0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (R(L)2 = 0.3131). Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from pulse-wave Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and

  16. Ghrelin improves vascular autophagy in rats with vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingming; Liu, Lin; Song, Chenfang; Chen, Wei; Gui, Shuyan

    2017-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate whether ghrelin ameliorated vascular calcification (VC) through improving autophagy. VC model was induced by nicotine plus vitamin D 3 in rats and β-glycerophosphate in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). Calcium deposition was detected by von Kossa staining or alizarin red S staining. ALP activity was also detected. Western blot was used to assess the protein expression. Ghrelin treatment attenuated the elevation of calcium deposition and ALP activity in VC model both in vivo and in vitro. Interesting, the protein levels of autophagy markers, LC3 and beclin1 were significantly upregulated by ghrelin in VC model. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine blocks the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on VC. Furthermore, protein expressions of phosphate-AMPK were increased by ghrelin treatment both in calcified aorta and VSMC. The effect of ghrelin on autophagy induction and VC attenuation was prevented by AMPK inhibitor, compound C. Our results suggested that ghrelin improved autophagy through AMPK activation, which was resulted in VC amelioration. These data maybe throw light on prevention and therapy of VC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  18. Non-vascular surgical mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavon, S.; Trenaghi, P.; Nardini, S.; Pagan, V.

    1989-01-01

    A review was made of the chest X-ray features of 120 patients who underwent surgical treatment for mediastinal non-vascular pathologies over the past 12 years in the Mestre Hospital. A method of analysis is proposed which takes into account not only the differences between the immediate post-operative period and the follow-up, but also the anatomotopographic partition and the surgical practice. Normal and pathological patterns for both of the above periods are described. The ''dimness'' of the arial tracheogram is emphasized as a usefull and early sign of mediastinal recurrence

  19. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    , the retinal vascular fractal dimension was measured using the box-counting method and compared within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs using Pearson correlation coefficients. Falconer's formula and quantitative genetic models were used to determine the genetic component of variation. Results: The mean...... fractal dimension did not differ statistically significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (1.505 vs. 1.495, P = 0.06), supporting that the study population was suitable for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, P = 0...

  20. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  1. Unstable patients with retroperitoneal vascular trauma: an endovascular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufi, Mourad; Bordon, Sébastien; Dona, Bianca; Hartung, Olivier; Sarran, Anthony; Nadeau, Sébastien; Maurin, Charlotte; Alimi, Yves S

    2011-04-01

    In hemodynamically unstable patients, the management of retroperitoneal vascular trauma is both difficult and challenging. Endovascular techniques have become an alternative to surgery in several trauma centers. Between 2004 and 2006, 16 patients (nine men, mean age: 46 years, range: 19-79 years) with retroperitoneal vascular trauma and hemodynamic instability were treated using an endovascular approach. The mean injury severity score was 30.7 ± 13.1. Mean systolic blood pressure and the shock index were 74 mm Hg and 1.9, respectively. Vasopressor drugs were required in 68.7% of cases (n = 11). Injuries were attributable to road traffic accidents (n = 15) and falls (n = 1). The hemorrhage sites included the internal iliac artery or its branches (n = 12) with bilateral injury in one case, renal artery (n = 2), abdominal aorta (n = 1), and lumbar artery (n = 1). In all, 14 coil embolizations and three stent-grafts were implanted. The technical success rate was 75%, as early re-embolization was necessary in one case and three patients died during the perioperative period. Six patients died during the period of hospitalization (37.5%). No surgical conversion or major morbidity was reported. In comparison with particulates, coil ± stent-graft may provide similar efficacy with regard to survival, and thus may be a valuable solution when particulate embolization is not available or feasible. Copyright © 2011 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  3. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  4. Diffuse and vascular hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimeyer, S.; Grenacher, L.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to focal liver lesions, diffuse and vascular disorders of the liver represent a wide spectrum of liver diseases which are from the radiological point of view often difficult or nearly impossible to diagnose. Classical diagnostic methods are computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in addition to ultrasound. Diffuse parenchymal damage caused by diseases of various etiologies is therefore difficult to evaluate because it often lacks characteristic morphological features. For hepatic steatosis, hemochromatosis/siderosis as an example of a diffuse storage disease and sarcoidosis and candidiasis as infectious/inflammatory diseases, an image-based diagnosis is appropriate in some cases. For most diffuse liver diseases, however only nonspecific changes are visualized. Vascular pathologies of the liver, such as the Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis, however, can usually be diagnosed very clearly using radiology and there is also a very effective interventional radiological treatment. Chronic diseases very often culminate in liver cirrhosis which is highly associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. (orig.) [de

  5. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters. PMID:20981425

  6. Enhanced Recovery after Vascular Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena D. Stojanovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginnings of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS program were first developed for patients in colorectal surgery, and after it was established as the standard of care in this surgical field, it began to be applied in many others surgical areas. This is multimodal, evidence-based approach program and includes simultaneous optimization of preoperative status of patients, adequate selection of surgical procedure and postoperative management. The aim of this program is to reduce complications, the length of hospital stay and to improve the patients outcome. Over the past decades, special attention was directed to the postoperative management in vascular surgery, especially after major vascular surgery because of the great risk of multiorgan failure, such as: respiratory failure, myocardial infarction, hemodynamic instability, coagulopathy, renal failure, neurological disorders, and intra-abdominal complications. Although a lot of effort was put into it, there is no unique acceptable program for ERAS in this surgical field, and there is still a need to point out the factors responsible for postoperative outcomes of these patients. So far, it is known that special attention should be paid to already existing diseases, type and the duration of the surgical intervention, hemodynamic and fluid management, nutrition, pain management, and early mobilization of patients.

  7. Vascular access for home haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shakarchi, Julien; Day, C; Inston, N

    2018-03-01

    Home haemodialysis has been advocated due to improved quality of life. However, there are very little data on the optimum vascular access for it. A retrospective cohort study was carried on all patients who initiated home haemodialysis between 2011 and 2016 at a large university hospital. Access-related hospital admissions and interventions were used as primary outcome measures. Our cohort consisted of 74 patients. On initiation of home haemodialysis, 62 individuals were using an arteriovenous fistula as vascular access, while the remaining were on a tunnelled dialysis catheter. Of the 12 patients who started on a tunnelled dialysis catheter, 5 were subsequently converted to either an arteriovenous fistula ( n = 4) or an arteriovenous graft ( n = 1). During the period of home haemodialysis use, four arteriovenous fistula failed or thrombosed with patients continuing on home haemodialysis using an arteriovenous graft ( n = 3) or a tunnelled dialysis catheter ( n = 1). To maintain uninterrupted home haemodialysis, interventional rates were 0.32 per arteriovenous fistula/arteriovenous graft access-year and 0.4 per tunnelled dialysis catheter access-year. Hospital admission rates for patients on home haemodialysis were 0.33 per patient-year. Our study has shown that home haemodialysis can be safely and independently performed at home within a closely managed home haemodialysis programme. The authors also advocate the use of arteriovenous fistulas for this cohort of patients due to both low complication and intervention rates.

  8. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taourel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)], E-mail: p-taourel@chu-montpellier.fr; Vernhet, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Suau, A.; Granier, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Lopez, F.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Nimes (France); Aufort, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)

    2007-10-15

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications.

  9. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taourel, P.; Vernhet, H.; Suau, A.; Granier, C.; Lopez, F.M.; Aufort, S.

    2007-01-01

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications

  10. Vascularized bone transplant chimerism mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Wouter F; Larsen, Mikko; Friedrich, Patricia F; Bishop, Allen T

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone allotransplants. We aim to determine whether bone remodeling in VEGF-treated bone allotransplants results from repopulation with circulation-derived autogenous cells or survival of allogenic transplant-derived cells. Vascularized femoral bone transplants were transplanted from female Dark Agouti rats (DA;RT1(a) ) to male Piebald Viral Glaxo (PVG;RT1(c) ). Arteriovenous bundle implantation and short-term immunosuppression were used to maintain cellular viability. VEGF was encapsulated in biodegradable microspheres and delivered intramedullary in the experimental group (n = 22). In the control group (n = 22), no VEGF was delivered. Rats were sacrificed at 4 or 18 weeks. Laser capture microdissection of bone remodeling areas was performed at the inner and outer cortex. Sex-mismatched genes were quantified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the amount of male cells to total cells, defined as the relative expression ratio (rER). At 4 weeks, rER was significantly higher at the inner cortex in VEGF-treated transplants as compared to untreated transplants (0.622 ± 0.225 vs. 0.362 ± 0.081, P = 0.043). At 4 weeks, the outer cortex in the control group had a significantly higher rER (P = 0.038), whereas in the VEGF group, the inner cortex had a higher rER (P = 0.015). Over time, in the outer cortex the rER significantly increased to 0.634 ± 0.106 at 18 weeks in VEGF-treated rats (P = 0.049). At 18 weeks, the rER was >0.5 at all cortical areas in both groups. These in vivo findings suggest a chemotactic effect of intramedullary applied VEGF on recipient-derived bone and could imply that more rapid angiogenesis of vascularized allotransplants can be established with microencapsulated VEGF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  12. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  13. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  14. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  15. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  16. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  17. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, Michael J.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease

  18. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally...

  19. Diagnosis of vascular injuries caused by hand-transmitted vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, N; Mahbub, M H

    2008-04-01

    For a reliable objective diagnosis of vascular injuries in hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), the standardized cold provocation tests--finger skin temperature measurement during hand(s) immersion in cold water (FST test) and finger systolic blood pressure measurement during local cold exposure (FSBP test)--are widely used. In recent years there is a growing controversy regarding the diagnostic value of these tests. The aim of this study was to describe particularly the diagnostic performance of FST and FSBP tests, and also to focus on the problems and uncertainties regarding the test conditions and results, in the laboratory diagnosis of vascular injuries caused by hand-transmitted vibration. A review of pertinent published English- and Japanese-language articles and conference proceedings (between 1976 and 2006) was conducted. From the reports with regard to diagnostic significance of the FSBP test, it seems to be an important laboratory test for diagnosing vibration-induced white finger (VWF). On the other hand, despite a large number of research studies with the FST test, there is a lack of data for the standardized FST test, which can confirm the value of it in diagnosing VWF. Moreover, there is no agreement on effective parameter/s to quantify and compare the responses in FST induced by immersion in cold water. While assessing and staging vascular injuries in HAVS, inquiry regarding finger coldness appears to be useful. As there is no single test with satisfactory diagnostic ability for VWF, at present it is reasonable to use the cold provocation tests as a part of the comprehensive approach to evaluate HAVS patients. In addition to the objective methods, the index of finger coldness may be useful while diagnosing the vascular component of HAVS.

  20. Aldosterone dysregulation with aging predicts renal vascular function and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jenifer M; Underwood, Patricia C; Ferri, Claudio; Hopkins, Paul N; Williams, Gordon H; Adler, Gail K; Vaidya, Anand

    2014-06-01

    Aging and abnormal aldosterone regulation are both associated with vascular disease. We hypothesized that aldosterone dysregulation influences the age-related risk of renal vascular and cardiovascular disease. We conducted an analysis of 562 subjects who underwent detailed investigations under conditions of liberal and restricted dietary sodium intake (1124 visits) in the General Clinical Research Center. Aldosterone regulation was characterized by the ratio of maximal suppression to stimulation (supine serum aldosterone on a liberal sodium diet divided by the same measure on a restricted sodium diet). We previously demonstrated that higher levels of this Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI) indicate greater aldosterone dysregulation. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was determined via p-aminohippurate clearance to assess basal renal hemodynamics and the renal vascular responses to dietary sodium manipulation and angiotensin II infusion. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score. In univariate linear regression, older age (β=-4.60; Page and SASSI, where the inverse relationship between SASSI and RPF was most apparent with older age (Page may interact to mediate renal vascular disease. Our findings suggest that the combination of aldosterone dysregulation and renal vascular dysfunction could additively increase the risk of future cardiovascular outcomes; therefore, aldosterone dysregulation may represent a modifiable mechanism of age-related vascular disease.

  1. Epithelial and Mesenchymal Tumor Compartments Exhibit In Vivo Complementary Patterns of Vascular Perfusion and Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Galiè

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose transport and consumption are increased in tumors, and this is considered a diagnostic index of malignancy. However, there is recent evidence that carcinoma-associated stromal cells are capable of aerobic metabolism with low glucose consumption, at least partly because of their efficient vascular supply. In the present study, using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET, we mapped in vivo the vascular supply and glucose metabolism in syngeneic experimental models of carcinoma and mesenchymal tumor. We found that in both tumor histotypes, regions with high vascular perfusion exhibited a significantly lower FDG uptake. This reciprocity was more conspicuous in carcinomas than in mesenchymal tumors, and regions with a high-vascular/low-FDG uptake pattern roughly overlapped with a stromal capsule and intratumoral large connectival septa. Accordingly, mesenchymal tumors exhibited a higher vascular perfusion and a lower FDG uptake than carcinomas. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence of vascular/metabolic reciprocity between epithelial and mesenchymal histotypes in tumors, suggesting a new intriguing aspect of epithelial-stromal interaction. Our results suggests that FDG-PET-based clinical analysis can underestimate the malignity or tumor extension of carcinomas exhibiting any trait of “mesenchymalization” such as desmoplasia or epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 312 of 312 ... MI Ebomoyi, VI Iyawe. Vol 23, No 1-2 (2008), Vascular effects of ketamine in isolated rabbit aortic Smooth muscle, Abstract PDF ... Vol 30, No 1-2 (2015), Vitamin C Prevents Sleep Deprivation-induced Elevation in Cortisol and Lipid Peroxidation in the Rat Plasma, Abstract PDF. Olayaki L A, Sulaiman ...

  3. [Immunologic problems in vascular homografts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addato, M; Mirelli, M

    2001-01-01

    Fresh arterial homografts are immunogenic, inducing in recipient a strong immune response specifically directed against the antigens of the donor graft. The initial immune response seems to be cellular (lymphocytotoxic) and the late reaction humoral (antibody), even if they are strictly correlated. Immunosuppressive therapy reduce the immune reaction, but this response is dose-related. Implanted arterial homografts induce a donor-specific response similar to chronic reaction, which occurs in the recipients of vascularized solid-organ allografts. Therefore, in arterial transplantation, ABO compatibility and negative crossmatch should be respected. Effort should be made to curb the immune response by prospective cross-matching, immunosuppressive therapy and preoperative manipulation of homografts to reduce their antigenicity.

  4. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the genetic contribution to the pattern of retinal vascular branching expressed by its fractal dimension. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 50 monozygotic and 49 dizygotic, same-sex twin pairs aged 20 to 46 years. In 50°, disc-centered fundus photographs, the reti...... fractal dimension did not differ statistically significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (1.505 vs. 1.495, P = 0.06), supporting that the study population was suitable for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, P = 0.......0002) in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins (0.108, P = 0.46), corresponding to a heritability h2 for the fractal dimension of 0.79. In quantitative genetic models, dominant genetic effects explained 54% of the variation and 46% was individually environmentally determined. Conclusions: In young adult twins...

  5. Vascular anastomosis by Argon Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, O.M.; Macruz, R.; Armelin, E.; Brum, J.M.G.; Ribeiro, M.P.; Mnitentog, J.; Verginelli, G.; Pileggi, F.; Zerbini, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty four mongrel dogs, wheighing 13 to 24 kilograms were studied. After anesthesia, intubation and controlled ventilation, they were submitted to three types of vascular anastomosis: Group I - eight dogs with saphenous vein inter-carotid arteries by-pass: Group II - eight dogs with left mammary artery - left anterior descending coronary artery by-pass; Group III - eight dogs with venovenous anastomosis. In all groups 0.8 to 15 watts of Argon Laser power was applied to a total time of 90 to 300 seconds. The lower power for venovenous anastomosis and the greater for the arterial ones. The mean valves of resistence of the Laser anastomosis to pressure induced rupture was 730 mmHg in the immediate post operative study, and superior to 2.500 mmHg 30 days after. No signs of occlusion was demonstrated at the anastomosis sites by the angiographic and anathomo-patological study performed. (Author) [pt

  6. Vascular targeting with peptide libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, R. [La Jolla Cancer Research Center The Burnham Inst., La Jolla CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The authors have developed an 'in vivo' selection system in which phage capable of selective homing to different tissues are recovered from a phage display peptide library following intravenous administration. Using this strategy, they have isolate several organ and tumor-homing peptides. They have shown that each of those peptides binds of different receptors that are selectively expressed on the vasculature of the target tissue. The tumor-homing peptides bind to receptors that are up regulated in tumor angiogenic vasculature. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to angiogenic vasculature using these peptides in animals models decrease toxicity and increased the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Vascular targeting may facilitate the development of other treatment strategies that rely on inhibition of angio genesis and lead to advances to extend the potential for targeting of drugs, genes and radionuclides in the context of many diseases.

  7. Vascular Morphodynamics During Secondary Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Reuille, Pierre Barbier; Ragni, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of vascular morphodynamics during secondary growth has been hampered by the scale of the process. Even in the tiny model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the xylem can include more than 2000 cells in a single cross section, rendering manual counting impractical. Moreover, due to its deep location, xylem is an inaccessible tissue, limiting live imaging. A novel method to visualize and measure secondary growth progression has been proposed: "the Quantitative Histology" approach. This method is based on a detailed anatomical atlas, and image segmentation coupled with machine learning to automatically extract cell shapes and identify cell type. Here we present a new version of this approach, with a user-friendly interface implemented in the open source software LithoGraphX.

  8. Adiposity, adipocytokines & microvesicles in the etiology of vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanhai, D.A.N.I.S.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular disease, in this thesis the terms vascular and cardiovascular are used interchangeably, is the number 1 cause of death worldwide. In 2008, 30% of all mortality had a vascular origin. Vascular mortality rates after a first manifestation of vascular disease are decreasing in Western society,

  9. FPGA controlled artificial vascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laqua D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the oxygen saturation of an unborn child is an invasive procedure, so far. Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is a promising method under research, used to estimate the oxygen saturation of a fetus noninvasively. Due to the nature of the method, the fetal information needs to be extracted from a mixed signal. To properly evaluate signal processing algorithms, a phantom modeling fetal and maternal blood circuits and tissue layers is necessary. This paper presents an improved hardware concept for an artificial vascular system, utilizing an FPGA based CompactRIO System from National Instruments. The experimental model to simulate the maternal and fetal blood pressure curve consists of two identical hydraulic circuits. Each of these circuits consists of a pre-pressure system and an artificial vascular system. Pulse curves are generated by proportional valves, separating these two systems. The dilation of the fetal and maternal artificial vessels in tissue substitutes is measured by transmissive and reflective photoplethysmography. The measurement results from the pressure sensors and the transmissive optical sensors are visualized to show the functionality of the pulse generating systems. The trigger frequency for the maternal valve was set to 1 per second, the fetal valve was actuated at 0.7 per second for validation. The reflective curve, capturing pulsations of the fetal and maternal circuit, was obtained with a high power LED (905 nm as light source. The results show that the system generates pulse curves, similar to its physiological equivalent. Further, the acquired reflective optical signal is modulated by the alternating diameter of the tubes of both circuits, allowing for tests of signal processing algorithms.

  10. Detection of vascularity in wrist tenosynovitis: power doppler ultrasound compared with contrast-enhanced grey-scale ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Andrea S; Franz, Magdalena; Arora, Rohit; Feuchtner, Gudrun M; Gruber, Johann; Schirmer, Michael; Jaschke, Werner R; Gabl, Markus F

    2010-01-01

    We sought to assess vascularity in wrist tenosynovitis by using power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) and to compare detection of intra- and peritendinous vascularity with that of contrast-enhanced grey-scale ultrasound (CEUS). Twenty-six tendons of 24 patients (nine men, 15 women; mean age ± SD, 54.4 ± 11.8 years) with a clinical diagnosis of tenosynovitis were examined with B-mode ultrasonography, PDUS, and CEUS by using a second-generation contrast agent, SonoVue (Bracco Diagnostics, Milan, Italy) and a low-mechanical-index ultrasound technique. Thickness of synovitis, extent of vascularized pannus, intensity of peritendinous vascularisation, and detection of intratendinous vessels was incorporated in a 3-score grading system (grade 0 to 2). Interobserver variability was calculated. With CEUS, a significantly greater extent of vascularity could be detected than by using PDUS (P < 0.001). In terms of peri- and intratendinous vessels, CEUS was significantly more sensitive in the detection of vascularization compared with PDUS (P < 0.001). No significant correlation between synovial thickening and extent of vascularity could be found (P = 0.089 to 0.097). Interobserver reliability was calculated to be excellent when evaluating the grading score (κ = 0.811 to 1.00). CEUS is a promising tool to detect tendon vascularity with higher sensitivity than PDUS by improved detection of intra- and peritendinous vascularity.

  11. Dynamics of nephron-vascular network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry; Postnov, D E; Marsh, D J

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a modeling study of the spatial dynamics of a nephro-vascular network consisting of individual nephrons connected via a tree-like vascular branching structure. We focus on the effects of nonlinear mechanisms that are responsible for the formation of synchronous patterns in order...

  12. Imaging of the peripheral vascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.A.; Pond, G.D.; Pinsky, S.; Moss, G.S.; Srikantaswamy, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1984-01-01

    This book is limited neither to the peripheral vascular system nor to diagnostic imaging techniques. Its 18 chapters cover nonimaging blood-flow techniques (Doppler ultrasound, plethysmography) as well as noninvasive and invasive imaging techniques (ultrasound, computed tomography, radionuclide digital-subtraction angiography, and contrast angiography). These are applied not only to the peripheral vascular system but also to the aorta and vena cava

  13. Biomarkers of drug-induced vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brott, D.; Gould, S.; Jones, H.; Schofield, J.; Prior, H.; Valentin, J.P; Bjurstrom, S.; Kenne, K.; Schuppe-Koistinen, I.; Katein, A.; Foster-Brown, L.; Betton, G.; Richardson, R.; Evans, G.; Louden, C.

    2005-01-01

    In pre-clinical safety studies, drug-induced vascular injury is an issue of concern because there are no obvious diagnostic markers for pre-clinical or clinical monitoring and there is an intellectual gap in our understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. While vasodilatation and increased shear stress appear to play a role, the exact mechanism(s) of injury to the primary targets, smooth muscle and endothelial cells are unknown. However, evaluation of novel markers for potential clinical monitoring with a mechanistic underpinning would add value in risk assessment and management. This mini review focuses on the progress to identify diagnostic markers of drug-induced vascular injury. Von Willebrand factor (vWF), released upon perturbation of endothelial cells, is transiently increased in plasma prior to morphological evidence of damage in dogs or rats treated with vascular toxicants. Therefore, vWF might be a predictive biomarker of vascular injury. However, vWF is not an appropriate biomarker of lesion progression or severity since levels return to baseline values when there is morphological evidence of injury. A potential mechanistically linked biomarker of vascular injury is caveolin-1. Expression of this protein, localized primarily to smooth muscle and endothelial cells, decreases with the onset of vascular damage. Since vascular injury involves multiple mediators and cell types, evaluation of a panel rather than a single biomarker may be more useful in monitoring early and severe progressive vascular injury

  14. Vascular dementia | Connor | African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a common but heterogeneous condition in which there is a clear temporal relationship between the dementia and vascular disease. It may result from multiple large or small vessel strokes or a single strategic stroke. Subcortical ischaemic VaD includes multiple lacunes and subcortical ...

  15. PanVascular medicine. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzer, Peter (ed.) [Health Care Center Bitterfeld (Germany). Division of Cardiovascular Disease

    2015-06-01

    Vascular management and care has become a truly multidisciplinary enterprise as the number of specialists involved in the treatment of patients with vascular diseases has steadily increased. While in the past, treatments were delivered by individual specialists, in the twenty-first century a team approach is without doubt the most effective strategy. In order to promote professional excellence in this dynamic and rapidly evolving field, a shared knowledge base and interdisciplinary standards need to be established. Pan Vascular Medicine, 2nd edition has been designed to offer such an interdisciplinary platform, providing vascular specialists with state-of-the art descriptive and procedural knowledge. Basic science, diagnostics, and therapy are all comprehensively covered. In a series of succinct, clearly written chapters, renowned specialists introduce and comment on the current international guidelines and present up-to-date reviews of all aspects of vascular care.

  16. Using Polymeric Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Abruzzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the high occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increasing numbers of patients requiring vascular access, there is a significant need for small-diameter (<6 mm inner diameter vascular graft that can provide long-term patency. Despite the technological improvements, restenosis and graft thrombosis continue to hamper the success of the implants. Vascular tissue engineering is a new field that has undergone enormous growth over the last decade and has proposed valid solutions for blood vessels repair. The goal of vascular tissue engineering is to produce neovessels and neoorgan tissue from autologous cells using a biodegradable polymer as a scaffold. The most important advantage of tissue-engineered implants is that these tissues can grow, remodel, rebuild, and respond to injury. This review describes the development of polymeric materials over the years and current tissue engineering strategies for the improvement of vascular conduits.

  17. Postoperative radiographic evaluation of vascularized fibular grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaster, B.J.; Coleman, D.A.; Bell, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on thirty-five patients with free vascularized fibular grafts examined postoperatively with plain radiography. Early graft incorporation is seen as a fuzziness of the cortex at the site of its insertion into the host bone. Causes of failure in grafting for bone defects include graft fracture, hardware failure, and infection. A high percentage of complications or at least delayed unions occurred when vascularized fibular grafts were used to fill defects in the lower extremity. Conversely, upper extremity defects bridged by vascularized grafts heal quickly and hypertrophy. Vascularized grafts placed in the femoral head and neck for a vascular necrosis incorporate early on their superior aspect. The osseous tunnel in which they are placed is normally wider than the graft and often becomes sclerotic; this appearance does not represent nonunion

  18. PanVascular medicine. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Vascular management and care has become a truly multidisciplinary enterprise as the number of specialists involved in the treatment of patients with vascular diseases has steadily increased. While in the past, treatments were delivered by individual specialists, in the twenty-first century a team approach is without doubt the most effective strategy. In order to promote professional excellence in this dynamic and rapidly evolving field, a shared knowledge base and interdisciplinary standards need to be established. Pan Vascular Medicine, 2nd edition has been designed to offer such an interdisciplinary platform, providing vascular specialists with state-of-the art descriptive and procedural knowledge. Basic science, diagnostics, and therapy are all comprehensively covered. In a series of succinct, clearly written chapters, renowned specialists introduce and comment on the current international guidelines and present up-to-date reviews of all aspects of vascular care.

  19. Increased Vascular Disease Mortality Risk in Prediabetic Korean Adults Is Mainly Attributable to Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hoon; Kwon, Tae Yeon; Yu, Sungwook; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Park, Yousung; Kim, Sin Gon

    2017-04-01

    Prediabetes is a known risk factor for vascular diseases; however, its differential contribution to mortality risk from various vascular disease subtypes is not known. The subjects of the National Health Insurance Service in Korea (2002-2013) nationwide cohort were stratified into normal glucose tolerance (fasting glucose mortality risk for vascular disease and its subtypes-ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. When adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, IFG stage 2, but not stage 1, was associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.34) and vascular disease mortality (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08-1.49) compared with normal glucose tolerance. Among the vascular disease subtypes, mortality from ischemic stroke was significantly higher (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.18-2.18) in subjects with IFG stage 2 but not from ischemic heart disease and hemorrhagic stroke. The ischemic stroke mortality associated with IFG stage 2 remained significantly high when adjusted other modifiable vascular disease risk factors (HR, 1.51; 95% CI: 1.10-2.09) and medical treatments (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.57). Higher IFG degree (fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dL) was associated with increased all-cause and vascular disease mortality. The increased vascular disease mortality in IFG stage 2 was attributable to ischemic stroke, but not ischemic heart disease or hemorrhagic stroke in Korean adults. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Ultra-endurance sports have no negative impact on indices of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Brugger, Nicolas; Schäfer, Daniela; Saner, Hugo; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Marathon running has been linked with higher arterial stiffness. Blood pressure is a major contributor to pulse wave velocity (PWV). We examined indices of arterial stiffness with a blood pressure-independent method in marathon runners and ultra-endurance athletes. Male normotensive amateur runners were allocated to three groups according to former participation in competitions: group I (recreational athletes), group II (marathon runners) and group III (ultra-endurance athletes). Indices of arterial stiffness were measured with a non-invasive device (VaSera VS-1500N, Fukuda Denshi, Japan) to determine the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, primary endpoint) and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV). Lifetime training hours were calculated. Cumulative competitions were expressed as marathon equivalents. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine predictors for CAVI and baPWV. Measurements of arterial stiffness were performed in 51 subjects (mean age 44.6 ± 1.2 years): group I (n = 16), group II (n = 19) and group III (n = 16). No between-group differences existed in age, anthropometric characteristics and resting BP. CAVI and baPWV were comparable between all groups (P = 0.604 and P = 0.947, respectively). In linear regression analysis, age was the only independent predictor for CAVI (R(2) = 0.239, β = 0.455, P = 0.001). Systolic BP was significantly associated with baPWV (R(2) = 0.225, β = 0.403, P = 0.004). In middle-aged normotensive athletes marathon running and ultra-endurance sports had no negative impact on arterial stiffness.

  1. Association between plantar fascia vascularity and morphology and foot dysfunction in individuals with chronic plantar fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongying; Ho, Hok-Ming; Ying, Michael; Fu, Siu Ngor

    2013-10-01

    Single-cohort laboratory-based study. To identify whether plantar fascia vascularity and thickness are associated with foot pain and dysfunction in individuals with chronic plantar fasciitis. Background Altered plantar fascia vascularity and thickening of the fascia have been identified in individuals with chronic plantar fasciitis. Thirty-eight patients with chronic unilateral plantar fasciitis and 21 controls participated in this study. Proximal plantar fascia vascularization and thickness were assessed using ultrasound imaging, and pain and foot dysfunction were quantified with a visual analog scale and the Chinese version of the Foot Function Index, respectively. Paired t tests were used to assess the side-to-side differences in fascia thickness and vascularity index (VI) in the control and patient groups, and an unpaired t test was used to make comparisons with the patient group. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify whether the VI and fascia thickness were associated with pain and foot dysfunction. There were significantly higher VI (mean ± SD, 2.4% ± 1.4%) and fascia thickness (5.0 ± 1.3 mm) values in the affected feet when compared with the unaffected feet in the patient group (VI, 1.4% ± 0.5%; fascia thickness, 3.3 ± 0.7 mm) and with the dominant side of the controls (VI, 1.6% ± 0.4%; fascia thickness, 2.9 ± 0.6 mm). After accounting for age, gender, body mass index, and duration of symptoms, the VI explained 13% and 33% of the variance in pain scores measured with a visual analog scale and the pain subscale of the Foot Function Index, respectively; the VI and fascia thickness explained 42% of the variance in the Foot Function Index. Individuals with unilateral chronic plantar fasciitis demonstrated significantly greater vascularity and thickened fascia on the affected side compared to the unaffected side and also to healthy controls. Fascia vascularity was associated independently with self-perceived pain, and both fascia

  2. [Gastric vascular lesions in cirrhosis: gastropathy and antral vascular ectasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Meritxell; Calvet, Xavier; Vergara, Mercedes; Bella, Maria Rosa; Junquera, Félix; Martinez-Bauer, Eva; Campo, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (GHP) is a complication of portal hypertension usually associated with liver cirrhosis. The pathogenesis is unclear but the presence of portal hypertension is an essential factor for its development. GHP may be asymptomatic or present as gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. Endoscopic lesions vary from a mosaic pattern to diffuse red spots; the most common location is the fundus. Treatment is indicated when there is acute or chronic bleeding, as secondary prophylaxis. There is insufficient evidence to recommend primary prophylaxis in patients who have never bled. Drugs that decrease portal pressure, such as non-cardioselective beta-blockers, and/or endoscopic ablative treatments, such as argon-beam coagulation, may be used. The role of transarterial intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) or bypass surgery has been insufficiently analyzed. Antral vascular ectasia (EVA) is a rare entity in liver cirrhosis, whose pathophysiology is still unknown. Clinical presentation is similar to that of GHP and endoscopy usually shows red spots in the antrum. Biopsy is often required to differentiate EVA from GHP. There is no effective medical therapy, so endoscopic ablative therapy and, in severe cases, antrectomy are recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  3. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  4. Indexing mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...

  5. Vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of vascular elasticity can help detect thrombosis and prevent life-threatening conditions such as acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Here, we propose vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography (VE-PAT) to measure vascular elasticity in humans. VE-PAT was developed by incorporating a linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography system with a customized compression stage. By measuring the deformation of blood vessels under uniaxial loading, VE-PAT was able to quantify the vascular compliance. We first demonstrated the feasibility of VE-PAT in blood vessel phantoms. In large vessel phantoms, VE-PAT detected a decrease in vascular compliance due to simulated thrombosis, which was validated by a standard compression test. In small blood vessel phantoms embedded 3 mm deep in gelatin, VE-PAT detected elasticity changes at depths that are difficult to image using other elasticity imaging techniques. We then applied VE-PAT to assess vascular compliance in a human subject and detected a decrease in vascular compliance when an occlusion occurred downstream from the measurement point, demonstrating the potential of VE-PAT in clinical applications such as detection of deep venous thrombosis.

  6. [A new specialty is born: Vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, J-P

    2016-05-01

    On the 4th of December 2015, the French authorities officially recognized the birth of a specialty in vascular medicine entitled CO-DES cardiology-vascular/vascular Medicine. France is the 7th country to obtain this specialty after Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia, six countries in the EEC. It has taken years to achieve a long but exciting experience: we went from hopes to disappointments, sometimes with the blues, but lobbying helping… with sustained confidence. This article tells the story of 30 years of struggle to achieve this vascular medicine specialty. Gaston Bachelard wrote: "Nothing is obvious, nothing is given, all is built." For the construction of vascular medicine, we had to overcome many obstacles, nothing was given to us, everything was conquered. Beware "The specialist is one who knows more and more things about an increasingly restricted field, up to 'knowing everything about nothing"' recalled Ralph Barton Ferry, philosopher; so there is room for modesty and humility but also convictions. The physical examination will remain the basis of our exercise. But let us recall the contributions of all those vascular physicians who practiced in the past, together with those currently active, who built day after day, year after year, a vascular medicine of quality. It is because of the trust of our colleagues and our patients that we can occupy the place that is ours today. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnosis and management of vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xindong; Zheng Lianzhou

    2011-01-01

    Vascular disorders mainly include hemangiomas and vascular malformations, and constitute some of the most difficult diagnostic and therapeutic enigmas that can be encountered in the clinical practice. The clinical presentations are extremely variable and can range from an asymptomatic birthmark to life-threatening congestive heart failure. Attributing any of these extremely varied symptoms that a patients may present with to a vascular malformation may be a challenge to the most experienced clinical. This problem is compounded by the extreme rarity of these vascular lesions. If a clinician meets such a patient once every few years, it will be extremely difficult for the physicians to gain a steep learning curve. In such circumstances, it is difficult to formulate a standard of diagnosis and treatment for these vascular disorders. This paper aims to make a comprehensive and detailed description of the classification and diagnosis of the vascular disorders, the common used embolization agents, the concepts of interventional diagnosis and management and the therapies of various hemangiomas and vascular malformations. (authors)

  8. Vascular inflammatory cells in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Harrison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease.

  9. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances. METHODS: We undertook a meta-analysis...... of individual records of diabetes, fasting blood glucose concentration, and other risk factors in people without initial vascular disease from studies in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. We combined within-study regressions that were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body......-mass index to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for vascular disease. FINDINGS: Analyses included data for 698 782 people (52 765 non-fatal or fatal vascular outcomes; 8.49 million person-years at risk) from 102 prospective studies. Adjusted HRs with diabetes were: 2.00 (95% CI 1.83-2.19) for coronary heart...

  10. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal; Adams, Denise M.; Gupta, Anita; Lim, Foong-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  11. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal [MLC 5031 Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adams, Denise M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics and Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gupta, Anita [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  12. Vascular ring complicates accidental button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ronald W; Schwartz, Matthew C; Stephany, Joshua; Donnelly, Lane F; Franciosi, James P; Epelman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion can lead to dangerous complications, including vasculoesophageal fistula formation. The presence of a vascular ring may complicate battery ingestion if the battery lodges at the level of the ring and its important vascular structures. We report a 4-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who was diagnosed with a vascular ring at the time of button battery ingestion and died 9 days after presentation due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal erosion and vasculoesophageal fistula formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...

  14. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...

  15. GRI Index 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This World Bank GRI Index 2017 provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting, the GRI Standards: Core option (https://www.globalreporting.org). T...

  16. 2016 GRI Index

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 World Bank Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting GRI guidelines (https://www.globalrepo...

  17. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  18. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  19. Pulmonary Vascular Input Impedance is a Combined Measure of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance and Stiffness and Predicts Clinical Outcomes Better than PVR Alone in Pediatric Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S.; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Kirby, K. Scott; Claussen, Lori R.; Chan, K. Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated an method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero-harmonic impedance value and PVR, and suggested a correlation between higher harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness (PVS). Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and PVS from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared to PVR. Methods Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main PA were measured during right-heart catheterization of patients with normal PA hemodynamics (n=14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects; 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Results Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y=1.095·x+1.381, R2=0.9620). Additionally, the modulus sum of the first two harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (PP/SV) (y=13.39·x-0.8058, R2=0.7962). Amongst a subset of PAH patients (n=25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (RL2=0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (RL2=0.3131). Conclusions Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from PW Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and better predicts patient

  20. Assessment of placental volume and vascularization at 11-14 weeks of gestation in a Taiwanese population using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-I; Yang, Ming-Jie; Wang, Peng-Hui; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Yao

    2014-12-01

    The placental volume and vascular indices are crucial in helping doctors to evaluate early fetal growth and development. Inadequate placental volume or vascularity might indicate poor fetal growth or gestational complications. This study aimed to evaluate the placental volume and vascular indices during the period of 11-14 weeks of gestation in a Taiwanese population. From June 2006 to September 2009, three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound was performed in 222 normal pregnancies from 11-14 weeks of gestation. Power Doppler ultrasound was applied to the placenta and the placental volume was obtained by a rotational technique (VOCAL). The three-dimensional power histogram was used to assess the placental vascular indices, including the mean gray value, the vascularization index, the flow index, and the vascularization flow index. The placental vascular indices were then plotted against gestational age (GA) and placental volume. Our results showed that the linear regression equation for placental volume using gestational week as the independent variable was placental volume = 18.852 × GA - 180.89 (r = 0.481, p power Doppler ultrasonography showed a constant distribution throughout gestation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  1. Peripancreatic vascular abnormalities complicating acute pancreatitis: contrast-enhanced helical CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortele, Koenraad J.; Mergo, Patricia J.; Taylor, Helena M.; Wiesner, Walter; Cantisani, Vito; Ernst, Michael D.; Kalantari, Babak N.; Ros, Pablo R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and morphologic helical computed tomography (CT) features of peripancreatic vascular abnormalities in patients with acute pancreatic inflammatory disease in correlation with the severity of the pancreatitis. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty-nine contrast-enhanced helical CT scans of 100 consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis were retrospectively and independently reviewed by three observers. CT scans were scored using the CT severity index (CTSI): pancreatitis was graded as mild (0-2 points), moderate (3-6 points), and severe (7-10 points). Interobserver agreement for both the CT severity index and the presence of peripancreatic vascular abnormalities was calculated (K-statistic). Correlation between the prevalence of complications and the degree of pancreatitis was estimated using Fisher's exact test. Results: The severity of pancreatitis was graded as mild (n=59 scans), moderate (n=82 scans), and severe (n=18 scans). Venous abnormalities detected included splenic vein (SV) thrombosis (31 scans, 19 patients), superior mesenteric vein (SMV) thrombosis (20 scans, 14 patients), and portal vein (PV) thrombosis (17 scans, 13 patients). Arterial hemorrhage occurred in five patients (6 scans). In our series, no cases of arterial pseudoaneurysm formation were detected. The interobserver agreement range for scoring the degree of pancreatitis and the overall presence of major vascular abnormalities was 75.5-79.2 and 86.2-98.8%, respectively. The presence of the vascular abnormalities in correlation with the severity of pancreatitis was variable. Conclusion: Vascular abnormalities are relatively common CT findings in association with acute pancreatitis. The CT severity index is insufficiently accurate in predicting some of these complications since no statistically significant correlation between their prevalence and the severity of pancreatitis could be established

  2. [Localized purpura revealing vascular prosthetic graft infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boureau, A S; Lescalie, F; Cassagnau, E; Clairand, R; Connault, J

    2013-07-01

    Prosthetic graft infection after vascular reconstruction is a rare but serious complication. We report a case of infection occurring late after implantation of an iliofemoral prosthetic vascular graft. The Staphylococcus aureus infection was revealed by vascular purpura localized on the right leg 7 years after implantation of a vascular prosthesis. This case illustrates an uncommonly late clinical manifestation presenting as an acute infection 7 years after the primary operation. In this situation, the presentation differs from early infection, which generally occurs within the first four postoperative months. Diagnosis and treatment remain a difficult challenge because prosthetic graft infection is a potentially life-threatening complication. Morbidity and mortality rates are high. Here we detail specific aspects of the clinical and radiological presentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Vascular function in health, hypertension, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann, Lasse; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    muscle, which can affect muscle function. Central aspects in the vascular impairments are alterations in the formation of prostacyclin, the bioavailability of NO and an increased formation of vasoconstrictors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regular physical activity effectively improves vascular......, the increase in muscle blood flow required for oxygen supply during exercise is achieved through a substantial increase in vasodilators locally formed in the active muscle tissue that overcome the vasoconstrictor signals. Most of the vasodilator signals are mediated via endothelial cells, which lead...... to the formation of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. In essential hypertension and type II diabetes, the endothelial function and regulation of vascular tone is impaired with consequent increases in peripheral vascular resistance and inadequate regulation of oxygen supply to the skeletal...

  4. Human genetics of diabetic vascular complications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Diabetic vascular complications (DVC) affecting several important organ systems of human body such as the ..... cohort with nominal significance, and a recent meta-analysis ..... Whereas it is generally thought that lysine acetylation is.

  5. Incorporating simulation in vascular surgery education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuth, Jean; Donovan, Michael A; O'Malley, Marcia K; El Sayed, Hosam F; Naoum, Joseph J; Peden, Eric K; Davies, Mark G; Lumsden, Alan B

    2010-10-01

    The traditional apprenticeship model introduced by Halsted of "learning by doing" may just not be valid in the modern practice of vascular surgery. The model is often criticized for being somewhat unstructured because a resident's experience is based on what comes through the "door." In an attempt to promote uniformity of training, multiple national organizations are currently delineating standard curricula for each trainee to govern the knowledge and cases required in a vascular residency. However, the outcomes are anything but uniform. This means that we graduate vascular specialists with a surprisingly wide spectrum of abilities. Use of simulation may benefit trainees in attaining a level of technical expertise that will benefit themselves and their patients. Furthermore, there is likely a need to establish a simulation-based certification process for graduating trainees to further ascertain minimum technical abilities. Copyright © 2010 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Audit of the Danish national vascular database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Jensen, L P; Schroeder, T V

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy of data contained in the Danish vascular database was compared with the case notes. A total of 100 case notes were reviewed for 11 pertinent variables in the database. A high error rate ranging from 2 to 34% was found. Also, approximately 10% of patients had never been entered into t...... into the vascular database. Further improvement of the Danish vascular database is necessary for its use as basis for reporting results.......The accuracy of data contained in the Danish vascular database was compared with the case notes. A total of 100 case notes were reviewed for 11 pertinent variables in the database. A high error rate ranging from 2 to 34% was found. Also, approximately 10% of patients had never been entered...

  7. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  8. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K.C. Ng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.

  9. Lipidomics in vascular health: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms that convert a healthy vascular wall to an atherosclerotic wall is of major importance since the consequences may lead to a shortened lifespan. Classical risk factors (age, smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) may result in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions by processes including inflammation and lipid accumulation. Thus, the evaluation of blood lipids and the full lipid complement produced by cells, organisms, or tissues (lipidomics) is an issue of importance. In this review, we shall describe the recent progress in vascular health research using lipidomic advances. We will begin with an overview of vascular wall biology and lipids, followed by a short analysis of lipidomics. Finally, we shall focus on the clinical implications of lipidomics and studies that have examined lipidomic approaches and vascular health.

  10. Lower limb vascular dysfunction in cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ayala Melo Di Alencar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related vascular insufficiency affecting the lower limbs is uncommon, and early signs and symptoms can be confused with musculoskeletal injuries. This is also the case among professional cyclists, who are always at the threshold between endurance and excess training. The aim of this review was to analyze the occurrence of vascular disorders in the lower limbs of cyclists and to discuss possible etiologies. Eighty-five texts, including papers and books, published from 1950 to 2012, were used. According to the literature reviewed, some cyclists receive a late diagnosis of vascular dysfunction due to a lack of familiarity of the medical team with this type of dysfunction. Data revealed that a reduced blood flow in the external iliac artery, especially on the left, is much more common than in the femoral and popliteal arteries, and that vascular impairment is responsible for the occurrence of early fatigue and reduced performance in cycling.

  11. Laser-assisted vascular anastomosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Race L.; Tsao-Wu, George; Magovern, George J.

    1990-06-01

    The milliwatt CO2 laser and a thermal activated binding compound (20% serum albumin) were used for microvascular anastomoses. Under general anesthesia, the femoral arteries (0.7 to 1.0 mm diameter) of 6 rats were isolated. After the left femoral artery in each rat was clamped and transected, the vessel was held together with 3 equidistant 10-0 Xomed sutures. The cut edges were coated 3 to 4 times with the albumin solution and sealed with the CO2 laser (power density = 120 W/cm2). The binding compound solidified to a translucent tensile substance which supported the anastomosis until self healing and repair were achieved. The right femoral artery was used as sham operated control. Complete hemostasis and patency were observed in every case immediately and at 1, 3, and 6 months following surgery. The binding compound absorbed most of the laser energy thus minimizing thermal injury to the underlying tissue. Mongrel dogs weighing 28 to 33 kg were anesthetized and prepared for sterile surgical procedures. In 5 dogs, the femoral and jugular veins were exposed, transected, and anastomosed using a CO2 laser (Sharplan 1040) with the binding compound. In another 12 dogs, cephalic veins were isolated and used for aortocoronary artery bypass procedures. The Sharplan 1040 CO2 laser and 20% albumin solution were utilized to complete the coronary anastomoses in 6 dogs, and 6 dogs were used as controls by suturing the vessels. Again, hemostasis, patency, and minimal tissue damage were observed immediately and 6 weeks after the procedures. Improved surgical results, reduced operating time, minimized tissue damage, and enhanced anastomotic integrity are the advantages of laser assisted vascular anastomosis with a thermal activated binding compound.

  12. Severe Obesity in Adolescents and Young Adults Is Associated With Subclinical Cardiac and Vascular Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amy S; Dolan, Lawrence M; Khoury, Philip R; Gao, Zhiqan; Kimball, Thomas R; Urbina, Elaine M

    2015-07-01

    Severe obesity is the fastest growing subgroup of obesity in youth. We sought to explore the association between severe obesity and subclinical measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function in adolescents and young adults. This was a cross-sectional comparison of 265 adolescents and young adults with severe obesity (defined as body mass index [BMI] ≥120% of the 95th percentile) to 182 adolescents and young adults with obesity (defined as BMI ≥100-119th of the 95th percentile) at tertiary medical center. Noninvasive measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function were assessed. Participants were a mean age of 17.9 years, 62% were non-Caucasian, and 68% were female. Systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, IL-6, and frequency of type 2 diabetes were higher in participants with severe obesity (all P obesity as measured by higher left ventricular mass index, worse diastolic function, higher carotid intima media thickness, and pulse wave velocity and lower brachial distensibility (all P obesity (compared with obesity) was independently associated with each of the above outcomes after adjustment for age, race, sex, blood pressure, lipids, and inflammatory markers (P young adults with severe obesity have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile and worse cardiac and vascular structure and function. More importantly, severe obesity is independently associated with these subclinical cardiac and vascular changes.

  13. Biomimicry, vascular restenosis and coronary stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; van der Giessen, W J; Holmes, D R

    1998-01-01

    Biomimicry is in its earliest stages and is being considered in the realm of tissue engineering. If arterial implants are to limit neointimal thickening, purely passive structures cannot succeed. Bioactivity must be present, either by pharmacologic intervention or by fabricating a 'living stent' that contains active cellular material. As tissue engineering evolves, useful solutions will emerge from applying this knowledge directly to vascular biologic problems resulting from angioplasty, stenting, and vascular prosthesis research.

  14. The current role of vascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, J

    1993-09-01

    The limitations of percutaneous balloon angioplasty have favoured the development and the use of vascular endoprostheses or stents. These thin-walled metal devices maintain after expansion, an optimal and constant diameter for the vascular lumen. Restenosis, dissection, abrupt closure, residual stenosis or re-opened total occlusion represent appropriate indications for stenting. A large experience with non-coronary application of stents is currently available in iliac, femoro-popliteal and renal arteries, aorta, large veins.

  15. Vascular colitis: a report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Il; Han, Chang Yul; Han, Man Chung; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-04-15

    The authors report two cases of vascular colitis in Korean with a review of literature. Case I, 20 years old male had severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Case II was 57 years old male and complained severe abdominal pain. Barium enema colon study on each cases disclosed typical thumbprinting appearance of involved segment. Predisposing factor in case I appeared to be anaphylactoid purpura, and in case II distal obstruction due to adenocarcinoma. The mechanism of vascular was briefly discussed.

  16. Robotic vascular resections during Whipple procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Bassan J; Novak, Stephanie M; Hogg, Melissa E; Zeh, Herbert J

    2018-01-01

    Indications for resection of pancreatic cancers have evolved to include selected patients with involvement of peri-pancreatic vascular structures. Open Whipple procedures have been the standard approach for patients requiring reconstruction of the portal vein (PV) or superior mesenteric vein (SMV). Recently, high-volume centers are performing minimally invasive Whipple procedures with portovenous resections. Our institution has performed seventy robotic Whipple procedures with concomitant vascular resections. This report outlines our technique.

  17. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szostak-Wegierek D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Szostak-WegierekDepartment of Human Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. Keywords: maternal

  18. Asymptomatic cervicocerebral atherosclerosis, intracranial vascular resistance and cognition: the AsIA-neuropsychology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olóriz, Jorge; López-Cancio, Elena; Arenillas, Juan F; Hernández, María; Jiménez, Marta; Dorado, Laura; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; Cáceres, Cynthia; Forés, Rosa; Pera, Guillem; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis has emerged as a relevant contributor to cognitive impairment and dementia whereas the role of intracranial stenosis and vascular resistance in cognition remains unknown. This study aims to assess the association of asymptomatic cervicocerebral atherosclerosis and intracranial vascular resistance with cognitive performance in a large dementia-free population. The Barcelona-AsIA (Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis) Neuropsychology Study included 747 Caucasian subjects older than 50 with a moderate-high vascular risk (assessed by REGICOR score) and without history of neither symptomatic vascular disease nor dementia. Extracranial and transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound examination was performed to assess carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), presence of carotid plaques (ECAD group), intracranial stenosis (ICAD group), and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI) as a measure of intracranial vascular resistance. Neuropsychological assessment included tests in three cognitive domains: visuospatial skills and speed, verbal memory and verbal fluency. In univariate analyses, carotid IMT, ECAD and MCA-PI were associated with lower performance in almost all cognitive domains, and ICAD was associated with poor performance in some visuospatial and verbal cognitive tests. After adjustment for age, sex, vascular risk score, years of education and depressive symptoms, ECAD remained associated with poor performance in the three cognitive domains and elevated MCA-PI with worse performance in visuospatial skills and speed. Carotid plaques and increased intracranial vascular resistance are independently associated with low cognitive functioning in Caucasian stroke and dementia-free subjects. We failed to find an independent association of intracranial large vessel stenosis with cognitive performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measures of total stress-induced blood pressure responses are associated with vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Pietro; Seccia, Teresa; Vulpis, Vito; Schirosi, Gabriella; Serio, Gabriella; Battista, Loredana; Pirrelli, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The role of cardiovascular reactivity to study hypertension, and the assessment methods, are still controversial. We aimed to verify the association of hypertension and vascular damage with several measures of cardiovascular response. We studied 40 patients with normal-high (132 +/- 1/87 +/- 1 mm Hg) blood pressure (Group 1) and 80 untreated hypertensive subjects. Postischemic forearm vascular resistance (mFVR) served to differentiate hypertensive subjects (142 +/- 2/92 +/- 1 mm Hg v 143 +/- 2/94 +/- 2 mm Hg, P = NS) with a lower (Group 2) and higher (Group 3) hemodynamic index of vascular damage (4.8 +/- .05 v 6.3 +/- .09, P blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow, and vascular resistance. Reactivity measures included: a) change from baseline, b) residualized score, c) cumulative change from baseline and residualized score, and d) total reactivity as area-under-the-curve (AUC), including changes occurring during baseline and recovery phases. The AUC of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mFVR progressively increased in the groups (P AUC of SBP, DBP, and forearm blood flow and resistance demonstrated the highest (P AUC of SBP (beta = 0.634) and forearm blood flow (beta = -0.337) were predictive (P blood pressure stress response, as AUC, including baseline and recovery phases, was significantly better associated with hypertension and vascular damage than the other reactivity measures studied.

  20. Effects of ouabain on vascular reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo D.V.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Ouabain is an endogenous substance occurring in the plasma in the nanomolar range, that has been proposed to increase vascular resistance and induce hypertension. This substance acts on the a-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase inhibiting the Na+-pump activity. In the vascular smooth muscle this effect leads to intracellular Na+ accumulation that reduces the activity of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and to an increased vascular tone. It was also suggested that circulating ouabain, even in the nanomolar range, sensitizes the vascular smooth muscle to vasopressor substances. We tested the latter hypothesis by studying the effects of ouabain in the micromolar and nanomolar range on phenylephrine (PE-evoked pressor responses. The experiments were performed in normotensive and hypertensive rats in vivo, under anesthesia, and in perfused rat tail vascular beds. The results showed that ouabain pretreatment increased the vasopressor responses to PE in vitro and in vivo. This sensitization after ouabain treatment was also observed in hypertensive animals which presented an enhanced vasopressor response to PE in comparison to normotensive animals. It is suggested that ouabain at nanomolar concentrations can sensitize vascular smooth muscle to vasopressor stimuli possibly contributing to increased tone in hypertension

  1. 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dylan; Jia, Jia; Yost, Michael; Markwald, Roger; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    3D bioprinting holds remarkable promise for rapid fabrication of 3D tissue engineering constructs. Given its scalability, reproducibility, and precise multi-dimensional control that traditional fabrication methods do not provide, 3D bioprinting provides a powerful means to address one of the major challenges in tissue engineering: vascularization. Moderate success of current tissue engineering strategies have been attributed to the current inability to fabricate thick tissue engineering constructs that contain endogenous, engineered vasculature or nutrient channels that can integrate with the host tissue. Successful fabrication of a vascularized tissue construct requires synergy between high throughput, high-resolution bioprinting of larger perfusable channels and instructive bioink that promotes angiogenic sprouting and neovascularization. This review aims to cover the recent progress in the field of 3D bioprinting of vascularized tissues. It will cover the methods of bioprinting vascularized constructs, bioink for vascularization, and perspectives on recent innovations in 3D printing and biomaterials for the next generation of 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication. PMID:27230253

  2. Vascular retraction driven by matrix softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Megan

    We recently discovered we can directly apply physical forces and monitor the downstream responses in a living organism in real time through manipulation of the blood vessels of a marine organism called, Botryllus schlosseri. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role in regulating vascular growth and homeostasis in Botryllus,a basal chordate which has a large, transparent extracorporeal vascular network that can encompass areas >100 cm2. We have determined that lysyl oxidase 1 (LOX1), which is responsible for cross-linking collagen, is expressed in all vascular cells and is critically important for vascular maintenance. Inhibition of LOX1 activity in vivo by the addition of a specific inhibitor, ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), caused a rapid, global regression of the entire vascular bed, with some vessels regressing >10 mm within 16 hrs. In this talk, I will discuss the molecular and cellular origins of this systemic remodeling event, which hinges upon the ability of the vascular cells to sense and respond to mechanical signals, while introducing this exciting new model system for studies of biological physics and mechanobiology. Collaborators: Anthony DeTomaso, Delany Rodriguez, Aimal Khankhel (UCSB).

  3. [Vascular aging, arterial hypertension and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Weisser, B

    2011-11-01

    The present review delineates the significance of intima-media-thickness, arterial stiffness and endothelial function for vascular aging. There is profound evidence for an increase in intima-media-thickness and vascular stiffness not only during healthy aging but induced also by cardiovascular risk factors. There is a central role of arterial hypertension for this progression in both structural factors. In addition, both parameters are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Endothelial function measured as postischemic flow-mediated vasodilatation is a functional parameter which is decreased both in healthy aging and by cardiovascular risk factors. Physical activity modifies the influence of aging and risk factors on endothelial function. A positive influence of endurance exercise on vascular stiffness and endothelial function has been demonstrated in numerous studies. In long-term studies, regular physical activity has been shown to reduce the progression of intima-media-thickness. Thus, arterial hypertension accelerates vascular aging, while physical activity has a positive influence on a variety of vascular parameters associated with vascular aging. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Vascular Adventitia Calcification and Its Underlying Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Previous research on vascular calcification has mainly focused on the vascular intima and media. However, we show here that vascular calcification may also occur in the adventitia. The purpose of this work is to help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. The calcified lesions were examined by Von Kossa staining in ApoE-/- mice which were fed high fat diets (HFD for 48 weeks and human subjects aged 60 years and older that had died of coronary heart disease, heart failure or acute renal failure. Explant cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCswere obtained from rat adventitia and media, respectively. After calcification induction, cells were collected for Alizarin Red S staining. Calcified lesions were observed in the aorta adventitia and coronary artery adventitia of ApoE-/-mice, as well as in the aorta adventitia of human subjects examined. Explant culture of fibroblasts, the primary cell type comprising the adventitia, was successfully induced for calcification after incubation with TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml + mineralization media for 4 days, and the phenotype conversion vascular adventitia fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was identified. Culture of SMCs, which comprise only a small percentage of all cells in the adventitia, in calcifying medium for 14 days resulted in significant calcification.Vascular calcification can occur in the adventitia. Adventitia calcification may arise from the fibroblasts which were transformed into myofibroblasts or smooth muscle cells.

  5. The Effects of a Multiflavonoid Supplement on Vascular and Hemodynamic Parameters following Acute Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Kappus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress and combined with acute exercise they may lead to further decreases in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation on vascular distensibility and cardiovascular hemodynamics during postexercise hypotension. Methods. Twenty young subjects were randomized to placebo (=10 or antioxidant supplementation (=10 for two weeks. Antioxidant status, vascular distensibility, and hemodynamics were obtained before, immediately, and 30 minutes after an acute bout of aerobic exercise both before and after supplementation. Results. Two weeks of antioxidant supplementation resulted in a greater systolic blood pressure (SBP decrease during postexercise hypotension (PEH and significant decreases in augmentation index versus placebo (12.5% versus 3.5%, resp.. Also ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP increased significantly (interaction P = 0.024 after supplementation. Conclusion. Supplementation showed an additive effect on PEH associated with increased FRAP values and decreases in systolic blood pressure and augmentation index.

  6. The effects of a multiflavonoid supplement on vascular and hemodynamic parameters following acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Curry, Chelsea D; McAnulty, Steve; Welsh, Janice; Morris, David; Nieman, David C; Soukup, Jeffrey; Collier, Scott R

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress and combined with acute exercise they may lead to further decreases in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation on vascular distensibility and cardiovascular hemodynamics during postexercise hypotension. Twenty young subjects were randomized to placebo (n = 10) or antioxidant supplementation (n = 10) for two weeks. Antioxidant status, vascular distensibility, and hemodynamics were obtained before, immediately, and 30 minutes after an acute bout of aerobic exercise both before and after supplementation. Two weeks of antioxidant supplementation resulted in a greater systolic blood pressure (SBP) decrease during postexercise hypotension (PEH) and significant decreases in augmentation index versus placebo (12.5% versus 3.5%, resp.). Also ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) increased significantly (interaction P = 0.024) after supplementation. Supplementation showed an additive effect on PEH associated with increased FRAP values and decreases in systolic blood pressure and augmentation index.

  7. A new supersymmetric index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecotti, S.; Fendley, P.; Intriligator, K.; Vafa, C.

    1992-01-01

    We show that Tr(-1) F F e -βH is an index for N = 2 supersymmetric theories in two dimensions, in the sense that it is independent of almost all deformations of the theory. This index is related to the geometry of the vacua (Berry's curvature) and satisfies an exact differential equation as a function of β. For integrable theories we can also compute the index thermodynamically, using the exact S-matrix. The equivalence of these two results implies a highly non-trivial equivalence of a set of coupled integral equations with these differential equations, among them Painleve III and the affine Toda equations. (orig.)

  8. The pulsatility index and the resistive index in renal arteries. Associations with long-term progression in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Petersen, J R; Talleruphuus, U

    1997-01-01

    The pulsatility index (PI) and the resistive index (RI) are used as pulsed-wave Doppler measurements of downstream renal artery resistance. PI and RI have been found to correlate with renal vascular resistance, filtration fraction and effective renal plasma flow in chronic renal failure. The aim...... of the present study was to evaluate the potential relationship between these indices and the rate of decline in renal function, as reflected by changes in different parameters of renal function in patients with chronic renal failure....

  9. MRI in Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aotsuka, Akiyo; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Keizo; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the magnetic resonance (MR) image of midbrain and striatum in 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 10 patients with vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and 10 age-matched control subjects. Studies were performed on a high field strength (1.5 tesla) MRI unit. T2-weighted spin echo pulse sequence (TR 2500 ms/TE 40 ms) was used. Intensity profiles of a straight line perpendicular to the pars compacta through the center of the red nucleus were made on an image of the midbrain. We measured the width of the valley at half-height between the peaks of intensity representing the red nucleus and the crus cerebri-pars reticulata complex and used this as an index of the width of the pars compacta signal. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 2.7 mm in the PD group and 4.3 mm in controls. The difference between the means was highly significant (p<0.01). While not significant statistically, there was a trend toward narrowing of the width of pars compacta signal of substantia nigra in the PD group as the Yahr's grade or disease duration progressed. In hemiparkinsonism, MRI revealed significant narrowing of the pars compacta signal on the contra-lateral side to the clinical predominant side. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 3.9 mm in the VP group, but the decrease was not significant. MRI in VP group showed multiple high intensity area in the basal ganglia and the white matter, and periventricular hyperintensity area (PVHIA). There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of restoration of the signal intensity in the lateral portion of the substantia nigra among PD, VP and control groups. The low signal intensity in the posterolateral putamen was not found in the 3 groups. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal has been attributed either to atrophy of the pars compacta or to increased deposition of iron in this region. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal reflected pathophysiology of PD. (J.P.N.)

  10. Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease, with and without Presence of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić-Balen, Marica; Božikov, Veljko; Bistrović, Dragica; Jandrić, Ivan; Božikov, Jadranka; Romić, Željo; Balen, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The study evaluated antioxidant status in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD), with and without concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). 211 participants were divided into standardized 4 groups: patients with PVD and DM (PVD+DM+), patients with PVD without DM (PVD+DM-), patients without PVD with DM (PVD-DM+) and patients without PVD and DM (PVD-DM-). The diagnosis of PVD was established by Doppler sonography analysis, including determination of the ankle brachial index (...

  11. Patterns of peripheral vascular diseases at Muhimbili National hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diseases) and HIV- vasculitis. A total of 97 patients (63%) were surgically treated. Conclusion: Shortage of vascular surgeons and facilities in our. Country needs to be sorted out to save life to these patients with vascular disorders. Key Words: Peripheral Vascular Diseases, and Shortage of Vascular Services in Tanzania.

  12. Lung irradiation induces pulmonary vascular remodelling resembling pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghobadi, G.; Bartelds, B.; van der Veen, S. J.; Dickinson, M. G.; Brandenburg, S.; Berger, R. M. F.; Langendijk, J. A.; Coppes, R. P.; van Luijk, P.

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a commonly fatal pulmonary vascular disease that is often diagnosed late and is characterised by a progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting from typical vascular remodelling. Recent data suggest that vascular damage plays an

  13. Vascular associated gene variants in patients with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Bare, Lance A; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia has been linked to subsequent vascular disease with many shared predisposing factors. We investigated the association between severe preeclampsia, and its subtypes, and specific vascular-related polymorphisms.......Preeclampsia has been linked to subsequent vascular disease with many shared predisposing factors. We investigated the association between severe preeclampsia, and its subtypes, and specific vascular-related polymorphisms....

  14. Association between maternal vascular murmur and the small-for-gestational-age fetus with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riknagel, Diana; Farlie, Richard; Hedegaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal vascular murmurs (MVMs) and fetal growth restriction (defined as small-for-gestational-age [SGA] fetus) and abnormal Doppler pulsatility index (PI) of the uterine and/or umbilical arteries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of women aged 1...

  15. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Ing How

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and “blow-out” tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome.

  16. Indexes to Volume 75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUBJECT INDEX. Mathematical .... A 10-Hz terawatt class Ti:sapphire laser system: Development and ... Indigenous development of a 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 .... Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet.

  17. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Most snack foods Potatoes White rice Watermelon Meal Planning with the Glycemic Index When planning your meals: ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  18. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 1034 ... Vol 49, No 2 (2007), African Index Medicus: Improving access to African ... insulin therapy initiation among patients with type 2 diabetes attending a ... Risk Factors Implicated in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Abstract PDF.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 194 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 14, No 1 (2000), A functional categoriality of adjectives in ... Vol 1, No 1 (1987), Alienation and affirmation: The humanistic vision of Bessie Head, Abstract PDF.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index ... in a USA school setting: Merging transition theory with a narrative approach, Abstract ... Citation analysis of theses and dissertations submitted at the ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index .... The challenge of thesis supervision in an art university, Abstract ... No 2 (2004), Robert Sternberg's mental self-government theory and its contribution to ...

  3. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 346 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and hygiene promotion services in Rungwe district, Tanzania, Abstract .... as seen in NIgerian teaching hospital: pattern and a simple classification, Abstract.

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 437 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... prospects and realistic strategies to its implementation in Nigeria\\'s Institute of ... and Communication Technology (ICT) in information dissemination, Abstract.

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 901 - 950 of 1355 ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Vol 22, No 2 (2018), Performance evaluation of a locally fabricated sawdust fired oven for ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 788 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 26, No 1 (2018), Gender differentials in the perception of .... Vol 25, No 1 (2017), Impact of total quality management on students' academic performance in ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 465 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and twinning data of an igbo kindred during the Nigerian Civil War, Abstract ... on laboratory estimations with special reference to clinical chemistry, Abstract.

  9. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 1260 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Consumption of ammonia-nitrogen by aob in immobilized batch culture, Abstract PDF .... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, Design an automatic temperature ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 294 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or .... S Edwards, M Hlongwane, J Thwala, N Robinson ... Vol 16, No 1 (2017), Infancy of internet cafe: The substitute of ubuntu-padare pedagogy, Abstract.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 130 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... using the technological pedagogical content knowledge(TPACK) framework, Abstract PDF ... Tamara N. Hrin, Dušica D. Milenković, Mirjana D. Segedinac.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 278 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... drie paradigmas beskou: 'n eenheid, of 'n veelheid van perspektiewe? ... Vol 45, No 1 (2011), Genre pedagogy in the mediation of socially-situated literacies ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 551 - 600 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... A James, E Ralfe, L van Laren, N Ngcobo ... 1 (2011), Recognition of prior learning in promoting lifelong learning: A pedagogy of hope or a shattering of dreams?

  15. Browse Title Index

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    Items 451 - 500 of 533 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... for past tense forms in Northern Sotho: verb stems with final 'm' and 'n', Abstract ... in an academic writing class: Implications for a dialogic pedagogy, Abstract.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 183 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 61 (2017), New interventions and sustainable solutions: .... Vol 35 (2011), Resurgence of tribal levies: Double taxation for the rural poor, Abstract PDF.

  17. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 736 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 5 (2008), A Contagious Malady: The Human Quest for Truth through Religion, Abstract ... A Study of Politeness Strategies Used by the National University of ...

  19. Browse Title Index

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    Items 101 - 150 of 414 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... of an algebraic function for the permutation of truth table columns, Abstract ... appraisal and productivity levels in selected Nigerian universities, Abstract.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 20, No 4 (2006), Assessing academic potential for university admission: ... Vol 16, No 2 (2002), Book Review: Rethinking truth by Higgs, P & Smith, J, Details.

  1. Browse Title Index

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    Items 1 - 50 of 165 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 43 (2011), Assessment of the Learning Commons takeoff at the University of ... the archive of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Abstract.

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    Items 1 - 50 of 644 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Ethics review n international health research: quality assurance or bureaucratic nightmare? Details ... Audit of Management of Open Fractures, Details PDF.

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    Items 1 - 50 of 449 ... Vol 1, No 3 (2012), Adult Functional Literacy Curriculum: Effective Strategy for Human ... and Exchange Rate Influence on the Nigerian Stock Market Index ... for the Stimulation and Attraction of Foreign Direct Investments ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 98 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... model for the continued professionalisation of student affairs in Africa, Abstract PDF ... Vol 2, No 2 (2014), Book Review: How College Affects Students, A Third decade ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 76 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 4, No 1 (2011), Automation of AutoCAD for Detailing of Reinforced .... Vol 10, No 1 (2017), Housing data base for sustainable housing provision, Abstract PDF.

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    Items 1 - 50 of 147 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Library (TEEAL) Database among faculty members in Federal University, ... Vol 5, No 2 (2014), Effects of corporate culture on the implementation of automation in ...

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    Items 851 - 900 of 1255 ... Vol 16, No 4 (2010), Origin and generation mechanisms of ... Vol 13, No 4 (2007), Osmotic fragility index of HBAA red blood cells in the presence of ... (2004), Photovoltaic cells, efficiency and optimization, Abstract PDF.

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    Items 401 - 450 of 985 ... Vol 17 (2010), Flood Frequency Analysis of Ikpoba River ... and the corresponding Refractive Index in Uniaxial Crystals, Abstract ... Vol 8 (2004), Further on stokes expansions for the finite amplitude water waves, Abstract.

  9. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 531 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... thermal conductivity and viscosity in a flat plate solar collector, Abstract PDF .... similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD boundary layer on the body ...

  11. Lattice Index Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Lakshmi; Hong, Yi; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The index coding problem involves a sender with K messages to be transmitted across a broadcast channel, and a set of receivers each of which demands a subset of the K messages while having prior knowledge of a different subset as side information. We consider the specific case of noisy index coding where the broadcast channel is Gaussian and every receiver demands all the messages from the source. Instances of this communication problem arise in wireless relay networks, sensor networks, and ...

  12. Deriving a blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry in Sylgard-184 vascular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Majid Y; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L

    2009-01-01

    A new blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for particle image velocimetry (PIV), which enables flow studies in vascular models (phantoms). A major difficulty in PIV that affects measurement accuracy is the refraction and distortion of light passing through the interface between the model and the fluid, due to the difference in refractive index (n) between the two materials. The problem can be eliminated by using a fluid with a refractive index matching that of the model. Such fluids are not commonly available, especially for vascular research where the fluid should also have a viscosity similar to human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid, composed of water (47.38% by weight), glycerol (36.94% by weight) and sodium iodide salt (15.68% by weight), was developed for compatibility with our silicone (Sylgard 184; n = 1.414) phantoms. The fluid exhibits a dynamic viscosity of 4.31+/-0.03 cP which lies within the range of human blood viscosity (4.4+/-0.6 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at 22.2+/-0.2 degrees C, which is a feasible room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a temperature-control system. The fluid will be used to study hemodynamics in vascular flow models fabricated from Sylgard 184.

  13. Investigating the association of cardiovascular effects with personal exposure to particle components and sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chang-fu, E-mail: changfu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Li, Ya-Ru; Kuo, I-Chun [Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shih-Chieh [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lian-Yu; Su, Ta-Chen [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Background: Few studies included information on components and sources when exploring the cardiovascular health effects from personal exposure to particulate matters (PM). We previously reported that exposure to PM between 1.0 and 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5-1}) was associated with increased cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, an arterial stiffness index), while exposure to PM smaller than 0.25 {mu}m (PM{sub 0.25}) decreased the heart rate variability (HRV) indices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between PM elements and cardiovascular health effects and identify responsible sources. Methods: In a panel study of seventeen mail carriers, the subjects were followed for 5-6 days while delivering mail outdoors. Personal filter samples of PM{sub 2.5-1} and PM{sub 0.25} were analyzed for their elemental concentrations. The source-specific exposures were further estimated by using absolute principal factor analysis. We analyzed the component- and source-specific health effects on HRV indices and CAVI using mixed models. Results: Several elements in PM{sub 2.5-1} (e.g., cadmium and strontium) were associated with the CAVI. Subsequent analyses showed that an interquartile range increase in exposure to PM from regional sources was significantly associated with a 3.28% increase in CAVI (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.47%-5.13%). This significant effect remained (3.35%, CI: 1.62%-5.11%) after controlling for the ozone exposures. For exposures to PM{sub 0.25}, manganese, calcium, nickel, and chromium were associated with the CAVI and/or the HRV indices. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM{sub 2.5-1} and PM{sub 0.25} components may be associated with different cardiovascular effects. Health risks from exposure to PM from sources other than vehicle exhaust should not be underappreciated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased arterial stiffness was related to the components in particles between 1.0 and 2.5 {mu}m. Black

  14. Sirtuins, Cell Senescence, and Vascular Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Yujiro; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    The sirtuins (SIRTs) constitute a class of proteins with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase or adenosine diphosphate-ribosyltransferase activity. Seven SIRT family members have been identified in mammals, from SIRT1, the best studied for its role in vascular aging, to SIRT7. SIRT1 and SIRT2 are localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are mitochondrial, and SIRT6 and SIRT7 are nuclear. Extensive studies have clearly revealed that SIRT proteins regulate diverse cell functions and responses to stressors. Vascular aging involves the aging process (senescence) of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Two types of cell senescence have been identified: (1) replicative senescence with telomere attrition; and (2) stress-induced premature senescence without telomere involvement. Both types of senescence induce vascular cell growth arrest and loss of vascular homeostasis, and contribute to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Previous mechanistic studies have revealed in detail that SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT6 show protective functions against vascular aging, and definite vascular function of other SIRTs is under investigation. Thus, direct SIRT modulation and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide stimulation of SIRT are promising candidates for cardiovascular disease therapy. A small number of pilot studies have been conducted to assess SIRT modulation in humans. These clinical studies have not yet provided convincing evidence that SIRT proteins alleviate morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The outcomes of multiple ongoing clinical trials are awaited to define the efficacy of SIRT modulators and SIRT activators in cardiovascular diseases, along with the potential adverse effects of chronic SIRT modulation. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Progenitor cells in pulmonary vascular remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Michael E.; Frid, Maria G.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Intimal thickening and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and fibroproliferative changes in the adventitia are commonly observed, as is the extension of smooth muscle into the previously non-muscularized vessels. A majority of these changes are associated with the enhanced presence of α-SM-actin+ cells and inflammatory cells. Atypical abundances of functionally distinct endothelial cells, particularly in the intima (plexiform lesions), and also in the perivascular regions, are also described. At present, neither the origin(s) of these cells nor the molecular mechanisms responsible for their accumulation, in any of the three compartments of the vessel wall, have been fully elucidated. The possibility that they arise from either resident vascular progenitors or bone marrow–derived progenitor cells is now well established. Resident vascular progenitor cells have been demonstrated to exist within the vessel wall, and in response to certain stimuli, to expand and express myofibroblastic, endothelial or even hematopoietic markers. Bone marrow–derived or circulating progenitor cells have also been shown to be recruited to sites of vascular injury and to assume both endothelial and SM-like phenotypes. Here, we review the data supporting the contributory role of vascular progenitors (including endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and fibrocytes) in vascular remodeling. A more complete understanding of the processes by which progenitor cells modulate pulmonary vascular remodeling will undoubtedly herald a renaissance of therapies extending beyond the control of vascular tonicity and reduction of pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:22034593

  16. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilecki, Stanisław; Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Świętaszczyk, Cyprian; Junik, Roman; Lasek, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed. A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint. People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression

  17. Gene transfer therapy in vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, M J; Gaballa, M A

    2001-01-01

    Somatic gene therapy of vascular diseases is a promising new field in modern medicine. Recent advancements in gene transfer technology have greatly evolved our understanding of the pathophysiologic role of candidate disease genes. With this knowledge, the expression of selective gene products provides the means to test the therapeutic use of gene therapy in a multitude of medical conditions. In addition, with the completion of genome sequencing programs, gene transfer can be used also to study the biologic function of novel genes in vivo. Novel genes are delivered to targeted tissue via several different vehicles. These vectors include adenoviruses, retroviruses, plasmids, plasmid/liposomes, and oligonucleotides. However, each one of these vectors has inherent limitations. Further investigations into developing delivery systems that not only allow for efficient, targeted gene transfer, but also are stable and nonimmunogenic, will optimize the clinical application of gene therapy in vascular diseases. This review further discusses the available mode of gene delivery and examines six major areas in vascular gene therapy, namely prevention of restenosis, thrombosis, hypertension, atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular disease in congestive heart failure, and ischemia. Although we highlight some of the recent advances in the use of gene therapy in treating vascular disease discovered primarily during the past two years, many excellent studies published during that period are not included in this review due to space limitations. The following is a selective review of practical uses of gene transfer therapy in vascular diseases. This review primarily covers work performed in the last 2 years. For earlier work, the reader may refer to several excellent review articles. For instance, Belalcazer et al. (6) reviewed general aspects of somatic gene therapy and the different vehicles used for the delivery of therapeutic genes. Gene therapy in restenosis and stimulation of

  18. Comparison of NIRS, laser Doppler flowmetry, photoplethysmography, and pulse oximetry during vascular occlusion challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abay, T Y; Kyriacou, P A

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring changes in blood volume, blood flow, and oxygenation in tissues is of vital importance in fields such as reconstructive surgery and trauma medicine. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), laser Doppler (LDF) flowmetry, photoplethysmography (PPG), and pulse oximetry (PO) contribute to such fields due to their safe and noninvasive nature. However, the techniques have been rarely investigated simultaneously or altogether. The aim of this study was to investigate all the techniques simultaneously on healthy subjects during vascular occlusion challenges. Sensors were attached on the forearm (NIRS and LDF) and fingers (PPG and PO) of 19 healthy volunteers. Different degrees of vascular occlusion were induced by inflating a pressure cuff on the upper arm. The responses of tissue oxygenation index (NIRS), tissue haemoglobin index (NIRS), flux (LDF), perfusion index (PPG), and arterial oxygen saturation (PO) have been recorded and analyzed. Moreover, the optical densities were calculated from slow varying dc PPG, in order to distinguish changes in venous blood volumes. The indexes showed significant changes (p  <  0.05) in almost all occlusions, either venous or over-systolic occlusions. However, differentiation between venous and arterial occlusion by LDF may be challenging and the perfusion index (PI) may not be adequate to indicate venous occlusions. Optical densities may be an additional tool to detect venous occlusions by PPG. (paper)

  19. Adiposity, adipocytokines & microvesicles in the etiology of vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kanhai, D.A.N.I.S.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular disease, in this thesis the terms vascular and cardiovascular are used interchangeably, is the number 1 cause of death worldwide. In 2008, 30% of all mortality had a vascular origin. Vascular mortality rates after a first manifestation of vascular disease are decreasing in Western society, which is attributable to better disease awareness, better preventive strategies and better healthcare systems. As mortality rates are decreasing, the number of patients surviving their first vascul...

  20. Risk stratification for the development of respiratory adverse events following vascular surgery using the Society of Vascular Surgery's Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Fish, Larry; Chaer, Rabih A; Makaroun, Michel S; Baril, Donald T

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative respiratory adverse events (RAEs) are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in general surgery, however, little is known about these complications in the vascular surgery population, a frail subset with multiple comorbidities. The objective of this study was to describe the contemporary incidence of RAEs in vascular surgery patients, the risk factors for this complication, and the overall impact of RAEs on patient outcomes. The Vascular Quality Initiative was queried (2003-2014) for patients who underwent endovascular abdominal aortic repair, open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, thoracic endovascular aortic repair, suprainguinal bypass, or infrainguinal bypass. A mixed-effects logistic regression model determined the independent risk factors for RAEs. Using a random 85% of the cohort, a risk prediction score for RAEs was created, and the score was validated using the remaining 15% of the cohort, comparing the predicted to the actual incidence of RAE and determining the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The independent risk of in-hospital mortality and discharge to a nursing facility associated with RAEs was determined using a mixed-effects logistic regression to control for baseline patient characteristics, operative variables, and other postoperative adverse events. The cohort consisted of 52,562 patients, with a 5.4% incidence of RAEs. The highest rates of RAEs were seen in current smokers (6.1%), recent acute myocardial infarction (10.1%), symptomatic congestive heart failure (9.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring oxygen therapy (11.0%), urgent and emergent procedures (6.4% and 25.9%, respectively), open abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs (17.6%), in situ suprainguinal bypasses (9.68%), and thoracic endovascular aortic repairs (9.6%). The variables included in the risk prediction score were age, body mass index, smoking status, congestive heart failure severity, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  1. Open and endovascular aneurysm repair in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Emily L; Beck, Adam W

    2017-12-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative is a patient safety organization and a collection of procedure-based registries that can be utilized for quality improvement initiatives and clinical outcomes research. The Vascular Quality Initiative consists of voluntary participation by centers to collect data prospectively on all consecutive cases within specific registries which physicians and centers elect to participate. The data capture extends from preoperative demographics and risk factors (including indications for operation), through the perioperative period, to outcomes data at up to 1-year of follow-up. Additionally, longer-term follow-up can be achieved by matching with Medicare claims data, providing long-term longitudinal follow-up for a majority of patients within the Vascular Quality Initiative registries. We present the unique characteristics of the Vascular Quality Initiative registries and highlight important insights gained specific to open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevostyanova, V. V., E-mail: sevostyanova.victoria@gmail.com; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  3. Effects of PPARγ ligands on vascular tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2012-06-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ), originally described as a transcription factor for genes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, has been more recently studied in the context of cardiovascular pathophysiology. Here, we review the available data on PPARγ ligands as modulator of vascular tone. PPARγ ligands include: thiazolidinediones (used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus), glitazars (bind and activate both PPARγ and PPARα), and other experimental drugs (still in development) that exploit the chemistry of thiazolidinediones as a scaffold for PPARγ-independent pharmacological properties. In this review, we examine both short (mostly from in vitro data)- and long (mostly from in vivo data)-term effects of PPARγ ligands that extend from PPARγ-independent vascular effects to PPARγ-dependent gene expression. Because endothelium is a master regulator of vascular tone, we have attempted to differentiate between endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent effects of PPARγ ligands. Based on available data, we conclude that PPARγ ligands appear to influence vascular tone in different experimental paradigms, most often in terms of vasodilatation (potentially increasing blood flow to some tissues). These effects on vascular tone, although potentially beneficial, must be weighed against specific cardiovascular warnings that may apply to some drugs, such as rosiglitazone.

  4. Insulin resistance: vascular function and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Hyon Hwang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance associated with metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an epidemic metabolic disorder, which increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. Impaired vascular endothelial function is an early marker for atherosclerosis, which causes cardiovascular complications. Both experimental and clinical studies indicate that endothelial dysfunction in vasculatures occurs with insulin resistance. The associated physiological mechanisms are not fully appreciated yet, however, it seems that augmented oxidative stress, a physiological imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, in vascular cells is a possible mechanism involved in various vascular beds with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Regardless of the inclusion of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise seems to be beneficial for vascular endothelial function in both large conduit and small resistance vessels in both clinical and experimental studies with insulin resistance. In clinical cases, aerobic exercise over 8 weeks with higher intensity seems more beneficial than the cases with shorter duration and lower intensity. However, more studies are needed in the future to elucidate the physiological mechanisms by which vascular endothelial function is impaired in insulin resistance and improved with aerobic exercise.

  5. Vascular trauma: selected historical reflections from the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rich Norman M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】In the spirit of international exchanges of knowledge with colleagues from all over the world, who are interested in the care and treatment of vascular trauma, we offer selected historical reflections from the western world on vascular trauma. Whereas there are a number of key individuals and a variety of events that are important to us in our writing, we know essentially nothing about what is written by other cultures and, particularly, the Chinese. It is well recognized around the world that Chinese surgeons are among the first to be highly successful in re-plantation of severed extremities, repairing both injured arteries and veins. Also, we recognize that there are contributions in other parts of the world, which are not well known to us collectively. Contributions from the Arabic speaking part of the world come to mind because there is periodic brief reference. We offer our perspective hoping that there will be one or more Chinese surgeons who will offer us the benefit of sharing their perspective on important historical contributions to the managing of vascular trauma outside of the western world, and, particularly, the English speaking literature. Once again, we encourage our colleagues in the Arabic speaking world to provide us with their perspective of the development and management of vascular trauma. Key words: Vascular system injuries; History; Western world; International educational exchange

  6. Arteriographic evaluation, in the perispheric vascular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino, Jairo Hernando; Granados, Ana Maria; Lopera B, Jorge; Prada W, Angela Maria

    1993-01-01

    136 patients were angiographically studied under the suspicion of perispheric vascular lesion submitted to the radiology department of the San Vicente de Paul University Hospital (H.U.S.VP.) Medellin Colombia. The majority of the patients were young with wounds caused by gunshots (79.4%). the must frequent angiographic indication was the proximity of the wound to a vascular path (44.5%). 63% of the patients with angiography indicative of abnormality needed surgery from which 21% were because of the proximity of the wound to a vascular path and 76% because of the mayor findings when admitted to the hospital. the possible complications as a result of the angiographic procedure were revised only find inc two mayor reactions to the contrast media. there were no late complications. Angiography is highlighting sensitive (100%) specific (98.5%) and secure in the evaluation of patients with perispheric vascular trauma. Due to the high number of false negatives when the physical examination is performed, every patient with a wound near a vascular path must be evaluated angiographically

  7. Endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovina, Marija M; Potpara, Tatjana S

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelium has important regulatory functions in the cardiovascular system and a pivotal role in the maintenance of vascular health and metabolic homeostasis. It has long been recognized that endothelial dysfunction participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from early, preclinical lesions to advanced, thrombotic complications. In addition, endothelial dysfunction has been recently implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Considering that states of insulin resistance (eg, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and T2DM) represent the most prevalent metabolic disorders and risk factors for atherosclerosis, it is of considerable scientific and clinical interest that both metabolic and vascular disorders have endothelial dysfunction as a common background. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with established cardiovascular disease, and a growing body of evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction also imparts adverse prognosis in states of insulin resistance. In this review, we discuss the association of insulin resistance and T2DM with endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of the endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders. We also address current therapeutic strategies for the improvement of endothelial dysfunction.

  8. Nanomedicine approaches in vascular disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anirban Sen

    2011-12-01

    Nanomedicine approaches have revolutionized the treatment of cancer and vascular diseases, where the limitations of rapid nonspecific clearance, poor biodistribution and harmful side effects associated with direct systemic drug administration can be overcome by packaging the agents within sterically stabilized, long-circulating nanovehicles that can be further surface-modified with ligands to actively target cellular/molecular components of the disease. With significant advancements in genetics, proteomics, cellular and molecular biology and biomaterials engineering, the nanomedicine strategies have become progressively refined regarding the modulation of surface and bulk chemistry of the nanovehicles, control of drug release kinetics, manipulation of nanoconstruct geometry and integration of multiple functionalities on single nanoplatforms. The current review aims to capture the various nanomedicine approaches directed specifically toward vascular diseases during the past two decades. Analysis of the promises and limitations of these approaches will help identify and optimize vascular nanomedicine systems to enhance their efficacy and clinical translation in the future. Nanomedicine-based approaches have had a major impact on the treatment and diagnosis of malignancies and vascular diseases. This review discusses various nanomedicine approaches directed specifically toward vascular diseases during the past two decades, highlighting their advantages, limitations and offering new perspectives on future applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Clinical Impact of Cardiology Consultation Prior to Major Vascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frank M; Park, Yeo June; Grey, Scott F; Boniakowski, Anna E; Mansour, M Ashraf; Jain, Krishna M; Nypaver, Timothy; Grossman, Michael; Gurm, Hitinder; Henke, Peter K

    2018-01-01

    To understand statewide variation in preoperative cardiology consultation prior to major vascular surgery and to determine whether consultation was associated with differences in perioperative myocardial infarction (poMI). Medical consultation prior to major vascular surgery is obtained to reduce perioperative risk. Despite perceived benefit of preoperative consultation, evidence is lacking specifically for major vascular surgery on the effect of preoperative cardiac consultation. Patient and clinical data were obtained from a statewide vascular surgery registry between January 2012 and December 2014. Patients were risk stratified by revised cardiac risk index category and compared poMI between patients who did or did not receive a preoperative cardiology consultation. We then used logistic regression analysis to compare the rate of poMI across hospitals grouped into quartiles by rate of preoperative cardiology consultation. Our study population comprised 5191 patients undergoing open peripheral arterial bypass (n = 3037), open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (n = 332), or endovascular aneurysm repair (n = 1822) at 29 hospitals. At the patient level, after risk-stratification by revised cardiac risk index category, there was no association between cardiac consultation and poMI. At the hospital level, preoperative cardiac consultation varied substantially between hospitals (6.9%-87.5%, P 66%) had a reduction in poMI (OR, 0.52; confidence interval: 0.28-0.98; P cardiology consultation for vascular surgery varies greatly between institutions, and does not appear to impact poMI at the patient level. However, reduction of poMI was noted at the hospitals with the highest rate of preoperative cardiology consultation as well as a variety of medical services, suggesting that other hospital culture effects play a role.

  10. Menstrual Cycle, Vocal Performance, and Laryngeal Vascular Appearance: An Observational Study on 17 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Carmel-Neiderman, Narin N; Halperin, Doron; Shapira Galitz, Yael; Levin, Dan; Haimovich, Yaara; Cohen, Oded; Abitbol, Jean; Lahav, Yonatan

    2018-03-01

    To assess the anatomical and functional features of the vocal folds during different phases of the female menstrual cycle. An observational study of 17 healthy fertile female volunteers not using hormonal contraception was carried out. Each volunteer underwent two examinations: first, during the early days of the menstrual cycle when progesterone levels are low (p-depletion), and second, during premenstruation when progesterone levels are high (p-peak). The workup included blood hormone levels, Voice Handicap Index, acoustic analysis, rigid telescopy, stroboscopy, and narrow band imaging. The videos were evaluated by blinded observers. The participants' mean age was 31.7 ± 5.6 (range 23-43). Progesterone levels were 13- to 45-fold higher in p-peak relative to p-depletion. No significant differences were detected in Voice Handicap Index scores, stroboscopic reports, or acoustic analysis between p-peak and p-depletion examinations. Analyzing the rigid telescopy and narrow band imaging videos, the observers tended to estimate the different laryngeal subsites more vascularized during the p-peak examination. Moreover, this tendency was significantly correlated with blood progesterone levels during the p-depletion examinations; the lower the blood progesterone levels were during p-depletion, the higher the probability for the observers to estimate the p-peak examinations more vascularized (P value = 0.024). Alterations in laryngeal vascular characteristics are evident throughout the menstrual cycle and may suggest increased congestion during premenstrual days. Variations in progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle correlate with laryngeal vascular changes. Hormone-related alterations in vocal folds' vascularity may have a role in the variability of vocal performance in certain women. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  12. The vascular pattern in the flower of some Mesembryanthemaceae: Aptenia cordifolia and Dorotheanthus bellidiformis. The effect of an ontogenetical shifting on the vascular pattern and vascular conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen-Bruijns, van der C.

    1976-01-01

    1. The vascular pattern in the flower at various stages of maturity of Aptenia cordifolia and Dorotheanthus bellidiformis is examined. 2. The vascular pattern of Dorotheanthus has been compared with that of Aptenia: typologically, Dorotheanthus is derived from Aptenia. 3. The vascular pattern of

  13. Intraoperative digital angiography: Peripheral vascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.; Reifsteck, J.E.; Binet, E.F.; Fleisher, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Intraoperative digital angiography is the procedure of choice for the peripheral vascular surgeon who wishes to evaluate his results before terminating anesthesia. Two operating suites at the John L. McClellan Memorial Veterans Hospital are equipped with permanent ceiling-mounted Philips C-arm fluoroscopes and share an ADAC 4100 digital angiographic system. In the last 18 months, 40 peripheral vascular intraoperative digital angiographic procedures have been performed, in all but two cases using direct arterial puncture. In 65% of cases, the intraoperative study showed no significant abnormality. In 12.5%, minor abnormalities not requiring reoperation were seen. In 22.5% of cases, the intraoperative digital angiogram revealed a significant abnormality requiring immediate operative revision. None of the patients who underwent reoperation experienced postoperative sequelae. Intraoperative digital angiography is useful in identifying complications of peripheral vascular operations

  14. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed.

  15. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopy can detect differences in vascular responsiveness to a hyperglycaemic challenge in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogério Nogueira; Reimer, Raylene A; Alenezi, Zaid; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Murias, Juan Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To examine whether the near-infrared spectroscopy combined with vascular occlusion test technique could detect differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity. A total of 16 normal-weight individuals (body mass index, 21.3 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 13 individuals with obesity (body mass index, 34.4 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 ) were submitted to five vascular occlusion tests (Pre, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose challenge). Vascular responsiveness was determined by the Slope 2 (Slope 2 StO 2 ) and the area under the curve (StO 2AUC ) of oxygen saturation derived from near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test. The Slope 2 StO 2 increased from 1.07 ± 0.16%/s (Pre) to 1.53 ± 0.21%/s at 90 min ( p obese it increased from 0.71 ± 0.09%/s (Pre) to 0.92 ± 0.14%/s at 60 min ( p obesity. Near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test technique was capable of detecting differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity.

  17. Correlation between three-dimensional power Doppler and morphometric measurement of endometrial vascularity at the time of embryo implantation in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Saravelos, Sotirios H; Liu, Yingyu; Huang, Jin; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Tin Chiu

    2017-06-01

    Power Doppler in combination with three-dimensional (3D-PD) ultrasonography has been used as a noninvasive tool to evaluate the vascularity. However, it is unclear whether 3D-PD can accurately reflect endometrial vascularization and replace the invasive endometrial biopsy. This study aims to investigate the correlation between 3D-PD and micro vessel morphometric measurement of endometrial vascularity. Twenty-five women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage were recruited for 3D-PD and endometrial biopsy on precisely day LH + 7. Immunohistochemistry using vWF was employed to identify micro vessels in endometrial biopsy specimens followed by the use of morphometric technique to measure the mean vessel diameter and volume fractions. The vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) assessed by 3D-PD were calculated for both the endometrial and sub-endometrial regions. There were no significant correlations between any of the ultrasonographic measurements (endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial VI/FI/VFI, sub-endometrial volume, sub-endometrial VI/FI/VFI) and morphometric features (number of micro vessel, mean diameter of micro vessel and volume fraction measurement of vessel). This study indicates that endometrial vascularity assessed by 3D-PD could not be used to reflect changes in micro vessels of the endometrium at the time of embryo implantation in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

  18. The Cognitive Mobilization Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how the cognitive mobilization index, designed for use in observing potential political participation, can be used as an indicator of the political climate that a particular society is going through. Following a discussion of the theoretical elaborations (and their working definitions of the concept of cognitive mobilization, a longitudinal study of various European countries is used to consider the question of how political crises influence cognitive mobilization indexes and what effects they have on the political socialization process among the youngest cohorts.

  19. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...

  20. Vacuum assisted closure in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beno, M; Martin, J; Sager, P

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum assisted closure (VAC-therapy) is a well established method in nearly all surgical disciplines. The aim is to present the efficiency of vacuum assisted closure in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds in patients admitted in the department of vascular surgery. Within the year 2008 there were 59 patients (44 men, 15 women) treated with VAC therapy in our Department of Vascular surgery (Landshut, Germany). VAC was used 22x (37.28 %) in therapy of ulcus cruris (venous, arterial, mixed genesis), 15x (25.42%) in patients with diabetic foot syndrome, 12x (20.33%) in secondary healing wounds and infected wounds, 5x (8.47%) in wounds after several injuries and soft skin tissue infections and 5x (8.47%) in wound infections connected with vascular graft infections after vascular revascularization. VAC therapy seems to be very effective in the management of patients with venous ulcers, especially after a proper surgical treatment (100%), patients with soft skin tissue infections (100%) and secondary healing wounds (100%) especially in combination with MESH-Grafting. In patients with diabetic foot syndrome (80%) and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (72.7%), an evaluation of peripheral blood perfusion and revascularization prior to VAC therapy is often necessary. Although VAC was used 5x in the therapy of infected vascular grafts, successful preservation of infected graft material was observed in only one case (infection of PTFE femoro-popliteal bypass graft). Vacuum assisted closure in vascular surgery proved to be simple and efficient method in therapy of acute and chronic wounds. The efficiency of VAC systems in therapy of infected graft material after revascularization needs further studies (Tab. 3, Ref. 10).

  1. The pathology and pathophysiology of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N

    2017-12-19

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is widely recognised as the second most common type of dementia. Consensus and accurate diagnosis of clinically suspected VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures in life but more importantly pathological confirmation. Factors defining subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes as well as time after the initial vascular event. Atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases combined appear the most common subtypes of vascular brain injury. In recent years, cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has gained prominence worldwide as an important substrate of cognitive impairment. SVD is characterised by arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts and cortical and subcortical microinfarcts and diffuse white matter changes, which involve myelin loss and axonal abnormalities. Global brain atrophy and focal degeneration of the cerebrum including medial temporal lobe atrophy are also features of VaD similar to Alzheimer's disease. Hereditary arteriopathies have provided insights into the mechanisms of dementia particularly how arteriolosclerosis, a major contributor of SVD promotes cognitive impairment. Recently developed and validated neuropathology guidelines indicated that the best predictors of vascular cognitive impairment were small or lacunar infarcts, microinfarcts, perivascular space dilation, myelin loss, arteriolosclerosis and leptomeningeal cerebral amyloid angiopathy. While these substrates do not suggest high specificity, VaD is likely defined by key neuronal and dendro-synaptic changes resulting in executive dysfunction and related cognitive deficits. Greater understanding of the molecular pathology is needed to clearly define microvascular disease and vascular substrates of dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According...

  3. Genealogy of training in vascular neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhry, Shakeel A; Spetzler, Robert F

    2014-02-01

    Remarkable advances and changes in the landscape of neurovascular disease have occurred recently. Concurrently, a paradigm shift in training and resident education is underway. This crossroad of unique opportunities and pressures necessitates creative change in the training of future vascular neurosurgeons to allow incorporation of surgical advances, new technology, and supplementary treatment modalities in a setting of reduced work hours and increased public scrutiny. This article discusses the changing landscape in neurovascular disease treatment, followed by the recent changes in resident training, and concludes with our view of the future of training in vascular neurosurgery.

  4. Vascularized Composite Allografts: Procurement, Allocation, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmel, Axel

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation is a continuously evolving area of modern transplant medicine. Recently, vascularized composite allografts (VCAs) have been formally classified as 'organs'. In this review, key aspects of VCA procurement are discussed, with a special focus on interaction with the procurement of classical solid organs. In addition, options for a matching and allocation system that ensures VCA donor organs are allocated to the best-suited recipients are looked at. Finally, the different steps needed to promote VCA transplantation in society in general and in the medical community in particular are highlighted.

  5. Early vascular plants in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlířová, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Vascular plants are characterized as a group of plants, which are already fully adapted to live on the land. Their evolution is a result of a set of adaptations that have required the necessary changes at anatomical and morphological level. Some evidences about the rise of vascular plants appear in the fossil record from the Middle Ordovician in the form of spores and later also from the Early Silurian in the form of megafossils. The aim of the thesis is to briefly describe and discuss the mo...

  6. Radiological study of cerebro-vascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misri, H.T.; Kabawe, Bassam

    1991-01-01

    The role of computerized tomography scanner in studying the cerebro-vascular accidents has been discussed. One hundred fifty patients with cerebro-vascular accidents were studied at Aleppo University Hospital between 1989-1990. Clinical history and physical examination were recorded, as well as, computerized tomography scanning in all cases without using the contrast media mostly. Relationship between the density of the lesion (inforctionor hemorrhage) and the time has been found. This relationship can help in forensic medicine. (author). 29 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Angiogenesis and vascular targeting: Relevance for hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a functional blood supply from the normal tissue vasculature via the process of angiogenesis is critical for the continued growth and development of solid tumours. This importance has led to the concept of targeting the tumour vasculature as a therapeutic strategy, and two major...... types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs) have developed; those that inhibit the angiogenic process-angiogenesis inhibiting agents (AIAs)-and those that specifically damage the already established neovasculature-vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). The tumour vasculature also plays a critical role...

  8. Age related changes in tumor vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loerelius, L.E.; Stridbeck, H.

    1984-01-01

    VX 2 tumors in the rabbit hind leg were investigated at one, two and three weeks of age. Angiograms were compared with vascular casts. The tumors grew rapidly the first two weeks of age. Large variations in vascularity were noted between tumors of different ages. With increasing age arteriovenous shunts at the tumor periphery and areas of avascularity of necrosis in the tumor center increased in size. Possible reasons for tumor necrosis are increased tissue pressure, anoxia caused by arteriovenous shunts and elevation in venous pressure. The natural history of the VX 2 tumor must be considered in every experimental study of the effect of any treatment. (orig.)

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging, intracranial vascular resistance and cognition in middle-aged asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olóriz, Jorge; López-Cancio, Elena; Arenillas, Juan F; Hernández, María; Dorado, Laura; Dacosta-Aguayo, Rosalía; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; Bargalló, Núria; Cáceres, Cynthia; Torán, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Dávalos, Antonio; Mataró, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of traditional vascular risk factors to cognitive impairment and dementia is well known. However, in order to obtain possible targets for prevention of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), it may be important to identify other early and noninvasive markers in asymptomatic middle-aged adults. The calculation of middle cerebral artery-pulsatility index (MCA-PI) is an ultrasonologic, noninvasive, validated and easily reproducible technique to assess increased distal resistance to blood flow. This study aims to assess the relationship between MCA-PI, microstructural white matter (WM) integrity and cognition in a middle-aged asymptomatic population. Ninety-five participants from the Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (AsIA) neuropsychology study were included. Subjects were 50-65 years old, free from dementia and without history of vascular disease. Transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound examination was performed to assess MCA-PI as a measure of vascular resistance. WM integrity was evaluated by fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements of diffusion tensor images (DTI) acquired on a 3T-MRI. The neuropsychological battery was specifically selected to be sensitive to VCI, and included tests that were grouped into six cognitive domains: executive functioning, attention, verbal fluency, memory, visuospatial skills and psychomotor speed. A multivariate linear regression model adjusted for age, gender, years of education, diabetes and hypertension was performed. MCA-PI was significantly associated with WM disintegration in different tracts (fornix, corticospinal and anterior thalamic), all p gender, years of education, and vascular risk factors (all p cognitive domains, except for visuospatial skills. Our data suggest that MCA-PI may be related to WM disintegration and early vascular cognitive impairment in middle-aged subjects. Although further prospective studies are needed to provide evidence for its validity in longitudinal studies, our

  10. Improving Technology for Vascular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Raman

    Neuro-endovascular image guided interventions (Neuro-EIGIs) is a minimally invasive procedure that require micro catheters and endovascular devices be inserted into the vasculature via an incision near the femoral artery and guided under low dose fluoroscopy to the vasculature of the head and neck. However, the endovascular devices used for the purpose are of very small size (stents are of the order of 50mum to 100mum) and the success of these EIGIs depends a lot on the accurate placement of these devices. In order to accurately place these devices inside the patient, the interventionalist should be able to see them clearly. Hence, high resolution capabilities are of immense importance in neuro-EIGIs. The high-resolution detectors, MAF-CCD and MAF-CMOS, at the Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center at the University at Buffalo are capable of presenting improved images for better patient care. Focal spot of an x-ray tube plays an important role in performance of these high resolution detectors. The finite size of the focal spot results into the blurriness around the edges of the image of the object resulting in reduced spatial resolution. Hence, knowledge of accurate size of the focal spot of the x-ray tube is very essential for the evaluation of the total system performance. Importance of magnification and image detector blur deconvolution was demonstrated to carry out the more accurate measurement of x-ray focal spot using a pinhole camera. A 30 micron pinhole was used to obtain the focal spot images using flat panel detector (FPD) and different source to image distances (SIDs) were used to achieve different magnifications (3.16, 2.66 and 2.16). These focal spot images were deconvolved with a 2-D modulation transfer function (MTF), obtained using noise response (NR) method, to remove the detector blur present in the images. Using these corrected images, the accurate size of all the three focal spots were obtained and it was also established that effect of

  11. 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 146 countries. The index...

  12. Engineering the mechanical and biological properties of nanofibrous vascular grafts for in situ vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jeffrey J D; Yu, Jian; Wang, Aijun; Lee, Randall; Fang, Jun; Li, Song

    2017-08-17

    Synthetic small diameter vascular grafts have a high failure rate, and endothelialization is critical for preventing thrombosis and graft occlusion. A promising approach is in situ tissue engineering, whereby an acellular scaffold is implanted and provides stimulatory cues to guide the in situ remodeling into a functional blood vessel. An ideal scaffold should have sufficient binding sites for biomolecule immobilization and a mechanical property similar to native tissue. Here we developed a novel method to blend low molecular weight (LMW) elastic polymer during electrospinning process to increase conjugation sites and to improve the mechanical property of vascular grafts. LMW elastic polymer improved the elasticity of the scaffolds, and significantly increased the amount of heparin conjugated to the micro/nanofibrous scaffolds, which in turn increased the loading capacity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prolonged the release of VEGF. Vascular grafts were implanted into the carotid artery of rats to evaluate the in vivo performance. VEGF treatment significantly enhanced endothelium formation and the overall patency of vascular grafts. Heparin coating also increased cell infiltration into the electrospun grafts, thus increasing the production of collagen and elastin within the graft wall. This work demonstrates that LMW elastic polymer blending is an approach to engineer the mechanical and biological property of micro/nanofibrous vascular grafts for in situ vascular tissue engineering.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 391 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Efficacy of four Rodenticides on the Ghanaian Market, Abstract ... Vol 2, No 1 (2000):, Determination of some wear elements in used car engine oil and oil filter ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 46 of 46 ... Vol 4, No 1 (2015), Fiscal Federalism and Development In Nigeria, Abstract. Dorcas Akhere Odigwe, Stanley Aibieyi. Vol 1, No 1 (2011), Good Governance Analysing Performance of Economic Community of West African States and Southern African Development Community Members on Mo Ibrahim Index ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 73 of 73 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13 (2006), The ageing eye” functional changes from cradle to gray: A ... Vol 12 (2005), The evaluation of vision in children using monocular vision acuity and ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 224 of 224 ... Vol 13, No 2 (2010), Spatial Analysis of Particle Size Distribution of Soils Formed on ... swelling index and moisture content of white and yellow garri in ... and Composition of Milk of West African Dwarf (Wad) Sheep Fed ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 229 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title. Vol 14, No 2 ... Vol 15, No 1 (2017), Qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in old age, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2013), Simple Algorithm in the Management of Fetal ...

  18. Nitrate leaching index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  19. Data Citation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Pavlech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduced by Thomson Reuters in 2012 as a, ‘‘Single point of access to quality research data from repositories across disciplines and around the world’’ [1], the Data Citation Index (DCI is a searchable collection of data sets and data studies from a select list of repositories.

  20. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1215 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Vol 12, No 1 (2018), Analysis of the effects of frequent strikes on academic performance of students in universities in Nigeria: Edo State as a focal point, Abstract PDF ... Vol 6, No 1 (2012), Appraisal as a Determinant for Adequate ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weighted Index of Biotic Integrity (SIBI) for use in the assessment of biotic integrity in the Klip River, Gauteng, South Africa, Abstract. P J Kotze, G J Steyn, H H du Preez, C J Kleynhans. Vol 40, No 4 (2015), Diatoms as water ...

  3. Indexes to Volume 77

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.

  4. A Tourism Conditions Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper uses monthly data from April 2005 to August 2013 for Taiwan to propose a novel tourism indicator, namely the Tourism Conditions Index (TCI). TCI accounts for the spillover weights based on the Granger causality test and estimates of the multivariate BEKK

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 652 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 18, No 7 (2015), Introduction to virtual property: Lex virtualis ipsa ... Vol 17, No 1 (2014), Legal challenges relating to the commercial use of outer space, with ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 100 ... Vol 5, No 1 (2010), A simple note on some empirical stochastic process ... poverty index with when the parameter is strictly between 0 and 1, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 2 (2015), Bilinear regression model with Kronecker and ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 913 ... Vol 10, No 1 (2018), Modeling and comparison of IP and fuzzy-pi ... Modeling the potential impacts of global climate change in Bangladesh: An optimal ... Vol 9, No 4S (2017): Special Issue, New flood risk index in tropical ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 751 - 800 of 846 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, The effect of torrefaction on oil palm ... core competency skills of IRBM tax auditors towards their performance, Abstract PDF ... of exchange rates behavior in Malaysia by using NATREX model, Abstract PDF.

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 286 of 286 ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced ... the Hire Purchase and credit sale Act - An unnecessary duplication ? ... Vol 21 (2015), The Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Social Behaviour, Abstract PDF ... quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 1463 ... Vol 14, No 4 (2014), Association between mean platelet volume levels and inflammation in SLE patients presented with arthritis, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 3 (2010), Atherogenic index of plasma as useful predictor of cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1117 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13, No 3 (2007):, an edu-ethical perspecitve on the nature of truth: case studies in elite ... 2009: September: Supplement, An empirical study of university ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 788 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title ... Vol 14, No 1 (2006), Social science research: a critique of quantitative and qualitative methods ... Vol 18, No 1 (2010), Stress among part-time business students: a study in a Ghanaian ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1732 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 10, No 3 (2007), An Audit Of Perioperative Cardiac Arrest At ... Vol 11, No 4 (2008), An Audit Of Rejected Repeated X-ray Films As A Quality Assurance ...

  14. The Index House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pennsylvania Radon Research and Demonstration Project. The project involved the monitoring of the Index House for indoor radon, and was one of the earliest programs involving indoor radon contamination. The history of the house, the investigation, and testing and remediation procedures are discussed

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 823 ... Vol 9, No 2 (2016), Evaluation of antiulcer activity of aqueous ... and Practices About Tsetse Fly in Muri District, Taraba State, Nigeria ... Vol 10, No 1 (2017): Special Conference Edition, Evaluation of heavy metals' health risk index in ... of phytoplankton as bioindicators of water quality in Jakara dam, ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 2005 ... Issue, Title. Vol 92, No 4 (2015), Blood Pressure and Obesity Index Assessment in a Typical Urban Slum in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract. GI Ahaneku, CU Osuji, OC Oguejiofor, BC Anisiuba, VO Ikeh, JE Ahaneku. Vol 80, No 10 (2003):, Blood pressure control in a population where antihypertensives are ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 661 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. .... A El-Mahdy, B Bolduc, J Upadhyay, R Shoukr, A Khoury. Vol 19, No 1 (2013), Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, Abstract PDF.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 985 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 17 (2010), Alternating Direction Implicit Finite Difference Time Domain Acoustic Wave Algorithm, Abstract. E Ikata .... Vol 17 (2010), Analytic derivation of the wave profile and phase speed of sixth order Stokes waves in deep water, Abstract.

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 217 ... Browse Title Index. Journal Home > Advanced ... Vol 13, No 1 (2016), Access to specialized surgical care, Abstract PDF. H Saidi ... Vol 9, No 2 (2012), Clinical Assessment of the Palmaris Longus – Accuracy of common tests, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2014), Clinical trials in Surgery, Abstract PDF.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 97 of 97 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 20, No 2 (2008), Research Note: Anthropometric data of the foot of ... Vol 26, No 1 (2014), Validation of the Automation Attitude Questionnaire for Airline Pilots ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 400 ... Vol 2, No 1 (2007), The effects of Aloe vera [gel] on clotting time, prothrombin time and plasma fibrinogen concentration in albino Wistar rats, Abstract. D V Dapper, P N Achinike, M D Gwotmut. Vol 8, No 3 (2014), The effects of body mass index on some electrocardiographic parameters in young adults: ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 719 ... African Journal of Aquatic Science. ... Vol 32, No 2 (2007), Algal communities associated with aquatic macrophytes ... index to Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae) in the Vaal River system, South Africa, Abstract ... Vol 40, No 2 (2015), Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

  3. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 148 ... Vol 12, No 1S (2018), Addition of anti-Toxoplasma gondii membrane immunoglobulin Y to reduce necrotic index in mice's liver, Abstract PDF. Heni Puspitasari, Lucia T. Suwanti, Mufasirin Mufasirin. Vol 6, No 2 (2012), Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment and Control of HIV Associated Tuberculosis ...

  5. Drug Impact Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    The Drug Impact Index provides a set of indicators designed to determine the extent of the local drug problem in a community. Each indicator includes a technical note on the data sources, a graph showing comparative statistics on that indicator for the Portland area and for the State of Oregon, and brief remarks on the implications of the data.…

  6. The Association of Long-Functioning Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Prevalence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliusz Kolonko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is frequently observed in chronic dialysis patients and is also highly prevalent in kidney transplant recipients. This study evaluates the impact of long-functioning hemodialysis vascular access on LVH in single center cohort of kidney transplant recipients. 162 patients at 8.7 ± 1.8 years after kidney transplantation were enrolled. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasound, and assessment of pulse wave velocity were performed. LVH was defined based on left ventricular mass (LVM indexed for body surface area (BSA and height2.7. There were 67 patients with and 95 without patent vascular access. Both study groups were comparable with respect to gender, age, duration of dialysis therapy, and time after transplantation, kidney graft function, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Patients with patent vascular access were characterized by significantly elevated LVM and significantly greater percentage of LVH, based on LVMI/BSA (66.7 versus 48.4%, P=0.02. OR for LVH in patients with patent vascular access was 2.39 (1.19–4.76, P=0.01. Regression analyses confirmed an independent contribution of patent vascular access to higher LVM and increased prevalence of LVH. We concluded that long-lasting patent hemodialysis vascular access after kidney transplantation is associated with the increased prevalence of LVH in kidney transplant recipients.

  7. Vascular plugs - A key companion to Interventionists - 'Just Plug it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Vascular plugs are ideally suited to close extra-cardiac, high flowing vascular communications. The family of vascular plugs has expanded. Vascular plugs in general have a lower profile and the newer variants can be delivered even through a diagnostic catheter. These features make them versatile and easy to use. The Amplatzer vascular plugs are also used for closing intracardiac defects including coronary arterio-venous fistula and paravalvular leakage in an off-label fashion. In this review, the features of currently available vascular plugs are reviewed along with tips and tricks of using them in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Oscillation of Angiogenesis and Vascular Dropout in Progressive Human Vascular Disease. [Vascular Pattern as Useful Read-Out of Complex Molecular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    When analyzed by VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, vascular patterns provide useful integrative read-outs of complex, interacting molecular signaling pathways. Using VESGEN, we recently discovered and published our innovative, surprising findings that angiogenesis oscillated with vascular dropout throughout progression of diabetic retinopathy, a blinding vascular disease. Our findings provide a potential paradigm shift in the current prevailing view on progression and treatment of this disease, and a new early-stage window of regenerative therapeutic opportunities. The findings also suggest that angiogenesis may oscillate with vascular disease in a homeostatic-like manner during early stages of other inflammatory progressive diseases such as cancer and coronary vascular disease.

  9. Childhood determinants of vascular damage and body mass index in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.M. van den Elzen (Annette)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThroughout the past 50 years, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in most modern societies. In 2002, almost 50,000 persons died of CVD in the Netherlands, accounting for 33.7% of all deaths. Aging of the population and improved survival

  10. Vascular Reactivity: Evaluation of an acute suprasystolic occlusion with impedance plethysmography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M C; Bonaudo, M; Conde, A; Palavecino, L

    2007-01-01

    In the clinical set, the evaluation of endothelium- dependent vasodilator response of large vessels is carried out using ultrasound equipment for vascular flow determinations and during administration of vasoactive drugs. This work proposes to use a substantially cheaper technique and a sustained cuff arterial occlusion in order to cause vasodilation. Impedance plethysmography is used to detect the arterial pulse wave over radial artery while the forearm is occluded by above the recording site. From these plethysmographic waves, three indexes and their changes -between control and maximal response post-occlusion- were calculated. 33 complete records obtained from healthy low-risk volunteers were analyzed. Between control and post-occlusion maximal response, 'average percentual change of pulse wave amplitude' were (35±13)%, 'stiffness index' did not show significant differences (6,38±0,98 vs 6,38±0,94 and 'reflection index' was significant lower (58±15 vs 35±16)%. These results indicate that: 1- cuff occlusion maneuver was effective to cause endothelium-dependent vasodilation, 2-changes of pulse wave amplitude and reflection index could be used as markers of athero-arteriosclerotic damage in the vascular bed, even in sub-clinical conditions

  11. Vascular risk factors, cognitve decline, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Duron

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available E Duron, Olivier HanonBroca Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer’s disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.Keywords: dementia, hypertension, diabetus mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome

  12. Vascular anatomy in angiography for magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charry Lopez, Marco Luciano; Rivera Gomez, Juan Enrique

    1998-01-01

    A review of basic anatomical concepts and main variants, as well as some anatomical anomalies of the central nervous system vascularity, these concepts are considered essential for the interpretation of magnetic resonance angiography with time-of-flight (TOF) and phase-contrast (PC) methods

  13. CT imaging of cervical spinal vascular malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Munehisa; Miyamoto, Etsuo; Kuriyama, Tsuyoshi; Hayama, Tsuneto

    1982-01-01

    The patient had a history of the onset of motor paralysis of the right upper and lower extremities. Eight years later, numbness of the right upper extremity and a severe neck pain developed, and transverse paralysis of the lower extremities appeared in about 10 hours. CT demonstrated the presence of spinal vascular abnormality. Angiography suggested arteriovenous malformation of glomus type. (Chiba, N.)

  14. NEURO-VASCULAR INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH LIMB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-01

    Dec 1, 2000 ... Subjects: Forty three patients with bone fractures associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury seen at the Emergency Room of Assir Central Hospital from 1990 to 1999. There were 39 males and four females. Thirty five of these patients (81.4%) were Saudi nationals and the rest were non-Saudi.

  15. B vitamins influence vascular cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the number of elderly in the USA and globally continues to increase, age-related neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, are a growing concern. The loss of memory, emotional changes, and impairments in general cognitive functioning frequently result in social is...

  16. Quality Estimation for Vascular Pattern Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Daniel; Martin, Sophie; Busch, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The quality of captured samples is a critical aspect in biometric systems. In this paper we present a quality estimation algorithm for vascular images, which uses global and local features based on a Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and optionally available metadata. An evaluation of the al...

  17. Self-management of vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing

  18. Human genetics of diabetic vascular complications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diabetic vascular complications (DVC) affecting several important organ systems of human body such as the cardiovascular system constitute a major public health problem. There is evidence demonstrating that genetic factors contribute to the risk of DVC genetic variants, structural variants, and epigenetic changes play ...

  19. CT imaging of cervical spinal vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Munehisa; Miyamoto, Etsuo; Kuriyama, Tsuyoshi; Hayama, Tsuneto [Wakayama Red Cross Hospital, Wakayama (Japan)

    1982-05-01

    The patient had a history of the onset of motor paralysis of the right upper and lower extremities. Eight years later, numbness of the right upper extremity and a severe neck pain developed, and transverse paralysis of the lower extremities appeared in about 10 hours. CT demonstrated the presence of spinal vascular abnormality. Angiography suggested arteriovenous malformation of glomus type.

  20. LASER TREATMENT OF BENIGN CUTANEOUS VASCULAR LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Ahčan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital and acquired vascular lesions of the skin and subcutis are a common health problem from aesthetic and also from psycho-social point of view. However, recent advances in laser technology have enabled an efficient and safe treatment. This study presents our experience with treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions using modern laser systems. Most common benign cutaneous vascular lesions are described.Patients and methods. In years 2002 and 2003, 109 patients, 4 to 80 (mean 39 years old, Fitzpatrick skin type 1–4, with 210 benign cutaneous vascular lesions were treated using the Dualis VP® laser system (Fotona, Slovenia which incorporates the KTP and Nd:YAG lasers. Vascular lesions in the upper layers of the skin with diameter up to 1 mm were treated with the KTP laser (wavelength 532 nm. For larger vessels in deeper layer we used the Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm. Patients graded the pain during treatment on a scale of 1–10. Clinical outcomes were evaluated 1–3 months after the last treatment: according to the percentage of clearance of the lesion compared to the adjacent normal skin and for the presence of adverse effects. According to these criteria each lesion was assigned a score: poor (0–25%, fair (26–50%, good (51–75%, excellent (76–100%.Results. Immediate response after application of a laser beam with proper characteristics was whitish-grey discoloration of treated area. Treatment results after 1–3 months were excellent in 48.1%, good 40.9%, fair in 8.6% and poor in 2.4%. Patients without prior anaesthesia graded pain during treatment from 1 to 8 (mean 4.0 and patients with EMLA® anaesthesia from 1 to 6 (mean 2.6. Side effects were frequent but minimal and transient. Erythema disappeared in several days after treatment while crusting persisted for 14 days. 3 permanent hyperpigmentations, 2 permanent hypopigmentations, 2 hypertrophic scars and 1 beam sized atrophic scar were detected at last follow

  1. Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B.; Scuteri, Angelo; Black, Sandra E.; DeCarli, Charles; Greenberg, Steven M.; Iadecola, Costantino; Launer, Lenore J.; Laurent, Stephane; Lopez, Oscar L.; Nyenhuis, David; Petersen, Ronald C.; Schneider, Julie A.; Tzourio, Christophe; Arnett, Donna K.; Bennett, David A.; Chui, Helena C.; Higashida, Randall T.; Lindquist, Ruth; Nilsson, Peter M.; Roman, Gustavo C.; Sellke, Frank W.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose This scientific statement provides an overview of the evidence on vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia of later life are common. Definitions of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), neuropathology, basic science and pathophysiological aspects, role of neuroimaging and vascular and other associated risk factors, and potential opportunities for prevention and treatment are reviewed. This statement serves as an overall guide for practitioners to gain a better understanding of VCI and dementia, prevention, and treatment. Methods Writing group members were nominated by the writing group co-chairs on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and the Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writing group used systematic literature reviews (primarily covering publications from 1990 to May 1, 2010), previously published guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and, when appropriate, formulate recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the recommendations and approved the final version of this document. After peer review by the American Heart Association, as well as review by the Stroke Council leadership, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Council, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, the statement was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Results The construct of VCI has been introduced to capture the entire spectrum of cognitive disorders associated with all forms of cerebral vascular brain injury—not solely stroke—ranging from mild cognitive impairment through fully developed

  2. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  3. Sex differences in ventricular-vascular coupling following endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, A D; Yan, H; Ranadive, S M; Kappus, R M; Sun, P; Cook, M D; Harvey, I; Woods, J; Wilund, K; Fernhall, B

    2014-12-01

    Ventricular and vascular coupling is defined as the ratio of arterial elastance (Ea) to ventricular elastance (Elv) and describes the interaction between the heart and arterial system. There are sex differences in both arterial and ventricular function in response to both acute exercise and aerobic exercise training. To examine the effects of aerobic exercise training on elastances and the coupling ratio in young adult men and women. We hypothesized a reduction in the coupling ratio in both sexes due to a decrease in Ea that would be more pronounced in men and an increase in Elv that would be larger in women. Fifty-three healthy, young adults completed the study. Central pulse wave velocity and heart volumes were measured before and after an 8-week aerobic training intervention. Elastances were calculated as Ea = end-systolic pressure/stroke volume and Elv = end-systolic pressure/end-systolic volume and indexed to body surface area. After the intervention, women augmented indexed and un-indexed Elv from 2.09 ± 0.61 to 2.52 ± 0.80 mmHg/ml, p 0.05). Women also reduced end-systolic pressure (from 91 ± 10 to 87 ± 10 mmHg), and both groups reduced central pulse wave velocity (from 6.0 ± 1.0 to 5.6 ± 0.6 m/s, p < 0.05). We conclude that after 8 weeks of aerobic training, only women reduced their coupling ratio due to an increase in Elv. This suggests that aerobic exercise training elicits sex-dependent changes in the coupling ratio in young, healthy individuals.

  4. Risk Stratification for the Development of Respiratory Adverse Events Following Vascular Surgery Using the Society of Vascular Surgery’s Vascular Quality Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Fish, Larry; Chaer, Rabih A; Makaroun, Michel S; Baril, Donald T

    2017-01-01

    Objective Post-operative respiratory adverse events (RAEs) are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in general surgery, however little is known about these complications in the vascular surgery population, a frail subset with multiple comorbidities. The objective of this study was to describe the contemporary incidence of RAEs in vascular surgery patients, the risk factors for this complication and the overall impact of RAEs on patient outcomes. Methods The Vascular Quality Initiative was queried (2003–2014) for patients who underwent endovascular abdominal aortic repair, open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), suprainguinal bypass or infrainguinal bypass. A mixed-effects logistic regression model determined the independent risk factors for RAEs. Using a random 85% of the cohort, a risk prediction score for RAEs was created and the score was validated using the remaining 15% of the cohort, comparing the predicted to the actual incidence of RAE and determining the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The independent risk of in-hospital mortality and discharge to a nursing facility associated with RAEs was determined using a mixed-effects logistic regression to control for baseline patient characteristics, operative variables and other post-operative adverse events. Results The cohort consisted of 52,562 patients, with a 5.4% incidence of RAEs. The highest rates of RAEs were seen in current smokers (6.1%), recent acute myocardial infarction (10.1%), symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF) (9.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring oxygen therapy (11.0%), urgent and emergent procedures (6.4% and 25.9%, respectively), open AAA repairs (17.6%), in-situ suprainguinal bypasses (9.68%) and TEVARs (9.6%). The variables included in the risk prediction score were age, body mass index, smoking status, CHF severity, COPD severity, degree of renal insufficiency

  5. The making of indigenous vascular prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madathipat Unnikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Vascular illnesses are on the rise in India, due to increase in lifestyle diseases and demographic transition, requiring intervention to save life, organ or limbs using vascular prosthesis. The aim of this study was to develop indigenous large diameter vascular graft for treatment of patients with vascular pathologies. Methods: The South India Textile Research Association, at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, developed seamless woven polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate graft at its research wing. Further characterization and testing followed by clinical trials were conducted at Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Fifteen in vivo experiments were carried out in 1992-1994 in pigs as animal model. Controlled (phase I clinical trial in ten patients was performed along with control graft. Thereafter, phase II trial involved 22 patients who underwent multi-centre clinical trial in four centres across India. Results: Laboratory testing showed that polyester graft was non-toxic, non-leeching and non-haemolytic with preserved long-term quality, further confirming in pigs by implanting in thoracic aorta, comparable to control Dacron grafts. Perigraft incorporation and smooth neointima formation which are prime features of excellent healing characteristics, were noted at explantation at planned intervals. Subsequently in the phase I and II clinical trials, all patients had excellent recovery without mortality or device-related adverse events. Patients receiving the test graft were followed up for 10 and 5 years, respectively. Serial clinical, duplex scans and CT angiograms performed periodically confirmed excellent graft performance. Interpretation & conclusions: Indigenously developed Chitra vascular graft was comparable to commercially available Dacron graft, ready for clinical use at affordable cost to patients as against costly imported grafts.

  6. A biodegradable vascularizing membrane: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushiva, Anchal; Turzhitsky, Vladimir M; Darmoc, Marissa; Backman, Vadim; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2007-09-01

    Regenerative medicine and in vivo biosensor applications require the formation of mature vascular networks for long-term success. This study investigated whether biodegradable porous membranes could induce the formation of a vascularized fibrous capsule and, if so, the effect of degradation kinetics on neovascularization. Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) membranes were created by a solvent casting/salt leaching method. Specifically, PLLA, PLGA 75:25 and PLGA 50:50 polymers were used to vary degradation kinetics. The membranes were designed to have an average 60mum pore diameter, as this pore size has been shown to be optimal for inducing blood vessel formation around nondegradable polymer materials. Membrane samples were imaged by scanning electron microscopy at several time points during in vitro degradation to assess any changes in pore structure. The in vivo performance of the membranes was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats by measuring vascularization within the fibrous capsule that forms adjacent to implants. The vascular density within 100microm of the membranes was compared with that seen in normal tissue, and to that surrounding the commercially available vascularizing membrane TheraCyte. The hemoglobin content of tissue containing the membranes was measured by four-dimensional elastic light scattering as a novel method to assess tissue perfusion. Results from this study show that slow-degrading membranes induce greater amounts of neovascularization and a thinner fibrous capsule relative to fast degrading membranes. These results may be due both to an initially increased number of macrophages surrounding the slower degrading membranes and to the maintenance of their initial pore structure.

  7. Advanced Maternal Age Worsens Postpartum Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude S. Morton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The age at which women experience their first pregnancy has increased throughout the decades. Pregnancy has an important influence on maternal short- and long-term cardiovascular outcomes. Pregnancy at an advanced maternal age increases maternal risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa and caesarian delivery; complications which predict worsened cardiovascular health in later years. Aging also independently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease; therefore, combined risk in women of advanced maternal age may lead to detrimental cardiovascular outcomes later in life. We hypothesized that pregnancy at an advanced maternal age would lead to postpartum vascular dysfunction. We used a reproductively aged rat model to investigate vascular function in never pregnant (virgin, previously pregnant (postpartum and previously mated but never delivered (nulliparous rats at approximately 13.5 months of age (3 months postpartum or equivalent. Nulliparous rats, in which pregnancy was spontaneously lost, demonstrated significantly reduced aortic relaxation responses (methylcholine [MCh] Emax: 54.2 ± 12.6% vs. virgin and postpartum rats (MCh Emax: 84.8 ± 3.5% and 84.7 ± 3.2% respectively; suggesting pregnancy loss causes a worsened vascular pathology. Oxidized LDL reduced relaxation to MCh in aorta from virgin and postpartum, but not nulliparous rats, with an increased contribution of the LOX-1 receptor in the postpartum group. Further, in mesenteric arteries from postpartum rats, endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH-mediated vasodilation was reduced and a constrictive prostaglandin effect was apparent. In conclusion, aged postpartum rats exhibited vascular dysfunction, while rats which had pregnancy loss demonstrated a distinct vascular pathology. These data demonstrate mechanisms which may lead to worsened outcomes at an advanced maternal age; including early pregnancy loss and later life cardiovascular dysfunction.

  8. Quantification of vascular function changes under different emotion states: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yirong; Yang, Licai; Mao, Xueqin; Zheng, Dingchang; Liu, Chengyu

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that physiological parameters change with different emotion states. This study aimed to quantify the changes of vascular function at different emotion and sub-emotion states. Twenty young subjects were studied with their finger photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulses recorded at three distinct emotion states: natural (1 minute), happiness and sadness (10 minutes for each). Within the period of happiness and sadness emotion states, two sub-emotion states (calmness and outburst) were identified with the synchronously recorded videos. Reflection index (RI) and stiffness index (SI), two widely used indices of vascular function, were derived from the PPG pulses to quantify their differences between three emotion states, as well as between two sub-emotion states. The results showed that, when compared with the natural emotion, RI and SI decreased in both happiness and sadness emotions. The decreases in RI were significant for both happiness and sadness emotions (both Pemotion (Pemotions, there was significant difference in RI (Pemotion in comparison with the calmness one for both happiness and sadness emotions (both Pemotion only in sadness emotion (Pemotion measurements. This pilot study confirmed that vascular function changes with diffenrt emotion states could be quantified by the simple PPG measurement.

  9. Aortic-Brachial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio: A Measure of Arterial Stiffness Gradient Not Affected by Mean Arterial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Catherine; Desjardins, Marie-Pier; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), is used for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. This mini-review describes the nonlinear relationship between cf-PWV and operational blood pressure, presents the proposed methods to adjust for this relationship, and discusses a potential place for aortic-brachial PWV ratio (a measure of arterial stiffness gradient) as a blood pressure-independent measure of vascular aging. PWV is inherently dependent on the operational blood pressure. In cross-sectional studies, PWV adjustment for mean arterial pressure (MAP) is preferred, but still remains a nonoptimal approach, as the relationship between PWV and blood pressure is nonlinear and varies considerably among individuals due to heterogeneity in genetic background, vascular tone, and vascular remodeling. Extrapolations from the blood pressure-independent stiffness parameter β (β 0 ) have led to the creation of stiffness index β, which can be used for local stiffness. A similar approach has been used for cardio-ankle PWV to generate a blood pressure-independent cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). It was recently demonstrated that stiffness index β and CAVI remain slightly blood pressure-dependent, and a more appropriate formula has been proposed to make the proper adjustments. On the other hand, the negative impact of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes is thought to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of the arterial stiffness gradient, which can also be influenced by a reduction in peripheral medium-sized muscular arteries in conditions that predispose to accelerate vascular aging. Arterial stiffness gradient, assessed by aortic-brachial PWV ratio, is emerging to be at least as good as cf-PWV for risk prediction, but has the advantage of not being affected by operating MAP. The negative impacts of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes are proposed to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of arterial stiffness gradient

  10. Indexing for summary queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Ke; Wang, Lu; Wei, Zhewei

    2014-01-01

    ), of a particular attribute of these records. Aggregation queries are especially useful in business intelligence and data analysis applications where users are interested not in the actual records, but some statistics of them. They can also be executed much more efficiently than reporting queries, by embedding...... returned by reporting queries. In this article, we design indexing techniques that allow for extracting a statistical summary of all the records in the query. The summaries we support include frequent items, quantiles, and various sketches, all of which are of central importance in massive data analysis....... Our indexes require linear space and extract a summary with the optimal or near-optimal query cost. We illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of our designs through extensive experiments and a system demonstration....

  11. Conformity index: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuvret, Loic; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang, Abstract PDF. N Yaakub, M.N.A. Raoff, M.N. Haris, A.A.A. Halim, M.K.A. Kamarudin. Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality index assesment around industrial area in Kuantan, Pahang, Abstract ...

  13. Gradient-Index Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 12-04-2011 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views, opinions...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Imaging Optics, Nonimaging Optics, Gradient Index Optics, Camera, Concentrator...imaging and nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate manufacturable GRIN lenses can provide imaging lens systems that are compact and

  14. Endovascular Management of Vascular Injury during Transsphenoidal Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Çinar, C.; Bozkaya, H.; Parildar, M.; Oran, I.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular injury is an unusual and serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery. We aimed to define the role of angiography and endovascular treatment in patients with vascular injuries occurring during transsphenoidal surgery.

  15. Vascular effects of a single high salt meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel Kader Abdel Wahab

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: High salt intake may acutely impair vascular function in different vascular beds independent of the increase of blood pressure. Plasma sodium increase may be one of the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Vascular surgery research in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jawas

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The quality and quantity of vascular surgery research in the GCC countries should be improved to answer important local questions related to vascular diseases. This needs better strategic planning and more collaboration between various institutions.

  17. Strategies for improving chemotherapeutic delivery to solid tumors mediated by vascular permeability modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chaudhuri, Tista

    An essential mode of distribution of blood-borne chemotherapeutic agents within a solid tumor is via the micro-circulation. Poor tumor perfusion, because of a lack of functional vasculature or a lack of microvessels, as well as low tumor vascular permeability, can prevent adequate deposition of even low molecular-weight agents into the tumor. The modulation of tumor vascular function and density can provides numerous strategies for improving intratumor deposition of chemotherapeutic agents. Here we investigated strategies to improve drug delivery to two tumor types that share in common poor drug delivery, but differ in the underlying cause. First, in an angiogenesis-driven brain tumor model of Glioblastoma, the vascular permeability barrier, along with poorly-functional vasculature, hinders drug delivery. A strategy of nanoparticle-based tumor 'priming' to attack the vascular permeability barrier, employing sterically stabilized liposomal doxorubicin (SSL-DXR), was investigated. Functional and histological evaluation of tumor vasculature revealed that after an initial period of depressed vascular permeability and vascular pruning 3--4 days after SSL-DXR administration, vascular permeability and perfusion were restored and then elevated after 5--7 days. As a result of tumor priming, deposition of subsequently-administered nanoparticles was enhanced, and the efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ), if administered during the window of elevated permeability, was increased. The sequenced regimen resulted in a persistent reduction of the tumor proliferative index and a 40% suppression of tumor volume, compared to animals that received both agents simultaneously. Second, in a hypovascular, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma model, disruption of tumor-stromal communication via sonic hedgehog (sHH) signaling pathway inhibition mediated an indirect vascular proliferation and a more than 2-fold increase in intratumor nanoparticle deposition. Enhanced delivery of SSL-DXR in tumors pre

  18. Estrogen, vascular estrogen receptor and hormone therapy in postmenopausal vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject's age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell sheet engineering using the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue as a vascularization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M.; Cerqueira, Mariana Teixeira; Santos, T. C.; Marques, Belém Sampaio; Ludovico, Paula; Marques, A. P.; Pirraco, Rogério P.; Reis, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Current vascularization strategies for Tissue Engineering constructs, in particular cell sheet-based, are limited by time-consuming and expensive endothelial cell isolation and/or by the complexity of using extrinsic growth factors. Herein, we propose an alternative strategy using angiogenic cell sheets (CS) obtained from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue that can be incorporated into more complex constructs. Cells from the SVF were cultured in normoxic and hypoxic conditi...

  20. Early experience of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, T.; Yousuf, K.; Karim, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is prevalent affecting up to 16% of the population aged 55 years or older. Endovascular intervention for the treatment of limb ischemia has become the first line therapy but in Pakistan it is in embryonic stage due to dearth of trained persons and dedicated centres. This study was conducted to evaluate procedural success and early outcome of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease. Methods: A prospective single arm multicentre study was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease and National Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2014. A total of 25 patients were enrolled in the study that underwent endovascular treatment. Out of 25 patients 23 (92%) had critical limb ischemia (CLI) as per TASC II classification (A to D) and 2 (8%) had carotid lesion with history of TIA. Patients of acute limb ischemia and stroke were excluded. Ankle brachial index (ABI) was classified as normal (0.9-1.3), mild (0.7-0.9), moderate (0.4-0.69), severe (<0.4). Outcome was taken as immediate success and symptoms, amputation of limb among CLI patients and incidence of stroke in patients with carotid artery lesion at end of six months. Results: Among aortoiliac, femoropopliteal and tibioperoneal lesions, tibioperoneal lesions at six months were found to be more symptomatic 6 (86%) and amputation 4 (57%). Two carotid lesions at follow up were asymptomatic without stroke. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular lesions, i.e., aortoiliac, femoropopliteal tibioperoneal and carotid lesions were satisfactory in immediate outcome. Tibioperoneal lesions were more symptomatic and limb amputation at six months. (author)

  1. Peripheral vascular disease in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, E. A.; Aslam, N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has been investigated in many different ways. It depends on the diagnostic methods used and definition of atherosclerotic manifestations in the different vascular beds. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of PVD in the lower limbs in group of patients with CAD. Design: This is a prospective observational study. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital/Armed Forces institute of Cardiology, Rawalpindi, over a period of one year (January 1998 to January 1999). Subjects and methods: A total number of 200 patient (171 male and 29 females) aged 55-77 years with CAD. Diagnosed by coronary angiography were included in the study. In all patients blood pressure was recorded in both arms by sphygmomanometer and ankle systolic pressure by Doppler ultrasound. Ankle branchial index was calculated. Demographic data were obtained from the patient's hospital files. Results: The prevalence of PVD was 22.5% in patients with CAD in agreement with the results of most previous investigation. There was tendency towards increasing prevalence of PVD with more advanced CAD. Thirty patients (27%) showed evidence of triple vessel disease as compared to 13 patient (18%) with double vessel and 2 patients (1%) with single vessel disease. Conclusion: A non-invasive investigation of peripheral arterial circulation should be included early in the clinical consideration of patients with chest pain or similar symptoms suggesting coronary artery disease. Ankle systolic pressure appears to be simple and cheap technique for evaluation of results. (author)

  2. Index of cyber integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  3. Deficiency of superoxide dismutase promotes cerebral vascular hypertrophy and vascular dysfunction in hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Dayal

    Full Text Available There is an emerging consensus that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cerebral vascular disease and that homocysteine-lowering therapy protects from ischemic stroke. However, the mechanisms by which hyperhomocysteinemia produces abnormalities of cerebral vascular structure and function remain largely undefined. Our objective in this study was to define the mechanistic role of superoxide in hyperhomocysteinemia-induced cerebral vascular dysfunction and hypertrophy. Unlike previous studies, our experimental design included a genetic approach to alter superoxide levels by using superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-deficient mice fed a high methionine/low folate diet to produce hyperhomocysteinemia. In wild-type mice, the hyperhomocysteinemic diet caused elevated superoxide levels and impaired responses to endothelium-dependent vasodilators in cerebral arterioles, and SOD1 deficiency compounded the severity of these effects. The cross-sectional area of the pial arteriolar wall was markedly increased in mice with SOD1 deficiency, and the hyperhomocysteinemic diet sensitized SOD1-deficient mice to this hypertrophic effect. Analysis of individual components of the vascular wall demonstrated a significant increase in the content of smooth muscle and elastin. We conclude that superoxide is a key driver of both cerebral vascular hypertrophy and vasomotor dysfunction in this model of dietary hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which hyperhomocysteinemia promotes cerebral vascular disease and ischemic stroke.

  4. Using biplanar fluoroscopy to guide radiopaque vascular injections: a new method for vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley D O'Brien

    Full Text Available Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital "dissection." This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion.

  5. Ajuste do modelo fototérmico de estimativa do desenvolvimento e do índice de área foliar de soja Adjustment of the photothermic model to estimate soybean development and leaf area index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila T. Toledo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visou-se neste estudo, realizar o ajuste do modelo de estimativa do desenvolvimento de populações de soja e da variação do índice de área foliar para a variedade IAS 5. Como fonte de variação na velocidade de desenvolvimento, diferentes épocas de plantio foram utilizadas em experimentos nos anos agrícolas de 2004/2005 (três datas e 2005/2006 (quatro datas no IRDeR (Instituto Regional de Desenvolvimento Rural localizado em Augusto Pestana, RS (28º 27' 17" S e 53º 54' 50" W, nos quais foram identificadas as datas em que ocorreram as principais fases do desenvolvimento da cultura da soja, seguindo a Escala Fenológica de Fehr & Caviness e estimados o índice de área foliar em quatro momentos: no final do período de instalação da população vegetal (V6; no início do florescimento (R1; início do enchimento de grãos (R5; e no início da maturação (R7. As variáveis meteorológicas temperaturas mínima e máxima diárias foram coletadas. Após o ajuste dos coeficientes genéticos, o modelo foi formatado no programa Stella 5.0. O modelo de estimativa do desenvolvimento da soja teve desempenho satisfatório, apresentando estimativas precisas para os dados que o determinaram. O modelo de estimativa do índice de área foliar apresentou estimativas satisfatórias.The present study was carried out to adjust the soy population development model and the leaf area index model for the IAS 5 cultivar. Different sowing dates were used in two experiments as source of development variation during 2004/2005 (three dates and 2005/2006 (four dates in the IRDeR (Instituto Regional de Desenvolvimento Rural located in Augusto Pestana, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (28º 27' 17" S and 53º 54' 50" W. The main crop development phases were identified according to the Feher & Caviness phenological scale, and the leaf area index was determined in four occasions: at the final period of plant population installation (V6; at the beginning of flowering

  6. Joint Global War on Terror (GWOT) Vascular Injury Study 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    acquired in Iraq and Afghanistan, Society for Trauma Nurse, 2-4 April 2014, poster presentation o Vascular discharge education and follow-up care...eventual quality of limb and psychological recovery or well-being. 15. SUBJECT TERMS extremity vascular injury, extremity, vascular injury, vascular... psychological recovery or well-being. Finally, this program aims to characterize and compare the physical and emotional burden in large cohorts of US

  7. Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood vascular tumors form from cells that make blood vessels or lymph vessels. They can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Get information about the symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, and treatment of the most common type of vascular tumor, infantile hemangioma, and other vascular tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  8. The evolution of development of vascular cambia and secondary growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Groover; Rachel Spicer

    2010-01-01

    Secondary growth from vascular cambia results in radial, woody growth of stems. The innovation of secondary vascular development during plant evolution allowed the production of novel plant forms ranging from massive forest trees to flexible, woody lianas. We present examples of the extensive phylogenetic variation in secondary vascular growth and discuss current...

  9. Development of the Australasian vascular surgical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Bernie M; Beiles, Charles Barry; Thomson, Ian A; Grigg, Michael J; Fitridge, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the development of the Australasian Vascular Audit that was created to unify audit activities under the umbrella of the Australian and New Zealand Society for Vascular Surgery as a Web-based application. Constitutional change in late 2008 deemed participation in this audit compulsory for Society members. The Web-based application was developed and tested during 2009. Data for all open vascular surgery and for all endovascular procedures are collected at two points in the admission episode: at the time of operation and at discharge, and entered into the application. Data are analyzed to produce risk-adjusted outcomes. An algorithm has been developed to deal with outliers according to natural justice and to comply with the requirements of regulatory bodies. The Audit is protected by legislated privilege and is officially endorsed and indemnified by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. Confidentiality of surgeons and patients alike is ensured by a legally protected coding system and computer encryption system. Validation is by a verification process of 5% of members per year who are randomly selected. The application is completely funded by the Society. Data entry commenced on January 1, 2010. Over 40,000 vascular procedures were entered in the first year. The Audit application allows instantaneous on-line access to individual data and to deidentified group data and specific reports. It also allows real-time instantaneous production of log books for vascular trainees. The Audit has already gained recognition in the Australasian public arena during its first year of operation as an important benchmark of correct professional surgical behavior. Compliance has been extremely high in public hospitals but less so in private hospitals such that only 60% of members received a certificate of complete participation at the end of its first year of operation. An Internet-based compulsory audit of complete surgical practice is

  10. Management of vascular trauma from dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingba, A George; Robinson, Eric A; Jester, Andrea L; Rapp, Brian M; Tsai, Anthony; Motaganahalli, Raghu L; Dalsing, Michael C; Murphy, Michael P

    2013-11-01

    Vascular trauma from large-dog bites present with a combination of crush and lacerating injuries to the vessel, as well as significant adjacent soft tissue injury and a high potential for wound complications. This retrospective case series evaluates our 15 years of experience in managing this uncommonly seen injury into suggested treatment recommendations. From our database, 371 adult patients presented with dog bites between July 1997 and June 2012. Twenty (5.4%) of those patients had vascular injuries requiring surgical intervention. Patient demographics, anatomic location of injury, clinical presentation, imaging modality, method of repair, and complication rates were reviewed to assess efficacy in preserving limb function. Pediatric patients were managed at the regional children's hospital and, therefore, not included in this study. Among the 20 surgically treated vascular injuries, there were 13 arterial-only injuries, two venous-only injuries, and five combination arterial and venous injuries. Seventeen patients (85%) had upper extremity injuries; three patients had lower extremity injuries (15%). The axillobrachial artery was the most commonly injured single vessel (n = 9/20; 45%), followed by the radial artery (n = 4/20; 20%). Surgical repair of vascular injuries consisted of resection and primary anastomosis (four), interposition bypass of artery with autogenous vein (13), and ligation (two), with (one) being a combination of bypass and ligation. All patients had debridement of devitalized tissue combined with pulse lavage irrigation and perioperative antibiotics. Associated injuries requiring repair included muscle and skin (n = 10/20; 50%), bone (n = 1/20; 5%), nerve (n = 1/20; 5%), and combinations of the three (n = 5/20; 25%). Postoperative antibiotic therapy was administered for 14.7 ± 8.2 days in all 20 patients. Four patients (20%) developed postoperative wound infections, although this did not compromise their vascular repair. Of the patients

  11. Running multiple marathons is not a risk factor for premature subclinical vascular impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Axel; Suchy, Christiane; Friedrichs, Tasja; Dallinger, Sophia; Grabs, Viola; Haller, Bernhard; Halle, Martin; Scherr, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    Background In contrast to the well-accepted benefits of moderate exercise, recent research has suggested potential deleterious effects of repeated marathon running on the cardiovascular system. We thus performed a comprehensive analysis of markers of subclinical vascular damage in a cohort of runners having finished multiple marathon races successfully. Design This was a prospective, observational study. Methods A total of 97 healthy male Munich marathon participants (mean age 44 ± 10 years) underwent detailed training history, cardiopulmonary exercise testing for assessment of peak oxygen uptake, ultrasound for assessment of intima-media-thickness as well as non-invasive assessments of ankle-brachial index, augmentation index, pulse wave velocity and reactive hyperaemia index. Results Runners had previously completed a median of eight (range 1-500) half marathons, six (1-100) full marathons and three (1-40) ultramarathons; mean weekly and annual training volumes were 59 ± 23 and 1639 ± 979 km. Mean peak oxygen uptake was 50 ± 8 ml/min/kg, and the Munich marathon was finished in 3:45 ± 0:32 h. Runners showed normal mean values for intima-media-thickness (0.60 ± 0.14 mm), ankle-brachial index (1.2 ± 0.1), augmentation index (17 ± 13%), pulse wave velocity (8.7 ± 1.4 cm/s) and reactive hyperaemia index (1.96 ± 0.50). Age was significantly and independently associated with intima-media-thickness ( r = 0.531; p running multiple marathon races did not pose an additional risk factor for premature subclinical vascular impairment beyond age.

  12. Weight loss and vascular inflammatory markers in overweight women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Noakes, Manny; Wittert, Gary A; Clifton, Peter M; Norman, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. The effect of weight loss on the vascular inflammatory markers plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) is unknown. Overweight women with (n=14) and without (n=13) PCOS of comparable age and body mass index undertook an 8-week weight-loss programme. Women with PCOS had elevated PAI-1, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 before and after weight loss compared with the controls. For all women, sVCAM-1 (P=0.026) and sICAM-1 (P=0.04) decreased with weight loss. Women with PCOS have elevated inflammatory markers, which are partially reduced by weight loss. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Twenty-four hour blood flow in the forefoot after reconstructive vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1986-01-01

    Local blood flow in the forefoot (SBF) was measured continuously during 24 hours by 133xenon clearance technique in 10 patients prior to and at least 1 year after successful reconstructive vascular surgery for severe arterial insufficiency (mean: 18 months, range: 12-36). A group of 10 patients...... with normal peripheral circulation served as a control group. In spite of a considerable increase of the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index--preoperative: 0.30 +/- 0.12, postoperative: 0.78 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- 1 SD)--the SBF decreased by 50% (p less than 0.001) following reconstructive vascular surgery...... during day activities. During sleep, however, SBF increased by 80% (p less than 0.001). The relative changes in SBF from day to night at the postoperative examination did not differ from that of the control group, i.e., the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern had been obtained. These changes in SBF...

  14. Increased arterial vascular tone during the night in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, A; Burkert, A; Mardanzai, K

    2007-01-01

    The time-dependent incidence of cardiovascular events points to an important role of chronobiology for arterial properties. To evaluate arterial properties in patients with essential hypertension, we assessed arterial vascular tone during sleep at night in patients with essential hypertension...... of systemic arterial vascular tone in patients with essential hypertension during the first half of the night compared to normotensive control subjects....... was significantly higher in 31 patients with essential hypertension compared to 30 normotensive control subjects (30.0+/-0.2 vs 28.8+/-0.2; P=0.001). In patients with essential hypertension, the reflective index significantly increased from 30.0+/-0.2 in the first half (from 2301 to 0230) to 30...

  15. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  16. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  17. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....

  18. Multinephron dynamics on the renal vascular network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Donald J; Wexler, Anthony S; Brazhe, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and the myogenic mechanism combine in each nephron to regulate blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Both mechanisms are non-linear, generate self-sustained oscillations, and interact as their signals converge on arteriolar smooth muscle, forming a regulatory...... clusters. In-phase synchronization predominated among nephrons separated by 1 or 3 vascular nodes, and anti-phase synchronization for 5 or 7 nodes of separation. Nephron dynamics were irregular and contained low frequency fluctuations. Results are consistent with simultaneous blood flow measurements...... of both mechanisms in the regulatory ensemble, to examine the effects of network structure on nephron synchronization. Symmetry, as a property of a network, facilitates synchronization. Nephrons received blood from a symmetric electrically conductive vascular tree. Symmetry was created by using identical...

  19. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Valeria; Barthelmes, Jens; Nägele, Matthias P.; Enseleit, Frank; Ferri, Claudio; Flammer, Andreas J.; Ruschitzka, Frank; Sudano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP), improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure). Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function. PMID:28824916

  20. Vascular anatomy of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thron, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The book summarizes the anatomic guidelines of external blood supply to the spinal cord. The basic principles of arterial supply and venous drainage are illustrated by explicit schemes for quick orientation. In the first part of the book, systematic radiologic-anatomic investigations of the superficial and deep vessels of all segments of the spinal cord are introduced. The microvascular morphology is portrayed by numerous microradiographic sections in all three dimensions without overshadowing. The three-dimensional representation of the vascular architecture illustrates elementary outlines and details of arterial territories, anastomotic cross-linking as well as the capillary system, particularly the hitherto unknown structure of the medullary venous system with its functionally important anastomoses and varying regional structures. These often now radiologic-anatomic findings are discussed as to their functional and pathophysiologic impact and constitute the basic on which to improve one's understanding of vascular syndromes of the spinal cord

  1. Features and selection of vascular access devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansivero, Gail Egan

    2010-05-01

    To review venous anatomy and physiology, discuss assessment parameters before vascular access device (VAD) placement, and review VAD options. Journal articles, personal experience. A number of VAD options are available in clinical practice. Access planning should include comprehensive assessment, with attention to patient participation in the planning and selection process. Careful consideration should be given to long-term access needs and preservation of access sites. Oncology nurses are uniquely suited to perform a key role in VAD planning and placement. With knowledge of infusion therapy, anatomy and physiology, device options, and community resources, nurses can be key leaders in preserving vascular access and improving the safety and comfort of infusion therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ample spectrum of vascular hepatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, Juan C; Marquez Adriana; Romero, Javier; Aguirre Diego

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic vascular diseases (HVD) are a broad spectrum of entities of low prevalence but with different clinical manifestations that may even lead to death. Its early detection and timely treatment may change the prognosis. Diagnostic imaging plays a key role and imaging findings may be typical. However, in most cases, radiologists must take into account a wide range of differential diagnosis. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen is one of the most useful tools for the diagnosis of HVD taking also into account the value of other imaging methods such as Doppler Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). HVD can be classified according to the compromised vascular structure and can be divided into venous, portal, arterial, sinusoidal and others disorders. The objective of this review is to describe the most common presentation HVD. The major imaging findings and differential diagnosis recognizing its correlation with the pathophysiological mechanisms.

  3. Cocoa, blood pressure, and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Isabella; Flammer, Andreas J; Roas, Susanne; Enseleit, Frank; Ruschitzka, Frank; Corti, Roberto; Noll, Georg

    2012-08-01

    The consumption of a high amount of fruits and vegetables was found to be associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Epidemiologically, a similar relationship has been found with cocoa, a naturally polyphenol-rich food. Obviously, double blind randomized studies are difficult to perform with cocoa and chocolate, respectively. However, intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including the lowering of blood pressure, the improvement of vascular function and glucose metabolism, and the reduction of platelet aggregation and adhesion. Several potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its positive effects have been proposed, among them activation of nitric oxide synthase, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on blood pressure and vascular function.

  4. Vascularization of soft tissue engineering constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Carletto, Rodrigo

    nanotechnology-based paradigm for engineering vascularised liver tissue for transplantation”) and the Danish National Research Foundation and Villum Foundation’s Center for Intelligent Drug delivery and sensing Using microcontainers and Nanomechanics (Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF122).......Vascularization is recognized to be the biggest challenge for the fabrication of tissues and finally, organs in vitro. So far, several fabrication techniques have been proposed to create a perfusable vasculature within hydrogels, however, the vascularization and perfusion of hydrogels...... with mechanical properties in the range of soft tissues has not been fully achieved. My project focused on the fabrication and the active perfusion of hydrogel constructs with multi-dimensional vasculature and controlled mechanical properties targeting soft tissues. Specifically, the initial part of the research...

  5. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ludovici

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP, improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure. Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function.

  6. Noninvasive studies of peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, J.S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Plethysmography probably is the oldest method for measuring blood flow. In this method, measurements are made of changes in volume of an organ or region of tissue. In the modern practice of vascular surgery, the use of plethysmography has been expanded to include detection of not only arterial occlusive disease but also carotid artery disease and venous problems. Several types of plethysmographs are now available for clinical use in the evaluation of arterial occlusions. These are volume, strain-gauge, and photoelectric plethysmographs. The water-filled volume recorder, popular in the early use of plethysmography, is now obsolete and has been replaced by the air-filled volume plethysmograph, notably, the pulse-volume recorder. For clinical application, the newer plethysmographs, such as the strain-gauge, photopletyhsmograph, and pulse-volume recorder, are now standard equipment in many vascular laboratories. They are discussed in this article

  7. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The ability to grow stem cells in the laboratory and to guide their maturation to functional cells allows us to study the underlying mechanisms that govern vasculature differentiation and assembly in health and disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that early stages of vascular growth are exquisitely tuned by biophysical cues from the microenvironment, yet the scientific understanding of such cellular environments is still in its infancy. Comprehending these processes sufficiently to manipulate them would pave the way to controlling blood vessel growth in therapeutic applications. This book assembles the works and views of experts from various disciplines to provide a unique perspective on how different aspects of its microenvironment regulate the differentiation and assembly of the vasculature. In particular, it describes recent efforts to exploit modern engineering techniques to study and manipulate various biophysical cues. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly provides an inter...

  8. Vascular endothelium receptors and transduction mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Gillis, C; Ryan, Una; Proceedings of the Advanced Studies Institute on "Vascular Endothelium: Receptors and Transduction Mechanisms"

    1989-01-01

    Beyond their obvious role of a barrier between blood and tissue, vascular endothelial cells are now firmly established as active and essential participants in a host of crucial physiological and pathophysiological functions. Probably the two most important factors responsible for promoting the current knowledge of endothelial functions are 1) observations in the late sixties-early seventies that many non-ventilatory properties of the lung could be attributed to the pulmonary endothelium and 2) the establishment, in the early and mid-seventies of procedures for routine culture of vascular endothelial cells. Many of these endothelial functions require the presence of receptors on the surface of the plasma membrane. There is now evidence for the existence among others of muscarinic, a-and /3-adrenergic, purine, insulin, histamine, bradykinin, lipoprotein, thrombin, paf, fibronectin, vitronectin, interleukin and albumin receptors. For some of these ligands, there is evidence only for the existence of endothelial ...

  9. Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Struffert, T.; Ahlhelm, F.; Reith, W.

    2006-01-01

    Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle are rare compared to tumors in this area. Irritation of the trigeminal, facial, or vestibulocochlear nerve may cause trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vertigo, or tinnitus accordingly. Vessel loops in the cerebellopontine cisterns may cause compression at the root entry or exit zone of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, a phenomenon which is called ''vascular loop syndrome.'' Megadolichobasilar artery and aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system can also lead to dislocation and compression of the cranial nerves and brain stem. Three-dimensional CISS MR imaging and MR angiography are useful in the detection of neurovascular compression. Microvascular decompression is an effective surgical procedure in the management of compression syndromes of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII. (orig.) [de

  10. Molecular parallels between neural and vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Anne; Thomas, Jean-Léon

    2013-01-01

    The human central nervous system (CNS) features a network of ~400 miles of blood vessels that receives >20% of the body's cardiac output and uses most of its blood glucose. Many human diseases, including stroke, retinopathy, and cancer, are associated with the biology of CNS blood vessels. These vessels originate from extrinsic cell populations, including endothelial cells and pericytes that colonize the CNS and interact with glia and neurons to establish the blood-brain barrier and control cerebrovascular exchanges. Neurovascular interactions also play important roles in adult neurogenic niches, which harbor a unique population of neural stem cells that are intimately associated with blood vessels. We here review the cellular and molecular mechanisms required to establish the CNS vascular network, with a special focus on neurovascular interactions and the functions of vascular endothelial growth factors.

  11. Treatment of hemobilia by transcatheter vascular occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, R.; Roesch, J.; Keller, F.S.; Antonovic, R.; Veterans Administration Medical Center, Portland, OR

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of hemobilia treated by transcatheter arterial occlusion are presented and reviewed with 30 similar cases reported in the literature. Transcatheter vascular occlusion successfully controlled hemorrhage in all 34 patients. No obvious liver parenchymal damage appeared in 26 patients; transient elevation of liver enzymes occurred in 6 patients (18%) including one in our series; two of the patients reviewed died of acute hepatic insufficiency following nonselective hepatic artery embolization. Hemobilia should be considered when gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurs after abdominal trauma, liver biopsy or other manipulative liver procedures. Hepatic angiography establishes the diagnosis and selective vascular occlusion is the treatment of choice for control of intractable or recurrent hemorrhage. Techniques and precautions for the diagnosis and transcatheter therapy of hemobilia are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Prediction of Major Vascular Events after Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Goldstein, Larry B.; Amarenco, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) at high risk of major vascular events (MVEs; stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death) may help optimize the intensity of secondary preventive interventions. We evaluated the relationships between...... the baseline Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS) and a novel risk prediction model and with the occurrence of MVEs after stroke or TIA in subjects enrolled in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Level (SPARCL) trial. METHODS: Data from the 4731 subjects enrolled in the SPARCL study...... were analyzed. Hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox regression models were used to determine the risk of subsequent MVEs based on the FCRS predicting 20% or more 10-year coronary heart disease risk. The novel risk model was derived based on multivariable modeling with backward selection. Model discrimination...

  13. Vascular lesions of the vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökcan, Kürşat Mustafa; Dursun, Gürsel

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to present symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical course, management modalities, and consequences of vascular lesions of vocal fold. This study examined 162 patients, the majority professional voice users, with vascular lesions regarding their presenting symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical courses and treatment results. The most common complaint was sudden hoarseness with hemorrhagic polyp. Microlaryngoscopic surgery was performed in 108 cases and the main indication of surgery was the presence of vocal fold mass or development of vocal polyp during clinical course. Cold microsurgery was utilized for removal of vocal fold masses and feeding vessels cauterized using low power, pulsed CO(2) laser. Acoustic analysis of patients revealed a significant improvement of jitter, shimmer and harmonics/noise ratio values after treatment. Depending on our clinical findings, we propose treatment algorithm where voice rest and behavioral therapy is the integral part and indications of surgery are individualized for each patient.

  14. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors as Modulators of Vascular Function and Their Application in Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf A. Khalil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance and hypertension (HTN. In VSM, activation of surface receptors by vasoconstrictor stimuli causes an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, which forms a complex with calmodulin, activates myosin light chain (MLC kinase and leads to MLC phosphorylation, actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Vasoconstrictor agonists could also increase the production of diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C (PKC. PKC is a family of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isozymes that have different distributions in various blood vessels, and undergo translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or the nucleus during cell activation. In VSM, PKC translocation to the cell surface may trigger a cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and MAPK kinase (MEK, a pathway that ultimately increases the myofilament force sensitivity to [Ca2+]i, and enhances actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. PKC translocation to the nucleus may induce transactivation of various genes and promote VSM growth and proliferation. PKC could also affect endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the extracellular matrix further affecting vascular reactivity and remodeling. In addition to vasoactive factors, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic factors could affect PKC activity. Increased PKC expression and activity have been observed in vascular disease and in certain forms of experimental and human HTN. Targeting of vascular PKC using PKC inhibitors may function in

  15. Improved vascularization of planar membrane diffusion devices following continuous infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, N; Steil, G M; Colton, C K; Bonner-Weir, S; Weir, G C

    2000-01-01

    Improving blood vessel formation around an immunobarrier device should improve the survival of the encapsulated tissue. In the present study we investigated the formation of new blood vessels around a planar membrane diffusion device (the Baxter Theracyte System) undergoing a continuous infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor through the membranes and into the surrounding tissue. Each device (20 microl) had both an inner immunoisolation membrane and an outer vascularizing membrane. Human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-165 was infused at 100 ng/day (low dose: n = 6) and 500 ng/day (high dose: n = 7) for 10 days into devices implanted s.c. in Sprague-Dawley rats; noninfused devices transplanted for an identical period were used as controls (n = 5). Two days following the termination of VEGF infusion, devices were loaded with 20 microl of Lispro insulin (1 U/kg) and the kinetics of insulin release from the lumen of the device was assessed. Devices were then explanted and the number of blood vessels (capillary and noncapillary) was quantified using morphometry. High-dose vascular endothelial growth factor infusion resulted in two- to threefold more blood vessels around the device than that obtained with the noninfused devices and devices infused with low-dose vascular endothelial growth factor. This increase in the number of blood vessels was accompanied by a modest increase in insulin diffusion from the device in the high-dose vascular endothelial growth factor infusion group. We conclude that vascular endothelial growth factor can be used to improve blood vessel formation adjacent to planar membrane diffusion devices.

  16. NF1 Signal Transduction and Vascular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    microenvironment that promotes much of the pathology associated with the disease . Moreover we hypothesize that a mechanistic consequence of the loss...obliteration of the normal red pulp architecture. In addition, we found significant peri-aveolar and peri-vascular inflammatory infiltrates in the lung...the mouse model of NF1 disease in the endothelium we proposed and have done experiments investigating the loss of endothelial NF1 in the adult

  17. Role of endovascular treatment in vascular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.M.; Haq, T.U.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate retrospectively the results, complications and follow-up of patients after endovascular treatment of vascular injuries. Methods: Fifty transcatheter embolisation procedures (TCE) were performed in 46 patients between 1999 and 2008 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Injuries in 14 (30.4%) patients were due to road traffic accident; iatrogenic in 13 (28%); accidental in 6 (13%). Firearms, bomb blasts and earthquake contributed to injuries in 8(17%), 4(8.8%) and 1(2.2%) patients respectively. All patients underwent angiography and had evidence of either active haemorrhage, pseudo-aneurysm, abnormal vascularity or arteriovenous fistula. Follow-up ranged from 1 day to 6 years with mean of 10.5 months. Medical record files, lab results and imaging reports were utilised for the study. Procedure was declared as technically successful when there was cessation of extravasation, occlusion of fistula or exclusion of pseudo-aneurysm in the post-embolisation angiograms. Treatment was deemed clinically successful if there was resolution of the indication for which the procedure was done. Results: Transcatheter embolisation was technically successful in occluding vascular lesions in all 46 (100%) patients. Lesions recurred in 4 (9%) patients who underwent initially successful TCE. These patients were treated effectively with repeated TCE. Three patients died during the same hospital stay and 3 patients died after being discharged from the hospital. All these patients were treated successfully with TCE and had factors other then TCE contributing to their mortality. Conclusion: Transcatheter embolisation for vascular injuries was found to be a satisfactory procedure, with low morbidity and mortality rates. (author)

  18. Vascular access: the impact of ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Saldanha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascular punctures are often necessary in critically ill patients. They are secure, but not free of complications. Ultrasonography enhances safety of the procedure by decreasing puncture attempts, complications and costs. This study reviews important publications and the puncture technique using ultrasound, bringing part of the experience of the intensive care unit of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo (SP), Brazil, and discussing issues that should be considered in future studies. PMID:28076607

  19. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Morgan

    Full Text Available Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6 and horses with EL (n = 6 destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein and the facial skin (facial skin arteries by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01. In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006 and veins (P = 0.009 from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  20. Role of vascular physiology in hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of blood supply to tumors significantly varies depending on the tumor type, site of tumor growth, and the stage of tumor growth. Even in the same tumor, blood flow is rather heterogeneous. The peripheral area of the tumors where the tissue pressure is relatively low is usually well perfused. Blood flow in the tumors may or may not be greater than that in the adjacent normal tissues. The response of newly formed tumor blood vessels to external stress, such as heat, it different from that in the normal tissues. Blood flow in the experimental rodent tumors initially increases up to twofold of control when heated at relatively low temperatures but tends to decrease when heated at temperatures above 42 0 -43 0 C. On the contrary, blood flow in the skin and muscle of rodents increases up to 20-fold before vascular damage occurs on heating at 43 0 -45 0 C. It thus appears that the vascular beds in tumors are more vulnerable to heat than those in normal tissues. Because of the large increase in blood flow in normal tissue on heating, heat dissipation by blood flow is usually greater in normal tissues than that in tumors during heating. Consequently, the temperature of tumors may rise higher than that in normal tissues. Preferential heating of tumors, however, may not be achieved all the time because the relative blood perfusion in some tumors or in parts of a tumor remains greater than that in the surrounding normal tissues. The intrinsically acidic intratumor environment becomes further acidic on heating owing to an increase in the synthesis of acidic metabolites and retarded removal of them as a result of heat-induced vascular damage. The intratumor environment also becomes hypoxic as a result of retardation of blood flow and vascular damage after heating

  1. Analgesics and sedatives in vascular interventionist radiologic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio, M.A. de; Opta, J.M.; Pulido, J.M.; Encarnacion, C.E.; Arino, I., Fernandez, J.A.; Alfonso, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Interventionist radiology routinely requires the use of different drugs (analgesics and sedatives) in the course of a procedure. Aside from their therapeutic action, these drugs can produce secondary or undesirable effects, making necessary an in-depth knowledge of them to assure their safe and efficient management. The aim of this work is to provide the vascular interventionist radiologist with additional information on the management of those drugs that contribute to minimizing patient discomfort and pain in interventionist procedures. Author

  2. Robotic vascular resections during Whipple procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Bassan J.; Novak, Stephanie M.; Hogg, Melissa E.; Zeh, Herbert J.

    2018-01-01

    Indications for resection of pancreatic cancers have evolved to include selected patients with involvement of peri-pancreatic vascular structures. Open Whipple procedures have been the standard approach for patients requiring reconstruction of the portal vein (PV) or superior mesenteric vein (SMV). Recently, high-volume centers are performing minimally invasive Whipple procedures with portovenous resections. Our institution has performed seventy robotic Whipple procedures with concomitant vas...

  3. Endothelial microparticles: Sophisticated vesicles modulating vascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Anne M; Edelberg, Jay; Jonas, Rebecca; Rogers, Wade T; Moore, Jonni S; Syed, Wajihuddin; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) belong to a family of extracellular vesicles that are dynamic, mobile, biological effectors capable of mediating vascular physiology and function. The release of EMPs can impart autocrine and paracrine effects on target cells through surface interaction, cellular fusion, and, possibly, the delivery of intra-vesicular cargo. A greater understanding of the formation, composition, and function of EMPs will broaden our understanding of endothelial communication and may expose new pathways amenable for therapeutic manipulation. PMID:23892447

  4. New molecular probes of vascular inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular Cardiovascular Imaging, Westfälische Wilhelms University Münster, Münster, (Germany))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Münster, Münster, and DFG CRC 656 Molecular Cardiovascular Imaging, Westfälische Wilhelms University Münster, Münster, (Germany))" >VRACHIMIS, Alexis; HONOLD, Lisa; Cells in Motion Cluster of Excellence, Westfälische Wilhelms University Münster, Münster, (Germany))" data-affiliation=" (European Institute of Molecular Imaging, Westfälische Wilhelms University Münster, Münster, and DFG EXC 1003 Cells in Motion Cluster of Excellence, Westfälische Wilhelms University Münster, Münster, (Germany))" >FAUST, Andreas; Cells in Motion Cluster of Excellence, Westfälische Wilhelms University Münster, Münster, (Germany))" data-affiliation=" (European Institute of Molecular Imaging, Westfälische Wilhelms University Münster, Münster, and DFG EXC 1003 Cells in Motion Cluster of Excellence, Westfälische Wilhelms University Münster, Münster, (Germany))" >HERMANN, Sven; SCHÄFERS, Michael

    2016-01-01

    New molecular imaging approaches featuring the assessment of inflammatory processes in the vascular wall on top of existing anatomic and functional vessel imaging procedures could emerge as decisive tools for the understanding and prevention of cardiovascular events. In this respect imaging approaches addressing specific molecular and cellular targets in atherosclerosis are of high interest. This review summarizes the rationale and current status of nuclear imaging probes which possess high translational potential.

  5. Diffuse vascular damage in a transplanted kidney: an indication for nuclear magnetic resonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdese, M; Consiglio, V; Mezza, E; Savio, D; Guarena, C; Rossetti, M; Messina, M; Soragna, G; Suriani, C; Rabbia, C; Segoloni, G P; Piccoli, G B

    2005-06-01

    Vascular lesions are an increasing challenge after renal transplantation due to the wider indications for recipients and acceptance criteria for donors. Diagnostic approach and prognostic interpretation are still matter of controversy. The case reported herein may summarize some of the issues in this regard. A 54-year-old woman, on renal replacement therapy since 1974, and a kidney graft recipient from 1975 to 1999, received a second graft in 2001. The donor age was 65 years (cold ischemia 22 hours; two mismatches). The early posttransplant follow-up was characterized by delayed graft function, hypertension, and diabetes. During the initial hypertension workup, renal graft ultrasound (US) Doppler demonstrated increased vascular resistances, stable over time (resistance index 0.74 to 0.77); renal scintiscan displayed homogeneously parenchymoa and angio-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an homogeneous parenchymal vascularization. Initial immunosuppression with tacrolimus and steroids was modulated by adding mycophenolate mofetil to taper tacrolimus (to reduce nephrotoxicity and hypertension). Despite this, kidney function slowly deteriorated; serum creatinine reached 3 to 3.5 mg/dL by the second year. After a severe hypertensive crisis with unchanged scintiscan and US doppler examinations, angio-MRI revealed the almost complete disappearance of parenchymal enhancement beyond the lobar arteries. A renal biopsy confirmed the severe vascular damage. The patient was switched to rapamycine and a low-dose of an angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. She did relatively well (serum creatinine 2.2 to 3 mg/dL) for 6 months, when rapid functional impairment forced her to restart hemodialysis. This case, almost paradigmatic of the problems occurring when the rigid vasculature of long-term dialysis patients is matched with "marginal kidneys," suggests that MRI may be a sensible good to define vascular damage in the grafted kidney.

  6. Early Vascular Ageing - A Concept in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Nilsson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition in the elderly, often associated with metabolic disturbance and type 2 diabetes. For a number of years, research dedicated to understand atherosclerosis dominated, and for many good reasons, this pathophysiological process being proximal to the CVD events. In recent years, research has been devoted to an earlier stage of vascular pathology named arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffness) and the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA), developed by a group of mostly European researchers. This overview describes recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular risk. There are new aspects related to genetics, telomere biology and the role of gut microbiota. However, there is still no unifying definition available of EVA and no direct treatment, but rather only recommendations for conventional cardiovascular risk factor control. New interventions are being developed - not only new antihypertensive drugs, but also new drugs for vascular protection - the selective angiotensin-II (AT2) agonist Compound 21 (C21). Human studies are eagerly awaited. Even new functional food products could have the potential to positively influence cardiometabolic regulation, to be confirmed.

  7. Altos custos financeiros do trauma vascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa-Val

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar o custo e impacto financeiro referente à primeira abordagem cirúrgica das lesões vasculares em pacientes admitidos no Hospital João XXIII/FHEMIG, entre os anos de 2004 a 2006. MéTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo com aprovação ética, retrospectivo, de coorte e descritivo realizado a partir da auditoria de contas hospitalares referentes a 70 prontuários catalogados pelo Serviço de Trauma Cardiovascular. RESULTADOS: Cinco (7,14% prontuários foram excluídos por má qualidade técnica. O valor monetário repassado pelo Sistema Único de Saúde e pelo setor privado foram de R$ 103.614,96 (US$ 60.949,97 e de R$ 185.888,21 (US$ 109.346,0, respectivamente, implicando em defasagem potencial de 44%. Houve correlação direta entre custos e topografia anatômica das lesões e exponencial em relação às variáveis hemoderivados e próteses vasculares. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo corrobora os altos custos do trauma vascular e fortalece a importância da auditoria de contas para as tomadas de decisões médicas.

  8. Pancreatic transplantation: Radiologic evaluation of vascular complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, J.F.; Hunter, D.W.; Kuni, C.C.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Letourneau, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Transplantation of the pancreas is an increasingly common therapeutic option for preventing or delaying complications of type I diabetes mellitus. The authors studied the relative roles of various radiologic examinations in diagnosing vascular complications in these grafts including arterial and venous thrombosis, stenosis, and anastomotic leak (the most common vascular factors that necessitate pancreatectomy of the transplant), as defined with pathologic or arteriographic data. The results of 78 scintigraphic flow studies, 40 abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scans, 27 sonograms, and eight color Doppler studies were evaluated in 52 patients who received a total of 27 cadaveric and 26 living-donor grafts over a 12-year period. These results were correlated with the data from 45 gross and microscopic pathologic studies and 37 arteriograms to determine their relative value in enabling detection of graft thrombosis and other vascular complications. Scintigraphy, CT, sonography, and color Doppler were all sensitive in detection of generalized graft abnormalities but lacked specificity in defining the underlying etiologic factors

  9. Pancreatic transplantation: Radiologic evaluation of vascular complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, J.F.; Hunter, D.W.; Kuni, C.C.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Letourneau, J.G. (Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Transplantation of the pancreas is an increasingly common therapeutic option for preventing or delaying complications of type I diabetes mellitus. The authors studied the relative roles of various radiologic examinations in diagnosing vascular complications in these grafts including arterial and venous thrombosis, stenosis, and anastomotic leak (the most common vascular factors that necessitate pancreatectomy of the transplant), as defined with pathologic or arteriographic data. The results of 78 scintigraphic flow studies, 40 abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scans, 27 sonograms, and eight color Doppler studies were evaluated in 52 patients who received a total of 27 cadaveric and 26 living-donor grafts over a 12-year period. These results were correlated with the data from 45 gross and microscopic pathologic studies and 37 arteriograms to determine their relative value in enabling detection of graft thrombosis and other vascular complications. Scintigraphy, CT, sonography, and color Doppler were all sensitive in detection of generalized graft abnormalities but lacked specificity in defining the underlying etiologic factors.

  10. Arterial vascularization of the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilogullari, Gokmen; Ugur, Hasan Caglar; Comert, Ayhan; Brohi, Recep Ali; Ozgural, Onur; Ozdemir, Mevci; Karahan, Suleyman Tuna

    2013-10-01

    The arterial vascularization of the pineal gland (PG) remains a debatable subject. This study aims to provide detailed information about the arterial vascularization of the PG. Thirty adult human brains were obtained from routine autopsies. Cerebral arteries were separately cannulated and injected with colored latex. The dissections were carried out using a surgical microscope. The diameters of the branches supplying the PG at their origin and vascularization areas of the branches of the arteries were investigated. The main artery of the PG was the lateral pineal artery, and it originated from the posterior circulation. The other arteries included the medial pineal artery from the posterior circulation and the rostral pineal artery mainly from the anterior circulation. Posteromedial choroidal artery was an important artery that branched to the PG. The arterial supply to the PG was studied comprehensively considering the debate and inadequacy of previously published studies on this issue available in the literature. This anatomical knowledge may be helpful for surgical treatment of pathologies of the PG, especially in children who develop more pathology in this region than adults.

  11. Amplatzer vascular plugs in congenital cardiovascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwad, Parag; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Kothari, Shyam S; Saxena, Anita; Gupta, Saurabh K; Juneja, Rajnish; Gulati, Gurpreet Singh; Jagia, Priya; Sharma, Sanjiv

    2013-01-01

    Amplatzer vascular plugs (AVPs) are devices ideally suited to close medium-to-large vascular communications. There is limited published literature regarding the utility of AVPs in congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVMs). To describe the use of AVPs in different CCVMs and to evaluate their safety and efficacy. All patients who required an AVP for the closure of CCVM were included in this retrospective review of our catheterization laboratory data. The efficacy and safety of AVPs are reported. A total of 39 AVPs were implanted in 31 patients. Thirteen (33%) were AVP type I and 23 (59%) were AVP type II. AVP type III were implanted in two patients and type IV in one patient. The major indications for their use included closure of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) (n = 7), aortopulmonary collaterals (n = 7), closure of a patent Blalock-Taussig shunt (n = 5), systemic AVM (n = 5), coronary AVM (n = 4), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (n = 3), pulmonary artery aneurysms (n = 3), and venovenous collaterals (n = 2). Deployment of the AVP was done predominantly via the 5 – 7F Judkin's right coronary guide catheter. Overall 92% of the AVPs could be successfully deployed and resulted in occlusion of the target vessel in all cases, within 10 minutes. No procedure-related or access site complication occurred. AVPs are versatile, easy to use, and effective devices to occlude the vascular communications in a variety of settings. AVP II is especially useful in the closure of tubular structures with a high flow

  12. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D. Berfin; Chong, Diana C.; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M.; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. PMID:27789228

  13. Vascularized nerve grafts: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, Renato; Capone, Crescenzo; Sgulò, Francesco Giovanni; Mariniello, Giuseppe; Maiuri, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to define an experimental model in order to promote the functional recovery of the nerves using grafts with vascular support (Vascular Nerve Grafts - VNG). The aim of this study is to define, on an experimental model in normal recipient bed, whether the functional recovery with VNG is superior to that obtained non-vascularized graft (NNG). Twenty male rabbits, which underwent dissection of sciatic nerve, were later treated by reinnervation through an autograft. In 10 animals the reconstruction of sciatic nerve was realized with VNG; in 10 control animals the reconstruction of sciatic nerve was realized with NNG. The VNG group showed a better axonal organization and a significantly higher number of regenerated axons in the early phases (after 30 days) than the NNG group, whereas the difference in the axonal number at day 90 was less significant; besides, the axon diameter and the myelin thickness were not significantly improved by VNG group. Our data suggests that the use of VNG leads to a faster regeneration process and a better functional recovery, although the final results are comparable to those of the NNG. VNG improve the quality of the axonal regeneration (axonal diameter and Schwann cells), although the increase in the axonal number is not significant and does not improve the long-term functional outcome.

  14. Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzi Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the first discovered gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO affects a number of cellular processes, including those involving vascular cells. This brief review summarizes the contribution of NO to the regulation of vascular tone and its sources in the blood vessel wall. NO regulates the degree of contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells mainly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, although cGMP-independent signaling [S-nitrosylation of target proteins, activation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA or production of cyclic inosine monophosphate (cIMP] also can be involved. In the blood vessel wall, NO is produced mainly from l-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS but it can also be released non-enzymatically from S-nitrosothiols or from nitrate/nitrite. Dysfunction in the production and/or the bioavailability of NO characterizes endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  15. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D Berfin; Chong, Diana C; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-12-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrotonic vascular signal conduction and nephron synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, D.J.; Toma, I.; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2009-01-01

    Marsh DJ, Toma I, Sosnovtseva OV, Peti-Peterdi J, Holstein-Rathlou NH. Electrotonic vascular signal conduction and nephron synchronization. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F751-F761, 2009. First published December 30, 2008; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.90669.2008.-Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and the ......Marsh DJ, Toma I, Sosnovtseva OV, Peti-Peterdi J, Holstein-Rathlou NH. Electrotonic vascular signal conduction and nephron synchronization. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F751-F761, 2009. First published December 30, 2008; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.90669.2008.-Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF......) and the myogenic mechanism control afferent arteriolar diameter in each nephron and regulate blood flow. Both mechanisms generate self-sustained oscillations, the oscillations interact, TGF modulates the frequency and amplitude of the myogenic oscillation, and the oscillations synchronize; a 5: 1 frequency ratio...... is the most frequent. TGF oscillations synchronize in nephron pairs supplied from a common cortical radial artery, as do myogenic oscillations. We propose that electrotonic vascular signal propagation from one juxtaglomerular apparatus interacts with similar signals from other nephrons to produce...

  17. Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Yeboah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increased arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in diabetes patients and general population. However, the contribution of diabetes to arterial stiffness is often masked by coexistent obesity and hypertension. In this study, we assessed arterial stiffness in nonhypertensive, nonobese type 2 diabetes (T2DM patients in Ghana. Methods. In case-control design, 166 nonhypertensive, nonobese participants, comprising 96 T2DM patients and 70 nondiabetes controls, were recruited. Peripheral and central blood pressure (BP indices were measured, and arterial stiffness was assessed as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao, augmentation index (AIx, cardioankle vascular index (CAVI, and heart-ankle pulse wave velocity (haPWV. Results. With similar peripheral and central BP indices, T2DM patients had higher PWVao (8.3 ± 1 versus 7.8 ± 1.3, p=0.044 and CAVI (7.9 ± 1.2 versus 6.9 ± 0.7, p=0.021 than nondiabetic control. AIx and haPWV were similar between T2DM and nondiabetic controls. Multiple regression models showed that, in the entire study participants, the major determinants of PWVao were diabetes status, age, gender, systolic BP, and previous smoking status (β = 0.22, 0.36, 0.48, 0.21, and 0.25, resp.; all p<0.05; the determinants of CAVI were diabetes status, age, BMI, heart rate, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and previous smoking status (β = 0.21, 0.38, 0.2, 0.18, 0.24. 0.2, −0.19, and 0.2, resp.; all p<0.05. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that nonhypertensive, nonobese T2DM patients have increased arterial stiffness without appreciable increase in peripheral and central pressure indices.

  18. The inter-arm difference in systolic blood pressure is a novel risk marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshimitsu; Fukui, Michiaki; Tanaka, Muhei; Fukuda, Yukiko; Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Okada, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Yoshioka, Keiji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the inter-arm blood pressure difference (IAD) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess whether the IAD could be a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a cross-sectional retrospective study of 206 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes aged 49-76 years, we examined the correlation of the IAD with the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI) or cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI). The IAD was positively correlated with the maximum IMT (r=0.266, P<0.0001), mean IMT (r=0.209, P=0.00726) or CAVI (r=0.240, P=0.0005). The IAD was higher in patients with CVD than in those without (P=0.0020). A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the IAD was an independent determinant of maximum IMT (β=0.169, P=0.0167), mean IMT (β=0.178, P=0.0153), ABI (β=-0.222, P=0.0033) or CAVI (β=0.213, P=0.0011) after adjusting for known risk factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the IAD as a predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis was similar to the AUC of the Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk score. In conclusion, the IAD could be a novel risk marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Evaluation of the relationship between renal function and renal volume-vascular indices using 3D power Doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansu, Aysegul, E-mail: drcansu@gmail.com; Kupeli, Ali; Kul, Sibel; Eyuboglu, Ilker; Oguz, Sukru; Ozturk, Mehmet Halil; Dinc, Hasan

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between renal function and total renal volume-vascular indices using 3D power Doppler ultrasound (3DPDUS). Materials and methods: One hundred six patients with hypertensive proteinuric nephropathy (HPN) (49 male, 57 female) and 65 healthy controls (32 male, 33 female) were evaluated prospectively using 3DPDUS. Total renal volume (RV), vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were calculated using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL). The estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) of the patients with HPN and the control group were calculated. The patients with HPN were divided into two groups on the basis of GFR, normal (≥90) or reduced (<90). Differences between groups were compared using ANOVA. Correlations between GFR, renal volume and vascular indices were analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The mean total RV, VI, FI and VFI values in the reduced GFR, normal GFR and control groups were RV (ml): 234.7, 280.7 and 294.6; VI: 17.6, 27.6 and 46.8; FI: 79.1, 88.7 and 93.9 and VFI: 7.1, 12.7 and 23.8. There were statistically significant differences between the groups (p < 0.001). Total RVs and vascular indices exhibited significant correlations with estimated GFR (r = 0.53–0.59, p < 0.001) Conclusion: Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound is a reliable predictive technique in renal function analysis.

  20. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography: imaging and quantifying blood flow and vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairleitner, H; Steiner, H; Hasenoehrl, G; Staudach, A

    1999-08-01

    To assess the feasibility of imaging low-velocity blood flow in adnexal masses by transvaginal three-dimensional power Doppler sonography, to analyze three-dimensional power Doppler sonography data sets with a new computer-assisted method and to test the reproducibility of the technique. A commercially available 5-MHz Combison 530 ultrasound system was used to perform three-dimensional power Doppler sonography transvaginally. A cube (= volume of interest) was defined enclosing the vessels of the cyst and the Cartesian characteristics were stored on a hard disk. This cube was analyzed using specially designed software. Five indices representing vascularization (the vascularization index (VI) or blood flow (the flow index (FI)) or both (the vascularization-flow index (VFI)) were calculated. The intraobserver repeatability of cube definition and scan repetition was assessed using Hartley's test for homogeneous variances. Interobserver agreement was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Imaging of vessels with low-velocity blood flow by three-dimensional power Doppler sonography and cube definition was possible in all adnexal massed studied. In some cases even induced non-vascular flow related to endometriosis was detected. The calculated F value with intraobserver repeated Cartesian file-saving ranged from 0 to 18.8, with intraobserver scan repetition from 4.74 to 24.8 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the calculated F value was 64. The interobserver correlation coefficient ranged between 0.83 and 0.92 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the correlation coefficient was less than 0.75. Vessels with low-velocity blood flow can be imaged using three-dimensional power Doppler sonography. Induced non-vascular flow was detected in endometriotic cyst fluid. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography combined with the cube method gave reproducible information for all indices except VFI 2. These indices might prove to be a new predictor in all fields of

  1. Atherogenic index and coronarian risk – comparative assessment regarding the particularities of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seceleanu Mihaela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of autoimmune cause hypothyroidism and dyslipidemia involvement in the apparition of major vascular complications. Methods: A total of 152 patients were investigated appreciating in comparison to a healthy control lot the hormone serum level, the presence of antimicrosomal thyroid antibodies and the serum levels of lipids. Atherogenic index and coronarian risk were calculated and correlated with the incidence of coronarian and cerebral vascular accidents. Results: Among the patients with goiter it was noted a high incidence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (31,58%. Thyroid autoimmunity was involved in 94,4% of the patients with clinical hypothyroidism, in 93,7 % with subclinical hypothyroidism and 100% in the patients with thyrotoxicosis. Low serum level of HDL-cholesterol was identified in 66,6% of patients with clinical hypothyroidism and 64,5% patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. The assessment of atherogenic index and coronarian risk was significantly higher (p<0,01 in patients with hypothyroidism in comparison to healthy control subjects. The incidence of vascular accidents was significantly higher (p<0,01 among the hypothyroid patients ( 19,7%/ 10,8%, of masculine gender (12,7% where the main cause of hypothyroidism was autoimmunity. Conclusions: The atherogenic index and coronarian risk were higher in patients with hypothyroidism associated to thyroid autoimmunity resulting in an increased probability in producing vascular accidents

  2. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and ...

  3. 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) utilizes a refined methodology based on the 2000 Pilot ESI effort, to construct an index covering 122 countries...

  4. Difference between ejection times measured at two different peripheral locations as a novel marker of vascular stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Obata

    Full Text Available Pulse wave velocity (PWV has been recommended as an arterial damage assessment tool and a surrogate of arterial stiffness. However, the current technology does not allow to measure PWV both continuously and in real-time. We reported previously that peripherally measured ejection time (ET overestimates ET measured centrally. This difference in ET is associated with the inherent vascular properties of the vessel. In the current study we examined ETs derived from plethysmography simultaneously at different peripheral locations and examined the influence of the underlying arterial properties on ET prolongation by changing the subject's position. We calculated the ET difference between two peripheral locations (ΔET and its corresponding PWV for the same heartbeat. The ΔET increased with a corresponding decrease in PWV. The difference between ΔET in the supine and standing (which we call ET index was higher in young subjects with low mean arterial pressure and low PWV. These results suggest that the difference in ET between two peripheral locations in the supine vs standing positions represents the underlying vascular properties. We propose ΔET in the supine position as a potential novel real-time continuous and non-invasive parameter of vascular properties, and the ET index as a potential non-invasive parameter of vascular reactivity.

  5. Changes in tumor vascularity precede microbubble contrast accumulation deficit in the process of dedifferentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masanori; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Okabe, Shinichiro; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate the changes in tumor vascularity and microbubble accumulation on contrast-enhanced sonograms, in relation to the dedifferentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: This prospective study enrolled 10 patients with histologically proven HCC (14.4-39.0 mm, 26.1 ± 7.4) showing nodule-in-nodule appearance upon contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed by harmonic imaging under a low mechanical index (0.22-0.25) during the vascular phase (agent injection to 1 min) and late phase (15 min) following the injection of Sonazoid TM (0.0075 ml/kg). Contrast enhancement in the inner and outer nodules was assessed in comparison with that in adjacent liver parenchyma as hyper-, iso-, or hypo-enhanced. Results: Vascular-phase enhancement of all 10 inner nodules was hyper-enhanced, and that of outer nodules was hyper-enhanced in 3, iso-enhanced in 2, and hypo-enhanced in 5. Late-phase enhancement of inner nodules was hypo-enhanced in 8 and iso-enhanced in 2. Furthermore, late-phase enhancement of outer nodules was iso-enhanced in the 7 lesions that showed iso- or hypo-enhancement in the vascular phase, and hypo-enhanced in the 3 with hyper-enhancement in the vascular phase. Late-phase hypo-enhancement was significantly more frequent in the nodules showing early-phase hyper-enhancement (11/13) than in the nodules showing early-phase iso- or hypo-enhancement (0/7) in both the inner and outer nodules. Conclusion: Dedifferentiation of HCC may be accompanied by changes in tumor vascularity prior to a reduction in microbubble accumulation. Observation of the vascular phase may be more useful than late-phase imaging for the early recognition of HCC dedifferentiation when using contrast-enhanced ultrasound with Sonazoid.

  6. The Doppler Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Hemodynamic Changes in Hepatic Vascular Structures in Patients with Hepatosteatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasin, Mehmet; Tokgoz, Ozlem; Serifoglu, İsmail; Oz, İlker; Erdem, Oktay

    2014-01-01

    The hemodynamic changes in hepatic vascular structures of hepatosteatosis patients were examined using Doppler ultrasonography. Ninety hepatosteatosis patients, classified as mild, moderate or severe, and 30 healthy volunteers were included in this 120-person study. The height, weight, liver size, blood lipids and blood liver function tests of the subjects were measured. Those values were compared in the patient and control groups. In the patient and control groups, color duplex Doppler ultrasonography was used to examine portal vein peak velocity, portal vein flow volume, hepatic artery resistive index (RI), hepatic artery pulsatility index (PI) and hepatic artery flow volume. Similarly to the degree of hepatosteatosis, increases in body mass index, liver size, liver enzyme levels and blood lipid levels were statistically significant (p<0.05). While the difference in portal vein peak velocity in the hepatosteatosis and control groups was not statistically significant, there was an increasing reduction in the degree of steatosis (p>0.05). As the degree of hepatosteatosis increased, there was a reduction in hepatic artery flow volume, portal vein flow volume and total flow volume that was not statistically significant. In the mild hepatosteatosis group, hepatic artery RI and PI values were statistically significantly lower than in the other groups (p<0.05). In the severe hepatosteatosis group, although the hepatic artery RI and PI values were not statistically significant, there was a minimal increase compared to the other groups. It is believed that those results were caused by a reduction in liver compliance and hepatic vascular compliance, in addition to resistance increase in vascular structures

  7. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu-Yin; Hang, Fu; Purvarshi, Gowreesunkur; Li, Min-Qing; Meng, Da-Hua; Huang, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler sonography on recurrent miscarriage. The study patients were divided into a recurrent miscarriage group (30 cases) and a normal pregnancy group (21 cases). Measurement of endometrial thickness was performed using two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the midluteal phase. The endometrial volume, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI) in midluteal and placenta volume, as well as the VI, FI, and VFI of early pregnancy were measured using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis of 3D-power Doppler ultrasound. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial vascular data, VI, FI, and VFI of the midluteal phase were lower in the recurrent miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p FI between the recurrent miscarriage and control groups during early pregnancy (p > 0.05). The predictive accuracy of endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, and placenta volume, VI, FI, and VFI in early pregnancy as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict miscarriage before 12 gestational weeks in participants was 0.681, 0.876, 0.770, 0.720, 0.879, 0.771, 0.907, 0.592, respectively. The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors in Benign Vascular Lesions of the Orbit: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Elizabeth A; Garrity, James A; Castillo, Francisco; Engman, Steven J; Couch, Steven M; Salomão, Diva R

    2016-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the orbit, although not malignant, can cause morbidity because of their location near critical structures in the orbit. For the same reason, they can be challenging to remove surgically. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are increasingly being used to treat diseases with prominent angiogenesis. Our study aimed to determine to what extent VEGF receptors and their subtypes are expressed on selected vascular lesions of the orbit. Retrospective case series of all orbital vascular lesions removed by one of the authors (JAG) at the Mayo Clinic. A total of 52 patients who underwent removal of vascular orbital lesions. The pathology specimens from the patients were retrieved, their pathologic diagnosis was confirmed, demographic and clinical information were gathered, and sections from vascular tumors were stained with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 1 (VEGFR1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 3 (VEGFR3). The existence and pattern of staining with VEGF and its subtypes on these lesions. There were 28 specimens of venous malformations, 4 capillary hemangiomas, 7 lymphatic malformations, and 6 lymphaticovenous malformations. All samples stained with VEGF, 55% stained with VEGFR1, 98% stained with VEGFR2, and 96% stained with VEGFR3. Most (94%) of the VEGFR2 staining was diffuse. Most orbital vascular lesions express VEGF receptors, which may suggest a future target for nonsurgical treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis...... at birth should not vary between countries. Finally the distributional assumptions are relaxed as compared to the assumptions made in an earlier work by the author. These assumptions concern the calculation of the life expectancy change due to the removal of an accident source. Moreover a simple public...... consistency problems with the standard power function expression of the LQI are pointed out. It is emphasized that the combination coefficient in the convex differential combination between the relative differential of the gross domestic product per capita and the relative differential of the expected life...

  10. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  11. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...... coherent light having a wavelength along an input light path, - producing scattering of said light from each of a plurality of interfaces within said apparatus including interfaces between said fluid and a surface bounding said fluid, said scattering producing an interference pattern formed by said...... scattered light, - cyclically varying the wavelength of said light in said input light path over a 1 nm to 20nm wide range of wavelengths a rate of from 10Hz to 50 KHz, - recording variation of intensity of the interfering light with change in wavelength of the light at an angle of observation...

  12. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  13. Endothelial dysfunction, vascular disease and stroke: the ARTICO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquer, J; Segura, T; Serena, J; Castillo, J

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a fundamental step in the atherosclerotic disease process. Its presence is a risk factor for the development of clinical events, and may represent a marker of atherothrombotic burden. Also, endothelial dysfunction contributes to enhanced plaque vulnerability, may trigger plaque rupture, and favors thrombus formation. The assessment of endothelial vasomotion is a useful marker of atherosclerotic vascular disease. There are different methods to assess endothelial function: endothelium-dependent vasodilatation brachial flow-mediated dilation, cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine, and the determination of some biomarkers such as microalbuminuria, platelet function, and C-reactive protein. Endothelial dysfunction has been observed in stroke patients and has been related to stroke physiopathology, stroke subtypes, clinical severity and outcome. Resting ankle-brachial index (ABI) is also considered an indicator of generalized atherosclerosis, and a low ABI is associated with an increase in stroke incidence in the elderly. Despite all these data, there are no studies analyzing the predictive value of ABI for new cardiovascular events in patients after suffering an acute ischemic stroke. ARTICO is an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study being performed in 50 Spanish hospitals. The aim of the ARTICO study is to evaluate the prognostic value of a pathological ABI (ARTICO study will increase the knowledge of patient outcome after ischemic stroke and may help to improve our ability to detect patients at high risk of stroke recurrence or major cardiovascular events. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Retinal vascular segmentation using superpixel-based line operator and its application to vascular topology estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Tong; Xie, Jianyang; Zhao, Yitian; Zhao, Yifan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian; Liu, Jiang

    2018-05-09

    Automatic methods of analyzing of retinal vascular networks, such as retinal blood vessel detection, vascular network topology estimation, and arteries/veins classification are of great assistance to the ophthalmologist in terms of diagnosis and treatment of a wide spectrum of diseases. We propose a new framework for precisely segmenting retinal vasculatures, constructing retinal vascular network topology, and separating the arteries and veins. A nonlocal total variation inspired Retinex model is employed to remove the image intensity inhomogeneities and relatively poor contrast. For better generalizability and segmentation performance, a superpixel-based line operator is proposed as to distinguish between lines and the edges, thus allowing more tolerance in the position of the respective contours. The concept of dominant sets clustering is adopted to estimate retinal vessel topology and classify the vessel network into arteries and veins. The proposed segmentation method yields competitive results on three public data sets (STARE, DRIVE, and IOSTAR), and it has superior performance when compared with unsupervised segmentation methods, with accuracy of 0.954, 0.957, and 0.964, respectively. The topology estimation approach has been applied to five public databases (DRIVE,STARE, INSPIRE, IOSTAR, and VICAVR) and achieved high accuracy of 0.830, 0.910, 0.915, 0.928, and 0.889, respectively. The accuracies of arteries/veins classification based on the estimated vascular topology on three public databases (INSPIRE, DRIVE and VICAVR) are 0.90.9, 0.910, and 0.907, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed framework has effectively addressed crossover problem, a bottleneck issue in segmentation and vascular topology reconstruction. The vascular topology information significantly improves the accuracy on arteries/veins classification. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Accelerated Vascular Aging as a Paradigm for Hypertensive Vascular Disease: Prevention and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Husmann, Marc; Meyer, Matthias R

    2016-05-01

    Aging is considered the most important nonmodifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death after age 28 years. Because of demographic changes the world population is expected to increase to 9 billion by the year 2050 and up to 12 billion by 2100, with several-fold increases among those 65 years of age and older. Healthy aging and prevention of aging-related diseases and associated health costs have become part of political agendas of governments around the world. Atherosclerotic vascular burden increases with age; accordingly, patients with progeria (premature aging) syndromes die from myocardial infarctions or stroke as teenagers or young adults. The incidence and prevalence of arterial hypertension also increases with age. Arterial hypertension-like diabetes and chronic renal failure-shares numerous pathologies and underlying mechanisms with the vascular aging process. In this article, we review how arterial hypertension resembles premature vascular aging, including the mechanisms by which arterial hypertension (as well as other risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or chronic renal failure) accelerates the vascular aging process. We will also address the importance of cardiovascular risk factor control-including antihypertensive therapy-as a powerful intervention to interfere with premature vascular aging to reduce the age-associated prevalence of diseases such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertensive nephropathy, and vascular dementia due to cerebrovascular disease. Finally, we will discuss the implementation of endothelial therapy, which aims at active patient participation to improve primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide is reduced in healthy adults with increased adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Demetra D.; Pierce, Gary L.; Walker, Ashley E.; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Seals, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide, as assessed by nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID), is impaired in clinical cardiovascular disease, but its relation to adiposity is unknown. We determined the relation of NID to total and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults varying widely in adiposity. In 224 men and women [age, 18–79 years; body mass index (BMI), 16.4–42.2 kg/m2], we measured NID (brachial artery dilation to 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin), total body adiposity [BMI...

  17. Body Size Predicts Cardiac and Vascular Resistance Effects on Men's and Women's Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M. Evans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Key Points SummaryWe report how blood pressure, cardiac output and vascular resistance are related to height, weight, body surface area (BSA, and body mass index (BMI in healthy young adults at supine rest and standing.Much inter-subject variability in young adult's blood pressure, currently attributed to health status, may actually result from inter-individual body size differences.Each cardiovascular variable is linearly related to height, weight and/or BSA (more than to BMI.When supine, cardiac output is positively related, while vascular resistance is negatively related, to body size. Upon standing, the change in vascular resistance is positively related to size.The height/weight relationships of cardiac output and vascular resistance to body size are responsible for blood pressure relationships to body size.These basic components of blood pressure could help distinguish normal from abnormal blood pressures in young adults by providing a more effective scaling mechanism.Introduction: Effects of body size on inter-subject blood pressure (BP variability are not well established in adults. We hypothesized that relationships linking stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and total peripheral resistance (TPR with body size would account for a significant fraction of inter-subject BP variability.Methods: Thirty-four young, healthy adults (19 men, 15 women participated in 38 stand tests during which brachial artery BP, heart rate, SV, CO, TPR, and indexes of body size were measured/calculated.Results: Steady state diastolic arterial BP was not significantly correlated with any index of body size when subjects were supine. However, upon standing, the more the subject weighed, or the taller s/he was, the greater the increase in diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure strongly correlated with body weight and height both supine and standing. Diastolic and systolic BP were more strongly related to height, weight and body surface area than to body mass

  18. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  19. Viva the h-index

    OpenAIRE

    Waaijers, Leo

    2011-01-01

    In their article 'The inconsistency of the h-index' Ludo Waltman and Nees Jan van Neck give three examples to demonstrate the inconsistency of the h-index. As will be explained, a little extension of their examples just illustrate the opposite, a stable feature of the h-index. For starting authors it, the h-index that is, focusses on the number of articles; for experienced authors its focus shifts towards the citation scores. This feature may be liked or not but does not make the h-index an i...

  20. Decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise: a surrogate marker of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease in patients with atrial septal defect and severe pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksmivenkateshiah, Srinivas; Singhi, Anil K; Vaidyanathan, Balu; Francis, Edwin; Karimassery, Sundaram R; Kumar, Raman K

    2011-06-01

    To examine the utility of decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise as a marker of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease in patients with atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension. Treadmill exercise was performed in 18 patients with atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained before and after peak exercise. A decline in the arterial pressure of oxygen of more than 10 millimetres of mercury after exercise was considered significant based on preliminary tests conducted on the controls. Cardiac catheterisation was performed in all patients and haemodynamic data sets were obtained on room air, oxygen, and a mixture of oxygen and nitric oxide (30-40 parts per million). There were 10 patients who had more than a 10 millimetres of mercury drop in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise and who had a basal pulmonary vascular resistance index of more than 7 Wood units per square metre. Out of eight patients who had less than a 10 millimetres of mercury drop in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise, seven had a basal pulmonary vascular resistance index of less than 7 Wood units per square metre, p equals 0.0001. A decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen of more than 10 millimetres of mercury predicted a basal pulmonary vascular resistance index of more than 7 Wood units per square metre with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 90%. A decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen following exercise appears to predict a high pulmonary vascular resistance index in patients with atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension. This test is a useful non-invasive marker of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease in this subset.