WorldWideScience

Sample records for vascular dementia compared

  1. VASCULAR DEMENTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak

    2010-01-01

    vascular cognitive disorders and vascular dementia (VD. The heterogeneity of vascular cognitive disorders, concurrence of vascular and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed. Data from studies of specific therapy for VD are given.

  2. [Vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, H.F. de; Gijn, J. van

    2004-01-01

    Vascular dementia is one of the most frequently occurring dementia syndromes. Its prevalence is about 5% among subjects above 85 years of age. Elevated blood pressure and atherosclerosis are the most important risk factors. According to international criteria, vascular dementia usually occurs within

  3. Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak; O V Uspenskaya

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00463-8 Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the e...

  4. Vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John T; Thomas, Alan

    2015-10-24

    Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the exact nature of the relation between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment, and the paucity of identifiable tractable treatment targets. Although there is an established relation between vascular and degenerative Alzheimer's pathology, the mechanistic link between the two has not yet been identified. This Series paper critiques some of the key areas and controversies, summarises treatment trials so far, and makes suggestions for what progress is needed to advance our understanding of pathogenesis and thus maximise opportunities for the search for new and effective management approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vascular dementia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2003-12-10

    Dec 10, 2003 ... Flicker L and Grimley EG. Piracetam for dementia or cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001. 24. Areosa SA and Sherriff F. Memantine for dementia. Cochrane. Database Syst Rev 2003. 25. Berks J, Grimley Evans J, van Dongen M. Ginkgo Biloba for Cog- nitive Impairment and Dementia.

  6. Vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) High blood pressure ( hypertension ) Smoking Stroke Symptoms of dementia may also be caused by other ... develop gradually or may progress after each small stroke. Symptoms may begin suddenly after each stroke. Some people ...

  7. Hypercholesterolaemia and vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Jason P.; Scutt, Polly; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second commonest cause of dementia. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults in developed countries, the second major cause of dementia and the third commonest cause of death. Traditional vascular risk factors–diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and smoking–are implicated as risk factors for VaD. The associations between cholesterol and small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, cognitive impairment and subsequent dementia are complex and as yet no...

  8. Noninfarct vascular dementia and Alzheimer dementia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, V Olga; Gillie, Edward X; Smith, Joseph A

    2005-03-15

    Vascular dementia is an overarching superordinate category of which multiinfarct vascular dementia is only one subtype. To contribute to the definition of vascular dementia, method involved investigation of mental status, oral language and comprehension in 81 consecutive vascular patients comprising two vascular samples: cerebral infarct sample (n=43) and cerebral noninfarct sample (n=38). To determine baseline, method also involved investigation of 36 demographically equivalent normal elderly. Results indicate both vascular samples performed significantly worse than normal elderly. Results further indicate there were no robust, reliable, significant differences between cerebral infarct and cerebral noninfarct patients. The lack of significant differences between cerebral infarct and cerebral noninfarct vascular samples brings into focus the ambiguous transition between diffuse, generalized disease and the multifocality underlying the vascular dementia-Alzheimer dementia spectrum. Cross-cutting infarct and noninfarct vascular populations were vascular factors of arteriosclerosis, abnormal blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, abnormal electrocardiogram, peripheral vascular disease, and other variables implicated in the distal causality of both infarct and noninfarct vascular dementias. Results indicate cerebral infarction is not the only path to the final common phenotype of vascular dementia. Vascular dementia is reconceptualized so as to include noninfarct vascular dementia: vascular dementia caused by underlying vascular factors other than cerebral infarction. It is suggested that one form of the subtype of noninfarct vascular dementia is Alzheimer-type vascular dementia.

  9. Neurocognitive differential diagnosis of dementing diseases: Alzheimer's Dementia, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Alyssa J; Parsons, Thomas D; McCue, Robert; Sellers, Alfred; Burns, William J

    2006-11-01

    Similarities in presentation of Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder, pose differential diagnosis challenges. The current study identifies specific neuropsychological patterns of scores for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. Neuropsychological domains directly assessed in the study included: immediate memory, delayed memory, confrontational naming, verbal fluency, attention, concentration, and executive functioning. The results reveal specific neuropsychological comparative profiles for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. The identification of these profiles will assist in the differential diagnosis of these disorders and aid in patient treatment.

  10. Hypercholesterolaemia and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jason P; Scutt, Polly; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M

    2017-07-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second commonest cause of dementia. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults in developed countries, the second major cause of dementia and the third commonest cause of death. Traditional vascular risk factors-diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and smoking-are implicated as risk factors for VaD. The associations between cholesterol and small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, cognitive impairment and subsequent dementia are complex and as yet not fully understood. Similarly, the effects of lipids and lipid-lowering therapy on preventing or treating dementia remain unclear; the few trials that have assessed lipid-lowering therapy for preventing (two trials) or treating (four trials) dementia found no evidence to support the use of lipid-lowering therapy for these indications. It is appropriate to treat those patients with vascular risk factors that meet criteria for lipid-lowering therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and in line with current guidelines. Managing the individual patient in a holistic manner according to his or her own vascular risk profile is recommended. Although the paucity of randomized controlled evidence makes for challenging clinical decision making, it provides multiple opportunities for on-going and future research, as discussed here. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo Claudia; Duro Giovanni; Iemolo Francesco; Castiglia Laura; Hachinski Vladimir; Caruso Calogero

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD) has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments th...

  12. Comparability of the clinical diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia: a critical review. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederkehr, Sandra; Simard, Martine; Fortin, Claudette; van Reekum, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This review is the first of a two-part series focusing on the comparability of eight clinical criteria used for the diagnosis of vascular dementia: the Hachinski Ischemic Scale; the Ischemic Scale of Rosen; the criteria proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-Third Edition (DSM-III), DSM-III-R, DSM-IV; International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10); State of California Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers (ADDTC); and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN). The authors discuss the critical issues related to the definition of the cognitive syndromes as well as the vascular causes and associated heterogeneity of symptomatology across these criteria.

  13. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Claudia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments that document the demographic data in a standardized manner and undertake a systematic effort to identify the underlying aetiology in each case. Increased effort should be targeted towards the concept of and criteria for Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Post-Stroke Dementia as well as for genetic factors involved, especially as these categories hold promise for early prevention and treatment.

  14. Depression in vascular dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naarding, P.; Koning, I. de; Kooten, F. van; Dippel, D.W.; Janzing, J.G.E.; Mast, R.C. van der; Koudstaal, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the presence of different dimensions of depression in subjects with vascular dementia. BACKGROUND: After a stroke, cognitive, affective and behavioural disturbances are common. It has been suggested that the nature of affective symptomatology can help to differentiate organic

  15. [How Treatable is Vascular Dementia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Etsuro

    2016-04-01

    Vascular dementia is an umbrella term, encompassing the pathological changes in the brain due to cerebrovascular disease that result in dementia. Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia, after Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, I outline the concept of vascular dementia, the key aspects of the disease that are yet to be clarified, and the current status of clinical trials. Assessing these factors, I discuss how treatable vascular dementia presently is. Use of the term'vascular dementia'is riddled with uncertainties regarding disease classification, and non-standardized diagnostic criteria. There are difficulties in determining the exact relationship between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment. The comorbid effects of Alzheimer's pathology in some individuals also present an obstacle to reliable clinical diagnosis, and hinder research into effective management approaches. Vascular dementia is preventable and treatable, as there are established primary and secondary prevention measures for the causative cerebrovascular diseases, such as vascular risk factor intervention, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulation, amongst others. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no established symptomatic treatments for vascular dementia. Clinical trials of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine indicate that they produce small cognitive benefits in patients with vascular dementia, though the exact clinical significance of these is uncertain. Data are insufficient to support the widespread use of these drugs in vascular dementia. Rehabilitation and physical and cognitive exercise may be beneficial, but evidence of cognitive benefit and relief of neuropsychiatric symptoms due to exercise is lacking.

  16. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  17. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Depression in vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naarding, Paul; de Koning, Inge; dan Kooten, Fop; Dippel, Diederik W J; Janzing, Joost G E; van der Mast, Rose C; Koudstaal, Peter J

    2003-04-01

    To study the presence of different dimensions of depression in subjects with vascular dementia. After a stroke, cognitive, affective and behavioural disturbances are common. It has been suggested that the nature of affective symptomatology can help to differentiate organic from psychological depression. Cognitive and affective symptoms were assessed in 78 stroke patients and a principal component analysis was performed on these symptoms. Also, a discriminant analysis was carried out to establish the contribution of different symptoms on the diagnosis 'depressive disorder' and 'dementia'. (1) Principal component analysis revealed three distinct sub-syndromes: one with predominantly mood symptoms, one with essentially psychomotor symptoms, and one with vegetative symptoms; (2) mood, psychomotor and vegetative symptoms were all independently and strongly related to a diagnosis of major depressive disorder according to DSM-III-R criteria; (3) the psychomotor factor was also firmly associated with dementia; and (4) discriminant analysis gave further support for our conclusion that some of the depressive features, in particular the psychomotor factor, are at least partly related to the organic brain damage from stroke. The results indicate that different dimensions of depression could be discerned in a group of stroke patients and that the symptom profile of depression in these patients can be affected by the presence of dementia. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Nutrition and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L; Heim, L; Sherzai, A; Jaceldo-Siegl, K; Sherzai, A

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this review was to elucidate the relationship between VaD and various nutritional factors based on epidemiological studies. Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia. The prevalence of VaD continues to increase as the US population continues to grow and age. Currently, control of potential risk factors is believed to be the most effective means of preventing VaD. Thus, identification of modifiable risk factors for VaD is crucial for development of effective treatment modalities. Nutrition is one of the main modifiable variables that may influence the development of VaD. A systematic review of literature was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL Plus databases with search parameters inclusive of vascular dementia, nutrition, and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Fourteen articles were found that proposed a potential role of specific nutritional components in VaD. These components included antioxidants, lipids, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, and fish consumption. Antioxidants, specifically Vitamin E and C, and fatty fish intake were found to be protective against VaD risk. Fried fish, elevated homocysteine, and lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 were associated with increased VaD. Evidence for dietary lipids was inconsistent, although elevated midlife serum cholesterol may increase risk, while late-life elevated serum cholesterol may be associated with decreased risk of VaD. Currently, the most convincing evidence as to the relationship between VaD and nutrition exists for micronutrients, particularly Vitamin E and C. Exploration of nutrition at the macronutrient level and additional long term prospective cohort studies are warranted to better understand the role of nutrition in VaD disease development and progression. At present, challenges in this research include limitations in sample size, which was commonly cited. Also, a variety of diagnostic criteria for VaD were employed in the studies

  20. The pathobiology of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-11-20

    Vascular cognitive impairment defines alterations in cognition, ranging from subtle deficits to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Often coexisting with Alzheimer's disease, mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. Central to the disease mechanism is the crucial role that cerebral blood vessels play in brain health, not only for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but also for the trophic signaling that inextricably links the well-being of neurons and glia to that of cerebrovascular cells. This review will examine how vascular damage disrupts these vital homeostatic interactions, focusing on the hemispheric white matter, a region at heightened risk for vascular damage, and on the interplay between vascular factors and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, preventative and therapeutic prospects will be examined, highlighting the importance of midlife vascular risk factor control in the prevention of late-life dementia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vascular disease burden in Indian subjects with vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Mina; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Vascular disease factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease contribute to the development of vascular dementia. As comorbidity of vascular disease factors in vascular dementia is common, we investigated the vascular disease burden in subjects with vascular dementia. To investigate the vascular disease burden due to four vascular disease factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease in Indian subjects with vascular dementia. In this study, 159 subjects with probable vascular dementia (as per NINDS-AIREN criteria) attending the memory clinic at a tertiary care hospital were assessed for the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease using standardised operational definitions and for severity of dementia on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. The data obtained was subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. Dyslipidaemia (79.25 per cent) was the most common vascular disease factor followed by hypertension (73.58 per cent), ischaemic heart disease (58.49 per cent), and diabetes mellitus (40.80 per cent). Most subjects (81.1 per cent) had two or more vascular disease factors. Subjects with more severe dementia had more vascular disease factors (sig 0.001). People with moderate to severe dementia have a significantly higher vascular disease burden; therefore, higher vascular disease burden may be considered as a poor prognostic marker in vascular dementia. Subjects with vascular dementia and their caregivers must manage cognitive impairment and ADL alongside managing serious comorbid vascular diseases that may worsen the dementia.

  2. Characteristics of Cerebral Blood Flow in Vascular Dementia using SPM Analysis Compared to Normal Control and Alzheimer's Dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Cerebral perfusion pattern of vascular dementia (VD) was not well established and overlap of cerebral perfusion pattern was reported between VD and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of SPECT finding in VD compared with normal control subjects and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD were investigated using statistic parametric mapping analysis. Thirty-two VD (mean age ; 67.86.4 years, mean CDR ; 0.980.27), 51 AD (mean age ; 71.47.2 years, CDR ; 1.160.47), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, and 30 normal control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 years) participated in this study. The Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT data were analyzed by SPM99. The SPECT data of the patients with VD were compared to those of the control subjects and then compared to the patients with AD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the both frontal (both cingulate gyrus, both inferior frontal gyrus, B no.47, right frontal rectal gyrus, left frontal subcallosal gyrus, B no.25), both temporal (right insula, B no.13, left superior temporal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, B no.35), occipital (occipital lingual gyrus), right corpus callosum and right cerebellar tonsil regions in subjects with VD compared with normal control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both parietal posterior central gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus (B no.47), left insula, right thalamus (ventral lateral nucleus), right claustrum and right occipital cuneus regions in VD group compared with AD. There were no typical confined regional hypoperfusion areas but scattered multiple perfusion deficits in VD compared AD. These findings may be helpful to reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of VD and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD.

  3. [Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the two major forms of dementia in the elderly, and they had been separated categorically on the basis of pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical operationalized criteria. However, it was claimed that this strict separation might steered toward the overdiagnosis of vascular dementia, this dichotomy has been reevaluated in the light of recent epidemiological and neuropathological knowledge. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is now considered as one of the vascular risk factors to the onset and evolution of Alzheimer's disease. Futhermore, the term "AD with CVD" has been used to classify patients fulfilling the clinical criteria for possible AD and who also present clinical or brain imaging evidence of relevant CVD.

  4. Vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klavdija Ovčar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developed world, five to ten percent of people older than 65 years have dementia. One fifth of dementia etiologies are due to vascular brain lesions (VaD – vascular dementia. A milder form is called vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. The main clinical criteria for VaD are: 1. cognitive decline verified with standardized cognitive test/scale, 2. evidence of the associated vascular brain lesion, 3. excluded reversible causes of cognitive decline. The main risk factors for VaD are age, atherosclerosis, diabetes and hypertension. They play a key role in pathogenesis of the cognitive impairment. Depending on the damaged brain region, different cognitive domains may be affected with or without other neurological signs. These diversities in the clinical picture challenge the correct diagnosis. Unique feature of VaD is its progression, which can be stopped, if patients receive an appropriate treatment.The treatment of VCI and VaD symptoms is similar to that in Alzheimer’s disease. More importantly, VCI may be slowed down or even stopped with proper secondary stroke prevention and good rehabilitation. The most efficient is primary stroke prevention with healthy lifestyle and treatment of acquired risk factors.

  5. Hippocampal atrophy in subcortical vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, L.A.; Gertz, H.J.; Scheltens, P.; Wolf, H

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: New research criteria for subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) have been suggested to define a more homogeneous subgroup of vascular dementia. Hippocampal (Hc) atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also occurs in other dementia disorders including vascular

  6. Diagnostic criteria of vascular dementia in CADASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisty, Sarah; Hernandez, Karen; Viswanathan, Anand; Reyes, Sonia; Kurtz, Annie; O'Sullivan, Michael; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues

    2008-03-01

    Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) is a major subtype of vascular dementia (VaD). Recently, the diagnostic criteria of VaD have been modified to encompass this entity. Application of these criteria in CADASIL, a genetic model of SIVD, may help to better assess their significance. The aim of this study was to compare different sets of diagnostic criteria of VaD in a population of CADASIL patients. Different sets of diagnostic criteria of VaD (DSMIV, ICD10, standard NINDS-AIREN, modified NINDS-AIREN for SIVD) were applied to 115 CADASIL patients. Diagnosis of VaD was made through 2 steps: (1) diagnosis of dementia and (2) association of dementia to lesions of vascular origin. The percentage of patients satisfying the different sets and the concordance between these criteria was analyzed. At least 1 set of criteria was satisfied for diagnosis in 29 subjects with dementia. In this group of patients, the sensitivity of the DSM IV, ICD 10, and standard NINDS-AIREN criteria for VaD was, respectively, 79%, 72%, and 45%. In contrast, the sensitivity of the NINDS-AIREN criteria for SIVD was 90%. The incomplete sensitivity of these last criteria was related to the absence of focal signs in some patients. The neuroimaging criteria were satisfied in all patients with dementia. The modified NINDS-AIREN criteria of SIVD are the most sensitive VaD criteria in CADASIL. Among these criteria, the neuroimaging criteria, although poorly specific to dementia, have a complete sensitivity. In contrast, focal signs were inconstant in CADASIL patients with dementia.

  7. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  8. Vascular aspects of cognitive impairment and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesmann, M.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and stroke are highly prevalent risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common forms of dementia, and both conditions are preceded by a stage of cognitive impairment. Stroke is a major risk factor for the

  9. Alzheimer and vascular brain disease: Senile dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Alois Alzheimer is best known for his description of a novel disease, subsequently named after him. However, his wide range of interests also included vascular brain diseases. He described Senile dementia, a highly heterogeneous condition, and was able not only to distinguish it from syphilitic brain disease, but also to discriminate two clinicopathological subtypes, that may be labeled a "arteriosclerotic subtype", comparable to the present clinicopathological continuum of "Vascular cognitive impairment", and another as a "neurodegenerative subtype", characterized by primary [cortical] ganglion cell [nerve cells] degeneration, possibly foreshadowing a peculiar presenile disease that he was to describe some years later and would carry his name. He also considered the possibility of a senile presentation of this disease subtype, which was described by Oskar Fischer a short time later. Considering the clinicopathological overlapping features of the "arteriosclerotic subtype" of Senile dementia with Arteriosclerotic atrophy of the brain, it might be possible to consider that both represent a single condition.

  10. Alzheimer and vascular brain disease: Senile dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Eliasz; Grinberg, Lea T

    2015-01-01

    Alois Alzheimer is best known for his description of a novel disease, subsequently named after him. However, his wide range of interests also included vascular brain diseases. He described Senile dementia, a highly heterogeneous condition, and was able not only to distinguish it from syphilitic brain disease, but also to discriminate two clinicopathological subtypes, that may be labeled a "arteriosclerotic subtype", comparable to the present clinicopathological continuum of "Vascular cognitive impairment", and another as a "neurodegenerative subtype", characterized by primary [cortical] ganglion cell [nerve cells] degeneration, possibly foreshadowing a peculiar presenile disease that he was to describe some years later and would carry his name. He also considered the possibility of a senile presentation of this disease subtype, which was described by Oskar Fischer a short time later. Considering the clinicopathological overlapping features of the "arteriosclerotic subtype" of Senile dementia with Arteriosclerotic atrophy of the brain, it might be possible to consider that both represent a single condition.

  11. Vascular dementia | Connor | African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a common but heterogeneous condition in which there is a clear temporal relationship between the dementia and vascular disease. It may result from multiple large or small vessel strokes or a single strategic stroke. Subcortical ischaemic VaD includes multiple lacunes and subcortical ...

  12. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  13. Concomitant vascular and neurodegenerative pathologies double the risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Avan, Abolfazl; Cipriano, Lauren E; Munoz, David G; Sposato, Luciano A; Hachinski, Vladimir

    2017-09-30

    The relative contributions of vascular and degenerative pathology to dementia are unknown. We aim to quantify the proportion of dementia explained by potentially preventable vascular lesions. We systematically searched for population-based cohorts before February 2017 reporting clinicopathological data for individuals with and without dementia. We calculated the summary proportion and absolute risk of dementia comparing subjects with and without the pathology. We identified 10 studies comprising 2856 subjects. Vascular-type pathology and mixed pathology are respectively two and three times more likely in demented patients. The summary proportion of dementia is 77%-86% in subjects with mixed degenerative and vascular pathology and 45% in subjects with pure Alzheimer-type pathology. Patients with mixed pathologies have nearly twice the incremental risk of dementia compared with patients with only Alzheimer-type lesions. Consequently, many cases of dementia could be prevented or delayed by targeting the vascular component. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbleeds in vascular dementia: clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Flier, Wiesje M; Cordonnier, Charlotte

    2012-11-01

    Microbleeds are small dot-like lesions which can be appreciated on gradient echo, T2*-weighted magnetic resonance images as hypointensities. They are considered as an expression of small vessel disease on MRI, next to lacunes and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Microbleeds are relatively common in vascular dementia, with reported prevalences between 35% and 85%. In the context of vascular dementia, microbleeds are mainly thought to result from hypertensive vasculopathy, but the frequent co-occurrence of lobar microbleeds suggests that neurodegenerative pathology and/or cerebral amyloid angiopathy is also of importance. The presence of multiple microbleeds in vascular dementia or in patients with vascular cognitive impairment is related to worse performance on cognitive tests, mainly in psychomotor speed and executive functioning. They may have some predictive value in terms of predicting development of (vascular) dementia, mortality and disability. Data on the occurrence of stroke and post-stroke dementia in patients with microbleeds are to date not available. New definitions and diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia and vascular cognitive impairment are needed and should take into account microbleeds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vascular factors in dementia and apathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eurelings, L.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals suffering from dementia is expected to rise significantly in the future. Because so far no curative treatment exists, prevention remains paramount. A large body of evidence points to the direction of an important role of vascular risk factors in the aetiology of dementia

  16. Vascular risk factors, cognitve decline, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Duron

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available E Duron, Olivier HanonBroca Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer’s disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.Keywords: dementia, hypertension, diabetus mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome

  17. Spatial Analysis of the Neuronal Density of Aminergic Brainstem Nuclei in Primary Neurodegenerative and Vascular Dementia: A Comparative Immunocytochemical and Quantitative Study Using a Graph Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph method was employed to analyse spatial neuronal patterns of pontine nuclei with ascending aminergic projections to the forebrain (nucleus centralis superior (NCS, raphes dorsalis (NRD and locus coeruleus (LC, in Alzheimer disease (AD, Huntington disease (HD, and vascular (VD as well as “mixed‐type” (VA dementia, compared with non‐demented controls (CO and a small sample of brains from schizophrenics (“dementia praecox” (DP. The quantitative evaluations by the “minimal spanning tree (MST” were complemented by rough neurofibrillary tangle (NFT counts and by semiquantitative immunohistochemical assessment of amyloid deposition, neuritic plaque formation, and cellular gliosis. The AD cases showed a significant decline of neuronal density in all nuclei examined, as compared with controls and DP. Neuronal loss was not significant in VD, while the mixed cases with both vascular and Alzheimer‐type pathology exhibited pronounced changes of neuronal density. Amyloid deposition occurred almost exclusively in AD and VA, as a rule, being of moderate degree, except for two presenile AD cases where it was marked. NFT were significantly increased in all nuclei in AD and in the VA cases, while they only occasionally appeared beyond age 55 in HD, DP and CO. The four HD cases showed in the NCS and NRD neuronal loss as severe as in AD. This neuronal loss implicates impairment of serotoninergic and noradrenergic neuromodulation as one basic mechanism promoting dementia in AD, VA and perhaps in HD.

  18. Higher Risk of Vascular Dementia in Myocardial Infarction Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbøll, Jens; Hováth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Adelborg, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    % (2.8% for Alzheimer's disease, 1.6% for vascular dementia, and 4.5% for other dementias). Compared with the general population cohort, MI was not associated with all-cause dementia (aHR = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-1.03). Risk of Alzheimer's disease (aHR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0...... was associated with higher risk of vascular dementia throughout follow-up and this asssociation was stronger in patients suffering stroke. The risk of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias was not higher in MI patients........88-0.95) and other dementias (aHR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.95-1.01) also approximated unity. However, MI was associated with higher risk of vascular dementia (aHR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.28-1.43), which was substantially strengthened for patients experiencing stroke after MI (aHR = 4.48, 95% CI: 3.29-6.12). Conclusions -MI...

  19. Cytokines in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, P; Agouridaki, H; Vaiopoulos, H; Siskou, E; Doutsou, K; Costa, V; Baloyiannis, S I

    2008-12-01

    The levels of interleukin 1beta, interleukin 6, and interleukin 10 were elevated in the serum of patients with dementia. No statistically significant correlation was recorded in the interleukin levels among patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Also, no significant correlation was observed in the interleukin levels in the serum and the severity of dementia. However, a significant correlation was found between IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels and age. The levels of IL-1beta and IL-6 were positively correlated with hypertension, and IL-2 levels were negatively correlated. No correlation was found between depressive symptoms and levels of cytokines in the serum.

  20. Blink Reflex May Help Discriminate Alzheimer Disease From Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Fatemeh; Noroozian, Maryam; Nafissi, Shahriar; Fatehi, Farzad

    2015-12-01

    Dementia has several different etiologies, and vascular dementia (VaD) is considered the second leading cause of dementia after Alzheimer disease (AD). Various studies used blink reflex in different spectrum of neurological diseases as a complementary diagnostic test. We performed blink test in AD, VaD, and mixed dementia to investigate different usefulness of blink reflex in differentiating these types of dementia. Blink reflex was performed for patients with AD (n = 18), VaD (n = 17), mixed dementia (n = 19), and normal subjects (n = 20). The absolute latency of R1, R2, and contralateral R2 (R2c) was determined and then compared with normal values. We used ROC curve to determine the screening cut-off value for R2 and R2c to discriminate dementia with vascular component and AD. The mean age ± SD of patients was 71.61 ± 8.23, 66.71 ± 11.48, 75.26 ± 8.32, and 66.60 ± 3.91 years in 4 groups of AD, VaD, mixed dementia, and normal, respectively. R2 and R2c were recorded in fewer number of subjects with VaD or mixed dementia than AD and normal subjects. For mean R2 latency higher than 45 milliseconds, the sensitivity and specificity were 42% and 100%, respectively, and for latency higher than 45 milliseconds, the sensitivity and specificity were 72% and 89%, respectively. R2 and R2c components of blink reflex could specifically discriminate between Alzheimer and dementia with vascular component. The interruption of descending corticoreticular pathways by small infarcts could explain it.

  1. Vascular aspects of cognitive impairment and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Claassen, Jurgen AHR

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and stroke are highly prevalent risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common forms of dementia, and both conditions are preceded by a stage of cognitive impairment. Stroke is a major risk factor for the development of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and VaD; however, stroke may also predispose to AD. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, thus linking hypertension to VCI and VaD, but hypertension is also an important risk factor for AD. Reducing these two major, but modifiable, risk factors—hypertension and stroke—could be a successful strategy for reducing the public health burden of cognitive impairment and dementia. Intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) and the manipulation of factors involved in the renin–angiotensin system (e.g. angiotensin II or angiotensin-converting enzyme) have been shown to reduce the risk of developing hypertension and stroke, thereby reducing dementia risk. This paper will review the research conducted on the relationship between hypertension, stroke, and dementia and also on the impact of LC-n3-FA or antihypertensive treatments on risk factors for VCI, VaD, and AD. PMID:24022624

  2. Effect of vascular burden as measured by vascular indexes upon vascular dementia: a matched case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Paul Y; Caldwell, Casey R; Targonski, Paul V

    2012-01-01

    Paul Y Takahashi, Casey R Caldwell, Paul V TargonskiPrimary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USABackground: Vascular dementia (VaD) is a challenging illness that affects the lives of older adults and caregivers. It is unclear how multiple vascular risk factor exposures (polyvascular disease) affect VaD.Purpose: To determine the relationship between multiple vascular risk exposures, as counted on an index in cases with VaD, compared with healthy age-/gender-matched controls.M...

  3. Clinical presentations and epidemiology of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric E

    2017-06-01

    Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases cause vascular brain injury that can lead to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). VCI is the second most common neuropathology of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), accounting for up to one-third of the population risk. It is frequently present along with other age-related pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multiple etiology dementia with both VCI and AD is the single most common cause of later life dementia. There are two main clinical syndromes of VCI: post-stroke VCI in which cognitive impairment is the immediate consequence of a recent stroke and VCI without recent stroke in which cognitive impairment is the result of covert vascular brain injury detected only on neuroimaging or neuropathology. VCI is a syndrome that can result from any cause of infarction, hemorrhage, large artery disease, cardioembolism, small vessel disease, or other cerebrovascular or cardiovascular diseases. Secondary prevention of further vascular brain injury may improve outcomes in VCI. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Vascular lesions in mixed dementia, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular disease: the Kurihara Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Kenichi; Tanaka, Naofumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kei; Satoh, Masayuki

    2012-11-15

    The concept and diagnosis for mixed dementia is not simple, since it is difficult to identify the type and regions of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) responsible for causing dementia. An investigation is needed to confirm the presence of mixed dementia, those who met the criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and those for vascular dementia (VaD). According to the community-based stroke, dementia, and bed-confinement prevention in Kurihara, northern Japan (Kurihara Project), the prevalence of dementia and dementing diseases was surveyed in 2008-2010. Five hundred and ninety people finally agreed to participate (47.0%), and 73 (12.4%) people were diagnosed with dementia according to the DSM-IV. Using MRI, intensive evaluations on CVDs were performed for the 49 dementia patients associated with CVDs (mixed dementia, VaD, and AD with CVD). For the mixed dementia group, all had left subcortical strategic CVDs. These included the caudate head and thalamus. For the VaD group, all patients had at least cortical CVDs or subcortical strategic CVDs. The AD with CVD group had non-strategic CVDs in cortical, subcortical, or other areas in 5 or 6 patients each. Two extreme concepts regarding CVD and dementia are possible. One is that there is no concept for mixed dementia or VaD. An alternative is that the vascular factor should be considered as primary. Our data showed an importance of cortical and subcortical "strategic" areas, the latter included thalamus and caudate head. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vascular dementia: Pharmacological treatment approaches and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Baskys

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrius Baskys1,3, Anthony C Hou21Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior; 2Program in Geriatrics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California; 3Memory Disorders Program, VA Health Care System Long Beach, Long Beach, California, USAAbstract: Vascular dementia is a common condition for which there are no effective approved pharmacological treatments available. Absence of effective treatments creates a difficult situation for those suffering from the disease, their caregivers, and healthcare providers. This review will address our current understanding of the mechanisms of nerve cell damage due to ischemia and summarize available clinical trial data on several commonly used compounds including memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDPcholine, folic acid, as well as such nonpharmacological approaches as validation therapy.Keywords: vascular dementia, excitotoxicity, treatment, NMDA, memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDP-choline, folic acid

  6. Overdiagnosing Vascular Dementia using Structural Brain Imaging for Dementia Work-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Feyen, Bart F. E.; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesizing that non-significant cerebrovascular lesions on structural brain imaging lead to overdiagnosis of a vascular etiology of dementia as compared to autopsy-confirmed diagnosis, we set up a study including 71 patients with autopsy-confirmed diagnoses. Forty-two patients in the population

  7. Differences of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging in the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Won; Kang, Do Young; Park, Min Jeong; Cheon, Sang Myung; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVaD, 46 AD and 12 control subjects participated in this study. We included the patients with SVaD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia rating scores. Three groups were evaluated by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for measuring rCBF. The SPECT data of patients with SVaD and AD were compared with those of normal control subjects and then compared with each other. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyri in patients with SVaD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). SVaD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus with cingulated gyrus, left insula and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVaD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the early stage of illness.

  8. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Nilsson; Lars Gustafson; Björn Hultberg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease) of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy...

  9. Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B.; Scuteri, Angelo; Black, Sandra E.; DeCarli, Charles; Greenberg, Steven M.; Iadecola, Costantino; Launer, Lenore J.; Laurent, Stephane; Lopez, Oscar L.; Nyenhuis, David; Petersen, Ronald C.; Schneider, Julie A.; Tzourio, Christophe; Arnett, Donna K.; Bennett, David A.; Chui, Helena C.; Higashida, Randall T.; Lindquist, Ruth; Nilsson, Peter M.; Roman, Gustavo C.; Sellke, Frank W.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose This scientific statement provides an overview of the evidence on vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia of later life are common. Definitions of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), neuropathology, basic science and pathophysiological aspects, role of neuroimaging and vascular and other associated risk factors, and potential opportunities for prevention and treatment are reviewed. This statement serves as an overall guide for practitioners to gain a better understanding of VCI and dementia, prevention, and treatment. Methods Writing group members were nominated by the writing group co-chairs on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and the Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writing group used systematic literature reviews (primarily covering publications from 1990 to May 1, 2010), previously published guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and, when appropriate, formulate recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the recommendations and approved the final version of this document. After peer review by the American Heart Association, as well as review by the Stroke Council leadership, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Council, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, the statement was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Results The construct of VCI has been introduced to capture the entire spectrum of cognitive disorders associated with all forms of cerebral vascular brain injury—not solely stroke—ranging from mild cognitive impairment through fully developed

  10. Characteristic pattern of cerebral perfusion in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Cheon, Sang Myung; Kim, Jong Kuk; Kim, Jae Woo [Dong-A University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT has been commonly used to evaluate several different types of dementia. The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVD (mean age; 68.0{+-}7.0 years, educational period; 6.3{+-}5.6 years, CDR; 0.80{+-}0.26). 46 AD (mean age; 69.9{+-}7.4 years, educational period; 5.4{+-}4.7 years, CDR; 0.86{+-}0.23) and 12 normal control subjects (mean age; 67.1{+-}7.7 years, educational period; 6.2{+-}4.2 years) participated in this study. We included the patients with SVD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable AD and NINDS-AIREN criteria for probable or possible VD. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia scale scores. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and right thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyral regions in patients with SVD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in patients with AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). SVD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus, right cingulated gyrus, left insula, and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD patients (uncorrected p<0.01). SVD patients revealed significant hyperperfusion in right superior frontal gyrus, left pre- and postcentral gyri, left paracentral lobule, left precuneus and both medial frontal gyri compared with AD patients (uncorrected p<0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the

  11. Neuropsychological profiles of vascular disease and risk of dementia: implications for defining vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCI-ND)

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, BCM; Minett, T.; Muniz-Terrera, G.; Harrison, SL; Matthews, FE; Brayne, C.

    2017-01-01

    $\\textbf{Background}$ vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCI-ND) defines a preclinical phase of cognitive decline associated with vascular disorders. The neuropsychological profile of VCI-ND may vary according to different vascular conditions. $\\textbf{Objective}$ to determine the neuropsychological profile of individuals with no dementia and vascular disorders, including hypertension, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes and stroke. Ri...

  12. Neuroprotection in vascular dementia: a future path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Ingmar; Korczyn, Amos D; Guekht, Alla

    2012-11-15

    The burden of cognitive disorders is likely to increase over the coming years due to both increased longevity and altered risk factor patterns, arising from changes in lifestyle, healthcare and society. Vascular dementia with its underlying heterogeneous pathology, is a challenge for clinicians, and is frequently further aggravated by overlap with other neurodegenerative processes. Current Alzheimer's disease drugs have had limited clinical efficacy in treating vascular dementia and none have been approved by major regulatory authorities specifically for this disease. Moving forward, a valid choice may be a multimodal therapy, as has already been successfully proven in Alzheimer's disease. Actovegin, a hemodialysate derived from calf blood, has been shown to have effects on a variety of cellular processes and a recent experimental study has revealed its neuroprotective mechanisms of action. These data, coupled with positive results from clinical trials in mixed dementia populations, have served as a foundation for the design of a new trial investigating the efficacy and disease-modifying effects of Actovegin in post-stroke cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rheumatic diseases and autoimmune vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzeni, Fabiola; Pipitone, Nicolò; Iaccarino, Luca; Masala, Ignazio Francesco; Weiss, Ronen; Alciati, Alessandra; Doria, Andrea; Chapmanand, Joab; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2017-10-13

    Vascular dementia (VD) comes second after Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a cause of impaired cognition. VD is not a specific nosological entity, but rather a syndrome encompassing a number of diseases caused by impaired supply of blood to the brain. Systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) can be associated with dementia. VD is often related to the presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, but it may also be associated with a host of disorders affecting the brain blood vessels, neuronal cells, or both. It is important to entertain in the differential diagnosis of VD, to recognize and to cure them accurately in order to preserve life's quality of our patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Global Epidemiology of Dementia: Alzheimer’s and Vascular Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liara Rizzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dementia varies substantially worldwide. This is partially attributed to the lack of methodological uniformity among studies, including diagnostic criteria and different mean population ages. However, even after considering these potential sources of bias, differences in age-adjusted dementia prevalence still exist among regions of the world. In Latin America, the prevalence of dementia is higher than expected for its level of population aging. This phenomenon occurs due to the combination of low average educational attainment and high vascular risk profile. Among developed countries, Japan seems to have the lowest prevalence of dementia. Studies that evaluated the immigration effect of the Japanese and blacks to USA evidenced that acculturation increases the relative proportion of AD cases compared to VaD. In the Middle East and Africa, the number of dementia cases will be expressive by 2040. In general, low educational background and other socioeconomic factors have been associated with high risk of obesity, sedentarism, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, all of which also raise the risk of VaD and AD. Regulating these factors is critical to generate the commitment to make dementia a public health priority.

  15. Global epidemiology of dementia: Alzheimer's and vascular types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Liara; Rosset, Idiane; Roriz-Cruz, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia varies substantially worldwide. This is partially attributed to the lack of methodological uniformity among studies, including diagnostic criteria and different mean population ages. However, even after considering these potential sources of bias, differences in age-adjusted dementia prevalence still exist among regions of the world. In Latin America, the prevalence of dementia is higher than expected for its level of population aging. This phenomenon occurs due to the combination of low average educational attainment and high vascular risk profile. Among developed countries, Japan seems to have the lowest prevalence of dementia. Studies that evaluated the immigration effect of the Japanese and blacks to USA evidenced that acculturation increases the relative proportion of AD cases compared to VaD. In the Middle East and Africa, the number of dementia cases will be expressive by 2040. In general, low educational background and other socioeconomic factors have been associated with high risk of obesity, sedentarism, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, all of which also raise the risk of VaD and AD. Regulating these factors is critical to generate the commitment to make dementia a public health priority.

  16. Toward a pathological definition of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Heinsen, Helmut

    2010-12-15

    To date, there are no widely accepted neuropathological criteria for vascular dementia, although creating such a standard is ranked high on the wish list of all the researchers in this field. Such criteria would make it possible to perform large multicentre clinicopathological studies and, consequently, to better understand which, how, and where vascular brain lesions lead to cognitive decline, as it is possible to do in Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. However, a major obstacle in the standardization of diagnosis is the fact that vascular brain lesions are a large group comprising heterogeneous changes that have different pathogeneses. Although it is accepted that some kinds of vascular changes cause cognitive impairment, it is not uncommon to find reports of the assumed same histological changes in control subjects. An indispensable first step in the unequivocal establishment of neuropathological criteria is to uniform the definitions used for each one of the lesions, preferably based on its pathogenesis. In the present, non-standardized state of ambiguity, a given lesion is designated by different names between and within the clinical, radiological, and pathological settings, and several definitions simply overlap. Before attempting to create new criteria, a multidisciplinary group-task is urged to identify and minimize the uncontrolled proliferation of definitions. Only then, it will be possible to advance the understanding of how vascular brain changes affect cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Language Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempinen, Maire; And Others

    A study of 21 patients with Alzheimer's Disease and 25 with vascular dementia, the two most common forms of dementia, investigated language impairments in the dementia syndrome to see if analysis of language disturbances is helpful in differential diagnosis. Diagnostic assessment included a neurological examination, detailed medical history,…

  18. Possible role of vascular risk factors in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Mehrul; Vieweg, W Victor R

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of vascular risk factors to Alzheimer-vascular spectrum dementias is increasingly being recognized. We provide an overview of recent literature on this subject. Overweight and obesity as well as underweight during midlife predict cognitive decline and dementia later in life. Hypertension during midlife is also associated with dementia later in life and the association is stronger for untreated hypertension. Calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin-1 receptor-blockers may be particularly beneficial in diminishing the risk of dementia associated with hypertension. Studies have fairly consistently shown that type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for dementia. Episodes of hypoglycemia add to this risk. Regular physical exercise during any point in the lifespan protects against cognitive decline and dementia. Most benefit is realized with physical exercise during early and midlife. Dyslipidemia also increases the risk of dementia but the findings are less consistent. Findings on the possible benefit of lipid-lowering agents (statins) are conflicting. Earlier studies identified smoking as protective of dementia but recent better designed studies have consistently shown that smoking increases the risk of dementia. The association of vascular risk factors with dementia is more robust for vascular dementia than Alzheimer's disease. Heterogeneity of studies and lack of trials specifically designed to assess cognition as an endpoint make firm conclusions difficult. But considering the expected global burden of dementia and projected attributable risk of vascular risk factors to it, there is sufficient evidence to promote vascular risk factor reduction strategies as dementia prevention interventions.

  19. Genetics of vascular dementia - review from the ICVD working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Ikram (Arfan); A. Bersano (Anna); R. Manso-Calderón (Raquel); J.-P. Jia (Jian-Ping); H. Schmidt (Helena); L. Middleton (Lefkos); B. Nacmias (Benedetta); S. Siddiqi (Saima); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Vascular dementia is a common disorder resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Determining the extent to which genes play a role in disease susceptibility and their pathophysiological mechanisms could improve our understanding of vascular dementia, leading to a

  20. Apolipoprotein E pathology in vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Troy T; Day, Ryan J; Sheffield, Colin B; Rajic, Alexander J; Poon, Wayne W

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia and is currently defined as a cerebral vessel vascular disease leading to ischemic episodes. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphism has been proposed as a risk factor for VaD, however, to date there are few documented post-mortem studies on apoE pathology in the VaD brain. To investigate a potential role for the apoE protein, we analyzed seven confirmed cases of VaD by immunohistochemistry utilizing an antibody that specifically detects the amino-terminal fragment of apoE. Application of this antibody, termed N-terminal, apoE cleavage fragment (nApoECF) revealed consistent labeling within neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), blood vessels, and reactive astrocytes. Labeling occurred in VaD cases that had confirmed APOE genotypes of 3/3, 3/4, and 4/4, with respect to NFTs, staining of the nApoECF co-localized with PHF-1 and was predominantly localized to large, stellate neurons in layer II of the entorhinal cortex. Quantitative analysis indicated that approximately 38.4% of all identified NFTs contained the amino-terminal fragment of apoE. Collectively, these data support a role for the proteolytic cleavage of apoE in the VaD and support previous reports that APOE polymorphism is significantly associated with susceptibility in this disease.

  1. Vitamin D, Homocysteine, and Folate in Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a worldwide health problem which affects millions of patients; Alzheimer's disease (AD and subcortical vascular dementia (sVAD are the two most frequent forms of its presentation. As no definite therapeutic options have been discovered, different risk factors for cognitive impairment have been searched for potential therapies. This report focuses on the possible evidence that vitamin D deficiency and hyper-homocysteinemia can be considered as two important factors for the development or the progression of neurodegenerative or vascular pathologies. To this end, we assessed: the difference in vascular risk factors and vitamin D-OH25 levels among groups of sVAD, AD, and healthy age-matched controls; the association of folate, B12, homocysteine, and vitamin D with sVAD/AD and whether a deficiency of vitamin D and an increment in homocysteine levels may be related to neurodegenerative or vessel damages. The commonly-considered vascular risk factors were collected in 543 patients and compared with those obtained from a healthy old volunteer population. ANOVA group comparison showed that vitamin D deficiency was present in demented cases, as well as low levels of folate and high levels of homocysteine, more pronounced in sVAD cases. The statistical models we employed, with regression models built, and adjustments for biochemical, demographic and neuropsychiatric scores, confirmed the association between the three measures (folate decrease, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin D decrease and dementia, more pronounced in sVAD than in AD.

  2. Comparison between Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia: attentional cortex study in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Zheng, J; Wang, J; Gui, L

    2011-01-01

    Blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Stroop test were used to assess attentional cortex activation in patients with Alzheimer's disease, subcortical vascular dementia, and normal control subjects. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia demonstrated similar locations of cortical activation, including the bilateral middle and inferior frontal gyri, anterior cingulate and inferior parietal lobule in response to Stroop colour word stimuli. This activation was distinctly decreased in patients with dementia compared with normal control subjects. Different regions of the brain were activated in patients with Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia compared with normal controls. fMRI is a useful tool for the study of dementia in humans and has some potential diagnostic value. Further studies with larger numbers of participants are required.

  3. Physical Activity Prevents Progression for Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Ferro, José M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to study if physical activity could interfere with progression for cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with white matter changes living independently. METHODS: The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) prospective multinational European study evaluates....... Physical activity was recorded during the clinical interview. MRI was performed at entry and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-nine subjects were included (74.1±5 years old, 55% women, 9.6±3.8 years of schooling, 64% physically active). At the end of follow-up, 90 patients had dementia...... (vascular dementia, 54; Alzheimer disease with vascular component, 34; frontotemporal dementia, 2), and 147 had cognitive impairment not dementia. Using Cox regression analysis, physical activity reduced the risk of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia: β=-0.45, P=0.002; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95...

  4. Gait and Equilibrium in Subcortical Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical vascular dementia is a clinical entity, widespread, even challenging to diagnose and correctly treat. Patients with this diagnosis are old, frail, often with concomitant pathologies, and therefore, with many drugs in therapy. We tried to diagnose and follow up for three years more than 600 patients. Study subjects were men and women, not bedridden, aged 68–94 years, outpatients, recruited from June, 1st 2007 to June, 1st 2010. We examined them clinically, neurologically, with specific consideration on drug therapies. Our aim has been to define gait and imbalance problem, if eventually coexistent with the pathology of white matter and/or with the worsening of the deterioration. Drug intake interference has been detected and considered.

  5. Dual Task Impairments in Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Inasaridze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that people with Alzheimer's disease (AD demonstrate difficulties in doing two things at once or 'dual-tasking' and that this dual task impairment is insensitive to normal ageing, chronic depression or prodromal conditions like Mild Cognitive Impairment. It is not known, however, if this impairment is specific to AD, or also present in other dementias, such as vascular dementia (VaD. In this study 15 people with VaD, 25 healthy age-matched and 25 healthy young controls were assessed using a paper and pencil dual tasking paradigm and several measures of working and episodic memory. Age had no effect on dual task performance, but the VaD patients demonstrated a significant impairment in dual tasking ability. Performance on the memory measures was instead affected by age with a further deterioration in the VaD patients. Both dual tasking and memory ability were significantly correlated with disease severity, as assessed by the MMSE. These results indicate that performance on the dual task could be a specific indicator of pathological ageing.

  6. Predictors of the Progression of Dementia Severity in Brazilian Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia L. Chaves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study evaluates the progression of dementia and identifies prognostic risk factors for dementia. Methods. A group of 80 Brazilian community residents with dementia (34 with Alzheimer's disease and 46 with vascular dementia was assessed over the course of 2 years. Data were analyzed with Cox regression survival analysis. Results. The data showed that education predicted cognitive decline (HR=1.2; P<.05 when analyzed without controlling for vascular risk factors. After the inclusion of vascular risk factors, education (HR=1.32; P<.05 and hypertension were predictive for cognitive decline (HR=38; P<.05, and Alzheimer's disease diagnosis was borderline predictive (P=.055. Conclusion. Vascular risk factors interacted with the diagnosis of vascular dementia. Education was a strong predictor of decline.

  7. Effect of vascular burden as measured by vascular indexes upon vascular dementia: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi, Casey R Caldwell, Paul V TargonskiPrimary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USABackground: Vascular dementia (VaD is a challenging illness that affects the lives of older adults and caregivers. It is unclear how multiple vascular risk factor exposures (polyvascular disease affect VaD.Purpose: To determine the relationship between multiple vascular risk exposures, as counted on an index in cases with VaD, compared with healthy age-/gender-matched controls.Methods: This was a matched case-control study of subjects living in Olmsted County, MN with documented VaD. Controls were selected by gender and age within 3 years from those who did not have dementia. The exposures included a total index (eleven exposure factors added together, along with indexes for cerebrovascular disease (two exposures, cardiovascular disease (four exposures, vascular disease (three exposures, and lifestyle (two exposures. Analysis used matched conditional univariable logistic regression for each index.Results: A total of 1736 potential subjects were identified, and 205 subjects were diagnosed with VaD. There was a significant association of the total score index with an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.21–1.74. The cerebrovascular index was also associated with VaD with an odds ratio of 12.18 (95% confidence interval 6.29–23.61. The cardiovascular and vascular indexes were also associated with VaD status. The lifestyle index was not associated with VaD.Conclusion: The cumulative role of multiple vascular risk factors or diseases increased the risk of VaD, as noted by the total vascular index. The lifestyle index did not reveal any significant differences. Further work is required for evaluation of these indexes.Keywords: polyvascular disease, elderly, vascular dementia

  8. Beyond mild cognitive impairment: vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (VCIND)

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Blossom CM; Matthews, Fiona E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Dufouil, Carole; Brayne, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the causes of dementia is important in the search for effective preventative and treatment strategies. The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as prodromal dementia, has been useful but remains controversial since in population-based studies it appears to be a limited predictor of progression to dementia. Recognising the relative contribution of neurodegenerative and vascular causes, as well as their interrelationship, may enhance predictive accuracy. The concept of vascul...

  9. Chronic Pain in “Probable” Vascular Dementia: Preliminary Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Plooij, B.; Achterberg, W.P.; Pieper, M.; Wiegersma, M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In a previous study, the levels of pain reported by patients with “possible” vascular dementia (VaD) were higher than those reported by older individuals without dementia. Objective To examine experienced pain in patients with “probable” VaD, confirmed by brain imaging. Study

  10. Chronic pain in "probable" vascular dementia: preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Plooij, B.; Achterberg, W.P.; Pieper, M.; Wiegersma, M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In a previous study, the levels of pain reported by patients with "possible" vascular dementia (VaD) were higher than those reported by older individuals without dementia. Objective To examine experienced pain in patients with "probable" VaD, confirmed by brain imaging. Study Design

  11. Genetics of vascular dementia - review from the ICVD working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, M Arfan; Bersano, Anna; Manso-Calderón, Raquel; Jia, Jian-Ping; Schmidt, Helena; Middleton, Lefkos; Nacmias, Benedetta; Siddiqi, Saima; Adams, Hieab H H

    2017-03-06

    Vascular dementia is a common disorder resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Determining the extent to which genes play a role in disease susceptibility and their pathophysiological mechanisms could improve our understanding of vascular dementia, leading to a potential translation of this knowledge to clinical practice. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the genetics of vascular dementia. The identification of causal genes remains limited to monogenic forms of the disease, with findings for sporadic vascular dementia being less robust. However, progress in genetic research on associated phenotypes, such as cerebral small vessel disease, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke, have the potential to inform on the genetics of vascular dementia. We conclude by providing an overview of future developments in the field and how such work could impact patients and clinicians. The genetic background of vascular dementia is well established for monogenic disorders, but remains relatively obscure for the sporadic form. More work is needed for providing robust findings that might eventually lead to clinical translation.

  12. Asymmetric dimethylarginine: a possible link between vascular disease and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Soiza, Roy Louis; McEvoy, Mark; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2013-05-01

    There is good epidemiological evidence that vascular disease predisposes to cognitive decline and dementia. The impact of vascular disease on dementia is likely to increase further because of the poor diagnosis and management of vascular risk factors, the increase in life expectancy, and the improved survival following major cardiovascular events, e.g. acute stroke. It is estimated that the adequate management of vascular risk factors, with pharmacological and/or nonpharmacological interventions, might result in a 50% reduction in the forecasted dementia prevalence. The exact mechanisms by which vascular risk factors and vascular disease adversely affect brain function remain unclear, but it is hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction plays an important role. Reduced synthesis and availability of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) may contribute to the development of dementia by at least two mechanisms: (1) favoring the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, vasoconstriction, and impaired cerebral blood flow regulation; and (2) reduced neuroprotection.Several studies have shown that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous methylated form of the amino acid L-arginine, inhibits NO synthesis and favors oxidative stress and vascular damage. Unlike NO, ADMA concentrations are relatively stable and can be accurately measured in plasma. There is good evidence that higher plasma ADMA concentrations favor atherosclerosis and independently predict adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes in several patient groups. ADMA might represent a unifying pathophysiological pathway linking the presence of vascular risk factors with the onset and progression of cognitive decline and dementia. This review discusses the biological role of ADMA, its potential contribution to the onset and progression of dementia through vascular disease and atherosclerosis, the available evidence linking ADMA with cognitive impairment and dementia, and the strategies to characterize

  13. Potential Therapeutics for Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao-Kun

    2017-10-16

    As the human lifespan increases, the number of people affected by age-related dementia is growing at an epidemic pace. Vascular pathology dramatically affects cognitive profiles, resulting in dementia and cognitive impairment. While vascular dementia itself constitutes a medical challenge, hypoperfusion/vascular risk factors enhance amyloid toxicity and other memory-damaging factors and hasten Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other memory disorders' progression, as well as negatively affect treatment outcome. Few therapeutic options are, however, currently available to improve the prognosis of patients with vascular dementia and cognitive impairment, mixed AD dementia with vascular pathology, or other memory disorders. Emerging evidence, however, indicates that, like AD and other memory disorders, synaptic impairment underlies much of the memory impairment in the cognitive decline of vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia. Effective rescues of the memory functions might be achieved through synaptic and memory therapeutics, targeting distinct molecular signaling pathways that support the formation of new synapses and maintaining their connections. Potential therapeutic agents include: 1) memory therapeutic agents that rescue synaptic and memory functions after the brain insults; 2) anti-pathologic therapeutics and an effective management of vascular risk factors; and 3) preventative therapeutic agents that achieve memory therapy through functional enhancement. Their development and potential as clinically effective memory therapeutics for vascular cognitive impairment and dementia are discussed in this review. These therapeutic agents are also likely to benefit patients with AD and/or other types of memory disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  15. Altered Expression of Human Mitochondrial Branched Chain Aminotransferase in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Emma L; Kierzkowska, Marta; Hull, Jonathon; Kehoe, Patrick G; Hutson, Susan M; Conway, Myra E

    2017-01-01

    Cytosolic and mitochondrial human branched chain aminotransferase (hBCATc and hBCATm, respectively) play an integral role in brain glutamate metabolism. Regional increased levels of hBCATc in the CA1 and CA4 region of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain together with increased levels of hBCATm in frontal and temporal cortex of AD brains, suggest a role for these proteins in glutamate excitotoxicity. Glutamate toxicity is a key pathogenic feature of several neurological disorders including epilepsy associated dementia, AD, vascular dementia (VaD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). To further understand if these increases are specific to AD, the expression profiles of hBCATc and hBCATm were examined in other forms of dementia including DLB and VaD. Similar to AD, levels of hBCATm were significantly increased in the frontal and temporal cortex of VaD cases and in frontal cortex of DLB cases compared to controls, however there were no observed differences in hBCATc between groups in these areas. Moreover, multiple forms of hBCATm were observed that were particular to the disease state relative to matched controls. Real-time PCR revealed similar expression of hBCATm mRNA in frontal and temporal cortex for all cohort comparisons, whereas hBCATc mRNA expression was significantly increased in VaD cases compared to controls. Collectively our results suggest that hBCATm protein expression is significantly increased in the brains of DLB and VaD cases, similar to those reported in AD brain. These findings indicate a more global response to altered glutamate metabolism and suggest common metabolic responses that might reflect shared neurodegenerative mechanisms across several forms of dementia.

  16. Differences in peripheral oxidative stress markers in Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and mixed dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Hirokuni; Hanyu, Haruo; Fukasawa, Raita; Hirao, Kentaro; Shimizu, Soichiro; Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2015-12-01

    We determined whether the possible roles of oxidative stress differ in the pathophysiology and cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed Alzheimer's/vascular dementia (MD). We measured the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolite (dROM), reflecting the amount of organic hydroperoxides, and biological anti-oxidant potential (BAP), measuring the ferric reducing ability of blood plasma, in 72 patients with AD, 27 with VaD, 24 with MD and 53 non-demented outpatients (control group). In addition, endogenous plasma anti-oxidants, such as albumin, total bilirubin and uric acid, were compared among the groups. All participants with VaD and MD showed extensive white matter hyperintensity, in addition to multiple lacunes. The dROM levels were significantly higher in the AD and MD groups than in the control group. The BAP levels were significantly lower in the MD group than in the control, AD and VaD groups. The AD group showed significantly lower levels of bilirubin and uric acid than the control group. The MD group showed a significantly lower level of albumin than the control and AD groups, and a significantly lower level of bilirubin than the control group. The Mini-Mental State examination scores correlated significantly with dROM levels and BAP/dROM ratios in the AD group. An imbalance in pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant defenses is apparently involved in the pathophysiology of the AD and MD groups. The extent of oxidative stress damage might differ in subtypes of dementia by being greater in the MD group than in other types of dementia. Synergic effects of the degenerative element of AD and white matter lesions might be associated with oxidative stress damage in the MD group. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Neuropsychological profiles of vascular disease and risk of dementia: implications for defining vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCI-ND).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Blossom Christa Maree; Minett, Thais; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Harrison, Stephanie L; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2017-09-01

    vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCI-ND) defines a preclinical phase of cognitive decline associated with vascular disorders. The neuropsychological profile of VCI-ND may vary according to different vascular conditions. to determine the neuropsychological profile of individuals with no dementia and vascular disorders, including hypertension, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes and stroke. Risk of 2-year incident dementia in individuals with disease and cognitive impairment was also tested. participants were from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. At baseline, 13,004 individuals aged ≥65 years were enrolled into the study. Individuals were grouped by baseline disorder status (present, absent) for each condition. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG). Dementia was assessed at 2 years. in the cross-sectional analysis, hypertension, PVD and CHD were not associated with cognitive impairment. Stroke was associated with impaired global (MMSE) and CAMCOG sub-scale (including memory and non-memory) scores. Diabetes was associated with impairments in global cognitive function (MMSE) and abstract thinking. In the longitudinal analysis, cognitive impairments were associated with incident dementia in all groups. the neuropsychological profile in individuals with vascular disorders depends on the specific condition investigated. In all conditions cognitive impairment is a risk factor for dementia. A better understanding of which cognitive domains are affected in different disease groups could help improve operationalisation of the neuropsychological criteria for VCI-ND and could also aid with the development of dementia risk prediction models in persons with vascular disease.

  18. Cerebrovascular hemodynamics in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: a meta-analysis of transcranial Doppler studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabayan, Behnam; Jansen, Steffy; Oleksik, Anna M; van Osch, Matthias J P; van Buchem, Mark A; van Vliet, Peter; de Craen, Anton J M; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2012-04-01

    Alteration in cerebrovascular hemodynamics has reported in both ageing and dementia. However, it is still unclear whether this alteration follows similar pattern in ageing and in different dementia pathologies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate changes in cerebral blood flow velocity and pulsatility index in two most common forms of dementia; Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, using transcranial Doppler studies. A literature search was conducted in Pubmed, EMBASE and Web of Science. After initial screening of 304 articles and removing duplicates, a total of 53 articles, published between 1980 and 2010, were reviewed. Finally 12 articles were included in the meta-analysis. For each study, effect sizes (ES) indicating the standardized mean differences of the hemodynamic measures between two groups were calculated. Using random effect models, pooled estimates of ES were measured. Patients with Alzheimer's disease (ES=-1.09, 95% CI -1.77 to -0.44, p=0.004) and vascular dementia (ES=-1.62, 95% CI -2.26 to -0.98, pAlzheimer's disease (ES=0.5, 95% CI 0.28-0.72, pdementia patients (ES=2.34, 95% CI 1.39-3.29, pAlzheimer's disease had lower pulsatility index (ES=-1.22, 95% CI -1.98 to -0.46, p=0.002) compared to subjects with vascular type of dementia. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia have a pronounced disturbance in their cerebrovascular hemodynamics. The severity of disturbances in cerebral hemodynamics is significantly lower in Alzheimer's disease compared to vascular dementia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Distinctive Resting State Network Disruptions Among Alzheimer's Disease, Subcortical Vascular Dementia, and Mixed Dementia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Cha, Jungho; Lee, Jong-Min; Shin, Ji Soo; Jung, Na-Yeon; Kim, Yeo Jin; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Jae Seung; Lee, Jae Hong; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in resting-state functional MRI have revealed altered functional networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially those of the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN). However, few studies have evaluated whether small vessel disease (SVD) or combined amyloid and SVD burdens affect the DMN or CEN. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SVD or combined amyloid and SVD burdens affect the DMN or CEN. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the resting-state functional connectivity within DMN and CEN in 37 Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB)(+) AD, 37 PiB(-) subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD), 13 mixed dementia patients, and 65 normal controls. When the resting-state DMN of PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD patients were compared, the PiB(+) AD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the inferior parietal lobule while the PiB(-) SVaD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the medial frontal and superior frontal gyri. Compared to the PiB(-) SVaD or PiB(+) AD, the mixed dementia patients displayed lower functional connectivity within the DMN in the posterior cingulate gyrus. When the resting-state CEN connectivity of PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD patients were compared, the PiB(-) SVaD patients displayed lower functional connectivity in the anterior insular region. Compared to the PiB(-) SVaD or PiB(+) AD, the mixed dementia patients displayed lower functional connectivity within the CEN in the inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings suggest that in PiB(+) AD and PiB(-) SVaD, there is divergent disruptions in resting-state DMN and CEN. Furthermore, patients with combined amyloid and SVD burdens exhibited more disrupted resting-state DMN and CEN than patients with only amyloid or SVD burden.

  20. Association between Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Adiponectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dementia is caused by various factors, including increased age, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is widely known as a regulating factor related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin plasma levels decrease with age. Decreased adiponectin increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin improves hypertension and atherosclerosis by acting as a vasodilator and antiatherogenic factor. Moreover, adiponectin is involved in cognitive dysfunction via modulation of insulin signal transduction in the brain. Case-control studies demonstrate the association between low adiponectin and increased risk of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. This review summarizes the recent findings on the association between risk factors for vascular dementia and adiponectin. To emphasize this relationship, we will discuss the importance of research regarding the role of adiponectin in vascular dementia. PMID:24860814

  1. Usefulness of Diffusion Tensor Imaging of White Matter in Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, S.; Kinoshita, T.; Matsusue, E.; Fujii, S.; Ogawa, T. [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging in detecting the water diffusivity caused by neuro pathological change in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with Alzheimer disease, 20 with vascular dementia, and 10 control subjects were examined. Diffusion tensor imaging applied diffusion gradient encoding in six non-collinear directions. Fractional anisotropy values were compared in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and anterior and posterior white matter among the three groups. Results: In the patients with Alzheimer disease, fractional anisotropy values of the posterior white matter were significantly lower than those of controls. In patients with vascular dementia, fractional anisotropy values of the anterior white matter tended to be lower than those of the posterior white matter (P=0.07). Conclusion: Diffusion tensor imaging reflects the neuro pathological changes in the white matter, and may be useful in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Keywords: Alzheimer disease, .; diffusion tensor imaging, .; vascular dementia.

  2. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nilsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy in patients with VaD. Results: Elevated plasma tHcy levels in patients with VaD could only partly be attributed to cobalamin/folate deficiency or renal impairment. Plasma tHcy might also be related to the vascular disease process since patients with depression and vascular disease exhibited similar plasma tHcy levels to patients with VaD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy might be a sensitive marker for the vascular disease process in patients with VaD and that the level also is a reflection of changes in the other main determinants of plasma tHcy.

  3. The Dutch Vascular Factors in Dementia Study: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, F; Bots, M L; Breteler, M M; Haverkate, F; van Swieten, J C; Grobbee, D E; Koudstaal, P J; Kluft, C

    1998-01-01

    Dementia is a rapidly increasing health problem in the industrialized countries. With the ageing of the population the number of demented persons increases both in relative and absolute terms. Obviously, there is a need for prevention and intervention strategies. We describe the methods and baseline findings of a large study aimed at identifying potentially modifiable vascular, thrombogenic, and metabolic determinants of dementia. The study population consists of subjects 55 years of age or older. Since the vascular wall of the cerebral vessels is different from that of the coronary or peripheral vessels, we formed three subgroups in which vascular risk factors for dementia are studied. Subjects with stroke were distinguished from subjects with coronary or peripheral artery disease, and from subjects without stroke or coronary or peripheral artery disease. To obtain a large enough number of subjects with stroke, cases and controls from a stroke registry were combined with cases and controls of a population-based study from the same region. For the diagnosis of dementia the DSM-III-R criteria were used. Extensive information on cardiovascular risk factors was collected, including indicators of atherosclerosis. Blood and urine were sampled to study platelet function and thrombogenic and metabolic factors. The study population consists of 7,466 subjects, of whom 300 were recruited from a hospital-based stroke registry. Coronary or peripheral artery disease was present in 956 subjects and stroke in 617. Dementia was present in 434 (5.8%) of all subjects. The prevalence of dementia was 3.0, 24.0, and 4.4% in subjects with a history of coronary or peripheral artery disease, a history of stroke, and subjects without a history of coronary or peripheral artery disease or stroke, respectively. The study will allow us to investigate the role of vascular factors in dementia, irrespective of its cause.

  4. Clinical research on comprehensive treatment of senile vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ping; Wang, Fa-Wei; Zuo, Fang; Jia, Jian-Jun; Jiao, Wei-Guo

    2011-09-01

    To observe the curative effect of combined Chinese medicine, acupuncture and rehabilitation therapy on vascular dementia (VD), and to compare the Western medicine piracetam. Total 134 VD patients screened in reference to the standard for VD diagnosis in DSM-IV were randomly divided into a Chinese medicine plus rehabilitation group (32 cases), a Chinese medicine plus acupuncture group (33 cases), a Chinese medicine and acupuncture plus rehabilitation group (37 cases) and a Western medicine piracetam group (32 cases). Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Bless Behavior Scale (BBS) were used to assess changes in intelligence disorder before treatment and after 12-week treatment. BBS score, living ability and daily habit were enhanced after treatment in all groups. Cognitive function and behavioral ability were improved with similar total curative effects in all the 4 groups. Directional ability and short-term memory ability were significantly enhanced after treatment (P senile VD patients.

  5. Autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Daniela; Popescu, C D; Ignat, B; Matei, R

    2013-02-15

    Autonomic dysfunction has been implicated in sudden cardiac death and cognitive impairment in diabetes. Objectives of the study were to examine the associations between vascular, metabolic risk factors, autonomic and cognitive function in patients with diabetes mellitus. We investigate autonomic function in 45 participants with type 2 diabetes and in 23 age related normal subjects, using Ewing's tests and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Mini Mental State Examination and Hachinski's ischemic scale were used to identify vascular dementia. Only 11 patients were diagnosed with vascular dementia. The glycosylated haemoglobin, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure had much larger values in vascular dementia patients compared to the controls. The averages of results obtained in heart rate deep-breathing, Valsalva ratio and lying-to-standing tests for vascular dementia patients are statistically lower than the averages for controls. Vascular dementia patients had a greater fall in blood pressure on standing (p<0.001) and reduced blood pressure responses to isometric exercise (p<0.001) in comparison with controls. Also they had an increase in the mean heart rate at rest (p<0.05), a decrease in time domain parameters of heart rate variability (p<0.001), and an increase in the low/high frequency component ratio (p<0.001) indicating a vagal-sympathetic dysfunction. Using standard cardiovascular reflex tests and analysis of heart rate variability we demonstrated an impairment of the autonomic nervous system in vascular dementia patients with marked parasympathetic dysfunction and sympathetic predominance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. White matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and normal aging

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, R; Scheltens, P.; Gholkar, A.; Ballard, C; McKeith, I; Ince, P.; Perry, R.; O'Brien, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are associated with an increase in changes in white matter on MRI. The aims were to investigate whether white matter changes also occur in dementia with Lewy bodies and to examine the relation between white matter lesions and the cognitive and non-cognitive features of dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia.
METHODS—Proton density and T2 weighted images were obtained on a 1.0 Tesla MRI sca...

  7. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days, or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24, Tianzhu (BL10, Sishencong (Extra, Yintang (Extra, Renzhong (DU26, Neiguan (PC6, Shenmen (HT7, Fengchi (GB20, Wangu (GB12 and Baihui (DU20 (once a day for 56 days. Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  8. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Zhe-Cheng; Xue, Rong; Li, Ping; Li, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days), or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24), Tianzhu (BL10), Sishencong (Extra), Yintang (Extra), Renzhong (DU26), Neiguan (PC6), Shenmen (HT7), Fengchi (GB20), Wangu (GB12) and Baihui (DU20) (once a day for 56 days). Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  9. Prospective Belgian study of neurodegenerative and vascular dementia: APOE genotype effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelborghs, S; Dermaut, B; Goeman, J; Saerens, J; Mariën, P; Pickut, B A; Van den Broeck, M; Serneels, S; Cruts, M; Van Broeckhoven, C; De Deyn, P P

    2003-08-01

    The authors conducted a prospective study of neurodegenerative and vascular dementia in Belgium. Strict diagnostic inclusion criteria were used to include well defined patients and controls. The results of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype effect on risk and clinical characteristics are presented. APOE genotyping was performed in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=504), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (n=47), vascular dementia (VaD) (n=152), mixed dementia (n=132), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=44), Parkinson's disease (PD) (n=30), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n=17), and multisystem atrophy (MSA)/progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (n=12). The APOE allele frequencies of this Belgian control population (epsilon 2: 6.9%; epsilon 3: 76.2%; epsilon 4: 16.9%) did not differ from those reported for other white populations. AD, MCI, and mixed dementia patients had higher APOE epsilon 4 (32.9%, 38.6%, and 28.4% respectively) and lower APOE epsilon 3 (62.2%, 53.4%, and 66.3%) frequencies compared with controls, whereas only AD and mixed dementia patients had lower APOE epsilon 2 frequencies (4.9% and 5.3%). Apart from a borderline significant different distribution of APOE allele frequencies in VaD patients compared with controls, no other differences were detected. The influence of APOE epsilon 4 on clinical features of dementia was limited to lower age at onset in AD patients and a less pronounced negative correlation between age at onset and number of epsilon 4 alleles in MCI and mixed dementia patients. This study confirmed the risk association between APOE epsilon 4 and AD. The observation that APOE epsilon 4 is associated with mixed dementia reflected the role of AD in the aetiopathogenesis of this condition. Although MCI is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome, the increased APOE epsilon 4 frequencies indicated that a large proportion of the MCI patients included in the study might be predisposed to develop AD.

  10. Post-mortem assessment in vascular dementia: advances and aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleese, Kirsty E; Alafuzoff, Irina; Charidimou, Andreas; De Reuck, Jacques; Grinberg, Lea T; Hainsworth, Atticus H; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Ince, Paul; Jellinger, Kurt; Gao, Jing; Kalaria, Raj N; Kovacs, Gabor G; Kövari, Enikö; Love, Seth; Popovic, Mara; Skrobot, Olivia; Taipa, Ricardo; Thal, Dietmar R; Werring, David; Wharton, Stephen B; Attems, Johannes

    2016-08-26

    Cerebrovascular lesions are a frequent finding in the elderly population. However, the impact of these lesions on cognitive performance, the prevalence of vascular dementia, and the pathophysiology behind characteristic in vivo imaging findings are subject to controversy. Moreover, there are no standardised criteria for the neuropathological assessment of cerebrovascular disease or its related lesions in human post-mortem brains, and conventional histological techniques may indeed be insufficient to fully reflect the consequences of cerebrovascular disease. Here, we review and discuss both the neuropathological and in vivo imaging characteristics of cerebrovascular disease, prevalence rates of vascular dementia, and clinico-pathological correlations. We also discuss the frequent comorbidity of cerebrovascular pathology and Alzheimer's disease pathology, as well as the difficult and controversial issue of clinically differentiating between Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and mixed Alzheimer's disease/vascular dementia. Finally, we consider additional novel approaches to complement and enhance current post-mortem assessment of cerebral human tissue. Elucidation of the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular disease, clarification of characteristic findings of in vivo imaging and knowledge about the impact of combined pathologies are needed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of clinical diagnoses.

  11. Adaptive cognitive testing in cerebrovascular disease and vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, H.; de Koning, I.; Zwinderman, A.H.; van Gool, W.A.; Schmand, B.; Buiter, M.; Lindeboom, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: To examine whether brevity can be combined with precision in measuring global cognitive ability in patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) or vascular dementia (VaD). Longer tests (e.g. the CAMCOG) are precise but inefficient, whereas brief tests (e.g. the MMSE) are efficient

  12. On vascular factors, apathy and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, J.-W.

    2018-01-01

    Part one of this dissertation describes the results of a randomized controlled trial in 3500 older people evaluating the effect cardiovascular risk factor treatment on incident dementia. The effects on white matter brain anomalies are evaluated in a subset of 200 participants. The main conclusion is

  13. Blood-brain barrier damage in vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masaki; Chiba, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Koichi; Murakami, Ryuta; Fujihara, Ryuji; Kawauchi, Machi; Miyanaka, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Toshitaka

    2016-04-01

    New findings on flow or drainage pathways of brain interstitial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid have been made. The interstitial fluid flow has an effect on the passage of blood-borne substances in the brain parenchyma, especially in areas near blood-brain barrier (BBB)-free regions. Actually, blood-borne substances can be transferred in areas with intact BBB function, such as the hippocampus, the corpus callosum, periventricular areas, and medial portions of the amygdala, presumably through leaky vessels in the subfornical organs or the choroid plexus. Increasing evidence indicates that dysfunction of the BBB function may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia. Accordingly, we have examined which insults seen in patients suffering from vascular dementia have an effect on the BBB using experimental animal models exhibiting some phenotypes of vascular dementia. The BBB in the hippocampus was clearly deteriorated in Mongolian gerbils exposed to acute ischemia followed by reperfusion and also in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) showing hypertension. The BBB in the corpus callosum was clearly deteriorated in Wistar rats with permanent ligation of the bilateral common carotid arteries showing chronic hypoperfusion. The BBB in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb was mildly deteriorated in aged senescence accelerated prone mice (SAMP8) showing cognitive dysfunction. The BBB in the hippocampus was mildly deteriorated in aged animals with hydrocephalus. Mild endothelial damage was seen in hyperglycemic db/db mice. In addition, mRNA expression of osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), and CD36 was increased in vessels showing BBB damage in hypertensive SHRSP. As osteopontin, MMP-13 and CD36 are known to be related to brain injury and amyloid β accumulation or clearance, BBB damage followed by increased gene expression of these molecules not only contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular dementia, but also bridges

  14. Neurological signs in relation to type of cerebrovascular disease in vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staekenborg, S.S.; van der Flier, W.M.; van Straaten, E.C.W.; Lane, R.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of a number of neurological signs in a large population of patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and to compare the relative frequency of specific neurological signs dependent on type of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS -

  15. Under-provision of medical care for vascular diseases for people with dementia in primary care: a cross-sectional review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Amanda; Campbell, Stephen; Gaehl, Ella; Iliffe, Steve; Drake, Richard; Morris, Julie; Martin, Helen; Purandare, Nitin

    2013-02-01

    Vascular diseases contribute to the causation and progression of clinical dementia. To evaluate the quality of medical care for vascular diseases provided to people with dementia, the patient and practice characteristics that influence quality, and to compare care with that provided to those without dementia. Observational, cross-sectional review of primary care records of people with dementia from 52 general practices from five primary care trusts in the UK, and comparison with publicly available summary data on patients without dementia. A total of 700 patients with ≥1 diagnosed vascular disease or risk factor were identified from dementia registers. Quality of care was measured on 30 indicators from the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) for hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and smoking. Overall quality of vascular care was calculated for each patient with dementia. Level of care received by people with dementia was significantly lower compared with those without dementia for 22 of 30 (73%) indicators; most notably for measurement processes such as peripheral pulses check and neuropathy testing for diabetes, and cholesterol measures for stroke. Among people with dementia, women, those in care homes, and those with fewer comorbid physical conditions and medications were associated with lower scores for overall quality of vascular care. The quality of medical care provided to people with dementia with regard to vascular diseases is not concordant with quality, as defined by the QOF. Research is needed to improve access to high-quality care.

  16. Therapeutic issues in vascular dementia: studies, designs and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E

    2007-03-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a heterogeneous disorder resulting from various cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) causing cognitive impairment that reflects severity and location of damage. Epidemiological studies suggest VaD is the second commonest cause of dementia, but autopsy series report that pure VaD is infrequent, while combined CVD and Alzheimer's Disease(AD) is likely the commonest pathological-dementia correlate. Both diseases share vascular risk factors and benefit from their treatment. The most widely used diagnostic criteria for VaD are highly specific but not sensitive. Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) is a dynamic, evolving concept that embraces VaD, Vascular Cognitive Impairment No Dementia (VCIND) and mixed AD and CVD. Clinical trials to date have focused on probable and possible VaD with beneficial effects evident for different drug classes, including cholinergic agents and NMDA agonists. Limitations have included use of cognitive tools suitable for AD that are insensitive to executive dysfunction. Disease heterogeneity has not been adequately controlled and subtypes require further study. Diagnostic VaD criteria now 13 years old need updating. More homogeneous subgroups need to be defined and therapeutically targeted to improve cognitive-behavioural outcomes including optimal control of vascular risk factors. More sensitive testing of executive function outlined in recent VCI Harmonization criteria and longer trial duration are needed to discern meaningful effects. Imaging criteria must be well-defined, with centralized review and standardized protocols. Serial scanning with quantification of tissue atrophy and lesion burden is becoming feasible, and cognitive interventions, including rehabilitation pharmacotherapy, with drugs strategically coupled to cognitive -behavioural treatments, hold promise and need further development.

  17. Pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex in post-stroke, vascular and other ageing-related dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Vincent; Oakley, Arthur E; Slade, Janet Y; Hall, Roslyn; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Burke, Matthew; Thomas, Alan J; Khundakar, Ahmad; Allan, Louise M; Kalaria, Raj N

    2014-09-01

    Dementia associated with cerebrovascular disease is common. It has been reported that ∼30% of elderly patients who survive stroke develop delayed dementia (post-stroke dementia), with most cases being diagnosed as vascular dementia. The pathological substrates associated with post-stroke or vascular dementia are poorly understood, particularly those associated with executive dysfunction. Three separate yet interconnecting circuits control executive function within the frontal lobe involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. We used stereological methods, along with immunohistological and related cell morphometric analysis, to examine densities and volumes of pyramidal neurons of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in the frontal lobe from a total of 90 elderly subjects (age range 71-98 years). Post-mortem brain tissues from post-stroke dementia and post-stroke patients with no dementia were derived from our prospective Cognitive Function After Stroke study. We also examined, in parallel, samples from ageing controls and similar age subjects pathologically diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, mixed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, and vascular dementia. We found pyramidal cell volumes in layers III and V in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of post-stroke and vascular dementia and, of mixed and Alzheimer's disease subjects to be reduced by 30-40% compared to post-stroke patients with no dementia and controls. There were no significant changes in neuronal volumes in either the anterior cingulate or orbitofrontal cortices. Remarkably, pyramidal neurons within the orbitofrontal cortex were also found to be smaller in size when compared to those in the other two neocortical regions. To relate the cell changes to cognitive function, we noted significant correlations between neuronal volumes and total CAMCOG, orientation and memory scores and clinical

  18. Strategic infarcts of the thalamus in vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirmai, Imre; Vastagh, Ildikó; Szombathelyi, Eva; Kamondi, Anita

    2002-11-15

    Strategic infarcts or focal hemorrhages involving the paramedian nuclei of the thalamus may alter consciousness and produce complex neuropsychological symptoms such as impairment of memory, attention and motivation. Lesions disrupting the thalamo-prefrontal circuits lead to severe subcortical dementia. We analysed here the clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data of 19 patients with cerebrovascular lesions in the thalamus. In six patients with bilateral paramedian infarcts, and in two with anterior thalamic infarcts, vascular dementia and severe personality changes developed. SPECT findings did not correlate with the neuropsychological symptoms. Transcortical sensory and motor aphasia was observed in four patients with thalamic hemorrhages and infarcts. In these patients SPECT detected hypoperfusion in adjacent cortical areas. Clinical symptoms and outcome of four patients are reported in detail. The clinico-morphological correlations of the thalamo-cortical circuits are reviewed and the possible causes of multiple cognitive and behavioural consequences of vascular thalamic lesions are discussed.

  19. Senile dementia of the Binswanger type: a vascular form of dementia in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, G.C.

    1987-10-02

    Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly have demonstrated the common occurrence of deep white-matter lesions in the aging brain. These radiologic lesions (leukoaraiosis) may represent an early marker of dementia. At autopsy, an ischemic periventricular leukoencephalopathy (Binswanger's disease) has been found in most cases. The clinical spectrum of Binswanger's disease appears to range from asymptomatic radiologic lesions to dementia with focal deficits, frontal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait difficulties, and urinary incontinence. The name senile dementia of the Binswanger type (SDBT) is proposed for this poorly recognized, vascular form of subcortical dementia. The SDBT probably results from cortical disconnections most likely caused by hypoperfusion. In contrast, multi-infarct dementia is correlated with multiple large and small strokes that cause a loss of over 50 to 100 mL of brain volume. The periventricular white matter is a watershed area irrigated by long, penetrating medullary arteries. Risk factors for SDBT are small-artery diseases, such as hypertension and amyloid angiopathy, impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the elderly, and periventricular hypoperfusion due to cardiac failure, arrhythmias, and hypotension. The SDBT may be a potentially preventable and treatable form of dementia.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of N-epsilon-carboxymethyl lysine (CML) in human brain: relation to vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Louise; Williams, Jonathan; Esiri, Margaret M

    2007-10-16

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) occur in dementia of the Alzheimer's type and diabetic microvascular disease. Accumulation of AGEs relates to risk factors for vascular dementia with ageing, including hypertension and diabetes. Cognitive dysfunction in vascular dementia may relate to microvascular disease resembling that in diabetes. We tested if, among people with cerebrovascular disease, (1) those with dementia have higher levels of neuronal and vascular AGEs and (2) if cognitive dysfunction depends on neuronal and/or vascular AGE levels. Brain Sections from 25 cases of the OPTIMA (Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing) cohort, with varying degrees of cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive dysfunction (but only minimal Alzheimer type pathology) were immunostained for Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML), the most abundant AGE. The level of staining in vessels and neurons in the cortex, white matter and basal ganglia was compared to neuropsychological and other clinical measures. The probability of cortical neurons staining positive for CML was higher in cases with worse cognition (p = 0.01) or a history of hypertension (p = 0.028). Additionally, vascular CML staining related to cognitive impairment (p = 0.02) and a history of diabetes (p = 0.007). Neuronal CML staining in the basal ganglia related to a history of hypertension (p = 0.002). CML staining in cortical neurons and cerebral vessels is related to the severity of cognitive impairment in people with cerebrovascular disease and only minimal Alzheimer pathology. These findings support the possibility that cerebral accumulation of AGEs may contribute to dementia in people with cerebrovascular disease.

  1. Is there pure vascular dementia in old age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A; Attems, Johannes

    2010-12-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) has been suggested to be the most common form of dementia in old age, but clinico-pathologic studies showed big differences in its epidemiology. A retrospective hospital-based study of the frequency and pathology of "pure" VaD (due to cerebrovascular disease without other pathologies) was performed in 1110 consecutive autopsy cases of demented elderly in Vienna, Austria. It assessed clinical, general autopsy data and neuropathology including immunohistochemistry. Neuropathologic diagnosis followed current consensus criteria. Four age groups (7th to 10th decades) were evaluated. "Pure" VaD was observed in 10.8% of the total cohort, decreasing from age 60 to 90+. 85-95% had histories of diabetes, morphologic signs of hypertension, 65% myocardial infarction/cardiac decompensation, and 75% a history of stroke(s). Neuritic AD-pathology was low (mean Braak stages 1.2-1.6). Morphologic subtypes (multi-infarct (MID), subcortical arteriosclerotic (SAE)-the most frequent, and strategic infarct dementia (SID)) showed no age-related differences. By contrast, AD (without vascular or Lewy pathologies), mixed dementia (AD+cerebrovascular encephalopathy), and AD with minor cerebrovascular lesions increased with age. AD+Lewy pathology and other dementias decreased significantly over age 90. This retrograde study using strict morphologic diagnostic criteria confirmed the existence of "pure" VaD in old age, with a tendency to decline at age 90+, while AD and AD+cerebrovascular pathologies showed considerable age-related increase. Another autopsy study distinguishing two age groups of demented showed a significant increase of both AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), but decrease of VaD over age 85, while in a small subgroup of old subjects CAA without considerable AD-pathology may be an independent risk factor for cognitive decline. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropsychiatric characteristics of PiB-negative subcortical vascular dementia versus behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Na-Yeon; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Seonwoo; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Eun-Joo; Na, Duk L

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) are mainly associated with damage to frontal-subcortical circuits and may be similar to symptoms of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). The aim of this study was to determine whether the neuropsychiatric manifestations of the Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-negative SVaD and bvFTD groups differ. We compared the Caregiver-Administered Neuropsychiatry Inventory (CGA-NPI) between 48 patients with PiB(-) SVaD and 31 patients with bvFTD. A stepwise logistic regression was applied to determine the best model to predict SVaD. The SVaD group showed a higher frequency of depression, whereas the bvFTD group had a higher frequency of elation, aberrant motor behavior and appetite/eating disorders. Regarding NPI subscores, the bvFTD group had greater severity of elation, apathy, disinhibition, aberrant motor behavior and appetite/eating disorders, whereas SVaD did not have significantly higher subscores in any domains. The most predictive models that tend to find suggestions of SVaD, as opposed to bvFTD, are as follows: (1) the presence of depression and the absence of appetite/eating disorders, (2) higher NPI subscores of depression and lower NPI subscores of irritability and aberrant motor behavior. Apart from apathy, SVaD differed from bvFTD in that negative symptoms were more common in SVaD than bvFTD, whereas positive symptoms were predominant in bvFTD compared to SVaD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of affective disorders in patients with vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zakharchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The outpatient records of 147 patients followed up for diagnosed vascular dementia were analyzed to assess the relationship between affective disorders and severe cognitive impairments. It was found that 7% of the examinees had a history of depressive states. Estimating the development time for vascular dementia could divide the patients into 2 groups: 1 60% of the patients in whom cognitive impairments began to determine its clinical picture just within the first 2 years after identification of affective disorders and 2 40%, in whom cognitive impairments occurred 10—20 years later. In both groups, mental disorders occurred at an equal age in the presence of depressive disorders; in Group 1, vascular dementia developed nearly twice as often as that in Group 2. At the same time, the occurrence of cognitive impairments in Group 1 patients just in the early disease stages is indicative of the organic genesis of affective disorders, as confirmed by the moderately rapid progression of psychopathological symptoms, such as sharpening of personality traits, increased rigidity of psychic processes, emotional lability, variations in affective symptomatology, inadequate remissions, and the presence of neurological symptoms. Another type of a ratio of depressive to severe cognitive disorders was found in the elderly persons in Group 2. The long existence of affective disorders without signs of cognitive diminution leads one to say that they have recurrent depressive disorder with further addition of a comorbid vascular process. These patients showed a fairly high severity of affective pathology that was responsible for more frequent admissions, as well as a phase course with relatively pure remissions without any clear intellectual-mnestic reduction and a predominance of hysterical character traits.

  4. Lack of association between vascular dementia and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernesky Max

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation appears to play a role in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia. Given the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and stroke, the possibility exists that previous exposure to C. pneumoniae may play a role in vascular dementia. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between serological evidence of C. pneumoniae infection or inflammatory markers with vascular dementia. Methods 28 case-patients with vascular dementia at a geriatric clinic and 24 caregiver-controls were tested for C. pneumoniae IgG and IgA antibodies. The association between vascular dementia and C. pneumoniae titres as well as inflammatory markers was estimated by using both conditional logistic regression and stratified logistic regression. Results When matched cases were compared to controls, there was no significant difference in elevated C. pneumoniae specific IgG antibodies (titre ≥ 1:32, odds ratio [OR] 1.3 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.3 to 6.0, p = 0.71, or in elevated C. pneumoniae specific IgA antibodies (titre ≥ 1:16, OR 2.0 (95%CI 0.5 to 8.0, p = 0.33 indicative of past or persistent C. pneumoniae infection. Similarly, no difference in high IgG or IgA antibody levels (IgG titre ≥ 1:512 or IgA titre ≥ 1:64 between the two groups, indicative of recent C. pneumoniae infection, was found, OR 0.4 (95%CI 0.1 to 2.1, p = 0.27. For C-reactive protein (CRP, the mean difference between 18 matched pairs (case – control was – 3.33 mg/L. There was no significant difference between cases and controls when comparing log transformed values, OR 0.03 (95%CI 0.00 to 2.89, p = 0.13 or comparing CRP values above or below the median, OR 0.8 (95%CI 0.2 to 3.4, p = 0.71. For fibrinogen, the mean difference between pairs (case – control was -0.07 g/L. There was no statistical difference between cases and controls when comparing log transformed values, OR 0.6 (95%CI 0.0 to 31.2, p = 0.79 or between

  5. Influence of pneumonia complications on the prognosis of patients with autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Toshie; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Teramoto, Shinji; Yamaoka, Kazue; Nakamura, Seiji; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kudo, Koichiro; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-09-01

    Pneumonia is a major, complicated disease in patients with dementia. However, the influence of pneumonia on the prognosis of patients with varying types of dementia has not been fully evaluated. We retrospectively analyzed the data from medical and autopsy reports. All study patients had been hospitalized and underwent brain autopsy in a hospital in Toyohashi, Japan, between 2005 and 2014. The patients with subtypes of dementia, specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or vascular dementia (VaD), were neuropathologically diagnosed and examined. Pneumonia incidence, cause of death, and the clinical time-course of dementia were compared among the dementia subtypes. The time to death from dementia onset (survival time) was compared by the Kaplan-Meier method among subtypes of dementia with or without pneumonia. Risk factors for survival time on all study patients were analyzed with the Cox proportional hazard model. Of the 157 eligible patients, 63 (40.1%) had AD, 42 (26.8%) had DLB, and 52 (33.1%) had VaD. Pneumonia complication was observed with high incidence in each subtype of dementia, especially in DLB (90.5%). The median total duration from dementia onset to death was 8 years in AD and DLB, and 5 years in VaD. The VaD subtype had more male patients than AD or DLB (P = 0.010), and age of death in this group was the youngest among the three groups (P = 0.018). A significant difference was observed in the survival time by the Kaplan-Meier method among the three groups (P dementia onset ≥ 75 years, and VaD. Pneumonia complications shortened the survival time of patients with AD, DLB, and VaD. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  6. Morphologic diagnosis of "vascular dementia" - a critical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2008-07-15

    Vascular dementia/vascular cognitive impairment (VaD/VCI) is not a single entity, but a large group of conditions characterized by various clinical and morphological findings and variable pathophysiology. Clinical diagnostic criteria show moderate sensitivity (50-70%) and variable specificity (64-98%). Epidemiological studies are hampered by the lack of clear and validated diagnostic criteria, the complexity of brain pathologies, ethnic and geographic variations. In Western clinic-based series VaD/VCI is suggested in 8-15% of cognitively impaired aged subjects, with age-standardized incidence ratios 0.42-2.6 and clinical prevalence at age 70+ of 6-15/1000 person/year. Prevalence in autopsy series ranges from 0.03 to 58% (real mean 8-15% in Western series, 22-35% in Japan). Both prevalence and incidence increase with age. Neuropathology shows multifocal and/or diffuse lesions, ranging from lacunes and microinfarcts, white matter lesions, hippocampal sclerosis to multi-infarct encephalopathy, mixed cortico-subcortical and diffuse post-ischemic lesions. They result from systemic, cardiac, local large and small vessel disease. Pathogenesis is multifactorial and cognitive decline is commonly associated with small ischemic/vascular lesions, often involving subcortical and strategically important brain areas (thalamus, frontobasal, limbic system). Pathophysiology affects neuronal networks involved in cognition, behavior, execution and memory. Vascular lesions often coexist with Alzheimer disease (AD) and other lesions, multiple pathologies greatly increasing the odds of dementia; 25-80% of demented subjects show both AD and cerebrovascular lesions. While both factors by synergistic interaction contribute significantly to the risk of dementia, AD pathology is often less severe in the presence of vascular lesions. Due to the heterogeneity of cerebrovascular pathology and its causative factors, no validated neuropathologic criteria for VaD are currently available, and a

  7. Cancer linked to Alzheimer disease but not vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, C M.; Fitzpatrick, A L.; Xiong, C; Sieh, W; Kuller, L; Miller, J P.; Williams, M M.; Kopan, R; Behrens, M I.; Morris, J C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether cancer is associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Methods: Cox proportional hazards models were used to test associations between prevalent dementia and risk of future cancer hospitalization, and associations between prevalent cancer and risk of subsequent dementia. Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study–Cognition Substudy, a prospective cohort study, aged 65 years or older (n = 3,020) were followed a mean of 5.4 years for dementia and 8.3 years for cancer. Results: The presence of any AD (pure AD + mixed AD/VaD; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.20–0.84) and pure AD (HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12–0.86) was associated with a reduced risk of future cancer hospitalization, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking, obesity, and physical activity. No significant associations were found between dementia at baseline and rate of cancer hospitalizations for participants with diagnoses of VaD. Prevalent cancer was associated with reduced risk of any AD (HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.52–0.997) and pure AD (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36–0.90) among white subjects after adjustment for demographics, number of APOE ε4 alleles, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease; the opposite association was found among minorities, but the sample size was too small to provide stable estimates. No significant association was found between cancer and subsequent development of VaD. Conclusions: In white older adults, prevalent Alzheimer disease (AD) was longitudinally associated with a reduced risk of cancer, and a history of cancer was associated with a reduced risk of AD. Together with other work showing associations between cancer and Parkinson disease, these findings suggest the possibility that cancer is linked to neurodegeneration. GLOSSARY 3MSE = modified Mini-Mental State Examination; AD = Alzheimer disease; ADDTC = Alzheimer Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers; CHD = coronary heart

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of vascular damage in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biessels, Geert Jan

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of cognitive impairment due to vascular brain damage, which is referred to as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Over the past decades, we have seen marked progress in detecting VCI, both through maturation of diagnostic concepts and through advances in brain imaging, especially MRI. Yet in daily practice, it is often challenging to establish the diagnosis, particularly in patients where there is no evident temporal relation between a cerebrovascular event and cognitive dysfunction. Because vascular damage is such a common cause of cognitive dysfunction, it provides an obvious target for treatment. In patients whose cognitive dysfunction follows directly after a stroke, the etiological classification of this stroke will direct treatment. In many patients however, VCI develops due to so-called "silent vascular damage," without evident cerebrovascular events. In these patients, small vessel diseases (SVDs) are the most common cause. Yet no SVD-specific treatments currently exist, which is due to incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology. This review addresses developments in this field. It offers a framework to translate diagnostic criteria to daily practice, addresses treatment, and highlights some future perspectives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia, edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau, and Donna M. Wilcock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Depression in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia or vascular dementia and its influence on their quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Yaroslav Winter; Alexei Korchounov; Tatyana V Zhukova; Natalia Epifanova Bertschi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer dementia (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Depression is an important co-morbid disorder in these diseases, which is often challenging to recognize. We investigated the prevalence of depression in patients with AD and VD and estimated the influence of depression on the health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in these patients. Materials and Methods: We evaluated prevalence of depression in consecutively recruited patien...

  10. The profile of behavioral and psychological symptoms in vascular cognitive impairment with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD between vascular dementia (VaD and vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with cognitive impairment at least 3 months after an ischemic stroke and with a Hachinski Ischemic Score ≥4 were included. VaD was diagnosed as per National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l′Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria for probable VaD and VCI-ND on the lines of the Canadian study of health and aging. The severity of cognitive impairment and the behavioral/psychological symptoms were studied by means of the clinical dementia rating scale and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI respectively. Results: All patients with VaD and 89% of those with VCI-ND had at least one BPSD. The mean no. of symptoms per patient and the total NPI scores were higher in VaD than in VCI-ND. Apathy and night-time behavior disturbances were significantly more common and severe in VaD. Conclusions: BPSD are very common both in VCI-ND and in VaD. The profile of BPSD is similar in both groups, albeit more severe in VaD. The net burden of BPSD is higher in VaD as compared to VCI-ND.

  11. Distinguishing between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease by means of the WAIS: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J A; Oosterman, J

    2006-01-01

    This study was intended to, meta-analytically, review whether the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale are useful in differentiating between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We expected the Alzheimer's disease group to outperform the vascular dementia group on those subtests

  12. Distinguishing between vascular dementia and alzheimer's disease by means of the WAIS: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was intended to, meta-analytically, review whether the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale are useful in differentiating between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We expected the Alzheimer's disease group to outperform the vascular dementia group on those subtests

  13. Distinguishing between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease by means of the WAIS : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, Erik J. A.; Oosterman, J

    2006-01-01

    This study was intended to, meta-analytically, review whether the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale are useful in differentiating between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We expected the Alzheimer's disease group to outperform the vascular dementia group on those subtests

  14. The Dementia Rating Scale (DRS in the diagnosis of vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Sellitto Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract The Dementia Rating Scale (DRS is considered a very useful instrument to assess patients with dementia. The tasks are grouped into five subscales, each one evaluating different cognitive areas, namely: Attention, Initiation/Perseveration (I/P, Construction, Conceptualization and Memory. Objective: To verify the ability of the DRS in discriminating vascular dementia (VaD patients from healthy controls and VaD from Alzheimer disease (AD patients. Methods: The DRS was applied to 68 patients with mild dementia (12 with VaD and 56 with AD and 60 healthy controls. The clinical diagnosis was made by two neurologists based on the patients´ history, laboratory and neuroimaging results and neuropsychological tests. Results: In the comparison between VaD patients and controls, the subscales I/P, Memory, Conceptualization and Attention were those displaying best discrimination between the two groups. The cutoff <124 yielded 93.3% of sensitivity and 91.7% of specificity for the diagnosis of VaD. Only the I/P subscale differentiated VaD from AD patients. Conclusions: The DRS was found to be a useful instrument to discriminate VaD patients from controls. VaD patients showed worse performance in tasks of executive functions than AD patients. Executive dysfunction, evaluated through the I/P subscale of the DRS, might be useful in differentiating between VaD and AD patients.

  15. Depression in vascular dementia is quantitatively and qualitatively different from depression in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Lee, S B; Lee, T J; Lee, D Y; Jhoo, J H; Youn, J C; Choo, I H; Choi, E A; Jeong, J W; Choe, J Y; Woo, J I; Kim, K W

    2007-01-01

    To compare the prevalence and characteristics of depression in vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) after adjusting for dementia severity and gender. One hundred and eight pairs of VaD and AD patients matched for dementia severity and gender were assessed. Major depressive disorder (MDD) was more prevalent in the VaD group than in the AD group (20.4% in VaD, 10.2% in AD, p = 0.04, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel, CMH, test) regardless of the dementia severity and gender. The odds ratio for developing MDD in the VaD group versus the AD group was estimated to be 2.20 (95% confidence interval = 1.02-4.74). Neurovegetative symptoms such as 'felt tired and weak all the time' (30.6% in VaD, 13.9% in AD, p = 0.003, CMH test) and 'changed weight without trying' (16.7% in VaD, 6.5% in AD, p = 0.02, CMH test) were more prevalent in the VaD group than in the AD group. Depression in VaD was quantitatively and qualitatively different from that in AD regardless of the severity of dementia and gender; depression was more prevalent, severer and more retarded and vegetative in VaD than in AD. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Effect of Yangxue Qingnao Granule on the Expression of CD11b in CA1 Region of Hippocampus of Vascular Dementia Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Yuan-yuan; Liu, Bin; Mao, Wen-jing; Zhang, Jin-xia; Li, Shi-ying

    2016-05-01

    To observe the effect of Yangxue Qingnao Granule (YQG) on the expression of CD11b in CA1 region of hippocampus of vascular dementia rats, and to explore its regulation on microglias. Totally 144 SD rats were randomly divided into the sham-operation group, the vascular dementia model group (model), and the YQG treated group (treated). The vascular dementia rat model was prepared by modified Pulsinelli's four-vessel occlusion. Rats in the sham-operation group and the model group were administered with normal saline -(at the daily dose of 10 mL/kg) by gastrogavage, while those in the treated group were administered with YQG (0.32 g/mL, at the daily dose of 10 mL/kg) by gastrogavage. All administration was performed once per day for 8 successive weeks. The expression of CD11b in CA1 region of hippocampus of vascular dementia rats was detected at week 1, 2, 4, and 8, respectively. Compared with the sham-operation group, the expression of CD11b in CA1 region of hippocampus of vascular dementia rats were significantly enhanced in the model group at each time point (P vascular dementia rats significantly decreased in the treated group at each time point (P vascular dementia rats, and YQG could inhibit activation and proliferation of microglias.

  17. Neuropathological diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia with implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is recognised as a neurocognitive disorder, which is explained by numerous vascular causes in the general absence of other pathologies. The heterogeneity of cerebrovascular disease makes it challenging to elucidate the neuropathological substrates and mechanisms of VaD as well as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Consensus and accurate diagnosis of VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychometric and neuroimaging measures with subsequent pathological confirmation. Pathological diagnosis of suspected clinical VaD requires adequate postmortem brain sampling and rigorous assessment methods to identify important substrates. Factors that define the subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes. Atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases appear the most common substrates of vascular brain injury or infarction. Small vessel disease characterised by arteriolosclerosis and lacunar infarcts also causes cortical and subcortical microinfarcts, which appear to be the most robust substrates of cognitive impairment. Diffuse WM changes with loss of myelin and axonal abnormalities are common to almost all subtypes of VaD. Medial temporal lobe and hippocampal atrophy accompanied by variable hippocampal sclerosis are also features of VaD as they are of Alzheimer's disease. Recent observations suggest that there is a vascular basis for neuronal atrophy in both the temporal and frontal lobes in VaD that is entirely independent of any Alzheimer pathology. Further knowledge on specific neuronal and dendro-synaptic changes in key regions resulting in executive dysfunction and other cognitive deficits, which define VCI and VaD, needs to be gathered. Hereditary arteriopathies such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy or CADASIL have provided insights into the mechanisms of

  18. Neuroprotective effect of selective DPP-4 inhibitor in experimental vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-12-01

    Vascular risk factors are associated with a higher incidence of dementia. Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Both forms of dementia are posing greater risk to the world population and are increasing at a faster rate. In the past we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the role of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. Pancreatectomy diabetes rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of vildagliptin has significantly attenuated pancreatectomy induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor may be considered as potential pharmacological agents for the management of pancreatectomy induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. The selective modulators of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 may further be explored for their possible benefits in vascular dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Extracellular matrix inflammation in vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Gary A

    2017-03-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include a wide spectrum of chronic manifestations of vascular disease related to large vessel strokes and small vessel disease (SVD). Lacunar strokes and white matter (WM) injury are consequences of SVD. The main vascular risk factor for SVD is brain hypoperfusion from cerebral blood vessel narrowing due to chronic hypertension. The hypoperfusion leads to activation and degeneration of astrocytes with the resulting fibrosis of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Elasticity is lost in fibrotic cerebral vessels, reducing the response of stiffened blood vessels in times of increased metabolic need. Intermittent hypoxia/ischaemia activates a molecular injury cascade, producing an incomplete infarction that is most damaging to the deep WM, which is a watershed region for cerebral blood flow. Neuroinflammation caused by hypoxia activates microglia/macrophages to release proteases and free radicals that perpetuate the damage over time to molecules in the ECM and the neurovascular unit (NVU). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted in an attempt to remodel the blood vessel wall have the undesired consequences of opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and attacking myelinated fibres. This dual effect of the MMPs causes vasogenic oedema in WM and vascular demyelination, which are the hallmarks of the subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD), which is the SVD form of VCID also called Binswanger's disease (BD). Unravelling the complex pathophysiology of the WM injury-related inflammation in the small vessel form of VCID could lead to novel therapeutic strategies to reduce damage to the ECM, preventing the progressive damage to the WM. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Cognitive profiles in degenerative dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology and small vessel vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Antonella; Cipollini, Virginia; Donato, Nicole; Sepe-Monti, Micaela; Orzi, Francesco; Giubilei, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Although a large number of studies have examined possible differences in cognitive performance between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), the data in the literature are conflicting. The aims of this study were to analyze the neuropsychological pattern of subjects affected by degenerative dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology (DD) and small vessel VaD subjects in the early stages and to investigate differences in the progression of cognitive impairment. Seventy-five patients with probable VaD and 75 patients with probable DD were included. All the subjects underwent a standard neuropsychological evaluation, including the following test: Visual Search, Attentional matrices, Story Recall, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, Phonological and Semantic Verbal Fluency, Token, and Copying Drawings. The severity of cognitive impairment was stratified according to the MMSE score. Fifteen subjects with probable DD and 10 subjects with probable VaD underwent a 12-month cognitive re-evaluation. No significant difference was found between DD and VaD subjects in any of the neuropsychological tests except Story Recall in the mild cognitive impairment (P dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology from small vessel VaD in the early stages of these diseases.

  1. Chronic pain in "probable" vascular dementia: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherder, Erik J A; Plooij, Bart; Achterberg, Wilco P; Pieper, Marjoleine; Wiegersma, Marije; Lobbezoo, Frank; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2015-03-01

    In a previous study, the levels of pain reported by patients with "possible" vascular dementia (VaD) were higher than those reported by older individuals without dementia. To examine experienced pain in patients with "probable" VaD, confirmed by brain imaging. Observational, cross sectional. Nursing home. The participants were 20 nursing home residents (14 females, 6 males) who met the NINDS-AIREN criteria for "probable" VaD and 22 nursing home residents with a normal mental status (18 females, 4 males). The patients were in a mild to moderate stage of dementia. All of the participants were suffering from arthritis/arthrosis or osteoporosis. Global cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination. Pain was assessed by the Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS: original and modified version) and the Faces Pain Scale. The Geriatric Depression Scale and the Symptom Checklist-90 were used to assess mood. The main finding was that, after controlling for mood, the pain levels indicated by patients with "probable" VaD (M = 102.32; standard deviation [SD] = 53.42) were significantly higher than those indicated by the control group (M = 59.17; SD = 38.75), only according to the CAS modified version (F[1,29]) = 5.62, P = 0.01, η2  = 0.16). As VaD patients may experience greater pain than controls, it is essential for prescribers to be aware of the presence of this neuropathology if these patients are to receive adequate treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. sup 123 I-IMP-SPECT in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namura, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Toshihiko; Shio, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kimura, Jun (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1990-12-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied by N-isopropyl-p-{sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine (IMP)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with vascular dementia. Patients were divided by CT/MRI findings into multiple or localized type and cortical or subcortical type. Of patients with multiple lesions in the cortex, the reduction of CBF was noted in several cortex corresponding to CT/MRI findings. Patients in this group had a high incidence of aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, and amnesia. Patients with multiple lesions in the white matter and basal ganglia were subdivided into 3 groups by clinical manifestations. CBF in those with dementia showed generalized reduction in all cerebral cortex and especially in bilateral frontal regions. CBF in those with slightly impaired mentality was almost normal. In another group with pseudobulbar palsy and/or extrapyramidal sings, CBF was reduced intermediately only in bilateral frontal regions. Typical symptoms in demented patients were apathy, emotional lability, and forgetfulness. In those with the localized type, CBF was reduced in cerebral cortical areas correlating with the impaired mental functions. (author).

  3. Serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level and incident dementia in patients with vascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, K; Miwa, K; Okazaki, S; Sakaguchi, M; Mochizuki, H

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of metabolic factors in the development of dementia has received much attention. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding how blood adipocytokine level impacts cognitive decline and dementia. This study aimed to clarify whether serum high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin level is related to incident dementia. Data were from 466 patients (mean age 67.8 years, male 57%)--who had normal cognitive function and received brain magnetic resonance imaging--from amongst the 1106 patients in the Osaka Follow-up Study for Carotid Atherosclerosis, Part 2, a prospective cohort study of cardiovascular events and dementia amongst patients with vascular risk factors enrolled between 2001 and 2009. Baseline HMW adiponectin levels were measured using frozen serum. Dementia occurrence was examined in June 2013. Serum HMW adiponectin level was 4.33 ± 2.95 μg/ml; the levels were lower in men than in women and negatively correlated with body mass index. During the follow-up period (median 6.9 years), 47 patients had incident dementia including Alzheimer's disease dementia (27), vascular dementia (13), mixed dementia (four), other dementia (three). Risks of dementia in patients with high versus low HMW adiponectin levels were almost identical (P = 0.689). No association was found between adiponectin levels and Alzheimer's disease dementia or vascular dementia in the whole group or amongst men and women separately. This study demonstrated that serum HMW adiponectin level has little association with future dementia. Determination of metabolic factors involved in dementia requires evaluation of other biomarkers or parameters. © 2015 EAN.

  4. The Genesis of Graphic Perseverations in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Natascia; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Perseveration is the involuntary production of iterative responses. This study explored graphic perseverative errors in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, to comprehend the neuropsychological correlates of this behavior. We performed a retrospective analysis of graphic productions in 114 individuals with clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and in 63 individuals with clinical diagnosis of vascular dementia, who completed frontal-executive, visuo-spatial, visuo-constructional, and verbal memory tests. For assessing perseverative behavior, we considered recurrent perseverations (inappropriate re-drawing of a figure drawn in a previous trial) and continuous perseverations (inappropriate replication of the same figure or of its element within one trial) produced in a standard copying task. Two or more graphic perseverative errors occurred in 66/114 individuals with Alzheimer's disease (57.9%) and in 31/63 individuals with vascular dementia (49.2%). Participants with moderate-to-severe dementia produced a significantly higher number of perseverations than individuals with mild dementia. Logistic regression revealed a significant relationship of graphic perseverations with frontal and visuo-constructive impairments, in both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Graphic perseverations are frequent in both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Frontal-executive defects can hamper inhibition of iterative graphic productions. Identification of graphic perseverations can be useful for detection and monitoring of frontal-executive impairments throughout the disease course in individuals with dementia.

  5. Vascular dementia: different forms of vessel disorders contribute to the development of dementia in the elderly brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Attems, Johannes

    2012-11-01

    The diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) describes a group of various vessel disorders with different types of vascular lesions that finally contribute to the development of dementia. Most common forms of VaD in the elderly brain are subcortical vascular encephalopathy, strategic infarct dementia, and the multi infarct encephalopathy. Hereditary forms of VaD are rare. Most common is the cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Sporadic forms of VaD are caused by degenerative vessel disorders such as atherosclerosis, small vessel disease (SVD) including small vessel arteriosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and lipohyalinosis, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Less frequently inflammatory vessel disorders and tumor-associated vessel lesions (e.g. angiocentric T-cell or angiotropic large cell lymphoma) can cause symptoms of dementia. Here, we review and discuss the impact of vessel disorders to distinct vascular brain tissue lesions and to the development of dementia in elderly individuals. The impact of coexisting neurodegenerative pathology in the elderly brain to VaD as well as the correlation between SVD and CAA expansion in the brain parenchyma with that of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology is highlighted. We conclude that "pure" VaD is rare and most frequently caused by infarctions. However, there is a significant contribution of vascular lesions and vessel pathology to the development of dementia that may go beyond tissue damage due to vascular lesions. Insufficient blood blow and alterations of the perivascular drainage mechanisms of the brain may also lead to a reduced protein clearance from extracellular space and subsequent increase of proteins in the brain parenchyma, such as the amyloid β-protein, and foster, thereby, the development of AD-related neurodegeneration. As such, it seems to be important for clinical practice to consider treatment of potentially coexisting AD pathology in

  6. An update on type 2 diabetes, vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exalto, L G; Whitmer, R A; Kappele, L J; Biessels, G J

    2012-11-01

    The risk of dementia is increased in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review gives an update on the relation between T2DM and specific dementia subtypes - i.e. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia - and underlying pathologies. We will show that while epidemiological studies link T2DM to Alzheimer's disease as well as vascular dementia, neuropathological studies attribute the increased dementia risk in T2DM patients primarily to vascular lesions in the brain. Risk factors for dementia among patients with T2DM are also addressed. Currently, there is evidence that microvascular complications, atherosclerosis and severe hypoglycemic events increase dementia risk. However, for a more complete understanding of risk factors for dementia in T2DM a life time perspective is needed. This should identify which individuals are at increased risk, what are vulnerable periods in life, and what are windows of opportunity for treatment. Currently, there are no DM specific treatments for dementia, but we will review observations from clinical trials that tried to prevent cognitive decline through intensified glycemic control and address other clinical implications of the association between T2DM and dementia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of cognitive stimulation therapy for older adults with vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Piras

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Background: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST is an evidence-based psychosocial intervention for people with mild-to-moderate dementia due to various etiological factors. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the CST program, Italian adaptation -CST-IT-, in individuals who have vascular dementia (VaD. Methods: Older adults with mild-to-moderate VaD (N = 35 were assigned to one of two programs: one group (N = 21 attended the 14 sessions of the CST-IT program, while the other, active control group (N = 14 took part in alternative activities. The following domains were examined: cognitive functioning, quality of life, mood, behavior, functional activities of daily living. Results: Compared with the active controls, the CST-IT group showed a greater improvement in general cognitive functioning after the intervention (i.e. score increase on the Mini-Mental State Examination and decrease on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive subscale. A trend towards improvement was also identified in short-term/working memory – the backward digit span task- and perceived quality of life (Quality of Life – Alzheimer's Disease scale. No significant differences emerged between the two groups for the other domains considered. Conclusion: The present results support the efficacy of CST in people with vascular dementia.

  8. Screening for New Biomarkers for Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Öhrfelt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Novel biomarkers are important for identifying as well as differentiating subcortical vascular dementia (SVD and Alzheimer’s disease (AD at an early stage in the disease process. Methods: In two independent cohorts, a multiplex immunoassay was utilized to analyze 90 proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from dementia patients and patients at risk of developing dementia (mild cognitive impairment. Results: The levels of several CSF proteins were increased in SVD and its incipient state, and in moderate-to-severe AD compared with the control group. In contrast, some CSF proteins were altered in AD, but not in SVD. The levels of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP were consistently increased in all groups with dementia but only in some of their incipient states. Conclusions: In summary, these results support the notion that SVD and AD are driven by different pathophysiological mechanisms reflected in the CSF protein profile and that H-FABP in CSF is a general marker of neurodegeneration.

  9. Late and early onset dementia: what is the role of vascular factors? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Anna; Rea, Raffaele; Colucci, Luisa; Ziello, Antonio Rosario; Molino, Ivana; Carpi, Sabrina; Traini, Enea; Amenta, Francesco; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria

    2012-11-15

    Neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) demonstrates that the common occurrence of vascular lesions and vascular factors is suggested to contribute significantly to the clinical progression of the disease. This study has assessed the presence of vascular brain lesions and risk factors in subjects with diagnosis of AD and their influence on the disease course both in Late Onset Dementia (LOD) and in Early Onset Dementia (EOD). MRI scans of 374 LOD and of 67 EOD patients were evaluated for the presence of vascular associated lesions and rated according to the age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) scale as "pure degenerative", "mixed" and "vascular" cases of dementia. Vascular risk factors burden (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction) and disease progression were also assessed. 44% of LOD cases and 46% of EOD were classified as "mixed dementia cases". The vascular risk factors burden showed an increase from the pure degenerative to the pure vascular forms. Disease progression, calculated in two years using the Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scores, did not reveal differences among the three different classes of dementias. Vascular lesions are found in the majority of LOD cases and in about one half of EOD. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis of a synergistic effect of the degenerative and vascular factors on the development of cognitive dysfunction. The linear increase of the vascular burden supports the idea of a continuum spectrum between the pure degenerative and the pure vascular forms of adult-onset dementia disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical systematic observation of Kangxin capsule curing vascular dementia of senile kidney deficiency and blood stagnation type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xifei; Du, Jian; Cai, Jing; Liu, Xifeng; Xu, Gelin; Lin, Anji; Teng, Qing

    2007-06-13

    To observe the validity and safety of Kangxin capsule curing the patients with vascular dementia (VaD). Fifty-six patients with vascular dementia of kidney deficiency and blood stagnation type were selected on the basis of defined diagnostic criteria and were randomly divided into Kangxin group (29) and control group (27), observing the relevant accumulation scores in dementia scale before and after treatment and changes of endothelin (ET), sex hormone, immunity and routine examinations. Kangxin capsule can effectively improve the symptom of patients with VaD of senile kidney deficiency and blood stagnation type, and the average value of curative effect index of 29 patients in the treatment group is 23.01>/=20%, i.e. effective; compared with that before treatment, both CD(4) and CD(4).CD(8)(-1) rises (Psenile kidney deficiency and blood stagnation type.

  11. The Influence of Education and Age on Neurocognitive Test Performance in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DenBesten, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    This research involves an examination of the relationship between education and age on a wide array of neuropsychological test measures among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of education as an attenuating factor to neurocognitive decline in dementia. Although numerous…

  12. Operational definitions for the NINDS-AIREN criteria for vascular dementia: an interobserver study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, E.C. van; Scheltens, P.; Knol, D.L.; Buchem, M.A. van; Dijk, E.J. van; Hofman, P.A.M.; Karas, G.; Kjartansson, O.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Prins, N.D.; Schmidt, R.; Visser, M. de; Weinstein, H.C.; Barkhof, F.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vascular dementia (VaD) is thought to be the most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. The commonly used International Workshop of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et

  13. Operational definitions for the NINDS-AIREN criteria for vascular dementia - An interobserver study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, ECW; Scheltens, P; Knol, DL; van Buchem, MA; van Dijk, EJ; Hofman, PAM; Karas, G; Kjartansson, O; de Leeuw, FE; Prins, ND; Schmidt, R; Visser, MC; Weinstein, HC; Barkhof, F

    Background and Purpose-Vascular dementia (VaD) is thought to be the most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. The commonly used International Workshop of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et

  14. Neuropsychiatric profiles in patients with Alzheimer′s disease and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bandyopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the following study is to compare the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients of Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD. Materials and Methods: We used National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer′s Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for diagnosing AD and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour la Recherche et l′Enseignement en Neurosciences Criteria for diagnosing VaD. VaD cohort was further subcategorized into small vessel and large vessel disease. The severity of cognitive impairment and the BPSD were studied by means of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory respectively. Results: We studied 50 AD and 50 VaD patients of whom 38 were small vessels and 12 were large vessels VaD. The severity of dementia was comparable in both groups. The agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, anxiety, apathy/indifference, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, appetite and eating behavior and night-time behaviors occurred significantly more frequently in patients with VaD than AD. We found a weak positive correlation between the CDR score and the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms per patient in both cohorts. Elation/euphoria, agitation/aggression was significantly more frequent in patients with large vessel in comparison to small vessel VaD. Conclusions: BPSD are common in both types of dementia and they are more severe in VaD than AD when the groups have similar levels of cognitive impairment.

  15. Association between carotid stenosis or lacunar infarction and incident dementia in patients with vascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, K; Miwa, K; Yagita, Y; Okazaki, S; Sakaguchi, M; Mochizuki, H

    2015-01-01

    The association between vascular risk factors and dementia is of interest. Several studies have shown that cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with dementia. However, the association between cerebral large vessel disease (LVD) and dementia has not been thoroughly examined. The Osaka Follow-up Study for Carotid Atherosclerosis, Part 2, was a prospective cohort study of cardiovascular events and dementia in which patients (n = 1106) with vascular risk factors underwent carotid ultrasound. Of these patients, 600 who had normal cognitive function were included and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. The presence of lacunar infarction and carotid stenosis served as markers for SVD and LVD, respectively. Amongst 600 patients (mean 68 years, 57% men), 261 (44%) showed lacunar infarction and 94 (16%) showed carotid stenosis. During the follow-up period (median 8.0 years), 57 patients had incident dementia. Patients with carotid stenosis and lacunar infarction were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with dementia (log-rank test, P = 0.037 and P dementia remained significant after adjusting for risk factors including stroke history, apolipoprotein E genotype and years of education (hazard ratio 2.64, 95% confidence interval 1.22-6.09). However, the presence of carotid stenosis was not associated with incident dementia after adjusting for age and sex (P = 0.477). This study demonstrated that carotid stenosis had little association with dementia, but lacunar infarction had a significant association. The impact of SVD on dementia could be much greater than that of LVD. © 2014 EAN.

  16. Multiple or mixed cerebral microbleeds and dementia in patients with vascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Kaori; Tanaka, Makiko; Okazaki, Shuhei; Yagita, Yoshiki; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Mochizuki, Hideki; Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2014-08-12

    To investigate whether cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are independently associated with incident dementia in patients with vascular risk factors. Using data from a Japanese cohort of participants with vascular risk factors in an observational study from 2001, we evaluated the association between CMBs at baseline and incident dementia. Baseline brain MRI was used to determine small-vessel disease (CMBs, lacunar infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities) and brain atrophy. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed for predictors of dementia adjusting for age, sex, APOE ε4 allele, educational level, baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score, cerebrovascular events, vascular risk factors, and MRI findings. Of the 524 subjects (mean age 68 ± 8.3 years, 57.6% male, 12.8 ± 2.6 years of schooling, 21.6% CMBs), 44 patients with incident dementia (20 Alzheimer disease, 18 vascular dementia, 3 mixed-type, and 3 other) were diagnosed during the median 7.5-year follow-up. In multivariate analysis, the presence of overall CMBs was not associated with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia (p = 0.15). However, multiple CMBs (≥ 2) or mixed (lobar and deep) CMBs were associated with the increased risk of all-cause dementia, whereas strictly lobar CMBs showed no association with any dementia. Multiple CMBs or mixed CMBs independently showed higher risk of all-cause dementia. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that CMBs exert deleterious effects on dementia incidence, suggesting that this association may be mediated by vascular burden. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Clinical significance of circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 to white matter disintegrity in Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chen, Wei-Hsi; Lu, Yan-Ting; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Alice Y W; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-11-25

    Endothelial dysfunction leads to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). While both cerebrovascular risk factors and endothelial dysfunction lead to activation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin, it is not known whether these biomarkers extend the diagnostic repertoire in reflecting intracerebral structural damage or cognitive performance. A total of 110 AD patients and 50 age-matched controls were enrolled. Plasma levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were measured and correlated with the cognitive performance, white matter macro-structural changes, and major tract-specific fractional anisotropy quantification. The AD patients were further stratified by clinical dementia rating score (mild dementia, n=60; moderate-to-severe dementia, n=50). Compared with the controls, plasma levels of VCAM-1 (p< 0.001), ICAM-1 (p=0.028) and E-selectin (p=0.016) were significantly higher in the patients, but only VCAM-1 levels significantly reflected the severity of dementia (p< 0.001). In addition, only VCAM-1 levels showed an association with macro- and micro- white matter changes especially in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (p< 0.001), posterior thalamic radiation (p=0.002), stria terminalis (p=0.002) and corpus callosum (p=0.009), and were independent of, age and cortical volume. These tracts show significant association with MMSE, short term memory and visuospatial function. Meanwhile, while VCAM-1 level correlated significantly with short-term memory (p=0.026) and drawing (p=0.025) scores in the AD patients after adjusting for age and education, the significance disappeared after adjusting for global FA. Endothelial activation, especially VCAM-1, was of clinical significance in AD that reflects macro- and micro-structural changes and poor short term memory and visuospatial function.

  18. Response to activated protein C in subjects with and without dementia. The Dutch Vascular Factors in Dementia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, M L; van Kooten, F; Breteler, M M; Slagboom, P E; Hofman, A; Haverkate, F; Meijer, P; Koudstaal, P J; Grobbee, D E; Kluft, C

    1998-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional case-control study among 295 subjects with dementia and 406 control subjects drawn from participants of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study among subjects aged 55 years or over, and from participants of the Rotterdam Stroke Databank, a hospital-based stroke registry, to evaluate the association of the factor V Leiden mutation and activated protein C (APC) response with dementia and its subtypes. The risk of dementia was 2.11-fold increased among carriers of factor V Leiden mutation relative to subjects lacking factor V Leiden mutation (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.93-4.77). The increased risks of vascular dementia and of Alzheimer's disease were 4.28 (95% CI 1.26-14.5) and 2.15 (95% CI 0.82-5.63), respectively. No association was found for APC response. We showed a nonsignificant twofold increased risk of dementia among subjects with factor V Leiden. The association appeared to be stronger for vascular dementia.

  19. Acupuncture reversed hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular dementia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Yi; Lin, Li-Ting; Wang, Xue-Rui; Du, Si-Qi; Yan, Chao-Qun; He, Tian; Yang, Jing-Wen; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative stress has been considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD). Previous studies suggested that acupuncture could improve cerebral hypoperfusion-induced cognitive impairments. However, whether hippocampal mitochondria are associated with this cognitive improvement remains unclear. In this study, an animal model of VD was established via bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) to investigate the alterations of cognitive ability and hippocampal mitochondrial function. BCCAO rats showed impairments in hippocampal mitochondrial function, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and learning and memory deficits. After two-week acupuncture treatment, BCCAO-induced spatial learning and memory impairments as shown in Morris water maze were ameliorated. Hippocampal mitochondrial respiratory complex enzymes (complex I, II, IV) activities and cytochrome c oxidase IV expression significantly increased, which might contribute to the reduction of hippocampal ROS generation. In addition, acupuncture significantly improve mitochondrial bioenergy parameters such as mitochondrial respiratory control rate and membrane potential not PDH A1 expression. Placebo-acupuncture did not produce similar therapeutic effects. These findings suggested that acupuncture reversed BCCAO-induced hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction, which might contribute to its prevention on cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Depression, vascular factors, and risk of dementia in primary care: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Sebastian; Buntinx, Frank; Palmer, Katie; van den Akker, Marjan

    2015-04-01

    To study the interaction between and timing effects of depression and vascular disorders on dementia risk. Retrospective cohort study. Primary care practices in the south of the Netherlands. Individuals in primary care aged 50 to 100 followed for 13 years (N = 35,791). Medical diagnoses of incident depression, hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, stroke, and dementia were extracted from a research database. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test whether incident depression predicted dementia and its putative interactions with vascular factors. In total, 1,680 participants developed dementia. Individuals with depression (n = 978) had a higher risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.56-2.64). Depression exerted most effect in participants with incident stroke (HR = 5.29, 95% CI = 2.52-11.14) or newly diagnosed hypertension (HR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.54-6.20). Depression in later life increases the risk of dementia. The effect is particularly high in individuals with depression and vascular disorders. Targeting late-onset depression in individuals with vascular disorders might lower dementia risk by preventing cerebrovascular changes. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Lack of Association between Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism with Age at Onset of Subcortical Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Guk Ryu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The relationship between apolipoprotein E (ApoE and onset of vascular dementia remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ApoE polymorphism and the onset of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD compared to Alzheimer’s disease (AD and normal controls. Methods: The study was comprised of 61 patients with SVaD (42 Binswanger type, 19 lacunar type and 112 patients with AD (16 early-onset AD, 96 late-onset AD as well as 284 age-, gender- and education-matched normal controls. The diagnosis of SVaD was based on modified NINDS-AIREN criteria, and the diagnosis of AD was based on NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. ApoE polymorphism was genotyped in all participants. Results: None of the three ApoE alleles was more prevalent in SVaD patients compared to normal controls, which was the case when both Binswanger and lacunar types were analyzed separately. ApoE Ε4 did not accelerate the onset of SVaD (OR 1.66, 95% CI: 0.8–3.4, in contrast to a significant relation with late-onset AD (OR 3.78, 95% CI: 2.2–6.5. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ApoE polymorphism is not associated with the onset of SVaD and that the two subtypes of SVaD may share similar pathophysiologies.

  2. MTHFR and ACE Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Vascular and Degenerative Dementias in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pratima; Pradhan, Sunil; Modi, Dinesh Raj; Mittal, Balraj

    2009-01-01

    Focal lacunar infarctions due to cerebral small vessel atherosclerosis or single/multiple large cortical infarcts lead to vascular dementia, and different genes and environmental factors have been implicated in causation or aggravation of the disease. Previous reports suggest that some of the risk factors may be common to both vascular as well as…

  3. The serial position effect in mild and moderately severe vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Robert H; Cohen, Ronald A; Moser, David J; Zawacki, Tricia M; Gordon, Norman

    2002-05-01

    The present study examined the serial position effect in 2 subgroups of individuals with vascular dementia (VaD). Nineteen individuals with mild VaD and 17 individuals with moderate VaD were administered the California Verbal Learning Test. Both groups were impaired on a general memory measure, and the moderately impaired group demonstrated significantly poorer recall than the mildly impaired group on the first learning trial and on total learning across trials. In addition, individuals with mild dementia demonstrated an intact primacy and recency effect, whereas individuals with moderate dementia demonstrated neither primacy nor recency effects. The latter findings are consistent with studies examining the serial position effect in other dementia populations, and suggests that the absence of primacy and recency effects in more advanced dementia may occur regardless of dementia type.

  4. Puerarin up-regulates methyl-CpG binding protein 2 phosphorylation in hippocampus of vascular dementia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu-Qing; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Jia-Xin; Wu, Hai-Qin; Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Lian; Zhang, Ru

    2018-01-09

    To observe the effect of puerarin on methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) phosphorylation (pMeCP2) in the hippocampus of a rat model of vascular dementia (VD). Thirty-six healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the sham-operated group, dementia group and puerarintreated group using a random number table (n=12 per group). The modifified permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion method was used to establish the VD model. The sham-operated and dementia groups were given 2 mL/d of saline, while the puerarin-treated group was given 100 mg/(kg•d) of puerarin for 17 days. The learning and memory abilities were evaluated by the Morris water maze test. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and Western blot analysis were carried out to observe changes in neuron morphology and in level of pMeCP2 in the hippocampus, respectively. The morphologies of rat hippocampal neurons in the puerarintreated group were markedly improved compared with the dementia group. The escape latency of the dementia group was significantly longer than the sham-operated group (Pplatform times of the dementia group were signifificantly decreased compared with the sham-operated group (P0.05). Western blot analysis showed no signifificant difference of MeCP2 expression among 3 groups (P>0.05). The expression of pMeCP2 in the dementia group was signifificantly increased compared with the sham-operated group, while it in the puerarin-treated group was signifificantly increased compared with the dementia group (Plearning and memory ablities in a rat model of VD.

  5. NEUROPSI battery subtest profile in subcortical vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Niures P.S. Matioli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of subtests of the NEUROPSI battery for differentiating subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD from Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Thirteen patients with mild SVaD, 15 patients with mild probable AD, and 30 healthy controls, matched for age, education and dementia severity (in the case of patients, were submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and NEUROPSI battery. The performance of AD and SVaD groups on NEUROPSI subtests was compared. The statistical analyses were performed using Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results were interpreted at the 5% significance level (p<0.05. Bonferroni's correction was applied to multiple comparisons (a=0.02. Results: SVaD and AD patients showed no statistical difference in MMSE scores (SVaD=20.8 and AD=21.0; p=1.0 or in NEUROPSI total score (SVaD=65.0 and AD=64.3; p=0.56, suggesting a similar severity of dementia. The AD group performed worse on memory recall (<0.01 and SVaD group was worse in verbal fluency subtests (p=0.02. Conclusion: NEUROPSI's memory and language subtests can be an auxiliary tool for differentiating SVaD from AD.

  6. Global epidemiology of dementia : Alzheimer's and vascular types

    OpenAIRE

    Liara Rizzi; Idiane Rosset; Matheus Roriz-Cruz

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia varies substantially worldwide. This is partially attributed to the lack of methodological uniformity among studies, including diagnostic criteria and different mean population ages. However, even after considering these potential sources of bias, differences in age-adjusted dementia prevalence still exist among regions of the world. In Latin America, the prevalence of dementia is higher than expected for its level of population aging. This phenomenon occurs due to ...

  7. Small vascular and Alzheimer disease-related pathologic determinants of dementia in the oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinka, Lidia; Kövari, Enikö; Gold, Gabriel; Hof, Patrick R; Herrmann, François R; Bouras, Constantin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2010-12-01

    The relative contributions of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular lesion burden to the occurrence of cognitive decline are more difficult to define in the oldest-old than they are in younger cohorts. To address this issue, we examined 93 prospectively documented autopsy cases from 90 to 103 years with various degrees of AD lesions, lacunes, and microvascular pathology. Cognitive assessment was performed prospectively using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. Neuropathologic evaluation included the Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) and β-amyloid (Aβ) protein deposition staging and bilateral semiquantitative assessment of vascular lesions. Statistics included regression models and receiver operating characteristic analyses. Braak NFTs, Aβ deposition, and cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) predicted 30% of Clinical Dementia Rating variability and 49% of the presence of dementia. Braak NFT and CMI thresholds yielded 0.82 sensitivity, 0.91 specificity, and 0.84 correct classification rates for dementia. Using these threshold values, we could distinguish 3 groups of demented cases and propose criteria for neuropathologic definition of mixed dementia, pure vascular dementia, and AD in very old age. Braak NFT staging and severity of CMI allow for defining most of demented cases in the oldest-old. Most importantly, single cutoff scores for these variables that could be used in the future to formulate neuropathologic criteria for mixed dementia in this age group were identified.

  8. Neuropsychological syndromes associated with Alzheimer's/vascular dementia: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libon, David J; Drabick, Deborah A G; Giovannetti, Tania; Price, Catherine C; Bondi, Mark W; Eppig, Joel; Devlin, Kathryn; Nieves, Christine; Lamar, Melissa; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Nation, Daniel A; Brennan, Laura; Au, Rhoda; Swenson, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic autopsy studies show mixed Alzheimer's disease (AD)/vascular pathology in many patients. Moreover, clinical research shows that it is not uncommon for AD and vascular dementia (VaD) patients to be equally impaired on memory, executive, or other neurocognitive tests. However, this clinical heterogeneity has not been incorporated into the new diagnostic criteria for AD (Dubois et al., 2010; McKhann et al., 2011). The current research applied Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to a protocol of six neuropsychological parameters to identify phenotypic subtypes from a large group of AD/VaD participants. Follow-up analyses examined difference between groups on neuroradiological parameters and neuropsychological measures of process and errors. 223 AD/VaD patients were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological protocol. Measures of whole brain and hippocampal volume were available for a portion of the sample (n = 76). LCA identified four distinct groups: moderate/mixed dementia (n = 54; 24.21%), mild/mixed dementia (n = 91; 40.80%); dysexecutive (n = 49, 21.97%), and amnestic (n = 29, 13.00%). Follow-up analyses comparing the groups on neuropsychological process and error scores showed that the dysexecutive group exhibited difficulty sustaining mental set. The moderate/mixed group evidenced pronounced impairment on tests of lexical retrieval/naming along with significant amnesia. Amnestic patients also presented with gross amnesia, but showed relative sparing on other neuropsychological measures. Mild/mixed patients exhibited milder memory deficits that were intermediary between the amnestic and moderate/mixed groups. There are distinct neuropsychological profiles in patients independent of clinical diagnosis, suggesting that the two are not wholly separate and that this information should be integrated into new AD diagnostic paradigms.

  9. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion: a key mechanism leading to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. Closing the translational gap between rodent models and human vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Jessica; Kitamura, Akihiro; Hase, Yoshiki; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N; Horsburgh, Karen

    2017-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that vascular risk factors contribute to neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment and dementia. While there is considerable overlap between features of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), it appears that cerebral hypoperfusion is the common underlying pathophysiological mechanism which is a major contributor to cognitive decline and degenerative processes leading to dementia. Sustained cerebral hypoperfusion is suggested to be the cause of white matter attenuation, a key feature common to both AD and dementia associated with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). White matter changes increase the risk for stroke, dementia and disability. A major gap has been the lack of mechanistic insights into the evolution and progress of VCID. However, this gap is closing with the recent refinement of rodent models which replicate chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In this review, we discuss the relevance and advantages of these models in elucidating the pathogenesis of VCID and explore the interplay between hypoperfusion and the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) protein, as it relates to AD. We use examples of our recent investigations to illustrate the utility of the model in preclinical testing of candidate drugs and lifestyle factors. We propose that the use of such models is necessary for tackling the urgently needed translational gap from preclinical models to clinical treatments. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Occult CSF flow disturbance of patients with Alzheimer type dementia and vascular dementia; Results from Iotrolan CT-cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Kazuhiko; Sugita, Yasuko; Funaki, Chiaki (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1994-04-01

    We report results of Iotrolan CT-cisternography on 41 demented patients (13 males and 28 females) to find 'occult normal pressure hydrocephalus'. These patients were suspected to have CSF flow disturbance from clinical symptoms and simple brain CT scan findings. Their average age, duration of dementia, and score of Hasegawa's dementia scale (HDS) were 76.2 years, 5.9 years, 9.5/32.5,respectively. Before performing CT-cisternography, clinical diagnosis for their dementia were vascular dementia in 18 patients. Alzheimer type dementia in 12, suspect of NPH in 5, and other diagnoses in 6. From the results of cisternography, we found 13 patients with CSF flow disturbance (contrast material remained in the ventricle more than 48 hours after injection), and 17 patients with normal CSF flow. The former showed lower scores of HDS, higher urinary incontinence scores and smaller areas of the interhemispheric fissure on CT scan than the latter. But the former showed no significant difference from the latter in the average age, duration of dementia and width of the ventricles. (author).

  11. Efficacy Of Rivastigmine And Donepezil On Cognitive Impairment Of Vascular Dementia - Some Preliminary Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular Dementia (VaD is common, global, disabling and a rather neglected, age related dementia. It is important to identify and treat it since cognitive impairment produces dysfunction in occupational and social life. Moreso, due to increase in geriatric population, incidence and prevalence of VaD is also increasing. Aim: We share our observations on efficacy of Rivastigmine and Donepezil (drugs advocated for improving cognition in dementia in patients of VaD. Material and Method: This was a non-randomized study based on clinical evaluation. We selected 53 patients suffering from VaD (as per clinical and radiological criteria. Their age range was 55-78 years (mean 65.3 + 6.2 yrs. Clinical, biochemical and radiological (Cranial CT and MRI evaluation was done to establish etiology. Cognition was measured using modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE which was repeated 2 times, at interval of 3 months. We observed the role of Rivastigmine in 14 and Donepezil in 19 patients of VaD. The change in MMSE score was compared with 20 control patients of VaD. The associated risk factors like hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia etc. were managed. Acetyl Salicylic Acid (ASA in dose of 150mg/day was given as an antiplatelet agent to all 53 patients in this study. Results: At end of study, no statistically significant improvement was observed in MMSE score in any of the 53 patients. Improvement in MMSE score (though statistically insignificant was observed with Rivastigmine in 11 and with Donepezil in 14 patients. Progressive decline in MMSE score was observed in 14 (70% control patients of VaD who did not receive rivastigmine or donepezil. Conclusion - Rivastigmine and Donepezil are beneficial in halting deterioration of dementia in patients suffering from VaD.

  12. Effect of alcohol and tobacco use on vascular dementia: a matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Paul Y; Caldwell, Casey R; Targonski, Paul V

    2011-01-01

    Vascular dementia is the second most common type of dementia in the United States. The underlying association of tobacco and alcohol with vascular dementia is not completely understood. Determine the relationship of tobacco and alcohol use with the development of vascular dementia (VaD). This was a matched case-control study of subjects living in Olmsted County, MN. Cases of VaD were identified through medical record abstraction using conventionally accepted definitions of VaD, using the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Ensignement en Neurosicences ( NINDS-AIRENS) criteria and were matched to controls by gender and age within 3 years among persons free of dementia on the index date. Exposure data for alcohol and tobacco use were abstracted by trained nurses, along with demographic, lifestyle, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, and vascular comorbid disease characteristics. Matched conditional logistic regression for univariate and multivariate evaluation of the association of tobacco and alcohol use with VaD was utilized. Current alcohol exposure was associated with a decreased risk of VaD with an odds ratio of 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.74). This protective effect of alcohol was seen in men, women, and subjects under 80 years of age. Tobacco use was not associated with VaD in univariate and multivariate analysis, and stratified analysis did not reveal any subgroup-specific associations between tobacco use and VaD in the study population. Current alcohol use appears to have protective effects against the development of vascular dementia. The effects are more pronounced in subjects under age 80. This may reflect the direct vascular effects of alcohol on the vascular system or may represent a surrogate for better social or functional status. Previous alcohol use was not protective. Tobacco use was not a risk factor for VaD status, which was possibly an indication of survivorship

  13. Vascular risk profiles for dementia and Alzheimer's disease in very old people: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chengxuan; Xu, Weili; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have linked individual vascular factors to dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated different vascular risk profiles in relation to dementia and AD among very old people. A standardized follow-up procedure was applied three times to a dementia-free cohort (n=1270, age >or= 75) over a nine-year period to detect dementia and AD cases using the DSM-III-R criteria. We examined two vascular risk profiles, which were scored by counting the number of corresponding vascular factors: 1) atherosclerotic profile included systolic pressure >or= 160 mmHg, diabetes/prediabetes, and stroke; and 2) cerebral hypoperfusion profile constituted diastolic pressure dementia, including 328 AD cases. All components of vascular profiles were significantly or marginally associated with increased dementia risk. The risk of dementias was increased with increasing score of both risk profiles (p for trend or= 2 in either profile had an approximately twofold-increased risk for dementia and AD. These data suggest that aggregation of atherosclerotic- and hypoperfusion-related vascular factors increases the risk of dementia in very old people. Severe cerebral atherosclerosis and insufficient perfusion are involved in the development of dementia including AD.

  14. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...

  15. Discrimination of stroke-related mild cognitive impairment and vascular dementia using EEG signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Islam, Mohd Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2017-11-08

    Stroke survivors are more prone to developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Dementia detection is a challenge for supporting personalized healthcare. This study analyzes the electroencephalogram (EEG) background activity of 5 vascular dementia (VaD) patients, 15 stroke-related patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 15 control healthy subjects during a working memory (WM) task. The objective of this study is twofold. First, it aims to enhance the discrimination of VaD, stroke-related MCI patients, and control subjects using fuzzy neighborhood preserving analysis with QR-decomposition (FNPAQR); second, it aims to extract and investigate the spectral features that characterize the post-stroke dementia patients compared to the control subjects. Nineteen channels were recorded and analyzed using the independent component analysis and wavelet analysis (ICA-WT) denoising technique. Using ANOVA, linear spectral power including relative powers (RP) and power ratio were calculated to test whether the EEG dominant frequencies were slowed down in VaD and stroke-related MCI patients. Non-linear features including permutation entropy (PerEn) and fractal dimension (FD) were used to test the degree of irregularity and complexity, which was significantly lower in patients with VaD and stroke-related MCI than that in control subjects (ANOVA; p ˂ 0.05). This study is the first to use fuzzy neighborhood preserving analysis with QR-decomposition (FNPAQR) dimensionality reduction technique with EEG background activity of dementia patients. The impairment of post-stroke patients was detected using support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN) classifiers. A comparative study has been performed to check the effectiveness of using FNPAQR dimensionality reduction technique with the SVM and kNN classifiers. FNPAQR with SVM and kNN obtained 91.48 and 89.63% accuracy, respectively, whereas without using the FNPAQR exhibited 70 and 67.78% accuracy for SVM and k

  16. Neuronal changes after chronic high blood pressure in animal models and its implication for vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo; Flores-Gómez, Gabriel D; de Jesús Gomez-Villalobos, Ma

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dementia is a devastating disorder not only for the patient, but also for the family because this neurocognitive disorder breaks the patient's independence, and leads to family care of the patient with a high cost for the family. This complex disorder alters memory, learning, judgment, emotional control and social behavior and affects 4% of the elderly world population. The high blood pressure or arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, which in most cases leads to vascular dementia. Interestingly, this neurocognitive disorder starts after long lasting hypertension, which is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow or hypoperfusion, and complete or incomplete ischemia with cortical thickness. Animal models have been generated to elucidate the pathophysiology of this disorder. It is known that dendritic complexity determines the receptive synaptic contacts, and the loss of dendritic spine and arbor stability are strongly associated with dementia in humans. This review evaluates relevant data of human and animal models that have investigated the link between long-lasting arterial hypertension and neural morphological changes in the context of vascular dementia. We examined the effect of chronic arterial hypertension and aged in vascular dementia. Neural dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal hippocampus and nucleus accumbens after chronic hypertension was diskussed in the animal models of hypertension. Chronic hypertension reduced the dendritic length and spine density in aged rats. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Validation of clinical criteria for possible vascular dementia in the oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Jean-Pierre; Kövari, Enikö; Merlo, Marco; Canuto, Alessandra; Herrmann, François R; Bouras, Constantin; Gold, Gabriel; Hof, Patrick R; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2007-04-01

    Although vascular dementia (VaD) is a main pathology in nonagenarians and centenarians, the validity of clinical criteria for this diagnosis is unknown. We analyzed 110 autopsy cases and reported sensitivities and specificities of the State of California Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers (ADDTC) and National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS-AIREN) criteria for possible VaD as well as Hachinski ischemic score (HIS). Among them, there were 36 neuropathologically confirmed VaD cases. All criteria displayed comparable sensitivities (0.56-0.58). Specificities values were 0.74, 0.73 and 0.66, respectively. There was an age-related decrease on ADDTC criteria sensitivity due to the fact that 42% of pure VaD cases did not present with stroke. Thirty percent of mixed dementia (MD) cases were diagnosed as VaD by both NINDS-AIREN and ADDTC criteria. This proportion reached 45.9% for the HIS. These data demonstrate that the new diagnostic criteria for possible VaD do not provide a substantial gain of sensitivity compared to the HIS. Although their specificity was significantly lower in this age group compared to younger cohorts, all of them successfully exclude AD cases.

  18. Comparative neuropsychology of cortical and subcortical dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, M; Oscar-Berman, M

    1986-11-01

    The terms "cortical" and "subcortical" dementia are controversial; however, the clinical distinction between them is real. For example, although Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (prototypical of cortical and subcortical dementia, respectively) share clinical features, they differ in the presence of aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia in Alzheimer's disease but not in Parkinson's dementia. We review our studies aimed at clarifying the mechanisms underlying the differences between these neurological disorders. Experimental paradigms adopted from animal models were used to study the functional anatomy and neuropsychological characteristics of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The tasks administered include delayed alternation (DA) and delayed response (DR), which are sensitive to frontal system damage, and tactile discrimination learning (TOL) and reversal (TRL) paradigms sensitive to parietal system damage. Alzheimer's patients were significantly impaired on all tasks whereas Parkinsonians with dementia were impaired only on DR and TRL. Consideration of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological mechanisms involved in DA, DR, TOL, and TRL appears to have sharpened the distinction between Alzheimer's and Parkinson's dementia. Dementia in Alzheimer's disease may involve dorsolateral frontal, orbitofrontal and parietal systems. In contrast, dementia in Parkinson's disease may involve prominent dorsolateral frontal system damage.

  19. Diagnosis in vascular dementia, applying 'Cochrane diagnosis rules' to 'dementia diagnostic tools'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terence J; McCleery, Jenny

    2017-04-25

    In this issue of Clinical Science, Biesbroek and colleagues describe recent work on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cerebral lesion location and its association with cognitive decline. The authors conclude that diagnostic neuroimaging in dementia should shift from whole-brain evaluation to focused quantitative analysis of strategic brain areas. This commentary uses the review of lesion location mapping to discuss broader issues around studies of dementia test strategies. We draw upon work completed by the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group designed to improve design, conduct and reporting of dementia biomarker studies. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Systemic and Disease-Specific Risk Factors in Vascular Dementia: Diagnosis and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Jaul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the onset of vascular dementia (VaD in aging individuals, it is critical to detect clinically relevant vascular and systemic pathophysiological changes to signal the onset of its preceding prodromal stages. Identifying behavioral and neurobiological markers that are highly sensitive to VaD classification vs. other dementias is likely to assist in developing novel preventive treatment strategies that could delay the onset of disruptive psychomotor symptoms, decrease hospitalizations, and increase the quality of life in clinically-high-risk aging individuals. In light of empirical diagnostic and clinical findings associated with VaD pathophysiology, the current investigation will suggest a few clinically-validated biomarker measures of prodromal VaD cognitive impairments that are correlated with vascular symptomology, and VaD endophenotypes in non-demented aging people. In prodromal VaD individuals, distinguishing VaD from other dementias (e.g., Alzheimer's disease could facilitate specific early preventive interventions that significantly delay more severe cognitive deterioration or indirectly suppress the onset of dementia with vascular etiology. Importantly, the authors conclude that primary prevention strategies should examine aging individuals by employing comprehensive geriatric assessment approach, taking into account their medical history, and longitudinally noting their vascular, systemic, cognitive, behavioral, and clinical functional status. Secondary prevention strategies may include monitoring chronic medication as well as promoting programs that facilitate social interaction and every-day activities.

  1. Ultrasound subclinical markers in assessing vascular changes in cognitive decline and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarin, Vida; Morovic, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Aging is often associated with some cognitive impairment. Greater population life expectancy is one explanation for increased incidence of cognitive impairment cases. Large numbers of people with cognitive impairment and dementia is becoming one of the most important medical and social problems worldwide. Therefore, prevention of cognitive impairment is an imperative. Dementia includes a heterogeneous group of disorders, the most common being Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Most cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, and smoking, are not exclusively risk factors for vascular dementia, but also for Alzheimer's disease. Early changes in the blood vessel wall can be detected by early ultrasound screening methods which allow us to detect changes before the disease becomes clinically evident. Intracranial hemodynamics can be assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), functional TCD with various functional tests, and TCD detection of cerebral emboli. Extracranial circulation (carotid and vertebral arteries) can be assessed by means of color Doppler flow imaging. Novel ultrasound technology enables non-invasive, portable, bedside detection of early vascular changes such as arterial stiffness, measurement of the intima-media thickness, pulse-wave velocity, flow-mediated dilation, or endothelial dysfunction in order to obtain information necessary to determine more closely the relation between vascular status and disease development, so that the evolution of cardiovascular disease can be prevented or at least postponed. Early disease detection enables in-time management, and studies have shown that careful control of vascular risk factors can postpone or even reverse disease progression.

  2. Comorbid Medical Conditions in Vascular Dementia: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeych, Miguel E; Castilla-Puentes, Ruby

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the presence of comorbid medical conditions between patients with a vascular dementia (VaD) and a control group, from the Integrated Healthcare Information Services (IHCIS) database. VaD was defined by the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 290.40, 290.4, 290.41, 290.42, and, 290.43. An individual matching method was used to select the controls, which were matched to cases on a 15:1 ratio by age, gender, type of health plan, and pharmacy benefits. Alzheimer's disease, any other dementia or cognitive deficits associated were considered exclusion criteria. Among the IHCIS patients 60 years of age or older and full year of eligibility during 2010, there were 898 VaD patients, from which 63.6% were women. Concurrent presence of cerebrovascular disease, atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation were found at 12.6, 4.6, 2.8, and 1.7 times higher in VaD patients, respectively. Compared to controls, VaD patients had more septicemia, injuries, lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and urinary diseases (all with df = 897,1; p < 0.0001). The present study confirms that these four medical comorbidities are frequent complications of VaD and physicians should be alert to the presence of them in patients with VaD.

  3. Midlife vs late-life depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: differential effects for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Deborah E; Yaffe, Kristine; Byers, Amy L; McCormick, Mark; Schaefer, Catherine; Whitmer, Rachel A

    2012-05-01

    Depression and dementia are common in older adults and often co-occur, but it is unclear whether depression is an etiologic risk factor for dementia. To clarify the timing and nature of the association between depression and dementia. We examined depressive symptoms assessed in midlife (1964-1973) and late life (1994-2000) and the risks of dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) (2003-2009) in a retrospective cohort study. Depressive symptoms were categorized as none, midlife only, late life only, or both. Cox proportional hazards models (age as timescale) adjusted for demographics and medical comorbidities were used to examine depressive symptom category and risk of dementia, AD, or VaD. Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California. Thirteen thousand five hundred thirty-five long-term Kaiser Permanente members. Any medical record diagnosis of dementia or neurology clinic diagnosis of AD or VaD. Subjects had a mean (SD) age of 81.1 (4.5) years in 2003, 57.9% were women, and 24.2% were nonwhite. Depressive symptoms were present in 14.1% of subjects in midlife only, 9.2% in late life only, and 4.2% in both. During 6 years of follow-up, 22.5% were diagnosed with dementia (5.5% with AD and 2.3% with VaD). The adjusted hazard of dementia was increased by approximately 20% for midlife depressive symptoms only (hazard ratio, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.07-1.32]), 70% for late-life symptoms only (1.72 [1.54-1.92]), and 80% for both (1.77 [1.52-2.06]). When we examined AD and VaD separately, subjects with late-life depressive symptoms only had a 2-fold increase in AD risk (hazard ratio, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.67-2.55]), whereas subjects with midlife and late-life symptoms had more than a 3-fold increase in VaD risk (3.51 [2.44-5.05]). Depressive symptoms in midlife or in late life are associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. Depression that begins in late life may be part of the AD prodrome, while recurrent depression may be

  4. Atrial fibrillation is independently associated with senile, vascular, and Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T Jared; Weiss, J Peter; Crandall, Brian G; May, Heidi T; Bair, Tami L; Osborn, Jeffrey S; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Horne, Benjamin D; Lappe, Donald L; Day, John D

    2010-04-01

    The aging population has resulted in more patients living with cardiovascular disease, such as atrial fibrillation (AF). Recent focus has been placed on understanding the long-term consequences of chronic cardiovascular disease, such as a potential increased risk of dementia. This study sought to determine whether there is an association between AF and dementia and whether their coexistence is an independent marker of risk. A total of 37,025 consecutive patients from the large ongoing prospective Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study database were evaluated and followed up for a mean of 5 years for the development of AF and dementia. Dementia was sub-typed into vascular (VD), senile (SD), Alzheimer's (AD), and nonspecified (ND). Of the 37,025 patients with a mean age of 60.6 +/- 17.9 years, 10,161 (27%) developed AF and 1,535 (4.1%) developed dementia (179 VD, 321 SD, 347 AD, 688 ND) during the 5-year follow-up. Patients with dementia were older and had higher rates of hypertension, coronary artery disease, renal failure, heart failure, and prior strokes. In age-based analysis, AF independently was significantly associated with all dementia types. The highest risk was in the younger group (dementia diagnosis, the presence of AF was associated with a marked increased risk of mortality (VD: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38, P = .01; SD: HR = 1.41, P = .001; AD: HR = 1.45; ND: HR = 1.38, P dementia. Although dementia is strongly associated with aging, the highest risk of AD was in the younger group, in support of the observed association. The presence of AF also identified dementia patients at high risk of death. Copyright 2010 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Coagulation and fibrinolysis markers and risk of dementia. The Dutch Vascular Factors in Dementia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, M L; Breteler, M M; van Kooten, F; Haverkate, F; Meijer, P; Koudstaal, P J; Grobbee, D E; Kluft, C

    1998-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional case-control study among 277 subjects with dementia and 298 control subjects drawn from participants of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study among subjects aged 55 years or over, and from participants of the Rotterdam Stroke Databank, a hospital-based stroke registry, with the objective to evaluate the association of indicators of coagulability, fibrinogen, prothrombin fragments 1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), and indicators of fibrinolysis, plasmin-inhibitor complex, D-dimer and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) with dementia. Increased levels of TAT, D-dimer and t-PA activity were associated with an increased risk of dementia. Additional stratified analyses indicated that an increased TAT level was the primary factor related to dementia. The present study provides evidence that predominantly increased thrombin generation is associated with dementia.

  6. Effect of alcohol and tobacco use on vascular dementia: a matched case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi, Casey R Caldwell, Paul V TargonskiPrimary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: Vascular dementia is the second most common type of dementia in the United States. The underlying association of tobacco and alcohol with vascular dementia is not completely understood.Purpose: Determine the relationship of tobacco and alcohol use with the development of vascular dementia (VaD.Methods: This was a matched case-control study of subjects living in Olmsted County, MN. Cases of VaD were identified through medical record abstraction using conventionally accepted definitions of VaD, using the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Ensignement en Neurosicences (NINDS-AIRENS criteria and were matched to controls by gender and age within 3 years among persons free of dementia on the index date. Exposure data for alcohol and tobacco use were abstracted by trained nurses, along with demographic, lifestyle, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, and vascular comorbid disease characteristics. Matched conditional logistic regression for univariate and multivariate evaluation of the association of tobacco and alcohol use with VaD was utilized.Results: Current alcohol exposure was associated with a decreased risk of VaD with an odds ratio of 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.31–0.74. This protective effect of alcohol was seen in men, women, and subjects under 80 years of age. Tobacco use was not associated with VaD in univariate and multivariate analysis, and stratified analysis did not reveal any subgroup-specific associations between tobacco use and VaD in the study population.Conclusion: Current alcohol use appears to have protective effects against the development of vascular dementia. The effects are more pronounced in subjects under age 80. This may reflect the direct vascular effects of alcohol on the vascular system or may represent a surrogate

  7. Pathophysiology of white matter perfusion in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Rachel; Ashby, Emma L.; Wellington, Dannielle; Barrow, Vivienne M.; Palmer, Jennifer C.; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Esiri, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the contributors and physiological responses to white matter hypoperfusion in the human brain. We previously showed the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 in post-mortem human brain tissue correlates with the degree of ante-mortem ischaemia. In age-matched post-mortem cohorts of Alzheimer’s disease (n = 49), vascular dementia (n = 17) and control brains (n = 33) from the South West Dementia Brain Bank (Bristol), we have now examined the relationship between the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 and several other proteins involved in regulating white matter vascularity and blood flow. Across the three cohorts, white matter perfusion, indicated by the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1, correlated positively with the concentration of the vasoconstrictor, endothelin 1 (P = 0.0005), and negatively with the concentration of the pro-angiogenic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.0015). The activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme, which catalyses production of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II was not altered. In samples of frontal white matter from an independent (Oxford, UK) cohort of post-mortem brains (n = 74), we confirmed the significant correlations between the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 and both endothelin 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. We also assessed microvessel density in the Bristol (UK) samples, by measurement of factor VIII-related antigen, which we showed to correlate with immunohistochemical measurements of vessel density, and found factor VIII-related antigen levels to correlate with the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.0487), suggesting that upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor tends to increase vessel density in the white matter. We propose that downregulation of endothelin 1 and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the

  8. Vasoreactivity induced by acetazolamide in patients with vascular dementia versus Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likitjaroen, Yuttachai; Suwanwela, Nijasri C; Phanthumchinda, Kammant

    2009-08-15

    Acetazolamide vasoreactive test measures the increment of cerebral blood flow caused by compensatory vasodilatation ability of cerebral vessels which can be detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). This study aimed to compare the vascular reactivity in patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD and VaD patients were recruited from the King Chulalongkorn Hospital Dementia Clinic. Thai Mini-mental State Examination was used for dementia detection. AD and possible VaD were defined by NINCDS/ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. Patients with extracranial carotid artery stenosis >50% and intracranial artery stenosis were excluded. TCD examination was performed using DWL Multi Dop-T. TCD was performed on MCA with insonation depth between 45 and 60 mm. Baseline end diastolic velocity (EDV), mid systolic velocity (MSV) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) were recorded. The velocities were obtained at 2, 5, 10 and 20 min after acetazolamide (1000 mg) injection. Mean baseline velocities (Vo) and velocities after acetazolamide injection (Va) were compared. Percentage of mean increment velocities was calculated {[(Va-Vo)/Vo]x100%}. Percentage differences of mean velocity change from Vo to Va at each recorded minute were compared. SPSS for Windows version 11.5.0. was used. Nine AD (5 males) and 9 VaD (6 males) were selected. Average ages of VaD and AD groups were 66.11 years-old and 75.22 years-old respectively. Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) score in VaD and AD were 21.13 and 19.00. Mean baseline EDV and MSV in VaD were higher than AD but mean PSV was lower. The percentage of velocity change after acetazolamide in AD was higher than VaD at 5, 10 and 20 min. However the differences were not statistically significant. Acetazolamide vasoreactive test using TCD may be the additional criterion to differentiate VaD from AD. Further study with more number of subjects for the study or higher dose of acetazolamide may be needed to reveal the

  9. Diabetes and other vascular risk factors for dementia : Which factor matters most? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenborg, Raoul P.; van den Berg, Esther; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2008-01-01

    Vascular risk factors, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidaemia often co-occur. Each of these factors has been associated with an increased risk of dementia, but it is uncertain which factor imposes the greatest risk. Moreover, the effect of age at time of exposure may differ

  10. [Is dementia preventable through intensive vascular care? The preDIVA trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charante, E.P.M. van; Richard, E.; Eurelings, L.S.; Dalen, J.W. van; Ligthart, S.A.; Bussel, E.F. van; Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.; Vermeulen, M; Gool, W.A. van

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether intensive vascular care in GP practices can prevent dementia in a population of community-dwelling older people. METHOD: This pragmatic cluster-randomised open-label study (ISRCTN29711771) was conducted in persons aged 70-78 years who were registered with Dutch GP

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta42/phosphorylated tau ratio discriminates between Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Daniëlle; Jansen, René W M M; Kremer, H P H; Verbeek, Marcel M

    BACKGROUND: The differentiation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from vascular dementia (VaD) is hampered by clinical diagnostic criteria with disappointing sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau protein (t-tau),

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta42/phosphorylated tau ratio discriminates between Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, D. de; Jansen, R.W.M.M.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The differentiation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from vascular dementia (VaD) is hampered by clinical diagnostic criteria with disappointing sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau protein (t-tau),

  13. The overlap between neurodegenerative and vascular factors in the pathogenesis of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadecola, Costantino

    2010-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that cerebrovascular dysfunction plays a role not only in vascular causes of cognitive impairment but also in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vascular risk factors and AD impair the structure and function of cerebral blood vessels and associated cells (neurovascular unit), effects mediated by vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. Injury to the neurovascular unit alters cerebral blood flow regulation, depletes vascular reserves, disrupts the blood-brain barrier, and reduces the brain's repair potential, effects that amplify the brain dysfunction and damage exerted by incident ischemia and coexisting neurodegeneration. Clinical-pathological studies support the notion that vascular lesions aggravate the deleterious effects of AD pathology by reducing the threshold for cognitive impairment and accelerating the pace of the dementia. In the absence of mechanism-based approaches to counteract cognitive dysfunction, targeting vascular risk factors and improving cerebrovascular health offers the opportunity to mitigate the impact of one of the most disabling human afflictions.

  14. Prediction of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter using CHADS2 score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ruey-Hsing; Chiu, Chun-Chih; Huang, Chin-Chou; Chan, Wan-Leong; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chung, Chia-Min; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Leu, Hsin-Bang

    2016-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of dementia. However, limited data are available on the predictors of dementia in patients with AF. This study aimed to evaluate whether the CHADS2 score could be a useful tool for risk stratification with regard to dementia occurrence among patients with AF. AF patients were identified from the National Health Insurance sampling database, which has accumulated a total of 1,000,000 participants since 2000. After excluding patients diagnosed with dementia prior to the index day of enrollment, CHADS2 score was measured to investigate its association with the occurrence of dementia, including vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. During the mean follow-up period of 3.71 ± 2.78 years, 1135 dementia cases (7.36%) were identified, including 241 cases of vascular dementia and 894 cases of Alzheimer's disease. In multivariate analysis, an increase of 1 point in the CHADS2 score was independently associated with a 54% increase in the risk of vascular dementia (hazard ratio = 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-1.69; p vascular dementia as well as Alzheimer's disease in patients with AF. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  15. Vascular Disease and Dementias: Paradigm Shifts to Drive Research in New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Mitchel A.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Wolk, David A.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Arnold, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease was once considered the principal cause of aging-related dementia. More recently, however, research emphasis has shifted to studies of progressive neurodegenerative disease processes such as those giving rise to neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and Lewy bodies. While these studies have led to critical insights and potential therapeutic strategies, interest in the role of systemic and cerebrovascular disease mechanisms waned and has received relatively less attention and research support. Recent studies suggest that vascular disease mechanisms play an important role in the risk for aging-related cognitive decline and disorders. Vascular disease frequently coexists with cognitive decline in aging individuals, shares many risk factors with dementias considered to be of the “Alzheimer-type,” and is observed more frequently than expected in postmortem material from individuals manifesting “specific” disease stigmata such as abundant plaques and tangles. Considerable difficulties have emerged in attempting to classify dementias as being related to vascular vs. neurodegenerative causes, and several systems of criteria have been used. Despite multiple attempts, a lack of consensus remains regarding the optimal means of incorporating vascular disease into clinical diagnostic, neurocognitive, or neuropathologic classification schemes for dementias. We propose here an integrative, rather than a strictly taxonomic approach to the study and elucidation of how vascular disease mechanisms contribute to the development of dementias. We argue that, instead of discriminating between, e.g., “Alzheimer’s disease,” “vascular dementia,” and other diseases, there is a greater need to focus clinical and research efforts on elucidating specific pathophysiologic mechanisms that contribute to dementia phenotypes and neuropathologic outcomes. We outline a multi-tiered strategy, beginning with clinical and public health interventions that can be

  16. Role of neuropsychological assessment in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Maria Lima Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of dementia increases significantly from the age of 65 years, doubling every five years thereafter. Alzheimer's disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD constitute the two main dementia types. Differentiating them encompasses anamnesis, neurological examination, laboratory and neuroimaging exams and neuropsychological assessment. Neuropsychological assessment produces different findings for each dementia type, and reveals those areas most impaired as well as those most preserved. The aim of the present article was to describe the role of neuropsychology in diagnosing dementia and achieving a differential diagnosis between AD and VaD. A general overview follows of the most widely known instruments used to assess cognitive function in dementia, and the cognitive changes seen in AD and VaD. The conclusion drawn was that there is significant overlap in cognitive changes between both these dementia types, while each type has its own specific characteristics which are identifiable and quantifiable on neuropsychological assessments and provide the basis for reaching a differential diagnosis.

  17. Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Vascular Dementia: An Overview of Scientific Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a leading cause of mental and physical disability. Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease (AD constituting 10–15% of the dementia population. Currently there are no approved pharmaceutical options for VaD and the conventional anti-AD therapies provide only modest, short-term relief of symptoms associated with VaD. Herbal medicines have been used for the management of dementia-like symptoms for centuries and may provide viable therapies for VaD due to their multicomponent and multitarget approach. This review is designed to provide an updated overview on the current status of herbal medicine research, with an emphasis on Chinese herbal medicine, for the treatment of VaD or dementia. A case study is also provided to demonstrate the development process of a novel standardized complex herbal formulation for VaD. The article reveals some preliminary evidence to support the use of single and complex herbal preparations for VaD and dementia. Multiple issues in relation to clinical and preclinical research have been identified and future research directions are discussed.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of vascular damage in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biessels, GJ|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of cognitive impairment due to vascular brain damage, which is referred to as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Over the past decades, we have seen marked progress in detecting VCI, both through maturation of diagnostic concepts and through advances in brain

  19. Validity of the clinical diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia: a critical review. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederkehr, Sandra; Simard, Martine; Fortin, Claudette; van Reekum, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This review is the second of a two-part series focusing on the validity of eight clinical criteria for vascular dementia. Sixteen studies were selected according to their purposes and quality of experimental design. The analysis revealed that criteria for vascular dementia are not interchangeable; the eight criteria sets yielded different sensitivity and specificity results, as well as marked variability in incidence, prevalence, and frequency rates. Although the State of California Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers (ADDTC) were the most sensitive and useful criteria in clinical settings and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) were the most specific and useful criteria in research, all criteria shared similar flaws. A definition of the cognitive syndrome, associated vascular causes or lesions, and methods of assessment should be clearly specified in the future. Suggestions for improvement are made.

  20. miRNAs Plasma Profiles in Vascular Dementia: Biomolecular Data and Biomedical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, Marco; Bosco, Paolo; Tamburello, Lucia; Barbagallo, Cristina; Condorelli, Angelo G.; Tornitore, Mariangela; Spada, Rosario S.; Barbagallo, Davide; Scalia, Marina; Elia, Maurizio; Di Pietro, Cinzia; Purrello, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a pathogenetically heterogeneous neuropsychiatric syndrome, mainly characterized by cognitive impairment. Among dementias, it is second by incidence after Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). VaD biomolecular bases have been poorly characterized, but vascular-linked factors affecting the CNS and its functions are generally hypothesized to perform a major role, together with cardiovascular and immunological factors. miRNAs, which perform critically important biomolecular roles within cell networks, are also found in biological fluids as circulating miRNAs (cmiRNAs). We hypothesized that differentially expressed (DE) cmiRNAs in plasma from VaD patients could be applied to diagnose VaD through liquid biopsies; these profiles also could allow to start investigating VaD molecular bases. By exploiting TaqMan Low-Density Arrays and single TaqMan assays, miR-10b*, miR29a-3p, and miR-130b-3p were discovered and validated as significantly downregulated DE cmiRNAs in VaD patients compared to unaffected controls (NCs). These miRNAs also were found to be significantly downregulated in a matched cohort of AD patients, but miR-130b-3p levels were lower in AD than in VaD. A negative correlation was detected between miR-29a and miR-130b expression and cognitive impairment in VaD and AD, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that decreased plasma levels of miR-10b*, miR29a-3p, and miR-130b-3p allow to discriminate VaD and AD patients from NCs. Furthermore, the concurrent downregulation of both miR-10b* and miR-130b-3p in VaD showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.789 (p < 0.0001) with 75% of sensitivity and 72% of specificity, whereas an AUC of 0.789 (p < 0.0001) with 92% of sensitivity and 81% of specificity was found for both in AD. The miRNAs profiles reported in this paper pave the way to translational applications to molecular VaD diagnosis, but they also should allow to further investigate on its molecular bases. PMID

  1. White matter damage and glymphatic dysfunction in a model of vascular dementia in rats with no prior vascular pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Zacharek, Alex; Cui, Chengcheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Qingjiang; Lu, Mei; Zhang, Talan; Liu, Amy; Chen, Jieli

    2017-02-01

    We investigated cognitive function, axonal/white matter (WM) changes and glymphatic function of vascular dementia using a multiple microinfarction (MMI) model in retired breeder (RB) rats. The MMI model induces significant (p < 0.05) cognitive decline that worsens with age starting at 2 weeks, which persists until at least 6 weeks after MMI. RB rats subjected to MMI exhibit significant axonal/WM damage identified by decreased myelin thickness, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell numbers, axon density, synaptic protein expression in the cortex and striatum, cortical neuronal branching, and dendritic spine density in the cortex and hippocampus compared with age-matched controls. MMI evokes significant dilation of perivascular spaces as well as water channel dysfunction indicated by decreased Aquaporin-4 expression around blood vessels. MMI-induced glymphatic dysfunction with delayed cerebrospinal fluid penetration into the brain parenchyma via paravascular pathways as well as delayed waste clearance from the brain. The MMI model in RB rats decreases Aquaporin-4 and induces glymphatic dysfunction which may play an important role in MMI-induced axonal/WM damage and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rob; Radhakrishnan, Raghavakurup

    2012-09-10

    Dementia is characterised by chronic, global, non-reversible deterioration in memory, executive function, and personality. Speech and motor function may also be impaired. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments on cognitive symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? What are the effects of treatments on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 49 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine), antidepressants (clomipramine, fluoxetine, imipramine, sertraline), antipsychotics (haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone), aromatherapy, benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam), cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), cognitive stimulation, exercise, ginkgo biloba, memantine, mood stabilisers (carbamazepine, sodium valproate/valproic acid), music therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), omega 3 (fish oil), reminiscence therapy, and statins.

  3. Copeptin, a Marker of Vasopressin, Predicts Vascular Dementia but not Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik D; Melander, Olle; Elmståhl, Sölve; Lethagen, Eva; Minthon, Lennart; Pihlsgård, Mats; Nägga, Katarina

    2016-04-12

    Copeptin is a reliable surrogate marker for the neurohypophyseal hormone vasopressin. Elevated plasma level of copeptin has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk. To investigate the association between copeptin and risk of dementia. In all, 18,240 individuals from Malmö, Sweden, were examined between 2002 and 2006 (mean age 69.3 years, 69.8% men). Incident cases of dementia until 31 December 2009 were identified by linkage with the Swedish National Patient Register. To validate the dementia diagnoses, medical records as well as laboratory and neuroimaging data were carefully reviewed. Baseline level of copeptin was measured in frozen plasma in: (1) all participants who were diagnosed with dementia during follow-up, (2) a random sample of 5100 individuals of the cohort. During a median follow-up of 4.2 years, there were 374 incident dementia cases (age range 60-83 years at baseline): 120 were classified as Alzheimer's disease (AD), 84 as vascular dementia (VaD), and 102 as mixed dementia. In logistic regressions adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, baseline level of copeptin predicted incident VaD (Odds ratio (OR) 1.30 per 1 SD increase in log copeptin, 95% CI 1.03-1.64). Copeptin did not predict incidence of all-cause dementia (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18), AD (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.79-1.18), or mixed dementia (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.68-1.05). Elevated plasma level of copeptin is a risk marker for incident VaD, but not for incident AD. This suggests that the vasopressin hormonal system might be involved in the development of VaD.

  4. Frailty syndrome and the risk of vascular dementia: the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Scafato, Emanuele; Frisardi, Vincenza; Seripa, Davide; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Maggi, Stefania; Imbimbo, Bruno P; Galluzzo, Lucia; Baldereschi, Marzia; Gandin, Claudia; Di Carlo, Antonio; Inzitari, Domenico; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Pilotto, Alberto; Panza, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Frailty is a clinical syndrome generally associated with a greater risk for adverse outcomes such as falls, disability, institutionalization, and death. Cognition and dementia have already been considered as components of frailty, but the role of frailty as a possible determinant of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) has been poorly investigated. We estimated the predictive role of frailty syndrome on incident dementia and its subtypes in a nondemented, Italian, older population. We evaluated 2581 individuals recruited from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging sample population consisting of 5632 subjects aged 65 to 84 years and with a 3.9-year median follow-up. A phenotype of frailty according to a modified measurement of Cardiovascular Health Study criteria was operationalized. Dementia, AD, and VaD were classified using current published criteria. Over a 3.5-year follow-up, 65 of 2581 (2.5%) older subjects, 16 among 252 frail individuals (6.3%), of which 9 were affected by VaD (3.6%), developed overall dementia. In a proportional hazards model, frailty syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of overall dementia (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.85; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-3.40) and, in particular, VaD (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-7.17). The risk of AD or other types of dementia did not significantly change in frail individuals in comparison with subjects without frailty syndrome. In our large population-based sample, frailty syndrome was a short-term predictor of overall dementia and VaD. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia; Marklagerveraenderungen bei neurodegenerativen und vaskulaeren Demenzerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supprian, T. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik, Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 66421, Homburg (Germany); Kessler, H.; Falkai, P. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Retz, W.; Roesler, M. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Institut fuer gerichtliche Psychologie und Psychiatrie, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg (Germany); Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetskliniken des Saarlandes, Homburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.) [German] Die Zuordnung einer Demenzerkrankung zu einem neurodegenerativen Pathomechanismus, wie der Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ (DAT) oder einem vaskulaeren Pathomechanismus, kann trotz der Verfuegbarkeit bildgebender Verfahren Probleme bereiten. Ueberlappungen neurodegenerativer und vaskulaerer Mechanismen sind haeufig. Mikroangiopathische Veraenderungen des Marklagers finden sich bei einem hohen Anteil von Patienten mit der klinischen Verlaufsform einer Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ. Es ist unklar, ob es sich um eine Koinzidenz zweier Pathomechanismen handelt oder ob eine wechselseitige Beeinflussung stattfindet. Die hohe Sensitivitaet der Magnetresonanztomographie bei der Erfassung mikroangiopathischer Veraenderungen des Marklagers koennte dazu fuehren, dass zu vaskulaere Demenzerkrankungen haeufig diagnostiziert werden. Der Einfluss mikroangiopathischer Veraenderungen des Marklagers auf den Demenzverlauf wird kontrovers diskutiert. Die vorgelegte Arbeit gibt eine Uebersicht ueber die aktuellen Konzepte zum Stellenwert von Marklagerveraenderungen bei Demenzerkrankungen. (orig.)

  6. Reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a risk factor for dementia in several cross-sectional studies. We tested the hypothesis that reduced plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia in the general...... population. METHODS: We measured baseline plasma 25(OH)D in 10,186 white individuals from the Danish general population. RESULTS: During 30 years of follow-up, 418 participants developed AD and 92 developed vascular dementia. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for AD were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI......], 0.95-1.64) for 25(OH)D less than 25 nmol/L vs. greater than or equal to 50 nmol/L, and 1.29 (95% CI, 1.01-1.66) for less than the 25th seasonally adjusted 25(OH)D percentile vs. more than the 50th seasonally adjusted 25(OH)D percentile. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for vascular dementia were...

  7. Impact of applying NINDS-AIREN criteria of probable vascular dementia to clinical and radiological characteristics of a stroke cohort with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wai Kwong; Chan, Sandra S M; Chiu, Helen F K; Ungvari, Gabor S; Wong, Ka Sing; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Mok, Vincent; Wong, K T; Richards, Polly S; Ahuja, Anil T

    2004-01-01

    There are no data concerning the relative representation of clinical vascular risk factors and radiological lesions in cases that have been ruled in and ruled out for probable vascular dementia (VaD) according to NINDS-AIREN criteria. Three months after their index stroke, a psychiatrist interviewed patients and made a diagnosis of VaD according to both DSM-IV and NINDS-AIREN criteria for probable VaD. Patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for VaD were divided into two groups: those who were ruled in and ruled out according to NINDS-AIREN criteria as probable VaD. Demographic characteristics, vascular risk factors, clinical features of the index stroke and radiological findings were then compared between the two groups. Of the 297 patients screened, 56 (18.8%) had a DSM-IV diagnosis of dementia. Among these demented patients, 55 (98.2%) and 22 (39.3%) fulfilled DSM-IV and NINDS-AIREN diagnosis of VaD, respectively. The concordance and level of agreement (kappa statistic) between DSM-IV and NINDS-AIREN diagnoses were 40% and 0.02, respectively. Reasons of failure to meet NINDS-AIREN criteria included the lack of temporal relationship between dementia and stroke (n = 20), the absence of focal neurological signs and/or radiological evidence of stroke (n = 6) and both of the above (n = 7). There was no significant difference between the above two groups in terms of demographic data, features of index stroke, vascular risk factors and CT scan findings, except that leukoaraiosis (p = 0.021) and bilateral lesions (p = 0.015) were more frequent in subjects diagnosed according to NINDS-AIREN criteria of probable VaD. The difference between these two groups with respect to the number of lesions was borderline for significance (p = 0.052). The use of NINDS-AIREN criteria for VaD for case selection in poststroke dementia research may exclude a number of subjects with VaD.

  8. Activities in dementia care: A comparative assessment of activity types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokon, Elizabeth; Sauer, Philip E; Li, Yue

    2016-12-05

    This exploratory study compares the impact of five activity types on the well-being of institutionalized people with dementia: the intergenerational art program Opening Minds through Art, art and music therapies, creative activities, non-creative activities, and no activities at all. We validated the Scripps Modified Greater Cincinnati Chapter Well-Being Observational Tool, and used that instrument to systematically observe N = 67 people with dementia as they participated in different activity types. People with dementia showed the highest well-being scores during Opening Minds through Art compared to all other activities. No significant well-being differences were found between creative activities led by licensed art/music therapist versus regular activity staff. Furthermore, no significant well-being differences were found between creative and non-creative activities that were both led by regular activity staff. Overall, people with dementia benefit from participating in activities, regardless of the type (creative or non-creative), or who conducts them (licensed therapists or activity staff). However, in order for people with dementia to reach significantly high levels of overall well-being, we recommend that activities are specifically designed for people with dementia and incorporate a 1:1 ratio between people with dementia and well-trained volunteers/staff members. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Association of Ideal Cardiovascular Health With Vascular Brain Injury and Incident Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Beiser, Alexa; Enserro, Danielle; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Aparicio, Hugo; Satizabal, Claudia L; Himali, Jayandra J; Kase, Carlos S; Vasan, Ramachandran S; DeCarli, Charles; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-05-01

    The American Heart Association developed the ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) index as a simple tool to promote CVH; yet, its association with brain atrophy and dementia remains unexamined. Our aim was to investigate the prospective association of ideal CVH with vascular brain injury, including the 10-year risks of incident stroke and dementia, as well as cognitive decline and brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging, measured for ≈7 years. We studied 2750 stroke- and dementia-free Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort participants (mean age, 62±9 years; 45% men). Ideal CVH was quantified on a 7-point scale with 1 point awarded for each of the following: nonsmoking status, ideal body mass index, regular physical activity, healthy diet, as well as optimum blood pressure, cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose. Both recent (baseline) and remote (6.9 years earlier) ideal CVH scores were examined. Recent ideal CVH was associated with stroke (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.95), vascular dementia (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.81), frontal brain atrophy (P=0.003), and cognitive decline on tasks measuring visual memory and reasoning (Pvascular dementia, whole-brain atrophy, and cognitive decline, remote ideal CVH was associated with the incidence of all-cause dementia (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.97) and Alzheimer disease (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.98). Adherence to the American Heart Association's ideal CVH factors and behaviors, particularly in midlife, may protect against cerebrovascular disease and dementia. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a vascular component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Marina; Milà, Marta; Mir, Manzoor; Al-Baradie, Raid; Huertas, Sonia; Castejon, Cesar; Casas, Laura; Badenes, Dolors; Giménez, Nuria; Font, M. Angels; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Ysamat, Maria; Aguilar, Miguel; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common cause of dementia. Cerebral ischemia is a major risk factor for development of dementia. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTScan) is a complementary tool in the differential diagnoses of patients with incomplete or uncertain Parkinsonism. Additional application of DaTScan enables the categorization of Parkinsonian disease with dementia (PDD), and its differentiation from pure AD, and may further contribute to change the therapeutic decision. The aim of this study was to analyze the vascular contribution towards dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the utility of DaTScan for the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a clinical vascular component, and the association between neuropsychological function, vascular component and dopaminergic function on DaTScan. One-hundred and five patients with MCI or the initial phases of dementia were studied prospectively. We developed an initial assessment using neurologic examination, blood tests, cognitive function tests, structural neuroimaging and DaTScan. The vascular component was later quantified in two ways: clinically, according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and by structural neuroimaging using Wahlund Scale Total Score (WSTS). Early diagnosis of dementia was associated with an abnormal DaTScan. A significant association was found between a high WSTS and an abnormal DaTScan (p vascular component, followed by the VaD group, while MCI and pure AD showed similar WSTS. No significant associations were found between neuropsychological impairment and DaTScan independently of associated vascular component. DaTScan seems to be a good tool to discriminate, in a first clinical assessment, patients with MCI from those with established dementia. There was bigger general vascular affectation observable in MRI or CT in patients with abnormal dopaminergic uptake seen on DaTScan. PMID:26190980

  11. Prevalence of depression in stroke patients with vascular dementia in universiti kebangsaan malaysia medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, K F; Tan, H J; R, Rosdinom; Raymond, A A; M I, Norlinah; A, Shamsul; W Y, Nafisah

    2013-04-01

    Depression among patients with vascular dementia is frequently overlooked and potentially causes significant morbidity. There is limited data in Malaysia on the subject and this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression in vascular dementia (VaD) in UKMMC. This was a cross-sectional study involving diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM IV) criteria and who had a mini mental state examination (MMSE) score of less than 26. All patients were interviewed, examined clinically and their previous brain computer tomography (CT) were reviewed. The prevalence of depression was determined using the Cornell scale of depression. A total of 76 patients were recruited with a mean age of 70.5 ± 9.5 years. The median duration of illness was 2.0 (1.0-4.8) years. The prevalence of depression in the study population was 31.6%. The patients with depression had a significant older mean age (74.5±8.7 years old) compared to those without depression (68.6±9.4 years old). Patients with large artery stroke of less than 3 years had significant higher frequency of depression (53.6%) compared to patients with small artery stroke (23.8%) and patients with right sided large artery stroke had significantly higher frequency of depression compared to left (70% vs. 44.4%). Median MMSE score (17.0) for depressed patients was significantly lower compared with median MMSE score (22.5) for non depressed patients. Median Barthel Index (30.0) for depressed patients was significantly lower compared with median Barthel score for non depressed patients. Depression was prevalent among post stroke patients with VaD in UKMMC particularly for patients with older age, large artery stroke, right sided large artery stroke, low MMSE score and low Barthel Index. Early recognition of high risk patients is important in the holistic management of patients to prevent significant morbidity arising from depression.

  12. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of Donepezil in Vascular Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Gustavo C.; Salloway, Stephen; Black, Sandra E.; Royall, Donald R.; DeCarli, Charles; Weiner, Michael W.; Moline, Margaret; Kumar, Dinesh; Schindler, Rachel; Posner, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients with vascular dementia (VaD) fulfilling National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l’Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria. Methods This international, multicenter, 24-week trial was conducted from March 2003 to August 2005. Patients (N=974; mean age, 73.0 years) with probable or possible VaD were randomized 2:1 to receive donepezil 5 mg/d or placebo. Coprimary outcome measures were scores on the Vascular-Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale and Clinician’s Interview–Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview. Analyses were performed for the intent-to-treat population with the last-observation-carried-forward method. Results Compared with placebo, donepezil-treated patients showed significant improvement from baseline to end point on the Vascular-Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale (least-squares mean difference, −1.156; 95% CI, −1.98 to −0.33; Pdonepezil demonstrated stable cognition versus a decline in the placebo-treated group; in those without atrophy, cognition improved with donepezil versus relative stability with placebo. Results on secondary efficacy measures were inconsistent. The incidence of adverse events was similar across groups. Eleven deaths occurred in the donepezil group (1.7%), similar to rates previously reported for donepezil trials in VaD, whereas no deaths occurred in the placebo group. Conclusions Patients treated with donepezil 5 mg/d demonstrated significant improvement in cognitive, but not global, function. Donepezil was relatively well tolerated; adverse events were consistent with current labeling. Mortality in the placebo group was unexpectedly low. The differential treatment response of VaD patients by hippocampal size suggests that hippocampal imaging warrants further investigation for understanding VaD. PMID:20395618

  13. Functional Performance of Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yuh Shiau

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the functional performance of two major subtypes of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD, by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM, and to understand the need for assistance in performing activities of daily living. The subjects comprised 64AD and 21VaD patients who were recruited from two epidemiologic studies of dementia with a total of 3,931 community residents aged 65 years and above in southern Taiwan. The results showed that the severity of dementia was similar between the two groups. The mean score for AD was 82.7 and for VaD was 56.5 for total FIM (p < 0.05, 61.6 and 41.7 for the motor dimension (p < 0.05, and 21.1 and 15.7 for the cognitive dimension (p < 0.05. There were significant differences (p < 0.01 between AD and VaD in six FIM items and borderline or marginal significance (p < 0.05 in most of the FIM items. For AD patients, stairs, lower dressing, bathing, and tub/shower transfer were the most difficult items in the motor dimension, and it was memory in the cognitive dimension. For VaD patients, bathing, upper and lower dressing, and grooming were the most difficult items in the motor dimension, and it was problem solving in the cognitive dimension. VaD patients were more dependent on all FIM items and required more assistance than AD patients. The functional performances of dementia patients were significantly associated with dementia severity and subtypes, together accounting for 40% of the variability in total FIM. In conclusion, most dementia patients are dependent in daily activities and different types and severity of dementia lead to different disability profiles; individualized care is, therefore, most appropriate.

  14. Depression vs. Dementia: A comparative analysis of neuropsychological functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Leposavić; Ljubica Leposavić; Predrag Gavrilović

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of depression, detected comparatively specific profile of cognitive deficiencies, including the disorders of attention, memory and executive functions. Although the classical depression is recognized as psuedodementia, or reversible dementia, these two entities frequently overlap in the elder population. Many patients who are at first depressive, become demented later, and the initial stages of dementia are not rarely accompanied with ...

  15. Apraxia for differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from subcortical vascular dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Serhat Ozkan,1 Demet Ozbabalik Adapinar,1 Nese Tuncer Elmaci,2 Didem Arslantas31Department of Neurology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, Turkey; 2Department of Neurology, Marmara University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Public Health, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, TurkeyAbstract: Although ideomotor limb apraxia is considered to be a typical sign of cortical pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, it has been also reported in subcortical neurodegenerative diseases and vascular lesions. We aimed to investigate the difference between AD, subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients by means of ideomotor limb apraxia frequency and severity. Ninety-six AD, 72 SVaD, and 84 MCI patients were assessed with the mini-mental status examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating (CDR and the apraxia screening test of TULIA (AST. Apraxia was significantly more frequent in the AD patients (32.3% than in both of the SVaD (16.7% and MCI (4.8% patients. The frequency of apraxia was also significantly higher in SVaD patients than in MCI patients. AD patients had significantly lower apraxia scores than both SVaD and MCI patients. In addition, a significant difference was found between SVaD and MCI patients in terms of apraxia scores. These results suggest that the widespread belief of the association between apraxia and cortical dementias is not exactly correct. The significant difference between both of the dementia groups and the MCI patients suggests that the absence of apraxia can be an indicator for MCI diagnosis.Keywords: apraxia, Alzheimer’s disease, subcortical vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment

  16. Prestroke Vascular Pathology and the Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Poststroke Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portegies, Marileen L P; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Kamran; Koudstaal, Peter J; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-08-01

    Improved short-term survival after stroke has necessitated quantifying risk and risk factors of long-term sequelae after stroke (ie, recurrent stroke and dementia). This risk may be influenced by exposure to cardiovascular risk factors before the initial stroke. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, we determined the long-term risk of recurrent stroke and dementia, and the proportion of recurrent strokes and poststroke dementia cases that are attributable to prestroke cardiovascular risk factors (ie, the population attributable risk). We followed up 1237 patients with first-ever stroke and 4928 stroke-free participants, matched on age, sex, examination round, and stroke date (index date), for the occurrence of stroke or dementia. We calculated incidence rates in both groups and estimated the individual and combined population attributable risk of prestroke cardiovascular risk factors for both outcomes. Beyond 1 year after stroke, patients retained a 3-fold increased risk of recurrent stroke and an almost 2-fold increased risk of dementia compared with people without stroke. In total, 39% (95% confidence interval, 18%-66%) of recurrent strokes and 10% (95% confidence interval, 0%-91%) of poststroke dementia cases were attributable to prestroke cardiovascular risk factors. These percentages were similar for first-ever stroke and dementia in the matched stroke-free population. Long-term risks of recurrent stroke and poststroke dementia remain high and are substantially influenced by prestroke risk factors, emphasizing the need for optimizing primary prevention. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Cortical thickness and hippocampal shape in pure vascular mild cognitive impairment and dementia of subcortical type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Ye, B S; Yoon, C W; Noh, Y; Kim, G H; Cho, H; Jeon, S; Lee, J M; Kim, J-H; Seong, J-K; Kim, C-H; Choe, Y S; Lee, K H; Kim, S T; Kim, J S; Park, S E; Kim, J-H; Chin, J; Cho, J; Kim, C; Lee, J H; Weiner, M W; Na, D L; Seo, S W

    2014-05-01

    The progression pattern of brain structural changes in patients with isolated cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. To investigate the role of isolated CVD in cognitive impairment patients, patterns of cortical thinning and hippocampal atrophy in pure subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and pure subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) patients were characterized. Forty-five patients with svMCI and 46 patients with SVaD who were negative on Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography imaging and 75 individuals with normal cognition (NC) were recruited. Compared with NC, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited frontal, language and retrieval type memory dysfunctions, which in patients with PiB(-) SVaD were further impaired and accompanied by visuospatial and recognition memory dysfunctions. Compared with NC, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited cortical thinning in the frontal, perisylvian, basal temporal and posterior cingulate regions. This atrophy was more prominent and extended further toward the lateral parietal and medial temporal regions in patients with PiB(-) SVaD. Compared with NC subjects, patients with PiB(-) svMCI exhibited hippocampal shape deformities in the lateral body, whilst patients with PiB(-) SVaD exhibited additional deformities within the lateral head and inferior body. Our findings suggest that patients with CVD in the absence of Alzheimer's disease pathology can be demented, showing cognitive impairment in multiple domains, which is consistent with the topography of cortical thinning and hippocampal shape deformity. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.

  18. The impact of cerebrovascular aging on vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tuo; Sun, Yang; Lu, Zhengyu; Leak, Rehana K; Zhang, Feng

    2017-03-01

    As human life expectancy rises, the aged population will increase. Aging is accompanied by changes in tissue structure, often resulting in functional decline. For example, aging within blood vessels contributes to a decrease in blood flow to important organs, potentially leading to organ atrophy and loss of function. In the central nervous system, cerebral vascular aging can lead to loss of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, eventually resulting in cognitive and sensorimotor decline. One of the major of types of cognitive dysfunction due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). In spite of recent progress in clinical and experimental VCID research, our understanding of vascular contributions to the pathogenesis of VCID is still very limited. In this review, we summarize recent findings on VCID, with a focus on vascular age-related pathologies and their contribution to the development of this condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Is apolipoprotein E4 an important risk factor for vascular dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Troy T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that vascular dementia (VaD) represents the seconding leading cause of dementia in the USA, behind only Alzheimer's disease (AD), there remains a lack of consensus on the pathological criteria required for diagnosis of this disease. A number of clinical diagnostic criteria exist but are poorly validated and inconsistently applied. It is clear that vascular risk factors play an important role in the etiology of VaD, including hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Vascular risk factors may increase the risk for VaD by promoting inflammation, cerebral vascular disease, white matter lesions, and hippocampal sclerosis. Because vascular risk factors seem to impart a high degree of risk for conferring VaD, it seems logical that the apolipoprotein E (APOE) status of individuals may be important. APOE plays a critical role in transporting cholesterol in and out of the CNS and in AD it is known that harboring the APOE allele increases the risk of AD perhaps due to the improper functioning of this protein. The purpose of this review is to examine the important pathological features and risk factors for VaD and to provide a critical assessment of the current literature regarding whether or not apoE4 also confers disease risk in VaD. The preponderance of data suggests that harboring one or both APOE4 alleles elevates the risk for VaD, but not to the same extent as found in AD.

  20. Big data and data repurposing - using existing data to answer new questions in vascular dementia research

    OpenAIRE

    Doubal, Fergus N.; Ali, Myzoon; Batty, G. David; Charidimou, Andreas; Eriksdotter, Maria; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Kim, Yun-Hee; Levine, Deborah A.; Mead, Gillian; Mucke, Hermann A.M.; Ritchie, Craig; Roberts, Charlotte; Russ, Tom C.; Stewart, Robert; Whiteley, William

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: \\ud Traditional approaches to clinical research have, as yet, failed to provide effective treatments for vascular dementia (VaD). Novel approaches to collation and synthesis of data may allow for time and cost efficient hypothesis generating and testing. These approaches may have particular utility in helping us understand and treat a complex condition such as VaD.\\ud \\ud Methods: \\ud We present an overview of new uses for existing data to progress VaD research. The overview is ...

  1. Determinants of Dropout and Nonadherence in a Dementia Prevention Randomized Controlled Trial: The Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beishuizen, Cathrien R L; Coley, Nicola; Moll van Charante, Eric P; van Gool, Willem A; Richard, Edo; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2017-07-01

    To explore and compare sociodemographic, clinical, and neuropsychiatric determinants of dropout and nonadherence in older people participating in an open-label cluster-randomized controlled trial-the Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular care (preDIVA) trial-over 6 years. Secondary analysis. One hundred sixteen general practices in the Netherlands. Community-dwelling individuals aged 70 to 78 (N = 2,994). Nurse-led multidomain intervention targeting cardiovascular risk factors to prevent dementia. The associations between participant baseline sociodemographic (age, sex, education), clinical (medical history, disability, cardiovascular risk), neuropsychiatric (depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale-15), and cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination)) characteristics and dropout from the trial and nonadherence to the trial intervention were explored using multilevel logistic regression models. Older age, poorer cognitive function, more symptoms of depression, and greater disability were the most important determinants of dropout of older people. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors was not associated with dropout but was associated with nonadherence. Being overweight was a risk factor for nonadherence, whereas people with high blood pressure or a low level of physical exercise adhered better to the intervention. The association between poorer cognitive function and symptoms of depression and dropout was stronger in the control group than in the intervention group, and vice versa for increased disability. In a large dementia prevention trial with 6-year follow-up, dropout was associated with older age, poorer cognitive function, symptoms of depression, and disability at baseline. These findings can help to guide the design of future dementia prevention trials in older adults. The associations found between cardiovascular risk factors and nonadherence need to be confirmed in other older populations receiving cardiovascular prevention interventions

  2. Physical activity prevents progression for cognitive impairment and vascular dementia: results from the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Ferro, José M; Baezner, Hansjörg; Blahak, Christian; Poggesi, Anna; Hennerici, Michael; Pantoni, Leonardo; Fazekas, Franz; Scheltens, Philip; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Inzitari, Domenico

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to study if physical activity could interfere with progression for cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with white matter changes living independently. The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) prospective multinational European study evaluates the impact of white matter changes on the transition of independent elderly subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated yearly during 3 years with a comprehensive clinical protocol and cognitive assessment with classification of cognitive impairment and dementia according to usual clinical criteria. Physical activity was recorded during the clinical interview. MRI was performed at entry and at the end of the study. Six hundred thirty-nine subjects were included (74.1±5 years old, 55% women, 9.6±3.8 years of schooling, 64% physically active). At the end of follow-up, 90 patients had dementia (vascular dementia, 54; Alzheimer disease with vascular component, 34; frontotemporal dementia, 2), and 147 had cognitive impairment not dementia. Using Cox regression analysis, physical activity reduced the risk of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia: β=-0.45, P=0.002; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.85), dementia (β=-0.49, P=0.043; hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.98), and vascular dementia (β=-0.86, P=0.008; hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80), independent of age, education, white matter change severity, medial temporal atrophy, previous and incident stroke, and diabetes. Physical activity reduces the risk of cognitive impairment, mainly vascular dementia, in older people living independently.

  3. Serum indicators and endothelial function of hyperbaric oxygen combined with memantine and Aricept treatment of senile vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Yi Yin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find the effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with memantine and Aricept treatment of senile vascular dementia on serum indicators and endothelial function. Methods: A total of 126 cases of patients with senile vascular dementia treated in our hospital from March 2012 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects, treatment that patients received was retrospectively analyzed, and patients were divided into observation group 64 cases and control group 62 cases. Control group received memantine and Aricept therapy, observation group received hyperbaric oxygen combined with memantine and Aricept therapy, and then differences in levels of serum TGF-β, IGF-1 and ICAM-1, Hcy, MDA and SOD, NPY, sFas, sFasL and so on, ET and EPC between two groups were compared. Results: Serum TGF-β ad IGF-1 levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and ICAM-1 levels were lower than those of control group; Hcy and MDA levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group at corresponding points in time, and SOD levels were higher than those of control group; serum NPY, sFas, sFasL and Ca2+ values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and PON-1 value was higher than that of control group; ET values of observation group at various points in time after treatment were lower than those of control group, and EPC contents were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Hyperbaric oxygen combined with memantine and Aricept treatment for patients with senile vascular dementia can effectively improve the disease and optimize endothelial function, and it has active clinical significance.

  4. Environmental Enrichment Improves Spatial Learning and Memory in Vascular Dementia Rats with Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinhao; Li, Tao; Zhang, Lina; Ma, Jingxi; Yu, Lehua; Li, Changqing; Niu, Lingchuan

    2017-01-13

    BACKGROUND Environmental enrichment (EE) has a beneficial effect on some neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether environmental enrichment could improve the spatial learning and memory in rats with vascular dementia (VaD) and the mechanism underpinning it. MATERIAL AND METHODS Bilateral common carotid occlusion (2-vessel occlusion [2VO]) was used to develop the animal model of vascular dementia. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in the experiment and were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham group, 2VO group, sham+EE group, and 2VO+EE group (n=19/group). The 2VO group and 2VO+EE group underwent bilateral common carotid occlusion. Two different housing conditions were used in this experiment: standard environment (SE) and enriched environment (EE). Rats in the sham group and 2VO group were put into SE cages for 4 weeks, while rats in the sham+EE group and 2VO+EE group were put in EE cages for 4 weeks. The Morris water maze and Y-maze were used to assess spatial learning and memory. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL. The damage of neurons in the hippocampus was assessed by Nissl staining. The level of wnt pathway proteins were detected by Western blot. RESULTS Compared with the 2VO group, the rats in the 2VO+EE group had better behavioral performance, fewer apoptotic neurons, and more surviving neurons. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of wnt pathway proteins were higher in 2VO+EE rats than in the 2VO group. CONCLUSIONS Environmental enrichment can improve the spatial learning and memory in rats with vascular dementia, and the mechanism may be related to activation of the wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.

  5. Cerebral blood flow single-photon emission tomography with {sup 123}I-IMP in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Gotoh, Chiharu; Yokoyama, Sakura; Daitoh, Nobuyuki [Narita Memorial Hospital, Toyohashi, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow differences between patients with vascular dementia, patients with multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction, and age-matched controls were examined. Thirty four patients with vascular dementia (VD) were selected from consecutive referrals to the Memory Clinic at Narita Memorial Hospital. All the patients had routine assessment including history, physical and neurological examinations, neuropsychological assessment, blood tests, EEG, head MRI, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). All of them fulfilled the NINDS-AIREN diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia. Thirty nine patients with multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction and 110 age-matched controls were included in this study. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using N-isopropyl-P-{sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) and SPECT imager. The mCBF in VD was 27.6{+-}5.3 ml/100 g/min, while those in the control group and multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction were 36.6{+-}6.1 ml/100 g/min and 32.5{+-}5.5 ml/100 g/min, respectively. The patients with VD demonstrated significantly reduced mCBF and rCBF in twenty regions including both cerebellar hemispheres as compared with those of the control group. Although there was no significant rCBF differences in bilateral inferior occipital regions and the right cerebellar hemisphere between patients with VD and multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction, we could find significant lower rCBF in the remaining brain areas. In spite of the severity of VD, the diffuse decrease of cerebral blood flow was recognized in all patients with VD. (author)

  6. Effect of ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist in experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for vascular dementia. In the past, we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the efficacy of a ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes (PaD) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. PaD rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with an increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of ruthenium red and pioglitazone has significantly attenuated PaD induced impairment of learning, memory, blood brain barrier permeability, endothelial function and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist may be considered as potent pharmacological agent for the management of PaD induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. Ryanodine receptor may be explored further for their possible benefits in vascular dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An investigation of cerebrovascular lesions in dementia with Lewy bodies compared to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, Lidia; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Schwarz, Christopher G; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Przybelski, Scott A; Lesnick, Timothy G; Zuk, Samantha M; Reid, Robert I; Raman, Mekala R; Boeve, Bradley F; Ferman, Tanis J; Knopman, David S; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo; Murray, Melissa E; Parisi, Joseph E; Dickson, Dennis W; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Kantarci, Kejal

    2017-03-01

    Cerebrovascular lesions on MRI are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, but less is known about their frequency and impact on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). White-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and infarcts on MRI were assessed in consecutive DLB (n = 81) and AD dementia (n = 240) patients and compared to age-matched and sex-matched cognitively normal subjects (CN) from a population-based cohort. DLB had higher WMH volume compared to CN, and WMH volume was higher in the occipital and posterior periventricular regions in DLB compared to AD. Higher WMH volume was associated with history of cardiovascular disease and diabetes but not with clinical disease severity in DLB. Frequency of infarcts in DLB was not different from CN and AD dementia. In DLB, WMH volume is higher than AD and CN and appears to be primarily associated with history of vascular disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective Effect of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Memory Impairment and Brain Damage in a Rat Model of Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sin-Luo; Chang, Chi-Wei; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Yang, Feng-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the neuroprotective effects of low-intensity pulsed (LIP) ultrasound on memory impairment and central nervous system injury in a rat model of vascular dementia. Materials and Methods All animal experiments were approved by the animal care and use committee and adhered to experimental animal care guidelines. A 1.0-MHz focused ultrasound transducer was used to stimulate the brain noninvasively with 50-msec bursts at a 5% duty cycle, repetition frequency of 1 Hz, and spatial peak temporal average intensity of 528 mW/cm(2). LIP ultrasound treatment was performed daily with triple sonications in each hemisphere. The duration of each sonicaton was 5 minutes, with a 5-minute interval between each sonication. Permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was used as a model of vascular dementia. After 2 weeks of LIP ultrasound, neuroprotective effects of LIP ultrasound were evaluated with behavioral analysis, including the passive avoidance task and elevated plus maze. Myelin content was detected with carbon 11 ((11)C) Pittsburgh compound B (PIB). Brain sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Luxol fast blue. Two-way analysis of variance and Student t test were used for statistical analyses, with a significance level of .05. Results Protein expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the BCCAO rats treated with LIP ultrasound were significantly higher than those in BCCAO rats (1.1 ± 0.0 vs 0.8 ± 0.1, P vascular dementia compared with rats with untreated vascular dementia (P vascular dementia. The beneficial effect of LIP ultrasound may be partly induced by upregulation of protein expression of BDNF. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  9. Diabetes, Alzheimer disease, and vascular dementia: a population-based neuropathologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtiluoto, S; Polvikoski, T; Peltonen, M; Solomon, A; Tuomilehto, J; Winblad, B; Sulkava, R; Kivipelto, M

    2010-09-28

    To investigate the relation of diabetes to dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD), through analyses of incidence, mortality, and neuropathologic outcomes in a prospective population-based study of the oldest old. The Vantaa 85+ study included 553 residents living in the city of Vantaa, Finland, and aged ≥85 years on April 1, 1991. Survivors were reexamined in 1994, 1996, 1999, and 2001. Autopsies were performed in 291 persons who died during the follow-up (48% of total population). Diabetes was assessed according to self-report, medical record of physician-diagnosed diabetes, or use of antidiabetic medication. Macroscopic infarcts were identified from 1-cm coronal slices of cerebral hemispheres, 5-mm transverse brainstem slices, and sagittal cerebellum slices. Methenamine silver staining was used for β-amyloid, methenamine silver-Bodian staining for neurofibrillary tangles, and modified Bielschowsky method for neuritic plaques. Cox proportional hazards and multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of diabetes with dementia and neuropathology, respectively. Diabetes at baseline doubled the incidence of dementia, AD, and VaD, and increased mortality. Individuals with diabetes were less likely to have β-amyloid (hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] was 0.48 [0.23-0.98]) and tangles (HR [95% CI] 0.72 [0.39-1.33]) but more likely to have cerebral infarcts (HR [95% CI] 1.88 [1.06-3.34]) after all adjustments. Elderly patients with diabetes develop more extensive vascular pathology, which alone or together with AD-type pathology (particularly in APOE ε4 carriers) results in increased dementia risk.

  10. Huperzine A in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-huai Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to perform an updated meta-analysis of placebo-controlled RCTs of Huperzine A (Hup A on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and vascular dementia (VD, in order to provide the basis and reference for clinical rational drug use. The primary outcome measures assessed were minimental state examination (MMSE and activities of daily living scale (ADL. Eight AD trials with 733 participants and two VD trials with 92 participants that met our inclusion criteria were identified. The results showed that Hup A could significantly improve the MMSE and ADL score of AD and VD patients, and longer durations would result in better efficacy for the patients with AD. It seemed that there was significant improvement of cognitive function measured by memory quotient (MQ in patients with AD. Most adverse effects in AD were generally of mild to moderate severity and transient. Compared to the patients with AD, Hup A may offer fewer side effects for participants with VD in this study. Therefore, Hup A is a well-tolerated drug that could significantly improve cognitive performance in patients with AD or VD, but we need to use it with caution in the clinical treatment.

  11. Late-life depression and risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Breno S.; Butters, Meryl A.; Albert, Steven M.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Late-life depression may increase the risk of incident dementia, in particular of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Aims To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of incident all-cause dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia in individuals with late-life depression in population-based prospective studies. Method A total of 23 studies were included in the meta-analysis. We used the generic inverse variance method with a random-effects model to calculate the pooled risk of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia in older adults with late-life depression. Results Late-life depression was associated with a significant risk of all-cause dementia (1.85, 95% CI 1.67-2.04, Pvascular dementia (2.52, 95% CI 1.77-3.59, Pvascular dementia was significantly higher than for Alzheimer’s disease (P = 0.03). Conclusions Late-life depression is associated with an increased risk for all-cause dementia, vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The present results suggest that it will be valuable to design clinical trials to investigate the effect of late-life depression prevention on risk of dementia, in particular vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23637108

  12. Late-life depression and risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Breno S; Butters, Meryl A; Albert, Steven M; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F

    2013-05-01

    Late-life depression may increase the risk of incident dementia, in particular of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of incident all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in individuals with late-life depression in population-based prospective studies. A total of 23 studies were included in the meta-analysis. We used the generic inverse variance method with a random-effects model to calculate the pooled risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in older adults with late-life depression. Late-life depression was associated with a significant risk of all-cause dementia (1.85, 95% CI 1.67-2.04, Pvascular dementia (2.52, 95% CI 1.77-3.59, Pvascular dementia was significantly higher than for Alzheimer's disease (P = 0.03). Late-life depression is associated with an increased risk for all-cause dementia, vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The present results suggest that it will be valuable to design clinical trials to investigate the effect of late-life depression prevention on risk of dementia, in particular vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Depression in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia or vascular dementia and its influence on their quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Yaroslav; Korchounov, Alexei; Zhukova, Tatyana V; Bertschi, Natalia Epifanova

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer dementia (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Depression is an important co-morbid disorder in these diseases, which is often challenging to recognize. We investigated the prevalence of depression in patients with AD and VD and estimated the influence of depression on the health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in these patients. We evaluated prevalence of depression in consecutively recruited patients with AD or VD (n= 98). Depression was diagnosed according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and scored using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The EuroQol (EQ-5D and visual analogue scale) was applied to evaluate HrQoL. The severity of cognitive impairment was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors predicting severity of depression. The prevalence of depression in AD/VD was 87%. In comparison to the general population, HrQoL measured on the visual analogue scale was reduced by 54% in patients with AD/VD. In the dimension "anxiety/depression" of the EQ-5D, 81% of patients with AD/VD had moderate or severe problems. Depression showed significant association with reduced HrQoL (Pdepression were older age, male gender, better MMSE scores and being not married. Depression is a prevalent psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with AD/VD, which is often under-diagnosed being masked by cognitive impairment. Depression is a predictor of reduced HrQoL in elder people with AD/VD. Therefore, they should be screened for presence of depressive symptoms and receive adequate antidepressant treatment.

  14. Depression in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia or vascular dementia and its influence on their quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Winter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer dementia (AD and vascular dementia (VD are the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Depression is an important co-morbid disorder in these diseases, which is often challenging to recognize. We investigated the prevalence of depression in patients with AD and VD and estimated the influence of depression on the health-related quality of life (HrQoL in these patients. Materials and Methods: We evaluated prevalence of depression in consecutively recruited patients with AD or VD (n= 98. Depression was diagnosed according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV and scored using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The EuroQol (EQ-5D and visual analogue scale was applied to evaluate HrQoL. The severity of cognitive impairment was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors predicting severity of depression. Results: The prevalence of depression in AD/VD was 87%. In comparison to the general population, HrQoL measured on the visual analogue scale was reduced by 54% in patients with AD/VD. In the dimension "anxiety/depression" of the EQ-5D, 81% of patients with AD/VD had moderate or severe problems. Depression showed significant association with reduced HrQoL (P<0.01. Independent predictors of more severe depression were older age, male gender, better MMSE scores and being not married. Conclusions: Depression is a prevalent psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with AD/VD, which is often under-diagnosed being masked by cognitive impairment. Depression is a predictor of reduced HrQoL in elder people with AD/VD. Therefore, they should be screened for presence of depressive symptoms and receive adequate antidepressant treatment.

  15. Multicenter population-based study on the prevalence of early onset dementia in Japan: vascular dementia as its prominent cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikejima, Chiaki; Ikeda, Manabu; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ogawa, Yusuke; Tanimukai, Satoshi; Kashibayashi, Tetsuo; Miyanaga, Kazuo; Yonemura, Kimie; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Murotani, Kenta; Asada, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    In Japan, the government and media have become aware of the issues of early onset dementia (EOD), but policies for EOD have not yet been established and support systems are inadequate. To provide practical data about EOD, a two-step postal survey was performed. A questionnaire requesting information on EOD cases was sent to target institutions in five catchment areas in Japan. According to the answers from the institutions, we estimated the prevalence of EOD using census data and determined the illnesses causing EOD. As a quality control study, the authors reviewed every diagnosis in a quarter of the reported cases using the medical and psychiatric records and neuroimaging data. This study was conducted from 2006 to 2007. Information from 2469 patients was collected from 12,747 institutions, and 2059 subjects with EOD were identified. The estimated prevalence of EOD was 47.6 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval, 47.1-48.1) for all of Japan. Of the illnesses causing EOD, vascular dementia (VaD) was the most frequent (39.8%), followed by Alzheimer's disease. The prevalence of EOD in Japan appeared to be similar to that in Western countries. However, unlike previously reported international experience, VaD was the most frequent cause of EOD in all catchment areas in Japan. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. Neuropsychiatric predictors of conversion to dementia both in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and those with subcortical vascular MCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook Hui; Kang, Hyun Seok; Kim, Hee Jin; Ryu, Hui Jin; Kim, Min young; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L; Han, Seol-Heui

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific neuropsychiatric domains could predict a conversion to dementia in those patients either with amnestic subtype of mild MCI (aMCI) or subcortical vascular MCI (svMCI). At baseline, all subjects underwent neuropsychological tests, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and MRI. We compared the baseline NPI scores between converters (CV) and non-converters (NCV) both in the aMCI and svMCI groups. The mean follow-up duration was 16.74±8.02 months (range: 4.2-43.9). At the second time point, about 30% of aMCI and svMCI patients converted to dementia with 7.5% of aMCI patients exhibiting improvement to normal cognitive state. In female aMCI patients, those who later improved to normal cognition exhibited higher baseline depression scores than the CV group. However, baseline depression scores were higher in the CV group than the NCV group in svMCI patients, and this difference was significant only in males. Our results suggest that depression might serve as a predictive marker of conversion to dementia in patients with svMCI, albeit only in males. On the other hand, patients who later improved to normal cognition showed higher scores of depression at baseline in female aMCI patients, suggesting that longer follow-ups are warranted in female patients with aMCI and depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of Aβ phosphorylated at serine 8 (pAβ) in Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Emma L; Miners, James S; Kumar, Sathish; Walter, Jochen; Love, Seth; Kehoe, Patrick G

    2015-06-01

    Deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain is one of the defining abnormalities of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Phosphorylation of Aβ at serine 8 (pAβ) has been implicated in its aggregation in vitro and pAβ level has been shown to be significantly elevated in AD. We aimed to assess the specificity of pAβ for AD and have investigated associations of pAβ with parenchymal and cerebrovascular accumulation of Aβ, disease progression, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and APOE genotype. The distribution of pAβ was studied by immunohistochemistry in sporadic and familial AD, pure dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), pure vascular dementia (VaD) and age-matched controls. Soluble and insoluble (guanidine-extractable) pAβ level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the midfrontal and parahippocampal cortex in sporadic AD (n = 20, 10 with Braak tangle stages of III-IV and 10 of stages V-VI), DLB (n = 10), VaD (n = 10) and age-matched controls (n = 20). We found pAβ to be associated with only a subset of Aβ plaques and vascular deposits in sporadic and familial AD, with absent or minimal immunohistochemically detectable pAβ in control, DLB and VaD brains. In both brain regions, insoluble pAβ level was significantly elevated only in advanced AD (Braak tangle stage of V or VI) and in the parahippocampus soluble and insoluble pAβ level increased with the number of APOE ε4 alleles. These results indicate that pAβ accumulation in the parenchyma and vasculature is largely restricted to late-stage AD (Braak tangle stage V-VI). © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  18. [Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a rare cause of vascular dementia. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamouda, Ibtissem; Tougourti, Mohamed Néjib; Hamza, Mohsen

    2002-07-01

    Herein, we report a case of a 51 year old man who experienced three ischemic cerebral infarcts in a time of few months. The patient consulted after the third accident. Neurological presentation included pseudobulbar syndrome with a mild cognitive deficit, aphasia, left hemiparesia, hemiasomatognosia and homonymous lateral hemianopsia. Cerebral tomodensitometry and magnetic resonance imaging evidenced large infarcts images involving right middle cerebral artery territory and bilateral borderline zones in the junction of the territories of the middle and posterior cerebral arteries. Ambulatory 24 hours ECG recording (Holter) revealed two hits of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Transoesophageal echocardiography conveyed to the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and displayed the presence of a left auricular thrombus. Anticoagulant therapy and rehabilitation allowed a substantial recovering of the patient's cognitive functions and wasting of the intracardiac thrombus. The clinical features observed in our patient meet the recommended DSM IV diagnosis criteria of vascular dementia, an exceptional complication of HCM. The clinical findings, neuroimagery investigation results, and the chronological link between cerebral attacks and cognitive function deterioration argue for a demential syndrome of vascular origin resulting from multiple embolic infarcts involving medium sized arteries (multi-infarct dementia). The authors emphasize the rarity of such observation. HCM must be considered as a potential cause of embolic stroke and likewise a multi-infarct dementia.

  19. Depression vs. Dementia: A comparative analysis of neuropsychological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Leposavić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of depression, detected comparatively specific profile of cognitive deficiencies, including the disorders of attention, memory and executive functions. Although the classical depression is recognized as psuedodementia, or reversible dementia, these two entities frequently overlap in the elder population. Many patients who are at first depressive, become demented later, and the initial stages of dementia are not rarely accompanied with mood changes. The aim of this study is the establishing of differences between neuropsychological profiles of depression and dementia. The sample included three groups: the first group represented the patients with endogenous depression, the second – the patients with dementia, and the third one – healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery. Two patient groups were tested during the stage of remission/adequate mood. Abilities most susceptible to depression are: attention, executive functions and memory. Cognitive flexibility and general cognitive ability are preserved in depressive patients. Depressive patients express cognitive disorders of moderate degree during the remission stage. Impairment pattern in the group of depressive patients does not indicate intellectual degradation of the dementia type. Neuropsychological deficiencies of the patients with endogenous depression suggest frontal limbic dysfunction. Еxcesses in cognitive functioning of demented patients are more serious and massive in comparison with cognitive difficulties in depressive patients.

  20. Effect of Vascular Risk Factors on the Progression of Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Lewy Body Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergland, Anne Katrine; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Alf Inge; Aarsland, Dag; Soennesyn, Hogne

    2017-01-01

    Vascular risk factors (VRF) are associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. To examine the association between VRF and cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD). We included consecutive referrals with mild AD or LBD to dementia clinics in western Norway from 2005 to 2013. The Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) were administered at baseline and then annually for up to five years. The VRF include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, overweight and smoking. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to examine the potential association between VRF scores and the change in MMSE and CDR-SB scores, adjusting for age, sex, and the apolipoprotein ɛ4 allele (APOE4). A total of 200 patients were included (113 AD, 87 LBD) (mean age 76 years, mean baseline MMSE 24.0, mean follow-up time 3.5 years). Smoking was the only VRF significantly associated with a more rapid cognitive decline, however only in the AD group. Being overweight at baseline was associated with a slower cognitive decline. Moreover, hypertension at baseline predicted a slower decline in MMSE scores. In the LBD group diabetes mellitus was found to be associated with a slower increase in CDR-SB scores. With the exception of smoking, VRF at time of dementia diagnosis were not associated with a more rapid cognitive decline.

  1. Electroencephalogram (EEG spectral features discriminate between Alzheimer’s (AD and Vascular dementia (VaD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel eNeto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD present with similar clinical symptoms of cognitive decline, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms differ. To determine whether clinical electroencephalography (EEG can provide information relevant to discriminate between these diagnoses, we used quantitative EEG analysis to compare the spectra between non-medicated patients with AD (n=77 and VaD (n=77 and healthy elderly normal controls (NC (n=77. We use curve-fitting with a combination of a power loss and Gaussian function to model the averaged resting-state spectra of each EEG channel extracting six parameters. We assessed the performance of our model and tested the extracted parameters for group differentiation. We performed regression analysis in a MANCOVA with group, age, gender, and number of epochs as predictors and further explored the topographical group differences with pair-wise contrasts. Significant topographical differences between the groups were found in several of the extracted features. Both AD and VaD groups showed increased delta power when compared to NC, whereas the AD patients showed a decrease in alpha power for occipital and temporal regions when compared with NC. The VaD patients had higher alpha power than NC and AD. The AD and VaD groups showed slowing of the alpha rhythm. Variability of the alpha frequency was wider for both AD and VaD groups. There was a general decrease in beta power for both AD and VaD. The proposed model is a useful to parameterize spectra which allowed extracting relevant clinical EEG key features that move towards simple and interpretable diagnostic criteria.

  2. The Chinese (Cantonese Montreal Cognitive Assessment in Patients with Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-song You

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD has been proposed as the most frequent subtype of vascular cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese (Cantonese Montreal Cognitive Assessment (CC- MoCA in patients with SIVD in the Guangdong Province of China. Methods: 71 SIVD patients and 60 matched controls were recruited for the CC-MoCA, Mini Mental State Examination and executive clock drawing tasks. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity of the CC-MoCA total score in differentiating mild vascular dementia (VaD patients from moderate VaD patients and controls. Results: The mean CC-MoCA scores of the controls, and mild and moderate VaD patients were 25.2 ± 3.8, 16.4 ± 3.7, and 10.0 ± 5.1, respectively. In our study, the optimal cutoff value for the CC-MoCA to be able to differentiate patients with mild VaD from controls is 21/22, and 13/14 to differentiate mild VaD from moderate VaD. Conclusion: The CC-MoCA is a useful cognitive screening instrument in SIVD patients.

  3. Dissociating Statistically-Determined Alzheimer's Disease/Vascular Dementia Neuropsychological Syndromes Using White and Gray Neuroradiological Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Catherine C; Tanner, Jared J; Schmalfuss, Ilona M; Brumback, Babette; Heilman, Kenneth M; Libon, David J

    2015-01-01

    There is remarkable heterogeneity in clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD). 1) To statistically examine neuropsychological data to determine dementia subgroups for individuals clinically diagnosed with AD or VaD and then 2) examine group differences in specific gray/white matter regions of interest. A k-means cluster analysis requested a 3-group solution from neuropsychological data acquired from individuals diagnosed clinically with AD/VaD. MRI measures of hippocampal, caudate, ventricular, subcortical lacunar infarction, whole brain volume, and leukoaraiosis (LA) were analyzed. Three regions of LA volumes were quantified and these included the periventricular (5 mm around the ventricles), infracortical (5 mm beneath the gray matter), and deep (between periventricular and infracortical) regions. Cluster analysis sorted AD/VaD patients into single domain amnestic (n = 41), single-domain dysexecutive (n = 26), and multi-domain (n = 26) phenotypes. Multi-domain patients exhibited worst performance on language tests; however, multi-domain patients were equally impaired on memory tests when compared to amnestic patients. Statistically-determined groups dissociated using neuroradiological parameters: amnestic and multi-domain groups presented with smaller hippocampal volume while the dysexecutive group presented with greater deep, periventricular, and whole brain LA. Neither caudate nor lacunae volume differed by group. Caudate nucleus volume negatively correlated with total LA in the dysexecutive and multi-domain groups. There are at least three distinct subtypes embedded within patients diagnosed clinically with AD/VaD spectrum dementia. We encourage future research to assess a) the neuroradiological substrates underlying statistically-determined AD/VaD spectrum dementia and b) how statistical modeling can be integrated into existing diagnostic criteria.

  4. Gastrodin improves cognitive dysfunction and decreases oxidative stress in vascular dementia rats induced by chronic ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Zhenxing

    2015-01-01

    To study the potential protective effects of gastrodin on reducing tissue oxidative stress and attenuating cognitive deficits in vascular dementia induced by cerebral chronic hyperfusion. To explore the detailed molecular mechanisms. 6 to 8 week old male Wistar rats were adopted as experimental animals. Animals were divided into the following groups: Group 1 (sham group with no occlusion), Group 2 (control group with 2VO procedure), Group 3 (sham group with gastrodin administration), Group 4 (2VO group with gastrodin administration). Morris water maze (MWM) test was adopted to test the learning and memory function of rats within different groups. MDA, glutathione peroxidase and total thiol assessment was done to reflect the oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and flow cytometry (FCM) were performed to examine the cell viability and apoptosis rate of SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide and rescued by gastrodin treatments. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by the 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. qPCR and Western blot (WB) were adopted to detect the molecular mechanisms related to the anti-apoptosis and ROS scavenging effects of gastrodin. Our results indicated an obvious protective effect of gastrodin on vascular dementia induced brain ischemia. Administration of gastrodin could improve the impaired learning and memory function induced by 2VO procedure in rats. The levels of MDA were partially decreased by the administration of gastrodin. The levels of glutathione peroxidase and total thiol were partially restored by the administration of gastrodin. Cell viability was improved by gastrodin in a dose-dependent pattern on SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (P vascular dementia induced oxidative stress due to brain ischemia. On the molecular level, NFE2L2, ADH7, GPX2 and GPX3 were up regulated by gastrodin.

  5. Seoul criteria for PiB(-) subcortical vascular dementia based on clinical and MRI variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon Ha; Lee, Jae Hong; Seo, Sang Won; Ye, Byoung Seok; Cho, Hanna; Kim, Hee Jin; Noh, Young; Yoon, Cindy W; Chin, Ju Hee; Oh, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Seung; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Na, Duk L

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this study was to propose new criteria for differentiating Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-negative from PiB-positive subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) using clinical and MRI variables. We measured brain amyloid deposition using PiB-PET in 77 patients with SVaD. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for vascular dementia and had severe white matter hyperintensities on MRI, defined as a cap or band ≥ 10 mm as well as a deep white matter lesion ≥ 25 mm. Eleven models were considered to differentiate PiB(-) from PiB(+) SVaD using 4 variables, including age, number of lacunes, medial temporal atrophy (MTA), and APOE ε4. The ideal cutoff values in each of the 11 models were selected using the highest Youden index. A total of 49 of 77 patients (63.6%) tested negative for PiB retention, while 28 (36.4%) tested positive for PiB retention. The ideal model for differentiating PiB(-) from PiB(+) SVaD was as follows: age ≤ 75 years, ≥ 5 lacunes, and MTA ≤ 3, which together yielded an accuracy of 67.5%. When patients meet the DSM-IV criteria for vascular dementia and also have severe white matter hyperintensities, younger age, greater number of lacunes, and lesser MTA, these are predictive of a PiB(-) scan in patients with SVaD. This study provides Class II evidence that the combination of younger age, greater number of lacunes, and lesser MTA identifies patients with SVaD at lower risk of Alzheimer disease pathology.

  6. Effect of glycosides of Cistanche on the expression of mitochondrial precursor protein and keratin type II cytoskeletal 6A in a rat model of vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-mei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosides of Cistanche (GC is a preparation used extensively for its neuroprotective effect against neurological diseases, but its mechanisms of action remains incompletely understood. Here, we established a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion model of vascular dementia in rats and injected the model rats with a suspension of GC (10 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days. Immunohistochemistry showed that GC significantly reduced p-tau and amyloid beta (Aβ immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of the model rats. Proteomic analysis demonstrated upregulation of mitochondrial precursor protein and downregulation of keratin type II cytoskeletal 6A after GC treatment compared with model rats that had received saline. Western blot assay confirmed these findings. Our results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GC in vascular dementia occurs via the promotion of neuronal cytoskeleton regeneration.

  7. Benzodiazepine Use and Risk of Developing Alzheimer's Disease or Vascular Dementia: A Case-Control Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imfeld, Patrick; Bodmer, Michael; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2015-10-01

    Previous observational studies have associated benzodiazepine use with an increased risk of dementia. However, limitations in the study methods leave questions unanswered regarding the interpretation of the findings. A case-control analysis was conducted using data from the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). A total of 26,459 patients aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD) between 1998 and 2013 were identified and matched 1:1 to dementia-free controls on age, sex, calendar time, general practice, and number of years of recorded history. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of developing AD or VaD in relation to previous benzodiazepine use, stratified by duration and benzodiazepine type. The aOR (95% CI) of developing AD for those who started benzodiazepines benzodiazepines benzodiazepine use initiated during this prodromal phase, long-term use of benzodiazepines was not associated with an increased risk of developing AD [aOR 0.69 (0.57-0.85)] or VaD [aOR 1.11 (0.85-1.45)]. After taking a prodromal phase into consideration, benzodiazepine use was not associated with an increased risk of developing AD or VaD.

  8. Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia : EEG global power independently predicts vascular impairment and brain symmetry index reflects severity of cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V.A.; Mariën, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J.T.M.; Saerens, Jos; Van Putten, Michel J.A.M.; de Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  9. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia : EEG Global Power Independently Predicts Vascular Impairment and Brain Symmetry Index Reflects Severity of Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose:Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  10. Efficacy and safety of nimodipine in treatment of vascular dementia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao CHEN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of nimodipine in treating vascular dementia (VaD.  Methods Taking "nimodipine AND vascular dementia" as search terms, retrieve in databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE/SCOPUS, Science Citation Index (SCI, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Data (January 1995-March 2015. Annual searching was applied to retrieve partial periodical literatures and unpublished studies. Google Scholar was used for randomized controlled trials (RCTs about nimodipine in treating VaD. Jadad scale was used to evaluate the quality of literature, and Meta-analyses were performed by using RevMan 5.3 software.  Results Eleven literatures met inclusion criteria, including 10 clinical studies (1333 patients. All 10 studies were RCTs, including 4 nimodipine vs placebo, 5 nimodipine vs donepezil and one nimodipne vs hydergine, but only 2 described randomization methods. The results of Meta-analysis showed: nimodipine had better Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score than before treatment and placebo group (3 studies, MD = 0.270, 95%CI: 0.070—0.460, P = 0.007; one study of blank control, MD = 2.950, 95% CI: 1.670—4.200, P = 0.000. Patients treated with nimodipne had no significantly improved Activities of Daily Living (ADL score than placebo group [one study of ADL, MD = 5.800, 95%CI: 2.480—9.120, P = 0.000; one study of ADL Index, MD = -0.040, 95%CI: -0.110—0.030, P = 0.230; one study of instrumental ADL (IADL, MD = -0.080, 95%CI: -0.110—0.000, P = 0.060]. Both nimodipine and donepezil can improve MMSE and ADL scores, but the efficacy of nimodipine was not superior to donepezil [4 studies of MMSE (12-week observation, MD = -4.400, 95% CI: -4.870— -3.920, P = 0.000; one study of MMSE (24-week observation, MD = -8.800, 95% CI: -8.970— -7.430, P = 0.000; 2 studies of ADL, MD = 1.800, 95% CI: 1.360—2.230, P = 0.000]. Compared with hydergine

  11. Rannasangpei Is a Therapeutic Agent in the Treatment of Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rannasangpei (RSNP is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and neurodegeneration in China; however, its potential use in the treatment of vascular dementia (VD was unclear. In this study, our aim was to examine the neuroprotective effect of RSNP in a VD rat model, which was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO. Four-week administration with two doses of RSNP was investigated in our study. Severe cognitive deficit in the VD model, which was confirmed in Morris water maze (MWM test, was significantly restored by the administration of RSNP. ELISA revealed that the treatments with both doses of RSNP could reinstate the cholinergic activity in the VD animals by elevating the production of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT and reducing the acetylcholinesterase (AChE; the treatment of RSNP could also reboot the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD and decrease malondialdehyde (MDA. Moreover, Western blot and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR results indicated that the RSNP could suppress the apoptosis in the hippocampus of the VD animals by increasing the expression ratio of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 to Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax. These results suggested that RSNP might be a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular dementia in the future.

  12. Hypertension and vascular dementia in the elderly: the potential role of anti-hypertensive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) - a severe form of vascular cognitive impairment - and cognitive decline are associated with hypertension and therefore it seems logical to consider that reducing BP with anti-hypertensive therapy may protect against the development/onset of cognitive function impairment or dementia. This narrative, non-systematic review discusses the available evidence on the potential correlation between the use of anti-hypertensive agents and the risk of VaD and cognitive decline. MEDLINE was searched for inclusion of relevant studies. No limitations in time were considered. A consensus on the potential effects of anti-hypertensive treatment in the reduction of VaD and associated cognitive decline has not been reached. A protective effect of anti-hypertensive agents has been observed in a number of studies although it is still unclear whether different classes of anti-hypertensive agents have a different effect on the development of VaD. The protective effect of anti-hypertensive agents appears to depend on the specific drug used - positive effects have been observed with calcium channel blockers (CCBs), such as lercanidipine and nitrendipine, the combination perindopril-indapamide and telmisartan.

  13. Cerebral microbleed detection and mapping: principles, methodological aspects and rationale in vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charidimou, Andreas; Jäger, Hans R; Werring, David J

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have emerged as an important new imaging manifestation of sporadic cerebral small vessel diseases - mainly hypertensive arteriopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy - which are highly prevalent in the elderly and have a critical role in vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. With the development of MRI techniques that are exquisitely sensitive to the products of bleeding, including T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo (T2*-GRE) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), CMBs have been detected in ever-increasing numbers of patients, including those with vascular cognitive impairment and dementia, as well as in population-based samples of healthy elderly people. Our increased ability to image CMBs and hence to see the development and progression of cerebral small vessel disease raises many clinical and pathophysiological questions about the mechanisms, diagnosis and monitoring of cognitive impairment. In order to tackle these questions, it is important to be able to reliably detect, define and map CMBs in the brains of elderly people. In this review, we consider radiological detection methods, criteria for defining CMBs (including a practical approach to the identification of CMB "mimics"), and the use of standardised rating scales. We also briefly discuss the potential for automatically detecting and quantitatively mapping CMBs in future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vascular Basis for Brain Degeneration: Faltering Controls and Risk Factors for Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N.

    2010-01-01

    The integrity of the vascular system is essential for the efficient functioning of the brain. Ageing related structural and functional disturbances in the macro- or microcirculation of the brain make it vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction leading to brain degeneration and dementing illness. Several faltering controls including impairment in autoregulation, neurovascular coupling, blood-brain barrier leakage, decreased cerebrospinal fluid and reduced vascular tone appear responsible for variable degrees of neurodegeneration in old age. There is ample evidence that vascular risk factors are also linked to neurodegenerative processes preceding cognitive decline and dementia. Age is the strongest risk factor for brain degeneration whether it results from vascular or neurodegenerative mechanisms or both. However, several modifiable risks such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and obesity enhance the rate of cognitive decline and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in particular. The ultimate accumulation of brain pathological lesions may be modified by genetic influences such as apoliopoprotein E ε4 allele and the environment. Lifestyle measures that maintain or improve cardiovascular health including consumption of healthy diets, moderate use of alcohol and implementing regular physical exercise are important factors for brain protection. PMID:21091952

  15. [Serum level of S100B as a marker of progression of vascular mild cognitive impairment into subcortical vascular dementia and therapy effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levada, O A; Traïlin, A V

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated serum level of S100B in 11 patients with subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) and 19 patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (SVMCI). Comparable groups were age-matched (79.18 +/- 7.76 in SVD group, 77.84 +/- 3.83 in SVMCI; P = 0.53). 22 patients were assessed after 1 month therapy. It was shown that the serum S100B level significantly increased--(0.065 +/- 0.020) micro/l (P = 0.0005) in SVD patients comparing to SVMCI ones - (0.043 +/- 0.010) microg/l. S100B level was significantly correlated with the clinical parameters: MMSE performance (r(s) = -0.61), CDR (r(s) = 0.58), attention task (r(s) = -0.46), pseudobulbar syndrome severity (r(s) = 0.37) and walking alteration (r(s)= 0.37). In patients with reduction of S100B level due to therapy (positive dynamics, n = 12) we registered significant improvement of some clinical parameters: MMSE, attention level, walking. In patients with increasing of S100B level (negative dynamics, n = 10) we didn't registered improvement of any clinical parameters. We made the conclusion that the serum level of S100B could be used as marker of progression SVMCI into SVD and therapy effectiveness.

  16. Blood Pressure and Risk of Vascular Dementia: Evidence From a Primary Care Registry and a Cohort Study of Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Connor A; Rothwell, Peter M; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Kiran, Amit; Conrad, Nathalie; Callender, Thomas; Mehta, Ziyah; Pendlebury, Sarah T; Anderson, Simon G; Mohseni, Hamid; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem

    2016-06-01

    Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia but reliable evidence on age-specific associations between blood pressure (BP) and risk of vascular dementia is limited and some studies have reported negative associations at older ages. In a cohort of 4.28 million individuals, free of known vascular disease and dementia and identified from linked electronic primary care health records in the United Kingdom (Clinical Practice Research Datalink), we related BP to time to physician-diagnosed vascular dementia. We further determined associations between BP and dementia in a prospective population-based cohort of incident transient ischemic attack and stroke (Oxford Vascular Study). For a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 11 114 initial presentations of vascular dementia were observed in the primary care cohort after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up. The association between usual systolic BP and risk of vascular dementia decreased with age (hazard ratio per 20 mm Hg higher systolic BP, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.35 at 30-50 years; 1.26, 1.18-1.35 at 51-70 years; 0.97, 0.92-1.03 at 71-90 years; P trend=0.006). Usual systolic BP remained predictive of vascular dementia after accounting for effect mediation by stroke and transient ischemic attack. In the population-based cohort, prior systolic BP was predictive of 5-year risk of dementia with no evidence of negative association at older ages. BP is positively associated with risk of vascular dementia, irrespective of preceding transient ischemic attack or stroke. Previous reports of inverse associations in old age could not be confirmed. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Frailty as a Predictor of Alzheimer Disease, Vascular Dementia, and All Dementia Among Community-Dwelling Older People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Gotaro; Taniguchi, Yu; Iliffe, Steve; Walters, Kate

    2016-10-01

    To perform a systematic search of the literature for currently available evidence on frailty as a predictor of dementia and to conduct a meta-analysis to synthesize the pooled risk estimates among community-dwelling older people. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library from 2000 to January 2016, and reference lists of relevant articles. Any studies that prospectively examined the incident risks of dementia with frailty among community-dwelling older people without language restriction. Of 2565 studies identified through the systematic review, 7 studies were included in this review. Of these, 4 studies reported hazard ratios (HR) of incident dementia for physical frailty defined by Cardiovascular Health Study criteria and were included in a meta-analysis. Frailty was a significant predictor of incident Alzheimer disease (4 studies: pooled HR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.00-1.63, P = .05), vascular dementia (2 studies: pooled HR 2.70, 95% CI 1.40-5.23, P = .003), and all dementia (3 studies: pooled HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.67, P = .01). Heterogeneity across the studies was low to modest (I(2) = 0%-51%). A random-effects meta-regression analysis showed that the female proportion of the cohort primarily mediated the association of frailty with Alzheimer disease (female proportion coefficient = 0.04, 95%CI = 0.01-0.08, P = .01). This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that frailty was a significant predictor of Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, and all dementia among community-dwelling older people. Frail women may have a higher risk of incident Alzheimer disease than frail men. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. History of depression prior to Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia verified post-mortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnström, Hans; Passant, Ulla; Englund, Elisabet; Gustafson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the medical history, with regards to previous remote depression, in patients with neuropathologically verified Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed AD/VaD. The 201 patients included (115 AD, 44 VaD and 42 mixed AD/VaD) had been referred to the Psychogeriatric/Psychiatric Department, Lund University Hospital, for psychogeriatric investigation and were followed-up with clinical records and detailed information on psychiatric history prior to the onset of dementia. Depression was considered to exist when the patient had consulted a psychiatrist or physician and had been diagnosed with a "depressive episode" or "depression" and when anti-depressants and/or other specific treatments had been prescribed. Twenty patients (10%) had suffered from depression earlier in life well before the onset of dementia. Eight of the 9 AD patients with a previous diagnosis of depression had suffered from only one depressive episode and all had responded well to treatment, with complete recovery. In the VaD group, 8 out of 9 patients suffered two or more depressive episodes and only two recovered completely. Events with a possible significant relationship to depression were seen in 8 of the 9 AD patients but in only 1 of the 9 VaD patients. Psychotic symptoms were more common in VaD than in the AD group. The treatment modality of depression was similar in the groups. In conclusion, a history of depression prior to dementia is more common and more therapy-resistant in VaD than in AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapists—familiar with these disorders can help guide patient care. Prognosis Many disorders can cause dementia or dementia-like symptoms. Some, such as Alzheimer’s disease or Huntington’s disease, lead to a progressive ...

  20. Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aging. Many different diseases can cause dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Drugs are available to treat some of these diseases. While these drugs cannot cure dementia or repair brain damage, they may improve ...

  1. Improved social interaction and increased anterior cingulate metabolism after group reminiscence with reality orientation approach for vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Meguro, Mitsue; Sasaki, Eriko; Chiba, Kentaro; Ishii, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Naofumi

    2011-06-30

    A group reminiscence approach (GRA) with reality orientation (RO) is widely used as a psychosocial intervention for dementia. Since clinical effectiveness was reported for the intervention, interest has been directed toward areas of the neuronal network that might be being stimulated. We hypothesized that the frontal lobe associated with social interaction was being stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we studied 24 patients with vascular dementia. In addition to conventional care, a 1-h session of GRA with RO was provided once a week for 3 months in the GRA-RO arm (n=12). Only supportive care was provided in the control arm (n=12). Before and after the interventions, cognitive function, depressive state, and social activities were assessed. Since glucose metabolism is associated with brain function, cerebral glucose metabolism was measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Regarding behavioral improvement, 10 patients in the GRA-RO arm showed improvement compared with only two patients in the control arm, a significant difference. PET demonstrated that metabolism in the anterior cingulate was increased in the GRA-RO arm, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control arm. These results suggest that GRA-RO stimulates the anterior cingulate and has a positive effect on social interaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Demência vascular: dificuldades diagnósticas e tratamento Vascular dementia: a critical review of diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHARLES ANDRÉ

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA: O tratamento dos pacientes com síndrome demencial depende do diagnóstico correto de sua etiologia e da utilização de critérios objetivos de avaliação do curso da doença. O diagnóstico preciso da demência vascular (Dva é difícil e nossos conhecimentos sobre a organização neuropsicológica do cérebro em estados de doença e a evolução da doença são precários, tornando penosa a avaliação das respostas a diferentes intervenções. MÉTODOS: São discutidos os critérios diagnósticos, os instrumentos de avaliação do curso da Dva e as diferentes intervenções terapêuticas atualmente em estudo. RESULTADOS: O uso de critérios diagnósticos estritos e a otimização dos métodos de avaliação evolutiva são passos importantes para otimizar o tratamento dos pacientes com DVa. A prevenção de novos eventos cerebrovasculares é a única medida comprovadamente eficaz para promover estabilização e talvez regressão das alterações cognitivas e comportamentais nestes pacientes. As evidências de possível benefício de estimulantes inespecíficos do metabolismo cerebral e de drogas neuroprotetoras não são suficientes para indicar seu uso rotineiro. Medidas de estruturação do ambiente, o uso racional e parcimonioso de medicamentos em geral, e a definição através de testes neuropsicológicos de rotas terapêuticas adaptadas às necessidades de cada paciente são também importantes. CONCLUSÕES: Critérios diagnósticos e de acompanhamento evolutivo da DVa são ainda inadequados. A prevenção de novos episódios cerebrovasculares é a base do tratamento dos pacientes com DVa. O uso criterioso de drogas psiquiátricas, uma abordagem neurocognitiva dirigida aos déficits de cada paciente e a estruturação do ambiente para reduzir demandas desnecessárias e cansaço são importantes medidas complementares, mas deixam grande margem para otimização do tratamento.BACKGROUND: Treatment of vascular dementia

  3. The Feasibility of a Structured Cognitive Training Protocol to Address Progressive Cognitive Decline in Individuals with Vascular Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jamie F.; Bishop, Lilli A.; Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, better known as CADASIL, is a rare, genetic form of early-onset vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to use a modified version of Attention Process Training--II (APT-II; Sohlberg, Johnson, Paule, Raskin, & Mateer, 2001) with an…

  4. Effects of fisetin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth Kumar, Boyina; Arun Reddy, Ravula; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Dinesh Kumar, B; Diwan, Prakash V

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of fisetin (FST) on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction (ED) and vascular dementia (VaD) in rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: control, vehicle control, l-methionine, FST (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, p.o.), FST-per se (25 mg/kg, p.o.), and donepezil (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.). l-Methionine administration (1.7 g/kg, p.o.) for 32 days induced HHcy. ED and VaD induced by HHcy were determined by vascular reactivity measurements, behavioral analysis using Morris water maze and Y-maze, along with a biochemical and histological evaluation of thoracic aorta and brain tissues. Administration of l-methionine developed behavioral deficits; triggered brain lipid peroxidation (LPO); compromised brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE); and reduced the levels of brain superoxide dismutase (SOD), brain catalase (CAT), brain reduced glutathione (GSH), and serum nitrite; and increased serum homocysteine and cholesterol levels. These effects were accompanied by decreased vascular NO bioavailability, marked intimal thickening of the aorta, and multiple necrotic foci in brain cortex. HHcy-induced alterations in the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH, AChE, LPO, behavioral deficits, ED, and histological aberrations were significantly attenuated by treatment with fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that fisetin exerts endothelial and neuroprotective effects against HHcy-induced ED and VaD.

  5. [Neurobehavioral manifestation in early period of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzan, Mariola; Bidzan, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    AD and VD are preceded by a preclinical stage. Small but tangible cognitive impairments sometimes occur many years before the onset and diagnosis ofdementia. The ongoing degenerative process can be conductive to behavioural and psychological symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate the rates of neurobehavioral symptoms in the preclinical stages of AD and VD. Two hundred and ninety one residents of nursery homes were included in the study. Participants of the study did not display symptoms of dementia in accordance with DSM IV criteria and obtained at least 24 points on the MMSE scale and were on the first or second level of the Global Deterioration Scale. Participants were screened for behavioural and psychological symptoms with the NPI-NH scale, while their cognitive functioning was evaluated by means of the ADAS-cog. Participants of the study were evaluated with the MMSE scale annually. Participants who obtained less than 24 points on the MMSE scale were evaluated by a senior psychiatrist. Diagnosis of dementia was done on the basis of DSM criteria. Alzheimer's Disease was diagnosed on the basis of NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and vascular dementia on the NINDS-AIREN criteria. The study was carried out over a period of seven consecutive years. A hundred and fifty people were included in the final analysis--in 111 of them were found not to be afflicted with dementia, 25 were found to have AD and in 14 VD was diagnosed. The control group differed from the AD and VD group with respect to the initial level of cognitive impairment (ADAS-cog) and the intensity of behavioural and psychological symptoms (NPI -NH scale). Particular items of the NPI -NH scale differentiated the two groups to a different degree. In people with AD the greatest differences were observed with respect to agitation/aggression, mood swings, irritability/emotional liability and the rates of anxiety. People with VD, similarly to people with AD, significantly differed from the control group with

  6. Caspase-Cleaved Tau Co-Localizes with Early Tangle Markers in the Human Vascular Dementia Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan J; Mason, Maria J; Thomas, Chloe; Poon, Wayne W; Rohn, Troy T

    2015-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia in the United States and is characterized as a cerebral vessel vascular disease that leads to ischemic episodes. Whereas the relationship between caspase-cleaved tau and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been previously described, whether caspase activation and cleavage of tau occurs in VaD is presently unknown. To investigate a potential role for caspase-cleaved tau in VaD, we analyzed seven confirmed cases of VaD by immunohistochemistry utilizing a well-characterized antibody that specifically detects caspase-cleaved tau truncated at Asp421. Application of this antibody (TauC3) revealed consistent labeling within NFTs, dystrophic neurites within plaque-rich regions and corpora amylacea (CA) in the human VaD brain. Labeling of CA by the TauC3 antibody was widespread throughout the hippocampus proper, was significantly higher compared to age matched controls, and co-localized with ubiquitin. Staining of the TauC3 antibody co-localized with MC-1, AT8, and PHF-1 within NFTs. Quantitative analysis indicated that roughly 90% of PHF-1-labeled NFTs contained caspase-cleaved tau. In addition, we documented the presence of active caspase-3 within plaques, blood vessels and pretangle neurons that co-localized with TauC3. Collectively, these data support a role for the activation of caspase-3 and proteolytic cleavage of TauC3 in VaD providing further support for the involvement of this family of proteases in NFT pathology.

  7. Type 2 Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Dementia in Women Compared With Men: A Pooled Analysis of 2.3 Million People Comprising More Than 100,000 Cases of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Saion; Peters, Sanne A.E.; Woodward, Mark; Mejia Arango, Silvia; Batty, G. David; Beckett, Nigel; Beiser, Alexa; Borenstein, Amy R.; Crane, Paul K.; Haan, Mary; Hassing, Linda B.; Hayden, Kathleen M.; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Larson, Eric B.; Li, Chung-Yi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Peters, Ruth; Russ, Tom C.; Seshadri, Sudha; Strand, Bjørn H.; Walker, Rod; Xu, Weili

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes confers a greater excess risk of cardiovascular disease in women than in men. Diabetes is also a risk factor for dementia, but whether the association is similar in women and men remains unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of unpublished data to estimate the sex-specific relationship between women and men with diabetes with incident dementia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A systematic search identified studies published prior to November 2014 that had reported on the prospective association between diabetes and dementia. Study authors contributed unpublished sex-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs on the association between diabetes and all dementia and its subtypes. Sex-specific RRs and the women-to-men ratio of RRs (RRRs) were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS Study-level data from 14 studies, 2,310,330 individuals, and 102,174 dementia case patients were included. In multiple-adjusted analyses, diabetes was associated with a 60% increased risk of any dementia in both sexes (women: pooled RR 1.62 [95% CI 1.45–1.80]; men: pooled RR 1.58 [95% CI 1.38–1.81]). The diabetes-associated RRs for vascular dementia were 2.34 (95% CI 1.86–2.94) in women and 1.73 (95% CI 1.61–1.85) in men, and for nonvascular dementia, the RRs were 1.53 (95% CI 1.35–1.73) in women and 1.49 (95% CI 1.31–1.69) in men. Overall, women with diabetes had a 19% greater risk for the development of vascular dementia than men (multiple-adjusted RRR 1.19 [95% CI 1.08–1.30]; P dementia compared with those without diabetes. For vascular dementia, but not for nonvascular dementia, the additional risk is greater in women. PMID:26681727

  8. Assessment of free and cued recall in Alzheimer's disease and vascular and frontotemporal dementia with 24-item Grober and Buschke test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerciello, Milena; Isella, Valeria; Proserpi, Alice; Papagno, Costanza

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the most common forms of dementia. It is well known that memory deficits in AD are different from those in VaD and FTD, especially with respect to cued recall. The aim of this clinical study was to compare the memory performance in 15 AD, 10 VaD and 9 FTD patients and 20 normal controls by means of a 24-item Grober-Buschke test [8]. The patients' groups were comparable in terms of severity of dementia. We considered free and total recall (free plus cued) both in immediate and delayed recall and computed an Index of Sensitivity to Cueing (ISC) [8] for immediate and delayed trials. We assessed whether cued recall predicted the subsequent free recall across our patients' groups. We found that AD patients recalled fewer items from the beginning and were less sensitive to cueing supporting the hypothesis that memory disorders in AD depend on encoding and storage deficit. In immediate recall VaD and FTD showed a similar memory performance and a stronger sensitivity to cueing than AD, suggesting that memory disorders in these patients are due to a difficulty in spontaneously implementing efficient retrieval strategies. However, we found a lower ISC in the delayed recall compared to the immediate trials in VaD than FTD due to a higher forgetting in VaD.

  9. Acupuncture ameliorates cognitive impairment and hippocampus neuronal loss in experimental vascular dementia through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Yang, Jing-Wen; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; He, Tian; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests acupuncture could exert neuroprotection in the vascular dementia via anti-oxidative effects. However, the involvement of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defense, in acupuncture-induced neuroprotection in vascular dementia remains undetermined. The goal of our study was to investigate the contribution of Nrf2 in acupuncture and its effects on vascular dementia. Morris water maze and Nissl staining were used to assess the effect of acupuncture on cognitive function and hippocampal neurodegeneration in experimental vascular dementia. The distribution of Nrf2 in neurons in hippocampus, the protein expression of Nrf2 in both cytosol and nucleus, and the protein and mRNA levels of its downstream target genes NQO1 and HO-1 were detected by double immunofluorescent staining, Western blotting and realtime PCR analysis respectively. Cognitive function and microglia activation were measured in both wild-type and Nrf2 gene knockout mice after acupuncture treatment. We found that acupuncture could remarkably reverse the cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss, reactive oxygen species production, and decreased cerebral blood flow. It was notable that acupuncture enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in neurons and up-regulate the protein and mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its target genes HO-1 and NQO1. Moreover, acupuncture could significantly down-regulated the over-activation of microglia after common carotid artery occlusion surgery. However, the reversed cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss and microglia activation by acupuncture were abolished in Nrf2 gene knockout mice. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that the neuroprotection of acupuncture in models of vascular dementia was via the Nrf2 activation and Nrf2-dependent microglia activation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Color perception differentiates Alzheimer's Disease (AD) from Vascular Dementia (VaD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutoglou, N A; Arnaoutoglou, M; Nemtsas, P; Costa, V; Baloyannis, S J; Ebmeier, K P

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD) are the most common causes of dementia in older people. Both diseases appear to have similar clinical symptoms, such as deficits in attention and executive function, but specific cognitive domains are affected. Current cohort studies have shown a close relationship between αβ deposits and age-related macular degeneration (Johnson et al., 2002; Ratnayaka et al., 2015). Additionally, a close link between the thinning of the retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and AD patients has been described, while it has been proposed that AD patients suffer from a non-specific type of color blindness (Pache et al., 2003). Our study included 103 individuals divided into three groups: A healthy control group (n = 35), AD (n = 32) according to DSM-IV-TR, NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and VaD (n = 36) based on ΝΙΝDS-AIREN, as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results. The severity of patient's cognitive impairment, was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and was classified according to the Reisberg global deterioration scale (GDS). Visual perception was examined using the Ishihara plates: "Ishihara Color Vision Test - 38 Plate." The three groups were not statistically different for demographic data (age, gender, and education). The Ishihara color blindness test has a sensitivity of 80.6% and a specificity of 87.5% to discriminate AD and VaD patients when an optimal (32.5) cut-off value of performance is used. Ishihara Color Vision Test - 38 Plate is a promising potential method as an easy and not time-consuming screening test for the differential diagnosis of dementia between AD and VaD.

  11. Computerized evaluation method of white matter hyperintensities related to subcortical vascular dementia in brain MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kawata, Yasuo; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a computerized evaluation method of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) regions for the diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) based on magnetic resonance (MR) images, and implemented the proposed method as a graphical interface program. The WMH regions were segmented using either a region growing technique or a level set method, one of which was selected by using a support vector machine. We applied the proposed method to MR images acquired from 10 patients with a diagnosis of VaD. The mean similarity index between WMH regions determined by a manual method and the proposed method was 78.2+/-11.0%. The proposed method could effectively assist neuroradiologists in evaluating WMH regions.

  12. Polymorphism C in the serotonin transporter gene in depression-free elderly patients with vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seripa, Davide; Matera, Maria Giovanna; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Sancarlo, Daniele; Bizzarro, Alessandra; Cascavilla, Leandro; Paris, Francesco; Gravina, Carolina; Bonghi, Loriana; Capurso, Cristiano; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Daniele, Antonio; Masullo, Carlo; Panza, Francesco; Pilotto, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Genotypes of the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, serotonin) member 4 (SLC6A4) have been variously associated with depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, memory impairment, and anxiety. Less clear are data regarding their association with severe dementia, in particular with vascular dementia (VaD). To evaluate the possible involvement of different SLC6A4 genotypes/haplotypes in VaD. The analysis of the 3 markers rs3813034, rs140701 and rs4795541 spanning the SLC6A4 locus was made in 541 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed as having VaD (n = 372) or no cognitive impairment (n = 169) attending a geriatric ward. A community-dwelling sample of 353 healthy subjects, as a reference for the genetic frequencies in the recruitment area, was also included in the study. All patients and subjects were free from any symptoms of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety. A complete neuroimaging documentation was available for all patients. No important differences were observed in genotype distribution across the study groups. Similarly, no important differences were observed in haplotype distribution when a 3-point analysis was made. Our findings suggest that polymorphism C in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene plays a minor role, if any, in the pathogenesis of VaD.

  13. Correlation study of Framingham risk score and vascular dementia: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-Shan; Zheng, Jie; Mei, Bin; Wang, Han-Yao; Zheng, Miao; Zheng, Kai

    2017-12-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is one of the most common forms of dementia, and second only to Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of Framingham risk score (FRS) in VaD by investigating the relationship among cardiovascular risks, FRS, and VaD.Data were collected from patients (n = 130) at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. They were divided into 2 groups, including the control group (n = 70) and the VaD group (n = 60). Statistical methods including t-test, logistic regression model, multiple linear regression model, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve were adopted for the assessment.A significant difference (all P multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the age and FRS were independent predictors of MMSE scores.FRS has a moderate predictive value for the VaD diagnosis, and also increases the risk of cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vascular cognitive impairment, dementia, aging and energy demand. A vicious cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Wagner, A; Buga, Ana-Maria; Popescu, B; Muresanu, D

    2015-08-01

    To a great extent, cognitive health depends on cerebrovascular health and a deeper understanding of the subtle interactions between cerebrovascular function and cognition is needed to protect humans from one of the most devastating affliction, dementia. However, the underlying biological mechanisms are still not completely clear. Many studies demonstrated that the neurovascular unit is compromised in cerebrovascular diseases and also in other types of dementia. The hemodynamic neurovascular coupling ensures a strong increase of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and an acute increase in neuronal glucose uptake upon increased neural activity. Dysfunction of cerebral autoregulation with increasing age along with age-related structural and functional alterations in cerebral blood vessels including accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the media of cortical arterioles, neurovascular uncoupling due to astrocyte endfeet retraction, impairs the CBF and increases the neuronal degeneration and susceptibility to hypoxia and ischemia. A decreased cerebral glucose metabolism is an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and may precede the neuropathological Aβ deposition associated with AD. Aβ accumulation in turn leads to further decreases in the CBF closing the vicious cycle. Alzheimer, aging and diabetes are also influenced by insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling, and accumulated evidence indicates sporadic AD is associated with disturbed brain insulin metabolism. Understanding how vascular and metabolic factors interfere with progressive loss of functional neuronal networks becomes essential to develop efficient drugs to prevent cognitive decline in elderly.

  15. Big data and data repurposing - using existing data to answer new questions in vascular dementia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubal, Fergus N; Ali, Myzoon; Batty, G David; Charidimou, Andreas; Eriksdotter, Maria; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Kim, Yun-Hee; Levine, Deborah A; Mead, Gillian; Mucke, Hermann A M; Ritchie, Craig W; Roberts, Charlotte J; Russ, Tom C; Stewart, Robert; Whiteley, William; Quinn, Terence J

    2017-04-17

    Traditional approaches to clinical research have, as yet, failed to provide effective treatments for vascular dementia (VaD). Novel approaches to collation and synthesis of data may allow for time and cost efficient hypothesis generating and testing. These approaches may have particular utility in helping us understand and treat a complex condition such as VaD. We present an overview of new uses for existing data to progress VaD research. The overview is the result of consultation with various stakeholders, focused literature review and learning from the group's experience of successful approaches to data repurposing. In particular, we benefitted from the expert discussion and input of delegates at the 9 th International Congress on Vascular Dementia (Ljubljana, 16-18 th October 2015). We agreed on key areas that could be of relevance to VaD research: systematic review of existing studies; individual patient level analyses of existing trials and cohorts and linking electronic health record data to other datasets. We illustrated each theme with a case-study of an existing project that has utilised this approach. There are many opportunities for the VaD research community to make better use of existing data. The volume of potentially available data is increasing and the opportunities for using these resources to progress the VaD research agenda are exciting. Of course, these approaches come with inherent limitations and biases, as bigger datasets are not necessarily better datasets and maintaining rigour and critical analysis will be key to optimising data use.

  16. White Matter Damage in the Cholinergic System Contributes to Cognitive Impairment in Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhu, Zude; Teipel, Stefan J; Yang, Jianwei; Xing, Yi; Tang, Yi; Jia, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Cholinergic deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but the extent of involvement and underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, targeting the early stage of VCI, we determined regional atrophy within the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic pathways in 25 patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND) compared to 24 healthy elderly subjects. By applying stereotaxic cytoarchitectonic maps of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM), no significant atrophy was identified in VCIND. Using probabilistic tractography analysis, our study tracked the two major white matter tracks which map to cholinergic pathways. We identified significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in VCIND. Mediation analysis demonstrated that FA in the tracked pathways could fully account for the executive dysfunction, and partly mediate the memory and global cognition impairment. Our study suggests that the fibers mapped to the cholinergic pathways, but not the NbM, are significantly impaired in VCIND. MRI-based in vivo tracking of cholinergic pathways together with NbM measurement may become a valuable in vivo marker for evaluating the cholinergic system in cognitive disorders.

  17. Neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene in a rat model of vascular dementia: Experimental study and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarabadi, Mustafa; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Mehri, Soghra; Motamedshariaty, Vahideh Sadat; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-06-03

    Vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease are most common type of dementia. These diseases have been associated with cognitive decline and affected personal behavioral activities. Moreover, the pattern of cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive disorder has appeared as a predictive indication for the development into Alzheimer's disease. Permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) is a standard animal model to study vascular dementia and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In present study neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene (AUR), a citrus coumarin, were studied in 2VO rats. Different doses (25, 8 & 4mg/kg) of AUR were administered orally. The spatial memory performance was tested with Morris water maze after 2VO induction. Biochemical experiments and histopathological evaluations were also applied to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AUR in brain tissue. In comparison with 2VO group, AUR could significantly decrease the scape latency time in treated rats. Also AUR increased the percentage of time spent and traveled pathway in target quadrant on final trial test day. All behavioral results were confirmed by biochemical and histopathological data. Biochemical data indicated that AUR could decrease malondialdehyde (MDA), as lipid peroxidation indicator, and increase glutathione (GSH) content in cortex and hippocampus tissues. Histopathological data showed that AUR could protect cerebrocortical and hippocampus neurons against ischemia. This study demonstrated the memory enhancing effect and neuroprotective activity of AUR after induction of brain ischemia in a rat model of vascular dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of CSF biomarkers in the diagnostic work-up of mixed vascular-degenerative dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Le Bastard, Nathalie

    2012-11-15

    Low average specificity levels of 48% for clinical diagnosis of possible Alzheimer's disease (AD) reflect the overlap of clinical profiles between AD and non-AD dementias. Should diagnostic errors occur, they most likely involve one of the other primary dementias, mixed pathologies that include a vascular component, or uncertainties that are associated with early diagnosis. Vascular dementia (VaD) is overdiagnosed when a routine brain MRI or CT scan is used in the context of standard clinical diagnostic criteria, meanwhile denying significant neurodegenerative co-pathology. A promising approach for increasing diagnostic accuracy is the use of biochemical markers (biomarkers) that are present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The CSF biomarkers ß-amyloid protein of 42 amino acids (Aß(1-42)), total tau protein (T-tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau(181P)) are well validated. A combined analysis of these biomarkers is of help to discriminate AD from non-AD dementias (including VaD), reaching sensitivity and specificity levels that exceed 80%. Moreover, the added value of CSF biomarkers could lie within those cases in which the clinical diagnostic work-up is not able to discriminate between AD or a non-AD dementia. In case of doubt between VaD or mixed AD-VaD pathology in dementia patients, the determination of CSF Aß(1-42), T-tau and P-tau(181P) levels is of help to confirm or exclude the AD component in the pathophysiology of the dementia syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on memory and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, H F; Khalil, K I; Hussein, A M; Zaki, M S A; Eid, R A; Alkhateeb, M

    2014-02-01

    The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on memory and cognition in experimental animals is well known, but its efficacy in clinical dementia is unproven. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DHEA on learning and memory activities in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD). Forty-eight male rats that positively passed the holeboard memory test were chosen for the study before bilateral permanent occlusion of the common carotid artery. They were divided into four groups (n=12, each) as follows (i) untreated control, (ii) rats exposed to surgical permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCCAO) leading to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, (iii) rats exposed to BCCAO then received DHEA (BCCAO + DHEA) and (i.v.) rats exposed to BCCAO then received donepezil (BCCAO + DON). Holeboard memory test was used to assess the time, latency, working memory and reference memory. Central level of acetylcholine, norepinephrine and dopamine in the hippocampus were measured. Furthermore, the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus was determined. Histopathological studies of the cerebral cortex and transmission electron microscope of the hippocampus were performed. BCCAO decreased the learning and memory activities in the holeboard memory. Also, it decreased the expression of BDNF as well as the central level of acetylcholine, noradrenaline and dopamine as compared to control rats. Treatment with DHEA and donepezil increased the working and reference memories, BDNF expression as well as the central acetylcholine in the hippocampus as compared to BCCAO rats. DHEA produced neuroprotective effects through increasing the expression of BDNF as well as increasing the central level of acetylcholine and catecholamines which are non-comparable to donepezil effects.

  20. Mid-life versus late-life depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: Differential effects for Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Byers, Amy L.; McCormick, Mark; Schaefer, Catherine; Whitmer, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Context Depression and dementia are common in older adults and often co-occur, but it is unclear whether depression is an etiologic risk factor for dementia. Objective, Design, Setting and Participants To clarify the timing and etiology of the association, we examined depressive symptoms assessed in mid-life (1964–1973) and late-life (1994–2000) and the risks of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) (2003–2009) in a retrospective cohort study of 13,535 long-term Kaiser Permanente members. Depressive symptoms were categorized as none, mid-life only, late-life only or both. Cox proportional hazards models (age as time-scale) adjusted for demographics and medical comorbidities were used to examine depressive symptom category and risk of dementia, AD or VaD. Main Outcome Measure Any medical record diagnosis of dementia; Neurology clinic diagnosis of AD or VaD. Results Subjects had a mean (standard deviation) age of 81 (5) years in 2003; 58% were women and 25% were non-white. Depressive symptoms were present in 14.1% of subjects in mid-life only, 9.2% late-life only, and 4.2% both. Over 6 years, 23.1% were diagnosed with dementia (5.5% AD, 2.3% VaD). The adjusted hazard of dementia was increased by approximately 20% for mid-life depressive symptoms only (Hazard Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.19 [1.07, 1.32]), 70% for late-life symptoms only (1.72 [1.54, 1.92]), and 80% for both (1.77 [1.52, 2.06]). When we examined AD and VaD separately, subjects with late-life depressive symptoms only had a two-fold increase in AD risk (2.06 [1.67, 2.55]) whereas subjects with both mid-life and late-life symptoms had more than a three-fold increase in VaD risk (3.51 [2.44, 5.05]). Conclusions Depressive symptoms in mid-life or late-life are associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. Depression that begins in late-life may be part of the AD prodrome, while recurrent depression may be etiologically associated with increased risk of Va

  1. Patterns of cognitive decline and rates of conversion to dementia in patients with degenerative and vascular forms of MCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Camillo; Ferraccioli, Monica; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Quaranta, Davide; Gainotti, Guido

    2011-02-01

    According to recent criteria, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) represents a clinical condition with multiple cognitive presentations (amnesic and non amnesic) that can be supported by different types of brain lesions (mainly vascular and atrophic). In order to asses if the cognitive presentation and the rate of progression differ according to the type of brain pathology, two populations of MCI patients, characterized by hippocampal atrophy (n: 39) and vascular subcortical pathology (n: 36) respectively, on the basis of MRI findings, were investigated. Patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological test battery twice (at baseline and at two years follow-up), which is made up of the MMSE and various tests of episodic memory, short-term memory, visual-spatial abilities, executive functions, language, attention, praxis and psychomotor speed. Atrophic and vascular MCI patients showed a remarkably different pattern of impairment at the baseline. The former were significantly more impaired in episodic memory tasks. The latter were more impaired in an action naming task. At the follow up examination, the rate of progression to dementia was higher in atrophic (14/39) than in vascular (5/36) MCI patients. The comparison between neuropsychological scores obtained at the baseline and at the follow-up showed that atrophic MCI patients underwent a severe decline in several cognitive domains, whereas vascular MCI patients showed a significant decline only in those tasks requiring executive abilities. Our results confirm that a selective and severe defect of episodic memory is associated with hippocampal atrophy and that MCI patients with atrophic lesions are more likely to convert to Alzheimer's type dementia while MCI patients with vascular lesions are characterized by a slight decline in executive function over time and by a tendency to develop probable vascular forms of dementia.

  2. Vascular dementia Cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Part II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular dementia (VaD is the most prevalent form of secondary dementia and the second most common of all dementias. The present paper aims to define guidelines on the basic principles for treating patients with suspected VaD (and vascular cognitive impairment - no dementia using an evidence-based approach. The material was retrieved and selected from searches of databases (Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, preferentially from the last 15 years, to propose a systematic way to assess cognition, function and behavior, and disease severity staging, with instruments adapted for our milieu, and diagnosis disclosure. The present proposal contributes to the definition of standard diagnostic criteria for VaD based on various levels of evidence. It is noteworthy that only around half of the population of patients with vascular cognitive impairment present with dementia, which calls for future proposals defining diagnostic criteria and procedures for this condition.

  3. Beneficial Effect of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Inhibitor and Phytoestrogen in Dyslipidemia-Induced Vascular Dementia in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aditi; Sharma, Saurabh

    2015-11-01

    Estrogen deficiency and increase in protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity may be a key mechanism in postmenopausal dyslipidemia-induced vascular dysfunction and dementia. Thus, the present study has been designed to investigate the effect of biochanin A (BCA, a phytoestrogen) and sodium orthovanadate (SOV), an inhibitor of PTPase in dyslipidemia-induced vascular dementia in ovariectomized rats. Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and fed on high fat diet for 4 weeks to produce dyslipidemia. Dyslipidemia was assessed by estimation of serum lipid levels including total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, and LDL levels. Dementia was assessed in terms of increase in brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and attenuation of learning ability (escape latency time) and memory retention (time spent in target quadrant) using Morris water maze. Vascular dysfunction was assessed in terms of attenuation of acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation (isolated carotid ring preparation), mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and increase in serum thiobarbituric acid reactive species, superoxide anion level. Neurodegeneration was assessed in hippocampus by hematoxylin and eosin staining. BCA (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) and SOV (5 and 10 mg/kg) were administered alone and in low-dose combination to ovariectomized dyslipidemic rats. BCA (2.5 and 5 mg/kg), SOV (5 and 10 mg/kg), and donepezil (1 mg/kg) significantly improves vascular function, and learning and memory ability and decreases the neuronal cell death, oxidative stress, and AChE in ovariectomized dyslipidemic rats. Thus, it may be concluded that BCA and SOV attenuate vascular dysfunction and dementia in dyslipidemic ovariectomized rats. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS in patients with pure vascular dementia (VaD and mixed dementia (MD from a memory outpatient clinic in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ibiapina Siqueira-Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vascular Dementia (VaD and Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI are increasingly common worldwide. Nevertheless, the clinical-neuropsychiatric profile of these patients at presentation is still poorly characterized in developing countries. Objective: We aimed to characterize the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms, as well as the clinical and cognitive profile of patients with VaD and VCI in our tertiary University outpatient cognitive clinic. Methods: We reviewed data on 253 patients diagnosed with VaD or VCI at our center between January 1996 and December 2005, located in an industrial region of the state of Sao Paulo, southeast Brazil. We excluded 19 patients who did not complete the medical investigation or who did not meet the clinical or neuroimaging criteria for vascular dementia. We collected socio-demographic data, educational level, vascular risk factors, behavioral and neuropsychological symptoms and cognitive complaints at presentation. Results: Two hundred and thirty-four cases were included in this analysis. The mean age was 67.77±10.35 years; 72% were males and 82% had less than four years of education (average 2.84±2.96 years. The initial Clinical Dementia Rating score was 2 & 3 in 68%. A total of 185 patients had neuropsychiatric symptoms distributed in main categories as follows: psychosis (52.6%, hallucinations (23.5%, psychomotor agitation (22.5%, depression (17.5% and apathy (17.5%. Hypertension and previous stroke were the most prevalent risk factors. Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. The clinical-neuropsychiatric profile of patients presenting to cognitive clinics in developing countries may differ greatly to that of more developed nations. These characteristics may have implications for public health strategies.

  5. Comparative Study of Subcortical Atrophy in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Dementia with Extrapyramidal Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, Leonardo; Vieira, Renata Teles; Paes, Flávia; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Rocha, Nuno B. F; Budde, Henning; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : To investigate the severity of subcortical atrophy in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) without extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and dementia with EPS. In addition, we aim to verify if there is correlation between demographic and clinical characteristics and subcortical atrophy in the groups. Methodology : The sample was composed of 21 patients with dementia and EPS as well as 19 patients with FTD without EPS. A linear assessment was conducted in order to identify the degree of subcortical atrophy (i.e., bifrontal index - BFI) using MRI. Moreover, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) were used to investigate clinical aspects. Results : It was verified that patients with dementia and EPS was older than the patients with FTD (p=0.01). The severity of cognitive deficits was associated with BFI, as well as the dementia severity in the EPS group. Conclusion : FTD group presented mean BFI scores above the cutoff for normal elderly population, indicating the presence of subcortical atrophy in this group. Mean BFI was higher (although not statistically significant) in FTD group than in dementia with EPS, which can suggest at least that subcortical pathology in FTD may be as important as in the dementia with EPS group. Subcortical atrophy is a good biological marker for cognitive deterioration in FTD and in dementia with EPS. PMID:25870648

  6. Prognosis of vascular mild cognitive impairment includes vascular dementia onset and death by cardiovascular disease: reanalysis from the Osaki-Tajiri project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Kenichi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Mitsue; Kasai, Mari; Ishii, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    The relationship of predementia stage with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has not been fully clarified. Following our Prevalence Study 1998 in Tajiri, Japan, Incidence Study 2003 disclosed that 17.9% of subjects developed vascular dementia (VaD). Some cases developed after stroke (type I), whereas others already met the criteria for subcortical VaD (SVD) despite very mild stage (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0.5) and progressed to mild stage (CDR 1) (type II). We hypothesized that prognosis of vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI) included type II VaD or death due to causes associated with vascular risk factors. Prevalence Study 1998 included 497 randomly selected participants, including 346 with a CDR of 0, 119 with a CDR of 0.5, and 32 with a CDR of 1+. The first 2 groups were targeted for Incidence Study 2003. Based on the database, we reanalyzed the ratio of SVD in the subjects with CDR 0.5 and VaD, prognosis with or without CVD, and 2 types of VaD onset. The criteria for SVD were achieved by 67% of those with VaD and by 7% of those with vascular MCI (ie, CDR 0.5). In the CDR 0 group, CVD had no affect on prognosis; however, in the CDR 0.5 group, CVD had an affect on death by cardiovascular disease. The majority of subjects in the CDR 0 and CDR 0.5-CVD (-) groups were classified as type I, whereas all subjects in the CDR 0.5-CVD (+) group were type II. Although vascular MCI is treatable, it may progress to death as well as apparent dementia. Individuals with this "buried under the community" phenomenon of SVD should be targeted for secondary prevention interventions. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Frontotemporal Dementia in Southeast Asia: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Leng Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical profile of frontotemporal dementia (FTD in Southeast Asia is not known. We characterized and compared the demographic and clinical characteristics of FTD patients in Southeast Asia with North Asian and Western patients. Methods: The study included Southeast Asian FTD patients presenting to a tertiary neurology institute. Behavioral variant (bv-FTD and language variant (lv-FTD subtypes of FTD were diagnosed based on the Lund-Manchester criteria. The patients were characterized according to demographics, clinical, neuroimaging and longitudinal profiles. Results: Twenty-five bv-FTD and 19 lv-FTD patients were identified, with a female predominance ratio of 2:1 and a mean age of 56 years. The mean MMSE score was 16.2, and 88.4% of patients had memory symptoms. Over 5.1 ± 2.4 years of follow-up, 60% of bv-FTD and 36.8% of lv-FTD patients developed a second FTD syndrome. bv-FTD was the predominant type of FTD among Southeast Asians. Conclusion: FTD represents an important cause of young-onset dementia in Southeast Asia. Greater awareness of FTD is required to ensure early diagnosis and management.

  8. Lessons learned from international comparative crosscultural studies on dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Hugh C

    2006-06-01

    International and crosscultural comparative studies of Alzheimer disease (AD) offer significant advantages in elucidating risk factors for the disease by providing a wider diversity of environmental exposures as well as greater genetic diversity than do studies confined to a single ethnic group in a developed country. They also present with major methodological problems. The problems and their possible solutions are discussed in this article by describing three projects involving the Cree and English-speaking residents of Manitoba, blacks from Indianapolis, Indiana, and Yoruba from Ibadan and residents of Chinese villages. In this review, the development and harmonization of a culture fair screening instrument for dementia, the CSID, is described. The advantage of a scientific paradigm that can incorporate genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions to explore the etiology of AD is presented. The importance of developing strategies for recruitment and retention in international community-based studies is emphasized as is the necessity of establishing academic partnerships between the countries. The unique opportunity provided by geopolitical and sociocultural influences to study environmental exposures is exemplified by the ongoing study of the influence of selenium levels on cognition in Chinese villagers. Results from the Indianapolis, Indiana-Ibadan dementia project are presented suggesting that the incidence of AD is lower in Yoruba than in blacks and that this lower rate may be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

  9. A pilot randomised controlled trial to compare changes in quality of life for participants with early diagnosis dementia who attend a 'Living Well with Dementia' group compared to waiting-list control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ann; Spreadbury, John; Cheston, Richard; Coleman, Peter; Ballinger, Claire; Mullee, Mark; Pritchard, Jane; Russell, Cynthia; Bartlett, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a pilot study in which participants who had recently received a diagnosis of dementia were randomised to either a 10-week group intervention or a waiting-list control. Memory clinic staff with limited previous experience of group therapy were trained to lead a 10-week group therapy intervention called 'Living Well with Dementia'. Fifty-eight participants, all of whom had received a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, vascular or Lewy body dementia within the previous 18 months, were randomised to receive either the intervention or treatment as usual (waiting-list control). Data collection occurred at baseline, within two weeks after the intervention finished and at 10-week follow-up. The study met its recruitment targets, with a relatively low attrition rate for the intervention arm. The acceptability of the intervention and research methods was examined qualitatively and will be reported on elsewhere. For the primary outcome, measure of quality of life in Alzheimer's disease (QoL-AD), and secondary outcome, self-esteem, there was some evidence of improvement in the intervention group compared to the control group. There was, also, evidence of a reduction in cognitive functioning in the treatment group compared to the control. Such reported differences should be treated with caution because they are obtained from a pilot and not a definitive study. This pilot study succeeded in collecting data to inform a future definitive cost effectiveness clinical trial of Living Well with Dementia group therapy.

  10. Patient with rapidly evolving neurological disease with neuropathological lesions of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Lewy body dementia, chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy and meningothelial meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Tiple, Dorina; Bizzarro, Alessandra; Ladogana, Anna; Colaizzo, Elisa; Capellari, Sabina; Rossi, Marcello; Parchi, Piero; Masullo, Carlo; Pocchiari, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of rapidly evolving neurological disease in a patient with neuropathological lesions of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy and meningothelial meningioma. The coexistence of severe multiple pathologies in a single patient strengthens the need to perform accurate clinical differential diagnoses in rapidly progressive dementias. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  11. Blood-based neurochemical diagnosis of vascular dementia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibl, Mirko; Esselmann, Hermann; Mollenhauer, Brit; Weniger, Godehard; Welge, Volker; Liess, Michael; Lewczuk, Piotr; Otto, Markus; Schulz, Jörg B; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Kornhuber, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens

    2007-10-01

    Blood-based tests for the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are under intensive investigation and have shown promising results with regard to Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptide species in incipient AD. Moreover, plasma Abeta40 was suggested as an independent cerebrovascular risk factor candidate. These considerations prompted us to analyse a total of 72 plasma samples in vascular dementias (VAD, n = 15), AD with cerebrovascular disease (AD with CVD, n = 7), AD (n = 15), Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia (PD/PDD, n = 20) and 15 patients with depression that served as controls (DC) for distinct plasma amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide patterns. For the analysis of plasma we used immunoprecipitation followed by the quantitative Abeta-SDS-PAGE/immunoblot. For comparison, CSF tau and Abeta1-42 analyses were performed. The major outcome was an increase in Abeta1-40 in plasma of VAD paralleled by a decrease in the ratio of Abeta1-38/Abeta1-40. The ratio Abeta1-38/Abeta1-40 in plasma enabled contrasts of beyond 85% and 80% for discriminating VAD from DC and all other patients, respectively. In CSF, we confirmed the typical CSF biomarker constellation of increased tau and diminished Abeta1-42 levels for AD. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma Abeta1-38/Abeta1-40 for VAD resembled the accuracy of CSF biomarkers for AD. From the presented results, we consider the ratio of plasma Abeta1-38/Abeta1-40 peptides to be a blood-based biomarker candidate for VAD.

  12. Effects of donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on neurogenesis in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyoung Ja; Kim, Min Kyeong; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Jung Nam; Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Kim, Soo Young; Cho, Kyu Suk; Han, Jung-Soo; Kim, Hahn Young; Shin, Chan Young; Han, Seol-Heui

    2014-12-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia caused by cerebrovascular disease. Several recent reports demonstrated that cholinergic deficits are implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD and that cholinergic therapies have shown improvement of cognitive function in patients with VaD. However, the precise mechanisms by which donepezil achieves its effects on VaD are not fully understood. Donepezil hydrochloride is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) currently used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that AChEIs such as donepezil promote neurogenesis in the central nervous system. We investigated whether donepezil regulated hippocampal neurogenesis after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in rats, a commonly used animal model of VaD. To evaluate the effect of donepezil on neurogenesis, we orally treated rats with donepezil (10mg/kg) once a day for 3weeks, and injected BrdU over the same 3-week period to label newborn cells. The doses of donepezil that we used have been reported to activate cholinergic activity in rats. After 3weeks, a water maze task was performed on these rats to test spatial learning, and a subsequent histopathological evaluation was conducted. Donepezil improved memory impairment and increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of BCCAO animals. These results indicated that donepezil improves cognitive function and enhances the survival of newborn neurons in the DG in our animal model of VaD, possibly by enhancing the expression of choline acetyltransferase and brain-derived neurotropic factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Group-based exercise combined with dual-task training improves gait but not vascular health in active older adults without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Zou, Guangyong; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Fitzgerald, Clara; Hachinski, Vladimir; Shoemaker, Kevin; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Gait abnormalities and vascular disease risk factors are associated with cognitive impairment in aging. To determine the impact of group-based exercise and dual-task training on gait and vascular health, in active community-dwelling older adults without dementia. Participants [n=44, mean (SD) age: 73.5 (7.2) years, 68% female] were randomized to either intervention (exercise+dual-task; EDT) or control (exercise only; EO). Each week, for 26 weeks, both groups accumulated 50 or 75 min of aerobic exercise from group-based classes and 45 min of beginner-level square stepping exercise (SSE). Participants accumulating only 50 min of aerobic exercise were instructed to participate in an additional 25 min each week outside of class. The EDT group also answered cognitively challenging questions while performing SSE (i.e., dual-task training). The effect of the interventions on gait and vascular health was compared between groups using linear mixed effects models. At 26 weeks, the EDT group demonstrated increased dual-task (DT) gait velocity [difference between groups in mean change from baseline (95% CI): 0.29 m/s (0.16-0.43), pexercise combined with dual-task training can improve DT gait characteristics in active older adults without dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elucidation of mechanism of blood-brain barrier damage for prevention and treatment of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masaki

    2017-03-28

    . These clearance pathways may play a role in maintenance of the barrier in the entire brain. Obstruction of the passage of fluids through the perivascular drainage and glymphatic pathways as well as damage of the BBB and BCSFB may induce several kinds of brain disorders, such as vascular dementia. In this review, we focus on the relationship between damage of the barriers and the pathogenesis of vascular dementia and introduce recent findings including our experimental data using animal models.

  15. Rivastigmine: the advantages of dual inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and its role in subcortical vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Nagaendran; Pai, Ming-Chyi; Senanarong, Vorapun; Looi, Irene; Ampil, Encarnita; Park, Kyung Won; Karanam, Ananda Krishna; Christopher, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of sustained cholinesterase inhibition with rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Unlike donepezil and galantamine that selectively inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7), rivastigmine is a unique cholinesterase inhibitor with both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE; EC 3.1.1.8) inhibitory activity. Rivastigmine is also available as transdermal patch that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe AD as well as mild-to-moderate PDD. In this review, we explore the role of BuChE inhibition in addition to AChE inhibition with rivastigmine in the outcomes of cognition, global function, behavioral symptoms, and activities of daily living. Additionally, we review the evidence supporting the use of dual AChE-BuChE inhibitory activity of rivastigmine as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neurological disorders, with a focus on the role of rivastigmine in subcortical dementias such as vascular dementia (VaD) and PDD. Toward this objective, we performed a literature search in PubMed and Ovid with limits to articles published in the English language before June 2016. The available evidence from the literature suggests that the dual inhibition of AChE and BuChE may afford additional therapeutic potential of rivastigmine in subcortical dementias (subcortical VaD and PDD) with benefits on cognition and behavioral symptoms. Rivastigmine was found to specifically benefit executive dysfunction frequently observed in subcortical dementias; however, large randomized clinical studies are warranted to support these observations.

  16. Prevention of hypertension-induced vascular dementia by Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Chun; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2017-12-01

    Numerous etiological studies have established positive clinical association between hypertension and vascular dementia (VaD). Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented products have been shown to decrease vascular risk factors such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia and obesity. This study investigated the effect of ethanol extract of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented products (NTU101F) in hypertension-induced VaD in rats. Hypertension was promoted by subcutaneous injection of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA, 25 mg/kg body weight/day, twice a week) and substitution of drinking water with 1.0% NaCl and 0.2% KCl. The NTU101F groups (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0) administered NTU101F at the concentrations 11, 22, and 110 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, starting from day 51 day of DOCA-salt treatment. Morris water maze (MWM) was used for testing learning and memory. Different biochemical estimations were used to assess oxidative stress and inflammatory response in hippocampus. Oral administration of NTU101F in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure by 18.3-23.2% (p < 0.001), which was regulated by increasing eNOS density (about 3-fold) in the aorta, promoting NO production, and decreasing of matrix metallopeptidase 9 activity (about 2-fold) in the hippocampus, in addition to improve the kidney function and structure, decrease escape latency and increase the times spent in the target quadrant by 23.5-27.8% (p < 0.05). Overall, our findings suggest that NTU101F could exert neuroprotection in the brain and attenuate hypertension-induced VaD.

  17. Neuroprotective Effects of Clostridium butyricum against Vascular Dementia in Mice via Metabolic Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics actively participate in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the role of gut microbiota in brain disorders and vascular dementia (VaD remains unclear. We used a mouse model of VaD induced by a permanent right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO to investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of Clostridium butyricum. Following rUCCAO, C. butyricum was intragastrically administered for 6 successive weeks. Cognitive function was estimated. Morphological examination was performed by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining. The BDNF-PI3K/Akt pathway-related proteins were assessed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The diversity of gut microbiota and the levels of butyrate in the feces and the brains were determined. The results showed that C. butyricum significantly attenuated the cognitive dysfunction and histopathological changes in VaD mice. C. butyricum not only increased the levels of BDNF and Bcl-2 and decreased level of Bax but also induced Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt and ultimately reduced neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, C. butyricum could regulate the gut microbiota and restore the butyrate content in the feces and the brains. These results suggest that C. butyricum might be effective in the treatment of VaD by regulating the gut-brain axis and that it can be considered a new therapeutic strategy against VaD.

  18. Exercise improves recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex for rats modelling vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juntao; Zhao, Jingpu; Lin, Yangyang; Liang, Huiying; He, Xiaokuo; Zheng, Xiuyuan; Sui, Minghong; Zhuang, Zhiqiang; Yan, Tiebin

    2018-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may induce involuntary exercise and make beneficial effects on vascular dementia (VD) by strengthening the BDNF-pCREB-mediated pathway and hippocampal plasticity. Whether FES improves recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was investigated by establishing a VD model. The VD rats were administered with two weeks of voluntary exercise, forced exercise, or involuntary exercise induced with FES. Sham-operated and control groups were also included. The behavioral changes were assessed with the novel object recognition test and novel object location test. The expression levels of key proteins related to synaptic plasticity in the PFC were also detected. All types of exercise improved the rats' novel object recognition index, but only voluntary exercise and involuntary exercise induced with FES improved the novel object location index. Any sort of exercise enhanced the expression of key proteins in the PFC. Involuntary exercise induced with FES can improve recognition memory in VD better than forced exercise. The mechanism is associated with increased synaptic plasticity in the PFC. FES may be a useful alternative tool for cognitive rehabilitation.

  19. The molecular mechanisms of zinc neurotoxicity and the pathogenesis of vascular type senile dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Dai; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2013-11-07

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that is abundantly present in the brain. Despite its importance in normal brain functions, excess Zn is neurotoxic and causes neurodegeneration following transient global ischemia and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular-type dementia (VD). We have investigated the molecular mechanisms of Zn-induced neurotoxicity using immortalized hypothalamic neurons (GT1-7 cells) and found that carnosine (β-alanyl histidine) and histidine (His) inhibited Zn2+-induced neuronal death. A DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of several genes, including metal-related genes (metallothionein and Zn transporter 1), endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress related genes (GADD34, GADD45, and p8), and the calcium (Ca)-related gene Arc (activity-related cytoskeleton protein), were affected after Zn exposure. The co-existence of carnosine or His inhibited the expression of GADD34, p8, and Arc, although they did not influence the expression of the metal-related genes. Therefore, ER-stress and the disruption of Ca homeostasis may underlie the mechanisms of Zn-induced neurotoxicity, and carnosine might be a possible drug candidate for the treatment of VD.

  20. The Molecular Mechanisms of Zinc Neurotoxicity and the Pathogenesis of Vascular Type Senile Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawahara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element that is abundantly present in the brain. Despite its importance in normal brain functions, excess Zn is neurotoxic and causes neurodegeneration following transient global ischemia and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular-type dementia (VD. We have investigated the molecular mechanisms of Zn-induced neurotoxicity using immortalized hypothalamic neurons (GT1-7 cells and found that carnosine (β-alanyl histidine and histidine (His inhibited Zn2+-induced neuronal death. A DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of several genes, including metal-related genes (metallothionein and Zn transporter 1, endoplasmic reticulum (ER-stress related genes (GADD34, GADD45, and p8, and the calcium (Ca-related gene Arc (activity-related cytoskeleton protein, were affected after Zn exposure. The co-existence of carnosine or His inhibited the expression of GADD34, p8, and Arc, although they did not influence the expression of the metal-related genes. Therefore, ER-stress and the disruption of Ca homeostasis may underlie the mechanisms of Zn-induced neurotoxicity, and carnosine might be a possible drug candidate for the treatment of VD.

  1. Systematic Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Herbal Medicines for Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui Cheung Man

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic review of existing research that aims to assess the efficacy and safety of herbal medications (HM, as either monotherapy or adjunct to orthodox medications (OM, mainly comprised of cholinesterase inhibitors, for vascular dementia (VaD. We included 47 studies conducted in mainland China, each testing different HM. Of 43 HM monotherapy studies, 37 reported HM to be significantly better than OM or placebo; six reported similar efficacy between HM and OM. All four HM adjuvant studies reported significant efficacy. No major adverse events for HM were reported. Heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria, interventions and outcome measures hindered comprehensive data analysis. Studies suggested that HM can be a safe and effective treatment for VaD, either alone or in conjunction with OM. However, methodological flaws in the design of the studies limited the extent to which the results could be interpreted. Thirty most commonly used herbal constituents, including Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong in Chinese, Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu in Chinese and Radix Astragali (Huangqi in Chinese. were ranked. Further multi-center trials with large sample sizes, high methodological quality and standardized HM ingredients are necessary for clinical recommendations to be made.

  2. Comparing the effects of different individualized music interventions for elderly individuals with severe dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Mayumi; Ando, Hiroshi; Tsutou, Akimitsu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Individuals with dementia often experience poor quality of life (QOL) due to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Music therapy can reduce BPSD, but most studies have focused on patients with mild to moderate dementia. We hypothesized that music intervention would have beneficial effects compared with a no-music control condition, and that interactive music intervention would have stronger effects than passive music intervention. Methods: Thirty-nine individua...

  3. Midlife vascular risk factors and their association with dementia deaths: results from a Norwegian prospective study followed up for 35 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Hjellvik, Vidar; Handal, Marte; Næss, Oyvind; Knudsen, Gunn Peggy; Refsum, Helga; Tambs, Kristian; Nafstad, Per; Schirmer, Henrik; Bergem, Astrid Liv Mina; Selmer, Randi; Engedal, Knut; Magnus, Per; Bjertness, Espen

    2013-01-15

    There is growing evidence that midlife risk factors for vascular disease also are risk factors for dementia, but there is still need for long-term observational studies to address this. Our objective was to investigate the association of midlife vascular disease risk factors with dementia death. Participants were included in The Norwegian Counties Study (NCS) in the period 1974-78, aged 35-50 years at baseline. Information from NCS was linked with the Cause of Death Registry through the year 2009 using the unique personal identification number. The study included 48,793 participants, 1.5 million person years and 486 dementia deaths (187 Alzheimer's; 299 non-Alzheimer's dementia). Cox regression for cause-specific hazards was used. Dementia death was associated with increased total cholesterol levels (>7.80 vs. vascular risk factors and educational level. Smoking status or blood pressure in midlife was not significantly associated with risk of dementia death, although the results indicate a possible increased risk in heavy smokers. People suffering from high cholesterol levels, diabetes or underweight in midlife are at increased risk of dying from or with dementia later in life. Our findings add to previous results suggesting that intervention in midlife may be important. To better understand the mechanisms involved in the associations between midlife underweight, diabetes, and elevated cholesterol level and late-life dementia death, these links need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of in-vitro cultured calculus bovis on learning and memory impairments of hyperlipemia vascular dementia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Xue-Cong; Lou, Ye-Liang; Chen, Meng-Jing; Li, Guan-Ze; Gong, Xue-Yuan; Huang, Zhen

    2016-11-04

    In-vitro cultured calculus bovis (ICCB) is a quality substitute for natural bezoar which is used for the therapeutic purpose of treating encephalopathy. ICCB has been authorized to use on clinic. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects and the potential mechanisms of in-vitro cultured calculus bovis (ICCB) on learning and memory impairments of hyperlipemia vascular dementia (HVD) rats. The HVD model was established by permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries based on hyperlipemia rats. Learning and memory abilities were evaluated by morris water maze test and shuttle box test. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis) was employed to determine the SOD, MDA and NO in cerebral tissue, as well as the TG in serum. HE staining and toluidine blue staining were employed to evaluate cone cells damage in hippocampus CA1. An immunohistochemistry was used to measure the Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in cerebral tissue. Compared with control group, the abilities of spatial learning and memory and conditional memory were decreased significantly in HVD group (Plearning and memory, elevated the SOD activity (Plearning and memory in HVD rats. It might be related to anti-oxidative, regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expressions, and the alleviation of cone cells damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rivastigmine: the advantages of dual inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and its role in subcortical vascular dementia and Parkinson’s disease dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandiah N

    2017-04-01

    AChE-BuChE inhibitory activity of rivastigmine as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neurological disorders, with a focus on the role of rivastigmine in subcortical dementias such as vascular dementia (VaD and PDD. Toward this objective, we performed a literature search in PubMed and Ovid with limits to articles published in the English language before June 2016. The available evidence from the literature suggests that the dual inhibition of AChE and BuChE may afford additional therapeutic potential of rivastigmine in subcortical dementias (subcortical VaD and PDD with benefits on cognition and behavioral symptoms. Rivastigmine was found to specifically benefit executive dysfunction frequently observed in subcortical dementias; however, large randomized clinical studies are warranted to support these observations. Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, BuChE genotype, butyrylcholinesterase, Parkinson’s disease dementia, rivastigmine, subcortical vascular dementia

  6. Vascular comorbidities in younger people with dementia: a cross-sectional population-based study of 616 245 middle-aged people in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C A; Mercer, S W; Guthrie, B

    2015-09-01

    There is growing evidence of an aetiological relationship between vascular risk factors and the development of dementia in later life. Dementia in the under-65s has historically been considered to be more driven by genetic factors, but previous epidemiological studies in the young have been relatively small. This study aims to determine the prevalence of vascular comorbidity in people aged dementia in comparison to the general population. Analysis of routine clinical data from 314 (30%) general medical practices in Scotland. From an overall population of 616 245 individuals, 1061 cases of 'all-cause' dementia were identified (prevalence 172/100 000 population, 95% CI 161 to 182). The prevalence of dementia was higher in people with vascular morbidities, and prevalence progressively increased from 129/100 000 in people with no vascular comorbidity to 999/100 000 in people with four or more (p=0.01). The strength of association was greatest with a previous transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke and chronic kidney disease (adjusted OR=3.1 and 2.9, respectively). Statistically significant, but smaller associations were seen with the presence of hypertension, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease (adjusted OR=1.4, 2.0, 1.9 and 2.2, respectively). Vascular comorbid diseases were more commonly recorded in people aged 40-64 with dementia than those without. This finding indicates that vascular disease may be more important in the aetiology of young-onset dementia than previously believed, and is of concern given the continuing rise in obesity and diabetes internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Associations Between Midlife Vascular Risk Factors and 25-Year Incident Dementia in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Rebecca F; Albert, Marilyn S; Alonso, Alvaro; Coker, Laura H; Coresh, Josef; Davis, Sonia M; Deal, Jennifer A; McKhann, Guy M; Mosley, Thomas H; Sharrett, A Richey; Schneider, Andrea L C; Windham, B Gwen; Wruck, Lisa M; Knopman, David S

    2017-10-01

    Vascular risk factors have been associated with cognitive decline. Midlife exposure to these factors may be most important in conferring late-life risk of cognitive impairment. To examine Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) participants in midlife and to explore associations between midlife vascular risk factors and 25-year dementia incidence. This prospective cohort investigation of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study was conducted from 1987-1989 through 2011-2013. The dates of this analysis were April 2015 through August 2016. The setting was ARIC field centers (Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; and Minneapolis suburbs, Minnesota). The study comprised 15 744 participants (of whom 27.1% were black and 72.9% white) who were aged 44 to 66 years at baseline. Demographic and vascular risk factors were measured at baseline (obesity, smoking, diabetes, prehypertension, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) as well as presence of the APOE ε4 genotype. After the baseline visit, participants had 4 additional in-person visits, for a total of 5 in-person visits, hospitalization surveillance, telephone calls, and repeated cognitive evaluations. Most recently, in 2011-2013, through the ARIC Neurocognitive Study (ARIC-NCS), participants underwent a detailed neurocognitive battery, informant interviews, and adjudicated review to define dementia cases. Additional cases were identified through the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-Modified or informant interview, for participants not attending the ARIC-NCS visit, or by an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision dementia code during a hospitalization. Fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate associations of baseline vascular and demographic risk factors with dementia. In total, 1516 cases of dementia (57.0% female and 34.9% black, with a mean [SD] age at visit 1 of 57.4 [5.2] years) were identified

  8. Comparing Clinical Profiles in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Farlow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Greater understanding of differences in baseline impairment and disease progression in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD may improve the interpretation of drug effects and the design of future studies. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of three randomized, double-blind rivastigmine databases (one in PDD, two in AD. Impairment on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog, Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL scale, 10-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-10 and the ADCS-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC was compared [standardized difference (Cohen's d, similar if Results: Patients with AD or PDD had similar levels of impairment on the ADAS-cog and NPI-10. Scores on the ADCS-ADL scale (standardized difference = 0.47 and the ADAS-cog memory domain (total, 0.33; items, 0.10-0.58 were higher in AD; PDD patients were more impaired in the language (0.23 and praxis (0.34 domains. AD patients receiving placebo showed greater deterioration on the ADAS-cog (0.14 and improvement on the NPI-10 (0.11 compared with patients with PDD. Conclusion: Differing patterns of impairment occur in AD and PDD.

  9. Health-related quality of life and self-efficacy of managing behavior problems for family caregivers of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Min; Huang, Huei-Ling; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Shyu, Yea-Ing L

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the differences in patients' behavioral problems and health outcomes of family caregivers of patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A secondary analysis of baseline data on a subsample of caregiver-dementia patient dyads in a randomized clinical trial. Family caregivers of VaD patients reported higher self-efficacy than caregivers of AD patients in handling verbally nonaggressive and verbally aggressive behaviors. Caregivers of VaD patients had poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than caregivers of AD patients considering role disability due to physical health problems, bodily pain, social function, and physical component summary. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better mental health-related outcomes for family caregivers of VaD patients, and better self-care ability of VaD patients was associated with better caregiver mental health-related outcomes. Caring for a patient with more severe dementia predicted poor physical health-related outcomes in role disability due to physical health problems, but better overall mental health (mental component summary) for caregivers. This study is the first to examine and compare the behavioral problems of AD and VaD patients in a Chinese population, along with their family caregivers' self-efficacy and health outcomes. Family caregivers of patients with VaD might warrant specific attention to their HRQoL, with interventions developed to enhance their self-efficacy.

  10. Vascular Risk as a Predictor of Cognitive Decline in a Cohort of Elderly Patients with Mild to Moderate Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro K. Curiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular risk factors and other clinical variables as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in elderly patients with mild to moderate dementia. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 82 elderly patients (mean age 79.0 ± 5.9 years; 67.1% females with mild to moderate dementia were obtained at baseline, including years of education, Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk score, Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS, Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ score, Burden Interview Scale score, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI score. Changes in MMSE and FAQ scores over time were assessed annually. The association between baseline clinical variables and cognitive and functional decline was investigated during 3 years of follow-up through the use of generalized linear mixed effects models. Results: A trend was found towards steeper cognitive decline in patients with less vascular burden according to the HIS (β = 0.056, p = 0.09, better cognitive performance according to the CDR score (β = 0.313, p = 0.06 and worse caregiver burden according to the Burden Interview Scale score (β = -0.012, p = 0.07 at baseline. Conclusion: Further studies with larger samples are necessary to confirm and expand our findings.

  11. Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know what they need.Time and place. People who have dementia may get lost on their own street. They may forget how they got to a ... helping out, hiring medical care, or switching residences.People who have ... stressful situations, or a sudden change in surroundings. Simple things ...

  12. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging vascular changes, apolipoprotein E genotype, and development of dementia in the neurocognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, David C; Potter, Guy G; McQuoid, Douglas R; MacFall, James R; Payne, Martha E; Burke, James R; Plassman, Brenda L; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2007-10-01

    Several studies suggest that depression is a risk factor for development of dementia in the elderly. In a study of older depressed individuals, the authors examined both neuroimaging and genetic factors in development of dementia. The authors hypothesized that change in subcortical gray matter and white matter hyperintensity volumes would be associated with development of dementia, as would presence of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele. The sample consisted of 161 older depressed subjects without dementia who had magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline and at two years. Blood samples were also taken to determine APOE genotype. All participants were treated with antidepressants using a guideline-based treatment algorithm. Their cognitive status was evaluated annually. A consensus panel of experts evaluated each case to determine cognitive status and assign a diagnosis. Twenty subjects became demented over the follow-up period (5.4 years on average). Change in white matter hyperintensity volume was significantly associated with development of dementia, especially among non-Alzheimer dementias. There was a trend for change in subcortical gray matter hyperintensity volume to be associated with incident dementia. APOE genotype was not associated with onset of dementia. Worsening cerebrovascular disease in older depressed adults is associated with cognitive decline and dementia, particularly of the non-Alzheimer disease type. The association of change in white matter lesion volume and incident dementia among depressed elders extends the vascular depression hypothesis of geriatric depression to include cognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly.

  13. Depression and the risk of vascular dementia: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chen; Hu, Li-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Yang, Albert C; Shen, Cheng-Che

    2017-05-01

    To examine the association between the risks of depression and vascular dementia (VaD) based on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. This retrospective longitudinal matched-cohort study used National Health Insurance Research Database data from 49,955 participants (9,991 with new onset depression, 39,964 controls). A Cox regression analysis was performed on the whole sample and the subgroup of patients with depression. We further excluded patients who developed VaD within 3 or 5 years after enrollment to evaluate depression as an independent risk factor for or a prodrome of VaD. During the 10-year follow-up period, the incidence rate ratio of VaD between patients with depression and controls was 4.24 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.90-6.21, P depression was 3.10 (95% CI 2.13-4.52, P depression were aged ≥60 years (HR = 20.08), hypertension (HR = 1.70), diabetes (HR = 1.61), coronary artery disease (HR = 2.26), head injury (HR = 2.20), and cerebrovascular disease (HR = 3.02). In patients with depression, aged ≥60 years (HR = 32.16), coronary artery disease (HR = 2.82), head injury (HR = 2.06), and cerebrovascular disease (HR = 2.37) remained risk factors for VaD. After excluding those who developed VaD within 3 or 5 years, HRs remained high (3.28, 95% CI 2.03-5.31, P depression is an independent risk factor for subsequent VaD. Older age, cerebrovascular disease, head injury, and coronary artery disease might increase the risk of VaD among patients with depression. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of Nicorandil in Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion-Induced Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Surbhi; Singh, Prabhat; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-11-01

    Ischemia-induced chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow and vascular dementia (VaD). Brain mitochondrial potassium (adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium [KATP]) channels have a beneficial role in various brain conditions. The utility of KATP channels in CCH-induced VaD is still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of nicorandil, a selective KATP channel opener, in CCH-induced VaD. The method of 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) was used to induce CCH in mice. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Morris water maze. Serum nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), brain cholinergic dysfunction (acetylcholinesterase [AChE] activity), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, glutathione [GSH], catalase [CAT], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]), inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]), and infarct size (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining) were assessed. 2-vessels-occluded animals have shown significant cognitive impairment, serum nitrosative stress (reduced nitrite/nitrate), cholinergic dysfunction (increased brain AChE activity), and increased brain oxidative stress (reduction in GSH content and SOD and CAT activities with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation), along with a significant increase in MPO activity and infarct size. However, nicorandil treatment has significantly attenuated various CCH-induced behavioral and biochemical impairments. It may be said that 2VO provoked CCH leading to VaD, which was attenuated by the treatment of nicorandil. So, modulation of KATP channels may provide benefits in CCH-induced VaD. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: one potentially preventable and modifiable disease. Part I: Pathology, diagnosis and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Dennis A

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) frequently coexist and their separation may well be a false dichotomy. The neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular changes vary from the extremes of 'pure AD' to 'pure VaD' and a combination of changes is the most frequent. Both changes have a preclinical phase of decades. The clinical presentation is often out of proportion to the neuropathology to a lesser or greater degree. The diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment is based on clinical assessment and diagnostic criteria have been published. Neuropsychological testing and specialist evaluation may be required. The UK and US governments propose screening of all older adults. The value of routine screening has been questioned. Consent for testing and counseling are essential.

  16. Health, social and economic consequences of dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm-Falkenberg, S.; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dementia causes morbidity, disability and mortality, and as the population ages the societal burden will grow. The direct health costs and indirect costs of lost productivity and social welfare of dementia were estimated compared with matched controls in a national register...... based cohort study. Methods: Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997–2009) all patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or dementia not otherwise specified and their partners were identified and compared with randomly chosen controls matched for age...... of diagnosis. Conclusions: Dementias cause significant morbidity and mortality, consequently generating significant socioeconomic costs....

  17. Differential Features of Cerebral Perfusion in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Compared to Alzheimer's Dementia using SPM Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are most common cause of dementia in elderly people. Clinical distinction in some cases of DLB from AD may be difficult as symptom profiles overlap. Some neuropathologic overlap is also seen as beta-amyloidosis and senile plaques can be found in both disease. Both disease also share severe acetylcholine depletion. We evaluated the differences of brain perfusion between DLB and AD using statistical parametric mapping analysis. Twelve DLB (mean age ; 68.8{+-}8.3 years, K-MMSE ; 17.3{+-}6.1) and 51 AD patients (mean age ; 71.4{+-}7.2 years, K-MMSE ; 16.7{+-}4.5), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed for measuring regional cerebral blood flow. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software was used for automatic and objective approach to analyze SPECT image data. The SPECT data of the patients with DLB were compared to patients with AD. Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both occipital (both middle occipital gyrus, Rt B no. 18 and Lt cuneus), both parietal (Lt parietal precuneus, Lt B no. 39, Lt inferior parietal lobule and Rt supramarginal gyrus) lobes in DLB compared with AD. Significant hyperperfusion was noted in Rt frontal (sup. frontal gyrus, B no.10, middle frontal gyrus, B no. 9, B no. 11, inf. frontal gyrus), Rt putamen, Lt ant. cingulate gyrus (B no. 24), both cerebellar post. lobe (Lt tuber, Lt declive, Lt tonsil, Rt declive) in DLB compared with AD. We found a significant differences in the cerebral perfusion pattern between DLB and AD. Differential feature of cerebral perfusion in DLB was both occipital hypoperfusion and preserved Rt frontal perfusion compared to AD. Therefore in difficult case of clinical an neuro pathologic diagnosis, brain perfusion SPECT with SPM analysis may be helpful to differentiate DLB from AD.

  18. Apolipoprotein ɛ4 is Associated with Dementia and Cognitive Impairment Predominantly Due to Alzheimer's Disease and Not with Vascular Cognitive Impairment: A Singapore-Based Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yuek Ling; Yeo, Hazel Kai-Hui; Wang, Jiehao; Hilal, Saima; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Wong, Boon-Seng; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2016-01-01

    While the association for apolipoprotein ɛ4 allele (APOE4) with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been consistently confirmed, the association with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is unclear. We therefore explored the relationship of APOE with both AD and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) by examining the prevalence of APOE4 in AD, AD with CeVD and vascular dementia (VaD), as well as in cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) with and without CeVD. We performed a case-control study with subjects recruited from memory clinics and the community. All subjects underwent standardized brain neuroimaging, clinical and neuropsychological assessments, following which they were classified using research criteria. A total of 411 subjects; 92 controls with no cognitive impairment (NCI), 77 CIND without CeVD, 87 CIND with CeVD, 55 AD without CeVD, 68 AD with CeVD, and 32 VaD patients were recruited. Compared to NCI (16.3%), the prevalence of APOE4 carriers was significantly higher only in CIND (37.7%) and AD in the absence of CeVD (45.5%), but not in the three subgroups of VCI, namely CIND with CeVD (20.7%), AD with CeVD (27.9%) and VaD (25.0%). Logistic regression analyses also showed that APOE4 carriers were more likely to have CIND without CeVD (Odds Ratio [OR]: 3.34; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.59-7.03) and AD without CeVD (OR: 7.21; 95% CI: 2.74-18.98), but no such association was observed in the VCI subgroups. APOE4 is significantly associated with dementia and CIND due to AD pathology, but not with VCI.

  19. Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia: EEG global power independently predicts vascular impairment and brain symmetry index reflects severity of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V A; Mariën, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J T M; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J A M; De Deyn, Peter P

    2014-10-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG parameters in subcortical vCIND in comparison with amnestic multidomain mild cognitive impairment to determine the additional diagnostic value of quantitative EEG in this setting. Fifty-seven community-residing patients with an uneventful central neurologic history and first presentation of cognitive decline without dementia were included. Neuropsychological test results were correlated with EEG parameters. Predictive values for vCIND and amnestic multidomain mild cognitive impairment were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression modeling. Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia and amnestic multidomain mild cognitive impairment differed with regard to the EEG (delta + theta)/(alpha + beta) ratio (DTABR) and pairwise derived brain symmetry index. We found statistically significant correlations between pairwise derived brain symmetry index and immediate verbal memory, immediate global memory, verbal recognition, working memory, and mean memory score in vCIND. Verbal fluency (odds ratio: 1.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.28, P = 0.033) and (delta + theta)/(alpha + beta) ratio (odds ratio: 2.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-4.94, P = 0.036) emerged as independent diagnostic predictors for vCIND with an overall correct classification rate of 95.0%. Our data indicate that EEG is of additional value in the differential diagnosis and follow-up of patients presenting with cognitive decline. These findings may have an impact on memory care.

  20. The Science of Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID): A Framework for Advancing Research Priorities in the Cerebrovascular Biology of Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, Roderick A; Bosetti, Francesca; Emr, Marian; Gladman, Jordan T; Koenig, James I; Moy, Claudia S; Pahigiannis, Katherine; Waddy, Salina P; Koroshetz, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization reports that 47.5 million people are affected by dementia worldwide. With aging populations and 7.7 million new cases each year, the burden of illness due to dementia approaches crisis proportions. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading dementia diagnosis, the actual causes of dementia in affected individuals are unknown except for rare fully penetrant genetic forms. Evidence from epidemiology and pathology studies indicates that damage to the vascular system is associated with an increased risk of many types of dementia. Both Alzheimer's pathology and cerebrovascular disease increase with age. How AD affects small blood vessel function and how vascular dysfunction contributes to the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's are areas of intense research. The science of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) integrates diverse aspects of biology and incorporates the roles of multiple cell types that support the function of neural tissue. Because of the proven ability to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease and hypertension with population benefits for heart and stroke outcomes, it is proposed that understanding and targeting the biological mechanisms of VCID can have a similarly positive impact on public health.

  1. [Treatment of vascular dementia by Chinese herbal medicine: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of clinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wen-Jia; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jin-Zhou; Ni, Jing-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has been extensively used in the treatment of vascular dementia (VaD), but lacked systematic review on its efficacy and safety. So we conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine in treating VaD. CNKI, CBM, PubMed, and Wiley Online Library were retrieved for randomized trials (RCTs) on Chinese herbal medicine treating VaD patients. Randomized parallel control trials by taking Chinese herbal medicine as one treatment method and placebos/cholinesterase inhibitors/Memantine hydrochloride as the control were included. Quality rating and data extraction were performed. RevMan5.2.0 Software was used for meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to indicate effect indicators of results. Seven RCTs met the inclusive criteria. Totally 677 VaD patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group. Descriptive analyses were performed in inclusive trials. The cognitive function was assessed in all trials. Results showed Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) score was better in the Chinese herbal medicine group than in the placebo group, but with no significant difference when compared with the donepezil group (P > 0.05). Adverse reactions were mainly manifested as gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain in the Chinese herbal medicine group. But they occurred more in the donepezil group than in the Chinese herbal medicine group. The methodological quality of included trials was poor with less samples. Results of different trials were lack of consistency. Present evidence is not sufficient to prove or disapprove the role of Chinese herbal medicine in improving clinical symptoms and outcome indicators of VaD patients. Their clinical efficacy and safety need to be supported by more higher quality RCTs.

  2. Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on expression of 5-HT1AR and neurotransmitters in rats with vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, K; Yin, G; Zi, X H; Zhu, H X; Pan, Q

    2016-12-02

    5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1AR) is closely associated with cognitive functions. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can protect individuals from brain damage following ischemia/hypoxia. To investigate the function of SSRIs in vascular dementia (VD), we established a rat model of VD, and observed the effect of SSRIs on the expression of 5-HT1AR mRNA and neurotransmitters. Male SD rats (6 months) were randomly assigned into sham, model, and SSRI groups (N = 30). VD was achieved by permanent ligation of the bilateral common carotid artery. Escitalopram, a highly selective 5-HT reabsorption inhibitor, was ip injected into the rats for three consecutive weeks. The Morris water-maze was used to test learning and memory. H&E staining for neuronal injury was conducted on cortical and hippocampal tissues. HPLC was used to determine the levels of dopamine (DA), 5-HT, and norepinephrine (NE). RT-PCR was used to determine expression of 5-HT1AR mRNA. As compared to control rats, model animals demonstrated elongated escape latency, lower platform crossing times, and significant injuries to hippocampal CA1 neurons. This was accompanied by reductions in DA, 5-HT, and NE levels in hippocampal tissues, as well as reduced cortical 5-HT and decreased 5-HT1AR mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Escitalopram treatments reduced escape latency, elevated platform crossing times, improved CA1 neuronal damage, increased DA and 5-HT levels in hippocampal and cortical neurons, as well as elevated expression of 5-HT1AR mRNA (P < 0.05). Therefore, SSRIs may improve cognitive dysfunction of VD rats, possibly by stimulating expression of neurotransmitters and protecting neurons.

  3. Frequency and topography of small cerebrovascular lesions in vascular and in mixed dementia: a post-mortem 7-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study with neuropathological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reuck, Jacques; Auger, Florent; Durieux, Nicolas; Deramecourt, Vincent; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Pasquier, Florence; Leys, Didier; Bordet, Regis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Mixed dementia (MixD) refers to a combination of definite Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular encephalopathy. The existence of a "pure" type of vascular dementia (VaD) is controversial. There is a need to find magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics allowing the distinction between VaD and MixD. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI compares the frequency or severity and the topography of the small cerebrovascular lesions in brains of patients with VaD and with MixD. Material and methods: Based on neuropathological criteria, 14 brains were classified as VaD, 24 as MixD and 11 as controls. Three coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere and a horizontal section of a cerebellar hemisphere underwent T2 and T2* 7.0-tesla MRI examination. The mean values and topographic distribution of white matter changes (WMCs), lacunar infarcts (LIs), cortical microbleeds (CoMBs) and cortical microinfarcts (CoMIs) were determined and compared between the different groups. Results: Compared to the controls, both VaD and MixD brains had significantly more severe WMCs and increased numbers of CoMBs and CoMIs. Lacunar infarcts predominated only in the VaD cases. On mutual comparison of VaD and MixD brains, CoMBs and CoMIs predominated in the frontal lobe and the cerebellum of VaD, while were mainly present in the occipital lobe of MixD. White matter changes predominated in the temporal lobe of MixD cases. Lacunar infarcts were significantly increased in the corona radiata and putamen of VaD patients. Conclusions: The present post-mortem MRI study shows clear differences in the distribution and the types of cerebrovascular lesions on high-field MRI, confirming that VaD and MixD are different diseases. .

  4. Frequency and topography of small cerebrovascular lesions in vascular and in mixed dementia: a post-mortem 7-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study with neuropathological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques De Reuck

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Mixed dementia (MixD refers to a combination of definite Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular encephalopathy. The existence of a “pure” type of vascular dementia (VaD is controversial. There is a need to find magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics allowing the distinction between VaD and MixD. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI compares the frequency or severity and the topography of the small cerebrovascular lesions in brains of patients with VaD and with MixD. Material and methods : Based on neuropathological criteria, 14 brains were classified as VaD, 24 as MixD and 11 as controls. Three coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere and a horizontal section of a cerebellar hemisphere underwent T2 and T2* 7.0-tesla MRI examination. The mean values and topographic distribution of white matter changes (WMCs, lacunar infarcts (LIs, cortical microbleeds (CoMBs and cortical microinfarcts (CoMIs were determined and compared between the different groups. Results : Compared to the controls, both VaD and MixD brains had significantly more severe WMCs and increased numbers of CoMBs and CoMIs. Lacunar infarcts predominated only in the VaD cases. On mutual comparison of VaD and MixD brains, CoMBs and CoMIs predominated in the frontal lobe and the cerebellum of VaD, while were mainly present in the occipital lobe of MixD. White matter changes predominated in the temporal lobe of MixD cases. Lacunar infarcts were significantly increased in the corona radiata and putamen of VaD patients. Conclusions : The present post-mortem MRI study shows clear differences in the distribution and the types of cerebrovascular lesions on high-field MRI, confirming that VaD and MixD are different diseases.

  5. Increased Total Homocysteine Levels Predict the Risk of Incident Dementia Independent of Cerebral Small-Vessel Diseases and Vascular Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Kaori; Tanaka, Makiko; Okazaki, Shuhei; Yagita, Yoshiki; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Mochizuki, Hideki; Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine has been identified as a potential risk factor for stroke, cerebral small-vessel diseases (SVD), and dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the predictive value of homocysteine levels on incident dementia while simultaneously controlling for MRI findings and vascular risk factors. Within a Japanese cohort of participants with vascular risk factors in an observational study, we evaluated the association between baseline total homocysteine (tHcy) levels (per 1 μmol/L and the tertile of tHcy), the prevalence of MRI-findings at baseline, and incident all-cause dementia. Baseline brain MRI was used to determine SVD (lacunas, white matter hyperintensities, and cerebral microbleeds [CMBs]) and atrophy (medial-temporal lobe atrophy and bicaudate ratio). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the cross-sectional association between tHcy and each of MRI findings. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to estimate the longitudinal association between tHcy and dementia. In the 643 subjects (age: 67.2 ± 8.4 years, male: 59% ; education: 12.9 ± 2.6 years), multivariable analyses adjusted for several potential confounders, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and intima-media thickness, showed that highest tHcy tertile was associated with lacunas, CMBs, and strictly deep CMBs. During the mean 7.3-year follow-up (range: 2-13), 47 patients were diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer's disease: 24; vascular dementia: 18; mixed-type: 3; other: 2). After adjusting for age, gender, APOE ɛ4, education, BMI, MMSE, hypertension, cerebrovascular events, eGFR, and MRI-findings, tHcy level (hazard ratios [HR]: 1.08, p = 0.043) and the highest tertile of tHcy (HR: 2.50, p = 0.047) for all-cause dementia remained significant. Our results provide additional evidence of tHcy that contributes to increased susceptibility to dementia risk.

  6. Disorders of "taste cognition" are associated with insular involvement in patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: "memory of food is impaired in dementia and responsible for poor diet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Teiko; Meguro, Kenichi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kato, Yuriko; Tezuka, Kimihiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Tashiro, Manabu

    2014-07-01

    In dementia patients, dietary intake problems may occur despite the absence of swallowing problems. We investigated cognitive functions on food and taste in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) patients. Participants included 15 healthy controls (HC), 30 AD and 20 VaD patients. Food Cognition Test: Replicas of three popular foods in Japan with no odors were presented visually to each participant, with the instruction to respond with the name of each food. Replicas of food materials were subsequently presented to ask whether they were included in these foods. Taste Cognition Test: Replicas of 12 kinds of foods were presented to describe their expected tastes. The AD/VaD groups exhibited significantly lower scores on Food/Taste Cognition Tests compared with the HC group. These scores correlated inversely with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in the AD group. Decreased dietary intake was observed in 12 of the 50 patients; 8 of the 12 exhibited decreased Taste Cognition Test scores, higher than that of the normal-intake patients. There was no difference in the filter paper taste disc test between HC/AD/VaD groups. To test the hypothesis that the insula is associated with taste cognition, two MMSE-matched AD subgroups (n = 10 vs. 10) underwent positron emission tomography. Glucose metabolism in the right insula was lower in the low taste cognition subgroup. The VaD patients with insular lesions exhibited impaired Taste Cognition Test findings. It is important to consider the cognitive aspect of dietary intake when we care for dementia patients.

  7. Absence of cerebral microbleeds predicts reversion of vascular 'cognitive impairment no dementia' in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wai Kwong; Chen, Yang-Kun; Lu, Jin-Yan; Wong, Adrian; Mok, Vincent; Chu, Winnie C W; Ungvari, Gabor S; Wong, Ka Sing

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral microbleeds may contribute to cognitive deficits in stroke. Cognitive impairment that does not meet the criteria for dementia (cognitive impairment no dementia) is common in stroke, and patients with such impairment can revert to normal cognition. This study examined the association between cerebral microbleeds and the reversion of cognitive impairment no dementia. A total of 328 Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to the acute stroke unit of a university-affiliated regional hospital in Hong Kong participated in the study. All subjects were assessed for cognitive impairment no dementia with a neuropsychological test battery at three- and 15 months following the index stroke. Of the 180 patients with cognitive impairment no dementia at three-months poststroke, 143 (79 · 4%) attended the 15-month follow-up. Twenty-nine subjects had reverted from cognitive impairment no dementia to normal cognitive status (reverters), 98 were nonreverters and 16 had progressed to dementia. In univariate analysis, the reverters were found to be younger, less likely to have hypertension and cerebral microbleeds, and to have smaller white matter hyperintensity volumes. In multivariate analysis, the absence of cerebral microbleeds remained an independent predictor of reversion with an odds ratio of 4.3. Absence of deep cerebral microbleeds predicted the reversion of the language domain, whereas the absence of lobar cerebral microbleeds predicted the reversion of the visuomotor speed domain. The results suggest that the absence of cerebral microbleeds may be associated with a higher likelihood of a reversible cognitive impairment in stroke patients. The mechanism of how this occurs is not well understood. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  8. Mortality in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer’s dementia: a retrospective naturalistic cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Redwan; Menon, Vandana B; Cardinal, Rudolf N; O’Brien, John T

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To use routine clinical data to investigate survival in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) compared with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). DLB is the second most common dementia subtype after AD, accounting for around 7% of dementia diagnoses in secondary care, though studies suggest that it is underdiagnosed by up to 50%. Most previous studies of DLB have been based on select research cohorts, so little is known about the outcome of the disease in routine healthcare settings. Setting Cambridgeshire & Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, a mental health trust providing secondary mental health care in England. Sample 251 DLB and 222 AD identified from an anonymised database derived from electronic clinical case records across an 8-year period (2005–2012), with mortality data updated to May 2015. Results Raw (uncorrected) median survival was 3.72 years for DLB (95% CI 3.33 to 4.14) and 6.95 years for AD (95% CI 5.78 to 8.12). Controlling for age at diagnosis, comorbidity and antipsychotic prescribing the model predicted median survival for DLB was 3.3 years (95% CI 2.88 to 3.83) for males and 4.0 years (95% CI 3.55 to 5.00) for females, while median survival for AD was 6.7 years (95% CI 5.27 to 8.51) for males and 7.0 years (95% CI 5.92 to 8.73) for females. Conclusion Survival from first presentation with cognitive impairment was markedly shorter in DLB compared with AD, independent of age, sex, physical comorbidity or antipsychotic prescribing. This finding, in one of the largest clinical cohorts of DLB cases assembled to date, adds to existing evidence for poorer survival for DLB versus AD. There is an urgent need for further research to understand possible mechanisms accounting for this finding. PMID:29101136

  9. Comparative validation of proxy-based montgomery-asberg depression rating scale and cornell scale for depression in dementia in nursing home residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : To 1) compare the accuracy of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in nursing home residents with dementia when professional caregivers are the only available source of information and 2) explore different methods

  10. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's fully operationalised DSM-IV dementia computerized diagnostic algorithm, compared with the 10/66 dementia algorithm and a clinician diagnosis: a population validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy ES

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The criterion for dementia implicit in DSM-IV is widely used in research but not fully operationalised. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group sought to do this using assessments from their one phase dementia diagnostic research interview, and to validate the resulting algorithm in a population-based study in Cuba. Methods The criterion was operationalised as a computerised algorithm, applying clinical principles, based upon the 10/66 cognitive tests, clinical interview and informant reports; the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, the CERAD 10 word list learning and animal naming tests, the Geriatric Mental State, and the History and Aetiology Schedule – Dementia Diagnosis and Subtype. This was validated in Cuba against a local clinician DSM-IV diagnosis and the 10/66 dementia diagnosis (originally calibrated probabilistically against clinician DSM-IV diagnoses in the 10/66 pilot study. Results The DSM-IV sub-criteria were plausibly distributed among clinically diagnosed dementia cases and controls. The clinician diagnoses agreed better with 10/66 dementia diagnosis than with the more conservative computerized DSM-IV algorithm. The DSM-IV algorithm was particularly likely to miss less severe dementia cases. Those with a 10/66 dementia diagnosis who did not meet the DSM-IV criterion were less cognitively and functionally impaired compared with the DSMIV confirmed cases, but still grossly impaired compared with those free of dementia. Conclusion The DSM-IV criterion, strictly applied, defines a narrow category of unambiguous dementia characterized by marked impairment. It may be specific but incompletely sensitive to clinically relevant cases. The 10/66 dementia diagnosis defines a broader category that may be more sensitive, identifying genuine cases beyond those defined by our DSM-IV algorithm, with relevance to the estimation of the population burden of this disorder.

  11. Mechanisms of vascular disease in dementia: what does industry want to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Paul B; Hill, Derek; Lockhart, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Despite recent advances in basic and clinical science, dementia remains an area of high unmet medical need. The role of cerebrovascular mechanisms in the pathogenesis and progression of cognitive and functional impairment in dementia is being revived. In order to facilitate the development of therapeutic approaches, it is critical that a number of fundamental elements are integrated into research strategies investigating cerebrovascular pathologies as these will maximize the opportunity of bringing medicines to patients in a timely manner. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. The relationship between cognitive impairment and in vivo metabolite ratios in patients with clinical Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, A.D. [Department of Imaging, Charing Cross Hospital and Dementia Research Group, University College London, Fulham Palace Road, W6 8RF, London (United Kingdom); Rai, G.S. [Department of Care of Older People, Whittington Hospital, Highgate Hill, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    Previous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies have shown increased myo-inositol (MI) and decreased N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) levels in the parieto-occipital lobes of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to those with other dementias and normal subjects. This study aimed to establish the quantitative relationship between metabolite ratios and degree of cognitive impairment in patients with mild to moderate AD and sub-cortical ischaemic vascular dementia (SIVD). Forty-four older people with clinical dementia were recruited from a memory clinic and followed up for 2.0-3.5 years; 20 cases were finally classified as probable AD, 18 as SIVD and 6 as mixed type. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and short echo time single voxel automated MRS from the mesial parieto-occipital lobes were performed at the time of initial referral. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated for MMSE scores and measured metabolite ratios MI/Cr, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and NAA/MI. The AD group showed a significant correlation between MMSE and NAA/MI (r=0.54, P=0.014) and NAA/Cr (r=0.48, P=0.033), and a negative, non-significant association with MI/Cr (r=-0.41, P=0.072). MI/Cr was negatively correlated with NAA/Cr (r=-0.51, P=0.021). Neither Cho/Cr ratios nor age correlated with cognitive function. The SIVD group showed no correlation between any of the measured metabolite ratios and MMSE score. This study reinforces the specific association between reduced NAA and increased MI levels in the parieto-occipital region and cognitive impairment in AD. MRS may have a role in evaluating disease progression and therapeutic monitoring in AD, as new treatments become available. (orig.)

  13. ABCA7 and risk of dementia and vascular disease in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Emilie W.; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: ATP-binding-cassette transporter A7(ABCA7) is suggested to be involved in lipid transport as well as in phagocytosis of amyloid-β in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that a common genetic variant in ABCA7 is associated with dementia, ischemic heart disease, ischemic cerebrovascular ...

  14. Functional Neuroimaging in Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Papma (Janne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDementia refers to a clinical syndrome of cognitive deterioration and difficulty in the performance of activities of daily living. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (AD), followed by vascular dementia (VaD) at old age and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) at young

  15. Acupuncture Attenuated Vascular Dementia-Induced Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation Impairments via Activation of D1/D5 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang; Li, Hui; Yang, Jing-Wen; Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Yan, Chao-Qun; Ma, Si-Ming; Zhu, Wen; Li, Qian-Qian; Li, Tian-Ran; Xiao, Ling-Yong; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2017-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that acupuncture could improve cognitive impairment in vascular dementia by enhancing synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether dopamine, a key mediator of synaptic plasticity, is involved in this cognitive improvement. Vascular dementia model was established by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion in male Wistar rats. Three days after the operation, animals received acupuncture treatment for 2 weeks, once daily. The D1/D5 receptors antagonist SCH23390 was administered intraperitoneally 15 minutes before each acupuncture treatment. Morris water maze was examined after acupuncture. Long-term potentiation was studied by an electrophysiological technique. Dopamine and metabolites levels were detected by microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography from brain tissue. The expression of D1R and D5R was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Acupuncture remarkably reversed cognitive deficits in 2-vessel occlusion model (2VO) rats, and the acupuncture points Zusanli (ST36) and Baihui (GV20) were confirmed to be the most effective combination. Electrophysiological recording data showed that 2VO-induced impairments of long-term potentiation were prevented by acupuncture. In addition, acupuncture promoted the release of dopamine and its major metabolites in the hippocampus of 2VO rats. The immunofluorescence experiment showed that the decrease of D1R and D5R in hippocampal dentate gyrus region of 2VO rats was reversed by acupuncture. Furthermore, we found that the effects of acupuncture against 2VO-induced impairments in cognition and synaptic plasticity were abolished by SCH23390. Improvement in cognition and hippocampal synaptic plasticity induced by acupuncture was achieved via activation of D1/D5 receptors in 2VO rats. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in senile dementia of Alzheimer`s type and vascular dementia with deep white matter changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohgi, H.; Yonezawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Sato, N.; Kato, E.; Kudo, M. [Department of Neurology, Iwate Medical University (Japan); Hatano, K.; Sasaki, T. [Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Centre (Japan Radioisotope Association) and Cyclotron Research Centre, Iwate Medical University, Morioka (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO{sub 2}), oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF), and cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were investigated using positron emission tomography (PET) in 16 patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer`s type (SDAT), and compared with those of 6 nondemented and 3 demented patients with deep white matter high signal (DWMH) on T2-weighted MRI and 6 controls. rCBF, rCMRO{sub 2} and rCBV were determined using C{sup 15}O{sub 2}, {sup 15}O{sub 2} and C{sup 15}O, respectively. rCBF and CMRO{sub 2} were significantly decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortex (P < 0.05) in patients with SDAT, and showed a significant correlation with the severity of dementia (P < 0.05). In patients with DWMH rCBF was significantly decreased in the parietal cortex and in the frontal white matter in nondemented patients, and in the cerebral cortex and white matter of most regions studied in demented patients (P < 0.05), whereas rCMRO{sub 2} was significantly reduced in only the frontal and temporal cortex of demented patients (P < 0.05). rOEF was significantly increased in the parietal cortex of patients with SDAT and in the white matter of patients with SDAT or DWMH (P < 0.05), and the increase in the frontal white matter significantly paralleled the progression of dementia in patients with SDAT (P < 0.05). rCBV was significantly decreased in the parietal and temporal cortex of patients with SDAT (P < 0.05), but not in any areas of those with DWMH. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 32 refs.

  17. Parkinson disease with dementia: comparing patients with and without Alzheimer pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Marwan N; Adler, Charles H; Lahti, Tyson J; Connor, Donald J; Vedders, Linda; Peterson, Lars K; Caviness, John N; Shill, Holly A; Sue, Lucia I; Ziabreva, Iryna; Perry, Elaine; Ballard, Clive G; Aarsland, Dag; Walker, Douglas G; Beach, Thomas G

    2009-01-01

    Subjects with Parkinson disease (PD) frequently develop dementia with greater than one-third meeting neuropathologic diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD). The objective is to identify clinical and neuropathologic differences between Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD) subjects, with and without coexistent AD pathology. Neuropathologic examination was available on subjects diagnosed by clinicopathologic criteria with PDD-AD (N=23) and PDD+AD (N=28). A small subset of subjects with PDD-AD and PDD+AD had received at least 1 standardized neuropsychologic assessment. PDD+AD subjects were significantly older at age of PD onset and death, progressed to onset of dementia in less time, and had a shorter duration of PD symptoms before the onset of dementia. Education, responsiveness of L-dopa and dopaminergic medications, presence of cognitive fluctuations and hallucinations, and mean Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Functional Assessment Staging, and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. The PDD+AD group had significantly greater total plaques, neuritic plaques, total tangles, and Braak stages compared with PDD-AD. This study suggests that it is difficult to distinguish PDD+AD and PDD-AD on the basis of movement, clinical, and neuropsychologic assessment. PDD-AD and PDD+AD have similar degrees of dementia and approximately half of PDD subjects have enough AD pathology to attain a neuropathologic diagnosis of AD. PDD can develop in the absence of significant Alzheimer pathology.

  18. End-of-life care: A qualitative study comparing the views of people with dementia and family carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marie; Bamford, Claire; McLellan, Emma; Lee, Richard P; Exley, Catherine; Hughes, Julian C; Harrison-Dening, Karen; Robinson, Louise

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, UK policy has increasingly recognised the importance of end-of-life care in dementia. While professional consensus on optimal palliative care in dementia has been reported, little is known about the perspectives of people with dementia and family carers. To compare the views of people with dementia and family carers of people with dementia (current and recently bereaved) on optimal end-of-life care. Qualitative interviews (32) and a focus group were conducted. Data were thematically analysed. Participants comprised people with early stage dementia, living at home in the north-east of England ( n = 11); and current and bereaved carers ( n = 25) from six services providing end-of-life care in England. Seven areas were identified as important to end-of-life care for people with dementia and/or family carers. People with dementia and carers expressed the need for receiving care in place, ensuring comfort and a skilled care team. However, they disagreed about the importance of planning for the future and the role of families in organising care and future decision-making. Further comparison of our findings with expert consensus views highlighted key areas of divergence and agreement. Discordant views concerning perceptions of dementia as a palliative condition, responsibility for future decision-making and the practical co-ordination of end-of-life care may undermine the provision of optimal palliative care. Professionals must explore and recognise the individual perspectives of people with dementia and family carers.

  19. Comparing the effects of different individualized music interventions for elderly individuals with severe dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mayumi; Ando, Hiroshi; Tsutou, Akimitsu

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with dementia often experience poor quality of life (QOL) due to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Music therapy can reduce BPSD, but most studies have focused on patients with mild to moderate dementia. We hypothesized that music intervention would have beneficial effects compared with a no-music control condition, and that interactive music intervention would have stronger effects than passive music intervention. Thirty-nine individuals with severe Alzheimer's disease were randomly and blindly assigned to two music intervention groups (passive or interactive) and a no-music Control group. Music intervention involved individualized music. Short-term effects were evaluated via emotional response and stress levels measured with the autonomic nerve index and the Faces Scale. Long-term effects were evaluated by BPSD changes using the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (BEHAVE-AD) Rating Scale. Passive and interactive music interventions caused short-term parasympathetic dominance. Interactive intervention caused the greatest improvement in emotional state. Greater long-term reduction in BPSD was observed following interactive intervention, compared with passive music intervention and a no-music control condition. Music intervention can reduce stress in individuals with severe dementia, with interactive interventions exhibiting the strongest beneficial effects. Since interactive music intervention can restore residual cognitive and emotional function, this approach may be useful for aiding severe dementia patients' relationships with others and improving QOL. The registration number of the trial and the name of the trial registry are UMIN000008801 and "Examination of Effective Nursing Intervention for Music Therapy for Severe Dementia Elderly Person" respectively.

  20. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism in late-onset Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R.S. Souza

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic basis for dementias is complex. A common polymorphism in the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene is considered to be the major risk factor in families with sporadic and late-onset Alzheimer's disease as well as in the general population. The distribution of alleles and genotypes of the APOE gene in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (N = 68, other late-life dementias (N = 39, and in cognitively normal controls (N = 58 was determined, as also was the risk for Alzheimer's disease associated with the epsilon4 allele. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from a total of 165 individuals living in Brazil aged 65-82 years. Genomic DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and the products were digested with HhaI restriction enzyme. APOE epsilon2 frequency was considerably lower in the Alzheimer's disease group (1%, and the epsilon3 allele and epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype frequencies were higher in the controls (84 and 72%, respectively as were the epsilon4 allele and epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype frequencies in Alzheimer's disease (25 and 41%, respectively. The higher frequency of the epsilon4 allele in Alzheimer's disease confirmed its role as a risk factor, while epsilon2 provided a weak protection against development of the disease. However, in view of the unexpectedly low frequency of the epsilon4 allele, additional analyses in a more varied Brazilian sample are needed to clarify the real contribution of apolipoprotein E to the development of Alzheimer's disease in this population.

  1. Retrospective and Prospective Data Collection Compared in the Dutch End of Life in Dementia (DEOLD) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, J.T.; Ribbe, M.W.; Deliens, L.; Gutschow, G.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Studying end of life in dementia patients is challenging because of ill-defined prognoses and frequent inability to self-report. We aim to quantify and compare (1) feasibility and (2) sampling issues between prospective and retrospective data collection specific to end-of-life research in long-term

  2. The monoaminergic footprint of depression and psychosis in dementia with Lewy bodies compared to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Van Dam, Debby; Aerts, Tony; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Martin, Jean-Jacques; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Depression and psychosis are two of the most severe neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both NPS have negative effects on cognitive performance and life expectancy. The current study aimed to investigate and compare

  3. An immunohistochemical study on cerebral vascular and senile plaque amyloid in Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Stam, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Senile cerebral amyloidosis has been investigated using immunoperoxidase and enzyme histochemical techniques in six unfixed brains. Our findings do not support the opinion that vascular and senile plaque amyloid are immunoglobulin-derived. In contrast with recent reports we did not detect prealbumin

  4. Time-course of glial changes in the hyperhomocysteinemia model of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudduth, Tiffany L; Weekman, Erica M; Price, Brittani R; Gooch, Jennifer L; Woolums, Abigail; Norris, Christopher M; Wilcock, Donna M

    2017-01-26

    Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second leading cause of dementia behind Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a frequent co-morbidity with AD. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive dysfunction resulting from cerebrovascular disease. Astrocytic end-feet almost completely surround intraparenchymal blood vessels in the brain and express a variety of channels and markers indicative of their specialized functions in the maintenance of ionic and osmotic homeostasis and gliovascular signaling. These functions are mediated by end-foot enrichment of the aquaporin 4 water channel (AQP4), the inward rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 and the calcium-dependent potassium channel MaxiK. Using our hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) model of VCID we examined the time-course of astrocytic end-foot changes along with cognitive and neuroinflammatory outcomes. We found that there were significant astrocytic end-foot disruptions in the HHcy model. AQP4 becomes dislocalized from the end-feet, there is a loss of Kir4.1 and MaxiK protein expression, as well as a loss of the Dp71 protein known to anchor the Kir4.1, MaxiK and AQP4 channels to the end-foot membrane. Neuroinflammation occurs prior to the astrocytic changes, while cognitive impairment continues to decline with the exacerbation of the astrocytic changes. We have previously reported similar astrocytic changes in models of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and therefore, we believe astrocytic end-foot disruption could represent a common cellular mechanism of VCID and may be a target for therapeutic development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Comparing cognition, mealtime performance, and nutritional status in people with dementia with or without ideational apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua-Shan; Lin, Li-Chan

    2015-03-01

    To describe the prevalence rate of ideational apraxia (IA) affecting self-feeding in people with dementia, confirm the stage of dementia at which IA most commonly occurs, and compare mealtime performance and nutritional status between people with dementia (PWD) with and without IA. A cross-sectional design with between-subject comparison was used. Among the 395 potential participants recruited from dementia special care units at nine long-term care facilities in central and northern Taiwan, 98 met the operational definition of IA and were included in the PWD with IA group. From the remaining pool, 98 participants, matched for age and sex with the PWD with IA group, were randomly allocated to the PWD without IA group. Eating Behavior Scale (EBS) scores, food intake, total eating time, meal assistance, body mass index, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and Mini-Mental State Examination scores were collected. The prevalence rate of IA affecting self-feeding in our study population of PWD was 24.8%. PWD with IA had significantly lower EBS scores, had more food intake (p verbal and feeding assistance, and had lower MNA scores than PWD without IA. Decline in the self-feeding ability of PWD affected by IA most commonly occurred in the severe stage of dementia. When dementia progresses to the late stage, staff should pay special attention to residents' mealtime performance and nutritional status. For PWD with IA, reassigning staff at mealtimes based on eating ability and providing memory training are recommended. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. [Effects of ear point needle embedding therapy on memory disorder and expression of beta-amyloid protein in the rat of vascular dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu-wei; Lü, Ming-zhuang

    2006-11-01

    To study the mechanism of auricular acupuncture for improvement of learning and memory disorders in the rat of vascular dementia (VD). The vascular dementia rat model was made by 4-vessel occlusion method. Four groups, a sham operation group, a normal control group, a model group and an auricular acupuncture group were set up. After acupuncture was given at auricular points, Brain and Kidney. Immunohistochemical analysis, behavioural observation and computer image analysis were made. Auricular acupuncture could decrease significantly the beta-amyloid protein (A beta) immunoreactivive neurons and increase its average optical density in the parietal cortex of the VD rats (P improve the learning and memory capacity of the VD model rat.

  7. Is the time ripe for new diagnostic criteria of cognitive impairment due to cerebrovascular disease? Consensus report of the International Congress on Vascular Dementia working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneczky, Robert; Tene, Oren; Attems, Johannes; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Ikram, M Arfan; Federico, Antonio; Sarazin, Marie; Middleton, Lefkos T

    2016-11-03

    Long before Alzheimer's disease was established as the leading cause of dementia in old age, cerebrovascular lesions were known to cause cognitive deterioration and associated disability. Since the middle of the last century, different diagnostic concepts for vascular dementia and related syndromes were put forward, yet no widely accepted diagnostic consensus exists to date. Several international efforts, reviewed herein, are ongoing to define cognitive impairment due to cerebrovascular disease in its different stages and subtypes. The role of biomarkers is also being discussed, including cerebrospinal fluid proteins, structural and functional brain imaging, and genetic markers. The influence of risk factors, such as diet, exercise and different comorbidities, is emphasised by population-based research, and lifestyle changes are considered for the treatment and prevention of dementia. To improve the diagnosis and management of vascular cognitive impairment, further progress has to be made in understanding the relevant pathomechanisms, including shared mechanisms with Alzheimer's disease; bringing together fragmented research initiatives in coordinated international programs; testing if known risk factors are modifiable in prospective interventional studies; and defining the pre-dementia and pre-clinical stages in line with the concept of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Vascular dementia: Diagnostic criteria and supplementary exams: Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Part I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular dementia (VaD is the most prevalent form of secondary dementia and the second most common of all dementias. The present paper aims to define guidelines on the basic principles for treating patients with suspected VaD (and vascular cognitive impairment - no dementia using an evidence-based, systematized approach. The knowledge used to define these guidelines was retrieved from searches of several databases (Medline, Scielo, Lilacs containing scientific articles, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, largely published within the last 15 years or earlier when pertinent. Information retrieved and selected for relevance was used to analyze diagnostic criteria and to propose a diagnostic system encompassing diagnostic criteria, anamnesis, as well as supplementary and clinical exams (neuroimaging and laboratory. Wherever possible, instruments were selected that had versions previously adapted and validated for use in Brazil that take into account both schooling and age. This task led to proposed protocols for supplementary exams based on degree of priority, for application in clinical practice and research settings.

  9. Effects of Music Therapy on Heart Rate Variability in Elderly Patients with Cerebral Vascular Disease and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kurita, MD

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: Music therapy enhanced parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic activity in elderly patients with CVD and dementia. These findings suggest that music therapy is useful for alleviating anxiety, increasing comfort and facilitating relaxation for elderly patients with CVD and dementia.

  10. Cerebral Microbleeds in Patients with Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Chung, S J; Oh, Y-S; Yoon, J H; Sunwoo, M K; Hong, J Y; Kim, J-S; Lee, P H

    2015-09-01

    The burden of amyloid β is greater in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies than in those with Parkinson disease dementia, and an increased amyloid β load is closely related to a higher incidence of cerebral microbleeds. Here, we investigated the prevalence and topography of cerebral microbleeds in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and those with Parkinson disease dementia to examine whether cerebral microbleeds are more prevalent in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies than in those with Parkinson disease dementia. The study population consisted of 42 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 88 patients with Parkinson disease dementia, and 35 controls who underwent brain MR imaging with gradient recalled-echo. Cerebral microbleeds were classified as deep, lobar, or infratentorial. The frequency of cerebral microbleeds was significantly greater in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (45.2%) than in those with Parkinson disease dementia (26.1%) or in healthy controls (17.1%; P = .017). Lobar cerebral microbleeds were observed more frequently in the dementia with Lewy bodies group (40.5%) than in the Parkinson disease dementia (17%; P = .004) or healthy control (8.6%; P = .001) group, whereas the frequencies of deep and infratentorial cerebral microbleeds did not differ among the 3 groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that, compared with the healthy control group, the dementia with Lewy bodies group was significantly associated with the presence of lobar cerebral microbleeds after adjusting for age, sex, nonlobar cerebral microbleeds, white matter hyperintensities, and other vascular risk factors (odds ratio, 4.39 [95% CI, 1.27-15.25]). However, compared with the healthy control group, the Parkinson disease dementia group was not significantly associated with lobar cerebral microbleeds. This study showed that patients with dementia with Lewy bodies had a greater burden of cerebral microbleeds and exhibited a lobar predominance of cerebral

  11. [Validation of the Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease (QOL-AD) scale in Mexican patients with Alzheimer, vascular and mixed-type dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Torres-Arreola, Laura del Pilar; Guerra-Silla, M de Guadalupe; Torres-Castro, Sara; Gutierrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2010-07-16

    To adapt the Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease (QOL-AD) scale to Spanish, as well as to evaluate its reliability and validity in Mexico. The study involved a sample of 114 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer, vascular and mixed-type dementia, according to the criteria of the National Institute for Neurological and Communicative Disorders/Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA), the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) and the Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers (ADDTC), respectively. Their primary caregivers (n = 114) and a control group (n = 30) of persons aged 60 or over without dementia and their closest relatives were also evaluated. The total group with dementia obtained a mean age and a standard deviation of 80.15 +/- 7.13. The Folstein minimental test was 18.55 +/- 4.99. We obtained a Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 for the patient version of the QOL-AD (QOL-ADp) and 0.82 for the caregiver version of the QOL-AD (QOL-ADc). The test-retest yielded an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.9 (p dementia and the control group. The QOL-AD yielded satisfactory results in terms of internal and external reliability, validity between measurements and between known groups. Thus, we can recommend its use to evaluate the quality of life of patients with dementia.

  12. Can Chinese Herbal Medicine Adjunctive Therapy Improve Outcomes of Senile Vascular Dementia? Systematic Review with Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingfeng; Zou, Yuanping; Kong, Lingshuo; Wang, Ningsheng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; Cao, Ye; Wang, Kezhu; Chen, Yunbo; Mi, Suiqing; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Shuyi; Xu, Weihua; Liang, Weixiong

    2015-12-01

    Many publications have reported the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in combination with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for senile vascular dementia (SVD), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM adjunctive therapy (CHMAT), which is CHM combined with RP, in the treatment of SVD. Publications in seven electronic databases were searched extensively, and 27 trials with a total of 1961 patients were included for analysis. Compared with RP alone, CHMAT significantly increased the effective rate [odds ratio (OR) 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30, 3.86]. In addition, CHMAT showed benefits in detailed subgroups of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD 3.01, 95% CI 2.15, 3.87), 8 weeks (weighted mean difference (WMD) 2.30, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32), 12 weeks (WMD 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.69), and 24 weeks (WMD 3.25, 95% CI 2.61, 3.88), and in the activity of daily living scale score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD -4.64, 95% CI -6.12, -3.17), 8 weeks (WMD -4.30, 95% CI -6.04, -2.56), 12 weeks (WMD -3.89, 95% CI -4.68, -3.09), and 24 weeks (WMD -4.04, 95% CI -6.51, -1.57). Moreover, CHMAT had positive effects on changes in the Hasegawa dementia scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, as well as blood fat levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein E), platelet aggregation rate (1-min platelet aggregation rate, 5-min platelet aggregation rate, and maximal platelet aggregation rate), and blood rheology (whole-blood viscosity and hematocrit). No serious or frequently occurring adverse effects were reported. Weaknesses of methodological quality in most trials were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, while

  13. How should we teach everyday skills in dementia? A controlled study comparing implicit and explicit training methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilborg, I.A. Van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Hulstijn, W.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the immediate and delayed effects of implicit and explicit training methods for everyday skills in patients with dementia. DESIGN: Counterbalanced self-controlled cases series. SUBJECTS: Convenience sample of 10 patients with dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score

  14. How should we teach everyday skills in dementia? A controlled study comparing implicit and explicit training methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilborg, I.A.D.A. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Hulstijn, W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the immediate and delayed effects of implicit and explicit training methods for everyday skills in patients with dementia. Design: Counterbalanced self-controlled cases series. Subjects: Convenience sample of 10 patients with dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score

  15. Effect of exercise-induced neurogenesis on cognitive function deficit in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-04-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is strongly correlated with progressive cognitive decline in neurological diseases, such as vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease. Exercise can enhance learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. However, exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis in experimental animals submitted to CCH has not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether hippocampal neurogenesis induced by exercise can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of VaD. Male Wistar rats (age, 8 weeks; weight, 292±3.05 g; n=12-13/group) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) or sham‑surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into no exercise and treadmill exercise groups. Exercise groups performed treadmill exercise daily at 15 m/min for 30 min for 4 weeks from the third to the seventh week after 2VO. It was demonstrated that the number of neural progenitor cells and mature neurons in the subgranular zone of 2VO rats was increased by exercise, and cognitive impairment in 2VO rats was attenuated by treadmill exercise. In addition, mature brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus were increased in the exercise groups. Thus the present study suggests that exercise delays cognitive decline by the enhancing neurogenesis and increasing BDNF expression in the context of VaD.

  16. Effect of Selective 5-HT6R Agonist on Expression of 5-HT Receptor and Neurotransmitter in Vascular Dementia Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Li; Tang, Jiyou

    2017-02-15

    BACKGROUND 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) has pluripotent roles regulating secretion of neurotransmitters. However, whether 5-HT6R is involved in the development of vascular dementia (VD) remains unclear. To evaluate the role and mechanism of 5-HT6R in VD, this study established a rat VD model to evaluate the effect of selective 5-HT6R agonist on the expression of 5-HT6R mRNA and neurotransmitter. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty healthy male SD rats (7 weeks old) were randomly assigned to sham, model, 5-HT6R agonist, and placebo groups (N=20 each). A rat VD model was generated by permeant bilateral ligation of the common carotid artery. 5-HT6R agonist, placebo, or saline were given intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. The Morris water maze was utilized to test learning and memory function. Brains were extracted to separate the cortex and hippocampal tissues, in which glutamate and g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were analyzed. mRNA and protein levels of 5-HT6R were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. RESULTS Model rats had longer escape latency and fewer crossing platform times. Contents of DA, Glu, GABA, and Ach were lowered in cortical and hippocampal tissues, and 5-HT6R expression was suppressed (pneurotransmitter levels in brain regions.

  17. NGF and TERT co-transfected BMSCs improve the restoration of cognitive impairment in vascular dementia rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is a mental disorder caused by brain damage due to cerebrovascular disease, and incidence of VaD is rising. To date, there is no known effective cure for VaD, so effort in developing an effective treatment for VaD is of great importance. The differentiation plasticity of BMSCs, in conjunction with its weak immunogenicity, makes manipulated BMSCs an attractive strategy for disease treatment. However, BMSCs often display disabled differentiation, premature aging, and unstable proliferation, reducing their neuroprotective function. These problems may be caused by the lack of telomerase activity in BMSCs. Our results show that NGF-TERT co-transfected BMSCs have a better therapeutic effect than BMSCs lacking NGF and TERT expression, demonstrated by significant improvements in learning and memory in VaD rats. The underlying mechanism might be increased expression of NGF, TrkA and SYN in the hippocampal CA1 area, which has potential implication in advancing therapeutics for VaD.

  18. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) pollution as a potential risk factor for developing vascular dementia and its synaptic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Xin, Xiaoyun

    2013-06-01

    Recent epidemiological literatures reported that NO(2) is a potential risk factor of ischemic stroke in polluted area. Meanwhile, our previous in vivo study found that NO(2) could delay the recovery of nerve function after stroke, implying a possible risk of vascular dementia (VaD) with NO(2) inhalation, which is often a common cognitive complication resulting from stroke. However, the effect and detailed mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, synaptic mechanisms, the foundation of neuronal function and viability, were investigated in both model rats of ischemic stroke and healthy rats after NO(2) exposure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation showed that 5 mg m(-3) NO(2) exposure not only exacerbated the ultrastructural impairment of synapses in stroke model rats, but also induced neuronal damage in healthy rats. Meantime, we found that the expression of synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), two structural markers of synapses in ischemic stroke model were inhibited by NO(2) inhalation; and so it was with the key proteins mediating long-term potentiation (LTP), the major form of synaptic plasticity. On the contrary, NO(2) inhalation induced the expression of nearly all these proteins in healthy rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results implied that NO(2) exposure could increase the risk of VaD through inducing excitotoxicity in healthy rats but weakening synaptic plasticity directly in stroke model rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of exercise-induced neurogenesis on cognitive function deficit in a rat model of vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, DONG-HEE; LEE, KYOUNG-HEE; LEE, JONGMIN

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is strongly correlated with progressive cognitive decline in neurological diseases, such as vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease. Exercise can enhance learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. However, exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis in experimental animals submitted to CCH has not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether hippocampal neurogenesis induced by exercise can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of VaD. Male Wistar rats (age, 8 weeks; weight, 292±3.05 g; n=12–13/group) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) or sham-surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into no exercise and treadmill exercise groups. Exercise groups performed treadmill exercise daily at 15 m/min for 30 min for 4 weeks from the third to the seventh week after 2VO. It was demonstrated that the number of neural progenitor cells and mature neurons in the subgranular zone of 2VO rats was increased by exercise, and cognitive impairment in 2VO rats was attenuated by treadmill exercise. In addition, mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus were increased in the exercise groups. Thus the present study suggests that exercise delays cognitive decline by the enhancing neurogenesis and increasing BDNF expression in the context of VaD. PMID:26934837

  20. The value of diffusion tensor imaging in the differential diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Ting (Dept. of Neurology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)); Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Li, Wen-Bin (Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)), Email: liwenbin@sh163.net

    2012-04-15

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a form of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows examination of the microstructural integrity of white matter in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease, and DTI can provide indirect insights of the microstructural characteristics of brains in individuals with different forms of dementia. Purpose: To evaluate the value of DTI in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Material and Methods: The study included 40 patients (20 AD patients and 20 SIVD patients) and 20 normal controls (NC). After routine MRI and DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured and compared in regions of interest (ROI). Results: Compared to NC and AD patients, SIVD patients had lower FA values and higher ADC values in the inferior-fronto-occipital fascicles (IFOF), genu of the corpus callosum (GCC), splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Compared to controls and SIVD patients, AD patients had lower FA values in the anterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, IFOF, GCC, and CF; and higher ADC values in the temporal lobe and hippocampus. Conclusion: DTI can be used to estimate the white matter impairment in dementia patients. There were significant regional reductions of FA values and heightened ADC values in multiple regions in SIVD patients compared to AD patients. When compared with conventional MRI, DTI may provide a more objective method for the differential diagnosis of SIVD and AD disease patients who have only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted imaging

  1. Comparing the Effects of Multisensory Stimulation and Individualized Music Sessions on Elderly People with Severe Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alba; Maseda, Ana; Marante-Moar, M Pilar; de Labra, Carmen; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2016-03-08

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a multisensory stimulation environment (MSSE) and individualized music sessions on agitation, emotional and cognitive status, and dementia severity in a sample of institutionalized patients with severe dementia. Twenty-two participants with a diagnosis of severe or very severe dementia were randomly assigned to two groups: MSSE and individualized music sessions. Both groups participated in two 30-min weekly sessions over 16 weeks. Outcomes were agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, CMAI), mood (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, CSDD), anxiety (Rating Anxiety in Dementia, RAID), cognitive function (Severe Mini-Mental State Examination, SMMSE), and the overall severity of dementia (Bedford Alzheimer Nursing Severity Scale, BANS-S). They were assessed at baseline (pre-trial), in the middle (mid-trial), at the end of the intervention (post-trial), and 8 weeks after the intervention (follow-up). Patients in the MSSE group showed significant improvement in their RAID and BANS-S scores compared with the individualized music group post- versus pre-trial. With regard to agitation, there was improvement during the intervention in both the MSSE and individualized music groups in the CMAI total score after 16 weeks of intervention, with no significant differences between the groups. The results suggest that MSSE could have better effects on anxiety symptoms and dementia severity in comparison with individualized music sessions in elderly patients with severe dementia.

  2. Descriptive study comparing routine hospital administrative data with the Vascular Society of Great Britain and Ireland's National Vascular Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylin, P; Lees, T; Baker, S; Prytherch, D; Ashley, S

    2007-04-01

    To compare patient volume and outcomes in vascular surgery between an administrative data set (Hospital Episode Statistics) and a clinical database (National Vascular Database). Descriptive study. Volume of cases determined by age, sex, year and procedure and in-hospital mortality by procedure for both datasets for patients undergoing either repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm, carotid endarterectomy or infrainguinal bypass over a three year period between 1st April 2001 and 31st March 2004. There were 32,242 admissions with a mention of the three selected vascular procedures within the administrative data set compared to 8462 within the clinical database. For NHS trusts common to both datasets, there were twice as many procedures (16,923) recorded within the administrative dataset compared to the clinical database. Patient characteristics were similar across both databases. Further analysis limiting the administrative data to records attributed to consultants known to contribute to the clinical database showed much closer agreement with only 11% more repairs of abdominal aortic aneurysm recorded within the administrative dataset compared to the National Vascular Database. There are significant differences in total numbers between HES and the NVD. If the National Vascular Database is to become a credible source of information on activity and outcomes for vascular surgery, there is a clear need to increase the number of contributing surgeons and to increase the completeness of data submitted. Further analysis at individual record level is needed to identify other reasons for discrepancies which could help to enhance data quality, both within Hospital Episode Statistics and within the National Vascular Database.

  3. Efficacy of bosentan, a dual ETA and ETB endothelin receptor antagonist, in experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Sharma, Bhupesh; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2014-09-01

    The study was designed to investigate the efficacy of bosentan a dual endothelin (ETA and ETB) receptor antagonist in experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of a single dose (50mg/kg, i.p.) of streptozotocin (STZ). Drug treatment was started after 1 month of STZ administration and treatment was continued until the end of the study. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed for testing spatial learning and memory. Endothelial function was measured on isolated aortic rings using student physiograph. Serum glucose, body weight, serum nitrite/nitrate, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were also tested. STZ treatment resulted in significant development of cognitive and vascular endothelial deficits, manifested in the terms of endothelial dysfunction, impairment of learning and memory, reduction in body weight and serum nitrite/nitrate levels along with increase in serum glucose, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, TBARS, and decreased GSH levels. Treatment of bosentan attenuated diabetes induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that bosentan has shown efficacy in STZ induced cognitive and vascular endothelial deficits. Thus, endothelin receptors can be considered as a potential pharmacological target for the management of experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia: a statement for healthcare professionals from the american heart association/american stroke association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B; Scuteri, Angelo; Black, Sandra E; Decarli, Charles; Greenberg, Steven M; Iadecola, Costantino; Launer, Lenore J; Laurent, Stephane; Lopez, Oscar L; Nyenhuis, David; Petersen, Ronald C; Schneider, Julie A; Tzourio, Christophe; Arnett, Donna K; Bennett, David A; Chui, Helena C; Higashida, Randall T; Lindquist, Ruth; Nilsson, Peter M; Roman, Gustavo C; Sellke, Frank W; Seshadri, Sudha

    2011-09-01

    This scientific statement provides an overview of the evidence on vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia of later life are common. Definitions of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), neuropathology, basic science and pathophysiological aspects, role of neuroimaging and vascular and other associated risk factors, and potential opportunities for prevention and treatment are reviewed. This statement serves as an overall guide for practitioners to gain a better understanding of VCI and dementia, prevention, and treatment. Writing group members were nominated by the writing group co-chairs on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and the Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writing group used systematic literature reviews (primarily covering publications from 1990 to May 1, 2010), previously published guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and, when appropriate, formulate recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the recommendations and approved the final version of this document. After peer review by the American Heart Association, as well as review by the Stroke Council leadership, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Council, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, the statement was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. The construct of VCI has been introduced to capture the entire spectrum of cognitive disorders associated with all forms of cerebral vascular brain injury-not solely stroke-ranging from mild cognitive impairment through fully developed dementia. Dysfunction of the neurovascular

  5. Trends in the Prevalence of Dementia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko H. Dodge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data regarding trends in dementia and its subtype prevalence in Japan. Our aims in the current paper are to: (1 summarize epidemiological studies of dementia in Japan including relevant details of study protocol and diagnostic criteria, (2 compare the age-specific prevalence of all-cause dementia among studies, and (3 assess the trends in Alzheimer's disease (AD versus vascular dementia (VaD over time. We reviewed diagnostic criteria, all-cause dementia prevalence, and the AD/VaD ratio from 8 large population studies of dementia in Japan. Compared with the Okinawa 1992 study, studies conducted in 1994, 1998, 2005, and 2008 had a higher prevalence of all-cause dementia using Poisson regression models, after controlling for age and sex. In contrast to the US and some European countries, all-cause dementia prevalence is increasing in Japan. The prevalence of AD as opposed to VaD seems to be increasing over time, but large variability in diagnostic criteria, possible regional variability, and differences in prevalence of subtypes of dementia between men and women make it difficult to draw a conclusion about this trend at the national level. Further studies, for example, comparing the population attributable risk of vascular diseases to the prevalence and incidence of dementia could help to clarify the regional variations in etiological subtypes.

  6. A comparative analysis of dementia inpatient characteristics: results from a nationwide survey of different care facilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Atsuko; Lebowitz, Adam; Bun, Shogyoku; Aiba, Miyuki; Ikejima, Chiaki; Asada, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the number of dementia patients admitted to hospitals and other care facilities has been increasing and their hospital stays prolonged. Until now, there has been no study examining the differences between patients in psychiatric hospitals and other care facilities. Here we attempt a comparative analysis of characteristics of dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals and other types of facilities based on a nationwide survey. A nationwide, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009-2011. Questionnaires were sent to randomly selected facilities and asked about each facility's status as of September 2009 and about individuals with dementia residing in each facility during the 2008 fiscal year. The portion about individuals consisted of items to assess eligibility for the Long-Term Care Insurance programme. Based on data from 6121 patients residing in seven different types of facilities, features of dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals and differences among facilities were analyzed. There was a significant difference in average age, activities of daily living level, and dementia severity level among the seven types of facilities. The average age in all types of facilities, except for psychiatric hospitals, was higher than the national average life expectancy of 82.59 years. The results of the study revealed that in psychiatric hospitals the proportion of men, those aged dementia, and those with frontotemporal dementia was significantly greater than in other types of facilities. In other Long-Term Care Insurance care facilities, dementia patients >80 years and women accounted for 80% of all patients. Result showed that dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals had a higher proportion of men, younger age groups, and severe dementia than other types of facilities. These features contrast markedly with status of dementia patients in other Long-Term Care Insurance care facilities. In order to facilitate dementia patients' early discharge from psychiatric

  7. Comparing Cerebral White Matter Lesion Burdens between Parkinson’s Disease with and without Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Ah; Evidente, Virgilio Gerald H.; Caviness, John N

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (CWMLs) have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of dementia, disability, and death. CWMLs are more common in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) than in normal elderly individuals of comparable age. Only a few studies have been done to determine whether CWMLs may influence cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Fully developed PD with concurrent AD was reported to likely cause impaired cognition in spite of accumulating evidence suggesting that PD with dementia (PDD) is more closely associated with Lewy body (LB) pathology. Currently, contradictory data on the neuropathology of dementia in PD require further prospective clinicopathological studies in larger cohorts to elucidate the impact of AD and α-synuclein (SCNA) pathologies on the cognitive status in these disorders. Previous reports did not suggest CWMLs to be associated with an increased risk of PDD. After adjusting for age at death, age at onset of PD, and duration of PD, our recent study investigating CWMLs in PDD via autopsy has shown a positive correlation between the burden of CWMLs and PDD. The frequent co-existence of both LB and AD lesions suggests that both pathologies independently or synergistically contribute to both movement disorders and cognitive impairment. The individual and cumulative burden of CWMLs, LB lesions, and AD lesions may synergistically contribute to cognitive decline in LB disorders such as PDD. PMID:24868371

  8. Comparing Cerebral White Matter Lesion Burdens between Parkinson’s Disease with and without Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ah Choi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral white matter lesions (CWMLs have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of dementia, disability, and death. CWMLs are more common in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD than in normal elderly individuals of comparable age. Only a few studies have been done to determine whether CWMLs may influence cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Fully developed PD with concurrent AD was reported to likely cause impaired cognition in spite of accumulating evidence suggesting that PD with dementia (PDD is more closely associated with Lewy body (LB pathology. Currently, contradictory data on the neuropathology of dementia in PD require further prospective clinicopathological studies in larger cohorts to elucidate the impact of AD and α-synuclein (SCNA pathologies on the cognitive status in these disorders. Previous reports did not suggest CWMLs to be associated with an increased risk of PDD. After adjusting for age at death, age at onset of PD, and duration of PD, our recent study investigating CWMLs in PDD via autopsy has shown a positive correlation between the burden of CWMLs and PDD. The frequent co-existence of both LB and AD lesions suggests that both pathologies independently or synergistically contribute to both movement disorders and cognitive impairment. The individual and cumulative burden of CWMLs, LB lesions, and AD lesions may synergistically contribute to cognitive decline in LB disorders such as PDD.

  9. Serial position effect in a free recall task: differences between probable dementia of Alzheimer type (PDAT), vascular (VaD) and mixed etiology dementia (MED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, G; Sampietro, S; Catanzaro, S; Girardi, A; Najjar, M; Giantin, V; Sergi, G; Manzato, E; Enzi, G; Inelmen, E M; Coin, A

    2009-01-01

    Here we report an investigation on the serial position effect (SPE) in elderly patients with early dementia due to different etiologies. The Rey's 15 words test has been used to evaluate whether different types of dementia show different patterns of immediate and delayed recall and of learning process. Ninety-four patients were recruited from the Geriatric Clinic of Padua. We evaluated the primacy effect (PE), the recency effect (RE) and the learning process within the sample. Our results indicate that different etiologies have different patterns of anterograde memory impairment.

  10. Impaired attention function based on the Montréal Cognitive Assessment in vascular dementia patients with frontal hypoperfusion: The Osaki-Tajiri project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Kato, Yuriko; Takahashi, Yumi; Nakamura, Kei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that the Montréal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was effective in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. We also demonstrated that the test was effective for screening for very mild vascular dementia (VaD) in the community. Herein, we examined the effectiveness of MoCA in the assessment of patients with VaD in an outpatient clinic. Forty-four patients with VaD (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences [NINDS-AIREN] criteria) and 58 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association [NINCDS-ADRDA] criteria) were compared with 67 non-demented control subjects. All were outpatients at the Tajiri Memory Clinic, Osaki-Tajiri, northern Japan. All underwent 1.5 Tesla MRI and ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) examinations. The SPECT images were used to classify the VaD patients into two subgroups, those with frontal hypoperfusion (F-VaD) and those without frontal hypoperfusion. The frontal hypoperfusion pattern was defined as the "P2" pattern of the Sliverman classification, with or without focal hypometabolism in other areas, based on the agreement of three neurologists who were blinded to the results of the neuropsychological examinations. Total scores and attention subscores on the MoCA were lower in the F-VaD group compared with other groups. Our results suggest that the MoCA attention subscale can detect VaD participants, particularly those with frontal hypoperfusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical Activity: A Viable Way to Reduce the Risks of Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Vascular Dementia in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Gallaway

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent alarming rise of neurodegenerative diseases in the developed world is one of the major medical issues affecting older adults. In this review, we provide information about the associations of physical activity (PA with major age-related neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes, including Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and mild cognitive impairment. We also provide evidence of PA’s role in reducing the risks of these diseases and helping to improve cognitive outcomes in older adults. Finally, we describe some potential mechanisms by which this protective effect occurs, providing guidelines for future research.

  12. Imaging dementias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Grisoli, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    Dementia is the progressive loss of intellectual functions due to involvement of cortical or subcortical areas. Specific involvement of certain brain areas in the different diseases leads to impairment of different functions, e. g., memory, language, visuospatial abilities, and behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging and other neuroradiological studies may indicate which structures are mainly or selectively involved in a demented patient, thus allowing clinical-radiological correlations. Clinical presentation and evolution of the disease, supported by imaging studies, may lead to a highly probable diagnosis. The most common disorders, or the most relevant from the neuroradiological point of view, such as Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementias, dementia associated with parkinsonism, Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus, are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT). Comparing with multi-infarct dementia (MID), and aged control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kitani, M.; Tsunematsu, T.

    1987-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID.

  14. Internet-based screening for dementia risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Brandt

    Full Text Available The Dementia Risk Assessment (DRA is an online tool consisting of questions about known risk factors for dementia, a novel verbal memory test, and an informant report of cognitive decline. Its primary goal is to educate the public about dementia risk factors and encourage clinical evaluation where appropriate. In Study 1, more than 3,000 anonymous persons over age 50 completed the DRA about themselves; 1,000 people also completed proxy reports about another person. Advanced age, lower education, male sex, complaints of severe memory impairment, and histories of cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease, and brain tumor all contributed significantly to poor memory performance. A high correlation was obtained between proxy-reported decline and actual memory test performance. In Study 2, 52 persons seeking first-time evaluation at dementia clinics completed the DRA prior to their visits. Their responses (and those of their proxy informants were compared to the results of independent evaluation by geriatric neuropsychiatrists. The 30 patients found to meet criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or frontotemporal dementia differed on the DRA from the 22 patients without dementia (most other neuropsychiatric conditions. Scoring below criterion on the DRA's memory test had moderately high predictive validity for clinically diagnosed dementia. Although additional studies of larger clinical samples are needed, the DRA holds promise for wide-scale screening for dementia risk.

  15. Risk and Determinants of Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Brain Subcortical Vascular Changes: A Study of Clinical, Neuroimaging, and Biological Markers—The VMCI-Tuscany Study: Rationale, Design, and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Poggesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is one of the most disabling conditions. Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia (VaD are the most frequent causes. Subcortical VaD is consequent to deep-brain small vessel disease (SVD and is the most frequent form of VaD. Its pathological hallmarks are ischemic white matter changes and lacunar infarcts. Degenerative and vascular changes often coexist, but mechanisms of interaction are incompletely understood. The term mild cognitive impairment defines a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia. Pre-dementia stages of VaD are also acknowledged (vascular mild cognitive impairment, VMCI. Progression relates mostly to the subcortical VaD type, but determinants of such transition are unknown. Variability of phenotypic expression is not fully explained by severity grade of lesions, as depicted by conventional MRI that is not sensitive to microstructural and metabolic alterations. Advanced neuroimaging techniques seem able to achieve this. Beside hypoperfusion, blood-brain-barrier dysfunction has been also demonstrated in subcortical VaD. The aim of the Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment Tuscany Study is to expand knowledge about determinants of transition from mild cognitive impairment to dementia in patients with cerebral SVD. This paper summarizes the main aims and methodological aspects of this multicenter, ongoing, observational study enrolling patients affected by VMCI with SVD.

  16. Tongqiao Huoxue Decoction ameliorates learning and memory defects in rats with vascular dementia by up-regulating the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xin-Ming; Huang, Zhao-Gang; Xia, Quan; Wang, Ning; Xu, Du-Juan

    2015-11-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of Tongqiao Huoxue Decoction (TQHXD) on the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB pathway and the memory and learning capacities of rats with vascular dementia (VD). The rat VD model was established by using an improved bilateral carotid artery ligation method. The Morris water maze experiment was used to evaluate the ethology of the VD rats following treatments with TQHXD at 3.01, 6.02, and 12.04 g·kg(-1) per day for 31 days. At the end of experiment, the hippocampus were harvested and analyzed. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to measure the expression levels of calmodulin-binding protein kinase II(CaMKII), protein kinase A(PKA), cAMP-response element binding protein(CREB), and three N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B). Our results revealed that TQHXD could alleviate the loss of learning abilities and increase the memory capacity (P hippocampus. In conclusion, TQHXD showed therapeutic effects on a bilateral carotid artery ligation-induced vascular dementia model, through the up-regulation of calcium signalling pathways. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of cerebral amyloid angiopathy by 3-T magnetic resonance imaging and amyloid positron emission tomography in a patient with subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Hirotaka; Satoh, Masayuki; Ii, Yuichiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Maeda, Masayuki; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2017-01-01

    The patient was an 81-year-old man who had been treated for hypertension for several decades. In 2012, he developed gait disturbance and mild amnesia. One year later, his gait disturbance worsened, and he developed urinary incontinence. Conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging using T 2 -weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery showed multiple lacunar infarctions. These findings fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia. However, susceptibility weighted imaging showed multiple lobar microbleeds in the bilateral occipitoparietal lobes, and double inversion recovery and 3-D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging revealed cortical microinfarctions in the left parietal-temporo-occipito region. Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography revealed diffuse uptake in the cerebral cortex. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. The use of the double inversion recovery and susceptibility weighted imaging on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging may be a supplemental strategy for diagnosing cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which is closely associated with Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  18. A systematic review of the effect of telephone, internet or combined support for carers of people living with Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David; Roberts, Gail; Wu, Min Lin; Ford, Rosemary; Doyle, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of interventions delivered by telephone, internet or combined formats to support carers of community dwelling people living with Alzheimer's Disease, vascular dementia or mixed dementia. English language literature published up to 2016 was searched. The initial search included: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), and PsycINFO. A second search was conducted using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords for eight databases. The review included randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and pre-post studies from published and grey literature. Studies selected for retrieval were assessed by three independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardised critical appraisal instruments. Twenty-two studies were included in the review of which 13 were studies of telephone-delivered interventions, five were internet-delivered interventions and four were delivered in a combination of telephone and internet formats. In this review the successful outcomes from the combined telephone and internet delivery exceeded that of telephone alone and internet alone. Very few studies addressed programs for specific types of dementia. When considering the ratio of number of studies to successful outcomes, combined telephone and internet delivery of multicomponent interventions demonstrated relatively more positive outcomes in reducing depression, burden and increasing self-efficacy than telephone alone or internet alone. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions targeted at specific types of dementia and to understand which components of interventions are most effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Are Gujarati Asian Indians 'older' for their 'vascular age' as compared to their 'Chronological age'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K H; Sahoo, S; Shah, K H; Patel, A K; Jadhav, N D; Parmar, M M; Patel, K H

    2015-02-01

    South Asians are known to carry higher burden of cardiovascular diseases when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This study was designed to evaluate whether vascular age is advanced for Gujarati Asian Indians as matched to their chronological age in apparently healthy, asymptomatic population. We have also assessed the contributing risk factors for premature vascular ageing. It was cross-sectional study of 2483 individuals of Gujarat state in Western India having no past or present history of major illness including cardiovascular diseases. The vascular age of the population was calculated using Framingham vascular age calculator. A relationship between risk factor prevalence and vascular ageing was evaluated using univariate analysis of variance. The mean chronological age of the study population was 46.8 (±10.35) years whereas mean vascular age was 53.34 (±16.05) years, and the difference (6.54±9.5) between both was statistically significant (P Gujarati Asian Indians are subjected to premature vascular ageing and henceforth routine screening for vascular age and risk factors prevalence is strongly advocated in this ethnic group. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Profile of clinically-diagnosed dementias in a neuropsychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Vascular dementia (VaD) were the predominant phenotypes seen in 62 (57.4%) and 18 (16.7%) subjects respectively. Others include mixed dementia (4 cases), frontotemporal dementia (4 cases), Lewy body dementia (3 cases), alcohol-related dementia (3 cases), PD dementia (1 case) and ...

  1. The effects of DL-3-n-butylphthalide in patients with vascular cognitive impairment without dementia caused by subcortical ischemic small vessel disease: A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianping; Wei, Cuibai; Liang, Junhua; Zhou, Aihong; Zuo, Xiumei; Song, Haiqing; Wu, Liyong; Chen, Xiaochun; Chen, Shengdi; Zhang, Junjian; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Kai; Chu, Lan; Peng, Dantao; Lv, Peiyuan; Guo, Hongzhi; Niu, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Yingzhu; Dong, Wanli; Han, Xiujie; Fang, Boyan; Peng, Mao; Li, Dan; Jia, Qian; Huang, Liyuan

    2016-02-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment without dementia is very common among the aged and tends to progress to dementia, but there have been no proper large-scale intervention trials dedicated to it. Vascular cognitive impairment without dementia caused by subcortical ischemic small vessel disease (hereinafter, subcortical Vascular cognitive impairment without dementia) represents a relatively homogeneous disease process and is a suitable target for therapeutic trials investigating Vascular cognitive impairment without dementia. Preclinical trials showed that dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is effective for cognitive impairment of vascular origin. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled patients aged 50-70 years who had a diagnosis of subcortical Vascular cognitive impairment without dementia at 15 academic medical centers in China. Inclusion criteria included a clinical dementia rating ≥0.5 on at least one domain and global score ≤0.5; a mini-mental state examination score ≥20 (primary school) or ≥24 (junior school or above); and brain magnetic resonance imaging consistent with subcortical ischemic small vessel disease. Patients were randomly assigned to NBP 200 mg three times daily or matched placebo (1:1) for 24 weeks according to a computer-generated randomization protocol. All patients and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. Primary outcome measures were the changes in Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and clinician's interview-based impression of change plus caregiver input (CIBIC-plus) after 24 weeks. All patients were monitored for adverse events (AEs). Outcome measures were analyzed for both the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and the per protocol population. This study enrolled 281 patients. NBP showed greater effects than placebo on ADAS-cog (NBP change -2.46 vs. placebo -1.39; P = .03; ITT) and CIBIC-plus (80 [57.1%] vs. 59 [42.1%] patients improved; P = .01; ITT

  2. Evaluation of Underlying Causes of Death in Patients with Dementia to Support Targeted Advance Care Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Vorst, Irene E.; Koek, Huiberdina L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257372962; Bots, Michiel L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110610032; Vaartjes, Ilonca|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304812102

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insight in causes of death in demented patients may help physicians in end-of-life care. Objectives: To investigate underlying causes of death (UCD) in demented patients stratified by age, sex, dementia subtype [Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD)] and to compare them with

  3. Comparative Effectiveness of Second-Generation Antidepressants in Reducing the Risk of Dementia in Elderly Nursing Home Residents with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Vishal; Holmes, Holly M; Johnson, Michael L; Chen, Hua; Fleming, Marc L; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2016-01-01

    Second-generation antidepressants have been shown to improve cognition and depression symptomatology, which are the major risk factors for dementia; however, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of antidepressants in reducing the risk of dementia. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term comparative effectiveness of different antidepressant classes in reducing the risk of dementia in elderly nursing home residents with depression. Propensity score-adjusted retrospective cohort study. Multistate Minimum Data Set-linked Medicare Parts A, B, and D data files. A total of 25,108 nursing home residents (65 years and older) with a diagnosis of depression and without a dementia diagnosis who were Medicare beneficiaries and new users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; 19,952 [79.5%]), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs; 2381 [9.5%]), or tetracyclic antidepressants (2775 [11.1%]) between 2007 and 2010. New users of SSRIs, SNRIs, and tetracyclics were followed over a 2-year period for the occurrence of dementia. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of SNRIs and tetracyclics in reducing the risk of dementia, with the SSRI class used as the reference category after controlling for propensity scores and their interactions terms. The unadjusted incidence of dementia was 8.2% for SSRI users, 6.0% for SNRI users, and 7.2% for tetracyclic users. The propensity score-adjusted Cox model did not find any significant difference in the risk of dementia in elderly nursing home residents who used SNRIs (hazard ratio [HR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-1.19) or tetracyclics (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.87-1.17) compared with the SSRI users. This study did not find any significant differences in reducing the risk of dementia among the new users of second-generation antidepressant classes. Further studies are needed to evaluate the profiles of second

  4. Coronary Artery Calcium and Risk of Dementia in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Jacobs, David R; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Alonso, Alvaro; Duprez, Daniel A; Sharrett, A Richey; Seeman, Teresa; Blaha, Michael J; Luchsinger, José A; Rapp, Stephen R

    2017-05-01

    Studies suggest a link between vascular injuries and dementia. Only a few studies, however, examined a longitudinal relation of subclinical vascular disease with dementia. We tested whether baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC), a biomarker of subclinical vascular disease, is associated with incident dementia independent of vascular risk factors and APOE-ε4 genotype in a community-based sample. We analyzed 6293 participants of MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), aged 45 to 84 years at baseline (2000-2002), initially free of cardiovascular disease and noticeable cognitive deficit. Dementia cases were identified using hospital and death certificate International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes. Cox models were used to obtain hazard ratios according to CAC category, or per 1 SD log2[CAC+1], adjusted for vascular risk factor, APOE-ε4, with or without exclusion of interim stroke or cardiovascular disease. We observed 271 dementia cases in a median follow-up of 12.2 years. Baseline CAC had a graded positive association with dementia risk. Compared with no CAC, CAC score of 1 to 400, 401 to 1000, and ≥1001 had increased risk of dementia by 23%, 35%, and 71%, respectively, (Ptrend=0.026) after adjustment. 1 SD higher log2[CAC+1] was associated with 24% (95% confidence interval, 8%-41%; P=0.002) increase in dementia risk. Although the association was partially explained by interim stroke/cardiovascular disease, it remained significant even after excluding the interim events, or regardless of baseline age. Higher baseline CAC was significantly associated with increased risk of dementia independent of vascular risk factor, APOE-ε4, and incident stroke. This is consistent with a hypothesis that vascular injuries play a role in the development of dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Floral anatomy of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae: comparing flower organization and vascular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the tribe Delphinieae have dorsoventralized flowers; their pentamerous calyx and reduced corolla are dorsally spurred and inner spurs are nectariferous. Based on this common floral scheme, Delphinieae species exhibit a wide diversity of floral structures and morphologies. We present here the first investigation of the floral anatomy in Delphinieae. The organization of the floral vascular system has been studied in species representative of the floral morphological diversity of Delphinieae: Aconitum lasiocarpum, Delphinium elatum, and Consolida regalis. The three species show a similar vascularization of the calyx and of the reproductive organs, but exhibit distinct anatomical features in the corolla where the nectaries are borne. The sepals and the stamens have a trilacunar three-traced and a unilacunar one-traced vascularization, respectively. Three free carpels in D. elatum and A. lasiocarpum are basically supplied by six vascular bundles – three independent dorsal bundles and three fused lateral bundles. In C. regalis the single carpel is supplied by three independent vascular bundles (one dorsal and two ventral. Staminodes are not vascularized. The basic type of petal vascularization is unilacunar one-traced, but in the case of C. regalis the derived bilacunar two-traced type has been observed. This latter state arose as a result of the fusion of the two dorsal petal primordia. The results of this first comparative study of the floral anatomy of Delphinieae are discussed with the recent phylogenetic, morphological, and evo-devo findings concerning the tribe.

  6. Neuroprotection, learning and memory improvement of a standardized extract from Renshen Shouwu against neuronal injury and vascular dementia in rats with brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Cheng, Yufang; Luo, Zhanyuan; Guo, Haibiao; Zhao, Wenjing; Gu, Quanlin; Yang, Xu; Xu, Jiangping; Bei, Weijian; Guo, Jiao

    2015-05-13

    The Renshen Shouwu capsule (RSSW) is a patented Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), that has been proven to improve memory and is widely used in China to apoplexy syndrome and memory deficits. To investigate the neuroprotective and therapeutic effect of the Renshen Shouwu standardized extract (RSSW) on ischemic brain neuronal injury and impairment of learning and memory related to Vascular Dementia (VD) induced by a focal and global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Using in vivo rat models of both focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries induced by a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and VD with transient global brain I/R neuronal injuries induced by a four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, RSSW (50,100, and 200 mg kg(-1) body weights) and Egb761® (80 mg kg(-1)) were administered orally for 20 days (preventively 6 days+therapeutically 14 days) in 4-VO rats, and for 7 days (3 days preventively+4 days therapeutically) in MCAO rats. Learning and memory behavioral performance was assayed using a Morris water maze test including a place navigation trial and a spatial probe trial. Brain histochemical morphology and hippocampal neuron survival was quantified using microscope assay of a puffin brain/hippocampus slice with cresyl violet staining. MCAO ischemia/reperfusion caused infarct damage in rat brain tissue. 4-VO ischemia/reperfusion caused a hippocampal neuronal lesion and learning and memory deficits in rats. Administration of RSSW (50, 100, and 200mg/kg) or EGb761 significantly reduced the size of the insulted brain hemisphere lesion and improved the neurological behavior of MCAO rats. In addition, RSSW markedly reduced an increase in the brain infarct volume from an I/R-induced MCAO and reduced the cerebral water content in a dose-dependent way. Administration of RSSW also increased the pyramidal neuronal density in the hippocampus of surviving rats after transient global brain ischemia and improved the learning and memory

  7. Effect of Vascular Risk Factors and Diseases on Mortality in Individuals with Dementia : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Vorst, Irene E.; Koek, Huiberdina L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257372962; De Vries, Rehana; Bots, Michiel L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110610032; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Vaartjes, Ilonca|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304812102

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors on mortality in individuals with dementia. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. English- and Dutch-language studies in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched in April 2014 with hand-searching of in-text

  8. Reducing vascular access morbidity: a comparative trial of two vascular access monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Charmaine E; Bhola, Cynthia; Croxford, Ruth; Richardson, Robert M A

    2003-06-01

    Thrombosis is the primary cause of access failure in polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and arteriovenous fistulas. It can lead to significant patient and access morbidity and mortality, and is difficult to prevent medically. Intervention is largely limited to maximizing access patency by detecting culprit lesions early and intervening with angioplasty or surgical revision. The most efficacious monitoring strategy is undetermined. This 3 year prospective study took advantage of a change in monitoring strategy used in a large dialysis centre to compare the efficacy of two methods used to monitor grafts and fistulas in order to prevent access thrombosis. Accesses were monitored using Duplex ultrasonography in year 1, while the saline ultrasound dilution technique (Transonic) became the primary monitoring strategy in year 3 (year 2 was a transition year). Risk factors for thrombosis were determined using multivariate survival analysis, and the performance of Duplex ultrasonography and Transonic monitoring was assessed. A total of 303 656 access days at risk were assessed, with 344, 385 and 425 accesses in years 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The total thrombosis rate was 1.01/1000 access days in year 1 compared with 0.66/1000 access days in year 3. This was accomplished despite a reduction in procedure rates of 55% for angiograms, 13% for angioplasties and 31% for thrombolysis. Low flow rates detected using Transonic monitoring were associated with increased thrombosis, while stenosis detected using Duplex ultrasonography was not a strong predictor of incipient thrombosis; however, these different access characteristics were compared using monitoring techniques that may be ideal in different clinical situations.

  9. Effect of Vascular Risk Factors and Diseases on Mortality in Individuals with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vorst, Irene E; Koek, Huiberdina L; de Vries, Rehana; Bots, Michiel L; Reitsma, Johannes B; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors on mortality in individuals with dementia. Systematic review and meta-analysis. English- and Dutch-language studies in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched in April 2014 with hand-searching of in-text citations and no publication limitations. Inclusion criteria were original studies reporting on cardiovascular risk factors or diseases and their relationship with survival in individuals with dementia. The Quality In Prognosis Studies tool was used to appraise all included articles. Population-, hospital-, and nursing home-based. Community-dwelling, hospitalized individuals and nursing home residents with dementia. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of several cardiovascular diseases and risk factors on overall mortality. Twelve studies with 235,865 participants were included. In pooled analyses, male sex (hazard ratio (HR)=1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.56-1.78), diabetes mellitus (DM) (HR=1.49, 95% CI=1.33-1.68), smoking (ever vs never) (HR=1.37, 95% CI=1.17-1.61), coronary heart disease (CHD) (HR=1.21, 95% CI=1.02-1.44) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (HR=1.37, 95% CI=1.18-1.59) were associated with mortality. Stroke, high blood pressure, being overweight, and hypercholesterolemia were not statistically significantly related to mortality. Individuals with dementia and DM, smoking, CHD, and CHF have a greater risk of death than individuals with dementia without these risk factors or diseases. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Emerging treatments in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; van Gool, W. A.

    1997-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most common organic mental syndromes, usually caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VD) or both. Regarding AD we review the state or the art of the cholinergic approach and discuss some future options regarding preventive and nonsymptomatic strategies.

  11. Functional vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia: mechanisms and consequences of cerebral autoregulatory dysfunction, endothelial impairment, and neurovascular uncoupling in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter; Tarantini, Stefano; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence from epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies indicate that age-related cerebromicrovascular dysfunction and microcirculatory damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of many types of dementia in the elderly, including Alzheimer's disease. Understanding and targeting the age-related pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) are expected to have a major role in preserving brain health in older individuals. Maintenance of cerebral perfusion, protecting the microcirculation from high pressure-induced damage and moment-to-moment adjustment of regional oxygen and nutrient supply to changes in demand are prerequisites for the prevention of cerebral ischemia and neuronal dysfunction. This overview discusses age-related alterations in three main regulatory paradigms involved in the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF): cerebral autoregulation/myogenic constriction, endothelium-dependent vasomotor function, and neurovascular coupling responses responsible for functional hyperemia. The pathophysiological consequences of cerebral microvascular dysregulation in aging are explored, including blood-brain barrier disruption, neuroinflammation, exacerbation of neurodegeneration, development of cerebral microhemorrhages, microvascular rarefaction, and ischemic neuronal dysfunction and damage. Due to the widespread attention that VCID has captured in recent years, the evidence for the causal role of cerebral microvascular dysregulation in cognitive decline is critically examined. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Caregiver burden in Parkinson disease with dementia compared to Alzheimer disease in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeeun; Youn, Jinyoung; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Jun-Young; Cho, Jin Whan

    2012-12-01

    We compared caregiver burden in Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD) to that in Alzheimer disease (AD) and examined the factors contributing to the burden in PDD. Totally, 42 patients with PDD and 109 patients with AD and their caregivers participated in this study. The caregiver burden was measured using the Burden Interview (BI). Scores of Barthel activities of daily living (BADLs), Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating of patients, and score of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and Euro-quality of life of the caregivers were examined. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr stage of the patients were administered to assess burden relating to parkinsonism on PDD. We used multiple linear regression to assess the predictors. The BI of caregivers was higher in PDD (47.9, Standard deviation [SD]: 3.8) than in AD (36.3, SD:2.1). In the AD group, the BI was predicted by cognitive function ((β±SE: -0.8±0.4, P value=04) and basic ADL status of patients (β±SE: -1.3±0.1, P<.001), depressive symptoms (β±SE: 1.1±0.1, P<.001), and poor quality of life (β±SE: -0.2±0.1, P=.017) in caregivers. In PDD group, BI was predicted only by scores of Part 1 on the UPDRS (β±SE: 2.9±1.3, P=.03) of patients and depressive symptoms (β±SE: 1.1±0.2, P<.001) of the caregivers. We concluded the caregiver burden is higher in PDD than in AD and factors predicting burden are different in AD and PDD. In patients with PDD, the neuropsychiatric problems are the major contributor to caregiver burden.

  13. Profile of inpatient falls in patients with dementia: A prospective comparative study between 100% single rooms and traditional multibedded wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Knight

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Patients with dementia were at an increased risk of recurrent IF in single rooms compared with MB-Ws. Recurrent IF could be correlated with longer LoS but it is difficult to establish the cause and effect due to the low power of the study. There was no significant difference in terms of injury or mortality between the two settings.

  14. Long-Term Risk of Dementia among Survivors of Ischemic or Hemorrhagic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corraini, Priscila; Henderson, Victor; Ording, Anne Gulbech

    2017-01-01

    type did not change during follow-up and was not altered appreciably by age, sex, or preexisting diagnoses of vascular conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke increases dementia risk. Survivors of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage are at particularly high long-term risk of poststroke......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a risk factor for dementia, but the risk of dementia after different stroke types is poorly understood. We examined the long-term risk of dementia among survivors of any first-time stroke and of first-time ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid...... ratios of dementia up to 30 years after stroke. RESULTS: The 30-year absolute risk of dementia among stroke survivors was 11.5% (95% confidence interval, 11.2%-11.7%). Compared with the general population, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for dementia among stroke survivors was 1.80 (1...

  15. [Vascular access for haemodyalisis. Comparative analysis of the mechanical behaviour of native vessels and prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bia, D; Zócalo, Y; Armentano, R; Pérez, H; Cabrera, E; Saldías, M; Galli, C; Alvarez, I

    2006-01-01

    The prosthesis nowadays used in the vascular access for haemodialysis have low patency rates, mainly due to the luminal obstruction, determined by the intimal hyperplasia. Several factors have been related to de development of intimal hyperplasia and graft failure. Among them are the differences in the biomechanical properties between the prosthesis and the native vessels. In the searching for vascular prosthesis that overcomes the limitations of the currently used, the cryopreserved vessels (cryografts) appear as an alternative of growing interest. However, it is unknown if the mechanical differences or mismatch between prosthesis and native vessels are lesser when using cryografts. To characterize and compare the biomechanical behaviour of native vessels used in vascular access and cryografts. Additionally, segments of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) were also evaluated, so as to evaluate the potential biomechanical advantages of the cryografts respect to synthetic prosthesis used in vascular access. Segments from human humeral (n = 12), carotid (n = 12) and femoral (n = 12) arteries, and saphenous vein (n = 12), were obtained from 6 multiorgan donors. The humeral arteries were studied in fresh state. The other segments were divided into two groups, and 6 segments from each vessel were studied in fresh state, while the remaining 6 segments were evaluated after 30 days of criopreservation. For the mechanical evaluation the vascular segments and 6 segments of ePTFE were mounted in a circulation mock and submitted to haemodynamic conditions similar to those of the in vivo. Instantaneous pressure (Konigsberg) and diameter (Sonomicrometry) were measured and used to calculate the viscous and elastic indexes, the compliance, distensibility and characteristic impedance. For each mechanical parameter studied, the mismatch between the prosthesis and the native vessel was evaluated. The ePTFE was the prosthesis with the higher mechanical mismatch (p vascular

  16. The effect of music therapy compared with general recreational activities in reducing agitation in people with dementia: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, A.C.; Zuidersma, M.; Boersma, F.; Jonge, P. de; Zuidema, S.U.; Slaets, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of music therapy with general recreational day activities in reducing agitation in people with dementia, residing in nursing home facilities. METHODS: In a randomised controlled design, residents with dementia (n = 94) were allocated to either music

  17. The effect of music therapy compared with general recreational activities in reducing agitation in people with dementia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, A. C.; Zuidersma, M.; Boersma, F.; de Jonge, P.; Zuidema, S. U.; Slaets, J. P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the effects of music therapy with general recreational day activities in reducing agitation in people with dementia, residing in nursing home facilities. Methods In a randomised controlled design, residents with dementia (n=94) were allocated to either music

  18. Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia 10 Years Prior to Clinical Diagnosis : Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carl-Johan Boraxbekk; Anders Lundquist; Annelie Nordin; Lars Nyberg; Lars-Göran Nilsson; Rolf Adolfsson

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111) and group 2 after 1-10 years ...

  19. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Vascular Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Tiel

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric symptoms or Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD are common and invariably appear at some point during the course of the disease, mediated both by cerebrovascular disease and neurodegenerative processes. Few studies have compared the profiles of BPSD in Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI of different subtypes (subcortical or cortical and clinical stages (Vascular Cognitive Impairment No Dementia [VaCIND] and Vascular Dementia [VaD].Objective:To review the BPSD associated with different subtypes and stages of VCI using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI.Methods:Medline, Scielo and Lilacs databases were searched for the period January 2000 to December 2014, with the key words: "BPSD AND Vascular Dementia, "NPI AND Vascular Dementia" and "NPI AND VCI. Qualitative analysis was performed on studies evaluating BPSD in VCI, using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI.Results:A total of 82 studies were retrieved of which 13 were eligible and thus included. Among the articles selected, 4 compared BPSD in Subcortical Vascular Dementia (SVaD versus Cortical-Subcortical Vascular Dementia (CSVaD, 3 involved comparisons between SVaD and VaCIND, 1 study analyzed differences between CSVaD and VaCIND, while 5 studies assessed BPSD in CSVaD. Subcortical and Cortical-Subcortical VaD were associated predominantly with Apathy and Depression. VaCIND may present fewer behavioral symptoms than VaD.Conclusion:The profile of BPSD differs for different stages of VCI. Determining the most prevalent BPSD in VCI subtypes might be helpful for improving early diagnosis and management of these symptoms.

  20. Comparative morphology of the hemolymph vascular system in Uropygi and Amblypygi (Arachnida): Complex correspondences support Arachnopulmonata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klußmann-Fricke, B-J; Wirkner, C S

    2016-08-01

    Although the circulatory system of arthropods has long been considered as rather simple, recent studies have demonstrated that in certain arthropod taxa, such as Malacostraca, some Chilopoda and also many Chelicerata, the vascular systems in particular are rather complex. Furthermore, a recent study has revealed that the prosomal ganglion of scorpions and spiders is supplied by an intricate network of arteries, the complexity of which bears a close resemblance to that of vertebrate capillary systems. In this study, we analyzed the hemolymph vascular systems of various species of Pedipalpi (i.e., Amblypygi and Uropygi). By combining modern techniques, such as MicroCT and cLSM, with computer-based 3D-reconstruction, we were able to produce comprehensive visualizations and descriptions of the vascular systems. Despite the lack of well-corroborated phylogenetic hypotheses on arachnid relationships and the controversial assertion of relationships between the pulmonate arachnids, we aim to elucidate the evolution of complex vascular systems in Arachnida. By comparing these highly complex vascular systems not only with each other, but also with other pulmonate arachnids, we found numerous detailed correspondences in the general branching pattern as well as in the supply patterns of the prosomal ganglion. We argue that these numerous and detailed correspondences by their absence in other arachnids i.e. aplumonates, support Arachnopulmonata. J. Morphol. 277:1084-1103, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Frequency and case identification of dementia with Lewy bodies using the revised consensus criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsland, Dag; Rongve, Arvid; Nore, Sabine Piepenstock; Skogseth, Ragnhild; Skulstad, Siri; Ehrt, Uwe; Hoprekstad, Dagne; Ballard, Clive

    2008-01-01

    To find the proportion of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in a referral cohort of patients with a first-time diagnosis of mild dementia. The proportion of DLB among the dementia sufferers is not known and the clinical consensus criteria have low sensitivity. We employed the revised DLB criteria to study the proportion with DLB in a community sample of patients with mild dementia. From March 2005 to March 2007, we included 196 patients from referrals to all geriatric medicine, old age psychiatry and neurology outpatient clinics in Rogaland and Hordaland counties in Western Norway. Standardized clinical instruments and diagnostic criteria were employed. 65% had Alzheimer dementia, 20% DLB (16% probable DLB), 5.6% vascular dementia, 5.6% Parkinson disease with dementia, 2.0% frontotemporal dementia and 1.5% alcoholic dementia. There were no significant differences in the proportion with DLB according to age bands and dementia severity groups. The revised criteria for a clinical diagnosis of DLB increased the proportion of probable DLB by 25% compared to the previous criteria. DLB is common in patients with mild dementia, and is the second most common type of dementia. The introduction of new clinical criteria for DLB leads to an increase in the proportion diagnosed with probable DLB. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effect of Long-Term Vascular Care on Progression of Cerebrovascular Lesions: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Substudy of the PreDIVA Trial (Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalen, Jan Willem; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Caan, Matthan W A; Scheltens, Philip; Majoie, Charles B L M; Nederveen, Aart J; van Gool, Willem A; Richard, Edo

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a nurse-led multidomain cardiovascular intervention on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) progression and incident lacunar infarcts in community-dwelling elderly with hypertension. The preDIVA trial (Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care) was an open-label, cluster-randomized controlled trial in community-dwelling individuals aged 70 to 78 years. General practices were assigned by computer-generated randomization to 6-year nurse-led, multidomain intensive vascular care or standard care. Of 3526 preDIVA participants, 195 nondemented participants with a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg were consecutively recruited to undergo magnetic resonance imaging at 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 years after baseline. WMH volumes were measured automatically, lacunar infarcts assessed visually, blinded to treatment allocation. One hundred and twenty-six participants were available for longitudinal analysis (64 intervention and 62 control). Annual WMH volume increase in milliliter was similar for intervention (mean=0.73, SD=0.84) and control (mean=0.70, SD=0.59) participants (adjusted mean difference, -0.08 mL; 95% confidence interval, -0.30 to 0.15; P=0.50). Analyses suggested greater intervention effects with increasing baseline WMH volumes (P for interaction=0.03). New lacunar infarcts developed in 6 (9%) intervention and 2 (3%) control participants (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-12.1; P=0.36). Nurse-led vascular care in hypertensive community-dwelling older persons did not diminish WMH accumulation over 3 years. However, our results do suggest this type of intervention could be effective in persons with high WMH volumes. There was no effect on lacunar infarcts incidence but numbers were low. URL: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN29711771. Unique identifier: ISRCTN29711771. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Epidemiology of early-onset dementia: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Renata Teles; Caixeta, Leonardo; Machado, Sergio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Presenile Dementia or Early Onset Dementia (EOD) is a public health problem, it differs from Senile Dementia, and encloses a significant number of cases; nevertheless, it is still poorly understood and underdiagnosed. This study aims to review the prevalence and etiology of EOD, comparing EOD with Senile Dementia, as well as to show the main causes of EOD and their prevalence in population and non-population based studies. The computer-supported search used the following databases: Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scielo. The search terms were alcohol-associated dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, Creutzfeldt-jakob disease, dementia with lewy bodies, early onset dementia, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Huntington’s disease, mixed dementia, neurodegenerative disorders, Parkinson’s disease dementia, presenile dementia, traumatic brain injury, vascular dementia. Only papers published in English and conducted from 1985 up to 2012 were preferentially reviewed. Neurodegenerative diseases are the most common etiologies seen in EOD. Among the general population, the prevalence of EOD was found to range between 0 to 700 per 100.000 habitants in groups of 25-64 years old, with an increasing incidence with age. The progression of EOD was found to range between 8.3 to 22.8 new cases per 100.000 in those aged under 65 years. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major etiology, followed by Vascular Dementia (VaD) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). A larger number of epidemiological studies to elucidate how environmental issues contribute to EOD are necessary, thus, we can collaborate in the planning and prevention of services toward dementia patients. PMID:23878613

  4. Dementia and depression with ischemic heart disease: a population-based longitudinal study comparing interventional approaches to medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, W Alan C; Fransoo, Randall R; Campbell, Barry I; Chateau, Dan G; Sirski, Monica; Warrian, R Keith

    2011-02-28

    We compared the proportion of ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients newly diagnosed with dementia and depression across three treatment groups: percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and medical management alone (IHD-medical). De-identified, individual-level administrative records of health service use for the population of Manitoba, Canada (approximately 1.1 million) were examined. From April 1, 1993 to March 31, 1998, patients were identified with a diagnosis of IHD (ICD-9-CM codes). Index events of CABG or PCI were identified from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 2003. Outcomes were depression or dementia after the index event. Patients were followed forward to March 31, 2006 or until censored. Proportional hazards regression analysis was undertaken. Independent variables examined were age, sex, diabetes, hypertension and income quintile, medical management alone for IHD, or intervention by PCI or CABG. Age, sex, diabetes, and presence of hypertension were all strongly associated with the diagnosis of depression and dementia. There was no association with income quintile. Dementia was less frequent with PCI compared to medical management; (HR = 0.65; p = 0.017). CABG did not provide the same protective effect compared to medical management (HR = 0.90; p = 0.372). New diagnosis depression was more frequent with interventional approaches: PCI (n = 626; hazard ratio = 1.25; p = 0.028) and CABG (n = 1124, HR = 1.32; p = 0.0001) than non-interventional patients (n = 34,508). Subsequent CABG was nearly 16-fold higher (pdementia-only 65% of the risk for medical management alone. Both interventional approaches were associated with a higher risk of new diagnosed depression compared to medical management. Long-term myocardial revascularization was superior with CABG. These findings suggest that PCI may confer a long-term protective effect from dementia. The mechanism(s) of dementia protection

  5. [Clinical aspects of dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, N

    1996-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of dementing diseases is very important to rule in the so-called treatable dementia. The new DSM-IV criteria for dementia include memory disturbances and one or more of aphasia, apraxia, or frontal lobe dysfunctions as essentials. Alzheimer disease requires, in addition, slowly progressive course and ruling out other brain or systemic diseases. Vascular dementia requires focal neurological or neuroimaging signs. Other diseases which cause dementia include chronic subdural hematoma, infection and brain tumor. CT or MRI can readily diagnose them if suspected and they may be treated. Systemic diseases associated with treatable dementia include electrolyte disturbances, hypothyroidism, vitamin deficiency, alcohol or drug intoxication, syphilis and HIV infection. Prevention of dementia seems to be the future problem as we could prevent cerebrovascular diseases by treating hypertension.

  6. Factors associated with a depressive disorder in Alzheimer's disease are different from those found for other dementia disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut; Laks, Jerson; Selbaek, Geir

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with depression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and other dementia disorders. In a prospective study we included 195 patients: 31 with MCI, 112 with AD and 52 with other dementias. According to the ICD-10 and the DSM-IV criteria, 88 (44.1%) and 59 (30.3%), respectively, had a depressive disorder. An adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that previous depression (p depression in AD patients. Severity of dementia (p depressive disorder in a group of patients with frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, or dementia due to Lewy Body disease or Parkinson's disease. We found different factors associated with a depressive disorder in AD compared to those found for other dementia disorders.

  7. Does wine prevent dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger M Pinder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderPharma Consultant, York, UKAbstract: There is substantial evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces significantly the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia, both of the Alzheimer’s type (AD and the vascular variety (VaD, is lower in societies which consume a Mediterranean diet of mainly fish, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine. In particular, extensive evidence from both population-based cohort and case control studies in different areas of the world and across genders and racial groups suggests that regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol, especially in the form of wine, is associated with a lower risk of developing AD and VaD compared with abstention and heavy drinking. Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele seem to gain less benefit. Age-related cognitive decline, particularly in women, is lower in regular drinkers, while older drinkers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI progress less frequently to AD than their abstaining counterparts. Plausible biological mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of wine include its glucose-modifying, antioxidant and inflammatory properties, but it additionally seems to modify the neuropathology of AD, particularly the deposition of amyloid plaque. Indeed, some of these mechanisms are already targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of dementia.Keywords: alcohol, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, epidemiology, polyphenols, wine

  8. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boix Raquel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.

  9. Limitations in differentiating vascular dementia from Alzheimer's disease with brief cognitive tests Limitações em diferenciar demência vascular de doença de Alzheimer através de testes cognitivos breves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Niures P.S. Matioli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic value of brief cognitive tests in differentiating vascular dementia (VaD from Alzheimer's disease (AD. METHOD: Fifteen patients with mild VaD, 15 patients with mild probable AD and 30 healthy controls, matched for age, education and dementia severity, were submitted to the following cognitive tests: clock drawing (free drawing and copy, category and letter fluency, delayed recall test of figures and the EXIT 25 battery. RESULTS: VaD patients performed worse than AD patients in category fluency (p=0.014, letter fluency (p=0.043 and CLOX 2 (p=0.023, while AD cases performed worse than VaD patients in delayed recall (p=0.013. However, ROC curves for these tests displayed low sensitivity and specificity for the differential diagnosis between VaD and AD. CONCLUSION: Although the performance of VaD and AD patients was significantly different in some cognitive tests, the value of such instruments in differentiating VaD from AD proved to be very limited.OBJETIVO: Investigar o valor diagnóstico de testes cognitivos breves na diferenciação de demência vascular (DV e doença de Alzheimer (DA. MÉTODO: Quinze pacientes com DV, 15 com DA provável e 30 controles saudáveis, pareados em relação à idade, escolaridade e gravidade da demência, foram submetidos aos seguintes testes: desenho do relógio espontâneo e cópia, fluência verbal semântica e fonêmica, teste de evocação de memória de figuras e a bateria EXIT25. RESULTADOS: Pacientes com DV apresentaram pior desempenho na fluência verbal semântica (p=0,014, fonêmica (p=0,043, e no CLOX 2 (p=0,023. O grupo com DA obteve pior desempenho no teste de evocação tardia (p=0,013. As curvas ROC aplicadas a esses testes mostraram baixa sensibilidade e especificidade para o diagnóstico diferencial entre DV e DA. CONCLUSÃO: Embora o desempenho dos pacientes tenha sido diferente em alguns testes, o valor desses instrumentos para o diagnóstico diferencial

  10. Risk Factors for Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hau Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a complex human disease. The incidence of dementia among the elderly population is rising rapidly worldwide. In the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading type of dementia and was the fifth and eighth leading cause of death in women and men aged ≥ 65 years, respectively, in 2003. In Taiwan and many other counties, dementia is a hidden health issue because of its underestimation in the elderly population. In Western countries, the prevalence of AD increases from 1–3% among people aged 60–64 years to 35% among those aged > 85 years. In Taiwan, the prevalence of dementia for people aged ≥ 65 years was 2–4% by 2000. Therefore, it is important to identify protective and risk factors for dementia to prevent this disease at an early stage. Several factors are related to dementia, e.g. age, ethnicity, sex, genetic factors, physical activity, smoking, drug use, education level, alcohol consumption, body mass index, comorbidity, and environmental factors. In this review, we focus on studies that have evaluated the association between these factors and the risk of dementia, especially AD and vascular dementia. We also suggest future research directions for researchers in dementia-related fields.

  11. Alcohol-related dementia in the institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlen, P L; McAndrews, M P; Weiss, R T; Dongier, M; Hill, J M; Menzano, E; Farcnik, K; Abarbanel, J; Eastwood, M R

    1994-12-01

    This study examined the distribution of alcohol-related and other dementias in a sample of 130 cognitively impaired residents of long-term care facilities in a Northern Ontario community. Study procedures entailed standardized psychiatric, neurological, and neuropsychological evaluations. Diagnoses of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and vascular dementia were based on criteria of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. The diagnosis of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) was based on extensive review of medical history to assess before alcohol abuse and stabilization or improvement in cognitive functioning following institutionalization in conjunction with no other identifiable cause of dementia. ARD comprised 24% of this population compared with DAT (35%), vascular dementia (19%), and other causes (22%). The ARD group was, on average, 10 years younger than the other groups. It had nearly twice the average length of institutionalization and had milder cognitive impairment on both clinical ratings and neuropsychological tests. A diagnosis of ARD was present in the medical records for only 25% of patients in this group. These findings suggest that ARD may be more common than previously suspected in the distribution of dementias in long-term care facilities.

  12. Autonomic dysfunction: A comparative study of patients with Alzheimer's and frontotemporal dementia – A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gregor Issac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In frontotemporal dementia (FTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD, central autonomic structures get affected early. An insight into autonomic functions in these patients is likely to be of diagnostic importance and thus help in prognosticating and also probably explain unexplained sudden death in some of these patients. Objectives: The objective of this study is to identify autonomic dysfunction prevailing in patients. Then, if there is dysfunction, is the pattern same or different in these two conditions. And if different it will serve as an additional biomarker for specific diagnosis. Patients and Methods: There were 25 patients and 25 controls and six patients and three controls in AD and FTD groups, respectively. The participants who were recruited were assessed for heart rate variability and conventional cardiac autonomic function testing. The parameters were analyzed using LabChart version 7 software and compared with control population using appropriate statistical methods using SPSS version 22 software. Results: The mean overall total power was low in the FTD group (P < 0.001, and there was significant reduction in the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals and root mean square of successive differences (P < 0.001 with elevated sympathovagal balance in the FTD group (P = 0.04. Patients with AD also showed sympathetic dominance, but there was in addition parasympathetic suppression unlike in the FTD group. Conclusion: This study reveals autonomic dysfunction in patients with FTD and AD. Both conditions show sympathetic dominance, probably consecutive to the involvement of central autonomic regulatory structures as a shared domain. It remains to be confirmed if these findings are the cause or effect of neurodegeneration and might open up newer territories of research based on the causal role of neurotransmitters in these regions and thus lead to novel therapeutic options such as yoga. The presence of parasympathetic

  13. The Determinants of Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents with Young-Onset Dementia and the Differences between Dementia Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhof, Britt; Bakker, Christian; Van Duinen-van den Ijssel, Jeannette C L; Zwijsen, Sandra A; Smalbrugge, Martin; Verhey, Frans R J; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Zuidema, Sytse U; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are to (1) explore the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia (YOD), (2) investigate whether there are differences between dementia subtypes (Alzheimer dementia, vascular/mixed dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other) regarding these determinants, and (3) compare QoL profiles of YOD nursing home residents across dementia subtypes. This cross-sectional study included 207 nursing home residents. Multilevel modeling was used to determine the relationships between QoL and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), dementia severity, psychotropic drug use (PDU), dementia subtype, age, and gender. Additional multilevel models were used to compare aspects of QoL between dementia subtypes. Residents' QoL was negatively associated with advanced dementia, PDU, and NPS. In general, the relationships between the determinants and QoL were similar across the dementia subtypes. Aspects of QoL differed by dementia subtype. Residents with frontotemporal dementia showed less negative emotions, accepted more help and experienced better quality of relationships with professional caregivers, had a more positive self-image, felt more comfortable in the nursing home environment, and experienced lower quality of social relationships. Considering the high rates of NPS and PDU in YOD residents and their negative associations with QoL, we recommend emphasizing services to manage and reduce NPS and PDU in nursing home residents with YOD. Furthermore, our findings suggest accounting for differences in aspects of QoL by dementia subtype to address specific needs and thereby improve QoL. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Testing Van Gool’s Hypothesis: A Method to Predict Side Effects of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Patients with Cellular Degenerative and Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza van Eijk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a method to predict medical outcome of cholinesterase inhibitors in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD. Van Gool predicts that patients with cholinergic deficit symptoms will benefit from treatment whereas patients without will experience side effects because of overstimulation of the cholinergic system. We predicted that AD and VaD patients with a longer RT experience fewer side effects than patients with a faster response and that VaD patients have a longer RT than AD patients. A number of 71 patients with AD or VaD diagnosis were included. A sustained attention task was administered, as well as the MMSE and a questionnaire about side effects. Results indicated that VaD patients with a longer RT reported fewer side effects. Furthermore, patients with VaD had a longer RT than patients with AD. MMSE was negatively correlated with RT in the VaD group. Thus, the performance on the attention task seems associated with suffering from side effects and thus tends to predict medical outcome in VaD, but not in AD. Perhaps this attention task was not sensitive enough to measure cholinergic deficit symptoms in AD patients. Furthermore, different doses of medication might confound the effect for the AD group.

  15. Gastrin-releasing peptide facilitates glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus and effectively prevents vascular dementia induced cognitive and synaptic plasticity deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajia; Yao, Yang; Wang, Ling; Yang, Chunxiao; Wang, Faqi; Guo, Jie; Wang, Zhiyun; Yang, Zhuo; Ming, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has been proved to be an important neuromodulator in the brain and involved in a variety of neurological diseases. Whether GRP could attenuate cognition impairment induced by vascular dementia (VD) in rats, and the mechanism of synaptic plasticity and GRP's action on synaptic efficiency are still poorly understood. In this study, we first investigated the effects of GRP on glutamatergic transmission with patch-clamp recording. We found that acute application of GRP enhanced the excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 neurons via GRPR in a presynaptic mechanism. Secondly, we examined whether exogenous GRP or its analogue neuromedin B (NMB) could prevent VD-induced cognitive deficits and the mechanism of synaptic plasticity. By using Morris water maze, long-term potentiation (LTP) recording, western blot assay and immunofluorescent staining, we verified for the first time that GRP or NMB substantially improved the spatial learning and memory abilities in VD rats, restored the impaired synaptic plasticity and was able to elevate the expression of synaptic proteins, synaptophysin (SYP) and CaMKII, which play pivotal roles in synaptic plasticity. These results suggest that the facilitatory effects of GRP on glutamate release may contribute to its long-term action on synaptic efficacy which is essential in cognitive function. Our findings present a new entry point for a better understanding of physiological function of GRP and raise the possibility that GRPR agonists might ameliorate cognitive deficits associated with neurological diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intracranial stenosis in cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Saima; Xu, Xin; Ikram, M Kamran; Vrooman, Henri; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Intracranial stenosis is a common vascular lesion observed in Asian and other non-Caucasian stroke populations. However, its role in cognitive impairment and dementia has been under-studied. We, therefore, examined the association of intracranial stenosis with cognitive impairment, dementia and their subtypes in a memory clinic case-control study, where all subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment and 3 T neuroimaging including three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Intracranial stenosis was defined as ≥50% narrowing in any of the intracranial arteries. A total of 424 subjects were recruited of whom 97 were classified as no cognitive impairment, 107 as cognitive impairment no dementia, 70 vascular cognitive impairment no dementia, 121 Alzheimer's Disease, and 30 vascular dementia. Intracranial stenosis was associated with dementia (age/gender/education - adjusted odds ratios (OR): 4.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93-11.60) and vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.59-9.93). These associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors and MRI markers. However, the association with Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia became attenuated in the presence of white matter hyperintensities. Intracranial stenosis is associated with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia independent of MRI markers. In Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia, this association is mediated by cerebrovascular disease. Future studies focusing on perfusion and functional markers are needed to determine the pathophysiological mechanism(s) linking intracranial stenosis and cognition so as to identify treatment strategies.

  17. [Depression and dementia: perspectives from clinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Shoko; Yoshimura, Kimio; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-12-01

    In this review, we present an overview of clinical studies that addressed the relationship between depression and dementia or cognitive decline. Cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses have repeatedly shown an association between late-life depression (LLD) and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia; however, the findings of cohort studies have been inconsistent. Furthermore, studies on the association between depression with a younger age of onset and dementia have yielded inconsistent results. Regarding cognitive decline associated with LLD, several studies have reported an association between LLD and mild cognitive impairment, suggesting that depression itself can cause persistent cognitive impairment. Other studies have compared the cognitive profile between LLD and depression with a younger age of onset, but their results have been inconclusive, especially regarding the association between memory impairment and the age of onset of depression. LLD is associated with vascular change and white matter degeneration of the brain, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, several studies reported an association between gray matter change and LLD. Studies currently in progress employ functional brain imaging methods such as single-photon emission computed tomography, functional MRI, and positron emission tomography. Clinically, it is important to understand how subtypes of depression can be defined in terms of risk of developing dementia, and to devise effective treatments. One paper explored the possibility of detecting depression associated with AD by measuring the blood Aβ40/Aβ42 levels, and other studies have suggested that symptoms of apathy and loss of interest are associated with conversion of depression to AD. Unfortunately, current antidepressants may have limited efficacy on depression with dementia; therefore, further investigation for devising methods of predicting conversion of depression to dementia and

  18. How can elderly apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers remain free from dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Camilla; Xu, Wei-Li; Wang, Hui-Xin; Winblad, Bengt; Sorbi, Sandro; Qiu, Chengxuan; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia, but not all ε4 carriers develop dementia. We sought to identify factors that may play a role in modifying the risk of dementia due to ε4. A cognitively intact cohort (n = 932, age ≥ 75) was followed for 9 years to detect incident dementia cases. At baseline, information on education, leisure activities, and vascular risk factors was collected, and APOE was genotyped. During the follow-up, 324 subjects developed dementia, including 247 AD cases. The hazard ratio (HR, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) of dementia related to the ε4 was 1.39 (1.11-1.76), while the risk was reduced when ε4 carriers had high education, no vascular risk factors, or high score of leisure activities. Among ε4 carriers, the multiadjusted HRs of dementia that were associated with high education, high level of leisure activities, and absence of vascular risk factors were 0.59 (0.40-0.87), 0.49 (0.29-0.85), and 0.61 (0.41-0.90), respectively. The ε4 carriers with these factors had about 1.2 years delayed time to dementia onset compared with those without these factors. High education, active leisure activities, or maintaining vascular health seems to reduce the risk of dementia related to APOE ε4. The ε4 carriers with these characteristics appear to have similar dementia-free survival time to non-ε4 carriers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comprehensive geriatric assessment in elderly patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namioka, Nayuta; Hanyu, Haruo; Hatanaka, Hirokuni; Fukasawa, Raita; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    We have recently developed and validated a screening test for comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) named "Dr. SUPERMAN". We compared the results obtained by the CGA of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and determined the relationship between functional deficits and clinical characteristics in each type of dementia. We used Dr. SUPERMAN to examine patients with AD (24 men and 53 women, mean age 83.0 ± 5.1 years), VaD (10 men and 12 women, mean age 80.4 ± 5.0 years) and DLB (28 men and 20 women, mean age 81.2 ± 5.5 years). Patients with DLB or VaD had functional deficits more frequently than those with AD in many fields. Significant correlations between functional impairments and clinical characteristics, such as age, sex and Mini-Mental State Examination scores, in the non-AD group (including DLB and VaD) were found in more extensive fields than those in the AD group. Patients with dementia, particularly DLB, have several geriatric problems. Correlations between functional deficits and clinical characteristics differ between the AD group and the non-AD group. Non-AD patients of older age who are male and have advanced dementia are more likely have several functional deficits. In addition to age and severity of dementia, the type of dementia should be considered in the treatments and interventions of elderly patients with dementia. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Qualitative aspects of learning, recall, and recognition in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Neelima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether learning and serial position effect (SPE differs qualitatively and quantitatively among different types of dementia and between dementia patients and controls; we also wished to find out whether interference affects it. Materials and Methods: We administered the Malayalam version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT to 30 cognitively unimpaired controls and 80 dementia patients [30 with Alzheimer′s disease (AD, 30 with vascular dementia (VaD, and 20 with frontotemporal dementia (FTD] with mild severity on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. Results: All groups were comparable on education and age, except the FTD group, who were younger. Qualitatively, the learning pattern and SPE (with primacy and recency being superior to intermediate was retained in the AD, VaD, and control groups. On SPE in free recall, recency was superior to intermediate in the FTD group (P < 0.01 using Bonferroni correction. On recognition, the AD and VaD groups had more misses (P < 0.01, while the FTD group had more false positives (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Quantitative learning is affected by dementia. The pattern of qualitative learning remains unaltered in dementia in the early stages.

  1. Qualitative aspects of learning, recall, and recognition in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, Neelima; Mathuranath, P S; Sharma, Gangadhar; Alexander, Aley

    2010-04-01

    To determine whether learning and serial position effect (SPE) differs qualitatively and quantitatively among different types of dementia and between dementia patients and controls; we also wished to find out whether interference affects it. We administered the Malayalam version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to 30 cognitively unimpaired controls and 80 dementia patients [30 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 30 with vascular dementia (VaD), and 20 with frontotemporal dementia (FTD)] with mild severity on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. All groups were comparable on education and age, except the FTD group, who were younger. Qualitatively, the learning pattern and SPE (with primacy and recency being superior to intermediate) was retained in the AD, VaD, and control groups. On SPE in free recall, recency was superior to intermediate in the FTD group (P < 0.01 using Bonferroni correction). On recognition, the AD and VaD groups had more misses (P < 0.01), while the FTD group had more false positives (P < 0.01). Quantitative learning is affected by dementia. The pattern of qualitative learning remains unaltered in dementia in the early stages.

  2. Lower risk of dementia with pioglitazone, compared with other second-line treatments, in metformin-based dual therapy: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Yang, Chen-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang; Ou, Huang-Tz

    2017-11-14

    The effect of pioglitazone was compared with that of other second-line glucose-lowering drugs on the risk of dementia among individuals with type 2 diabetes receiving metformin-based dual therapy. A total of 204,323 individuals with type 2 diabetes aged ≥18 years who were stable metformin users and dementia-free before the initiation of second-line glucose-lowering medication were identified in the period 2000-2011 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database and followed to the end of 2013. Primary analyses included 51,415 individuals aged ≥65 years without dementia events in the first year of second-line glucose-lowering treatment. Study subjects were classified into mutually exclusive groups according to various second-line glucose-lowering drugs to metformin. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to assess the time-to-event between propensity score-matched glucose-lowering treatment groups. Individuals aged ≥65 years on metformin + pioglitazone had a significantly lower risk of dementia compared with those on metformin + sulfonylurea (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.34, 0.93), and a lower, but insignificant, risk of dementia compared with those on other metformin-based dual regimens (i.e. metformin + acarbose, metformin + meglitinide, metformin + insulin or metformin + dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors). Among individuals aged ≥18 years, there was also a decreased risk of dementia in those taking pioglitazone compared with those taking other second-line glucose-lowering drugs. A lower incidence of dementia was found in users of metformin + pioglitazone compared with users of metformin + rosiglitazone. Pioglitazone as a second-line treatment after metformin might provide a protective effect on dementia risk among individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Prospective neuropathological validation of Hachinski's Ischaemic Score in dementias.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Fischer; Jellinger, K; Gatterer, G; Danielczyk, W

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of Hachinski's Ischaemic Score (IS) in the diagnosis of the vascular aetiology of dementia was studied in a series of 32 demented patients, dementia of the Alzheimer type (16), multi-infarct dementia (7), mixed dementia (6), Pick's disease (3), with neuropathological diagnosis as the point of reference. The IS distinguished between primary degenerative dementia and multi-infarct or mixed dementia. As single features of the IS "a positive history of stroke" and ...

  4. Factors associated with increased risk for dementia in individuals age 80 years or older with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Carina; Broström, Anders; Dahl, Anna; Johansson, Boo; Fredrikson, Mats; Strömberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence shows that individuals diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF) are at a higher risk for dementia. However, the prevalence rate of dementia among persons with CHF in very old individuals has not been previously reported, and little is known about the comorbidities that place old persons with CHF at a higher risk for dementia. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of dementia in individuals 80 years or older who have CHF with that in individuals without CHF and to identify factors related to dementia in individuals diagnosed with CHF. A total of 702 participants from a Swedish population-based longitudinal study (Octogenerian Twin) were included. The group consisted of same-sex twin pairs, age 80 years or older, and 138 participants had CHF. Dementia was diagnosed according to criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised. Generalized estimating equations including gender, age and educational level, waist circumference, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, depression, and blood values were used in a case-control analysis. Individuals with CHF had a significantly higher prevalence of vascular dementia, 16% vs 6% (P dementia, 40% vs 30% (P depression, hypertension, and/or increased levels of homocysteine were all associated with a higher risk for dementia in individuals with CHF. Diabetes was specifically associated with an increased risk for vascular dementia. The prevalence of dementia was higher among individuals with CHF than in those without CHF. Diabetes, depression, and hypertension in patients with CHF require special attention from healthcare professionals because these conditions are associated with an elevated risk for dementia. Higher levels of homocysteine were also found to be a marker of dementia in patients with CHF. Further research is needed to identify the factors related to dementia in individuals 80 years or older diagnosed with CHF.

  5. Therapeutic Effect of Drug Intervention Combined with Exercise Rehabilitation in Treatment of Vascular Dementia%药物干预结合运动康复治疗血管性痴呆疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素华

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析药物干预结合运动康复治疗血管性痴呆患者的效果。方法选我院收治的血管性痴呆患者124例为研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组;其中,对照组62例患者口服奥拉西坦治疗,观察组62例患者口服奥拉西坦结合运动康复治疗,比较两组患者智力变化、日常生活能力变化。结果(1)观察组与对照组患者治疗后智力及日常生活能力的变化均与治疗前相比较优(P<0.05);(2)观察组患者治疗后,其智力改善状况及日常生活能力与对照组相比较优(P<0.05)。结论药物干预结合运动康复的治疗方法显著提高了治疗效果,降低患者的痴呆程度,对改善患者的日常生活能力有积极的影响。%Objective To analyze and study the effect of the drug intervention combined with rehabilitation treatment in treatment of vascular dementia patients.Methods 124 cases of vascular dementia patients were selected in our hospital as the research object, according to the random number table method, all the patients were divided into observation group and control group; among them, the control group (62 cases) was treated with oxiracetam oral way drug, observation group (62 cases) was treated with oral oxiracetam combined with rehabilitation exercise, the mental change and the ability of daily life of variable conditions between the two groups before and after treatment were compared.Results(1) The changes of the intelligence and ability of daily living in the observation group and control group after treatment were better than before treatment, (P<0.05); (2) The improvement situation of intelligence and activities of daily living (ADL) in the observation group after treatment were better than the control group (P<0.05). ConclusionDrug intervention combined with rehabilitation exercise therapy can signiifcantly improve the therapeutic effect, reduce the extent of dementia, has a positive effect to

  6. Effectiveness of a 6-year multidomain vascular care intervention to prevent dementia (preDIVA): a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll van Charante, Eric P; Richard, Edo; Eurelings, Lisa S; van Dalen, Jan-Willem; Ligthart, Suzanne A; van Bussel, Emma F; Hoevenaar-Blom, Marieke P; Vermeulen, Marinus; van Gool, Willem A

    2016-08-20

    Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with an increased risk of dementia. We assessed whether a multidomain intervention targeting these factors can prevent dementia in a population of community-dwelling older people. In this open-label, cluster-randomised controlled trial, we recruited individuals aged 70-78 years through participating general practices in the Netherlands. General practices within each health-care centre were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated randomisation sequence, to either a 6-year nurse-led, multidomain cardiovascular intervention or control (usual care). The primary outcomes were cumulative incidence of dementia and disability score (Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score [ALDS]) at 6 years of follow-up. The main secondary outcomes were incident cardiovascular disease and mortality. Outcome assessors were masked to group assignment. Analyses included all participants with available outcome data. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN29711771. Between June 7, 2006, and March 12, 2009, 116 general practices (3526 participants) within 26 health-care centres were recruited and randomly assigned: 63 (1890 participants) were assigned to the intervention group and 53 (1636 participants) to the control group. Primary outcome data were obtained for 3454 (98%) participants; median follow-up was 6·7 years (21 341 person-years). Dementia developed in 121 (7%) of 1853 participants in the intervention group and in 112 (7%) of 1601 participants in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·92, 95% CI 0·71-1·19; p=0·54). Mean ALDS scores measured during follow-up did not differ between groups (85·7 [SD 6·8] in the intervention group and 85·7 [7·1] in the control group; adjusted mean difference -0·02, 95% CI -0·38 to 0·42; p=0·93). 309 (16%) of 1885 participants died in the intervention group, compared with 269 (16%) of 1634 participants in the control group (HR 0·98, 95% CI 0·80-1·18; p=0·81

  7. [Comparative study on elderly and disabled subjects with various degrees of dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarello, A

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at showing the positive effects of arts therapies in individual and group sessions, with an aging, valid or dependent population, presenting symptoms of dementia or not. The improvement of cognition (including memory), well-being, as well as of certain medical problems (pain, tension...) was underlined in several studies on arts therapies, including especially the use of music therapeutic techniques. Indeed, music stimulates the emotional memory, causing the emergence of ancient memories, thus restoring narcissism. The well-being of participants is increased. Our population consists of elderly people, most of them suffering from dementia. They come to the workshops by themselves or led by their families. Music but also pictorial arts are used as a therapeutic mediation for one session per week during the time of hospitalization. This period varies depending on the condition of the subject. The scales used in T1 and T2 with patients suffering from dementia are the Echelle d'appréciation clinique en gériatrie by Bouvard & Cottraux and the Fragebogen zur Beurteilung der Behandlung durch den Therapeuten (FBB-T) by Mattejat and Remschmidt. Regarding the criteria for external validation, a semi-structured interview is proposed to the nurses in T2. The scales used with valid people are the Index of Well-being by Campbell et al, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) by Zigmond and Snaith, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), validated by Vallières and Vallerand in 1990, and the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen (SVF 78) by Janke et al. CDC: There was a positive effect for most seniors who attended the sessions: an increased well-being and a temporary appropriation of memories. However, given the small size and the heterogeneity of samples, the irregularity of attendance, the results cannot be generalized. More regular sessions of arts therapies would be favorable for a consolidation of results.

  8. Does late onset depression predispose to dementia? A retrospective, case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanna, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there are clinical and biologic characteristics typical of late onset depression (LOD). Furthermore, evidence has been put forward that LOD may be a prodrome of dementia. This study aims to assess the association between LOD and the development of dementia. The study was conducted in a tertiary care, university-affiliated mental health center providing services for an urban catchment population of 800,000 subjects. A retrospective, case-controlled study was used. Fifty-one patients with LOD who developed dementia at least 1 year after diagnosis of LOD were defined as the index group: 18 males and 33 females, with a mean age of 75.4 ± 9.2 years. These were compared with 51 patients with LOD who did not develop dementia during a 10-year follow-up period. Dementia types were as follows: 73% Alzheimer disease, 24% vascular and mixed dementia, and 3% Parkinson dementia. Patients with LOD who developed dementia were significantly characterized by having longer hospitalization for their first depressive episode (P = .048), having a family history of dementia (P = .022), and having been exposed to the Holocaust as young adults (P = .013). Patients with a history of significant traumatic experience in early life and a prolonged onset of depression may be at particular risk of developing dementia. This issue requires further long-term prospective studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Disconnection of language and memory in semantic dementia: a comparative and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Michael J; Ingles, Janet L; Fisk, John D; Darvesh, Sultan

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we present an illustrative case of Semantic Dementia (SD) and we review the literature on this relatively rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder. After reviewing the clinical, neuroimaging, neuropathological, and genetic features of SD, we propose a theoretical framework that addresses features of SD and relates them to features of other well known neuropsychiatric syndromes. Our 'on-line / off-line disconnection' model seeks to conceptualize SD as a syndrome of disconnection between two large distributed cortical networks, namely, between those networks that subserve language function and those that subserve memory function.

  10. Atrial Fibrillation Patients Treated With Long-Term Warfarin Anticoagulation Have Higher Rates of All Dementia Types Compared With Patients Receiving Long-Term Warfarin for Other Indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T Jared; May, Heidi T; Bair, Tami L; Crandall, Brian G; Cutler, Michael J; Day, John D; Jacobs, Victoria; Mallender, Charles; Osborn, Jeffrey S; Stevens, Scott M; Weiss, J Peter; Woller, Scott C

    2016-07-11

    The mechanisms behind the association of atrial fibrillation (AF) and dementia are unknown. We previously found a significantly increased risk of dementia in AF patients taking warfarin with a low percentage of time in therapeutic range. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which AF itself increases dementia risk, in addition to long-term anticoagulation exposure. A total of 10 537 patients anticoagulated with warfarin (target INR 2-3), managed by the Clinical Pharmacist Anticoagulation Service with no history of dementia were included. Warfarin indication was for AF (n=4460), thromboembolism (n=5868), and mechanical heart valve(s) (n=209). Patients in the latter 2 categories were included only if they had no prior history of AF. The primary outcome was dementia. Patients with AF were older and had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and stroke. AF patients experienced higher rates of total dementia (5.8% versus 1.6%, Pdementia (1.0% versus 0.2%, Pdementia remained significant in AF patients compared with matched non-AF patients (total dementia: hazard ratio [HR]=2.42 [1.85-3.18], Psenile: HR=2.46 [1.58-3.86], Pdementia risk in both AF (26-50% versus >75%: HR=2.51, P=0.005) and non-AF groups (≤25% versus >75%: HR=3.92, Pdementia, including Alzheimer's disease, compared with matched patients receiving warfarin anticoagulation for other reasons. Quality of anticoagulation management remains an important risk factor for dementia in all patients. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Diagnostic criteria of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Rémi W

    2007-03-01

    In the past two decades there has been a tremendous effort among clinicians and searchers to improve the diagnostic criteria of the dementias on the basis of the differential neurological and neuropsychological profiles. This was an obligatory requirement for clinical trials and the development of treatments. Over the years it became rapidly evident that the cohorts of patients in studies had some degree of heterogeneity, making it difficult to interpret the results of some studies, particularly in the vascular dementias and the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group. For example, many sub-types of the vascular group were included in clinical trials, such as the cortical strokes, the lacunar states and the diffuse white matter disease cases, and some of the patients might have had also mixed pathology. In addition, the standard DSM IV criteria for dementia no longer represent our present knowledge of the clinical profile of some of the dementias such as vascular dementia (VaD) and fronto-temporal dementia where the memory impairment is not necessarily the first requirement. To improve the validity of clinical trials and eventually help developing more appropriate treatments, we revised the present diagnostic criteria and made recommendations for some changes in the context of the 2nd Canadian Conference on the Development of Antidementia Therapies, held in 2004 and reviewed in the light of the recent literature as of early 2006. It is expected that in the near future, these dementia criteria for clinical trials will have to be revised again in order to include specific subtypes of the dementias as well as biomarkers, structural and functional imaging.

  12. The Determinants of Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents with Young-Onset Dementia and the Differences between Dementia Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelhof, Britt; Bakker, C.; Van Duinen-van den Ijssel, Jeannette C L; Zwijsen, Sandra A; Smalbrugge, Martin; Verhey, Frans R. J.; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopnnans, Raymond T. C. M.

    Aims: The aims of this study are to (1) explore the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia (YOD), (2) investigate whether there are differences between dementia subtypes (Alzheimer dementia, vascular/mixed dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other)

  13. The Determinants of Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents with Young-Onset Dementia and the Differences between Dementia Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelhof, B.; Bakker, C.; Duinen-van den IJssel, J.C.L. van; Zwijsen, S.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Vugt, M.E. de; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of this study are to (1) explore the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia (YOD), (2) investigate whether there are differences between dementia subtypes (Alzheimer dementia, vascular/mixed dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other)

  14. Young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, Dulanji K; Matthews, Brandy R

    2013-09-01

    Young-onset dementia is a neurologic syndrome that affects behavior and cognition of patients younger than 65 years of age. Although frequently misdiagnosed, a systematic approach, reliant upon attainment of a detailed medical history, a collateral history, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, and neuroimaging, may facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis with subsequent intervention. The differential diagnosis of young-onset dementia is extensive and includes early-onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementias, Huntington's disease, and prion disease. Late-onset forms of childhood neurodegenerative conditions may also present as young-onset dementia and include mitochondrial disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and leukodystrophies. Potentially reversible etiologies including inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases, toxic/metabolic abnormalities, transient epileptic amnesia, obstructive sleep apnea, and normal pressure hydrocephalus also represent important differential diagnostic considerations in young-onset dementia. This review will present etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and options for management of young-onset dementia with comprehensive summary tables for clinical reference. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Depression versus dementia: is this construct still relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zahinoor; Malick, Arfeen; Smith, Eric E; Schweizer, Tom; Fischer, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment has long been identified as a component of late-life depression (LLD), and depressive symptoms are common in neurodegeneration. Depression may confer a greater risk of cognitive decline in a cognitively intact population and further cognitive decline in a mild cognitive impairment population compared with those without depression. Exploration of the link between cognitive impairment in LLD and the depressive features of neurodegeneration is an essential part of a diagnostic algorithm. In this review, we will discuss these links; we will address depressive symptoms as a risk factor for dementia and as a prodrome to dementia. We will review clinical subtypes and imaging markers as predictors of development of dementia in depressed patients and explore vascular etiologies. We will also explore LLD and dementia as a spectrum, rather than mutually exclusive diagnostic entities.

  16. Effectiveness of a 6-year multidomain vascular care intervention to prevent dementia (preDIVA): a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charante, E.P. Moll van; Richard, E.; Eurelings, L.S.; Dalen, J.W. van; Ligthart, S.A.; Bussel, E.F. van; Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.; Vermeulen, M; Gool, W.A. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with an increased risk of dementia. We assessed whether a multidomain intervention targeting these factors can prevent dementia in a population of community-dwelling older people. METHODS: In this open-label, cluster-randomised controlled trial,

  17. Lyme neuroborreliosis and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Frederic; Philippi, Nathalie; Cretin, Benjamin; Kleitz, Catherine; Berly, Laetitia; Jung, Barbara; Kremer, Stephane; Namer, Izzie Jacques; Sellal, François; Jaulhac, Benoit; de Seze, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of Lyme disease and dementia are rare. To describe patients with dementia and a positive "intrathecal anti-Borrelia antibody index" (AI), specific for neuroborreliosis. Among 1,594 patients seen for dementia, we prospectively identified and studied 20 patients (1.25%) with dementia and a positive AI. Patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests brain, MRI, FDG-PET, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. An etiological diagnosis of the dementia was made at the end of the follow-up of 5.0 ± 2.9 years. We found two groups of patients with dementia, the first (n = 7, 0.44%) with certain neuroborreliosis and stability or mild improvement of dementia after treatment by antibiotics and the second (n = 13, 0.81%) with progressive worsening of dementia, despite the antibiotics. In the second group, the final diagnoses were Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 4), AD and Lewy body disease (LBD) (n = 3), LBD (n = 1), FTLD (n = 3), hippocampal sclerosis (n = 1), and vascular dementia (n = 1). We did not observe any differences in cognitive test between the two patient groups at baseline. Brain MRI showed more focal atrophy and FDG-PET showed more frontal hypometabolism in the second group. Tau, p-tau, and Aβ42 concentrations in the CSF were normal in the neuroborreliosis group, and coherent with diagnosis in the second. Pure Lyme dementia exists and has a good outcome after antibiotics. It is advisable to do Lyme serology in demented patients, and if serology is positive, to do CSF analysis with AI. Neurodegenerative dementia associated with positive AI also exists, which may have been revealed by the involvement of Borrelia in the CNS.

  18. The Effects of Anti-Dementia and Nootropic Treatments on the Mortality of Patients with Dementia: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chow, Lok-Hi; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Huang, Nicole; Wang, Pei-Ning; Li, Chung-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the contribution of treatment on the mortality of dementia based on a population-based study. To investigate the effects of anti-dementia and nootropic treatments on the mortality of dementia using a population-based cohort study. 12,193 incident dementia patients were found from 2000 to 2010. Their data were compared with 12,193 age- and sex-matched non-dementia controls that were randomly selected from the same database. Dementia was classified into vascular (VaD) and degenerative dementia. Mortality incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. The median survival time was 3.39 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.88-3.79) for VaD without medication, 6.62 years (95% CI: 6.24-7.21) for VaD with nootropics, 3.01 years (95% CI: 2.85-3.21) for degenerative dementia without medication, 8.11 years (95% CI: 6.30-8.55) for degenerative dementia with anti-dementia medication, 6.00 years (95% CI: 5.73-6.17) for degenerative dementia with nootropics, and 9.03 years (95% CI: 8.02-9.87) for degenerative dementia with both anti-dementia and nootropic medications. Compared to the non-dementia group, the HRs among individuals with degenerative dementia were 2.69 (95% CI: 2.55-2.83) without medication, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.39-1.54) with nootropics, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82-1.34) with anti-dementia medication, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80-1.05) with both nootropic and anti-dementia medications. VaD with nootropics had a lower mortality (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15-1.37) than VaD without medication (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 2.22-2.72). Pharmacological treatments have beneficial effects for patients with dementia in prolonging their survival.

  19. The Effects of Anti-Dementia and Nootropic Treatments on the Mortality of Patients with Dementia: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the contribution of treatment on the mortality of dementia based on a population-based study.To investigate the effects of anti-dementia and nootropic treatments on the mortality of dementia using a population-based cohort study.12,193 incident dementia patients were found from 2000 to 2010. Their data were compared with 12,193 age- and sex-matched non-dementia controls that were randomly selected from the same database. Dementia was classified into vascular (VaD and degenerative dementia. Mortality incidence and hazard ratios (HRs were calculated.The median survival time was 3.39 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.88-3.79 for VaD without medication, 6.62 years (95% CI: 6.24-7.21 for VaD with nootropics, 3.01 years (95% CI: 2.85-3.21 for degenerative dementia without medication, 8.11 years (95% CI: 6.30-8.55 for degenerative dementia with anti-dementia medication, 6.00 years (95% CI: 5.73-6.17 for degenerative dementia with nootropics, and 9.03 years (95% CI: 8.02-9.87 for degenerative dementia with both anti-dementia and nootropic medications. Compared to the non-dementia group, the HRs among individuals with degenerative dementia were 2.69 (95% CI: 2.55-2.83 without medication, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.39-1.54 with nootropics, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82-1.34 with anti-dementia medication, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80-1.05 with both nootropic and anti-dementia medications. VaD with nootropics had a lower mortality (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15-1.37 than VaD without medication (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 2.22-2.72.Pharmacological treatments have beneficial effects for patients with dementia in prolonging their survival.

  20. The Effects of Anti-Dementia and Nootropic Treatments on the Mortality of Patients with Dementia: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chow, Lok-Hi; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Huang, Nicole; Wang, Pei-Ning; Li, Chung-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the contribution of treatment on the mortality of dementia based on a population-based study. Objective To investigate the effects of anti-dementia and nootropic treatments on the mortality of dementia using a population-based cohort study. Methods 12,193 incident dementia patients were found from 2000 to 2010. Their data were compared with 12,193 age- and sex-matched non-dementia controls that were randomly selected from the same database. Dementia was classified into vascular (VaD) and degenerative dementia. Mortality incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. Results The median survival time was 3.39 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.88–3.79) for VaD without medication, 6.62 years (95% CI: 6.24–7.21) for VaD with nootropics, 3.01 years (95% CI: 2.85–3.21) for degenerative dementia without medication, 8.11 years (95% CI: 6.30–8.55) for degenerative dementia with anti-dementia medication, 6.00 years (95% CI: 5.73–6.17) for degenerative dementia with nootropics, and 9.03 years (95% CI: 8.02–9.87) for degenerative dementia with both anti-dementia and nootropic medications. Compared to the non-dementia group, the HRs among individuals with degenerative dementia were 2.69 (95% CI: 2.55–2.83) without medication, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.39–1.54) with nootropics, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82–1.34) with anti-dementia medication, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80–1.05) with both nootropic and anti-dementia medications. VaD with nootropics had a lower mortality (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15–1.37) than VaD without medication (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 2.22–2.72). Conclusion Pharmacological treatments have beneficial effects for patients with dementia in prolonging their survival. PMID:26098910

  1. C-Reactive Protein Predicts Incidence of Dementia in an Elderly Asian Community Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pai-Feng; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yip, Bak-Sau; Chen, Rosalind Chia-Yu; Cheng, Hao-Min; Chuang, Shao-Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Many studies have investigated the association between markers for peripheral inflammation and risk of dementia, but the results have been conflicting. We aimed to evaluate the association between a specific inflammation marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), and dementia in an elderly Asian community cohort. The cohort included 1436 individuals (ages 65 and older) from a national representative sample in Taiwan. Dementia incidence was identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for vascular dementia, Alzheimer disease, and nonvascular dementia. Baseline characteristics and CRP levels were determined. A Cox proportional hazard model and Fine and Grays model were adjusted for stroke and competing risk of death to estimate the association between inflammation and development of dementia. During 11.04 years (median) of follow-up, 607 individuals (50.77%) died and 260 individuals (18.11%) were diagnosed with dementia. Those with high CRP had a 55% higher risk of dementia (hazard ratio 1.55; 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.00) compared with those with normal CRP. After adjusting for possible confounding cardiovascular risk factors, high CRP was independently associated with vascular dementia but not Alzheimer disease. In this prospective study of an elderly Asian community cohort with more than 10 years of follow-up, the baseline serum CRP level was associated with future development of vascular dementia, but not Alzheimer disease after adjusting for common cardiovascular risk factors, stroke, and competing risk of death. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Olazarán, J.; Trincado, R.; Bermejo-Pareja, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with control of vascular factors (VFs). Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (n...

  3. Prescribing patterns in dementia: a multicentre observational study in a German network of CAM physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmar Horst C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia is a major and increasing health problem worldwide. This study aims to investigate dementia treatment strategies among physicians specialised in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM by analysing prescribing patterns and comparing them to current treatment guidelines in Germany. Methods Twenty-two primary care physicians in Germany participated in this prospective, multicentre observational study. Prescriptions and diagnoses were reported for each consecutive patient. Data were included if patients had at least one diagnosis of dementia according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases during the study period. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with a prescription of any anti-dementia drug including Ginkgo biloba. Results During the 5-year study period (2004-2008, 577 patients with dementia were included (median age: 81 years (IQR: 74-87; 69% female. Dementia was classified as unspecified dementia (57.2%, vascular dementia (25.1%, dementia in Alzheimer's disease (10.4%, and dementia in Parkinson's disease (7.3%. The prevalence of anti-dementia drugs was 25.6%. The phytopharmaceutical Ginkgo biloba was the most frequently prescribed anti-dementia drug overall (67.6% of all followed by cholinesterase inhibitors (17.6%. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR for receiving any anti-dementia drug was greater than 1 for neurologists (AOR = 2.34; CI: 1.59-3.47, the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AOR = 3.28; CI: 1.96-5.50, neuroleptic therapy (AOR = 1.87; CI: 1.22-2.88, co-morbidities hypertension (AOR = 2.03; CI: 1.41-2.90, and heart failure (AOR = 4.85; CI: 3.42-6.88. The chance for a prescription of any anti-dementia drug decreased with the diagnosis of vascular dementia (AOR = 0.64; CI: 0.43-0.95 and diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.55; CI: 0.36-0.86. The prescription of Ginkgo biloba was associated with sex (female: AOR = 0.41; CI: 0.19-0.89, patient age (AOR = 1

  4. The Cost of Dementia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Andersen, C; Søgaard, Jes; Hansen, E

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based study of dementia, the cost of care for 245 demented elderly and 490 controls matched by age and gender was estimated. Dementia of Alzheimer's type was diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and vascular dementia and other types of dementia were diagnosed according...... to the DSM-IIIR criteria. Severity of dementia was determined by the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The annual cost of medical care, domestic care, home help, nursing home and special equipment for nondemented patients was DKK 22,000 per person while the cost for very mildly, mildly, moderately and severely...... demented patients was DKK 49,000, DKK 93,000, DKK 138,000 and DKK 206,000, respectively. Except for very mild dementia the cost did not differ between elderly who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and those with other types of dementia. The net cost of dementia is the difference in cost between those...

  5. Comparative study of cardio-ankle vascular index between Chinese and Japanese healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Shirai, Kohji; Liu, Jinbo; Lu, Na; Wang, Min; Zhao, Hongwei; Xie, Jun; Yu, Xiaolan; Fu, Xiaobao; Shi, Hongyan; Li, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for vascular diseases. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of arterial stiffness. However, there was little research about the CAVI value between different countries. The aim of the present study was to compare CAVI between Chinese and Japanese subjects and to assess related factors. 2519 healthy persons [1245 Chinese (M/F, 524/721) and 1274 Japanese (M/F, 534/740)] from the Department of Physical Examination were enrolled into our study. CAVI was recorded using a VaseraVS-1000 vascular screening system. CAVI was increasing with aging in all subjects. CAVI was significantly lower in Chinese compared with Japanese both in male and female. There was difference in lipid metabolism between these two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), plasma creatinine (Cr) were significant independent associating factors of CAVI in Chinese persons (β = 0.548, p < 0.001; β = 0.129, p = 0.001; β = 0.105, p = 0.006; and β = 0.100, p = 0.012, respectively), whereas age, SBP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Cr, body mass index (BMI), FPG were significant independent associating factors of CAVI in Japanese subjects (β = 0.669, p < 0.001; β = 0.198, p < 0.001; β = -0.079, p < 0.001; β = 0.090, p < 0.001; β = -0.124, p < 0.001; β = 0.055, p=0.009; respectively). CAVI was increasing with aging in both Chinese and Japanese subjects. CAVI was significantly lower in Chinese than in Japanese subjects. Age, SBP, FPG and creatinine were independently associated with CAVI in both Chinese and Japanese subjects.

  6. Pain in dementia: prevalence and associated factors: protocol of a multidisciplinary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, J.; Delwel, S.; Binnekade, T.T.; Smalbrugge, M.; van der Wouden, J.C.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Rhebergen, D.; Zuurmond, W.W.; Stek, M.L.; Lobbezoo, F.; Hertogh, C.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pain is a common problem in people with dementia, however the exact prevalence of pain in dementia subtypes, e.g. Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VaD), Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), is unknown, as is the relation between pain and the

  7. [Effects of Ruanmailing Oral Liquid on spatial learning and memory ability and expression of APE/Ref-1 in hippocampal CA1 region in rats with experimental vascular dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun-shan; Zhang, Wei-bo; Zheng, Xing-min; Lin, Qiu-cheng; Li, Jing-yi; Zhang, Zuo-dan; Lin, Jian

    2009-09-01

    To study the effects of Ruanmailing Oral Liquid, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on spatial learning and memory ability and expression of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1) in hippocampal CA1 region in rats with experimental vascular dementia (VaD). VaD was induced in rats by permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries. Forty-five VaD rats were randomly divided into untreated group, nimodipine group, low-dose Ruanmailing group and high-dose Ruanmailing group. Another 15 rats underwent a sham operation consisting of similar skin incision and manipulation but without occlusion of carotid arteries. From the next day after occlusion, the rats were intragastrically administered with normal saline, nimodipine suspension or Ruanmailing Oral Liquid respectively for 30 days. Morris water maze experiment was adopted to test learning and memory of rats in each group. Expression of APE/Ref-1 protein in the hippocampal CA1 region was measured by immunohistochemical method. Escape latency was significantly shortened and number of entries in the target area of rats was significantly increased in the high-dose Ruanmailing group as compared with those in the untreated group (PAPE/Ref-1 positive cells was significantly increased in the hippocampal CA1 region in the high- and low-dose Ruanmailing groups (PAPE/Ref-1 positive cells was remarkably increased in the hippocampal CA1 region in rats of the high-dose Ruanmailing group (PAPE/Ref-1 in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats with VaD.

  8. Comparative genomics yields insights into niche adaptation of plant vascular wilt pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Klosterman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants indicate that the gene is required for full virulence in the Australian tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana. Compared to other fungi, the two sequenced Verticillium genomes encode more pectin-degrading enzymes and other carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an extraordinary capacity to degrade plant pectin barricades. The high level of synteny between the two Verticillium assemblies highlighted four flexible genomic islands in V. dahliae that are enriched for transposable elements, and contain duplicated genes and genes that are important in signaling/transcriptional regulation and iron/lipid metabolism. Coupled with an enhanced capacity to degrade plant materials, these genomic islands may contribute to the expanded genetic diversity and virulence of V. dahliae, the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilts. Significantly, our study reveals insights into the genetic mechanisms of niche adaptation of fungal wilt pathogens, advances our understanding of

  9. Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladi, Suvarna; Bak, Thomas H; Duggirala, Vasanta; Surampudi, Bapiraju; Shailaja, Mekala; Shukla, Anuj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Jaydip Ray; Kaul, Subhash

    2013-11-26

    The purpose of the study was to determine the association between bilingualism and age at onset of dementia and its subtypes, taking into account potential confounding factors. Case records of 648 patients with dementia (391 of them bilingual) diagnosed in a specialist clinic were reviewed. The age at onset of first symptoms was compared between monolingual and bilingual groups. The influence of number of languages spoken, education, occupation, and other potentially interacting variables was examined. Overall, bilingual patients developed dementia 4.5 years later than the monolingual ones. A significant difference in age at onset was found across Alzheimer disease dementia as well as frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia, and was also observed in illiterate patients. There was no additional benefit to speaking more than 2 languages. The bilingual effect on age at dementia onset was shown independently of other potential confounding factors such as education, sex, occupation, and urban vs rural dwelling of subjects. This is the largest study so far documenting a delayed onset of dementia in bilingual patients and the first one to show it separately in different dementia subtypes. It is the first study reporting a bilingual advantage in those who are illiterate, suggesting that education is not a sufficient explanation for the observed difference. The findings are interpreted in the context of the bilingual advantages in attention and executive functions.

  10. Does Schizophrenia in Offspring Increase the Risk of Developing Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Rohde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prior studies have consistently found a higher risk of dementia in individuals with schizophrenia, but whether this is due to a common etiology between the disorders remains obscure. We wanted to elucidate this association by investigating whether schizophrenia in offspring increases the risk of Alzheimer's dementia. Methods: All individuals born between 1930 and 1953 were identified through national registers and followed from their 50th birthday until the date of Alzheimer's dementia, death or end of the study. Regressions were performed to evaluate the association between offspring with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. Results: Individuals with offspring with schizophrenia did not have an increased risk of Alzheimer's dementia [incidence rate ratio (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.88-1.07] compared to individuals with offspring without psychiatric contact. This finding remained stable when evaluating early-onset (IRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.91-1.31 and late-onset Alzheimer's dementia (IRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-1.07. Similar findings were made for vascular and unspecified dementia. Conclusion: The finding of no familial coaggregation between schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia may suggest that no common etiology between the disorders exists. This may indicate that the excess risk of dementia in individuals with schizophrenia is a by-product of the higher rates of somatic comorbidity and adverse health risk factors among these individuals.

  11. A Warning Index Used in Prescreening for Alzheimer’s Disease, Based on Self-Reported Cognitive Deficits and Vascular Risk Factors for Dementia in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshioki Matsuzawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Diabetes might increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. For detecting dementia, it is typical to obtain informants’ perceptions of cognitive deficits, but such interviews are usually difficult in routine care. We aimed to develop a model for predicting mild to moderate AD using a self-reported questionnaire and by evaluating vascular risk factors for dementia in elderly subjects with diabetes. Methods. We recruited 286 diabetic and 155 nondiabetic elderly subjects. There were 25 patients with AD and 261 cognitively normal individuals versus 30 with AD and 125 normal subjects, respectively. Each participant answered subjective questions on memory deficits and daily functioning. Information on vascular risk factors was obtained from clinical charts, and multivariate logistic regression was used to develop a model for predicting AD. Results. The predicted probabilities used in screening for AD in diabetic subjects constituted age, education, lower diastolic blood pressure, subjective complaints of memory dysfunction noticeable by others, and impaired medication, shopping, and travel outside a familiar locality. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed a satisfactory discrimination for AD specific for diabetic elderly subjects, with 95.2% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity. Conclusion. This is the first useful index that can prescreen for AD in elderly subjects with diabetes.

  12. Comparative study of three vascular grafts produced by electrospinning in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. В. Попова

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study focused on the production and evaluation of small-diameter vascular grafts (less than 6 mm by using an electrospinning approach.Methods. The protocols of vascular grafts (VG to be produced from the solutions of synthetic polymers and their blends with gelatin including those with a semipermeable inner layer were developed. The comparative study of the grafts in vitro and in vivo was carried out. The resistance of VG to displacement, suture retention, layers snagging and compatibility with native artery walls were studied. Also assessed was the time of hemostasis when implanting the grafts consisting of various mixes of polymers, as well as their biocompatibility at different stages of observation.Results. VG produced by electrospinning and containing a semipermeable inner layer possess satisfactory mechanical properties, such as suture retention, resistance to displacement, stability during long term pulsatile stress, do not snag during implantation and form a tight contact with native artery walls. A histological study demonstrates active remodeling of VG including the growth of inner structure typical of a vessel, medium collagen/elastin layer with smooth muscle cells and synthetic fibers and an outer connective tissue capsule without any signature of inflammation. An immunohistochemical study demonstrates more efficient accumulation of smooth muscle cells in VG produced from polycaprolactone (PCL as compared to other VG tested. VG produced from the PCL-gelatin blend and containing an inner semipermeable layer, as well as similar VG containing polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA in the inner semipermeable layer tended to produce an endothelial inner layer faster as compared to VG from PCL. However, VG with PLGA acid had a tendency to loose endothelial cells, possibly due to PLGA degradation. VG produced from PCL-gelatin blend and containing the inner semipermeable layer demonstrate limited accumulation of smooth muscle cells

  13. What is 'early onset dementia'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Koho

    2009-06-01

    There are two types of dementia with early onset: (i) presenile dementias; and (ii) senile dementias with early onset. Most patients who develop dementia before 65 years of age have Alzheimer's disease (AD). The remainder are likely to have vascular dementia (VaD), frontotemporal dementia, head injury, alcohol intoxication, or metabolic disorder. Presenile dementias, caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration, usually occur in patients of presenile and are rarely seen in patients of senile age. Although the factors responsible for the accelerated onset of the illness are not fully known, genetic abnormalities appear to be important in some types of presenile dementia, such as frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. Conversely, senile dementias such as sporadic AD and VaD commonly occur in patients of senile age. These disorders may also occur in patients of presenile age, although less frequently. Alzheimer's disease was originally classified as a 'presenile dementia'. Since the 1980s, 'senile dementia of Alzheimer type' (SDAT) and 'Alzheimer's disease' have been considered to belong to the same pathological entity and both are now known as 'dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT)' or merely 'Alzheimer's disease'. Rapid progression of cognitive impairment with neuropsychological syndromes and neurological symptoms has been considered a characteristic of early onset AD. However, recently, neurological symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, seizures, and myoclonic convulsions have been reported to occur infrequently in early onset AD, although language problems and visuospatial dysfunctions are common. There are at least three dominant genes that have been identified in cases of familial Alzheimer's disease with early onset, namely the amyloid precursor gene (APP), and the genes encoding presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2). Therefore, genetic abnormalities are important

  14. [Memory deficit in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment versus Alzheimer-type dementia: the sensitivity of the 'word list' subtest on the Wechsler Memory Scale-III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suades-González, E; Jódar-Vicente, M; Pérdrix-Solàs, D

    Memory deficits are frequent in mild subcortical vascular pathology and in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease. To study the memory deficits in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) vs. mild stage Alzheimer's disease patients (AD), using the Weschler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) word lists test, to examine the adequacy of this test to show the different memory patterns in this population, that could contribute to early differential diagnosis. Three groups of patients were compared: AD (n = 25), SVCI-leukoaraiosis (n = 17) and SVCI-multi infarct (n = 16). The three groups did not differ in age, education or severity of illness. Patients with SVCI showed a memory impairment in free recall with an improvement in their performance on the recognition task. The AD group, however, showed low scores in free recall as in recognition tasks, with a major number of false positive errors. Significant differences were also found between the SVCI-leukoaraiosis and SVCI-multi infarct groups, with the latter showing the best performance in long term retention and a minor trend to respond with false positive errors. The WMS-III word lists test is a good instrument to differentiate the memory profile between SVCI and AD, with the recognition task being the most discriminative one. The worst impairment in leukoaraiosis patients in comparison to the multi infarct group, suggests that white matter diffuse lesion could affect more directly the recall processes mediatised by the frontal lobe.

  15. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N.; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25–30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood–brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  16. Lympho-vascular invasion in BRCA related breast cancer compared to sporadic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wall Elsken

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose to the development of breast cancer, exhibiting a specific histological phenotype. Identification of possible hallmarks of these tumors is important for selecting patients for genetic screening and provides inside in carcinogenetic pathways. Since BRCA1-associated breast cancers have pushing borders that prevent them from easily reaching vessels and are often of the medullary (like type that is known to have a low rate of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI, we hypothesized that absence of LVI could characterize BRCA1 related breast cancer. Methods A population of 68 BRCA1 related invasive breast cancers was evaluated for LVI by an experienced breast pathologist blinded to mutation status, and compared to a control group matched for age, grade and tumor type. Results LVI was present in 25.0% of BRCA1 related cases, compared to 20.6% of controls (P = 0.54, OR = 1.29, CI 0.58-2.78. Conclusion LVI is frequent in BRCA1 germline mutation related breast cancers, but seems to occur as often in sporadic controls matched for age, grade and tumor type. Apparently, these hereditary cancers find their way to the blood and lymph vessels despite their well demarcation and often medullary differentiation.

  17. Comparing the ethical challenges of forgoing tube feeding in American and Hong Kong patients with advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, M C S; Volicer, L; Chung, P M B; Chung, Y M I; Leung, W K A; White, P

    2007-01-01

    To develop a cross-cultural dialogue for enriching our understanding of how an ethical environment can be constructed in fostering tube-feeding decisions in patients with advanced dementia (AD). Drawing on the findings of two prospective case studies conducted in Boston and Hong Kong, this paper compares the decision-making patterns of forgoing tube feeding for AD patients and their emergent ethical dilemmas typified in a special dementia care unit in Boston (BCU) and a long-term care unit in Hong Kong (HKCU). Differences in forgoing tube feeding decision are delineated in the two places. No-tube-feeding practice was sustained in BCU in two ways: advance decision-making with respect paid to the patient's wishes and advance proxy decision-making focused on patient comfort. With life preservation as the prevailing value in the Hong Kong medical system, only strong family request coupled with medical evidence of patient's ability to continue hand-feeding that tube feeding would be discontinued. All patients died with some form of artificial feeding. A paradigm shift of values underpinning the practice of forgoing tube feeding in the context of palliative care is observed in three aspects. First, the emphasis on prognostication based on biomedical markers in predicting the length of survival is shifted to a focus on the "diagnosis of dying". Second, the overriding concern in conventional medical practice with preserving life is shifting to an overriding concern of "what is best for the patient." Third, in the last days of life, the conventional approach of "trying to do everything for the patient" had shifted from a technological to a relational one. Palliative measures for relieving discomfort and providing a peaceful and dignified environment in which the patient could die are the primary concern. Although the predominant medical culture in Hong Kong is biomedical, voices from the patients and family members challenge this conventional practice, and suggest that the

  18. Prevalence of depression among older adults with dementia living in low- and middle-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Paula; Lönnroos, Eija; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina

    2013-01-01

    and odds ratio (OR) of depression on persons with dementia. Adjustments by age and education were included in the analysis. ORs of depression on different types of dementia were determined. RESULTS: Depression was identified in 5.8% (4.4% of men, 6.6% of women) of all the 17 031 participants and in 12.......4% (18.9% of men, 10.1% of women) of the 1612 persons with dementia. Persons with dementia had an increased risk of depression compared with persons without dementia, the age- and education-adjusted OR was 2.38 [95% confidence interval (CI0 1.99-2.84]); 3.86 (95% CI 2.83-5.26) for men and 1.88 (95% CI 1.......51-2.35) for women. Compared with Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body [OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.40-3.72)] and vascular dementia [OR 2.35, (95% CI 1.49-3.72)] were associated with a higher risk of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with dementia were twice as likely to have depression as persons without dementia. Among persons...

  19. Update on frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitakis, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia has recently been recognized as a common cause of young-onset dementia. To review the current approach to the clinical evaluation, understanding of pathophysiology, and management of frontotemporal dementia. Two main clinical presentations are: (1) behavioral, with impulsive behaviors and disinhibition, change in personality such as apathy and indifference, and poor judgment, and (2) language, with a nonfluent aphasia with anomia (primary progressive aphasia), or a fluent aphasia with early loss of word meaning (semantic dementia). The differential diagnosis includes other neurodegenerative dementias, vascular and other conditions affecting the brain, and psychiatric diseases. Investigations, including neuropsychological testing, and structural and functional brain imaging, may help support the diagnosis. Recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology have suggested that most cases have underlying ubiquitin-positive inclusions, whereas some have tau-positive inclusions. Genetic mutations, particularly on chromosome 17 in the tau or progranulin genes, have been identified. Management includes a trial of symptomatic medications and a multifaceted approach, including environmental modification and long-term care planning. Medical researchers studying frontotemporal dementia aim to identify disease-modifying drugs and, ultimately, a cure for this devastating disease.

  20. Psychotropic medication burden and factors associated with antipsychotic use: an analysis of a population-based sample of community-dwelling older persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, YongJoo; Csernansky, John G; Emanuel, Linda L; Chang, Chang-Gok; Shega, Joseph W

    2011-11-01

    To estimate the proportion of community-dwelling older adults with dementia being prescribed a psychotropic and to identify patient and caregiver factors associated with antipsychotic use. Retrospective cohort study of the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) from 2002 to 2004 designed to assess dementia severity and service use of community-dwelling older adults. The frequency of psychotropic medication (antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and benzodiazepines) use was tabulated and weighted to the U.S. population according to dementia diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with antipsychotic use. The 307 ADAMS participants had the following dementia diagnoses: Alzheimer's disease (69.3%), vascular dementia (17.7%), and other dementia (12.4%). The proportion of participants prescribed a psychotropic medication broken down according to therapeutic class was 19.1% antipsychotics, 29.1% antidepressants, 9.8% benzodiazepines, and 8.8% anticonvulsants. Older adults with dementia were significantly more likely to receive an antipsychotic if they had moderate (odds ratio (OR) = 7.4, P = .002) or severe (OR = 5.80, P = .002) dementia than if they had mild dementia or were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (OR = 6.7, P = .04) compared to vascular dementia. Older adults with dementia who lived with a caregiver were significantly less likely to taking an antipsychotic (OR = 0.19, P = .001) than those who lived alone. Also, persons with dementia were significantly less likely to be prescribed an antipsychotic if their caregiver was clinically depressed (OR = 0.03, P = .005) than if their caregiver was not depressed. Psychotropic medication use is common in community-dwelling older adults with dementia. Caregivers appear to have a substantial effect on whether an antipsychotic is prescribed, which adds additional complexity to conversations discussing the risk:benefit ratio of this medication class. © 2011, Copyright the

  1. Comparing fludeoxyglucose F18-PET assessment of regional cerebral glucose metabolism and [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine-PET in evaluation of early dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Roger L; Koeppe, Robert A; Burke, James F; Giordani, Bruno; Kilbourn, Michael R; Gilman, Sid; Frey, Kirk A

    2010-04-01

    To compare assessment of regional cerebral metabolic changes with [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ)-positron emission tomography (PET) measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (K(1)) and fludeoxyglucose F18 (FDG)-PET measurement of regional cerebral glucose uptake (CMR(glc)) in a clinically representative sample of subjects with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). [(11)C]Dihydrotetrabenazine-PET K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) measurements were performed. University-based cognitive disorders clinic. Fifty subjects with either mild dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score > or = 18) or MCI. Their results were compared with those of 80 normal control subjects. The DTBZ-PET regional K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) measurements were compared with standard correlation analysis. The overall patterns of DTBZ-PET K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) deficits were assessed with stereotaxic surface projections (SSPs) of parametric images. The DTBZ-PET regional K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) measurements were highly correlated, both within and between subjects. The SSP maps of deficits in DTBZ-PET regional K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) measurements were markedly similar. The DTBZ-PET K(1) SSP maps exhibited a mild decrease in sensitivity relative to FDG-PET CMR(glc) maps. Both DTBZ-PET K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) measurements provide comparable information in assessment of regional cerebral metabolic deficits in mild dementia and MCI. Blood flow measures can assess regional cerebral metabolism deficits accurately in mild dementia and MCI. Blood flow assessments of regional cerebral metabolic deficits can be combined with tracer binding results to improve utility of PET imaging in mild dementia and MCI.

  2. Prevalence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, A; Launer, L J; Fratiglioni, L

    2000-01-01

    The last comparison of prevalence figures of dementia across European studies was 10 years ago. Using studies conducted in the 1990s, the authors compare the age- and sex-specific prevalence of dementia, AD, and vascular dementia (VaD) across European population-based studies of persons 65 years...... and older. Data from these studies were also pooled to obtain stable estimates of age- and sex-specific prevalence. A total of 2346 cases of mild to severe dementia were identified in 11 cohorts. Age-standardized prevalence was 6.4% for dementia (all causes), 4.4% for AD, and 1.6% for VaD. The prevalence...... of dementia increased continuously with age and was 0.8% in the group age 65 to 69 years and 28.5% at age 90 years and older. The corresponding figures for AD (53.7% of cases) were 0.6% and 22.2%, and for VaD (15.8% of cases), 0.3% and 5.2%. Variation of AD prevalence across studies was greatest for men...

  3. Midlife interventions are critical in prevention, delay, or improvement of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Gandy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic strategy for focusing exclusively on genetically identified targets for intervening in late life dementias was formulated 30 years ago.  Three decades and billions of dollars later, all efforts at disease-modifying interventions have failed.  Over that same period, evidence has accrued pointing to dementias as late-life clinical phenotypes that begin as midlife pathologies.  Effective prevention therefore may need to begin in midlife, in order to succeed. No current interventions are sufficiently safe to justify their use in midlife dementia prevention trials.  Observational studies could be informative in testing the proposal that amyloid imaging and APOEε4 genotype can predict those who are highly likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease and in whom higher risk interventions might be justifiable. A naturally occurring, diet-responsive cognitive decline syndrome occurs in canines that closely resembles human Alzheimer’s.  Canine cognitive dysfunction could be useful in estimating how early intervention must begin in order to succeed.  This model may also help identify and assess novel targets and strategies.  New approaches to dementia prevention are urgently required, since none of the world’s economies can sustain the costs of caring for this epidemic of brain failure that is devastating half of the over 85-year-olds globally.

  4. Performance of Vascular Exposure and Fasciotomy Among Surgical Residents Before and After Training Compared With Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Colin F; Garofalo, Evan; Puche, Adam; Chen, Hegang; Pugh, Kristy; Shackelford, Stacy; Tisherman, Samuel; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark W

    2017-06-01

    Surgical patient outcomes are related to surgeon skills. To measure resident surgeon technical and nontechnical skills for trauma core competencies before and after training and up to 18 months later and to compare resident performance with the performance of expert traumatologists. This longitudinal study performed from May 1, 2013, through February 29, 2016, at Maryland State Anatomy Board cadaver laboratories included 40 surgical residents and 10 expert traumatologists. Performance was measured during extremity vascular exposures and lower extremity fasciotomy in fresh cadavers before and after taking the Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) course. The primary outcome variable was individual procedure score (IPS), with secondary outcomes of IPSs on 5 components of technical and nontechnical skills, Global Rating Scale scores, errors, and time to complete the procedure. Two trained evaluators located in the same laboratory evaluated performance with a standardized script and mobile touch-screen data collection. Thirty-eight (95%) of 40 surgical residents (mean [SD] age, 31 [2.9] years) who were evaluated before and within 4 weeks of ASSET training completed follow-up evaluations 12 to 18 months later (mean [SD], 14 [2.7] months). The experts (mean [SD] age, 52 [10.0] years) were significantly older and had a longer (mean [SD], 46 [16.3] months) interval since taking the ASSET course (both P performance improved with increased anatomy knowledge, correct procedural steps, and decreased errors from 60% to 19% after the ASSET course regardless of clinical year of training (P performance was within 1 nearest-neighbor classifier of experts after ASSET training. Five residents had no improvement with training. The Trauma Readiness Index for experts (mean [SD], 74 [4]) was significantly different compared with the trained residents (mean [SD], 48 [7] before training vs 63 [7] after training [P = .004] and vs 64 [6] 14 months later [P

  5. Associations between specific autoimmune diseases and subsequent dementia: retrospective record-linkage cohort study, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotton, Clare J; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether hospital admission for autoimmune disease is associated with an elevated risk of future admission for dementia. Retrospective, record-linkage cohort study using national hospital care and mortality administrative data, 1999-2012. Cohorts of people admitted to hospital with a range of autoimmune diseases were constructed, along with a control