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Sample records for vascular access outcomes

  1. Vascular Access Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Vascular Access Procedures A vascular access procedure inserts a flexible, ... the limitations of Vascular Access Procedures? What are Vascular Access Procedures? A vascular access procedure involves the insertion ...

  2. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

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    ... Adequacy Eating & Nutrition for Hemodialysis Vascular Access for Hemodialysis What is a vascular access? A vascular access ... Set Up the Vascular Access Well before Starting Hemodialysis Patients should set up a vascular access well ...

  3. Vascular Access Outcomes Reported in Maintenance Hemodialysis Trials: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viecelli, Andrea K; O'Lone, Emma; Sautenet, Benedicte; Craig, Jonathan C; Tong, Allison; Chemla, Eric; Hooi, Lai-Seong; Lee, Timmy; Lok, Charmaine; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Quinn, Robert R; Vachharajani, Tushar; Vanholder, Raymond; Zuo, Li; Irish, Ashley B; Mori, Trevor A; Pascoe, Elaine M; Johnson, David W; Hawley, Carmel M

    2018-03-01

    Many randomized controlled trials have been performed with the goal of improving outcomes related to hemodialysis vascular access. If the reported outcomes are relevant and measured consistently to allow comparison of interventions across trials, such trials can inform decision making. This study aimed to assess the scope and consistency of vascular access outcomes reported in contemporary hemodialysis trials. Systematic review. Adults requiring maintenance hemodialysis. All randomized controlled trials and trial protocols reporting vascular access outcomes identified from ClinicalTrials.gov, Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialized Register from January 2011 to June 2016. Any hemodialysis-related intervention. The frequency and characteristics of vascular access outcome measures were analyzed and classified. From 168 relevant trials, 1,426 access-related outcome measures were extracted and classified into 23 different outcomes. The 3 most common outcomes were function (136 [81%] trials), infection (63 [38%]), and maturation (31 [18%]). Function was measured in 489 different ways, but most frequently reported as "mean access blood flow (mL/min)" (37 [27%] trials) and "number of thromboses" (30 [22%]). Infection was assessed in 136 different ways, with "number of access-related infections" being the most common measure. Maturation was assessed in 44 different ways at 15 different time points and most commonly characterized by vein diameter and blood flow. Patient-reported outcomes, including pain (19 [11%]) and quality of life (5 [3%]), were reported infrequently. Only a minority of trials used previously standardized outcome definitions. Restricted sampling frame for feasibility and focus on contemporary trials. The reporting of access outcomes in hemodialysis trials is very heterogeneous, with limited patient-reported outcomes and infrequent use of standardized outcome measures. Efforts to standardize outcome reporting for vascular

  4. Vascular access conversion and patient outcome after hemodialysis initiation with a nonfunctional arteriovenous access: a prospective registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar de Pinho, Natalia; Coscas, Raphael; Metzger, Marie; Labeeuw, Michel; Ayav, Carole; Jacquelinet, Christian; Massy, Ziad A; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about vascular access conversion and outcomes for patients starting hemodialysis with nonfunctional arteriovenous (AV) access. We assessed mortality risk associated with nonfunctional AV access at hemodialysis initiation, taking subsequent changes in vascular access into account. We studied the 53,092 incident adult hemodialysis patients included in the French REIN registry from 2005 through 2012. AV access placed predialysis was considered nonfunctional when dialysis began with a central venous catheter. Information about vascular access changes was obtained from treatment modality updates. At hemodialysis initiation, AV access was functional for 47% of patients and nonfunctional for 9%; 44% had a catheter alone. After a 3-year follow-up, 63% of patients beginning hemodialysis with a nonfunctional AV access had changed to a functional one, 4% had had a transplant, 19% had died before any vascular access change, and 13% still used a catheter. Cox proportional hazard models with vascular access treated as a time-dependent variable showed an adjusted mortality hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for patients with nonfunctional AV access who subsequently converted to functional access of 0.95 (95% CI 0.89-1.03) compared with the reference group with functional AV access since first hemodialysis, versus 1.43 (95% CI 1.31-1.55) for those who did not convert. Among patients starting hemodialysis with a nonfunctional AV access, a substantial percentage may never experience successful vascular access conversion. Poor survival seems to be limited to these patients, while those who subsequently convert to functional AV access have similar mortality risk compared to patients with such access since hemodialysis initiation. Every effort should be made to obtain functional AV access in all suitable patients.

  5. New Insights into Dialysis Vascular Access: Molecular Targets in Arteriovenous Fistula and Arteriovenous Graft Failure and Their Potential to Improve Vascular Access Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timmy; Misra, Sanjay

    2016-08-08

    Vascular access dysfunction remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. At present there are few effective therapies for this clinical problem. The poor understanding of the pathobiology that leads to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and graft (AVG) dysfunction remains a critical barrier to development of novel and effective therapies. However, in recent years we have made substantial progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of vascular access dysfunction. This article presents recent advances and new insights into the pathobiology of AVF and AVG dysfunction and highlights potential therapeutic targets to improve vascular access outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. C-reactive protein variability is associated with vascular access outcome in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wei-Hung; Lee, Yueh-Ting; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Wang, Chun-Yeh; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Lee, Chien-Te

    2018-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) vascular access failure is one of the most important causes of morbidity and contributes to the cost of dialysis care. There is paucity of data evaluating long-term monitoring of C-reactive protein (CRP) on outcome of HD vascular access. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether variability of serum CRP level was associated with vascular access failure rate over a 7-year period. A total of 318 HD patients were included. Their demographic data, co-morbidities and biochemical data were reviewed and collected. Serum high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) level was measured every 6 months. Patients were divided into three groups according to their serial hs-CRP levels. Patients with their hs-CRP below 2 mg/L were defined as low group (n=65, 20.4%) and those with higher than 4 mg/L were defined as high (n=39, 12.3%). The rest were classified as fluctuated hs-CRP group (n=214, 67.3%). Treatment of vascular access failure includes angioplasty and access re-creation. Their body mass index, indicators of dialysis adequacy and serum albumin and hs-CRP levels differed significantly among three groups. The annual vascular access failure rate was significantly higher in fluctuated hs-CRP group than in high hs-CRP group (0.41 vs 0.36, P=.037). Serum albumin was a significant associate of vascular access failure. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated patients with high or fluctuated hs-CRP had shorter free interval of vascular access failure than low hs-CRP group. HD patients with fluctuated hs-CRP levels were associated with increased vascular access failure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Consensus Workshop on Establishing a Core Outcome Measure for Hemodialysis Vascular Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viecelli, Andrea K; Tong, Allison; O'Lone, Emma; Ju, Angela; Hanson, Camilla S; Sautenet, Benedicte; Craig, Jonathan C; Manns, Braden; Howell, Martin; Chemla, Eric; Hooi, Lai-Seong; Johnson, David W; Lee, Timmy; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Quinn, Robert R; Vachharajani, Tushar; Vanholder, Raymond; Zuo, Li; Hawley, Carmel M

    2018-02-22

    Vascular access outcomes in hemodialysis are critically important for patients and clinicians, but frequently are neither patient relevant nor measured consistently in randomized trials. A Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) consensus workshop was convened to discuss the development of a core outcome measure for vascular access. 13 patients/caregivers and 46 professionals (clinicians, policy makers, industry representatives, and researchers) attended. Participants advocated for vascular access function to be a core outcome based on the broad applicability of function regardless of access type, involvement of a multidisciplinary team in achieving a functioning access, and the impact of access function on quality of life, survival, and other access-related outcomes. A core outcome measure for vascular access required demonstrable feasibility for implementation across different clinical and trial settings. Participants advocated for a practical and flexible outcome measure with a simple actionable definition. Integrating patients' values and preferences was warranted to enhance the relevance of the measure. Proposed outcome measures for function included "uninterrupted use of the access without the need for interventions" and "ability to receive prescribed dialysis," but not "access blood flow," which was deemed too expensive and unreliable. These recommendations will inform the definition and implementation of a core outcome measure for vascular access function in hemodialysis trials. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New Insights into Dialysis Vascular Access: Impact of Preexisting Arterial and Venous Pathology on AVF and AVG Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in preoperative patient evaluation and surgical planning, vascular access failure in patients on hemodialysis remains a frequent and often unforeseeable complication. Our inability to prevent this complication is, in part, because of an incomplete understanding of how preexisting venous and arterial conditions influence the function of newly created arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. This article reviews the relationship between three preexisting vascular pathologies associated with CKD (intimal hyperplasia, vascular calcification, and medial fibrosis) and hemodialysis access outcomes. The published literature indicates that the pathogenesis of vascular access failure is multifactorial and not determined by any of these pathologies individually. Keeping this observation in mind should help focus our research on the true causes responsible for vascular access failure and the much needed therapies to prevent it. PMID:27401525

  9. Does pre- and post-angioplasty Doppler ultrasound evaluation help in predicting vascular access outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes-Marques, Maria; Maia, Pedro A; Neves, Fernando; Ferreira, Aníbal; Cruz, João; Carvalho, Dulce; Oliveira, Carlos; Barreto, Carlos; Carvalho, Telmo; Ponce, Pedro

    2016-11-02

    Kidney Disease - Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recommends post-percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) access blood flow (ABF) improvement predicts vascular access (VA) outcome. Secondary: compare Doppler ultrasound (DU) and angiography diagnostic accuracy; determine how other factors predict outcome. Eighty patients. DU evaluation performed pre- and post-PTA. Several parameters recorded. Secondary patency verified after 6 months. Initial ABF 537 ± 248 mL/min; final ABF 1013 ± 354 mL/min. Number and location of stenosis was highly correlated between DU and angiography (p30% associated to better survival, p 0.038. Initial ABF0.05). A >2-fold ABF increase had no significant impact on fistulas (p>0.05) but was significantly associated with worst outcomes in grafts (23.1% vs. 73.5%, p 0.009). Grafts had lower survival (HR 3.3, p 0.034). Although less accurate for central lesions, DU has a key role on VA surveillance, allowing a morphologic and hemodynamic assessment. Angioplasty is effective in preserving VA; however, it may increase restenosis due to accelerated neointimal hyperplasia. Current parameters are not useful. Trials addressing this issue are needed.

  10. A review of hemodialysis vascular access devices: improving client outcomes through evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, James Paul

    2013-01-01

    The number of clients with end-stage renal disease and acute kidney injury requiring kidney replacement therapy is at an all-time high. At the end of 2010, the number of persons in the United States with end-stage renal disease totaled 594,374. Because the majority of clients select hemodialysis, understanding best-practice techniques to prevent infection is paramount. The purpose of this article is to review best-practice recommendations for care of the 3 major vascular access devices used for hemodialysis, with a particular focus on infection prevention recommendations. Implications for infusion nurses are also discussed.

  11. The impact of Vascular Access on the Adequacy of Dialysis and the Outcome of the Dialysis Treatment: One Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutevelic, Alma; Spanja, Indira; Sultic-Lavic, Indira; Koric, Amila

    2015-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a gradually reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) caused by destruction of a large number of nephrons. Kidney failure is the final stage of CKD with GFR vascular access, which is also the "life line" and "Achilles heel" of hemodialysis treatment. The purpose of this research is to show the demographic structure of the hemodialysis center in Konjic, and also demonstrate the impact of vascular access to the adequacy and the outcome of dialysis treatment. This cross-sectional study included 36 patients on hemodialysis in Center in Konjic from September 2010 to December 2014. The method of collecting data is performed through medical records and the quality of dialysis is taken to be Kt/V> 1.2. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and Student T-test. The mortality of patients treated by dialysis is 37.8%. The ratio of male and female patients is 55.6% vs. 44.5%, with an average age of 52.91±14.36 years and an average duration of hemodialysis of five years. The highest percentage of patients dialyzed through arterio-venous fistula (AVF) on the forearm (72.2%). In that patients the most common complication is thrombosis with 30.5%, which require recanalization in 11% and replacement in 19.5% of patients. Of the other dialysis patients, 16.7% of patients are dialyzed via a temporary and 11.1% via a permanent catheter (the most common complication in that patients is infection in 83.3% cases) in v.subclavia. Although the AVF is more frequently, experience shows frequent implantation of a permanent catheter in elderly patients due to the less quality of their blood vessels. Although the Kt/V by patients who are dialyzed through temporary catheter is less than 1.2 and by the other two access is greater than 1.2, our results confirm that vascular access does not have an influence on quality of dialysis. Average Kt/V shows that the adequate dialysis dose is delivered in this Center, which means that despite the impact

  12. Standardized Definitions for Hemodialysis Vascular Access

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Timmy; Mokrzycki, Michele; Moist, Louise; Maya, Ivan; Vazquez, Miguel; Lok, Charmaine

    2011-01-01

    Vascular access dysfunction is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among end-stage renal disease patients 1,2. Vascular access dysfunction exists in all 3 types of available accesses: arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous grafts, and tunneled catheters. In order to improve clinical research and outcomes in hemodialysis access dysfunction, the development of a multidisciplinary network of collaborative investigators with various areas of expertise, and common standards for ter...

  13. Effect of brachial plexus block-driven vascular access planning on primary distal arteriovenous fistula recruitment and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Claude J; Leong, Chuo Ren; Bin, Hsien Wern; Wong, Julian Chi Leung

    2015-11-01

    Hemodialysis vascular accesses (VAs) are traditionally planned based on the nondominant upper extremity preoperative physical and sonographic vascular findings. Clinical guidelines advocate the use of the most suitably distended vein in the most distal location. Brachial plexus block (BPB), through its sympathectomy-like effect, promotes vasodilation and can thus further optimize vein recruitment and operative strategy. However, studies on its role in driving primary distal autogenous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) placement are limited. We therefore evaluated a traditional approach of clinic-based VA planning against an on-table sonography-guided strategy under BPB. This was a prospective observational study involving 110 consecutive end-stage renal disease multiethnic Asian patients referred for primary VA creation under BPB after preoperative venous mapping. Cases were grouped according to whether there was a preset operative plan for radial cephalic (RC) or brachial cephalic (BC) AVF creation based on artery and vein >2 mm and >2.5 mm size criteria respectively (group A) or vein size or length were suboptimal (2-2.5 mm and  .05). Satisfactory post-BPB forearm vasodilation resulted in 44% of 36 plans for BC being changed to RC AVFs. RC AVF 6-week hemodynamic maturation and 3-month functional maturation in group A vs B were 48% vs 60% and 69% vs 57%, respectively (P > .05). One-year primary and secondary patency rates were 57% vs 50% and 73% vs 87%, respectively (log rank >.05). Outcomes of RC AVFs in group B were not inferior to those of BC AVFs. On-table BPB-driven VA planning and plan modification strategy contribute to considerable AVF recruitment but do not lead to significantly better distal AVF prevalence or outcomes over the traditional approach. An adequately powered randomized controlled study is, however, warranted to better assess the long-term clinical and cost benefits of such a strategy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by

  14. The benefit of non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for predicting vascular access surgery outcome: a computer model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Maarten A G; Huberts, Wouter; Bosboom, E Mariëlle H; Bode, Aron S; Bescós, Javier Oliván; Tordoir, Jan H M; Breeuwer, Marcel; van de Vosse, Frans N

    2013-01-01

    Vascular access (VA) surgery, a prerequisite for hemodialysis treatment of end-stage renal-disease (ESRD) patients, is hampered by complication rates, which are frequently related to flow enhancement. To assist in VA surgery planning, a patient-specific computer model for postoperative flow enhancement was developed. The purpose of this study is to assess the benefit of non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA) data as patient-specific geometrical input for the model-based prediction of surgery outcome. 25 ESRD patients were included in this study. All patients received a NCE-MRA examination of the upper extremity blood vessels in addition to routine ultrasound (US). Local arterial radii were assessed from NCE-MRA and converted to model input using a linear fit per artery. Venous radii were determined with US. The effect of radius measurement uncertainty on model predictions was accounted for by performing Monte-Carlo simulations. The resulting flow prediction interval of the computer model was compared with the postoperative flow obtained from US. Patients with no overlap between model-based prediction and postoperative measurement were further analyzed to determine whether an increase in geometrical detail improved computer model prediction. Overlap between postoperative flows and model-based predictions was obtained for 71% of patients. Detailed inspection of non-overlapping cases revealed that the geometrical details that could be assessed from NCE-MRA explained most of the differences, and moreover, upon addition of these details in the computer model the flow predictions improved. The results demonstrate clearly that NCE-MRA does provide valuable geometrical information for VA surgery planning. Therefore, it is recommended to use this modality, at least for patients at risk for local or global narrowing of the blood vessels as well as for patients for whom an US-based model prediction would not overlap with surgical choice, as the

  15. Implementation of a vascular access quality programme improves vascular access care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, M.; van der Mark, W.; Beukers, N.; de Bruin, C.; Blankestijn, P. J.; Huisman, R. M.; Zijlstra, J. J.; van der Sande, F. M.; Tordoir, J. H. M.

    Introduction. In the Netherlands an access quality improvement plan (QIP) was introduced by vascular access coordinators (VAC) with the aim to decrease vascular access-related complications by preemptive intervention of malfunctioning accesses. A vascular access QIP was established in 24 centres

  16. Vascular Access Guidelines: Summary, Rationale, and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Adrian; Naljayan, Mihran; Vachharajani, Tushar J

    2017-03-01

    Dialysis vascular access management in the United States changed significantly after National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) clinical practice guidelines were first published in 1997. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service adopted these guidelines and in collaboration with the End-Stage Renal Disease Networks established the Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative (FFBI) in 2003 to improve the rate of arteriovenous fistula use over arteriovenous graft and central venous catheter in the dialysis population. The implementation of guidelines and FFBI has led to a significant increase in the arteriovenous fistula use in the prevalent dialysis population. The guidelines are criticized for being opinion based and often impractical. Over the past 2 decades, the patient population undergoing dialysis has become older with complex comorbidities and challenges for creating an ideal vascular access. Advancing knowledge about access pathophysiology, improved treatment options, and improved process of care with team approach model point toward diminishing relevance of few of the existing guidelines. Moreover, several guidelines remain controversial and may be leading to clinical decisions that may be unfavorable to the patients. The review discusses the historical aspect of vascular access care in the United States and evolution of current practice standards and controversies surrounding few of these guidelines in the current time. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. ESRD QIP - Vascular Access - Payment Year 2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, performance rates, vascular access topic measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the vascular...

  18. Vascular access profile in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Anoop; Pavan, Malleshappa; Babu, Kishore

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study was to evaluate maintenance hemodialysis population in a tertiary care hospital based dialysis unit for vascular access (VA) types, to compare native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and arteriovenous graft (AVG) survival, and to assess risk factors for access failure. A total of 182 patients on maintenance hemodialysis were evaluated and followed up in terms of VA type and VA outcomes. Among 103 prevalent patients, 15.5% initiated dialysis with AVF. At the time of the study, 67.9% of the prevalent patients had an AVF and 29.1% had AVG. Of 79 incident patients, 64% were followed up for more than 3 months by nephrologists before initiation of dialysis. Among these patients, 13.6% were initiated with AVF. There were 25 primary failures and 50 secondary failure episodes. Of the 50 secondary failures, 15 were AVF failures and 31 AVG failures. Vascular access survival was significantly superior with AVF as compared with AVG (P = .03). With longer dialysis periods, failure rates were higher. Follow-up with nephrologists prior to initiation of dialysis had a major influence on VA. Arteriovenous fistula is the best VA for maintenance hemodialysis. However, when the vasculature is not ideal for AVF, AVG should be constructed. A small percentage of our patients had fistula at initiation of dialysis. This is mainly due to late nephrology referrals and also due to reluctance of patients to undergo surgical access placement when they are relatively asymptomatic.

  19. Management Strategies in Hemodialysis Vascular Access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Linden (Joke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSince the introduction of the AV fistula and the use of interposition graft little improvement has been made in the vascular access field. Still, vascular access related complications, are one of the most important reasons for patient hospitalization, morbidity and even mortality

  20. Taking care of your vascular access for hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... below as a reminder. What Is a Vascular Access? A vascular access is an opening made in your skin ... access into your body. Know What Type of Vascular Access You Have There are 3 main types of ...

  1. Novel paradigms for dialysis vascular access: upstream hemodynamics and vascular remodeling in dialysis access stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remuzzi, Andrea; Ene-Iordache, Bogdan

    2013-12-01

    Failure of hemodialysis access is caused mostly by venous intimal hyperplasia, a fibro-muscular thickening of the vessel wall. The pathogenesis of venous neointimal hyperplasia in primary arteriovenous fistulae consists of processes that have been identified as upstream and downstream events. Upstream events are the initial events producing injury of the endothelial layer (surgical trauma, hemodynamic shear stress, vessel wall injury due to needle punctures, etc.). Downstream events are the responses of the vascular wall at the endothelial injury that consist of a cascade of processes including leukocyte adhesion, migration of smooth muscle cells from the media to the intimal layer, and proliferation. In arteriovenous fistulae, the stenoses occur in specific sites, consistently related to the local hemodynamics determined by the vessel geometry and blood flow pattern. Recent findings that the localization of these sites matches areas of disturbed flow may add new insights into the pathogenesis of neointimal hyperplasia in the venous side of vascular access after the creation of the anastomosis. The detailed study of fluid flow motion acting on the vascular wall in anastomosed vessels and in the arm vasculature at the patient-specific level may help to elucidate the role of hemodynamics in vascular remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia formation. These computational approaches may also help in surgical planning for the amelioration of clinical outcome. This review aims to discuss the role of the disturbed flow condition in acting as upstream event in the pathogenesis of venous intimal hyperplasia and in producing subsequent local vascular remodeling in autogenous arteriovenous fistulae used for hemodialysis access. The potential use of blood flow analysis in the management of vascular access is also discussed.

  2. Preoperative vascular access evaluation for haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Sarah D; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2015-09-30

    Haemodialysis treatment requires reliable vascular access. Optimal access is provided via functional arteriovenous fistula (fistula), which compared with other forms of vascular access, provides superior long-term patency, requires few interventions, has low thrombosis and infection rates and cost. However, it has been estimated that between 20% and 60% of fistulas never mature sufficiently to enable haemodialysis treatment. Mapping blood vessels using imaging technologies before surgery may identify vessels that are most suitable for fistula creation. We compared the effect of conducting routine radiological imaging evaluation for vascular access creation preoperatively with standard care without routine preoperative vessel imaging on fistula creation and use. We searched Cochrane Kidney and Transplant's Specialised Register to 14 April 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled adult participants (aged ≥ 18 years) with chronic or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who needed fistulas (both before dialysis and after dialysis initiation) that compared fistula maturation rates relating to use of imaging technologies to map blood vessels before fistula surgery with standard care (no imaging). Two authors assessed study quality and extracted data. Dichotomous outcomes, including fistula creation, maturation and need for catheters at dialysis initiation, were expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Continuous outcomes, such as numbers of interventions required to maintain patency, were expressed as mean differences (MD). We used the random-effects model to measure mean effects. Four studies enrolling 450 participants met our inclusion criteria. Overall risk of bias was judged to be low in one study, unclear in two, and high in one.There was no significant differences in the number of fistulas that were successfully created (4

  3. The association of mineral metabolism with vascular access patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Joel E; Astor, Brad C; Deluca, Hector F; Yevzlin, Alexander S

    2016-09-21

    Declining kidney function leads to progressively dysregulated mineral homeostasis and contributes to vascular calcification and a pro-inflammatory milieu, both of which play a critical role in loss of dialysis vascular access patency. We designed this study to examine the relationship between markers of bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D replacement medications, and vascular access outcomes. We hypothesized that higher levels of calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and albumin are independently associated with vascular access patency and that vitamin D supplementation is associated with lower risk of access failure. We abstracted data on 204 consecutive patients referred for angiographic evaluation of their permanent arteriovenous access over a 25-month period. We followed patients from the time of access salvage until subsequent referral for access failure. The incidence of vascular access failure did not differ by serum phosphorus, PTH, calcium, calcium-phosphorus product or albumin level. Patients receiving any vitamin D replacement therapy, however, had a lower incidence of access failure compared to those receiving no therapy. Those receiving vitamin D3 therapy with or without paricalcitol (Zemplar, Abbot Laboratories, Abbot Park, IL) or calcitriol had an adjusted HR = 0.18 compared to those receiving no vitamin D therapy. This study suggests a relationship between vitamin D3 usage and better vascular access patency, independent of the effect of vitamin D on PTH. Though this relationship needs more rigorous investigation prior to clinical application, the known differences in the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of various vitamin D metabolites provide a potential mechanism for these clinical observations.

  4. Ultrasound for vascular access in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Ehrenfried; Schears, Gregory J; Hall, Stuart R; Yamamoto, Tomohiro

    2012-10-01

    In pediatric patients vascular access is often more difficult than in adults because of the smaller size of the vessels and the inability of the patient to cooperate without deep sedation or general anesthesia. Therefore Ultrasound has already become an invaluable tool for vascular access, but the full potential of ultrasound has yet to be fully realized. Improvements in image quality and a better understanding of optimal insertion techniques continue to help clinicians safely and efficiently place catheters with fewer complications. The probes used for the vascular access are mainly linear and convex type. Higher- frequency ultrasound provides a vivid image; however, the signals are remarkably attenuated. Therefore, the choice of the probe with appropriate frequency is essential. As blood vessels are relatively easily identified with ultrasound, ultrasound-guided vascular access does not require as sharp images as ultrasound-guided nerve block. For pediatric vascular access, the linear probe with 5-15 MHz, 2-5 cm depth is ideal and adequate for almost all cases. Ultrasound-guided vascular access has two main approaches: 'long-axis' or 'in-plane approach' and 'short-axis' or 'transverse approach'. The long-axis approach visualizes the vessel along the insertion pathway and is commonly used to monitor the entire approach of the needle into the vessel. The short-axis approach is easier to show the positional relationship and depth of target vessels, but it is much harder to follow the needle tip within the tissues. The use of 'real-time' ultrasound has been shown to increase first insertion success, reduce access time, have a higher overall success, and reduce arterial puncture. As the technology continues to improve the use of ultrasound will become as ubiquitous as the lines themselves. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Role of preoperative vascular ultrasonography in hemodialysis vascular access operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Tomtitchong, Prakitpunthu; Kanpirom, Kitti

    2010-12-01

    Preoperative vascular mapping increase rate of successful hemodialysis vascular access operation. Several studies recommend using this procedure routinely. But some studies recommend using this procedure in selected patients. So this study aims to determine the impacts of preoperative vascular mapping in unfavorable-examined patients. 55 patients were studied retrospectively from August 2006 to October 2009. Before April 2008, the operative plans were based on physical examination (group 1). After April 2008, the surgeon did preoperative vascular mapping prior to the operation in unfavorable-examined patients (group 2). The results were compared. There were high maturation rates in favorable-examined patients. In unfavorable-examined patients, preoperative vascular mapping can identified nonpalpable favorable vein which successful maturation of 18.75%. Complementary duplex scan decrease rate of unsuccessful operation significantly (p = 0.037) but does not increase maturation rate. Careful physical examination is important part before operation. Preoperative vascular mapping has benefit only in patients with unfavorable-examined patients. It finds some nonpalpable favorable vein and decrease unsuccessful exploration.

  6. Frequency and Effect of Access-Related Vascular Injury and Subsequent Vascular Intervention After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Ditte; Taudorf, Mikkel; Luk, N H Vincent; Nielsen, Michael B; Kofoed, Klaus F; Schroeder, Torben V; Søndergaard, Lars; Lönn, Lars; De Backer, Ole

    2016-10-15

    Vascular access and closure remain a challenge in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This single-center study aimed to report the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of access-related vascular injury and subsequent vascular intervention. During a 30-month period, 365 patients underwent TAVR and 333 patients (94%) were treated by true percutaneous transfemoral approach. Of this latter group, 83 patients (25%) had an access-related vascular injury that was managed by the use of a covered self-expanding stent (n = 49), balloon angioplasty (n = 33), or by surgical intervention (n = 1). In 16 patients (5%), the vascular injury was classified as a major vascular complication. Absence of a preprocedural computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the iliofemoral arteries (OR 2.04, p = 0.007) and female gender (OR 2.18, p = 0.004) were independent predictors of the need for access-related vascular intervention. In addition, a high sheath/common femoral artery ratio as measured on preoperative CTA was associated with a higher rate of post-TAVR vascular intervention. The radiation dose, iodine contrast volume, transfusion need, length of hospitalization, and 30-day mortality were not significantly different between patients with versus without access-related vascular intervention. In conclusion, access-related vascular intervention in patients who underwent transfemoral-TAVR is not uncommon. Female gender and a high sheath/common femoral artery ratio are risk factors for access-related vascular injury, whereas preprocedural planning with CTA of the access vessels may reduce the risk of vascular injury. Importantly, most access-related vascular injuries may be treated by percutaneous techniques with similar clinical outcomes to patients without vascular injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transradial approach for challenging vascular access interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatzadeh, Mitra; Vijayan, Vikram; Ritter, Carsten J; Hockley, Joseph; Leong, Benjamin Dk; Sandford, Monique; Mwipatayi, Bibombe P

    2015-08-01

    Percutaneous interventional procedures for vascular access are usually performed using the draining cephalic or basilic vein. The transradial approach, which has been extensively investigated for coronary angiography and intervention, could be an attractive new technique for peri-anastomotic arteriovenous fistula stenosis. From June 2012 to February 2013, 30 patients with end-stage renal failure were evaluated for transradial vascular access intervention. A 4-French (Fr) micropuncture kit was used to access the radial artery and then subsequently upgraded to a 5-Fr sheath. Fourteen patients required an upgrade to a 6-Fr sheath for the final intervention. Primary technical success (residual stenosis access was achieved in all patients. There were no peri-procedural complications. The post-interventional primary patency was calculated as 100%, 100%, 88.4% and 32.8% at 1, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. The post-interventional primary assisted patency was calculated as 100%, 100%, 100% and 63.3% at 1, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Based on colour-coded Duplex scan and/or photoelectric plethysmography, all access-site arteries showed normal perfusion; however, the freedom from significant radial artery restenosis was 92.4% at 12-month follow-up. The transradial approach for vascular access endovascular interventions is technically feasible and safe. It allows simultaneous treatment of peri-anastomotic lesions in fistulas with complex venous anatomy as well as lesions in the arterial inflow and central outflow. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Lower Extremity Permanent Dialysis Vascular Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Vishal B; Niyyar, Vandana D; Vachharajani, Tushar J

    2016-09-07

    Hemodialysis remains the most commonly used RRT option around the world. Technological advances, superior access to care, and better quality of care have led to overall improvement in survival of patients on long-term hemodialysis. Maintaining a functioning upper extremity vascular access for a prolonged duration continues to remain a challenge for dialysis providers. Frequently encountered difficulties in clinical practice include (1) a high incidence of central venous catheter-related central vein stenosis and (2) limited options for creating a functioning upper extremity permanent arteriovenous access. Lack of surgical skills, fear of complications, and limited involvement of the treating nephrologists in the decision-making process are some of the reasons why lower extremity permanent dialysis access remains an infrequently used option. Similar to upper extremity vascular access options, lower extremity arteriovenous fistula remains a preferred access over arteriovenous synthetic graft. The use of femoral tunneled catheter as a long-term access should be avoided as far as possible, especially with the availability of newer graft-catheter hybrid devices. Our review provides a summary of clinical evidence published in surgical, radiology, and nephrology literature highlighting the pros and cons of different types of lower extremity permanent dialysis access. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Frequency and Effect of Access-Related Vascular Injury and Subsequent Vascular Intervention After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Taudorf, Mikkel; Luk, N H Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Vascular access and closure remain a challenge in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This single-center study aimed to report the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of access-related vascular injury and subsequent vascular intervention. During a 30-month period, 365...... patients underwent TAVR and 333 patients (94%) were treated by true percutaneous transfemoral approach. Of this latter group, 83 patients (25%) had an access-related vascular injury that was managed by the use of a covered self-expanding stent (n = 49), balloon angioplasty (n = 33), or by surgical...... for access-related vascular intervention. In addition, a high sheath/common femoral artery ratio as measured on preoperative CTA was associated with a higher rate of post-TAVR vascular intervention. The radiation dose, iodine contrast volume, transfusion need, length of hospitalization, and 30-day mortality...

  11. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek A. Ghonemy

    2015-08-18

    Aug 18, 2015 ... Abstract Background: Morbidity related to vascular access is the leading cause of hospitalization for chronic hemodialysis patients and is associated with high cost. Since data on vascular access complications are scarce, this study was designed to focus on vascular access complications in hemodialysis ...

  12. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Morbidity related to vascular access is the leading cause of hospitalization for chronic hemodialysis patients and is associated with high cost. Since data on vascular access complications are scarce, this study was designed to focus on vascular access complications in hemodialysis patients. Methods: 119 ...

  13. Vascular Complications During Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Comparison Between Vascular Ultrasound Guided Access and Conventional Vascular Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parikshit S; Padala, Santosh K; Gunda, Sampath; Koneru, Jayanthi N; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2016-10-01

    Vascular access related complications are the most common complications from catheter based EP procedures and have been reported to occur in 1-13% of cases. We prospectively assessed vascular complications in a large series of consecutive patients undergoing catheter based electrophysiologic (EP) procedures with ultrasound (US) guided vascular access versus conventional access. Consecutive patients undergoing catheter ablation procedures at VCU medical center were included. US guided access was obtained in all cases starting June 2015 (US group) while modified Seldinger technique without US guidance (non-US group) was used in cases prior to this date. All vascular complications were recorded for a 30-day period after the procedure. A total of 689 patients underwent 720 procedures. Ablations for ventricular tachyarrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia: VT, premature ventricular contractions: PVCs) accounted for 89 (12%) cases; atrial fibrillation (AF) ablations accounted for 328 procedures (46%) and other catheter based procedures accounted for 42% of cases. A significantly higher incidence of complications was noted in the non-US group compared with the US group (19 [5.3%] vs. 4 [1.1%], respectively, P = 0.002). Major complications were also higher among the non-US group (9 [2.5%] vs. 2 [0.6%], P = 0.03). Increasing age (P = 0.04) and non-US guided vascular access (P = 0.002) were associated with a higher risk of vascular access complications. In a large series of patients undergoing catheter based EP procedures for cardiac arrhythmias, US guided vascular access was associated with a significantly decreased 30-day risk of vascular complications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Efficacy of statin on vascular access patency in diabetic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Satoru; Miyasaka, Yasunori; Kanno, Atsuhiro; Sato, Kozo; Sato, Mitsuhiro; Sugai, Hisako; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Sato, Toshinobu; Taguma, Yoshio

    2017-07-14

    An effective approach to prevent hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction is still unclear despite previous studies, which have shown conflicting results of several drugs on vascular access outcomes. In this study, we focused on diabetic hemodialysis patients with native arteriovenous fistula and evaluated the impact of statin treatment on vascular access patency. A retrospective cohort study of 268 consecutive patients who newly started hemodialysis due to diabetic nephropathy between January 2011 and December 2013 at Japan Community Health Care Organization Sendai Hospital was performed and the patients were followed for two years. The primary outcome was vascular access dysfunction. Effect of statin treatment was examined using Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard, after adjusting for covariates. The mean follow-up period was 426.7 days, and 117 (52.2%) patients developed vascular access dysfunction. The two-year patency rate was 55.0% among statin users and 36.1% in non-users. Vascular access survival period was significantly longer among statin users (log-rank test, p = 0.004). In multivariable analysis, statin treatment is significantly associated with better vascular access outcomes, in which the hazard ratio was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.52 to 0.97; p = 0.028) in the unadjusted model and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.88; p = 0.007) after adjustment for covariates. Statin treatment could be associated with improved vascular access dysfunction among diabetic hemodialysis patients.

  15. CARE OF A PATIENT'S VASCULAR ACCESS FOR HAEMODIALYSIS: A NARRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Debi; Smith, Lindsay; Chow, Josephine

    2016-06-01

    Patients requiring haemodialysis have diverse clinical needs impacting on the longevity of their vascular access and their quality of life. A clinical practice scenario is presented that raises the potential of unsafe cannulation of a patient's vascular access as a result of minimal patient empowerment. Vascular access care is the responsibility of everyone, including the patient and carer. The aim of this narrative literature review (1997-2014) is to explore the current understanding of what factors influence the care of vascular access for haemodialysis. A narrative literature review allows the synthesis of the known literature pertinent to the research question into a succinct model or unique order to enable new understandings to emerge. The bio-ecological model was used to guide the thematic analysis of the literature. The narrative literature review revealed five themes related to care of vascular access: patient experience; relationships-empowerment and shared decision making; environment of healthcare; time; and quality of life as the outcome of care. The management of vascular access is complicated. Current available literature predominantly concentrates on bio-medical aspects of vascular access care. Contextualised vascular access care in the complex ecology of the patient and carer's lives has the potential to enhance nursing practice and patient outcomes. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  16. Vascular access in critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Won Yu; Campia, Umberto; Ota, Hideaki; Didier, Romain J; Negi, Smita I; Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Koifman, Edward; Baker, Nevin C; Magalhaes, Marco A; Lipinski, Michael J; Escarcega, Ricardo O; Torguson, Rebecca; Waksman, Ron; Bernardo, Nelson L

    2016-01-01

    Currently, percutaneous endovascular intervention is considered a first line of therapy for treating patients with critical limb ischemia. As the result of remarkable development of techniques and technologies, percutaneous endovascular intervention has led to rates of limb salvage comparable to those achieved with bypass surgery, with fewer complications, even in the presence of lower rates of long-term patency. Currently, interventionalists have a multiplicity of access routes including smaller arteries, with both antegrade and retrograde approaches. Therefore, the choice of the optimal access site has become an integral part of the success of the percutaneous intervention. By understanding the technical aspects, as well as the advantages and limitations of each approach, the interventionalists can improve clinical outcomes in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease. This article reviews the access routes in critical limb ischemia, their advantages and disadvantages, and the clinical outcomes of each. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of lowering LDL cholesterol on vascular access patency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrington, William; Emberson, Jonathan; Staplin, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) with statin-based therapy reduces the risk of major atherosclerotic events among patients with CKD, including dialysis patients, but the effect of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency is unclear. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS......, & MEASUREMENTS: The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) randomized patients with CKD to 20 mg simvastatin plus 10 mg ezetimibe daily versus matching placebo. This study aimed to explore the effects of treatment on vascular access occlusive events, defined as any access revision procedure, access...... thrombosis, removal of an old dialysis access, or formation of new permanent dialysis access. RESULTS: Among 2353 SHARP participants who had functioning vascular access at randomization, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe resulted in a 13% proportional reduction in vascular access occlusive events (355...

  18. Urologic surgery laparoscopic access: vascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Anibal Wood

    2017-01-01

    Vascular injury in accidental punctures may occur in large abdominal vessels, it is known that 76% of injuries occur during the development of pneumoperitoneum. The aim of this video is to demonstrate two cases of vascular injury occurring during access in laparoscopic urologic surgery. The first case presents a 60-year old female patient with a 3cm tumor in the superior pole of the right kidney who underwent a laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. After the Verres needle insertion, output of blood was verified. During the evaluation of the cavity, a significant hematoma in the inferior vena cava was noticed. After the dissection, a lesion in the inferior vena cava was identified and controlled with a prolene suture, the estimated bloos loss was 300ml. The second case presents a 42-year old female live donor patient who had her right kidney selected to laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy. After the insertion of the first trocar, during the introduction of the 10mm scope, an active bleeding from the mesentery was noticed. The right colon was dissected and an inferior vena cava perforation was identified; a prolene suture was used to control the bleeding, the estimated blood loss was 200mL, in both cases the patients had no previous abdominal surgery. Urologists must be aware of this uncommon, serious, and potentially lethal complication. Once recognized and in the hands of experienced surgeons, some lesions may be repaired laparoscopically. Whenever in doubt, the best alternative is the immediate conversion to open surgery to minimize morbidity and mortality. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  19. Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Ashley; Dogra, Gursharan; Mori, Trevor; Beller, Elaine; Heritier, Stephane; Hawley, Carmel; Kerr, Peter; Robertson, Amanda; Rosman, Johan; Paul-Brent, Peta-Anne; Starfield, Melissa; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Cass, Alan

    2009-01-21

    Haemodialysis (HD) is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20-54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and uncertainty as to choice of agent(s) for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. We present the study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining whether the use of the anti-platelet agents, aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids, either alone or in combination, will effectively reduce the risk of early thrombosis in de novo AVF. The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD) currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid). Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted) patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding. This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty acids. Recently a placebo-controlled trial has shown that

  20. Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosman Johan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemodialysis (HD is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF. The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20–54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and uncertainty as to choice of agent(s for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. We present the study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining whether the use of the anti-platelet agents, aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids, either alone or in combination, will effectively reduce the risk of early thrombosis in de novo AVF. Methods/Design The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid. Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding. Discussion This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty

  1. Surveillance of Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    -functioning vascular access with as few complications as possible and preferred vascular access is an AVF. Dysfunction due to stenosis is a common complication, and regular monitoring of volume flow is recommended to preserve AVF patency. UDT is considered the gold standard for volume flow surveillance, but VFI has...

  2. Effectiveness of beraprost sodium in maintaining vascular access patency in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyeon; Kim, Ji Ung; Kim, So Mi; Kim, HyunWoo

    2017-07-01

    Hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction, mostly attributed to neointimal hyperplasia, is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization in patients on hemodialysis. It has been reported that prostaglandin I 2 has pleiotropic effects including anti-platelet, vasodilating, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic properties. In addition, several studies have shown that prostaglandin I 2 can inhibit neointimal formation after vascular injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of beraprost sodium, an oral synthetic analog of prostaglandin I 2 , on vascular access patency in patients on hemodialysis who experienced primary hemodialysis vascular access failure. Fifty-five patients with end-stage renal disease who were on hemodialysis were prospectively selected for this study. Twenty-three patients were assigned to be treated with 120 µg/day of beraprost sodium, while remaining patients (n = 32) were assigned to a control group. The primary outcome was primary unassisted vascular access patency at 2 years. The incidence of primary unassisted patency at 2 years was 83% in the beraprost sodium group and 38% in the control group (p = 0.001). Analysis of covariables indicated that this effect occurred mainly as a result of beraprost sodium administration. No life-threatening adverse event or severe bleeding was recorded in any of the groups. Our data indicated that an oral prostaglandin I 2 analog, beraprost sodium, is effective and safe for the maintenance of vascular access patency in patients on hemodialysis with primary vascular access failure.

  3. Prediction of hemodialysis vascular access failure using segmental bioimpedance analysis parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Seo, Hye Mi; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Miyeon

    2018-02-23

    Segmental bioimpedance analysis (BIA) can identify fluid volume changes in the arms of patients on hemodialysis (HD) after vascular access surgery. We investigated whether the difference in fluid volumes between the arms of the patients using segmental BIA is associated with vascular access outcome. Body composition measurements were taken for 127 patients on HD with segmental, multi-frequency BIA equipment (InBody 1.0, Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea). The difference in fluid volume between the arms of the patients was calculated from the fluid volume of the arm with the vascular access minus that of the other. The primary outcome was the loss of vascular access patency within 3 months of BIA measurement. The median absolute and relative inter-arm fluid volume differences were 150 ml [interquartile range (IQR) 90-250 ml] and 9.6% (IQR 4.9-14.4%), respectively. Within 3 months of BIA measurement, 38 patients (30.0%) experienced vascular access failure. When the patients were divided into three groups based on the tertiles of relative inter-arm fluid volume differences (lowest tertile:  12.7%), greater difference in relative inter-arm fluid volume differences was associated with higher vascular access failure rates (14 vs. 28 vs. 48%, p value for trend across tertiles = 0.003). We conclude that segmental BIA may be used as a tool that can predict vascular access failure in patients on HD by calculating the relative difference in fluid volume between the arms of the patients with and without vascular access.

  4. Disruptive technological advances in vascular access for dialysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Wee-Song; Ng, Qin Xiang

    2017-11-29

    End-stage kidney disease (ESKD), one of the most prevalent diseases in the world and with increasing incidence, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current available modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) include dialysis and renal transplantation. Though renal transplantation is the preferred and ideal mode of RRT, this modality may not be available to all patients with ESKD. Moreover, renal transplant recipients are constantly at risk of complications associated with immunosuppression and immunosuppressant use, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Dialysis may be the only available modality in certain patients. However, dialysis has its limitations, which include issues associated with lack of vascular access, risks of infections and vascular thrombosis, decreased quality of life, and absence of biosynthetic functions of the kidney. In particular, the creation and maintenance of hemodialysis vascular access in children poses a unique set of challenges to the pediatric nephrologist owing to the smaller vessel diameters and vascular hyperreactivity compared with adult patients. Vascular access issues continue to be one of the major limiting factors prohibiting the delivery of adequate dialysis in ESKD patients and is the Achilles' heel of hemodialysis. This review aims to provide a critical overview of disruptive technological advances and innovations for vascular access. Novel strategies in preventing neointimal hyperplasia, novel bioengineered products, grafts and devices for vascular access will be discussed. The potential impact of these solutions on improving the morbidity encountered by dialysis patients will also be examined.

  5. Association between post-dialysis hemoglobin level and the survival of vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Ikenoue, Tatsuyoshi; Tominaga, Naoto; Yazawa, Masahiko; Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamazaki, Shin; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-10-24

    Although a few dialysis facilities conduct a complete blood cell count for some patients at post-dialysis, including hemoglobin, clinical findings supporting the interpretation of results are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between post-dialysis hemoglobin level and vascular access failure with clinical data. Study design: Case crossover design. Setting: Japanese dialysis facilities, which routinely take post-dialysis blood samples, including complete blood cell counts at least once a month. Participants: Hemodialysis patients who experienced vascular access failure in January 2010 until December 2014. Exposure: Post-dialysis hemoglobin level. Main outcome: Vascular access failure treated with endovascular treatment or operation. Statistical analysis: Self-matched odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by comparing post-dialysis hemoglobin just before events ("case") with levels at 6 and 12 months before events ("control") using conditional logistic regression, and presented with restricted cubic spline. Two hundred and thirty hemodialysis patients with vascular access failure were identified. Mean post-dialysis hemoglobin level before the failure was 11.8 g/dL (standard deviation 1.7). The spline curve showed that higher post-dialysis hemoglobin levels above 11.8 g/dL had a greater odds ratio for vascular access failure. Post-dialysis hemoglobin levels and odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for vascular access failure relative to the reference value (Hb 11.8 g/dL) were Hb 12.0 g/dL, 1.1 (1.0-1.1); Hb 14.0 g/dL, 1.4 (1.0-2.0); and Hb 16.0 g/dL, 2.1 (1.1-4.3). A higher post-dialysis hemoglobin level was associated with vascular access failure. Higher post-dialysis Hb could be a factor that triggers vascular access failure.

  6. Medical adhesive-related skin injuries associated with vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jan; Savine, Louise

    2017-04-27

    Establishing vascular access and preventing infection, both at insertion and during ongoing care is generally the top priority; the maintenance of optimal skin integrity is often a distant secondary consideration. Skin can react to different types of dressings or adhesives, or problems can arise relating to the securement of lines or the development of sensitivities to cleaning solutions. Clearly, these scenarios are not limited to the securement of vascular access devices; however, a patient with a long-term vascular access device may not have other options for vascular access, which makes this a very important and yet largely unrecognised area. A review of the limited literature that existed up to March 2015 showed it was typically concerned with skin tears connected with dressings and removal, and contact irritant dermatitis. The tissue viability team and vascular access team reviewed the current products associated with a typical vascular access dressing to ensure it was fit for purpose and where at all possible had good scientific literature for validation. The team worked proactively to recognise those patients at risk with the early identification of potential medical adhesive-related skin injuries (MARSI). To facilitate this an algorithm was developed that offers a step-by-step approach, clearly outlining what to do to prevent MARSI and its treatment should it develop. These reactions can result from other factors than the dressing alone, and an increase in these kinds of skin reaction in patients who are on chemotherapy regimens is being explored further. Through the implementation of an algorithm, education for both staff and patients and collaborative working between vascular access and tissue viability teams, a reduction in these phenomena has been seen despite an increasing number of at-risk patients.

  7. Spanish Clinical Guidelines on Vascular Access for Haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeas, José; Roca-Tey, Ramon; Vallespín, Joaquín; Moreno, Teresa; Moñux, Guillermo; Martí-Monrós, Anna; Pozo, José Luis Del; Gruss, Enrique; Arellano, Manel Ramírez de; Fontseré, Néstor; Arenas, María Dolores; Merino, José Luis; García-Revillo, José; Caro, Pilar; López-Espada, Cristina; Giménez-Gaibar, Antonio; Fernández-Lucas, Milagros; Valdés, Pablo; Fernández-Quesada, Fidel; de la Fuente, Natalia; Hernán, David; Arribas, Patricia; de la Nieta, María Dolores Sánchez; Martínez, María Teresa; Barba, Ángel

    2017-11-01

    Vascular access for haemodialysis is key in renal patients both due to its associated morbidity and mortality and due to its impact on quality of life. The process, from the creation and maintenance of vascular access to the treatment of its complications, represents a challenge when it comes to decision-making, due to the complexity of the existing disease and the diversity of the specialities involved. With a view to finding a common approach, the Spanish Multidisciplinary Group on Vascular Access (GEMAV), which includes experts from the five scientific societies involved (nephrology [S.E.N.], vascular surgery [SEACV], vascular and interventional radiology [SERAM-SERVEI], infectious diseases [SEIMC] and nephrology nursing [SEDEN]), along with the methodological support of the Cochrane Center, has updated the Guidelines on Vascular Access for Haemodialysis, published in 2005. These guidelines maintain a similar structure, in that they review the evidence without compromising the educational aspects. However, on one hand, they provide an update to methodology development following the guidelines of the GRADE system in order to translate this systematic review of evidence into recommendations that facilitate decision-making in routine clinical practice, and, on the other hand, the guidelines establish quality indicators which make it possible to monitor the quality of healthcare. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Vascular access: the impact of ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Saldanha de

    2016-01-01

    Vascular punctures are often necessary in critically ill patients. They are secure, but not free of complications. Ultrasonography enhances safety of the procedure by decreasing puncture attempts, complications and costs. This study reviews important publications and the puncture technique using ultrasound, bringing part of the experience of the intensive care unit of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo (SP), Brazil, and discussing issues that should be considered in future studies. RESUMO Punções vasculares são muitas vezes necessárias em pacientes gravemente enfermos. São seguras, mas não isentas de complicações. A ultrassonografia associada à técnica de punção gera diminuição do número de tentativas, de complicações e de custos. O presente artigo revisou importantes publicações sobre o tema, bem como técnicas de punções, trazendo parte da experiência do centro de terapia intensiva de adultos do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, em São Paulo (SP) e discutindo tópicos que devem ser melhor explorados em estudos futuros.

  9. Outcomes for cervicomediastinal vascular trauma managed by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The management of cervicomediastinal vascular trauma is challenging. We report on our experience with the condition in a newly established vascular trauma service unit, and compare the outcomes to those reported in our parent vascular surgery department. Method: The details of patients with ...

  10. Use of vascular access for haemodialysis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Jager, Kitty J; van der Veer, Sabine N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are actively promoted, their use at the start of haemodialysis (HD) seems to be decreasing worldwide. In this paper, we describe recent trends in incidence and prevalence of vascular access types in Europe from 2005 to 2009 and their relationship...... with patient characteristics and survival. METHODS: Ten European renal registries participating in the ERA-EDTA Registry provided data on incidence (n = 13,044) and/or prevalence (n = 75,715) of vascular access types. We used logistic regression to assess which factors influence the likelihood to be treated...... for the prevalence; use of AVFs decreased from 66 to 62% and use of CVCs increased from 28 to 32%. There was a large international variation in the use of the different vascular access types. Female patients [adjusted odds ratio: 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-0.90] and those ≥80 years (0.77, 95% CI: 0...

  11. New Insights into Dialysis Vascular Access: What Is the Optimal Vascular Access Type and Timing of Access Creation in CKD and Dialysis Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Karen; Lok, Charmaine E

    2016-08-08

    Optimal vascular access planning begins when the patient is in the predialysis stages of CKD. The choice of optimal vascular access for an individual patient and determining timing of access creation are dependent on a multitude of factors that can vary widely with each patient, including demographics, comorbidities, anatomy, and personal preferences. It is important to consider every patient's ESRD life plan (hence, their overall dialysis access life plan for every vascular access creation or placement). Optimal access type and timing of access creation are also influenced by factors external to the patient, such as surgeon experience and processes of care. In this review, we will discuss the key determinants in optimal access type and timing of access creation for upper extremity arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. New Insights into Dialysis Vascular Access: What Is the Optimal Vascular Access Type and Timing of Access Creation in CKD and Dialysis Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Optimal vascular access planning begins when the patient is in the predialysis stages of CKD. The choice of optimal vascular access for an individual patient and determining timing of access creation are dependent on a multitude of factors that can vary widely with each patient, including demographics, comorbidities, anatomy, and personal preferences. It is important to consider every patient’s ESRD life plan (hence, their overall dialysis access life plan for every vascular access creation or placement). Optimal access type and timing of access creation are also influenced by factors external to the patient, such as surgeon experience and processes of care. In this review, we will discuss the key determinants in optimal access type and timing of access creation for upper extremity arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. PMID:27401524

  13. Facility wide benefits of radiology vascular access teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Tim; Lamberth, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Many PICC lines are inserted in the radiology department and, at the rate they are inserted, can have serious financial implications for a facility. These costs combined with the increase in the number of line placements performed annually have imaging leadership evaluating alternatives for catheter placements in their departments. Several benefits to forming an in-house vascular access team include increased patient satisfaction, improved care, decreased length of stay, optimizing DRG reimbursement, and increased revenue. Considerations prior to initiating a vascular access team include: staff members involved, location of insertions, and up front funds available.

  14. Fistula First Initiative: Historical Impact on Vascular Access Practice Patterns and Influence on Future Vascular Access Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timmy

    2017-09-01

    The vascular access is the lifeline for the hemodialysis patient. In the United States, the Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative (FFBI) has been influential in improving use of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) in prevalent hemodialysis patients. Currently, prevalent AVF rates are near the goal of 66% set forth by the original FFBI. However, central venous catheter (CVC) rates remain very high in the United States in patients initiating hemodialysis, nearly exceeding 80%. A new direction of the of the FFBI has focused on strategies to reduce CVC use, and subsequently the FFBI has now been renamed the "Fistula First-Catheter Last Initiative". However, an AVF may not be the best vascular access in all hemodialysis patients, and arteriovenous grafts (AVG) and CVCs may be appropriate and the best access for a subset of hemodialysis patients. Unfortunately, there still remains very little emphasis within vascular access initiatives and guidelines directed towards evaluation of the individual patient context, specifically patients with poor long-term prognoses and short life expectancies, patients with multiple comorbidities, patients who are more likely to die than reach end stage renal disease (ESRD), and patients of elderly age with impaired physical and cognitive function. Given the complexity of medical and social issues in advanced CKD and ESRD patients, planning, selection, and placement of the most appropriate vascular access are ideally managed within a multidisciplinary setting and requires consideration of several factors including national vascular access guidelines. Thus, the evolution of the FFBI should underscore the need for multidisciplinary health teams with a major emphasis placed on "the right access for the right patient" and improving the patient's overall quality of life.

  15. Aneurysmal degeneration of the donor artery after vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzelle, Jean; Gashi, Valbon; Nguyen, Hong-Duyen; Mouton, Albert; Becquemin, Jean-Pierre; Bourquelot, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the characteristics, potential risks, and therapeutic options of true aneurysms of the donor artery in arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) for dialysis access. We retrospectively collected data of patients with aneurysmal degeneration (AD) after AVF creation from surgeons who were members of the French Society for Vascular Access, treated from January 2006 to May 2011. The study excluded patients with pseudoaneurysms. Patient demographics, type of access, aneurysm characteristics, symptoms, treatment, and follow-up were recorded. Seven men and three women (mean age, 38.1 ± 5.3 years) were identified with AD (mean diameter, 44.5; range, 24-80 mm) Mean duration of access was 83.6 ± 48.8 months. Diagnosis of AD was at 117.5 ± 53.8 months after access creation. The initial access was radiocephalic, six; ulnobasilic, one; brachiocephalic, two; and brachiobasilic, one. Three patients had two successive accesses: one brachioaxillary polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft and two proximalizations of a failed radiocephalic AVF. Symptoms were pain and swelling, four; pain related to total thrombosis without signs of ischemia, two; median nerve compression, two; pain related to contained rupture, one; and subacute ischemia due to embolic occlusion of both radial and interosseous arteries, one. AD location was brachial, seven; axillary, one; radial, one; and ulnar, one. Eight patients underwent surgical aneurysm excision associated with interposition bypass using great saphenous vein, two; basilic vein, one; PTFE, three; Dacron, one; and allograft, one. Two patients needed secondary PTFE bypass because of progression of AD to the inflow artery and dilatation of the venous bypass. With a mean follow-up of 20.3 ± 17 months, all bypasses but one remained patent. AD is a rare but significant complication of vascular access. Surgical correction should be discussed in most cases due to potential complications. After resection, the choice of

  16. Vascular access registry of Serbia: a 4-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemcov, Tamara; Dimkovic, Nada

    2017-02-01

    Adequate and functional long-term vascular access (VA) is pivotal for the efficient hemodialysis (HD). It has been shown that the most reliable VA is autogenous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) as compared with arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) and vascular catheters (VCs). The vascular access register (VAR) has been established since 2010, and the 4-year trend of VA in Serbia is presented in this paper. All HD centers in Serbia provided their data by fulfilling the questionnaire that included prevalent and incident HD patients on December 31, 2010-1013. AVF is the most frequent prevalent VA (89.5-93.1 %) and also the most frequent newly created VA (87-89 %) during the observational period. The number of preemptive AVF is increasing, but it is still low (7.8 % in 2010 and 14.6 % in 2013). The percentage of incident AVG is constant (~3.4 %) as well as the number of permanent VC (8.2 % in 2010 and 7.8 % in 2013). The number of incident patients who started HD with AVF is decreasing (from 37 to 27 %), and the number of urgent start with VC is on the increase (from 63 to 73 %). In almost all relevant dialysis centers, vascular access is created by surgeons. Temporal VCs are placed by anesthesiologists (all centers), nephrologists (up to 25 % of centers) and vascular surgeons (up to 20 %). VCs are located mainly in jugular vein, but the number of femoral catheters remains high (up to 69 %). Although we have favorable data, the VAR is of a great importance and ensures continuous quality improvement.

  17. Prevention of vascular access hand ischemia using the axillary artery as inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, William; Brown, Robert; Blebea, John; Taubman, Kevin; Messiner, Ryan

    2013-11-01

    Avoiding dialysis access-associated ischemic steal syndrome (DASS) in patients with upper extremity peripheral vascular occlusive disease while creating a functional hemodialysis vascular access may be challenging. We constructed an autogenous access with primary proximalization of the arterial inflow to prevent hand ischemia in patients at high risk for this complication. Patients requiring hemodialysis access with physical findings suggesting a high risk of access-related hand ischemia (absent radial, ulnar, and brachial palpable pulses associated with small calcified vessels by ultrasound examination) underwent a primary arteriovenous fistula transposition procedure utilizing the axillary artery for inflow. The arteriovenous fistula was either a reversed flow basilic vein transposition supplemented by valvulotomy (n = 22); a translocated reversed basilic vein (n = 4); a cephalic vein harvested into the forearm and placed in a loop configuration for axillary artery inflow (n = 3); or a translocated reversed saphenous vein (n = 1). Thirty patients with a mean age of 60 years (range, 31-83 years) underwent successful primary axillary artery inflow procedures during a 3-year period. Of these, 23 (77%) were female and 25 (83%) were diabetic. Twenty-one (70%) had previous vascular access procedures and 10 (33%) were obese. No patient developed postoperative ischemia. Three individuals died 2, 14, and 19 months following surgery, none related to vascular access. Three accesses failed after 1, 5, and 7 months and could not be salvaged. Life-table primary, primary assisted, and cumulative patency rates were 57%, 78%, and 87% respectively at 1 year with a mean follow-up of 7 months (range, 1-25 months). Cephalic vein outflow was associated with fewer access failures, fewer interventions postoperatively, and lower rates of arm swelling (P vascular access utilizing axillary artery inflow is a good option for patients with severe peripheral vascular disease. It offers a high

  18. A multilayered electrospun graft as vascular access for hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Radakovic

    Full Text Available Despite medical achievements, the number of patients with end-stage kidney disease keeps steadily raising, thereby entailing a high number of surgical and interventional procedures to establish and maintain arteriovenous vascular access for hemodialysis. Due to vascular disease, aneurysms or infection, the preferred access-an autogenous arteriovenous fistula-is not always available and appropriate. Moreover, when replacing small diameter blood vessels, synthetic vascular grafts possess well-known disadvantages. A continuous multilayered gradient electrospinning was used to produce vascular grafts made of collagen type I nanofibers on luminal and adventitial graft side, and poly-ɛ-caprolactone as medial layer. Therefore, a custom-made electrospinner with robust environmental control was developed. The morphology of electrospun grafts was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and measurement of mechanical properties. Human microvascular endothelial cells were cultured in the graft under static culture conditions and compared to cultures obtained from dynamic continuous flow bioreactors. Immunofluorescent analysis showed that endothelial cells form a continuous luminal layer and functional characteristics were confirmed by uptake of acetylated low-density-lipoprotein. Incorporation of vancomycin and gentamicin to the medial graft layer allowed antimicrobial inhibition without exhibiting an adverse impact on cell viability. Most striking a physiological hemocompatibility was achieved for the multilayered grafts.

  19. A multilayered electrospun graft as vascular access for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovic, D; Reboredo, J; Helm, M; Weigel, T; Schürlein, S; Kupczyk, E; Leyh, R G; Walles, H; Hansmann, J

    2017-01-01

    Despite medical achievements, the number of patients with end-stage kidney disease keeps steadily raising, thereby entailing a high number of surgical and interventional procedures to establish and maintain arteriovenous vascular access for hemodialysis. Due to vascular disease, aneurysms or infection, the preferred access-an autogenous arteriovenous fistula-is not always available and appropriate. Moreover, when replacing small diameter blood vessels, synthetic vascular grafts possess well-known disadvantages. A continuous multilayered gradient electrospinning was used to produce vascular grafts made of collagen type I nanofibers on luminal and adventitial graft side, and poly-ɛ-caprolactone as medial layer. Therefore, a custom-made electrospinner with robust environmental control was developed. The morphology of electrospun grafts was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and measurement of mechanical properties. Human microvascular endothelial cells were cultured in the graft under static culture conditions and compared to cultures obtained from dynamic continuous flow bioreactors. Immunofluorescent analysis showed that endothelial cells form a continuous luminal layer and functional characteristics were confirmed by uptake of acetylated low-density-lipoprotein. Incorporation of vancomycin and gentamicin to the medial graft layer allowed antimicrobial inhibition without exhibiting an adverse impact on cell viability. Most striking a physiological hemocompatibility was achieved for the multilayered grafts.

  20. The use of vascular access audit and infections in home hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau-Gagnon, Mathieu; Faratro, Rose; D'Gama, Celine; Fung, Stella; Wong, Elizabeth; Chan, Christopher T

    2016-04-01

    Vascular access-related infection is an important adverse event in home hemodialysis (HHD). We hypothesize that errors in self-cannulation or manipulation of dialysis vascular access are associated with increased incidence of access-related infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all prevalent HHD patients at the University Health Network. All vascular access-related infections were recorded from 2006 to 2013. Errors in dialysis access were ascertained by nurse-administered vascular access checklist. Ninety-two patients had completed at least one vascular access audit. Median HHD vintage was 2.3 (0.9-5.0) years in patients with appropriate vascular access technique and 5.8 (1.5-9.4) years in patients with erroneous vascular access technique. The overall rate of infection between patients with and without appropriate vascular access technique was similar (0.27 and 0.28 infections per year, P = 0.166). Among patients who were identified with errors in dialysis access manipulation, patients with five or more errors were associated with higher rate of access-related infection (mean of 0.47 vs. 0.16 infection per patient-year, P vascular access audit is a feasible strategy, which can identify errors in vascular access technique. Patients with a longer median HHD vintage are associated with higher risk of inappropriate vascular access technique. Patients with multiple errors in vascular access technique are associated with a higher risk of dialysis access-related infection. Prospective evaluation of the impact of vascular access audit on adverse vascular access events is warranted. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  1. Reducing vascular access morbidity: a comparative trial of two vascular access monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Charmaine E; Bhola, Cynthia; Croxford, Ruth; Richardson, Robert M A

    2003-06-01

    Thrombosis is the primary cause of access failure in polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and arteriovenous fistulas. It can lead to significant patient and access morbidity and mortality, and is difficult to prevent medically. Intervention is largely limited to maximizing access patency by detecting culprit lesions early and intervening with angioplasty or surgical revision. The most efficacious monitoring strategy is undetermined. This 3 year prospective study took advantage of a change in monitoring strategy used in a large dialysis centre to compare the efficacy of two methods used to monitor grafts and fistulas in order to prevent access thrombosis. Accesses were monitored using Duplex ultrasonography in year 1, while the saline ultrasound dilution technique (Transonic) became the primary monitoring strategy in year 3 (year 2 was a transition year). Risk factors for thrombosis were determined using multivariate survival analysis, and the performance of Duplex ultrasonography and Transonic monitoring was assessed. A total of 303 656 access days at risk were assessed, with 344, 385 and 425 accesses in years 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The total thrombosis rate was 1.01/1000 access days in year 1 compared with 0.66/1000 access days in year 3. This was accomplished despite a reduction in procedure rates of 55% for angiograms, 13% for angioplasties and 31% for thrombolysis. Low flow rates detected using Transonic monitoring were associated with increased thrombosis, while stenosis detected using Duplex ultrasonography was not a strong predictor of incipient thrombosis; however, these different access characteristics were compared using monitoring techniques that may be ideal in different clinical situations.

  2. Tips and tricks in vascular access for (T)EVAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Beatrice; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Rohlffs, Fiona; Heidemann, Franziska; Debus, Sebastian E; Kölbel, Tilo

    2017-04-01

    Endovascular repair has become the treatment of choice for thoracic and abdominal aortic pathologies in the last decades, and is associated with excellent results in terms of perioperative, mid- and long-term morbidity and mortality. Access vessels play a central role in these procedures since access-related issues can increase the rates of technical failures and determine clinical complications for the patient. Therefore, accurate preoperative clinical evaluation and review of the preoperative images are mandatory. In this review, we report on the access-related issues that can be encountered during EVAR and TEVAR, and present solutions and strategies to minimize access-related adverse outcomes.

  3. Cardiac safety in vascular access surgery and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jan; Kudlicka, Jaroslav; Tesar, Vladimir; Linhart, Ales

    2015-01-01

    More than 50% of all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients die from cardiovascular complications. Among them, heart failure and pulmonary hypertension play a major role, and published studies document significantly higher mortality rates in patients with these two states. Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) and arteriovenous grafts (AVG) are the preferred types of vascular access (VA). However, both AVF and AVG increase cardiac output and in turn could contribute to (the decompensation of) heart failure or pulmonary hypertension. No really safe access flow volume exists, and the ESRD patients' reactions to it vary considerably. We review the mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular consequences of increased cardiac output and available literary data. The link between access flow volume and increased mortality due to pulmonary hypertension or heart failure probably exists, but still has not been directly evidenced. Regular echocardiography is advisable especially in patients with symptoms or with high VA flow (>1,500 ml/min). © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Equal Access but Unequal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that existing studies on cultural capital and educational success fail to distinguish the different channels through which cultural capital promotes educational success. Following Bourdieu, the article proposes that for cultural capital to promote educational success three...... conditions must hold: (1. parents must possess cultural capital, (2. they must transfer their cultural capital to children, and (3. children must absorb cultural capital and convert it into educational success. This research develops an empirical model that analyzes the significance of the three effects...... with respect to Danish children's choice of secondary education. Denmark is well-suited for this study because access to secondary education is particularly meritocratic. The empirical analysis shows that all three channels through which cultural capital affects educational success are important....

  5. The end stage of dialysis access: femoral graft or HeRO vascular access device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlaty, Elizabeth A; Pan, Jeanne; Allemang, Matthew T; Kendrick, Daniel E; Kashyap, Vikram S; Wong, Virginia L

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and establishing vascular access in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is complicated when they are poor candidates for traditional upper extremity access. Our objective was to compare our experience with 2 alternative dialysis accesses, the femoral arteriovenous graft (fAVG) and the Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO), in patients with limited remaining options. A single institution, retrospective review of ESRD patients with fAVG or HeRO placed between May 2009 and February 2013 was performed. Adult patients were selected by reviewing all arteriovenous grafts placed at a single institution. Patient demographics, medical history, access characteristics, and outcomes were recorded from both institutional and dialysis center databases. Data were evaluated using Fisher's exact test, unpaired t-test for continuous variables, log-rank test, and univariate analysis. A total of 56 accesses in 43 unique patients met these criteria: 35 fAVG and 21 HeRO; with 1 HeRO patient lost immediately to follow-up. Clinical variables were similar except the HeRO group had more diabetic patients (60% HeRO, 22.9% fAVG; P = 0.01). The average number of years on hemodialysis was 7.0 ± 1.0 for fAVG and 5.7 ± 0.9 for HeRO (P = 0.41). Primary patency was 40.5%, 18.7%, and 14.9% for fAVG and 29.0%, 29.0%, and 0% for HeRO at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years (P = 0.67), respectively. Assisted primary patency was also similar, with 43.8%, 29.4%, and 13.8% for fAVG and 34.8%, 34.8%, and 17.4% for HeRO at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years (P = 0.81), respectively. Secondary patency was 62.6%, 50.6%, 19.3% for fAVG and 68.0%, 53.5%, 38.3% for HeRO at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years (P = 0.69), respectively. Average number of interventions to maintain patency for fAVG was 1.1 ± 1.47 and 1.65 ± 2.52 for HeRO (P = 0.35). Infectious complications occurred in 29% of fAVG and 15% of HeRO (P = 0.33). Patients who received either fAVG or HeRO experience poor access patency. ESRD

  6. Evaluation of a simplified augmented reality device for ultrasound-guided vascular access in a vascular phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yunseok; Choi, Seungpyo; Kim, Heechan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate whether a novel ultrasound device may be used with a simplified augmented reality technique, and to compare this device with conventional techniques during vascular access using a vascular phantom. Prospective, randomized study. Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine departments of a university-affiliated hospital. 20 physicians with no experience with ultrasound-guided techniques. All participants performed the vascular access technique on the vascular phantom model using both a conventional device and the new ultrasound device. Time and the number of redirections of the needle until aspiration of dye into a vessel of the vascular phantom were measured. The median/interquartile range of time was 39.5/41.7 seconds versus 18.6/10.0 seconds (P < 0.001) and number of redirections was 3/3.5 versus 1/0 (P < 0.001) for the conventional and novel ultrasound devices, respectively. During vascular access in a vascular phantom model, the novel device decreased the time and the number of redirections significantly. The device successfully improved the efficiency of the ultrasound-guided vascular access technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Arterial cutdown reduces complications after brachial access for peripheral vascular intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Marcus R; Dalman, Ronald L; Kalish, Jeffrey; Mell, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Factors influencing risk for brachial access site complications after peripheral vascular intervention are poorly understood. We queried the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative to identify unique demographic and technical risks for such complications. The Vascular Quality Initiative peripheral vascular intervention data files from years 2010 to 2014 were analyzed to compare puncture site complication rates and associations encountered with either brachial or femoral arterial access for peripheral vascular intervention. Procedures requiring multiple access sites were excluded. Complications were defined as wound hematoma or access vessel stenosis/occlusion. Univariate and hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify independent factors associated with site complications after brachial access. Of 44,634 eligible peripheral vascular intervention procedures, 732 (1.6%) were performed through brachial access. Brachial access was associated with an increased complication rate compared with femoral access (9.0% vs 3.3%; P access site stenosis/occlusion (2.1% vs 0.4%; P access complications included age, female gender, and sheath size. Complications occurred less frequently after arterial cutdown (4.1%) compared with either ultrasound-guided (11.8%) or fluoroscopically guided percutaneous access (7.3%; P = .07 across all variables). Neither surgeons' overall peripheral vascular intervention experience nor prior experience with brachial access predicted likelihood of adverse events. By multivariate analysis, male gender (odds ratio [OR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.84; P access complications. Larger sheath sizes (>5F) were associated with increased risk of complications (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.07-4.49; P = .03). Brachial access for peripheral vascular intervention carries significantly increased risks for access site occlusion or hematoma formation. Arterial cutdown and smaller sheath diameters are associated with lower

  8. A semi-automated vascular access system for preclinical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry-Pusey, B. N.; Chang, Y. C.; Prince, S. W.; Chu, K.; David, J.; Taschereau, R.; Silverman, R. W.; Williams, D.; Ladno, W.; Stout, D.; Tsao, T. C.; Chatziioannou, A.

    2013-08-01

    Murine models are used extensively in biological and translational research. For many of these studies it is necessary to access the vasculature for the injection of biologically active agents. Among the possible methods for accessing the mouse vasculature, tail vein injections are a routine but critical step for many experimental protocols. To perform successful tail vein injections, a high skill set and experience is required, leaving most scientists ill-suited to perform this task. This can lead to a high variability between injections, which can impact experimental results. To allow more scientists to perform tail vein injections and to decrease the variability between injections, a vascular access system (VAS) that semi-automatically inserts a needle into the tail vein of a mouse was developed. The VAS uses near infrared light, image processing techniques, computer controlled motors, and a pressure feedback system to insert the needle and to validate its proper placement within the vein. The VAS was tested by injecting a commonly used radiolabeled probe (FDG) into the tail veins of five mice. These mice were then imaged using micro-positron emission tomography to measure the percentage of the injected probe remaining in the tail. These studies showed that, on average, the VAS leaves 3.4% of the injected probe in the tail. With these preliminary results, the VAS system demonstrates the potential for improving the accuracy of tail vein injections in mice.

  9. "Prediction of early failure of vascular-access arteriovenous fistula based on immediate postsurgical evaluation"

    OpenAIRE

    Keshvari A; Jafarian A; Makarem J; Rabbani A; Mirsharifi SM

    2007-01-01

    Background: For patients requiring chronic hemodialysis, the preferred site for vascular access is an autogenous arteriovenous fistula. Although a properly formed fistula is advantageous because it is less susceptible than other types of vascular accesses to infection and clot formation and can last longer than any other types of vascular access, AV fistula has a high rate of early failure that can increase immediate cost and complications. In this study, the prognostic value of physical exam...

  10. Surveillance of hemodialysis vascular access with ultrasound vector flow imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Andreas H.; Olesen, Jacob B.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.; Rix, Marianne; Jensen, Jørgen A.; Nielsen, Michael B.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was prospectively to monitor the volume flow in patients with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with the angle independent ultrasound technique Vector Flow Imaging (VFI). Volume flow values were compared with Ultrasound dilution technique (UDT). Hemodialysis patients need a well-functioning vascular access with as few complications as possible and preferred vascular access is an AVF. Dysfunction due to stenosis is a common complication, and regular monitoring of volume flow is recommended to preserve AVF patency. UDT is considered the gold standard for volume flow surveillance, but VFI has proven to be more precise, when performing single repeated instantaneous measurements. Three patients with AVF were monitored with UDT and VFI monthly for five months. A commercial ultrasound scanner with a 9 MHz linear array transducer with integrated VFI was used to obtain data. UDT values were obtained with Transonic HD03 Flow-QC Hemodialysis Monitor. Three independent measurements at each scan session were obtained with UDT and VFI each month. Average deviation of volume flow between UDT and VFI was 25.7 % (Cl: 16.7% to 34.7%) (p= 0.73). The standard deviation for all patients, calculated from the mean variance of each individual scan sessions, was 199.8 ml/min for UDT and 47.6 ml/min for VFI (p = 0.002). VFI volume flow values were not significantly different from the corresponding estimates obtained using UDT, and VFI measurements were more precise than UDT. The study indicates that VFI can be used for surveillance of volume flow.

  11. "You know your own fistula, it becomes a part of you"--Patient perspectives on vascular access: A semistructured interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew J; Hanson, Camilla S; Casey, Jordan R; Craig, Jonathan C; Harris, David; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-01

    The success of hemodialysis depends on functional vascular access but such an invasive, semipermanent intervention can be confronting for patients. Vascular access complications are potentially life threatening and reduce treatment satisfaction and quality of life. This study aims to describe patient perspectives on vascular access. Face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 26 adult patients receiving hemodialysis with any form of vascular access at two dialysis units in Australia. The transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. We identified five major themes describing patient perspectives on vascular access: developing mental fortitude for access (accepting necessity for survival, self-advocacy, experiential confidence and competency, dependency on others, gaining vascular knowledge), device intrusiveness on the body (restricting normal function, finding compensatory solutions, bodily invasion, confronting appearance), inhibiting pain (aversion to surgery, persisting needle anxieties), exposure to dire health consequences (resigning to inevitable failure, anticipating serious complications, technological skepticism, wary of medical incompetence), and imposing burdens (generating additional expenses, encumbering family members). Patients with a vascular access rely on a precarious lifeline, which is confronting, intrusive, and burdensome. Some develop mental resilience to cope with the pain and invasiveness of vascular access. The results suggest that more attention to address needle anxieties, self-advocacy, lifestyle disruption, fear of complications, and concern for caregiver burden may improve treatment satisfaction and outcomes for patients on hemodialysis. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  12. Proximal radial artery arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, William C; Mallios, Alexandros; Mushtaq, Nasir

    2017-09-11

    This study reviewed our experience with proximal radial artery-based arteriovenous fistulas (PRA-AVFs) for hemodialysis vascular access, evaluating characteristics of the patients, functional patency, risk of steal syndrome, survival of the patient, and technical considerations. We retrospectively analyzed our database of consecutive patients, identifying those individuals with a PRA-AVF created during a 12-year period. In addition to physical examination, all patients underwent ultrasound vessel mapping by the operating surgeon, identifying the PRA-AVF configuration and outflow target most likely to succeed. PRA-AVFs were created in 1396 individuals during the 12-year study period. The mean age was 59 years (standard deviation, ±15.9 years); 717 (51%) patients were women, 819 (59%) were diabetic, and 394 (28%) were obese. A transposition procedure was required in 400 patients, and 189 (47%) of these were completed in two-staged operations. Preoperative characteristics with a negative impact on PRA-AVF cumulative patency included female gender (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.65), obesity (hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-2.65), and younger age. Dialysis-associated steal syndrome (DASS) requiring an intervention occurred in 39 (2.8%) patients, and 85% of these were diabetic. The most common procedures required to restore hand perfusion while preserving the AVF were banding and outflow branch ligation or coil occlusion to decrease access flow. DASS emerged spontaneously in 15 (1.1%) of the patients, and 24 (1.7%) individuals developed hand ischemia requiring intervention after fistulography with balloon angioplasty of the PRA-AVF anastomosis during the first years of the study period. Limiting angioplasty balloon size for such patients avoided these uncommon angioplasty-induced DASS events in later years. Primary, primary assisted, and cumulative (secondary) patency rates were 60%, 90%, and 93% at 12 months and 47%, 86%, and

  13. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flows Through a Novel Vascular Access Device for Hemodialysis Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obabko, Aleksandr; Tsyrulnykov, Eduard; Rainsberger, Robert; Torreira, Alvaro V.; Nagib, Hassan; Agarwal, Anil; Fischer, Paul F.

    2017-11-01

    The preferred vascular access in patients on hemodialysis (HD) is an arteriovenous (AV) fistula or graft. The majority of the HD patients in the US are dialyzed with an AV fistula where two needles are used for cannulation in most cases. However, this approach can be painfully invasive, extremely difficult to gain access in patients with challenging geometry of vascular access, and is often inadequate to provide optimal blood flow. This work attempts to address the shortcomings of the above procedure and introduces a novel cannulation device that allows less painful easy single access to difficult vessel geometries, and have a potential of improvement of overall increase in efficacy of HD and enhanced patient experience. We present the preliminary Nek5000 large-eddy simulations results of the flows through the device that employs a single 18-gauge needle for cannulation and is able to provide blood flow rates up to 600 ml/min. The range of flow rates and Reynolds numbers up to Re=2,600 are considered and blood recirculation rates are computed. This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility and was supported in part by the U.S. DOE Office of Science under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. Beta-blocker use and clinical outcomes after primary vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, A.; Lindholt, J.S.; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    To explore the associations between beta-blocker use and clinical outcomes (death, hospitalisation with myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke, major amputation and recurrent vascular surgery) after primary vascular reconstruction.......To explore the associations between beta-blocker use and clinical outcomes (death, hospitalisation with myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke, major amputation and recurrent vascular surgery) after primary vascular reconstruction....

  15. Treatment of hemodialysis vascular access arteriovenous graft failure by percutaneous intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, Robrecht Nils; van Kesteren, Floortje; Reekers, Jim A.

    2014-01-01

    A patent vascular access is the lifeline of end-stage renal disease patients depending on hemodialysis treatment. Once a functioning vascular access has been established, maintaining its patency is of utmost importance. During the last decades percutaneous techniques became increasingly important

  16. Factors Affecting Patency following Successful Percutaneous Intervention for Dysfunctional Hemodialysis Vascular Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Min; Ko, Heung Kyu; Noh, Minsu; Ko, Gi-Young; Kim, Min-Ju; Kwon, Tae-Won; Kim, Hee Jin; Cho, Yong-Pil

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the patency following initial successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for untreated dysfunctional hemodialysis vascular access and to identify predictors of PTA durability. This retrospective observational study included data of 132 consecutive initial PTA of hemodialysis vascular access in 126 patients who showed immediate technical and clinical success and had at least 1 year of follow-up data. The mean duration of primary and secondary patency post-PTA was 16 and 27 months, respectively. On multivariate adjusted Cox regression analysis, dyslipidemia (P vascular access (P = 0.004) were significant predictors of secondary patency loss. Use of statin was the only clinical variable associated with increased primary and secondary patency (P vascular access and dysfunction, primary and secondary patency rates were significantly higher in the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and failing vascular access groups than AVG and failed vascular access groups, respectively. Early dysfunction (within 6 months) was significantly higher in the AVG and failed vascular access groups after initial PTA, but there was no significant difference after multiple PTAs. Post-PTA primary and secondary patency rates were significantly higher with AVF and failing vascular access. The use of statin was associated with increased primary and secondary patency after initial successful PTA in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vascular access: comparison of US guidance with the sonic flashlight and conventional US in phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wilson M; Amesur, Nikhil B; Klatzky, Roberta L; Zajko, Albert B; Stetten, George D

    2006-12-01

    To prospectively evaluate whether ultrasonography (US)-guided vascular access can be learned and performed faster with the sonic flashlight than with conventional US and to demonstrate sonic flashlight-guided vascular access in a cadaver. Institutional review board approval and oral and written informed consent were obtained. The sonic flashlight replaces the standard US monitor with a real-time US image that appears to float beneath the skin and is displayed where it is scanned. In studies 1 and 2, participants performed sonic flashlight-guided needle insertion tasks in vascular phantoms. In study 1, 16 participants (nine women, seven men) with no US experience performed 60 simulated vascular access trials with sonic flashlight or conventional US guidance. With analysis of variance (ANOVA) and power-curve fitting, improvement with practice rate and mean differences between techniques and tasks were examined. In study 2, 14 female nurses (mean age, 50.1 years) proficient with conventional US performed simulated vascular access trials on three tasks with the sonic flashlight and conventional US. With random assignment, half the participants used the sonic flashlight first and half used conventional US first. Mean performance with each technique and that with each task were compared by using ANOVA. In study 3, feasibility of sonic flashlight guidance for access to internal jugular and basilic veins was demonstrated in a cadaver. For study 1, learning rates (ie, decrease in access time over trials) did not differ for vascular access with sonic flashlight and conventional US. Overall, participants achieved faster vascular access times with sonic flashlight guidance (P vascular access was gained in the cadaver. Learning and performance of vascular access were significantly faster with the sonic flashlight than with conventional US, and vascular access could be gained in a cadaver; the sonic flashlight is ready for clinical trials. (c) RSNA, 2006.

  18. The effect of an educational program for vascular access care on nurses’ knowledge at dialysis centers in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalthoum Ibrahim Yousif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease is a worldwide problem that requires highly skilled nursing care. Hemodialysis (HD is a corner-stone procedure in the management of most patients who require renal replacement therapy. Adequate vascular access is essential for the successful use of HD. Appropriate knowledge in taking care of vascular access is essential for minimizing complications and accurately recognizing vascular access-related problems. This study was to evaluate the effect of an educational program for vascular access care on nurses’ knowledge at nine dialysis centers in Khartoum State. This was a Quasi experimental study (pre-and post-test for the same group. Sixty-one nurses working in these HD centers were chosen by simple random sampling method. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire based on the Kidney Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for vascular access care was used. Instrument validity was determined through content validity by a panel of experts. Reliability of the instrument was tested by a pilot study to test the knowledge scores for 15 nurses. The Pearson correlation coefficient obtained was (r = 0.82. Data collection was taken before and after the educational intervention. A follow-up test was performed three month later, using the same data collection tools. Twenty-two individual variables assessing the knowledge levels in aspects related to the six K/DOQI guidelines showed improvement in all scores of the nurses’ knowledge after the educational intervention; and the differences from the preeducational scores were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The study showed that a structured educational program based on the K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines had a significant impact on the dialysis nurses knowledge in caring for vascular access in HD patients. The knowledge level attained was maintained for at least three months after the educational intervention.

  19. The effect of an educational program for vascular access care on nurses' knowledge at dialysis centers in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Kalthoum Ibrahim; Abu-Aisha, Hasan; Abboud, Omar Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    End-stage renal disease is a worldwide problem that requires highly skilled nursing care. Hemodialysis (HD) is a corner-stone procedure in the management of most patients who require renal replacement therapy. Adequate vascular access is essential for the successful use of HD. Appropriate knowledge in taking care of vascular access is essential for minimizing complications and accurately recognizing vascular access-related problems. This study was to evaluate the effect of an educational program for vascular access care on nurses' knowledge at nine dialysis centers in Khartoum State. This was a Quasi experimental study (pre-and post-test for the same group). Sixty-one nurses working in these HD centers were chosen by simple random sampling method. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire based on the Kidney Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) clinical practice guidelines for vascular access care was used. Instrument validity was determined through content validity by a panel of experts. Reliability of the instrument was tested by a pilot study to test the knowledge scores for 15 nurses. The Pearson correlation coefficient obtained was (r = 0.82). Data collection was taken before and after the educational intervention. A follow-up test was performed three month later, using the same data collection tools. Twenty-two individual variables assessing the knowledge levels in aspects related to the six K/DOQI guidelines showed improvement in all scores of the nurses' knowledge after the educational intervention; and the differences from the preeducational scores were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The study showed that a structured educational program based on the K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines had a significant impact on the dialysis nurses knowledge in caring for vascular access in HD patients. The knowledge level attained was maintained for at least three months after the educational intervention.

  20. A dedicated vascular access clinic for children on haemodialysis: Two years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Rukshana; Sterenborg, Rosalie B; Kuchta, Adam; Arnold, Andrew; Thomas, Nicholas; Stronach, Lynsey; Padayachee, Soundrie; Calder, Francis

    2016-12-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) formation for long-term haemodialysis in children is a niche discipline with little data for guidance. We developed a dedicated Vascular Access Clinic that is run jointly by a transplant surgeon, paediatric nephrologist, dialysis nurse and a clinical vascular scientist specialised in vascular sonography for the assessment and surveillance of AVFs. We report the experience and 2-year outcomes of this clinic. Twelve new AVFs were formed and 11 existing AVFs were followed up for 2 years. All children were assessed by clinical and ultrasound examination. During the study period 12 brachiocephalic, nine basilic vein transpositions and two radiocephalic AVFs were followed up. The median age (interquartile range) and weight of those children undergoing new AVF creation were 9.4 (interquartile 3-17) years and 26.9 (14-67) kg, respectively. Pre-operative ultrasound vascular mapping showed maximum median vein and artery diameters of 3.0 (2-5) and 2.7 (2.0-5.3) mm, respectively. Maturation scans 6 weeks after AVF formation showed a median flow of 1277 (432-2880) ml/min. Primary maturation rate was 83 % (10/12). Assisted maturation was 100 %, with two patients requiring a single angioplasty. For the 11 children with an existing AVF the maximum median vein diameter was 14.0 (8.0-26.0) mm, and the median flow rate was 1781 (800-2971) ml/min at a median of 153 weeks after AVF formation. Twenty-two AVFs were used successfully for dialysis, a median kt/V of 1.97 (1.8-2.9), and urea reduction ratio of 80.7 % (79.3-86 %) was observed. One child was transplanted before the AVF was used. A multidisciplinary vascular clinic incorporating ultrasound assessment is key to maintaining young children on chronic haemodialysis via an AVF.

  1. Association between initial vascular access and survival in hemodialysis according to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan

    2017-11-20

    This study aims to demonstrate whether the association between initial vascular access and mortality among hemodialysis patients varies by age. We conducted a retrospective study that included 2,552 patients who started hemodialysis. Vascular access was divided into three categories: percutaneous catheter, tunneled cuffed catheter, and arteriovenous (AV) access. Survival rates for patients who received a central venous catheter, such as percutaneous or tunneled cuffed catheter, aged 65 to 74 years and those ≥ 75 years were reduced, but not for those aged access decreased (94.1%, 90.5%, and 80.3% for patients aged vascular access was associated with long-term mortality. We suggest that a "fistula first" strategy is superior for elderly patients and demonstrates that it is desirable to change to AV access, and not maintain an initial central vascular catheter.

  2. What is the best setting for receiving dialysis vascular access repair and maintenance services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamil, Audrey M; Dobson, Al; Manolov, Nikolay; DaVanzo, Joan E; Beathard, Gerald A; Foust Litchfield, Terry; Cowin, Brook

    2017-11-17

    Advances in dialysis vascular access (DVA) management have changed where beneficiaries receive this care. The effectiveness, safety, quality, and economy of different care settings have been questioned. This study compares patient outcomes of receiving DVA services in the freestanding office-based center (FOC) to those of the hospital outpatient department (HOPD). It also examines whether outcomes differ for a centrally managed system of FOCs (CMFOC) compared to all other FOCs (AOFOC). Retrospective cohort study of clinically and demographically similar patients within Medicare claims available through United States Renal Data System (USRDS) (2010-2013) who received at least 80% of DVA services in an FOC (n = 80,831) or HOPD (n = 133,965). Separately, FOC population is divided into CMFOC (n = 20,802) and AOFOC (n = 80,267). Propensity matching was used to control for clinical, demographic, and functional characteristics across populations. FOC patients experienced significantly better outcomes, including lower annual mortality (14.6% vs. 17.2%, pDVA-related infections (0.16 vs. 0.20, pDVA services) ($1486 vs. $1533, pDVA services can impact patient clinical and economic outcomes. This research confirmed that patients who received DVA care in the FOC had better outcomes than those treated in the HOPD. The organizational culture and clinical oversight of the CMFOC may result in more favorable outcomes than receiving care in AOFOC.

  3. A Review on the Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) Graft for Haemodialysis Vascular Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shakarchi, J; Houston, J G; Jones, R G; Inston, N

    2015-07-01

    With improved dialysis survival there are increasing numbers of patients who have exhausted definitive access options due to central venous stenosis and are maintaining dialysis on a central venous catheter. The Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) allows an alternative by providing a definitive access solution. The aim of this study is to systematically review the published outcomes of the HeRO graft and discuss the role in complex haemodialysis patients. Electronic databases were searched for studies assessing the use of the HeRO graft for dialysis in accordance with PRISMA published up to December 31 2014. The primary outcomes for this study were 1-year primary and secondary patency rates. Secondary outcomes were rates of dialysis access associated steal syndrome, HeRO-related bacteraemia rates and rates of interventions. Following strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, eight studies including 409 patients were included in our review. Primary and secondary pooled patency rates in this complex cohort of dialysis patients were found to be 21.9% (9.6-37.2%) and 59.4% (39.4-78%). The rate of dialysis access associated steal syndrome was low at 6.3% (1-14.7%) as was the range of HeRO-related bacteraemia (0.13-0.7 events per 1000 days). This literature review shows that the HeRO graft is an acceptable option for complex dialysis patients who are catheter dependent. Owing to device availability, published data are predominantly North American and further longer-term studies in other populations may be necessary. In this challenging patient group, randomized controlled trials are required to allow comparisons with alternative access options. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of multidisciplinary, early renal education on vascular access placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Jill S; Husserl, Fred E; Ross, Jamie L; Jackson, Dina; Scarlata, Debra; Nussbaum, Joyce; Cohen, Andrew; Elzein, Hafez

    2005-02-01

    The Ochsner Clinic Foundation initiated the Healthy Start Clinic to identify, educate, and refer chronic kidney disease patients to nephrologists earlier in the course of their disease. This study investigated the impact of a structured educational session on the type and timing of permanent vascular access placement in patients receiving hemodialysis. Before initiating dialysis, the HSC patient group received a general overview of the kidney and kidney disease, plus one-on-one instruction from a registered nurse, a dietitian, and a social worker. The HSC group was compared with a concurrent, conventionally prepared group of CKD patients who initiated dialysis during the same study period. Of the 147 patients initiating hemodialysis at OCF between April 1997 and December 2000, 61 had received structured HSC education, and 86 had received conventional care. In HSC-educated patients, the incidence of PVAs placed before hemodialysis initiation was twofold greater than in patients who received conventional care (77% HSC; 36% non-HSC, p < 0.001), and more HSC-educated patients initiated hemodialysis using their PVA (49% HSC; 23% non-HSC, p < 0.01). In addition, five times more patients who received HSC education received arteriovenous fistulas (52% HSC; 10% non-HSC, p < 0.001). Finally, significantly fewer HSC-educated patients initiated dialysis on a temporary catheter (51% HSC; 77% non-HSC, p < 0.001). Education programs for CKD patients help increase the number of patients receiving early PVA placement, as well as the proportion of patients receiving AVFs as opposed to grafts or temporary catheters.

  5. Vascular access in patients receiving hemodialysis in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashek, Wiam A; McIntyre, Christopher W; Taal, Maarten W

    2012-01-01

    A native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) represents the optimal form of Vascular Access (VA) for patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). In Libya there are several barriers to AVF creation including lack of adequate preparation for dialysis and surgical services. We aimed to conduct the first comprehensive study of VA utilisation in HD patients in Libya. A prospective observational study included all adult patients receiving HD treatment in 25 HD facilities in Libya from May 2009 to Nov 2011. Researchers gathered data regarding VA through interviews with staff and patients as well as medical records. Patients with definitive VA were re-interviewed after 1 year. At baseline the majority of patients (91.9%; n=1573) were using permanent VA in the form of AVF or arteriovenous graft. Patients with permanent VA were more likely to be male and less likely to be diabetic than those with CVCs. Most patients had commenced HD using a temporary CVC (91.8%). VA-related complications were: thrombosis (46.7%), aneurysm (22.6%), infection (11.5%) and haemorrhage (10.2%). Incident VA thrombosis was reported by 14.7% in 1 year. Independent risk factors for incident thrombosis were female gender and diabetes. Hospitalisation for VA related complications was reported by 31.4%. Few patients in Libya initiate HD with definitive VA, but most achieve it thereafter. Improved dialysis preparation and increased provision of surgical services are required to increase the proportion of patients initiating HD with definitive VA and should be a priority in rebuilding health services in Libya after the recent conflict.

  6. Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Registry evaluation of stent cell design on carotid artery stenting outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Jeffrey; Rubin, Brian G; Landis, Gregg S; Kenwood, Christopher T; Siami, Flora S; Sicard, Gregorio A

    2011-07-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Vascular Registry (VR) collects data on outcomes of carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting (CAS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of open vs closed cell stent design on the in-hospital and 30-day outcome of CAS. The VR collects provider-reported data on patients using a Web-based database. Data were analyzed both in-hospital and at 30 days postprocedure. The primary outcome is combined death/stroke/myocardial infarction (MI). As of October 14, 2009, there were 4337 CAS with discharge data and 2397 with 30-day data. Open cell stents (OPEN) were used in 3451 patients (79.6%), and closed cell stents (CLOSED) were used in 866 patients (20.4%). Baseline demographics showed no differences in age, gender, race, and ethnicity. However, the OPEN group had more patients with atherosclerosis (74.5% vs 67.4%; P = .0003) as the etiology of carotid artery disease. The OPEN group also had a higher prevalence of preprocedural stroke (25.8% vs 21.4%; P = .0079), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; 21.0% vs 17.6%; P = .0277), cardiac arrhythmia (14.7% vs 11.4%; P = .0108), valvular heart disease (7.4% vs 3.7%; P differences in the in-hospital or 30-day outcomes between the OPEN and CLOSED patients. Further subgroup analyses demonstrated symptomatic patients had a higher event rate than the asymptomatic cohort in both the OPEN and CLOSED groups. Among symptomatic patients, the OPEN patients had a lower (0.43% vs 1.41%; P = .0349) rate of in-hospital mortality with no difference in stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). There were no differences in 30-day event rates. In asymptomatic patients, there were also no statistically significant differences between the OPEN and CLOSED groups. After risk adjustment, there remained no statistically significant differences between groups of the primary endpoint (death/stroke/MI) during in-hospital or 30 days. In-hospital and 30-day outcomes after CAS were not

  7. Development of an international core outcome set for peripheral vascular malformations (OVAMA project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horbach, S. E. R.; van der Horst, C. M. A. M.; Blei, F.; van der Vleuten, C. J. M.; Frieden, I. J.; Richter, G. T.; Tan, S. T.; Muir, T.; Penington, A.; Boon, L. M.; Spuls, P. I.

    2017-01-01

    An important limitation in vascular malformation research is the heterogeneity in outcome measures used for the evaluation of treatment outcome. The Outcome measures for VAscular MAlformations (OVAMA) project aimed to reach international consensus on a core outcome set (COS) for clinical research on

  8. Use of sodium hydroxide solution to clear partially occluded vascular access ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Borg, F.; Timmer, J.; de Kam, S. S.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    1993-01-01

    Gradual vascular access port or tunneled central venous catheter occlusion during total parenteral nutrition is a common complication of unknown etiology, usually unresponsive to treatment with urokinase, ethanol, or hydrochloric acid. After establishing safety with regard to catheter materials and

  9. Surgical Management of Percutaneous Transfemoral Access to Minimize Vascular Complications Related to Transcatheter Aortic Valve' Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareyre, Fabien; Raffort, Juliette; Dommerc, Carine; Habib, Yacoub; Bourlon, François; Mialhe, Claude

    2018-02-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is associated with substantial rates of vascular complications. The aim of our study is to describe the surgical management of percutaneous transfemoral access by a vascular surgeon and to report the 30-day postoperative vascular complications and mortality. Perioperative procedures to manage the femoral access site were recorded retrospectively from 220 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI. Postoperative vascular complications related to the main access were categorized according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 classification. Perioperative procedures related to vascular access were performed for 56 (25.4%) patients: 6 patients required open surgical repair, 48 patients underwent endovascular stenting, and 2 patients had both procedures. The all-cause mortality was 3.6%, but no death related to a vascular complication was reported during the 30-day postoperative follow-up period. Ten (4.5%) patients developed postoperative hematomas; 2 (0.9%) of them were retroperitoneal and led to major bleeding requiring an unplanned surgical intervention. Our study underlines the utility of a multidisciplinary approach to manage the percutaneous access in TAVI for managing postoperative vascular complications.

  10. An establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava for a patient with multiple central venous stenosis or occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yong Shu; Feng, Yan Huan; Liu, Chun Cheng; Cui, Tian Lei; Fu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The patency of vascular access is of vital importance to dialysis patients. Access dysfunction is largely caused by vessel stenosis and thrombosis. Nephrologists usually find themselves helpless when all treatments fail and the vascular access seems to have exhausted. Here we report a successful establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava for a critical patient with multiple central venous stenosis or occlusion. To our knowledge, it is the first case ever reported on the successful establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava under such a complicated condition of vascular exhaustion.

  11. Monitoring and Surveillance of Hemodialysis Vascular Access Using StenTec and Physical Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamija, Rajiv; Nash, Shawn K; Nguyen, Shawn V; Slack, Kyle; Tadeo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis vascular access surveillance for hemodynamically significant stenosis can be a challenge because no universal gold standard exists. The StenTec Gauge measures static intra-access peak pressure and graphically displays the ratio of this pressure to systemic systolic (peak) arterial pressure (PIA ratio). In combination with careful physical exam (PE), the StenTec Gauge is an acceptable and cost-effective way of detecting hemodynamically significant stenosis in arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) or grafts (AVG). In a selected population of 21 hemodialysis patients with mature arteriovenous access, a StenTec reading and physical examination was measured on a weekly basis. Interventional procedures for suspected access dysfunction were performed if there was a greater than 25% increase of the PIA ratio from baseline in two consecutive readings, along with correlating clinical suspicion from physical examination findings. StenTec independently had a sensitivity of 56% and a specificity of 99% in detecting clinically significant stenosis. PE alone had a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 100%. StenTec combined with PE had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99% for predicting hemodynamically significant stenosis. StenTec detected 4 of 10 patients who had a PIA ratio value of ≥0.5, which correlates with current National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) criteria for mean intra-access pressure ratios indicating a clinically significant outflow stenosis. PE predicted 9 of 10 patients with stenosis, and the combination of StenTec and PE predicted all 10 patients with clinically significant stenosis using the KDOQI criteria for PIA ratio. Hemodynamically significant access stenosis can be detected with excellent accuracy using both StenTec and PE measurements combined for monitoring and surveillance methods. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Major femoral vascular access complications after coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures: A Danish register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Ditte; Pedersen, Frants; Engstrøm, Thomas; Køber, Lars; Højberg, Søren; Nielsen, Michael B; Schroeder, Torben V; Lönn, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Vascular access complications after coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are known to increase morbidity, prolong hospitalization and raise hospital costs. Therefore, risk factor identification and improvement of safety strategies for vascular management are important. We aimed to assess the incidence of major vascular complications related to femoral access, and to identify potential risk factors. Over a period of six years, 23,870 index procedures (CAG) were performed in two centres, prospectively entered in the database and retrospectively analysed. Data was obtained from the Eastern Danish Heart Registry and cross-matched with data from the Danish Vascular Registry. Index procedures were defined as the first trans-femoral procedure. Demographic, procedural and mortality data, as well as information on access complications requiring surgery within 30 days were collected. Mortality data were collected for minimum 12 months. We identified 130 (0.54%) access complications requiring surgery; 65 pseudoaneurysms (0.28%), 46 arterial occlusions (0.19%), 15 hematomas (nine groin and six retroperitoneal hematomas) (0.06%), and 4 arterial dissections (0.02%). Risk factors for complications were left sided femoral access (OR 4.11 [2.29-7.37] pVascular complications related to femoral access in coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures are low (0.54%). Risk factors were left sided access, PAD, and female sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Major femoral vascular access complications after coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Pedersen, Frants; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular access complications after coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are known to increase morbidity, prolong hospitalization and raise hospital costs. Therefore, risk factor identification and improvement of safety strategies for vascular...... management are important. We aimed to assess the incidence of major vascular complications related to femoral access, and to identify potential risk factors. METHODS: Over a period of six years, 23,870 index procedures (CAG) were performed in two centres, prospectively entered in the database...... and retrospectively analysed. Data was obtained from the Eastern Danish Heart Registry and cross-matched with data from the Danish Vascular Registry. Index procedures were defined as the first trans-femoral procedure. Demographic, procedural and mortality data, as well as information on access complications requiring...

  14. Straight configuration saphenous vein transposition to popliteal artery for vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caco, Gentian; Golemi, Dhurata; Likaj, Eriola

    2017-03-21

    The saphenous vein is commonly used as a vascular graft in peripheral artery surgery but rarely used for vascular access. The literature on straight configuration saphenous vein transposition to the popliteal artery is scarce. Here we present two cases of straight configuration saphenous vein transposition to the popliteal artery for vascular access, the surgical technique and respective follow-up. Two young men, aged 29 and 36 years, were chosen for lower-limb vascular access for hemodialysis. The first patient was paraplegic since birth. He used his arms to move so upper extremity vascular access was avoided. The second patient presented with an infected upper extremity arteriovenous graft (AVG) and after multiple closed AVFs he had no more available arm veins. Both patients received autologous lower extremity straight configuration saphenous vein transpositions to the popliteal artery under spinal anesthesia in May and October 2012, respectively. Cannulation of the fistula was allowed after one month. There were no early complications. Slight swelling on the leg appeared in one of the patients. Both fistulas were still functional after 36 and 32 months, respectively. The straight configuration saphenous vein transposition to popliteal artery is simple to perform, offers a long and straight segment for cannulation and may be a suitable autologous vascular access in selected patients.

  15. Association Between Thrombophilic Gene Mutations and the Risk of Vascular Access Thrombosis in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba; Sayeh, Aycha; Baffoun, Anis; Beji, Maher; Mrad, Meriem; Hmida, Jalel; Nsiri, Brahim

    2016-04-01

    The cause of thrombosis in hemodialysis vascular access is considered to be of a multifactorial nature, including stenosis of the venous or arterial connection. Therefore, identification of relevant thrombotic risk factors could lead to an improved antithrombotic therapy. This case control study was performed to evaluate the relationship between Factor V (G1691A and A4070G) and Factor II polymorphisms and vascular access thrombosis in hemodialysis patients. One hundred and twenty-one patients undergoing dialysis were selected as subjects. This sample was divided into two groups; a case group of 60 patients who had sustained one or more thrombotic events that resulted in vascular access failure and a control group of 61 patients, who never had a thrombotic occlusion of a functioning permanent dialysis access. Our data demonstrated a significantly increased risk of vascular access thrombosis in carriers of the mutant FV (G1691A and A4070G) polymorphisms (P vascular access thrombosis in hemodialysis patients. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  16. Blood Flow in Idealized Vascular Access for Hemodialysis: A Review of Computational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Remuzzi, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Although our understanding of the failure mechanism of vascular access for hemodialysis has increased substantially, this knowledge has not translated into successful therapies. Despite advances in technology, it is recognized that vascular access is difficult to maintain, due to complications such as intimal hyperplasia. Computational studies have been used to estimate hemodynamic changes induced by vascular access creation. Due to the heterogeneity of patient-specific geometries, and difficulties with obtaining reliable models of access vessels, idealized models were often employed. In this review we analyze the knowledge gained with the use of computational such simplified models. A review of the literature was conducted, considering studies employing a computational fluid dynamics approach to gain insights into the flow field phenotype that develops in idealized models of vascular access. Several important discoveries have originated from idealized model studies, including the detrimental role of disturbed flow and turbulent flow, and the beneficial role of spiral flow in intimal hyperplasia. The general flow phenotype was consistent among studies, but findings were not treated homogeneously since they paralleled achievements in cardiovascular biomechanics which spanned over the last two decades. Computational studies in idealized models are important for studying local blood flow features and evaluating new concepts that may improve the patency of vascular access for hemodialysis. For future studies we strongly recommend numerical modelling targeted at accurately characterizing turbulent flows and multidirectional wall shear disturbances.

  17. Peripheral arteriovenous fistula as vascular access for long-term chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, Oleksiy O; Kostyuk, Oleksandr G; Tkachuk, Tetyana V

    To provide long-term vascular access in clinical oncology peripheral forearm veins (up to 95% of patients in Ukraine), central venous access and "complete implanted vascular systems" are used most often. Many oncology patients have contraindications to catheterization of superior vena cava. Besides, exploitation of central veins is associated with potential technical and infectious complications. The aim - to study short-term and long-term results of arteriovenous fistula exploitation as vascular access for continuous anticancer therapy. Peripheral venous bed status in 41 oncology patients taking long-term chemotherapy treatment is analyzed in the article. Doppler sonography, morphologic and immune histochemical analyses were used in the study. Doppler sonography found qualitative and quantitative changes in forearm veins at different time periods after initiation of chemotherapy in the majority of patients. The major morphologic manifestations of venous wall damage were chemical phlebitis, local or extended hardening of venous wall, venous thrombosis and extravasations with necrosis and subsequent paravasal tissue sclerosis. Alternative vascular access created in 12 patients completely met the adequacy criteria (safety, multiple use, longevity, realization of the designed therapy program). The conclusion was made about inapplicability of forearm veins for long-term administration of cytostatic agents. If it is impossible to use central veins, arteriovenous fistula can become an alternative vascular access.

  18. Life-saving vascular access in vascular capital exhaustion: single center experience in intra-atrial catheters for hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Intra-atrial catheter (IAC placement through an open surgical approach has emerged as a life-saving technique in hemodialysis (HD patients with vascular access exhaustion. Objective: To assess the complications of IAC placement, as well as patient and vascular access survival after this procedure. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed all seven patients with vascular capital exhaustion, without immediate alternative renal replacement therapy (RRT, who underwent IAC placement between January 2004 and December 2015 at a single center. Results: Seven patients were submitted to twelve IAC placements. Bleeding (6/7 and infections (3/7 were the main complications in the early postoperative period. Two (2/7, 29% patients died from early complications and 5/7 were discharged with a properly functioning IAC. The most frequent late complication was catheter accidental dislodgement in all remaining five patients, followed by catheter thrombosis and catheter-related infections in the same proportion (2/5. During follow-up, two of five patients died from vascular accesses complications. After IAC failure, one patient was transferred to peritoneal dialysis and a kidney transplant was performed in the other. Only one patient remains on HD after the third IAC, with a survival of 50 months. The mean patient survival after IAC placement was 19 ± 25 (0-60 months and the mean IAC patency was 8 ± 11 (0-34 months. Conclusion: Placing an IAC to perform HD is associated to significant risks and high mortality. However, when alternative RRT are exhausted, or as a bridge to others modalities, this option should be considered.

  19. Vascular access in hemodialysis: an ongoing search for improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, H.J.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Current guidelines promote the use of native arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) as first choice access over ePTFE grafts and central venous catheters, because of favourable complication and patency rates. However, prevalent AVF use shows enormous differences among national and regional practice surveys,

  20. Salvamento de acesso vascular para hemodiálise: relato de caso Hemodialysis vascular access salvage: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Alves das Neves Junior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência renal crônica (IRC tem alta prevalência e a maior parte dos pacientes acometidos está em programa de hemodiálise necessitando, portanto, de acesso vascular. As fístulas arteriovenosas (FAV são os acessos mais indicados e duradouros. Mesmo em casos de complicações, deve-se tentar o salvamento desses acessos. Trabalhos da literatura mostram a possibilidade de salvamento das FAV's, mesmo de maneira tardia. Deve-se tentar sempre a reparação do acesso atual, evitando o esgotamento do sistema venoso. Este trabalho relata o caso de uma paciente de 69 anos com IRC apresentando uma trombose de FAV braquiocefálica com drenagem para veia basílica por ramos colaterais, o que a tornou maturada. Essa veia foi utilizada no reparo do acesso, evitando o uso de cateteres.Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI has high prevalence and the majority of the patients are in hemodialysis program and, then, they need a vascular access. Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF are the more indicated accesses and have a long term use. Even in cases of complications, the salvage of theses accesses must be tried. Researches of literature show the possibility of access salvage of AFV's, even in a long time after the complication. The repair of thepresent access must always be tried, avoiding the depletion of the venous system. This study is a case report of a 69 years-old female patient with CRI presenting thrombosis of a brachial-cefalic AFV with drainage to basilic vein by collateral branches, which maturated that vein. Basilic vein was used on the access repair, avoiding catheter use.

  1. Basilic vein transposition versus biosynthetic prosthesis as vascular access for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosetti, Massimo; Cipriani, Silvia; Dominijanni, Sara; Pisani, Giovanni; Frattarelli, Daniele; Bruno, Fabrizio

    2011-12-01

    Vascular access (VA) complications account for a significant number of hospital admissions in dialysis and have substantial costs. A native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannot be successfully obtained in all patients. At our center, we established an autogenous brachial-basilic AVF (BBAVF) in the upper arm in patients with a failed forearm fistula or with superficial vessels that were unsuitable for preparing a good site for VA. In most of these patients, we resort to prosthetic materials for creating a functioning VA as the last strategy. The present study compared the outcomes of BBAVF and AV graft (AVG) in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis in whom there was no other possibility of creating a VA. We analyzed 57 complex patients, 27 randomized to receive AVG and 30 randomized to BBAVF, between 2002 and 2008. The Omniflow II Vascular Prosthesis (Bio Nova International Pty Ltd, North Melbourne, VIC, Australia), the latest-generation collagen-polyester composite, was used to create the prosthetic VA. Primary patency (PP) and secondary patency (SP) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier test. The log-rank test was used to compare PP and SP rates of the single VA. Length of hospital admission time, total intervention time, and mean interval to the first venipuncture for dialysis were longer for BBAVF. In the early postoperative period, patients who received BBAVF had a complication rate similar to those who received AVG; however, patients who received AVG showed a higher rate of long-term adverse events. PP and SP rates were higher for BBAVF than for AVG, although this was not statistically significant for SP. Our results show that BBAVF should be the first choice in patients with a good life expectancy and who can rely on an available temporary VA. However, given the shorter time to use, AVG could be an alternative in patients with compromised clinical conditions and in whom a temporary VA is not reliable, considering that the long-term outcome may be

  2. Neurologic and ophthalmologic complications of vascular access in a hemodialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleper, Roxana; Goldenberg-Cohen, Nitza; Kornreich, Liora; Krause, Irit; Davidovits, Miriam

    2007-09-01

    Patients on long-term hemodialysis undergo multiple interventions, including insertion of central catheters and arteriovenous anastomoses for creation of vascular access. The need for high-flow vessels to maintain hemodialysis efficiency leads to wear on the central veins and consequent stenosis and occlusion. In addition to local signs of impaired venous drainage, abnormal venous flow patterns involving the upper chest, face, and central nervous system might develop. We describe the first pediatric case of devastating intracranial hypertension presenting with visual loss in the eye contralateral to a high-flow vascular access in a patient on long-term hemodialysis. The literature on this rare complication of hemodialysis is reviewed.

  3. Hemodialysis delivery, dialysis dose achievement, and vascular access types in hemodialysis patients from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries enrolled in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study phase 5 (2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas AlYousef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospective observational Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS was initiated in late 2012 in national samples of hemodialysis (HD units (n = 41 study sites in all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. For many years, guidelines have recommended single pool Kt/V ≥1.2 as the minimum adequate dose for chronic HD patients. Here, we report initial DOPPS results regarding HD practices related to dialysis dose achievement in the GCC. A total of 928 adult HD patients were included in this analysis from 41 centers representing all six GCC countries. Baseline descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, standard deviation, median, interquartile range, or percentage were calculated for the study sample. Results were weighted according to the fraction of HD patients sampled within each participating study site. Mean age varied between 51 years in Bahrain, Oman, and Saudi Arabia, 55 years in the United Arab Emirates (UAE and Kuwait, and 62 years in Qatar. Mean body mass index (BMI was the lowest in Oman patients (23.9 kg/m 2 , but the remaining GCC countries had mean BMIs of 25.7-28.9 kg/m 2 and substantial fractions of overweight patients. Median dialysis vintage ranged from 1.52 years in Kuwait to 3.52 years in Oman. Mean treatment time per session varied from 202 min in Saudi Arabia to 230 min in Qatar while mean blood flow rate (BFR ranged between 267 mL/min in Oman and 310 mL/min in Saudi Arabia. Interdialytic weight gain varied considerably among GCC countries between 3.1 and 4.0 kg. Central venous catheter use was high among GCC countries, ranging from 29% in Oman to 56% in Kuwait, with other countries averaging 30-40% catheter use. Data were available only for 50-76% of patients in four GCC countries (Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and UAE for calculating single pool Kt/V to indicate dialysis adequacy. When calculated for patients with vintage >1 year and

  4. [Vascular access for haemodyalisis. Comparative analysis of the mechanical behaviour of native vessels and prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bia, D; Zócalo, Y; Armentano, R; Pérez, H; Cabrera, E; Saldías, M; Galli, C; Alvarez, I

    2006-01-01

    The prosthesis nowadays used in the vascular access for haemodialysis have low patency rates, mainly due to the luminal obstruction, determined by the intimal hyperplasia. Several factors have been related to de development of intimal hyperplasia and graft failure. Among them are the differences in the biomechanical properties between the prosthesis and the native vessels. In the searching for vascular prosthesis that overcomes the limitations of the currently used, the cryopreserved vessels (cryografts) appear as an alternative of growing interest. However, it is unknown if the mechanical differences or mismatch between prosthesis and native vessels are lesser when using cryografts. To characterize and compare the biomechanical behaviour of native vessels used in vascular access and cryografts. Additionally, segments of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) were also evaluated, so as to evaluate the potential biomechanical advantages of the cryografts respect to synthetic prosthesis used in vascular access. Segments from human humeral (n = 12), carotid (n = 12) and femoral (n = 12) arteries, and saphenous vein (n = 12), were obtained from 6 multiorgan donors. The humeral arteries were studied in fresh state. The other segments were divided into two groups, and 6 segments from each vessel were studied in fresh state, while the remaining 6 segments were evaluated after 30 days of criopreservation. For the mechanical evaluation the vascular segments and 6 segments of ePTFE were mounted in a circulation mock and submitted to haemodynamic conditions similar to those of the in vivo. Instantaneous pressure (Konigsberg) and diameter (Sonomicrometry) were measured and used to calculate the viscous and elastic indexes, the compliance, distensibility and characteristic impedance. For each mechanical parameter studied, the mismatch between the prosthesis and the native vessel was evaluated. The ePTFE was the prosthesis with the higher mechanical mismatch (p vascular

  5. Acquire uterine vascular malformation: Clinical outcome of transarterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chae Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Boo; Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Yong Jae; Lee, Jae Myung; Lee, Woong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate clinical outcomes of transarterial embolization of bilateral uterine arteries (UAE) in patients with acquired uterine vascular malformation (UVM). This retrospective study was performed on the medical records of all 19 patients who underwent transarterial embolization of bilateral UAE for the treatment of symptomatic UVMs from January 2003 to June 2011. Embolization was performed via the unilateral femoral artery approach with a catheter and angiographic techniques. Clinical success was defined as definitive resolution of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Post-procedural complications included all adverse events related to the embolization procedure. A total of 20 procedures were performed in 19 patients. One patient required repeat embolization because of incomplete embolization related to prominent high flow malformation. Clinically, in all patients, bleeding was controlled immediately after embolization. No complications occurred in all patients during the follow up period. In all patients who underwent successful UAE, menstrual cycles were normally restored within 1-2 months. Normal pregnancy with term delivery was observed in two of the 19 cases. Transarterial bilateral UAE is a safe and effective treatment in patients with vaginal bleeding caused by acquired UVM, and it allows the possibility of future pregnancy.

  6. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Vascular Access Referral Policies in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Steven M; Chandler, Talon; Skandari, M Reza; Zalunardo, Nadia

    2017-09-01

    The optimal timing of vascular access referral for patients with chronic kidney disease who may need hemodialysis (HD) is a pressing question in nephrology. Current referral policies have not been rigorously compared with respect to costs and benefits and do not consider patient-specific factors such as age. Monte Carlo simulation model. Patients with chronic kidney disease, referred to a multidisciplinary kidney clinic in a universal health care system. Cost-effectiveness analysis, payer perspective, lifetime horizon. The following vascular access referral policies are considered: central venous catheter (CVC) only, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or graft (AVG) referral upon HD initiation, AVF (or AVG) referral when HD is forecast to begin within 12 (or 3 for AVG) months, AVF (or AVG) referral when estimated glomerular filtration rate is vascular access referral is largely driven by the annual costs of HD, erythropoietin costs, and access-specific utilities. Further research is needed in the field of dialysis-related quality of life to inform decision making regarding vascular access referral. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vascular Anomalies Encountered During Pancreatoduodenectomy: Do They Influence Outcomes?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shukla, Parul J; Barreto, Savio G; Kulkarni, Aniruddha; Nagarajan, Ganesh; Fingerhut, Abe

    2010-01-01

    .... Other vascular abnormalities such as replaced common hepatic artery with a hepatomesenteric trunk and celiomesenteric trunk and arcuate ligament syndrome leading to celiac artery stenosis are also...

  8. Blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions - Catheter-based thermodilution or Doppler ultrasound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren T; Hansen, Marc A; Schroeder, Torben V

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the clinical performance of catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound of the feeding brachial artery for blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions.Methods: Thirty patients with arteriovenous fistulas who underwent 46 interventions had...... access blood flow measured before and after every procedure. Two methods, catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound, were compared to the reference method of ultrasound dilution. Catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound were performed during the endovascular procedures while flow...

  9. Leadless pacemaker implantation in a patient with complex congenital heart disease and limited vascular access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ferrero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Management of rhythm related issues might be particularly challenging in patients with congenital heart disease due to complex anatomy and restricted vascular access. The leadless technology appears a suitable and attractive alternative for this population. We describe a patient with single ventricle physiology who successfully underwent implantation of a leadless pacemaker.

  10. Vascular uterine abnormalities: Comparison of imaging findings and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugues, Clara; Le Bras, Yann; Coatleven, Frederic; Brun, Jean-Luc; Trillaud, Hervé; Grenier, Nicolas; Cornelis, François

    2015-12-01

    To retrospectively compare the imaging findings and the outcomes for patients with vascular uterine abnormalities (VUA) and to identify prognostic factors. Between 2007 and 2012, 38 patients with vaginal bleeding and abnormal ultrasonographic (US) findings consistent with acquired VUA were consecutively included (mean age 31.6 years, range 19-62). Follow-up was 32 months in mean (1-78 months). Seventeen women (44.7%) started bleeding immediately after curettage, spontaneous miscarriage, trophoblastic disease, or section scars, with the remainder starting bleeding after 8 days to 2 years. All US, CT (n=2), MR (n=5) and angiographic (n=26) images were reviewed and compared to medical reports in order to identify severe VUA requiring treatment, and predictive factors. No information about severity was provided by US, MRI or CT. Twelve patients were successfully managed conservatively. Angiography identified 6 non-severe VUA, corresponding to an isolated uterine hyperemia, and 20 severe VUA, corresponding to an association of a nidus and early venous drainage. Recurrences were more often observed for severe VUA (p=0.001). The hemoglobin level was significantly lower (below 11 g/L) in these cases (p=0.004). Recurrences were significantly more frequently observed for patients with history of dilatation and curettage (p=0.02). Hysterectomy was performed for three patients only (8%). Among the women who wished to have children, 14 (77.8%) were pregnant after 9 months in mean (range 2-23). Recurrence happens more frequently after curettage and in case of anemia or severe VUA findings on angiography, justifying adequate embolization for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rating scale for the assessment of competence in ultrasound-guided peripheral vascular access - a Delphi Consensus Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Stine C; Todsen, Tobias; Clemmesen, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral vascular access is vital for treatment and diagnostics of hospitalized patients. Ultrasound-guided vascular access (UGVA) is superior to the landmark technique. To ensure competence-based education, an assessment tool of UGVA competence is needed. We aimed to develop...

  12. Hepatic vascular injury: Clinical profile, endovascular management and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishav Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Prompt endovascular management is the modality of choice in comparison to NOM without AE in both pediatric and adult patients with hemodynamically compromised inaccessible intra hepatic vascular trauma.

  13. Trans-collateral angioplasty in vascular access intervention therapy for subacute occluded vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yusuke; Nomura, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Kisho; Kubota, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Urata, Ryota; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Kato, Taku; Keira, Natsuya; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2016-05-07

    We describe the first reported case of successful trans-collateral angioplasty (TCA) in vascular access intervention therapy (VAIVT) for a subacute occluded lesion in the vascular access route. TCA is a technique which has been developed in the field of endovascular therapy for peripheral arterial disease and is usually applied for a long chronic total occluded lesion with no available distal puncture site. Because such lesion characteristics suitable for being applied with TCA are not usually seen in the patients who receive VAIVT, there is little opportunity when TCA is performed in VAIVT. The present patient showed subacute occlusion in the vascular access route with well-developed collateral blood vessels. Because antegrade wiring resulted in subintimal tracking, we failed to antegradely introduce the guidewire to the vascular true lumen. Moreover, no puncture site in the venous side was anatomically available. Therefore, we adopted the strategy of TCA and successfully completed the procedure. Although we rarely encounter the situation in which TCA is necessary for VAIVT, the strategy of TCA is a promising procedure if the condition permits.

  14. Neo-Vascular Glaucoma: Etiology and Outcome of Treatment in Lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    Objective: To determine the causes and the intraocular pressure (IOP) outcome of neo-vascular glaucoma at the Guinness. Eye Centre of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The case records of all patients with the diagnosis of neo-vascular glaucoma who presented at Guinness ...

  15. Validation of the Peripheral Ultrasound-guided Vascular Access Rating Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Stine C.; Weile, Jesper; Clemmesen, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Evidence-based standards in proficiency are needed for ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous access. In this study, we explored the validity of the Peripheral Ultrasound-Guided Vascular Access (P-UGVA) Rating Scale. We recruited 3 groups of physicians (5 novices, 5 intermediates, and 5 experts......) of increasing proficiency in peripheral ultrasound-guided intravenous access. All participants performed 3 peripheral ultrasound-guided intravenous accesses on three different patients. Performance was video-recorded by 3 cameras and the ultrasound image. Synchronized and anonymized split-screen film clips were.......5%. We present validity evidence for the P-UGVA rating scale and an evidence-based standard in proficiency for ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous access....

  16. Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Vascular Anomalies on the Vermilion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Min Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe vermilion plays an important role in both the aesthetic and functional aspects of facial anatomy. Due to its structural features, the complete excision of vascular anomalies on the vermilion is challenging, making it difficult to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. Thus, the authors analyzed the results of surgical treatment of vascular anomalies on the vermilion.MethodsThe medical records of 38 patients with vascular anomalies on the vermilion who underwent surgery from 1995 to 2013 were analyzed. Nine of the cases had an involuted hemangioma, and 29 cases had a vascular malformation; of the vascular malformations, 13, 11, one, and four cases involved were capillary malformations (CMs, venous malformations (VMs, lymphatic malformations (LMs, and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs, respectively. We investigated the surgical methods used to treat these patients, the quantity of surgical procedures, complications and instances of recurrence, and self-assessed satisfaction scores.ResultsA total of 50 operations were carried out: 28 horizontal partial excisions, eight vertical partial excisions, and 14 operations using other surgical methods. All cases of AVM underwent complete excision. Six cases experienced minor complications and one case of recurrence was observed. The overall average satisfaction score was 4.1 out of 5, while the satisfaction scores associated with each lesion type were 4.2 for hemangiomas, 3.9 for CMs, 4.2 for VMs, 5.0 for LMs, and 4.0 for AVMs.ConclusionsIt is difficult to completely excise vascular anomalies that involve the vermilion. This study suggests that partial excision focused on correcting the overall contour of the lips is effective and leads to satisfactory results.

  17. Incidence and predictors of vascular access site complications following transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Paulo; Almeida, João; Bettencourt, Nuno; Ferreira, Nuno; Carvalho, Mónica; Ferreira, Wilson; Caeiro, Daniel; Gonçalves, Helena; Ribeiro, José; Rodrigues, Alberto; Braga, Pedro; Gama, Vasco

    2017-10-01

    Vascular access site complications in transfemoral (TF) transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality; however, their incidence and predictors are conflicting between studies. This study sought to assess the incidence and predictors of vascular access site complications in patients undergoing TF TAVI. A total of 140 patients undergoing TF TAVI were included in the study. Minimum iliofemoral diameter and iliofemoral calcium score (CS) were estimated from contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography imaging, using different thresholds according to aortic luminal attenuation. To assess the impact of the learning effect, the first 50% of TF TAVI procedures were compared to the remainder. Fifty-one patients presented access site complications (7.1% major, 29.3% minor), most of which were local bleeding or hematoma (11.4%), pseudoaneurysm (7.9%) or closure device failure (5.0%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis that included sheath-to-iliofemoral artery ratio (SIFAR) (the ratio between the sheath outer diameter and minimum iliofemoral diameter), iliofemoral CS and center experience, SIFAR was the sole independent predictor of access site complications (hazard ratio 14.5, confidence interval [CI] 95% 1.75-120.12, p=0.013). The SIFAR threshold with the highest sum of sensitivity (71.4%) and specificity (53.4%) for access site complications was 0.92 (area under the curve 0.66, 95% CI 0.56-0.75, p=0.002). Vascular access site complications are frequent in patients undergoing TF TAVI. SIFAR was the only independent predictor of access site complications and therefore should be systematically assessed during pre-procedural imaging study. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Retrograde femoral vein catheter insertion. A new approach for challenging hemodialysis vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Zaghloul

    2014-01-01

    Venous catheters provide access for hemodialysis (HD) when patients do not have functioning access device. Obstruction of jugular, femoral or even external iliac vessels further depletes options. Subclavian approach is prohibited. Catheterization of inferior vena cava requires specialized equipment and skills. The purpose is to assess a new lifesaving HD vascular access approach for patients with nonfunctioning access device in the ordinary sites. This entails insertion of a retrograde temporary HD catheter in the superficial femoral vein, directing the catheter distally, toward the foot. We included six end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients retrospectively who are on regular renal replacement therapy and need urgent HD with nonfunctioning access device in the ordinary sites. Successful insertion of six retrograde femoral vein catheters in the superficial femoral vein. The mean catheter days were 2.5±0.5 days with one patient having 26 catheter days. The mean blood pump speed was 230.0±44.7 mL/min. Urea reduction ratio and Kt/V at 3 hours HD session were 47% and 1.5, respectively, which increased with increasing session duration. The ultrafiltration volume was 2-3 L/session which increased up to 6 L/session in case of using slow low-efficiency dialysis. No major complications were observed during insertion or the postinsertion period except thigh pain in one patient and exit site infection in the case of long duration. This is a newly applied lifesaving HD vascular access approach for selected ESRD patients with no available HD vascular access at the ordinary sites with accepted HD adequacy. It needs more evaluation and more studies.

  19. Prospective analysis of Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) vascular access graft vs. cuffed catheter access in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Robert; LaFleur, Paula; McFadden, Lori; LaFleur, Matthew; Lorelli, David

    2015-11-01

    The Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) graft was compared to the cuffed catheter in end-stage renal disease patients. All consented patients were evaluated for HeRO graft placement. Eligible patients that did not receive a graft were enrolled in the control group. Participants who had not exhausted peripheral venous access sites suitable for fistulas and grafts were excluded. Differences in quality of life and incidence of bacteremia, vascular interventions, hospitalizations, and death were evaluated over one year. In thirty-three patients included in the analysis--16 HeRO, 17 control--significantly fewer bacteremia events (93.8% vs. 64.7%) and a significantly increased number of vascular interventions (64.7% vs. 25%) were reported for the HeRO versus Control group. The increased interventions in the HeRO group may be due to the two-step placement process.

  20. Annual Decline in Pentraxin 3 Is a Risk of Vascular Access Troubles in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Nagai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin 3 (PTX3, a multifunctional modulator of the innate immunoinflammatory response, is higher in patients undergoing hemodialysis than healthy control. Our study focused on annual change in PTX3 levels in patients with chronic hemodialysis, because regularly undergoing hemodialysis for many years modifies vascular inflammatory status. To demonstrate whether annual change in PTX3 is associated with vascular events, we measured blood levels of pentraxins (PTX3 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP at baseline and in the next year in 76 hemodialysis patients and observed 20 patients with vascular access troubles during follow-up years. The annual decline in PTX3, but not hsCRP, is a significant risk of the incidence of vascular access trouble that is a critical and specific complication for hemodialysis patients (hazard ratio; 0.732 per +1 ng/mL/year in PTX3, *P=0.039. This study is the first to focus on the annual change of pentraxins in a hemodialysis cohort.

  1. Hemodialysis vascular access options after failed Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesh Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival of patients on long-term hemodialysis has improved. End-stage renal disease patients now need maintenance of their vascular access for much longer periods. Arteriovenous fistulae formed at the wrist are the first choice for this purpose, but, in many patients, these fistulae fail over time or are not feasible because of thrombosed veins. We searched the Pubmed database to evaluate the various options of vascular access in this group of patients based on the published literature. It is quite evident that, whenever possible, autogenous fistulae should be preferred over prosthetic grafts. Use of upper arm cephalic and basilic veins with transpositions wherever required can enhance autogenous fistula options to a large extent. Upper arm grafts should be used when no autogenous fistula is possible. Lower limb and body wall fistula sites are to be considered at the end, when all options in both upper limbs are exhausted.

  2. Significant Correlation between Ankle-Brachial Index and Vascular Access Failure in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Mai, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Feng-Hsien; Su, Ho-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Vascular access failure (VAF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The most common cause of VAF is stenosis at the arteriovenous anastomosis because of abnormal neointimal proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. These two changes are also observed in the classic atheroma, which means atherosclerotic lesions and venous stenosis in VAF may share some similar pathogenic mechanisms. The ankle–brachial index (ABI) is a...

  3. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C. [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  4. Prospects for Vascular Access Education in Developing Countries: Current Situation in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Toshihide; Takemoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    We report our activities training doctors on vascular access procedures at International University (IU) Hospital in Cambodia through a program facilitated by Ubiquitous Blood Purification International, a nonprofit organization that provides medical support to developing countries in the field of dialysis medicine. Six doctors from Japan have been involved in the education of medical personnel at IU, and we have collectively visited Cambodia about 15 times from 2010 to 2016. In these visits, we have performed many operations, including 42 for arteriovenous fistula, 1 arteriovenous graft, and 1 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Stable development and management of vascular access is increasingly required in Cambodia due to increased use of dialysis therapy, and training of doctors in this technique is urgently required. However, we have encountered several difficulties that need to be addressed, including (1) the situation of personnel receiving this training, (2) problems with facilities, including medical equipment and drugs, (3) financial limitations, and (4) problems with management of vascular access. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. An Evaluation of the Quality of Nursing Care Provided for Vascular Access in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Chamanzari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Care for vascular access of patients undergoing hemodialysis is a critical issue. Inflammation and subsequent infection are the major factors which threaten patients' health and diminish effectiveness of hemodialysis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the severity and incidence of inflammation of vascular access in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 patients undergoing hemodialysis in Emam Reza and Montazerie Hospitals in Mashhad, June, 2014. Evaluation of inflammation severity over the course of one month (12 hemodialysis sessions was performed by means of an inflammation tool designed by the Board of Nursing. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16, and performing descriptive and Chi-square tests.  Results:The mean and standard deviation of incidence of inflammation in the first session of hemodialysis was 3.2±1.3 cases. The mean and standard deviation of the intensity of inflammation was 12.5±4.7. Conclusion: Since inflammation of vascular access in hemodialysis patients impairs their safety and health improvement, necessary measures to reduce this complication must be taken.

  6. Novel Bone-Anchored Vascular Access on the Mastoid for Hemodialysis: Concept and Preclinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Christof; Arnold, Andreas; Kruse, Anja; Wiedmer, Simona; Widmer, Matthias; Guignard, Jeremie; Schutz, Daniel; Guenat, Jean-Marc; Bachtler, Matthias; Caversaccio, Marco; Uehlinger, Dominik E; Frey, Felix J; Hausler, Rudolf

    2016-05-01

    We present the development of a bone-anchored port for the painless long-term hemodialytic treatment of patients with renal failure. This port is implanted behind the ear. The port was developed based on knowledge obtained from long-term experience with implantable hearing devices, which are firmly anchored to the bone behind the ear. This concept of bone anchoring was adapted to the requirements for a vascular access during hemodialysis. The investigational device is comprised of a base plate that is firmly fixed with bone screws to the bone behind the ear (temporal bone). A catheter leads from the base plate valve block through the internal jugular vein and into the right atrium. The valves are opened using a special disposable adapter, without any need to puncture the blood vessels. Between hemodialysis sessions, the port is protected with a disposable cover. Flow rate, leak tightness, and purification were tested on mockups. Preoperative planning and the surgical procedure were verified in 15 anatomical human whole head specimens. Preclinical evaluations demonstrated the technical feasibility and safety of the investigational device. Approximately 1.5 million people are treated with hemodialysis worldwide, and 25% of the overall cost of dialysis therapy results from vascular access problems. New approaches toward enhancing vascular access could potentially reduce the costs and complications of hemodialytic therapy.

  7. CE: Original Research: Does Certification in Vascular Access Matter? An Analysis of the PICC1 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Vineet; Kuhn, Latoya; Vaughn, Valerie; Ratz, David; Winter, Suzanne; Moureau, Nancy; Meyer, Britt; Krein, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    : Background: Although certification by an accredited agency is often a practice prerequisite in health care, it is not required of vascular access specialists who insert peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Whether certification is associated with differences in practice among inserters is unknown. The purpose of this study was to gather information regarding whether certified and noncertified PICC inserters differ with respect to their practices and views about PICC use. We conducted a national survey of vascular access specialists, identifying certified PICC inserters as those who had received board certification from the Association for Vascular Access, the Infusion Nurses Society, or both. The 76-item survey asked about PICC policies and procedures at respondents' facilities, use of insertion technologies, device management, management of complications, perceptions about PICC use, and relationships with other health care providers. Additional data about respondents, including years in practice and primary practice settings, were also gathered. Bivariable comparisons were made using χ tests; two-sided α with P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 1,450 respondents in the final sample, 1,007 (69%) said they were certified inserters and 443 (31%) said they were not. Significantly higher percentages of certified than noncertified inserters reported having practiced for five or more years (78% versus 54%) and having placed 1,000 or more PICCs (58% versus 32%). Significantly more certified than noncertified inserters also reported being the vascular access lead for their facility (56% versus 44%). Reported practice patterns for insertion, care, and management of PICCs varied based on certification status. Some evidence-based practices (such as the use of ultrasound to measure catheter-to-vein ratios) were more often reported by certified inserters, while others (such as the use of maximal sterile barriers during PICC insertion

  8. Intraosseous vascular access through the anterior mandible--a cadaver model pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Goldschalt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviations and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18. Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies.

  9. [Recurrent vascular access trombosis associated with the prothrombin mutation G20210A in a adult patient in haemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, L F; Coll, E; Monteagudo, I; Collado, S; López-Pedret, J; Cases, A

    2005-01-01

    Vascular access-related complications are a frequent cause of morbidity in haemodialysis patients and generate high costs. We present the case of an adult patient with end-stage renal disease and recurrent vascular access thrombosis associated with the prothrombin mutation G20210A and renal graft intolerance. The clinical expression of this heterozygous gene mutation may have been favoured by inflammatory state, frequent in dialysis patients. In this patient, the inflammatory response associated with the renal graft intolerance would have favored the development of recurrent vascular access thrombosis in a adult heterozygous for prothrombin mutation G20210A. In the case of early dysfunction of haemodialysis vascular access and after ruling out technical problems, it is convenient to carry out a screening for thrombophilia.

  10. The Association of Long-Functioning Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Prevalence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Kidney Transplant Recipients

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    Aureliusz Kolonko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is frequently observed in chronic dialysis patients and is also highly prevalent in kidney transplant recipients. This study evaluates the impact of long-functioning hemodialysis vascular access on LVH in single center cohort of kidney transplant recipients. 162 patients at 8.7 ± 1.8 years after kidney transplantation were enrolled. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasound, and assessment of pulse wave velocity were performed. LVH was defined based on left ventricular mass (LVM indexed for body surface area (BSA and height2.7. There were 67 patients with and 95 without patent vascular access. Both study groups were comparable with respect to gender, age, duration of dialysis therapy, and time after transplantation, kidney graft function, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Patients with patent vascular access were characterized by significantly elevated LVM and significantly greater percentage of LVH, based on LVMI/BSA (66.7 versus 48.4%, P=0.02. OR for LVH in patients with patent vascular access was 2.39 (1.19–4.76, P=0.01. Regression analyses confirmed an independent contribution of patent vascular access to higher LVM and increased prevalence of LVH. We concluded that long-lasting patent hemodialysis vascular access after kidney transplantation is associated with the increased prevalence of LVH in kidney transplant recipients.

  11. The Chronobra identifies prevailing mammary vascularity as a candidate variable in breast cancer post-operative outcome prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Hugh W; George, David; Sothern, Robert B; Griffiths, Keith

    2013-12-01

    We previously described a menstrual heat cycle of the breast in four groups of women (healthy, family history of breast cancer, benign breast disease, 'cancer-associated') who wore a thermometric brassiere (Chronobra). We now ask if 'breast minus oral temperature', indicating 'breast-associated vascularity', could be associated with breast cancer cell vascular access around different aspects of the menstrual cycle rhythm and survival. Thirty-six pre-menopausal breast cancer patients (average age: 38.97 y) were enrolled consecutively over 15 y and followed for more than 22 y after surgery in order to compare survival and peri-operative vascularity. Each subject wore the Chronobra, which provides an internal bioassay of the vascularity of both breasts, including the operated breast, during 1 h each evening at home for one menstrual cycle, and collected saliva for "free" progesterone to confirm pre-menopausal status and ovulation. Sixty-five healthy age-matched pre-menopausal women served as controls. Both oral and breast temperatures revealed menstrual cycle oscillations, rising just before ovulation until menses onset. Breast-adjusted vascularity also showed menstrual cycle oscillations, with levels differing significantly between the 3 groups during the luteal phase only. At the end of the follow-up span, 18 post-operative breast cancer patients had died from "disseminated" breast cancer and 18 were alive and well. Median follow-up time was 22.6 y for survivors, 6.2 y for non-survivors, and 21.0 y for controls (3 died from diseases unrelated to breast cancer). Based on 'during luteal-phase breast-adjusted vascularity', breast cancer survivors (mean ± SD: -1.65 ± 0.23°C) were significantly hypo-vascular (i.e., -0.23°C cooler) compared with controls (-1.42 ± 0.09°C), while non-survivors (-1.25 ± 0.12°C) were highly significantly hyper-vascular compared with survivors (+0.41°C warmer) and controls (+0.23°C warmer). This suggests that in pre-menopausal breast

  12. The Clinical and Economic Effect of Vascular Access Selection in Patients Initiating Hemodialysis with a Catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balas, Alian; Lee, Timmy; Young, Carlton J; Kepes, Jeffrey A; Barker-Finkel, Jill; Allon, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Patients in the United States frequently initiate hemodialysis with a central venous catheter (CVC) and subsequently undergo placement of a new arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG). Little is known about the clinical and economic effects of initial vascular access choice. We identified 479 patients starting hemodialysis with a CVC at a large medical center (during 2004-2012) who subsequently had an AVF ( n =295) or AVG ( n =105) placed or no arteriovenous access (CVC group, n =71). Compared with patients receiving an AVG, those receiving an AVF had more frequent surgical access procedures per year (1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 1.08] versus 0.62 [95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 0.70]; P access procedures per year. Patients receiving an AVF had a higher median annual cost (interquartile range) of surgical access procedures than those receiving an AVG ($4857 [$2523-$8835] versus $2819 [$1411-$4274]; P access procedures was similar in both groups. The AVF group had a higher median overall annual access-related cost than the AVG group ($10,642 [$5406-$19,878] versus $6810 [$3718-$13,651]; P =0.001) after controlling for patient age, sex, race, and diabetes. The CVC group had the highest median annual overall access-related cost ($28,709 [$11,793-$66,917]; P access-related procedures and complications is higher in patients who initially receive an AVF versus an AVG. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Inside-Out access strategy using new trans-vascular catheter approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boese Axel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Image guided minimal invasive treatment can have large benefits for patient recovery and is lowering hospitalisation costs. But an access path, minimizing patient’s risk, is needed to reach the target structure inside of the body. Beside the use of natural orifices like oral, vaginal or anal cavities, a percutaneous puncture is common to enter the body. Also an interstitial path can be selected but if the pathological structure is situated in the deep, a long accesses path is required. Thereby the risk of additional damage and affecting organ functionality is increased. A possible option to come closer to the target structure with less organ damage is by using the vascular system. Entering the vessel from an uncritical point, the vasculature can be used as “highway” to the target structures. For the treatment of these nearby structures, the vessel has to be punctured and occluded afterwards by a save procedure. We propose an Inside-Out access strategy using a new trans-vascular catheter approach.

  14. Hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular access thrombosis in hemodialysis patients: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifan C

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chadi Saifan, Elie El-Charabaty, Suzanne El-SayeghStaten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY, USABackground: Elevated total plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for arterial and venous thrombosis in patients with normal renal function. Patients on hemodialysis have a high prevalence of mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia. Conflicting retrospective analyses and prospective studies have been reported regarding the association between total homocysteine levels and hemodialysis vascular thrombosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular access thrombosis (VAT in patients on hemodialysis.Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients undergoing dialysis were selected as subjects. The experimental group participants were identified as those having one or more VAT during the previous 13 months and the control group participants had no access thrombosis during the same period. Additional subgroup analysis included the presence of hypertension, diabetes, low-density lipoprotein levels, sex, and use of aspirin.Results: No statistically significant difference was found in total homocysteine levels between the two groups (P = 0.27. No association was found between VAT and sex (P = 0.09, VAT and hypertension (P = 0.96, VAT and diabetes (P = 0.49, nor VAT and low-density lipoprotein level (P = 0.04. A lower rate of VAT was associated with aspirin intake (P = 0.04.Conclusion: This study did not demonstrate a relationship between total homocysteine concentrations and risk of VAT in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. There were no significant differences in the number of VAT across additional variables of sex and previous morbidity. Aspirin intake was associated with a lower incidence of VAT.Keywords: hyperhomocysteinemia, vascular access thrombosis, hemodialysis

  15. "Prediction of early failure of vascular-access arteriovenous fistula based on immediate postsurgical evaluation"

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    Keshvari A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For patients requiring chronic hemodialysis, the preferred site for vascular access is an autogenous arteriovenous fistula. Although a properly formed fistula is advantageous because it is less susceptible than other types of vascular accesses to infection and clot formation and can last longer than any other types of vascular access, AV fistula has a high rate of early failure that can increase immediate cost and complications. In this study, the prognostic value of physical examination of arteriovenous fistula by the surgeon at the end of the surgery was evaluated. Methods: In the general surgery ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 326 chronic renal failure patients, 354 arteriovenous fistula operations were accomplished by two surgeons from 1377 to 1381 (ca. 1998 to 2002. The performance of each fistula was divided into the following groups by the surgeon at the end of operation: 1 systolic and diastolic thrill, 2 systolic thrill 3 souffle 4 pulse 5 not functional. Clinical function of the fistula was evaluated by the same surgeon in the following days if no souffle or thrill, early failure was detected on initial inspection. Results: In the 354 cases of arteriovenous fistula, the total early failure rate was 12.7%. The lowest early-failure rate was 3.5% in the systolic and diastolic thrill group. The highest early-failure rate was in the not functional group (P<0.001. There was no correlation between early failure and age, sex, surgeon and location of fistula. Conclusion: Optimally, an arteriovenous fistula has a thrill with a soft compressible pulse. At the end of each operation, if the surgeon cannot detect a thrill at the fistula site, can find only pulse, or if the function is otherwise unsatisfactory, considering of a new arteriovenous fistula may be required, however it is better to postpone the surgery.

  16. An Automated Mouse Tail Vascular Access System by Vision and Pressure Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chi; Berry-Pusey, Brittany; Yasin, Rashid; Vu, Nam; Maraglia, Brandon; Chatziioannou, Arion X; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2015-08-01

    This paper develops an automated vascular access system (A-VAS) with novel vision-based vein and needle detection methods and real-time pressure feedback for murine drug delivery. Mouse tail vein injection is a routine but critical step for preclinical imaging applications. Due to the small vein diameter and external disturbances such as tail hair, pigmentation, and scales, identifying vein location is difficult and manual injections usually result in poor repeatability. To improve the injection accuracy, consistency, safety, and processing time, A-VAS was developed to overcome difficulties in vein detection noise rejection, robustness in needle tracking, and visual servoing integration with the mechatronics system.

  17. What is happening in the world of vascular access? Research and innovations are flowing through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemla, Eric S

    2012-01-01

    Vascular access perfectly reproduces myointimal hyperplasia that can be found in coronary or peripheral arteries and has a major advantage that these other sites cannot match: it is quite superficial and not close to a major vital organ and also affects a population that will attend the hospital for dialysis on a very regular basis. It therefore appears obvious to try and develop a tool that will mitigate myointimal hyperplasia and that could later be tested on coronary or peripheral arteries. Over the past few years several trials have been organized and we are now at a stage where some results have become available.

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Angioplasty of Dysfunctional Vascular Access for Haemodialysis. The Pros and Cons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Medina, J., E-mail: josegmedina57@gmail.com [“Reina Sofia” University Hospital, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology (Spain); García-Alfonso, J. J., E-mail: juanjozarandieta@gmail.com [University of Murcia, Faculty of Medicine (Spain)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeTo describe the benefits and the disadvantages of angioplasty in dialysis fistulas using only ultrasound guidance.Materials and MethodsThis is a prospective study in 132 failing or non-maturing arteriovenous accesses that underwent 189 ultrasound-guided balloon angioplasties. The technical success was defined as non-use of X-ray fluoroscopy during the procedure.Results127 procedures (67%) were successfully completed without fluoroscopy. Most failures were due to difficulty to traverse aneurismal segments, as well as anastomotic stenoses. Including initial failures, the primary patency rates at 6, 12 months and 2 years were 75 ± 3, 41 ± 3 and 14 ± 2%, respectively.ConclusionEndovascular repair of the dysfunctional vascular access for haemodialysis under ultrasound guidance is feasible and safe in roughly two-thirds of cases.

  19. Differences in access and patient outcomes across antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess differences in access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and patient outcomes across public sector treatment facilities in the Free State province, South Africa. Design. Prospective cohort study with retrospective database linkage. We analysed data on patients enrolled in the treatment programme across ...

  20. Vascular access versus the effect of statins on inflammation and fibrinolysis in renal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Sameiro Faria, Maria; Ribeiro, Sandra; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Miranda, Vasco; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Reis, Flávio; Costa, Elísio; Belo, Luís; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effect of statin therapy on inflammatory and fibrinolytic/endothelial (dys)function markers in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients under hemodialysis (HD), according to the type of vascular access. This transversal study includes 191 ESRD patients under regular HD, divided into four groups according to vascular access and statin therapy: 87 patients with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and no statins (AVF-NS), 61 with AVF and statins (AVF-S), 27 with central venous dialysis catheter (CVC) and no statins (CVC-NS) and 16 with CVC and statins (CVC-S). The basic lipid profile and fibrinolytic/endothelial cell function markers were assessed. Patients with CVC presented significantly higher levels of D-dimers compared with AVF groups. CVC-NS patients also presented the highest IL-6 values, which were significantly higher than those presented by CVC-S patients. AVF-S patients presented significantly higher t-PA and PAI-1 values and lower adiponectin levels compared with AVF-NS. Our results demonstrate that patients with CVC, particularly those not under statin therapy, present a higher production and turnover of fibrin. We also found that statin therapy decreases inflammation in CVC patients but is associated with a reduction of adiponectin and increased endothelial function marker levels in AVF patients.

  1. Development of an international core outcome set for peripheral vascular malformations: the OVAMA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbach, S E R; van der Horst, C M A M; Blei, F; van der Vleuten, C J M; Frieden, I J; Richter, G T; Tan, S T; Muir, T; Penington, A J; Boon, L M; Spuls, P I

    2018-02-01

    An important limitation in vascular malformation research is the heterogeneity in outcome measures used for the evaluation of treatment outcome. To reach international consensus on a core outcome set (COS) for clinical research on peripheral vascular malformations: lymphatic (LM), venous (VM) and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). In this consensus study, we determined what domains should constitute the COS. Thirty-six possibly relevant outcome domains were proposed to an international group of physicians, patients and the parents of patients. In a three-round e-Delphi process using online surveys, participants repeatedly rated the importance of these domains on a five-point Likert scale. Participants could also propose other relevant domains. This process was performed for LM, VM and AVM separately. Consensus was predefined as 80% agreement on the importance of a domain among both the physician group and the patient/parent group. Outcomes were then re-evaluated in an online consensus meeting. 167 physicians and 134 patients and parents of patients with LM (n = 50), VM (n = 71) and AVM (n = 29) participated in the study. After three rounds and a consensus meeting, consensus was reached for all three types of vascular malformations on the core domains of radiological assessment, physician-reported location-specific signs, patient-reported severity of symptoms, pain, quality of life, satisfaction and adverse events. Vascular malformation type-specific signs and symptoms were included for LM, VM and AVM, separately. Our recommendation is that therapeutic-efficacy studies on peripheral vascular malformations should measure at least these core outcome domains. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Surgical cut-down or percutaneous access-which is best for less vascular access complications in transfemoral TAVI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Stefan G; Wilbring, Manuel; Alexiou, Konstantin; Stumpf, Jürgen; Kappert, Utz; Matschke, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    Objective of the present study was to compare VARC-2 access and bleeding complications of a complete percutaneous versus a surgical cut-down approach for transfemoral TAVI "in a real world-all comers" setting. The ideal approach for transfemoral TAVI is still part of a lively debate. Until today, for none of the available techniques superiority could be demonstrated. The present study adds a considerable number of patients to the available experience. The study included 334 consecutive patients, including 199 patients in the percutaneous and 135 patients in the cut-down group. Mean patient's age was 81.4 ± 4.6. Calculated logistic EuroSCORE correlated an intermediate to high surgical risk (17.8% ± 12.3%). Primary study endpoints were vascular access site as well as bleeding complications according the actual VARC-2 criteria. Mean procedure time was significantly shorter in the cut-down group (69 ± 19 min vs. 91 ± 22 min; P access complications were significantly more frequent in the percutaneous group (n = 41/199; 20.6% vs. n = 11/135; 8.1%; P = 0.04); the incidence of major complications did not differ significantly (P = 0.19). VARC-2 bleeding complications were more frequent in the percutaneous group as well (18.1% vs. 4.4%; P = 0.029). Hospital stay differed not significantly (P = 0.214). Hospital mortality was 3.5% in the percutaneous group and 1.5% in the cut-down group (P = n.s.). Surgical cut-down provided a convenient and controlled access, resulting in less access and bleeding complications. Nontheless, major access complication differed not significantly. Both approaches must be seen as complementary techniques. A portfolio containing both techniques is the exclusive way to provide a tailor-made and patient-orientated approach. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Native Arterio-Venous Fistula Is the Vascular Access of Choice for Hemodialysis in End Stage Renal Disease

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    Farooq Ahmad Ganie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was: Is primary Arterio-venous fistula the vascular access of choice for adequate dialysis and better patient outcome in end stage renal disease. Materials and Methods: The present study was done in the department of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery at Sher-i-Kashmir institute of medical sciences, Soura, Srinagar Kashmir. Native Arterio-Venous (AV fistulas were made in the patients with end stage renal disease for performing hemodialysis. They were followed for patency and adequacy of blood flow during hemodialysis. All the patients were operated under local anesthesia. Results: The results showed that 77% of the AV fistulas based on radial artery with side-to-side anastomosis and 80% of those with end-to-side anastomosis were functionally patent after one year. After two years, the patency rate in side-to-side and end-to-side anastomosis was 50% and 55%, respectively. In addition, the patency rate was 90% in brachial artery based AV fistula with end-to-side anastomosis, whether done primarily or secondarily, at the end of one year. However, a rapid decline was observed in the patency rate during the third year in both radial artery based and brachial artery based AV fistulas. Conclusions: We concluded that Arterialised arm superficial veins after primary AV fistula was the optimal and rational vascular access for hemodialysis providing adequate blood flow during this process. Besides, failure of primary AV fistula should be replaced by secondary AV fistula preferably based on brachial artery.

  4. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.; MacMahon, S.; Chalmers, J.; Neal, B.; Billot, L.; Woodward, M.; Marre, M.; Cooper, M.; Glasziou, P.; Grobbee, D.; Hamet, P.; Harrap, S.; Heller, S.; Liu, L.; Mancia, G.; Mogensen, C.E.; Pan, C.; Poulter, N.; Rodgers, A.; Williams, B.; Bompoint, S.; Galan, B.E. de; Joshi, R.; Travert, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, the effects of intensive glucose control on vascular outcomes remain uncertain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes to undergo either standard glucose control or intensive glucose control, defined as the use of gliclazide

  5. Vascular Injuries Caused by Tear Gas Shells: Surgical Challenge and Outcome

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    Mohd Lateef Wani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tear gas shells are used to disperse the mob during any type of street protests. Vascular injuries due to tear gas shells have not been reported. The present study was un-dertaken to analyse the pattern, presentation, management and outcome of vascular injury due to tear gas shells. Methods: Eighteen patients with vascular injury caused by tear gas shells from 1st Jan. 2008 to 31st Dec 2009 were studied. Patients with vascular injuries caused by causes other than tear gas shells were excluded from the study. Results: All patients were treated with reverse saphenous vein graft as segmental loss was less than 2.5 cm. Wound infection was the most common complication, followed by graft occlusion. Amputation rate was 16.66%. Associated nerve injury occurred in 44.44% of the patients. Conclusion: Tear gas shell injuries should not be taken lightly. They can cause injuries as serious as vascular injuries. Vascular injuries cased by tear gas shells require prompt revascularisation to improve limb salvage. De-spite proper revascularisation, patients have significant morbidity and need proper rehabilitation in the follow ups.

  6. Comparison of arteriovenous fistulas and arteriovenous grafts in patients with favorable vascular anatomy and equivalent access to health care: is a reappraisal of the Fistula First Initiative indicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disbrow, David E; Cull, David L; Carsten, Christopher G; Yang, Seung Koo; Johnson, Brent L; Keahey, Gail P

    2013-04-01

    Initiatives to increase arteriovenous fistula (AVF) use are based on studies that show that AVFs require fewer interventions and have better patency than arteriovenous grafts (AVGs). Because patients who receive AVFs typically have more favorable vascular anatomy and are referred earlier for access placement than those who receive AVGs, the advantages of AVF might be overestimated. We compared outcomes for AVFs and AVGs in patients with equivalent vascular anatomy who were on dialysis via catheter at the time of vascular access placement. The study included patients who underwent placement of a first-time AVF or AVG between 2006 and 2009, who were on dialysis via catheter at the time of access placement, and who had favorable arterial and venous (>3 mm) anatomy. Outcomes for AVF and AVG were compared. Eighty-nine AVF and 59 AVG patients met study inclusion criteria. Similar secondary patency was achieved by AVG and AVF at 12 (72% vs 71%) and 24 months (57% vs 62%), respectively (p = 0.96). The number of interventions required to maintain patency for AVF (n = 1; range 0 to 10) and AVG (n = 1; range 0 to 11) were not different (p = 0.36). However, the number of catheter days to first access use was more than doubled in the AVF group (median 81 days) compared with the AVG group (median 38 days; p functional AVF can negate its benefits over AVG. A fistula first approach might not always apply to patients who are already on dialysis when referred for chronic access placement. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomized controlled trials in central vascular access devices: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Samantha; Rickard, Claire M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for central venous access devices, however, high complication rates remain. Scoping reviews map the available evidence and demonstrate evidence deficiencies to focus ongoing research priorities. Method A scoping review (January 2006–December 2015) of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to improve central venous access device outcomes; including peripherally inserted central catheters, non-tunneled, tunneled and totally implanted venous access catheters. MeSH terms were used to undertake a systematic search with data extracted by two independent researchers, using a standardized data extraction form. Results In total, 178 trials were included (78 non-tunneled [44%]; 40 peripherally inserted central catheters [22%]; 20 totally implanted [11%]; 12 tunneled [6%]; 6 non-specified [3%]; and 22 combined device trials [12%]). There were 119 trials (68%) involving adult participants only, with 18 (9%) pediatric and 20 (11%) neonatal trials. Insertion-related themes existed in 38% of trials (67 RCTs), 35 RCTs (20%) related to post-insertion patency, with fewer trials on infection prevention (15 RCTs, 8%), education (14RCTs, 8%), and dressing and securement (12 RCTs, 7%). There were 46 different study outcomes reported, with the most common being infection outcomes (161 outcomes; 37%), with divergent definitions used for catheter-related bloodstream and other infections. Conclusion More high quality randomized trials across central venous access device management are necessary, especially in dressing and securement and patency. These can be encouraged by having more studies with multidisciplinary team involvement and consumer engagement. Additionally, there were extensive gaps within population sub-groups, particularly in tunneled devices, and in pediatrics and neonates. Finally, outcome definitions need to be unified for results to be meaningful and

  8. Frailty and poor functional status are common in arterial vascular surgical patients and affect postoperative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Judith S L; Fuller, Matthew; Harari, Danielle; Taylor, Peter R; Martin, Finbarr C; Dhesi, Jugdeep K

    2015-06-01

    Increasing numbers of older people are undergoing emergency and elective arterial vascular procedures. Many older patients are frail which is a recognised predictor of adverse postoperative outcomes in other surgical specialties. This study in older patients undergoing arterial vascular surgery examined; the prevalence of preoperative frailty; the clinical feasibility of preoperatively measuring frailty and functional status; the association between these characteristics and adverse postoperative outcome. Prospective observational study in patients aged over 60 years undergoing elective and emergency arterial vascular surgery. Baseline measures of frailty (Edmonton Frail Scale), functional status (gait velocity, timed up and go, hand grip strength) and cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) were obtained preoperatively. The primary outcome measure Length of Stay (LOS) and secondary outcome measures of postoperative morbidity (medical and surgical complications), functional status and postoperative in-hospital mortality were recorded. 125 patients were recruited. Frailty was common in this older surgical population (52% EFS score of ≥ 6.5) with high frailty scores observed (mean EFS 6.6, SD 3.05) and poor functional status (60% had TUG > 15 s, 45% had gait velocity of 6.5) was univariately associated with longer LOS (≥ 12 days), composite measures of postoperative infections, postoperative medical complications and adverse functional outcomes. EFS ≥ 6.5 was predictive of LOS ≥ 12 days, adjusted for age (AUC 0.660, CI 0.541-0.779, p = 0.010). This association between EFS ≥ 6.5 and LOS ≥ 12 days was strengthened with the addition of MoCA < 24 (AUC 0.695, CI 0.584-0.806, p = 0.002). Patients aged over 60 years admitted for arterial vascular surgery were frail, had impaired functional status and were cognitively impaired. This combination of preoperative characteristics was predictive of longer hospital length of stay and associated with adverse

  9. Impact of routine crossover balloon occlusion technique on access-related vascular complications following transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Sarah; Gooley, Robert; Cheng, Victoria; McCormick, Liam; Meredith, Ian T

    2016-08-01

    To determine the impact of incorporating routine crossover balloon occlusion technique (CBOT) for vascular access closure following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on major access-site-related complications. Vascular complications are associated with increased mortality following TAVR. The CBOT involves passage of a balloon catheter from the contralateral femoral artery to enable controlled closure of large-sheath access-sites. Consecutive patients who underwent transfemoral TAVR as part of three clinical trials were prospectively recruited. Patients who had routine CBOT (CBOT group, n = 55) were compared to preceding patients who did not undergo CBOT (control group, n = 43). The primary endpoint was 30-day occurrence of access-site-related Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 defined major vascular and/or bleeding complications. CBOT was successfully performed in 96% with 2% occurrence of a minor CBOT-related complication. At 30-days access-site-related major vascular and/or bleeding occurred in 5.5% and 18.6% of the CBOT and control group, respectively (P = 0.042). This consisted of VARC-2 major vascular events in 3.6% and 16.3% (P = 0.036) and VARC-2 major/life-threatening bleeding events in 5.5% and 14.0% (P = 0.137) of the CBOT and control group, respectively. Transfusion of ≥2 units of packed red blood cells were required in 10.9% and 30.2% of the CBOT and control group, respectively (P = 0.016). There was no significant difference in contrast load, procedure time, and kidney injury between the two groups. Routine CBOT for TAVR access-site closure has a high success rate and is associated with a significant reduction in VARC-2 major vascular and bleeding complications compared to TAVR performed without CBOT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Simvastatin reduces venous stenosis formation in a murine hemodialysis vascular access model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Rajiv; Yang, Binxia; Vohra, Pawan; Roy, Bhaskar; Withers, Sarah; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Mandrekar, Jaywant; Kong, Hyunjoon; Leof, Edward B; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Misra, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) is responsible for hemodialysis vascular access malfunction. Here we tested whether VNH formation occurs, in part, due to vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 gene expression causing adventitial fibroblast transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts (α-SMA-positive cells). These cells have increased proliferative and migratory capacity leading to VNH formation. Simvastatin was used to decrease VEGF-A and MMP-9 gene expression in our murine arteriovenous fistula model created by connecting the right carotid artery to the ipsilateral jugular vein. Compared to fistulae of vehicle-treated mice, the fistulae of simvastatin-treated mice had the expected decrease in VEGF-A and MMP-9 but also showed a significant reduction in MMP-2 expression with a significant decrease in VNH and a significant increase in the mean lumen vessel area. There was an increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and decreases in α-SMA density, cell proliferation, and HIF-1α and hypoxyprobe staining. This latter result prompted us to determine the effect of simvastatin on fibroblasts subjected to hypoxia in vitro. Simvastatin-treated fibroblasts had a significant decrease in myofibroblast production along with decreased cellular proliferation, migration, and MMP-9 activity but increased caspase 3 activity suggesting increased apoptosis. Thus, simvastatin results in a significant reduction in VNH, with increase in mean lumen vessel area by decreasing VEGF-A/MMP-9 pathway activity. PMID:23636169

  11. Teaching medical students ultrasound-guided vascular access - which learning method is best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Alwin; Rippey, James C R; Carr, Peter J

    2017-05-15

    Ultrasound is recommended to guide insertion of peripheral intravenous vascular cannulae (PIVC) where difficulty is experienced. Ultrasound machines are now common-place and junior doctors are often expected to be able to use them. The educational standards for this skill are highly varied, ranging from no education, to self-guided internet-based education, to formal, face-to-face traditional education. In an attempt to decide which educational technique our institution should introduce, a small pilot trial comparing educational techniques was designed. Thirty medical students were enrolled and allocated to one of three groups. PIVC placing ability was then observed, tested and graded on vascular access phantoms. The formal, face-to-face traditional education was rated best by the students, and had the highest success rate in PIVC placement, the improvement statistically significant compared to no education (p = 0.01) and trending towards significance when compared to self-directed internet-based education (paccess, performed significantly better than those not receiving education. As the number of ultrasound machines in clinical areas increases, it is important that education programs to support their safe and appropriate use are developed.

  12. Analysis of vascular access in hemodialysis patients: a report from a dialysis unit in Casablanca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medkouri, Ghislaine; Aghai, Rachid; Anabi, Aabdelkbir; Yazidi, Asma; Benghanem, Mohamed G; Hachim, Khadija; Ramdani, Benyounes; Zaid, Driss

    2006-12-01

    Vascular access (VA) for patients needing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) remains a major obstacle in the management of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We retrospectively analyzed 190 patients, (92 males and 98 females) who had been on HD for a period ranging from 12 to 240 months. Their mean age was 42.8 years (range: 13 to 83 years). The study was carried out to analyze the VA, including the management of its complications. The cause of renal failure was chronic glomerulonephritis in 34.2% and unknown in 30.5% of the study cases. In 164 patients (86.3%), HD was initiated through a temporary catheter inserted in the internal jugular vein. Each patient had, on an average, two catheters inserted that lasted for a mean duration of 29 days. All patients had a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) as the permanent VA. A primary radial-cephalic AVF was created in 96.3% of the patients. The median period before cannulation was 15 days. Failure of AVF function occurred in 18.4% of cases while the median survival of the primary AVF was 54.8 months. Thrombosis, seen in 26.4% of the patients, was the predominant complication, and this event seemed to be causally related to prior insertion of temporary catheters. Ten patients had arterio-venous grafts (AVG) placed due to recurrent thrombosis of the AVF. The AVG was brachial-cephalic in five patients. A tunneled cuffed catheter was placed in four patients who had no other possible access sites available. These catheters were placed in the right internal jugular vein in all of these patients. The success of VA in patients on HD requires a multi-disciplinary approach and early referral to a vascular surgeon

  13. A new technique for vascular access management in transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew S P; Michev, Iassen; Maisano, Francesco; Taramasso, Maurizio; Godino, Cosmo; Latib, Azeem; Denti, Paulo; Dorigo, Enrica; Giacomini, Andrea; Iaci, Giuseppe; Manca, Mario; Ielasi, Alfonso; Montorfano, Matteo; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    To describe results from a novel percutaneous technique designed to minimize the risk of hemorrhage in the event of a major complication during transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Vascular access management is a major challenge in transfemoral TAVI due to the large introducer sheathes required. Fifty-two pts underwent TAVI between November 2007 and March 2009. Of these, 37 received an Edwards-Sapien Valve (23 mm valve: 17/37; 26 mm valve: 20/37) whilst 15 patients received a CoreValve (26 mm valve: 6/15; 29 mm valve: 9/15). Using a crossover technique, the opposing femoral artery was cannulated with a 7Fr long sheath. This allowed contralateral passage of a balloon and inflation in the proximal iliac. The sheath was then removed and Prostar sutures tied in a dry field. Balloon optimization of the puncture site was performed as required. In three subjects, elective surgical repair was undertaken due to excessive femoral arterial calcification. In the remaining 49, the crossover technique was employed and closed with two Prostar devices (Edwards-Sapien) or one (CoreValve). There were serious "on-table" complications in seven patients, six due to the large introducer sheathes used in the TAVI procedure-iliac avulsion, two iliac dissections, iliac perforation, common femoral perforation and scrotal hematoma. All were repaired safely by combined surgical and endovascular techniques, using the crossover technique to ensure patient stability. All made a good recovery and were independently ambulant at discharge. Using crossover balloon inflation as an adjunct to Prostar closure may be helpful for managing TAVI vascular access sites. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the treatment of failing vascular access in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, J Y; Chiang, S S; Chang, C H; Hua, H D; Chou, H Y; Cheng, J J

    1996-11-01

    Failure of vascular access leading to inefficient hemodialysis is the most common cause of morbidity in uremic patients. Careful observation of clinical signs and hemodynamic monitoring are vitally important to prevent complete fistula thrombosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate approaches for early detection and the application of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the treatment of failing vascular access. From August 1994 to August 1995, 32 uremic patients with failing vascular access (26 native arteriovenous fistulas, 6 polytetrafluroethlene (PTFE) grafts), presented signs of poor arterial flow, high venous pressure, significant recirculation, acute fistula thrombosis and persistent swelling of the access arm. These patients underwent fistulography and subsequent angioplasty in the confirmed obstructed sites. Thirty-seven angioplasty procedures were performed including 32 de novo lesions and 5 restenotic lesions; of the total, 32 (86.5%) were successful. In native arteriovenous (AV) fistulas, the most common problem was inadequate flow with the lesion located within 5 cm from the AV junction (63.6%). In PTFE grafts, the most common presentation was high venous pressure with the lesion located at the PTFE-venous junction (57.1%). Through clinical surveillance and hemodynamic monitoring during hemodialysis, failing vascular access can be detected early and treated effectively with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

  15. Serum sclerostin in vascular calcification and clinical outcome in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Cong; Guo, Chunyuan; Cai, Juan; Tang, Chengyuan; Dong, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Sclerostin, a potent soluble inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway, is known to inhibit bone formation by suppressing osteocytes differentiation and function. Patients with chronic kidney disease have high levels of serum sclerostin. Sclerostin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification, which may promote the cardiovascular events of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. However, the role of sclerostin in vascular calcification and clinical prognosis in chronic kidney disease remains elusive. While some studies suggested a positive correlation between serum sclerostin and vascular calcification or clinical outcome, other studies showed no or even negative correlation between them. Small sample size, heterogeneity in enrolled patients, discrepancy in anatomical structure examined and differences in the applied assays may be responsible for the discrepant results. Nonetheless, anti-sclerostin antibodies may be a new therapeutic approach to increase bone mass and strength in chronic kidney disease. This review aims to have a better understanding of the relationship of serum sclerostin with vascular calcification and clinical outcome in chronic kidney disease patients, and propose the application of anti-sclerostin therapy in chronic kidney disease.

  16. Maternal Vascular Malperfusion and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Low-Risk Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily; Audette, Melanie C; Ye, Xiang Y; Keating, Sarah; Hoffman, Barry; Lye, Stephen J; Shah, Prakesh S; Kingdom, John C

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the disease burden of placental maternal vascular malperfusion pathology in a low-risk nulliparous population and test the hypothesis that a multiparameter model in the second trimester can predict maternal vascular malperfusion with high precision. A single-center, prospective cohort study was conducted in healthy nulliparous women. Maternal vascular malperfusion disease burden was estimated by incidence, relative risk (RR), and population-attributable risk percent. Maternal risk factors, serum biomarkers, Doppler, and placental morphologic ultrasonography were examined in isolation and in combination for prediction of this placental pathology. The incidence of maternal vascular malperfusion pathology was 8.4% (72/856). Women with pathology had higher risk of preeclampsia (8.33% compared with 1.79%; RR 4.67, 95% CI 1.85-11.77%; population-attributable risk 23.6%, 95% CI 16.9-31.6%), small for gestational age (SGA) (47.22% compared with 9.45%; RR 5.00, 95% CI 3.6-6.93%; population-attributable risk 25.2%, 95% CI 22.1-28.5%), and the composite of adverse outcomes (defined as SGA or preeclampsia) (47.22% compared with 10.59%; RR 4.46, 95% CI 3.25-6.13; population-attributable risk 22.5%, 95% CI 19.8-25.5%). The combination of parameters was superior to individual modalities alone in predicting maternal vascular malperfusion, but achieved only moderate precision (area under the curve 0.77, 95% CI 0.71-0.84). One in 12 healthy nulliparous women develop maternal vascular malperfusion placental pathology, and these pregnancies had a 4.5 times higher risk of developing preeclampsia or delivering a SGA neonate compared with those without this pathology. A multiparameter model achieved modest precision to predict placental maternal vascular malperfusion. Importantly, in low-risk pregnancies, maternal vascular malperfusion accounts for one fourth of pregnancy outcomes with SGA or preeclampsia. The low population-attributable risk of this placental pathology for

  17. Significant correlation between ankle-brachial index and vascular access failure in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Mai, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Feng-Hsien; Su, Ho-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2009-01-01

    Vascular access failure (VAF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The most common cause of VAF is stenosis at the arteriovenous anastomosis because of abnormal neointimal proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. These two changes are also observed in the classic atheroma, which means atherosclerotic lesions and venous stenosis in VAF may share some similar pathogenic mechanisms. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a reliable marker for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ABI hemodialysis patients in one regional hospital were included except for six patients refusing ABI examinations and four patients with atrial fibrillation. Finally, 225 patients formed our study group. The study subjects were observed from arteriovenous access creation until the first episode of VAF. The mean observation period was 42.2 +/- 42.8 mo. The relative VAF risk was analyzed by Cox-regression methods with adjustments for demographic and comorbid conditions. VAF episodes were recorded in 111 patients. In multivariate analysis, ABI hemodialysis patients by means of ABI may help to identify a high-risk group for VAF.

  18. Comparison of vascular access use in hemodialysis patients in Isfahan in 2003 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S H Shahidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access (VA complications are the leading cause of morbidity in the hemodialysis (HD population and responsible for high health care costs. This study was designed to compare the profile of VA use for HD in Isfahan dialysis units in 2003 and 2013. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between January and March 2013 on 536 HD patients in seven units. The patients data about VA type, number, survival, and demographic characteristics were collected and compared with the data collected in year 2003 on 320 patients in the same city units. The mean age of patients increased from 51 ± 17 to 58 ± 15 years (P < 0.001.The most common etiology of end-stage renal disease was diabetes mellitus, but the percentage increased in 2013 (P = 0.001.The use of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF as a first dialysis access fell from 60.6% in 2003 to 35.4% in 2013 (P < 0.001. At the time of study, AVFs were used in 92.2% of patients in 2003 versus 56.5% in 2013 (P < 0.001. The 1, 2, 3 and 5 years AVF survival was 80%, 78%, 73%, and 69%, respectively in 2003 versus 79.4%, 61.2%, 47.3%, and 31.5% in 2013. The AVFs proportions decreased and the tunneled catheters proportions increased while the proportion of temporary catheters decreased in 2013 compared with 2003.

  19. Clinical presentation and outcome of geriatric depression in subcortical ischemic vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, R; Pennisi, G; Cantone, M; Palermo, F; Pennisi, M; Lanza, G; Zappia, M; Paolucci, S

    2010-01-01

    Vascular damage of frontal-subcortical circuits involved in mood regulation and cognition might be the main contributor to the pathogenesis of late-life depression, and it is linked to poor response to treatment. To investigate the relationship between executive dysfunction and outcome of depressive symptoms among elderly patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease. Ninety-two elderly patients with white matter lesions (WMLs) or lacunar infarcts (LAs) on brain MRI and depressive symptomatology were consecutively recruited. Depression was rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Evaluation of executive functions by means of the Stroop color-word test was performed at entry of the study, and WMLs were categorized into mild, moderate or severe. Mood was reevaluated by means of HDRS after the 12th week of pharmacological treatment. Psychomotor retardation, difficulties at work, apathy, and lack of insight were the predominant symptoms. Fifty-six patients (62.8%) had a neuroradiological picture of WMLs, while the remaining 33 (37.1%) had LAs. Executive dysfunctions significantly and independently predict poor outcome of depressive symptoms. Patients with the severest WMLs showed not only a greater executive dysfunction, but also a minor response to antidepressant treatment. This study supports the vascular depression hypothesis. WMLs are of crucial clinical relevance as they are linked with cognitive symptoms and poor antidepressant outcome. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Retrograde catheterization of haemodialysis fistulae and grafts: angiographic depiction of the entire vascular access tree and stenosis treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijm, Lucien E. M.; Overbosch, Evert H.; Liem, Ylian S.; Planken, Robrecht N.; Tordoir, Jan H. M.; Cuypers, Philippe W. M.; Douwes-Draaijer, Petra; de Haan, Michiel W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Best Practice Guidelines on Vascular Access propose magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of dysfunctional dialysis fistulae and grafts if visualization of the complete arterial inflow and outflow vessels is needed. In a prospective multi-centre study we determined the

  1. Cardiac Risk Assessment, Morbidity Prediction, and Outcome in the Vascular Intensive Care Unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dover, Mary

    2013-09-17

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the predictive value of the Lee revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) for a standard vascular intensive care unit (ICU) population as well as assessing the utility of transthoracic echocardiography and the impact of prior coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary revascularization on patient outcome. Design: This is a retrospective review of prospectively maintained Vascubase and prospectively collected ICU data. Materials and Methods: Data from 363 consecutive vascular ICU admissions were collected. Findings were used to calculate the RCRI, which was then correlated with patient outcomes. All patients were on optimal medical therapy (OMT) in the form of cardioselective β-blocker, aspirin, statin, and folic acid. Results: There was no relationship found between a reduced ejection fraction and patient outcome. Mortality was significantly increased for patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) as identified on echo (14.9% vs 6.5%, P = .028). The overall complication rates were significantly elevated for patients with valvular dysfunction. Discrimination for the RCRI on receiver-operating characteristic analysis was poor, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of .621. Model calibration was reasonable with an Hosmer-Lemeshow Ĉ statistic of 2.726 (P = .256). Of those with known CAD, 41.22% of the patients receiving best medical treatment developed acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to 35.3% of those who previously underwent percutaneous cardiac intervention and 23.5% of those who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting. There was 3-fold increase in major adverse clinical events in patients with troponin rise and LVH. Conclusions: The RCRI\\'s discriminatory capacity is low, and this raises difficulties in assessing cardiac risk in patients undergoing vascular intervention. The AMI is highest in the OMT group without prior cardiac intervention, which mandates protocols to

  2. Simultaneous dual vascular access site for the treatment of coronary artery bifurcation lesions by complex 2-stent technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaaz, Karl; Mayaud, Norbert; Lamaud, Michel; Raynaud, Amélie; Cerisier, Alexis; Sabry, Mohammed Hassan; Richard, Laure; Khamis, Hazem; Abd-Alaziz, Ahmad; DA Costa, Antoine

    2012-10-01

    To propose an original approach based on simultaneous dual vascular access site (DAS) using 2 small-size guiding catheters to easily perform complex 2-stent techniques for bifurcation coronary lesions (BL). Simultaneous kissing stenting and classic crush technique require large 7 or 8Fr guiding catheters leading to large amounts of contrast medium, vascular access site complications, and sometimes frictions or criss-cross of the 2-stent delivery systems. DAS was used in 30 patients with BL (11 radio-radial, 16 radio-femoral, and 3 femoro-femoral). Among 60 guiding catheters, the size was 5Fr in 28, 6Fr in 30, and 7Fr in 2 cases of double adjacent BL. When 2 different size catheters were used, contrast medium injections were done using the smallest size catheter. DAS patients were compared with a group of 30 BL patients treated using a single femoral vascular access site (SAS) with 7 or 8Fr catheters. Success rate was 100% in all patients. Contrast volume used was smaller in DAS than in SAS patients (277 ± 156 cc vs. 380 ± 165 cc,P = 0.01). No vascular access site complication occurred in the sub-group of the 11 DAS radio-radial patients. Postintervention hospitalization duration was shorter in DAS than in SAS (1.9 ± 2 vs. 2.8 ± 2 days,P = 0.048). DAS allows to successfully perform complex stenting technique of BL using small-size guiding catheters leading to decreased contrast medium volume, decreased vascular access site complications rates, and shortened hospitalization duration. ©2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Acquired uterine vascular malformations: radiological and clinical outcome after transcatheter embolotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleux, Geert; Heye, Sam; Wilms, Guy [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Timmerman, Dirk [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to assess the radiological and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolization of acquired uterine vascular malformations in patients presenting with secondary postpartum or postabortion vaginal hemorrhage. In a cohort of 17 patients (mean age: 29.7 years; standard deviation: 4.23; range: 25-38 years) 18 embolization procedures were performed. Angiography demonstrated a uterine parenchymal hyperemia with normal drainage into the large pelvic veins (''low-flow uterine vascular malformation'') in 83% (n=15) or a direct arteriovenous fistula (''high-flow uterine vascular malformation'') in 17% (n=3). Clinically, in all patients the bleeding stopped after embolization but in 1 patient early recurrence of hemorrhage occurred and was treated by hysterectomy. Pathological analysis revealed a choriocarcinoma. During follow-up (mean time period: 18.8 months; range: 1-36 months) 6 patients became pregnant and delivered a healthy child. Transcatheter embolization of the uterine arteries, using microparticles, is safe and highly effective in the treatment of a bleeding acquired uterine vascular malformation. In case of clinical failure, an underlying neoplastic disease should be considered. Future pregnancy is still possible after embolization. (orig.)

  4. Current use of ultrasound for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries--a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas C Risom; Rimstad, Ivan Jonassen; Tarpgaard, Mona

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The use of ultrasound (US) guidance for central vascular access in children has been advocated as a safer approach compared to traditional landmark techniques. We therefore collected data on the current use of US for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries...

  5. Bioengineered vascular access maintains structural integrity in response to arteriovenous flow and repeated needle puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Bryan W; Yazdani, Saami K; Neff, Lucas P; Corriere, Matthew A; Christ, George J; Soker, Shay; Atala, Anthony; Geary, Randolph L; Yoo, James J

    2012-09-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBV) have been proposed as an alternative to prosthetic grafts for dialysis access. However, arteriovenous (AV) grafts must withstand extreme flow rates and frequent needle trauma. In a proof-of-concept study, we sought to determine whether scaffold-based TEBV could withstand the hemodynamic and mechanical challenges of chronic dialysis access. TEBV were constructed using decellularized arterial scaffolds seeded with autologous ovine endothelial cells (EC) derived from circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) using a novel high-affinity capture approach. Seeded scaffolds were preconditioned to arterial pressure and flow in a bioreactor for 2 weeks prior to implantation to create carotid artery to jugular vein AV grafts in each animal. TEBV were healed for 1 month before initiating percutaneous needle puncture 3 days/week. TEBV wall geometry and patency were monitored using duplex imaging and were either explanted for histologic analysis at 2 months (n = 5) or followed for up to 6 months until venous outflow stenosis threatened AV graft patency (n = 6). Despite high flow, TEBV maintained stable geometry with only modest wall dilation (under 6%) by 4 months after implantation. Needle access was well tolerated with a single puncture site complication, a small pseudoaneurysm, occurring in the late group. Time-to-hemostasis at puncture sites averaged 4 ± 2 minutes. Histologic analysis at 2 months demonstrated repopulation of the outer TEBV wall by host cells and healing of needle punctures by cellular ingrowth and new matrix deposition along the tract. TEBV followed beyond 2 months showed stable wall geometry but, consistent with the primary mode of clinical AV graft failure, all TEBV eventually developed venous anastomotic stenosis (mean, 4.4 ± 0.9 months; range, 3.3-5.6 months postimplantation; n = 6). This pilot study supports the concept of creating dialysis access from scaffold-based autologous TEBV. Engineered AV grafts

  6. Performing concurrent operations in academic vascular neurosurgery does not affect patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygourakis, Corinna C; Lee, Janelle; Barba, Julio; Lobo, Errol; Lawton, Michael T

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Concurrent surgeries, also known as "running two rooms" or simultaneous/overlapping operations, have recently come under intense scrutiny. The goal of this study was to evaluate the operative time and outcomes of concurrent versus nonconcurrent vascular neurosurgical procedures. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 1219 procedures performed by 1 vascular neurosurgeon from 2012 to 2015 at the University of California, San Francisco. Data were collected on patient age, sex, severity of illness, risk of mortality, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, procedure type, admission type, insurance, transfer source, procedure time, presence of resident or fellow in operating room (OR), number of co-surgeons, estimated blood loss (EBL), concurrent vs nonconcurrent case, severe sepsis, acute respiratory failure, postoperative stroke causing neurological deficit, unplanned return to OR, 30-day mortality, and 30-day unplanned readmission. For aneurysm clipping cases, data were also obtained on intraoperative aneurysm rupture and postoperative residual aneurysm. Chi-square and t-tests were performed to compare concurrent versus nonconcurrent cases, and then mixed-effects models were created to adjust for different procedure types, patient demographics, and clinical indicators between the 2 groups. RESULTS There was a significant difference in procedure type for concurrent (n = 828) versus nonconcurrent (n = 391) cases. Concurrent cases were more likely to be routine/elective admissions (53% vs 35%, p sick patients scheduled in an overlapping fashion. After adjusting for patient demographics, procedure type, and clinical indicators, concurrent cases had longer procedure times, but equivalent patient outcomes, as compared with nonconcurrent vascular neurosurgical procedures.

  7. Ultrasound guidance for central vascular access in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit

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    Al Sofyani Khouloud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Percutaneous central venous cannulation (CVC in infants and children is a challenging procedure, and it is usually achieved with a blinded, external landmark-guided technique. Recent guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE recommend the use of ultrasound guidance for central venous catheterization in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this method in a pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit, assessing the number of attempts, access time (skin to vein, incidence of complication, and the ease of use for central venous access in the neonatal age group. Methods: After approval by the local departmental ethical committee, we evaluated an ultrasound-guided method over a period of 6 months in 20 critically ill patients requiring central venous access in a pediatric intensive care unit and a neonatal intensive care unit (median age 9 (0-204 months and weight 9.3 (1.9-60 kg. Cannulation was performed after locating the puncture site with the aid of an ultrasound device (8 MHz transducer, Vividi General Electrics® Burroughs, USA covered by a sterile sheath. Outcome measures included successful insertion rate, number of attempts, access time, and incidence of complications. Results: Cannulation of the central vein was 100% successful in all patients. The right femoral vein was preferred in 60% of the cases. The vein was entered on the first attempt in 75% of all patients, and the median number of attempts was 1. The median access time (skin to vein for all patients was 64.5 s. No arterial punctures or hematomas occurred using the ultrasound technique. Conclusions: In a sample of critically ill patients from a pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit, ultrasound-guided CVC compared with published reports on traditional technique required fewer attempts and less time. It improved the overall success rate, minimized the occurrence of complications during vein cannulation and was easy to apply in

  8. Magnetic resonance angiographic assessment of upper extremity vessels prior to vascular access surgery: feasibility and accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planken, Nils R. [Maastricht University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical School, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Tordoir, Jan H. [Maastricht University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical School, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Duijm, Lucien E.; Bosch, Harrie C. van den [Catharina Hospital, Department of Radiology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Sande, Frank M. van der; Kooman, Jeroen P. [Maastricht University Hospital, Department of Nephrology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical School, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Haan, Michiel W. de; Leiner, Tim [Maastricht University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical School, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    A contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) protocol for selective imaging of the entire upper extremity arterial and venous tree in a single exam has been developed. Twenty-five end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients underwent CE-MRA and duplex ultrasonography (DUS) of the upper extremity prior to hemodialysis vascular access creation. Accuracy of CE-MRA arterial and venous diameter measurements were compared with DUS and intraoperative (IO) diameter measurements, the standard of reference. Upper extremity vasculature depiction was feasible with CE-MRA. CE-MRA forearm and upper arm arterial diameters were 2.94 {+-} 0.67 mm and 4.05 {+-} 0.84 mm, respectively. DUS arterial diameters were 2.80 {+-} 0.48 mm and 4.38 {+-} 1.24 mm; IO diameters were 3.00 {+-} 0.35 mm and 3.55 {+-} 0.51 mm. Forearm arterial diameters were accurately determined with both techniques. Both techniques overestimated upper arm arterial diameters significantly. Venous diameters were accurately determined with CE-MRA but not with DUS (forearm: CE-MRA: 2.64 {+-} 0.61 mm; DUS: 2.50 {+-} 0.44 mm, and IO: 3.40 {+-} 0.22 mm; upper arm: CE-MRA: 4.09 {+-} 0.71 mm; DUS: 3.02 {+-} 1.65 mm, and IO: 4.30 {+-} 0.78 mm). CE-MRA enables selective imaging of upper extremity vasculature in patients requiring hemodialysis access. Forearm arterial diameters can be assessed accurately by CE-MRA. Both CE-MRA and DUS slightly overestimate upper arm arterial diameters. In comparison to DUS, CE-MRA enables a more accurate determination of upper extremity venous diameters. (orig.)

  9. Use of a Vascular Access Port for Antibiotic Administration in the Treatment of Pododermatitis in a Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doneley, Robert James Tyson; Smith, Bruce Austen; Gibson, Justine Susanah

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial culture and susceptibility testing results of a wound on the plantar aspect of the foot of a 4-year-old, male chicken with a class IV pododermatitis revealed a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli bacterium, sensitive to only a few antibiotics including ceftazidime. Concerns over the volume and frequency of antibiotic injections, combined with the likely duration of treatment, led to the use of a vascular access port to facilitate intravenous antimicrobial therapy. The port was placed and maintained for 5 months without complication, and the infection was resolved. This case illustrates the feasibility and application of a vascular port in an avian patient requiring long-term intravenous therapy.

  10. Effects of Mild Blast Traumatic Brain Injury on Cerebral Vascular, Histopathological, and Behavioral Outcomes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Uylissa A; Zeng, Yaping; Deyo, Donald; Parsley, Margaret A; Hawkins, Bridget E; Prough, Donald S; DeWitt, Douglas S

    2017-12-20

    To determine the effects of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), several groups of rats were subjected to blast injury or sham injury in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The effects of bTBI on relative cerebral perfusion (laser Doppler flowmetry [LDF]), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) cerebral vascular resistance were measured for 2 h post-bTBI. Dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure were measured in isolated middle cerebral arterial (MCA) segments, ex vivo, 30 and 60 min post-bTBI. Neuronal injury was assessed (Fluoro-Jade C [FJC]) 24 and 48 h post-bTBI. Neurological outcomes (beam balance and walking tests) and working memory (Morris water maze [MWM]) were assessed 2 weeks post-bTBI. Because impact TBI (i.e., non-blast TBI) is often associated with reduced cerebral perfusion and impaired cerebrovascular function in part because of the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the effects of the administration of the ONOO- scavenger, penicillamine methyl ester (PenME), on cerebral perfusion and cerebral vascular resistance were measured for 2 h post-bTBI. Mild bTBI resulted in reduced relative cerebral perfusion and MCA dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure, increases in cerebral vascular resistance and in the numbers of FJC-positive cells in the brain, and significantly impaired working memory. PenME administration resulted in significant reductions in cerebral vascular resistance and a trend toward increased cerebral perfusion, suggesting that ONOO- may contribute to blast-induced cerebral vascular dysfunction.

  11. Retrospective analysis of 271 arteriovenous fistulas as vascular access for hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sahasrabudhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes our experience of arteriovenous fistula (AVF creation as vascular access for hemodialysis (HD. Study has been carried out in Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital, Pune from January 2004 to December 2009. A total of 271 AVFs were created in 249 patients. Maximum follow up was 7 years and minimum was 1 year. In this study of 271 cases of AVFs, there were 196 (72.3% successful cases and 75 (27.7% failures. Basilic vein was used in 77 (28.4% cases, cephalic vein in 186 (68.6%, and antecubital vein in 8 (3% cases. End (vein to side (artery anastomosis was done in 170 (63% cases. Side to side anastomosis was done in 100 (37% cases. On table bruit was present in 244 (90% and thrill in 232 (85.6% cases. During dialysis, flow rate >250 ml/min was obtained in 136 (50.4% cases. In complications, 16 (5.9% patients developed distal edema, 32 (11.8% developed steal phenomenon. Presence of on table thrill and bruit are indicators of successful AVF. If vein diameter is <2 mm, chances of AVF failure are high. During proximal side to side fistula between antecubital/basilic vein and brachial artery, breaking of first valve toward wrist helps to develop distal veins in forearm by retrograde flow. This technique avoids requirement of superficialization of basilic vein in arm.

  12. Vascular access in diabetic patients. Are these patients “difficult”?

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    Tomasz Gołębiowski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetics with stage V chronic kidney disease (CKD on hemodialysis (HD are considered as “difficult patients”, because of problems with creation of the vascular access. There is controversy regarding the results and recommendations for preparation of the vascular access in these patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of creating different types of arteriovenous fistula (AVFs in consecutive series of patients starting dialysis treatment. The analysis was performed in 741 patients (385 females and 356 males, average age 61.4±7 years, who started dialysis treatment in our department between January 2005 and December 2012. Native AVFs were created in all patients. No patients received an AVF requiring synthetic graft material. The number of patients with diabetic nephropathy was 166 (22.4%. Among them, 30 (18% had type 1 diabetes and 136 (82% type 2. In this group the occurrence of calcification in the forearm artery was estimated on the basis of physical examination, Allan’s test, Doppler ultrasound and forearm X-ray. In a subgroup of patients with atherosclerotic changes in the arterial system the frequency of failed AVFs was analyzed. These results were compared with the group without diabetes. The number of procedures necessary for successfu AVF creation and type of access was counted in both groups. The assessment of the procedure frequency and AVF location in diabetic and in non-diabetic patients was made by χ² test with Yates correction. In the group of 166 patients with diabetes, in 100 cases (60% atherosclerotic changes in forearm arteries were observed. In a subgroup of 30 patients with type 1 diabetes atherosclerosis was observed in 17 adults (57%. In this subgroup creation of a suitable forearm AVF in the first procedure in 9 patients was possible and in the other 8 cases the atherosclerotic changes necessitated repeated procedures and were an important obstacle to create the AVF. In the

  13. Safety and efficacy of using the Viabahn endoprosthesis for percutaneous treatment of vascular access complications after transfemoral aortic valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Arnous, Samer; Sandholt, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Vascular access complications (VACs) remain one of the biggest challenges when performing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This study aimed to investigate the short- and medium-term safety and efficacy of the Viabahn endoprosthesis (Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) when used to treat TAVI......-induced vascular injury. Over a 40-month period, 354 patients underwent true percutaneous transfemoral (TF)-TAVI using a CoreValve and Prostar-XL closure system; this was our study population. A VAC leading to acute intervention occurred in 72 patients (20.3%) - of these, 18 were managed by balloon angioplasty, 48...... stenting versus patients without vascular complications. Two patients (4.5%) presented with new-onset claudication; one of them had the stent implanted covering the deep femoral artery (DFA). At medium-term follow-up (median 372 days; range 55 to 978 days) duplex ultrasound showed 100% patency...

  14. Building a pulmonary vascular service: the 12-year experience and outcomes of the Auckland pulmonary arterial hypertension clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasywich, C A; Cicovic, A; McWilliams, T; Coverdale, H A; Stewart, C; Whyte, K

    2013-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In New Zealand, access to PAH-specific pharmacotherapy has been restricted for economic reasons. Since 2009, access to medication has been provided by a Special Authority scheme that ensures equity of access for all patients. Management of patients with PAH in this environment poses unique challenges. This study describes outcomes of patients managed in the Auckland PAH clinic over a 12-year period. The clinic database was interrogated. Patients were eligible for this study if they had PAH (World Health Organization (WHO) Class 1, 1' and 4) and had been managed in the clinic from the year 2000. One hundred and twenty-six patients (75% female, mean age at diagnosis 50) were included. Most had idiopathic PAH (37%) or PAH because of connective tissue disease (29%). At diagnosis, patients had advanced disease (median WHO Class III, 6-min walk distance 367 m and pulmonary vascular resistance of 10.6 Wood Units). Initial therapy was sildenafil in most cases. PAH-specific therapy was associated with improved WHO class and longer 6-min walk distance (P < 0.01 for both). Thirty per cent of patients were escalated to combination therapy. Survival was 91% at 1 year and 67% at 5 years. Despite historic difficulties with access to PAH-specific therapy, these data confirm benefits of therapy (primarily sildenafil as first-line treatment) for patients with PAH managed within the Auckland PAH clinic. Survival data are comparable with other reported cohorts. © 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Hindlimb heating increases vascular access of large molecules to murine tibial growth plates measured by in vivo multiphoton imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Efaw, Morgan L; Williams, Rebecca M

    2014-02-15

    Advances in understanding the molecular regulation of longitudinal growth have led to development of novel drug therapies for growth plate disorders. Despite progress, a major unmet challenge is delivering therapeutic agents to avascular-cartilage plates. Dense extracellular matrix and lack of penetrating blood vessels create a semipermeable "barrier," which hinders molecular transport at the vascular-cartilage interface. To overcome this obstacle, we used a hindlimb heating model to manipulate bone circulation in 5-wk-old female mice (n = 22). Temperatures represented a physiological range of normal human knee joints. We used in vivo multiphoton microscopy to quantify temperature-enhanced delivery of large molecules into tibial growth plates. We tested the hypothesis that increasing hindlimb temperature from 22°C to 34°C increases vascular access of large systemic molecules, modeled using 10, 40, and 70 kDa dextrans that approximate sizes of physiological regulators. Vascular access was quantified by vessel diameter, velocity, and dextran leakage from subperichondrial plexus vessels and accumulation in growth plate cartilage. Growth plate entry of 10 kDa dextrans increased >150% at 34°C. Entry of 40 and 70 kDa dextrans increased vascular carrying capacity and bioavailability of large molecules around growth plates, suggesting that temperature could be a noninvasive strategy for modulating delivery of therapeutics to impaired growth plates of children.

  16. Heart rate variables in the Vascular Quality Initiative are not reliable predictors of adverse cardiac outcomes or mortality after major elective vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Salvatore; Bertges, Daniel; Neal, Daniel; Patel, Virendra; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Cronenwett, Jack; Beck, Adam

    2015-09-01

    Heart rate (HR) parameters are known indicators of cardiovascular complications after cardiac surgery, but there is little evidence of their role in predicting outcome after major vascular surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether arrival HR (AHR) and highest intraoperative HR are associated with mortality or major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) after elective vascular surgery in the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI). Patients undergoing elective lower extremity bypass (LEB), aortofemoral bypass (AFB), and open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in the VQI were analyzed. MACE was defined as any postoperative myocardial infarction, dysrhythmia, or congestive heart failure. Controlled HR was defined as AHR 90 or 100 beats/min) were analyzed among all three operations, and no consistent associations with MACE or 30-day mortality were detected. The VQI AHR and highest intraoperative HR variables are highly confounded by patient presentation, operative variables, and beta-blocker therapy. The discordance between cardiac risk and HR as well as the lack of consistent correlation to outcome makes them unreliable predictors. The VQI has elected to discontinue collecting AHR and highest intraoperative HR data, given insufficient evidence to suggest their importance as an outcome measure. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of a vascular access team on central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legemaat, Monique M; Jongerden, Irene P; van Rens, Roland M F P T; Zielman, Marjanne; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2015-05-01

    To review the effect of a vascular access team on the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web-of-Science and the Cochrane Library were searched until December 2013. Studies that evaluated the implementation of a vascular access team, and focused on the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, were selected. Incidence rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections were extracted, as well as information on vascular access team tasks and team composition. The quality of studies was critically appraised using the McMaster tool for quantitative studies. Seven studies involving 136 to 414 participants were included. In general, the implementation of a vascular access team coincided with the implementation of concurrent interventions. All vascular access teams included nurses, and occasionally included physicians. Main tasks included insertion and maintenance of central lines. In all studies, a relative decrease of 45-79% in central line-associated bloodstream infections was reported. A vascular access team is a promising intervention to decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. However, level of evidence for effectiveness is low. Future research is required to improve the strength of evidence for vascular access teams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidents and complications of totally implanted vascular access devices in children: a prospective study

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    Lemay Katy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Totally implanted vascular access devices are frequently used in children for repeated blood samples or intravenous treatments. This prospective study aims at identifying the risk factors associated with infections, obstructions and surgical complications of these devices in pediatric patients. Methods From January 2006 to January 2008, all children older than one year of age with a diagnosis of solid or blood cell malignancy were included in the study. Insertion was performed by the surgeon according to a standardized protocol after landmark-guided puncture of the subclavian or internal jugular vein by a senior anesthesiologist. Dressing and post-operative care were standardized. Every manipulation was prospectively recorded by specialized dedicated nurses, and all patients were screened for complications one month post-surgery. Results 45 consecutive patients 1 to 16 years old were enrolled in the study. Mean age at the time of procedure was 8.5 years (range 1.3–15.6; SD ± 4.88. There were 12 peroperative adverse events in 45 procedures (27%, detailed as follows: 3 pneumothoraces (7%, 3 hematomas (7%, 6 arterial punctures (13%. Among these events, intervention was necessary for two pneumothorax and one arterial puncture. There was no air embolism. At one month, we recorded 5 post-operative complications (11%: 2 thrombotic obstructions, one unsightly scar, and one scapular pain of unknown etiology. One patient needed repositioning of the catheter. There was no catheter-related infection. Conclusion Prospective recording of TIVA insertion in children reveals a significant number of early incidents and complications, mainly associated with the percutaneous puncture technique. We found no infection in this series. Results of a longer follow-up in the same population are pending.

  19. Associates of mortality and hospitalization in hemodialysis: potentially actionable laboratory variables and vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacson, Eduardo; Wang, Weiling; Hakim, Raymond M; Teng, Ming; Lazarus, J Michael

    2009-01-01

    To determine the most significant potentially actionable clinical variables associated with mortality and hospitalization risk in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Cohort study. Adult maintenance HD patients in the Fresenius Medical Care, North America database as of January 1, 2004, with baseline information from October 1, 2003, to December 31, 2003, comprising approximately 26% of the US HD population. Case-mix (age, sex, race, diabetes, vintage, and body surface area), vascular access, and laboratory (albumin, equilibrated Kt/V, hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, bicarbonate, biointact parathyroid hormone, transferrin saturation, and white blood cell count) variables. 1-year mortality and hospitalization risk from January 1 to December 31, 2004. Cox proportional hazards models for death and hospitalization. The cohort (N = 78,420) had a mean age of 61.4 +/- 15.0 years, 47% were women, 49% were white, 41% were black race (10% defined as "other"), and 52% had diabetes. The top 5 actionable variables were the same for mortality and hospitalization. Final case-mix plus laboratory-adjusted hazard ratios for these top 5 actionable variables indicate 177% increased risk of death and 67% increased risk of hospitalization per 1-g/dL decrease in albumin level, 39% and 45% greater risk with catheters compared with fistulas, 18% and 9% greater risk per 1-mg/dL greater phosphorus level, 11% and 9% lower risk per 1-g/dL greater hemoglobin level, and 5% and 2% greater risk per 0.1-unit decrease in equilibrated Kt/V, respectively (all P < 0.0001). Observational cross-sectional study with limited comorbidity adjustment (for diabetes). The same variables are associated with both mortality and hospitalization in HD patients. The top 5 potentially actionable variables are readily identifiable, with albumin level and catheter use the most prominent, and all 5 are appropriate targets for improvement.

  20. Vascular access cannulation in hemodialysis patients - a survey of current practice and its relation to dialysis dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauly, Adelheid; Parisotto, Maria Teresa; Skinder, Aleksandra; Schoder, Volker; Furlan, Andreja; Schuh, Erika; Marcelli, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    The appropriate use of vascular access is of fundamental importance in the treatment of hemodialysis (HD) patients. This survey entailed collecting data on current practice of vascular access cannulation to assess its relation to dialysis dose. This international, multicenter, observational, cross-sectional survey was performed in 171 dialysis centers of the European dialysis network of Fresenius Medical Care in Europe and South Africa during April 2009. Practice patterns of vascular access cannulations were documented by means of a 24-item questionnaire. Dialysis dose from the documented hemodialysis treatments was derived from the clinical database EuCliD®. In total, 10,807 cannulations in hemodialysis patients with either arteriovenous fistula (91%) or arteriovenous graft (9%) were documented. For the puncture, the area technique was applied most frequently using 15G and 16G needles. Blood flow rates were mostly between 300 and 400 mL/min and adjusted to the needle size used. In two-thirds of cases the arterial needle was placed first, mostly in an antegrade direction, with an average distance to the venous needle of 7.0±3.7 cm. More than two-thirds of the cannulations were performed by nurses with more than 5 years of experience in dialysis. A logistic regression model revealed a significantly higher odds ratio to attain Kt/V = 1.2 for retrograde placement of the arterial needle, and for using needles with bigger diameter. This survey covered a broad number of countries and centers and provides information on current practice of vascular access cannulation, their effect on dialysis dose, and serves as feedback to the dialysis centers for their quality management process.

  1. Burden of Intracranial Atherosclerosis Is Associated With Long-Term Vascular Outcome in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Su; Chung, Pil-Wook; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Won, Hong-Hee; Bang, Oh Young; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Gyeong-Moon

    2017-10-01

    Ischemic stroke patients often have intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS), despite heterogeneity in the cause of stroke. We tested the hypothesis that ICAS burden can independently reflect the risk of long-term vascular outcome. This was a retrospective cohort study analyzing data from a prospective stroke registry enrolling consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. A total of 1081 patients were categorized into no ICAS, single ICAS, and advanced ICAS (ICAS ≥2 different intracranial arteries) groups. Primary and secondary end points were time to occurrence of recurrent ischemic stroke and composite vascular outcome, respectively. Study end points by ICAS burden were compared using Cox proportional hazards models in overall and propensity-matched patients. ICAS was present in 405 patients (37.3%). During a median 5-year follow-up, recurrent stroke and composite vascular outcome occurred in 6.8% and 16.8% of patients, respectively. As the number of ICAS increased, the risk for study end points increased after adjustment of potential covariates (hazard ratio per 1 increase in ICAS, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.42 for recurrent ischemic stroke and hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.33 for composite vascular outcome). The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for recurrent stroke and composite vascular outcome in patients with advanced ICAS compared with those without ICAS were 1.56 (0.88-2.74) and 1.72 (1.17-2.53), respectively, in the overall patients. The corresponding values in the propensity-matched patients were 1.28 (0.71-2.30) and 1.95 (1.27-2.99), respectively. ICAS burden was independently associated with the risk of subsequent composite vascular outcome in patients with ischemic stroke. These findings suggest that ICAS burden can reflect the risk of long-term vascular outcome. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Permanent vascular access in patients with end-stage renal disease, Brazil Acceso vascular permanente en pacientes renales crónicos terminales en Brasil Acesso vascular permanente em pacientes renais crônicos terminais no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Macedo da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with the establishment of permanent vascular access for patients with end-stage renal disease. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in a nationally representative sample of Brazilian end-stage renal disease patients in dialysis and transplant centers during 2007. The sample comprised only patients who received hemodialysis as a primary therapy modality and reported the type of vascular access for their primary hemodialysis treatment (N=2,276. Data were from the TRS Project - "Economic and Epidemiologic Evaluation of Modalities of Renal Replacement Therapy in Brazil". Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with the establishment of permanent vascular access in these patients. RESULTS: About 30% of the patients studied had an arteriovenous vascular access. The following factors were associated with a lower likelihood of having an arteriovenous vascular access as a primary type of access: time of hemodialysis start since the diagnosis of chronic renal failure OBJETIVO: Analizar factores asociados a la provisión de acceso vascular arteriovenoso en Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, nacionalmente representativo, con pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica terminal acompañados en servicios de diálisis o en centros transplantadores en el año de 2007. La muestra incluyó pacientes que tuvieron la hemodiálisis como primera modalidad de tratamiento y que sabían con que tipo de acceso vascular habían iniciado el tratamiento (N=2.276. Los datos son oriundos del Proyecto TRS - "Evaluación económica-epidemiológica de las modalidades de Terapia renal Sustitutiva en Brasil". Fue utilizada la regresión logística múltiple. RESULTADOS: Aproximadamente 30% de los pacientes tenían acceso vascular arteriovenoso. Los factores asociados a la baja probabilidad de tener acceso vascular arteriovenoso como primer tipo de acceso fueron: tiempo de diagnóstico de enfermedad

  3. Previous hemodialysis access improves functional outcomes of the proximal radial artery fistula in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Michael F; Pfeifer, John; Albuquerque, Francisco; Wolfe, Luke; Levy, Mark M; Davis, Ronald K

    2015-07-01

    The proximal radial artery fistula (PRA) has been established as an early viable surgical option for arteriovenous fistula creation. The overall assisted primary patency reported in the literature approaches 100% at 1 year. We hypothesize that this excellent patency does not represent a functional result when seen in light of successful cannulation and fistula utilization. We retrospectively queried our Veterans Administration Hospital operative database to identify 284 male patients who had 571 access procedures performed by a senior vascular surgeon attending (R.K.D.) from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2008. Operative details, patient comorbidities, fistula maturation time (time to first cannulation), functional patency (date of access to abandonment, revision to another fistula type, conversion to a prosthetic graft, thrombosis of the fistula, conversion to peritoneal dialysis, renal transplant, or patient death), and total duration (creation of the fistula to the end of its functional patency) were collected and analyzed. A total of 144 PRAs were placed during the study period. In all, 87 patients underwent primary proximal radial artery fistula (P-PRA) placement in a limb without previous access; 57 patients had a secondary proximal radial artery fistula (S-PRA) after a failed previous fistula or graft in the same limb. There were no differences between the 2 groups in terms of age, comorbidities, and operative details. A total of 91 patients (63.2%) were receiving hemodialysis at the time of P-PRA or S-PRA placement. Outcomes of P-PRA and S-PRA populations on hemodialysis were examined. There was increased cannulation success (33% vs. 55%; P = 0.00354, Fisher's exact test), functional patency (755.2 ± 661.2 days vs. 405.4 ± 531.9 days; P = 0.0220, Wilcoxon two-sample test), and total duration (859.5 ± 650.7 days vs. 516.8 ± 547.2 days; P = 0.0361, Wilcoxon two-sample test) of S-PRA over P-PRA. There was no difference in endovascular interventions

  4. Vein of Galen malformation: What to do when vascular access is not feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenteno Marco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (GVAM is a rare congenital vascular lesion, with high morbidity and mortality without treatment, endovascular management is the best alternative available today.

  5. The Combination of Sonography and Physical Examination Improves the Patency and Suitability of Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistula in Vascular Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Said, Normawati; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Mohamed Daud, Mohamed Ashraf; Haron, Juhara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared the patency and the suitability of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) created for vascular access by two approaches: (a) physical examination with preoperative vascular mapping and (b) physical examination alone. Methods We compared the patency and the suitability of AVF created in patients for dialysis. There were two cohorts of patients of 79 patients each: (a) patients with AVF created based on the combination of physical examination and preoperative vascular mapping (PE+VM) and (b) patients with AVF created based on physical examination (PE) alone. Fistula patency is defined as clinical detection of thrill (or auscultation) of murmur over the fistula and coded as having thrills (patent) versus not having thrills (not patent). Suitability of fistula is defined as functioning AVF (AVF can be adequately used via 2-needle cannulation for dialysis) and coded as suitable versus not suitable. Results AVF created after the preoperative vascular mapping (PE+VM) has 5.70 (at six weeks) and 3.76 (at three months) times higher chance for patency, and 3.08 times higher chance for suitable AVF for dialysis than AVF created after the physical examination (PE) alone. Conclusion Physical examination with preoperative ultrasound mapping (PE+VM) significantly improves the short term patency and the suitability of AVF for dialysis. PMID:27660542

  6. Virtual-Reality Simulator System for Double Interventional Cardiac Catheterization Using Fractional-Order Vascular Access Tracker and Haptic Force Producer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Guan-Chun; Lin, Chia-Hung; Li, Chien-Ming; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Tainsong

    2015-01-01

    ...) using fractional-order vascular access tracker and haptic force producer. An endoscope or a catheter for diagnosis and surgery of cardiovascular disease has been commonly used in minimally invasive surgery...

  7. Outcomes of Universal Access to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengiz Tsertsvadze

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2004, Georgia achieved universal access to free antiretroviral therapy (ART. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the outcomes of Georgia's ART program. The study included adult patients enrolled in the ART program from 2004 through 2009. Of 752 patients, 76% were men, 60% were injection drug users (IDU, 59% had a history of an AIDS-defining illness, and 53% were coinfected with hepatitis C. The median baseline CD4 cell count was 141 cells/mm3. During followup, 152 (20% patients died, with the majority of deaths occurring within 12 months of ART initiation. Mortality was associated with advanced immunodeficiency or the presence of incurable disease at baseline. Among patients remaining on treatment, the median CD4 gain was 216 cell/mm3 and 86% of patients had viral load <400 copies/ml at the last clinical visit. The Georgia ART program has been successful in treating injection drug users infected with HIV.

  8. Perifollicular vascularity as a potential variable affecting outcome in stimulated intrauterine insemination treatment cycles: a study using transvaginal power Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhal, P S; Pugh, N D; Gregory, L; O'Brien, S; Shaw, R W

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess any potential relationship between perifollicular vascularity and outcome in an in-vivo environment following human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration. A total of 182 unselected consecutive patients undergoing stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles was recruited where the perifollicular vascularity of follicles > or =16 mm was studied using a subjective grading system and transvaginal power Doppler ultrasonography, 36 h after HCG administration. A total of 601 follicles was studied. The incidence of follicles showing high-grade perifollicular vascularity (3 and 4) was higher than those with low-grade vascularity (1 and 2) (80 versus 20%). Treatment cycles were divided according to uniformity of vascularity grades of follicles > or =16 mm on the day of IUI [55% all high (3/4) grade; 33% mixed (1/2 and 3/4) and 12% all low (1/2) grade]. The mean age and duration of subfertility were significantly higher (P or =16 mm pre/post HCG, serum oestradiol and incidence of ultrashort gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use were all significantly lower (P cycles with uniformly low follicular vascularity grades compared with mixed or uniformly high-grade cycles. However, on subjecting the data to multiple logistic regression analysis, the only independent variables that affected pregnancy rates appeared to be serum oestradiol (OR 1.28, 1.01--1.62) and high-grade follicular vascularity (OR 2.41, 1.08--5.40). These data would suggest that perifollicular vascularity has an important role to play in the outcome of IUI cycles, and that power Doppler has the potential to refine the management of assisted reproduction treatment cycles.

  9. Pulmonary Vascular Input Impedance is a Combined Measure of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance and Stiffness and Predicts Clinical Outcomes Better than PVR Alone in Pediatric Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S.; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Kirby, K. Scott; Claussen, Lori R.; Chan, K. Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated an method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero-harmonic impedance value and PVR, and suggested a correlation between higher harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness (PVS). Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and PVS from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared to PVR. Methods Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main PA were measured during right-heart catheterization of patients with normal PA hemodynamics (n=14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects; 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Results Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y=1.095·x+1.381, R2=0.9620). Additionally, the modulus sum of the first two harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (PP/SV) (y=13.39·x-0.8058, R2=0.7962). Amongst a subset of PAH patients (n=25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (RL2=0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (RL2=0.3131). Conclusions Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from PW Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and better predicts patient

  10. Acesso vascular por via intraóssea em emergências pediátricas Vascular access through the intraosseous route in pediatric emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Américo Ribeiro de Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção do acesso venoso em crianças gravemente enfermas é um procedimento essencial para o restabelecimento da volemia e a administração de fármacos nas emergências pediátricas. A primeira opção para obtenção de acesso vascular é pela punção de uma veia periférica. Quando essa via não pode ser utilizada ou sua obtenção se torna demorada, a via intraóssea consiste em efetiva opção para obtenção de um acesso venoso rápido e seguro. O presente estudo possui caráter descritivo e exploratório, realizado por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica, com o objetivo de descrever os princípios técnicos, as atribuições profissionais e os cuidados relacionados à obtenção do acesso venoso pela via intraóssea em emergências pediátricas. Foram selecionados 22 artigos disponibilizados nas bases de dados LILACS e MEDLINE e na biblioteca eletrônica SciELO, publicados entre o período de 2000 a 2011, além do protocolo vigente de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar da American Heart Association, de 2010. Após a leitura das publicações, os dados foram agrupados, possibilitando a construção de cinco categorias de análise: aspectos históricos e princípios fisiológicos; indicações, vantagens e contraindicações; atribuições dos profissionais; princípios técnicos; cuidados com o acesso; e possíveis complicações. Os resultados desse estudo mostraram que a via intraóssea consolida-se, hoje, como uma segunda opção de acesso vascular no atendimento a emergências, por ser uma técnica de fácil e rápida execução, apresentar vários sítios de punção não colapsáveis e permitir que a administração de fármacos e a reposição volêmica sejam rápidas e eficazes.Obtaining venous access in critically ill children is an essential procedure to restore blood volume and administer drugs during pediatric emergencies. The first option for vascular access is through a peripheral vein puncture. If this route cannot be used

  11. Use of suture-mediated vascular closure devices for the management of femoral vein access after transcatheter procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, James A; Dewire, Elizabeth; Nugent, Alan; Eisenhauer, Andrew C

    2004-12-01

    Groin complications remain the most common complication of cardiac catheterization procedures. While the use of closure devices is increasing for arterial sheaths, venous sheaths tend to be removed and hemostasis achieved with manual compression. We report our experience using Perclose suture-mediated vascular closure device to achieve hemostasis and early mobility in patients who have had venous access as part of their procedure. There were a total of 42 patients (21 males; average age, 63.5 years) studied. The majority of the patients had 7 Fr sheaths (24), with access sites of sheaths up to 14 Fr being closed with this technique. Two patients developed complications at the access site: one patient requiring rehospitalization for intravenous antibiotics because of late access site infection, and one patient with deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary emboli. We conclude that the use of the Perclose suture-mediated closure device for closure of femoral venous access sites is feasible and should be considered especially in patients with larger venous sheaths and those at increased risk of groin complications. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The effect of ambulatory status on outcomes of percutaneous vascular interventions and lower extremity bypass for critical limb ischemia in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kimberly; Farber, Alik; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Patel, Virendra I; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J

    2017-06-01

    Ambulatory status has been shown to be an important predictor of postoperative morbidity and mortality for a variety of surgical procedures. We sought to assess contemporary practice patterns in treating critical limb ischemia (CLI) and outcomes based on ambulatory status. The Vascular Quality Initiative (2010-2015) was queried for patients undergoing percutaneous vascular interventions (PVIs) or lower extremity bypass (LEB) for CLI. Ambulatory status was classified as ambulatory, ambulatory with assistance, and nonambulatory (composite of wheelchair bound and bedridden). Perioperative and postoperative outcomes were recorded. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify the effect of ambulatory status. There were 11,522 ambulatory (PVI, 63%; LEB, 37%), 4443 ambulatory with assistance (PVI, 67%; LEB, 33%), and 1732 nonambulatory (PVI, 77%; LEB, 23%) patients with CLI treated (P ambulatory status groups). Perioperative mortality for PVI and LEB for ambulatory, ambulatory with assistance, and nonambulatory status was 1.5% and 1.7%, 3.0% and 3.1%, and 4.7% and 4.9%, respectively (P ambulatory status groups). Worsening ambulatory status was associated with higher perioperative complications with PVI and LEB. Multivariable analysis showed that worsening ambulatory status predicted higher postprocedural mortality, amputation or death, and major adverse limb events or death. In the Vascular Quality Initiative, as ambulatory status declines, perioperative morbidity and mortality increase. Impaired ambulatory patients are more likely to receive PVI than LEB for the treatment of CLI, although even among nonambulatory patients, there are still a significant number who receive LEB. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Automation of a test bench for accessing the bendability of electrospun vascular grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensch Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in cardiovascular tissue engineering is to develop vascular grafts with properties similar to autologous vessels. A promising approach is the fabrication of scaffolds from biodegradable polymers by electrospinning. Unstructured vascular subs possess a weak dimensional stability resulting in lumen collapse when subjected to bending stress. In order to examine different structured grafts, a standardised test method is required. A manual test method, designed in a former study, was adopted in terms of standardisation and automation. Therefore, a control system was programmed to regulate the required electronics. The electronic circuit was then developed and put into service. To fix samples into the test bench a new sample holder and a new collector for electrospinning were designed. Subsequently, a validation showed the new systems’ improved functionality compared to the former test bench. The samples were manufactured with the new collector. They could be fixed to the sample holder with high repeatability. The demand for vascular grafts with biological and mechanical properties similar to autologous vessels requires a standardised test method to examine bendability. The new test system enables the scaffolds to be examined regarding bendability with low personal expense and a simultaneously high degree of reproducibility. In addition, the new collector geometry can be easily adapted to higher or lower inner diameters. Hence, a new sample geometry was developed within this work.

  14. Near-infrared vascular imaging in peripheral venous and arterial access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuper, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Venous and arterial access are among the most widespread medical procedures performed in children. Especially in young children venous and arterial access can be problematic due to tiny blood vessels that are difficult to localize beneath a layer of baby fat. This thesis describes the development

  15. Rating scale for the assessment of competence in ultrasound-guided peripheral vascular access - a Delphi Consensus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primdahl, Stine C; Todsen, Tobias; Clemmesen, Louise; Knudsen, Lars; Weile, Jesper

    2016-09-21

    Peripheral vascular access is vital for treatment and diagnostics of hospitalized patients. Ultrasound-guided vascular access (UGVA) is superior to the landmark technique. To ensure competence-based education, an assessment tool of UGVA competence is needed. We aimed to develop a global rating scale (RS) for assessment of UGVA competence based on opinions on the content from ultrasound experts in a modified Delphi consensus study. We included experts from anesthesiology, emergency medicine and radiology across university hospitals in Denmark. Nine elements were drafted based on existing literature and recommendations from international societies. In a multi-round survey, the experts rated the elements on a five-point Likert scale according to importance, and suggested missing elements. The final Delphi round occurred when >80% of the experts rated all elements ≥4 on the Likert scale. Sixteen experts consented to participate in the study, one withdrew consent prior to the first Delphi round, and 14 completed all three Delphi rounds. In the first Delphi round the experts excluded one element from the scale and changed the content of two elements. In the second Delphi round, the experts excluded one element from the scale. In the third Delphi round, consensus was obtained on the eight elements: preparation of utensils, ergonomics, preparation of the ultrasound device, identification of blood vessels, anatomy, hygiene, coordination of the needle, and completion of the procedure. We developed an RS for assessment of UGVA competence based on opinions of ultrasound experts through a modified Delphi consensus study.

  16. Access to primary health care for acute vascular events in rural low income settings: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shyfuddin; Chowdhury, Muhammad Ashique Haider; Khan, Md Alfazal; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Naheed, Aliya

    2017-01-18

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of global mortality. Among the CVDs, acute vascular events (AVE) mainly ischemic heart diseases and stroke are the largest contributors. To achieve 25% reduction in preventable deaths from CVDs by 2025, health systems need to be equipped with extended service coverage in order to provide person-centered care. The overall goal of this proposed study is to assess access to health care in-terms of service availability, care seeking patterns and barriers to access care after AVE in rural Bangladesh. We will consider myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke as acute vascular events. We will conduct a mixed methods study in rural Matlab, Bangladesh. This study will comprise of a) health facility survey, b) structured questionnaire interview and c) qualitative study. We will assess service availabilities by creating an inventory of public and private health facilities. Readiness of the facilities to deliver services for AVE will be assessed through a health facility survey using 'service availability and readiness assessment' (SARA) tools of the World Health Organization (WHO). We will interview survivors of AVE and caregivers (present and accompanied the person during the event) of person who died from AVE for exploring patterns of care seeking during an AVE. For exploring barriers to access care for AVE, we will conduct in-depth interview with survivors of AVE and caregivers of the person who died from AVE. We will also conduct key informant interviews with the service providers at primary health care (PHC) facilities and government high level officials at central health administration of Bangladesh. This study will provide a comprehensive picture of access to primary health care services during acute cardiovascular events as stroke & MI in rural context of Bangladesh. It will explore available service facilities in rural area for management, utilization of services and barriers to access care during an acute emergency

  17. Beta-blocker use and clinical outcomes after primary vascular surgery: a nationwide propensity score-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgh, A; Lindholt, J S; Nielsen, H; Jensen, L P; Johnsen, S P

    2013-07-01

    To explore the associations between beta-blocker use and clinical outcomes (death, hospitalisation with myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke, major amputation and recurrent vascular surgery) after primary vascular reconstruction. Patients who had primary vascular surgical or endovascular reconstruction due to symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, in Denmark between 1996 and 2007 were included. We obtained data on filled prescriptions, clinical outcomes and confounding factors from population-based healthcare registries. Beta-blocker users were matched to non-users by propensity score, and Cox-regression was performed. All medications were included as time-dependent variables. We studied 16,945 matched patients (7828 beta-blocker users and 9117 non-users) with a median follow-up period of 582 days (range, 30-4379 days). The cumulative risks were as follows: all-cause mortality, 17.9%; MI, 5.3%; stroke, 5.6%; major amputation, 9.1%; and recurrent vascular surgery, 23.1%. When comparing beta-blocker users with non-users: adjusted hazard ratio: MI, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.31-1.78); stroke, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.03-1.43); and major amputation, 0.80 (95% CI, 0.70-0.93). Beta-blocker use after primary vascular surgery was associated with a lower risk of major amputation but an increased risk of hospitalisation with MI and stroke. No associations were found between beta-blocker use and all-cause mortality or the risk of recurrent vascular surgery. However, our results are not sufficient to alter the indication for beta-blocker use among symptomatic peripheral arterial disease patients. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulmonary vascular input impedance is a combined measure of pulmonary vascular resistance and stiffness and predicts clinical outcomes better than pulmonary vascular resistance alone in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Kirby, K Scott; Claussen, Lori R; Chan, K Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated a method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero harmonic impedance value and PVR and suggested a correlation between higher-harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness. Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and pulmonary vascular stiffness from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared with PVR. Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main pulmonary artery were measured during right heart catheterization of patients with normal pulmonary artery hemodynamics (n = 14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects, 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y = 1.095x + 1.381, R2 = 0.9620). In addition, the modulus sum of the first 2 harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (y = 13.39x - 0.8058, R2 = 0.7962). Among a subset of patients with PAH (n = 25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (R(L)2 = 0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (R(L)2 = 0.3131). Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from pulse-wave Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and

  19. The effect of extremity vascular complications on the outcomes of cardiac support device recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, J Westley; Vemuri, Chandu; Prasad, Sunil; Silvestry, Scott C; Jim, Jeffrey; Geraghty, Patrick J

    2014-06-01

    To assess the effect of extremity vascular complications (EVCs, including ischemia or vessel trauma) on the outcomes of patients receiving cardiac support devices (CSDs, including ventricular assist device [VAD] and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO]). Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all temporary and permanent CSD recipients from 7/1/10 to 6/30/12. Patient demographics, procedural data, and outcomes were analyzed. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 30-days post-CSD initiation. Of 208 patients who received CSDs, 31 (14.9%) experienced EVC: 13 (8.9%) of the 146 permanent VADs, 10 (26.3%) of the 38 temporary VADs, and 8 (33.3%) of the 24 ECMO patients. The 30-day mortality for CSD-EVC patients was not significantly higher than that of the CSD patients who did not experience EVC for permanent VAD (15.4% vs 4.5%; P = .15) and ECMO patients (50.0% vs 68.75%; P = 1.00), but was significantly higher for temporary VAD patients (80.0% vs 35.7%; P = .03). Within the CSD-EVC cohort, patients who received a temporary VAD had a significantly higher 30-day mortality and decision to withdraw care after EVC compared with those who received a permanent VAD (P = .01 and P EVC was associated with higher mortality rates in the permanent VAD population (53.8% vs 25.6%; P = .025) but not the temporary VAD or ECMO groups. In temporary VAD recipients, EVCs result in higher 30-day mortality, more frequent withdrawal of care, and shortened survival time relative to the global temporary VAD group. EVC in permanent VAD recipients did not affect early (30-day) mortality rates, but strongly predicted a higher cumulative mortality risk for the 2-year study period. Overall ECMO mortality rates were high, and not significantly impacted by the occurrence of EVC. The nature of the EVC (cannulation site complication vs embolic injury) did not impact mortality. This data provides quality improvement targets for

  20. Gender-specific 30-day outcomes after carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Jeffrey; Dillavou, Ellen D; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Osborne, Nicholas H; Kenwood, Christopher T; Siami, Flora S; White, Rodney A; Ricotta, Joseph J

    2014-03-01

    Although the optimal treatment of carotid stenosis remains unclear, available data suggest that women have higher risk of adverse events after carotid revascularization. We used data from the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Registry to determine the effect of gender on outcomes after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS). There were 9865 patients (40.6% women) who underwent CEA (n = 6492) and CAS (n = 3373). The primary end point was a composite of death, stroke, and myocardial infarction at 30 days. There was no difference in age and ethnicity between genders, but men were more likely to be symptomatic (41.6% vs 38.6%; P gender, there were no statistically significant differences in the primary end point for CEA (women, 4.07%; men, 4.06%) or CAS (women, 6.69%; men, 6.80%). There remains no difference after stratification by symptomatology and multivariate risk adjustment. In this large, real-world analysis, women and men demonstrated similar results after CEA or CAS. These data suggest that, contrary to previous reports, women do not have a higher risk of adverse events after carotid revascularization. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Short- and long-term functional effects of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in hemodialysis vascular access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Linden (Joke); J.H. Smits (Johannes); J.H. Assink (Jan Hendrik); D.W. Wolterbeek (Derk); J.J. Zijlstra (Jan); G.H.T. de Jong (Gijs); M.A. van den Dorpel (Marinus); P.J. Blankestijn (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is usually expressed as the angiographic result. Access flow (Qa) measurements offer a means to quantify the functional effects. This study was performed to evaluate the short-term functional and

  2. Complex hepatectomy under total vascular exclusion of the liver: impact of ischemic preconditioning on clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jangyong; Watkins, Anthony; Wagener, Gebhard; Samstein, Benjamin; Guarrera, James; Goldstein, Michael; Meltzer, Joseph; Kato, Tomoaki; Emond, Jean C

    2013-04-01

    Hepatic inflow clamping during hepatectomy introduces ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and many authors regard the addition of caval occlusion as adding increased risk. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the protective strategies employed to reduce I/R injury in animal experiments and limited clinical series. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of systematic adoption of IPC in patients undergoing complex hepatectomy under total hepatic vascular exclusion (TVE) based on outcomes review. The records of 93 patients who underwent major hepatectomy involving TVE at our center from February 1998 to December 2008 were reviewed. These patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 55, TVE alone) and group 2 (n = 38, TVE with IPC). IPC was performed by portal triad clamping for 10 min followed by 3-5 min of reperfusion prior to TVE and resection. The two groups were comparable regarding demographics, underlying liver diseases, indications for hepatectomy, duration of TVE, and preoperative liver and kidney function tests. Overall postoperative laboratory results of liver function tests were not significantly different between the two groups. Creatinine levels and prothrombin times were not significantly different between the groups. The use of IPC had no impact on the duration of the operation, blood loss, or hospital stay. The morbidity rates were 37.5 and 34.2 %, respectively. Our adoption of IPC as a protective strategy against I/R injury under TVE did not affect operative or laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes when compared to continuous clamping for comparable ischemic periods.

  3. The relationship between perceived role and appropriate use of peripherally inserted central catheters: A survey of vascular access nurses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krein, Sarah L; Kuhn, Latoya; Ratz, David; Winter, Suzanne; Vaughn, Valerie M; Chopra, Vineet

    2017-06-01

    The presence and proliferation of vascular access nursing in hospital settings has been identified as a potential contributor to growing demand, and possible overuse, of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). We examined vascular access nurses' perceived role related to use of PICCs and the association with appropriateness of PICC use in hospitals. A web-based survey was administered to members of two vascular access professional organizations. Of 2762 potentially eligible respondents who accessed the link, 1698 (61%) completed the survey. This sample was further restricted to vascular access nurses who worked in a U.S. hospital (n=1147). Respondents were categorized based on perceived role: 1) an operator who inserts PICCs; 2) a consultant whose views are not valued by the care team (unvalued consultant); 3) a consultant whose views are valued by the care team (valued consultant). Facility and respondent characteristics, reported practices, leadership support and relationships with other providers were compared across groups using chi-squared tests and analysis of variance. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between perceived role and reported percentage of PICCs placed for inappropriate reasons. Among the 1147 respondents, 210 (18%) viewed themselves as operators, 683 (59%) as valued consultants, 236 (21%) as unvalued consultants, and 18 (2%) could not be categorized. A significantly higher percentage (93%) of valued consultants reported that vascular access nurses placed the majority of PICCs at their facility, compared to operators (83%) or unvalued consultants (76%) (pVascular access nurses and their perceived role as part of the healthcare team are associated with PICC use in hospitals. Strong inter-professional collaboration and respect may help ensure more appropriate use of PICCs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Relationships between lower limb and trunk discomfort and vascular, muscular and kinetic outcomes during stationary standing work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, David M; Côté, Julie N

    2013-04-01

    Standing work is associated with discomfort and symptoms in the trunk and lower limb. However, mechanisms underlying these observations are poorly understood. Moreover, most research on standing-related symptoms has focused on only one region (lower limb or trunk), and has not considered the impact and interactions between vascular, muscular and balance outcomes. We measured foot and soleus blood flow, ankle mean arterial pressure, muscle activity of the plantar and dorsi flexors, gluteus medius and trunk flexors and extensors, center of pressure changes and leg and back discomfort in 18 healthy volunteers performing a repetitive box-folding task for 34 min. Results show significant decreases with time in lower limb muscle activity (plower limb (porigin of standing-related lower limb discomfort is likely vascular in origin, whereas back discomfort is likely multifactorial, involving muscular, vascular and postural control variables. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis of early cannulation arteriovenous grafts versus tunneled central venous catheters in patients requiring urgent vascular access for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Emma; Thomson, Peter; Bainbridge, Leigh; Kasthuri, Ram; Mohr, Belinda; Kingsmore, David

    2017-03-01

    Early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVGs) are proposed as an alternative to tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs) in patients requiring immediate vascular access for hemodialysis (HD). We compared bacteremia rates in patients treated with ecAVG and TCVC. The study randomized 121 adult patients requiring urgent vascular access for HD in a 1:1 fashion to receive an ecAVG with or without (+/-) an arteriovenous fistula (AVF; n = 60) or TCVC+/-AVF (n = 61). Patients were excluded if they had active systemic sepsis, no anatomically suitable vessels, or an anticipated life expectancy vascular access for HD. The strategy also proved to be cost-neutral. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long Term Outcome after Application of the Angio-Seal Vascular Closure Device in Minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kabelitz

    Full Text Available Minipigs are frequently used in (neuro-interventional research. Longitudinal experiments may require repeated vessel access via the femoral artery. Anticoagulation and incompliance of the animals necessitates the use of a vascular closure device (VCD. The effects of the Angio-Seal VCD in minipigs were longitudinally assessed. Minipig (42±8.4 kg body weight femoral arteries were sealed using the 8F (n = 6 or 6F (n = 7 Angio-Seal VCD. The pre-interventional femoral artery diameter was 5.1±0.4 mm (4.3-5.8 mm. Sealed puncture sites were analysed angiographically as well as by computed tomography angiography (CTA for a mean period of 14.1±8.0 weeks (1-22 weeks. All animals were constantly treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASS (450 mg/d (n = 7 or 100 mg/d (n = 1 and clopidogrel (75 mg/d (n = 8. Non-instrumented (n = 2 and arteries sealed using the VCD (n = 2 were examined histologically. No postoperative hemorrhagic complications were observed. Three arteries were occluded after VCD placement (1 animal diagnosed after 4 weeks (8F, 2 animals after 1 week (6F and remained so until the end of the experiments after 22, 12 and 4 weeks, respectively. In one artery a 50% stenosis 8 weeks after application of a 6F Angio-Seal was detected. In 69.2% (n = 9 the VCD was applied without complications. Histopathological analysis of the sealed arterial segments showed subtotal obliteration of the vessel lumen, formation of collagenous tissue and partial damage of the internal elastic lamina. The Angio-Seal VCD prevents relevant hemorrhagic complications in minipigs treated with dual platelet inhibition, but is associated with increased vessel occlusion rates.

  7. Type of arteriovenous vascular access and association with patency and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocak, Gürbey; Rotmans, Joris I.; Vossen, Carla Y.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Krediet, Raymond T.; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Verduijn, Marion

    2013-01-01

    There are only a few risk factors known for primary patency loss in patients with an arteriovenous graft or fistula. Furthermore, a limited number of studies have investigated the association between arteriovenous access modality and primary patency loss and mortality. The aim of this study was to

  8. Short- and long-term functional effects of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in hemodialysis vascular access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Linden, J; Smits, JHM; Wolterbeek, DW; Zijlstra, JJ; De Jong, GHT; Van den Dorpel, MA; Blankestijn, PJ

    The efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is usually expressed as the angiographic result. Access flow (Qa) measurements offer a means to quantify the functional effects. This study was performed to evaluate the short-term functional and angiographic effects of PTA and to determine

  9. New biomedical devices that use near-infrared technology to assist with phlebotomy and vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Kenneth; Gorelick, Marc H

    2013-03-01

    Obtaining intravenous access in children is often challenging. Devices using the novel technology of near-infrared imaging have been developed and marketed to facilitate intravenous catheter placement and phlebotomy. We review the technology of near-infrared imaging and the evidence for its use in the pediatric emergency population.

  10. The Impact of Better School Accessibility on Student outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kenzo Asahi

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies and quantifies the effects of better transport accessibility on student performance measured by mathematics test scores. A 27 km new subway line and the extension of an existing line in Santiago (Chile) in the mid-2000s reduced the distance between some schools and their nearest subway station. Estimates are derived using fixed effects models that account for endogeneity in the relation between student performance and school-subway network distance. Increased proximity t...

  11. A comparison of the effect of alcohol and povidone-iodine mixture with alcohol after povidon-iodine in prevention of vascular access inflammation in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzi A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The quality of hemodialysis can be promoted through reducing vascular access complications in these patients. One of the crucial roles of nurses in hemodialysis wards is reducing inflammation and infection of the vascular access. This study was conducted to compare the incidence of inflammation around the vascular access area in patients undergoing hemodialysis between two antiseptic methods of alcohol after povidone-iodine and the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was performed under the supervision of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, after gaining ethical committee approval in 2014. In the present study, 100 participants were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly divided into three groups of combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine (n = 37, alcohol after using povidone-iodine (n = 32, and control group (n = 31. In the intervention groups 1 and 2, vascular access was disinfected using a combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine and alcohol after povidone-iodine, respectively. In the control group, vascular access was disinfected using the method of the related ward. Patients were fully observed for phlebitis occurrence for 12 hemodialysis sessions (1 month. Vascular access was controlled using the Iranian Nurses Association's phlebitis criteria. Data were analyzed using chi-square, ANOVA test, and Fisher's exact test in SPSS version 16. Results: The incidence rate of inflammation in the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine, alcohol after povidone-iodine, and control groups, respectively, were 46%, 87.9%, and 100%. The incidence rate of inflammation was significantly lower in the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine compared to the alcohol after povidone-iodine group (P < 0.001. However, no significant differences existed between the alcohol after povidone-iodine and control group. Conclusion: The combination of alcohol and

  12. Retransplantation in Late Hepatic Artery Thrombosis: Graft Access and Transplant Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Buchholz, MD, FEBS

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. Inequity in graft access and peritransplant sepsis are fundamental obstacles for successful re-LT in L-HAT. Offering a graft for those in need at the best window of opportunity could facilitate earlier engrafting with improved outcomes.

  13. Six uneventful pregnancy outcomes in an extended vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Annette F; Spiering, Wilko; Moll, Frans L; Page-Christiaens, Lieve; Beenakkers, Ingrid C M; Dooijes, Dennis; Vonken, Evert-Jan P A; van der Smagt, Jasper J; Knoers, Nine V; Koenen, Steven V; van Herwaarden, Joost A; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj

    2017-02-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (vEDS) is caused by heterozygous mutations in COL3A1 and is characterized by fragile vasculature and hollow organs, with a high risk of catastrophic events at a young age. During pregnancy and delivery, maternal mortality rates up until 25% have been reported. However, recent pedigree analysis reported a substantial lower pregnancy-related mortality rate of 4.9%. Here, we describe an extended vEDS family with multiple uneventful pregnancy outcomes. In the proband, a 37-year-old woman, DNA-analysis because of an asymptomatic iliac artery dissection revealed a pathogenic mutation in COL3A1 (c.980G>A; p. Gly327Asp). She had had three uneventful vaginal deliveries. At the time of diagnosis, her 33-year-old niece was 25 weeks pregnant. She had had one uneventful vaginal delivery. Targeted DNA-analysis revealed that she was carrier of the COL3A1 mutation. Ultrasound detected an aneurysm in the abdominal aorta with likely a dissection. An uneventful elective cesarean section was performed at a gestational age of 37 weeks. The 40-year-old sister of our proband had had one uneventful vaginal delivery and an active pregnancy wish. Cascade DNA-screening showed her to carry the COL3A1 mutation. Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) of her aorta revealed a type B dissection with the most proximal entry tear just below the superior mesenteric artery. Pregnancy was therefore discouraged. This familial case illustrates the complexity and challenges of reproductive decision-making in a potentially lethal condition as vEDS, and highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, it suggests that previous pregnancy-related risks of vEDS may be overestimated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Impact of Arterial Access Site on Outcomes After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamon, Martial; Coste, Pierre; Van't Hof, Arnoud

    2015-01-01

    ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.27-0.74; P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In this prespecified analysis from EUROMAX, radial access was preferred in lower risk patients and did not improve clinical outcomes. Bivalirudin was associated with less bleeding irrespective of access site. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http...

  15. Treprostinil in advanced experimental pulmonary hypertension : Beneficial outcome without reversed pulmonary vascular remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Albada, Mirjam E.; van Veghel, Richard; Cromme-Dijkhuis, Adri H.; Schoemaker, Regien G.; Berger, Ro F. M. E.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Beneficial effects of treprostmil, a stable prostacyclin analogue, were demonstrated in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although regression of pulmonary vascular remodeling has been suggested as therapeutic mechanism, its mode of action remains unknown. Methods:

  16. Plasma-polyplumbagin-modified microfiber probes: a functional material approach to monitoring vascular access line contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Molina, María Teresa; Leach, Christopher P; Cardosi, Marco F

    2013-10-09

    Atmospheric plasma treated carbon fiber filaments (10 micrometer) were used as the base substrate in the design of a probe intended for use within intravascular access devices. The microfiber probe was further functionalized with a polyplumbagin layer through which the line pH could be determined voltammetrically and therein provide the potential for obtaining diagnostic information relating to bacterial colonization of the line. The redox processes attributed to the immobilized polymer are characterized and a methodology developed to enable the acquisition of a redox signal that is selective and sensitive to pH. The applicability of the composite probe was demonstrated through examining the direct response in whole blood.

  17. A Collaborative Research System for Functional Outcomes Following Wartime Extremity Vascular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    transtibial , or above the ankle, in the lower extremity and above the forearm in the upper extremity. Secondary amputations are defined as...Rasmussen, MD, Fort Sam Houston, Texas Vascular injury with hemorrhage and ischemia is a signifi-cant cause of battlefield morbidity (i.e., amputation ...this cohort, extremity vascular injuries are confirmed, and method of management (primary amputation , ligation, repair, etc.) was recorded. When

  18. The effect of Doppler ultrasound on early vascular interventions and clinical outcomes after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hannah; Lim, Chae-Won; Yoo, Seok Ha; Koo, Chang-Hoon; Kwon, Woo-Il; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Ryu, Ho Geol

    2014-12-01

    During the immediate postoperative period after liver transplantation (LT), postoperative bleeding and vascular complications (stenosis, thrombosis) are the two most common complications that require therapeutic decisions. Doppler ultrasound (DUS) is the established method for screening vascular patency after LT during the immediate postoperative period. The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of DUS performed on postoperative days (POD) 1 and 2 on early vascular interventions. We studied 200 patients who had undergone living donor or deceased donor liver transplantation between January 2011 and March 2012. Postoperative liver DUS findings of up to POD 14, including patency of hepatic artery, portal vein, and hepatic vein, were retrieved. Patients with normal DUS findings on POD 1 and POD 2 were classified as the normal early DUS group. Patients with abnormal DUS findings at POD1 or POD2 were classified as the abnormal early DUS group. Frequency of vascular interventions was compared between the two groups. Risk factors that predict vascular interventions also were assessed. On POD 1 and 2, 81.5 % (163/200) had normal DUS findings and management was not altered by subsequent DUS findings. Two patients in the normal group were found to have hepatic artery dissection and hepatic vein thrombosis on routine CT on POD 7 and received vascular intervention. DUS results in the two patients were normal until POD 6, but DUS performed after the CT on POD 7 were consistent with the CT findings. Of the 37 recipients who showed abnormal DUS findings on POD 1 or 2, the DUS findings were normalized or unchanged thereafter in 33 patients and no vascular interventions were performed. Two patients underwent hepatic artery thrombectomy on POD 2, one patient required a portal vein thrombectomy on POD 1, and one patient died on POD 3 due to bleeding. The overall incidence of vascular complication requiring vascular interventions was 2.5 %. Logistic regression identified

  19. Functional, cognitive and psychological outcomes, and recurrent vascular events in Pakistani stroke survivors: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little direct data describing the outcomes and recurrent vascular morbidity and mortality of stroke survivors from low and middle income countries like Pakistan. This study describes functional, cognitive and vascular morbidity and mortality of Pakistani stroke survivors discharged from a dedicated stroke center within a nonprofit tertiary care hospital based in a multiethnic city with a population of more than 20 million. Methods Patients with stroke, aged > 18 years, discharged alive from a tertiary care centre were contacted via telephone and a cross sectional study was conducted. All the discharges were contacted. Patients or their legal surrogate were interviewed regarding functional, cognitive and psychological outcomes and recurrent vascular events using standardized, pretested and translated scales. A verbal autopsy was carried out for patients who had died after discharge. Stroke subtype and risk factors data was collected from the medical records. Subdural hemorrhages, traumatic ICH, subarachnoid hemorrhage, iatrogenic stroke within hospital and all other diagnoses that presented like stroke but were subsequently found not to have stroke were also excluded. Composites were created for functional outcome variable and depression. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results 309 subjects were interviewed at a median of 5.5 months post discharge. 12.3% of the patients had died, mostly from recurrent vascular events or stroke complications. Poor functional outcome defined as Modified Rankin Score (mRS of > 2 and a Barthel Index (BI score of p = 0.01, moderate to severe dementia (Adj-OR-19.1, p p = 0.02 and multiple post stroke complications (Adj-OR-3.6, p = 0.02 were independent predictors of poor functional outcome. Cognitive outcomes were poor in 42% and predictors of moderate to severe dementia were depression (Adj-OR-6.86, p p = 0.01, presence of bed sores (Adj-OR-17.13, p = 0.01 and history of

  20. Exploring the impact of a decision support intervention on vascular access decisions in chronic hemodialysis patients: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease who require renal replacement therapy a major decision concerns modality choice. However, many patients defer the decision about modality choice or they have an urgent or emergent need of RRT, which results in them starting hemodialysis with a Central Venous Catheter. Thereafter, efforts to help patients make more timely decisions about access choices utilizing education and resource allocation strategies met with limited success resulting in a high prevalent CVC use in Canada. Providing decision support tailored to meet patients' decision making needs may improve this situation. The Registered Nurses Association of Ontario has developed a clinical practice guideline to guide decision support for adults living with Chronic Kidney Disease (Decision Support for Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of implementing selected recommendations this guideline on priority provincial targets for hemodialysis access in patients with Stage 5 CKD who currently use Central Venous Catheters for vascular access. Methods/Design A non-experimental intervention study with repeated measures will be conducted at St. Michaels Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Decisional conflict about dialysis access choice will be measured using the validated SURE tool, an instrument used to identify decisional conflict. Thereafter a tailored decision support intervention will be implemented. Decisional conflict will be re-measured and compared with baseline scores. Patients and staff will be interviewed to gain an understanding of how useful this intervention was for them and whether it would be feasible to implement more widely. Quantitative data will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical significance of difference between means over time for aggregated SURE scores (pre/post will be assessed using a paired t-test. Qualitative analysis

  1. Outcomes of sympathectomy and vascular bypass for digital ischaemia in connective tissue disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, R L; Hwang, B H; Levin, L S; Richard, M J; Ruch, D S; Mithani, S K

    2017-10-01

    All patients (36 hands) with connective tissue disorders who underwent periarterial sympathectomy of the hand alone or in conjunction with vascular bypass at our institution between 1995-2013 were reviewed. The durable resolution of ulcers was significantly higher in patients treated by periarterial sympathectomy and bypass than in patients treated by periarterial sympathectomy alone. Although there were more digital amputations in patients treated by periarterial sympathectomy alone, the difference was not statistically significant. Vascular bypass in conjunction with sympathectomy may be better than sympathectomy alone in patients with digital ischaemia related to connective tissue disorders. IV.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY AND PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE IN THE OUTCOME OF DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT – A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Prakash S, Krishnakumar, Chandra Prabha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peripheral neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease are the risk factors for the development of diabetic foot. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences and predictors of outcome parameters in patients with diabetic foot by stratifying these subjects according to the severity of these risk factors. Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted in 70 patients in the age group of 30-90 years diagnosed as Type II Diabetes with foot ulcers. After detailed clinical examination the following tests were conducted in all the patients: Complete blood count (CBC, Haemoglobin (Hb, Random Blood Sugar (RBS, Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate (ESR, Chest X-ray(CXR, Electrocardiography (ECG, foot X-ray, pus culture, Neuropathy testing by Semmes Weinstein Monofilament Test and Vibration Perception Threshold and Peripheral vascularity assessment by Duplex Doppler. Then grading of the ulcers was done using Wagner’s Grade. The outcome of the patients was assessed by recording the healing time, mode of surgery and amputation rates of the patients. Results: A total of 70 patients with diabetic foot were consecutively included into the study (65.7% male, age (31% in 51-60 years, mean diabetes duration (5.2 years, Ulcer Grade (37% in Grade IV, Foot lesions (45.7% in toe, Blood sugar levels (64% in 300-400 mg/dl, Neuropathy (84%, Peripheral vascular disease (67%, major amputation (7% and mortality (1.4%. Conclusion: All diabetic patients should undergo testing for neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease apart from doing other tests.

  3. Angiotensin Converting-Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Calcium Channel Blockers Are Associated with Prolonged Vascular Access Patency in Uremic Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-An Chen

    Full Text Available Vascular access failure is a huge burden for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Many efforts have been made to maintain vascular access patency, including pharmacotherapy. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I, angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB, and calcium channel blocker (CCB are known for their antihypertensive and cardio-protective effects, however, their effects on long-term vascular access patency are still inconclusive.We retrospectively enrolled patients commencing maintenance hemodialysis between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2006 by using National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Primary patency was defined as the date of first arteriovenous fistula (AVF or arteriovenous graft (AVG creation to the time of access thrombosis or any intervention aimed to maintain or re-establish vascular access patency. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust the influences of patient characteristics, co-morbidities and medications.Total 42244 patients were enrolled in this study, 37771 (89.4% used AVF, 4473 (10.6% used AVG as their first long term dialysis access. ACE-I, ARB, and CCB use were all associated with prolonged primary patency of AVF [hazard ratio (HR 0.586, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.557-0.616 for ACE-I use; HR 0.532, CI 0.508-0.556 for ARB use; HR 0.485, CI 0.470-0.501 for CCB use] and AVG (HR 0.557, CI 0.482-0.643 for ACE-I use, HR 0.536, CI 0.467-0.614 for ARB use, HR 0.482, CI 0.442-0.526 for CCB use.In our analysis, ACE-I, ARB, and CCB were strongly associated with prolonged primary patency of both AVF and AVG. Further prospective randomized studies are still warranted to prove the causality.

  4. Quality of provided care in vascular surgery : outcome assessment & improvement strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flu, Hans Christiaan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the quality of care in vascular surgery in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD): intermittent claudication (IC) and critical lower limb ischaemia (CLI) patients. Therefore firstly it focused on the improvement of the

  5. Neo-Vascular Glaucoma: Etiology and Outcome of Treatment in Lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    31st, 2012 were reviewed. Information extracted from their records included the bio-data, eye affected, best corrected visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure, etiology of neo-vascular glaucoma, ocular co-morbidity, systemic co-morbidity and forms of treatment received. Cases of retinoblastoma were excluded from the study.

  6. Neo-vascular glaucoma: etiology and outcome of treatment in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information extracted from their records included the bio-data, eye affected, best corrected visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure, etiology of neo-vascular glaucoma, ocular co-morbidity, systemic co-morbidity and forms of treatment received. Cases of retinoblastoma were excluded from the study. Data were analyzed using the ...

  7. A Low Cost Metal-Free Vascular Access Mini-Port for Artifact Free Imaging and Repeated Injections in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fiebig

    Full Text Available Small injection ports for mice are increasingly used for drug testing or when administering contrast agents. Commercially available mini-ports are expensive single-use items that cause imaging-artifacts. We developed and tested an artifact-free, low-cost, vascular access mini-port (VAMP for mice.Leakage testing of the VAMP was conducted with high speed bolus injections of different contrast agents. VAMP-induced artifacts were assessed using a micro-CT and a small animal MRI (9.4T scanner ex vivo. Repeated contrast administration was performed in vivo.With the VAMP there was no evidence of leakage with repeated punctures, high speed bolus contrast injections, and drawing of blood samples. In contrast to the tested commercially available ports, the VAMP did not cause artifacts with MRI or CT imaging.The VAMP is an alternative to commercially available mini-ports and has useful applications in animal research involving imaging procedures and contrast agent testing.

  8. Evaluation of the perceptions and cosmetic satisfaction of breast cancer patients undergoing totally implantable vascular access device (TIVAD) placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberale, Gabriel; El Houkayem, Michel; Viste, Claire; Bouazza, Fikri; Moreau, Michel; El Nakadi, Issam; Veys, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Totally implantable vascular access devices (TIVADs) are widely used to administer chemotherapy to cancer patients. While great progress has been made with respect to breast surgical reconstruction to take into account both aesthetics and patients' perceptions of body integrity, these aspects have not been considered with regard to the impact of TIVAD. In order to address this practice gap, we have adapted our TIVAD implantation technique to improve cosmetic results. The aim of this study was to assess breast cancer patients' comfort level and aesthetic satisfaction with regard to TIVAD insertion. Patients with breast cancer admitted for chemotherapy at an outpatient clinic completed a previously validated survey evaluating three main domains: symptoms (pain, discomfort) related to the TIVAD itself in daily activity, information received before and during the surgical procedure, and cosmetic aspects regarding the port insertion site (scar, port, and catheter location). Between September 2010 and June 2011, 232 patients were evaluated. Cosmetic satisfaction with scar location was high (93.3 %). Information given to patients before and during the procedure had a major impact on both symptom perception in daily activity and on cosmetic satisfaction. Obtaining a more aesthetic scar by placing the TIVAD in the deltopectoral groove contributed to a high rate of cosmetic satisfaction. Furthermore, the relevance of information given to patients before and/or during surgery had a major impact on symptom perception. Therefore, we suggest including a pre-operative information session in the care pathway.

  9. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can assess vascularity within fracture non-unions and predicts good outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoierer, Oliver; Bender, Daniel; Schmidmaier, Gerhard [University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg Trauma Research Group, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Bloess, Konstantin; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-Andre [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Burkholder, Iris [University of Applied Sciences of the Saarland, Department of Nursing and Health, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can assess vascularity within non-unions and predicts clinical outcome in combination with the clinical Non-Union Scoring System (NUSS). Fifty-eight patients with non-unions of extremities on CT underwent 3-T DCE MRI. Signal intensity curves obtained from a region-of-interest analysis were subdivided into those with more intense contrast agent uptake within the non-union than in adjacent muscle (vascularised non-union) and those with similar or less contrast uptake. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the Tofts model K{sub trans}, K{sub ep}, iAUC and V{sub e} were correlated with union at CT 1 year later (n = 49). Despite inserted osteosynthetic material, DCE parameters could be evaluated in 57 fractures. The sensitivity/specificity of vascularised non-unions as an indicator of good outcome was 83.9 %/50.0 % compared to 96.8 %/33.3 % using NUSS (n = 49). Logistic regression revealed a significant impact of NUSS on outcome (P = 0.04, odds ratio = 0.93). At first examination, median iAUC (initial area under the enhancement curve) for the ratio non-union/muscle was 10.28 in patients with good outcome compared with 3.77 in non-responders (P = 0.023). K{sub trans}, K{sub ep} and V{sub e} within the non-union were not significantly different initially (n = 57) or 1 year later (n = 19). DCE MRI can assess vascularity in fracture non-unions. A vascularised non-union correlates with good outcome. (orig.)

  10. Society for Vascular Surgery limb stage and patient risk correlate with outcomes in an amputation prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Marlin W; Ahmed, Ayman; Wu, Bian; Gasper, Warren J; Reyzelman, Alex; Vartanian, Shant M; Hiramoto, Jade S; Conte, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Clinical decision making and accurate outcomes comparisons in advanced limb ischemia require improved staging systems. The Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System (Wound extent, Ischemia, and foot Infection [WIfI]) was designed to stratify limb outcomes based on three major factors-wound extent, ischemia, and foot infection. The Project or Ex-Vivo vein graft Engineering via Transfection III (PREVENT) III (PIII) risk score was developed to stratify patients by expected amputation-free survival (AFS) after surgical revascularization. This study was designed to prospectively assess limb and patient-based staging for predicting outcomes of hospitalized patients in an amputation prevention program. This study undertook a retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered registry data of consecutive patients with limb-threatening conditions admitted to a fully integrated vascular/podiatry service over a 16-month period. Upon admission, limb risk was stratified using the WIfI system and patient risk was categorized using PIII classification. Patients were assessed for perioperative and postdischarge outcomes, and their relationship to staging at admission was analyzed. There were 174 threatened limbs (143 hospitalized patients) stratified by WIfI stage (1%-12%, 2%-28%, 3%-24%, 4%-28%, 5%-3%, unstaged-5%) and PIII risk (34% low, 49% moderate, and 17% high risk). Diabetes and end-stage renal disease were associated with WIfI stage (P = .006 and P = .018) and PIII risk (P = .003 and P amputation. There were 119 limbs (71%) that underwent revascularization, including 108 infrainguinal reconstructions (endovascular or open revascularization). Rate of revascularization increased with WIfI stage (P procedures, minor amputations, and initial hospital duration of stay (all P procedures, there was a similar distribution of endovascular (46%) and surgical (54%) interventions. Freedom from major adverse limb events was best for

  11. Minimally invasive basilic vein transposition in the arm or forearm for autogenous haemodialysis access: A less morbid alternative to the conventional technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Jairath

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Minimally invasive dissection of the basilic vein for vascular access transposition is a safe, reliable procedure with patency and functional outcomes comparable with those of conventional BVT.

  12. Outcomes of a standardized surgical and rehabilitation program in transtibial amputation for peripheral vascular disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Anton; Larsson, Gert-Uno; Ramstrand, Nerrolyn; Lauge-Pedersen, Henrik; Wagner, Philippe; Atroshi, Isam

    2010-04-01

    To study the outcomes of a new surgical and rehabilitation program for initial unilateral transtibial amputation in patients with peripheral vascular disease. The program consists of sagittal incision, rigid dressing, compression therapy using silicone liner, and direct manufacturing prosthetic technique. A prospective cohort study with 1-yr follow-up. Of the 217 consecutive patients with peripheral vascular disease who underwent transtibial amputation (mean age, 77 yrs; 51% diabetic; 116 could walk before amputation), 119 (55%) were fitted with a prosthesis at a median time of 41 (range, 12-147) days after amputation. Of the prosthetic recipients, 76 (64%) obtained good function with the prosthesis within 6 mos. Within 1 yr, reamputation was performed on 8.2%, and contralateral amputation was performed on 5.5%. The 90-day mortality was 24% (53 patients). The total 1-yr mortality was 40% (86 patients): 17% among patients who received a prosthesis and 67% among those who did not receive a prosthesis or had undergone reamputation. Following this standardized surgical and rehabilitation program, prosthetic fitting was achieved in more than half of transtibial amputees, almost two-thirds of prosthetic recipients obtained good function, and the reamputation rate was low. Comparison with outcomes of alternative strategies is needed.

  13. Vascular ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Mette S; Larsen, Signe H; Hjortdal, Vibeke E

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular ring is a rare cause of recurrent respiratory infections, dysphagia and stridor. Surgical repair is considered safe but the long-term outcomes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mortality and morbidity following vascular ring surgery in a single...... age of 1.4 years (range 0.008-64 years) were operated for vascular ring. Median follow-up was 6.8 years (range 2.4-34 years). Presenting symptoms were stridor (52%), dysphagia or vomiting (52%) and recurrent respiratory infections (48%). There were no early or late deaths. Three months postoperatively...

  14. Digital Divide: How Do Home Internet Access and Parental Support Affect Student Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between home Internet access/parental support and student outcomes. Survey data were collected from 1,576 middle school students in China. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, independent-samples T-test, and regression analysis. Results indicate that students who had home Internet access reported higher scores than those without home Internet on all three dimensions: Computer and Internet self-efficacy, Attitudes towards technology and Developmental outcomes. Home Internet access and parental support were significantly positively associated with technology self-efficacy, interest in technology, perceived importance of the Internet, and perceived impact of the Internet on learning. Findings from this study have significant implications for research and practice on how to narrow down the digital divide.

  15. Vascular access types in patients starting hemodialysis after failed kidney transplant: does close nephrology follow-up matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Naveed Ul; Abdelsalam, Mohamed Said; Althaf, Mohammed Mahdi; Khormi, Abdulrahman Ali; Al Harbi, Hassan; Alshamsan, Bader; Albaqumi, Mamdouh Nasser; Broering, Dieter Clemens; Alkorbi, Lutfi; Aleid, Hassan Ali

    2017-01-18

    Native arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are preferred while central venous catheters (CVCs) are least suitable vascular access (VA) in patients requiring hemodialysis (HD). Unfortunately, around 80% of patients start HD with CVCs. Late referral to nephrologist is thought to be a factor responsible for this. We retrospectively analyzed the types of VA at HD initiation in renal transplant recipients followed by nephrologists with failed transplant. If early referral to nephrologist improves AVF use, these patients should have higher prevalence of AVF at HD initiation. All patients who failed their kidney transplants from January 2002 to April 2013 were included in the study. Data regarding planning of VA by nephrologist, documented discussion about renal replacement therapy (RRT), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 6 months and last clinic visit before HD initiation, time of VA referral, and subsequent VA at dialysis initiation were gathered and analyzed. Eighty-three patients failed their transplants during study period. Data were inaccessible in six patients. Eleven patients started peritoneal dialysis (PD) while 66 started HD. Thirty-two had previous functioning VA while 34 needed VA. There were 11/34 patients (32%) with eGFR <15 mL/min at six months while 21/34 (61%) had eGFR <15 mL/min at last clinic visit before HD initiation. Only 11/34 (32%) had documented RRT discussion, 8/34 (24%) had VA referral, and 7/34 (21%) had vein mapping. A total of 30/34 (88.3%) started HD with CVC while 4/34 (11.3%) started HD with AVF (p<0.0001). Early referral to nephrologist by itself may not improve VA care amongst patient with end-stage renal disease.

  16. Outcome following carotid endarterectomy: lessons learned from a large international vascular registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menyhei, G; Björck, M; Beiles, B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess if technical and patient-related factors are related to outcome after carotid surgery.......The aim of the study was to assess if technical and patient-related factors are related to outcome after carotid surgery....

  17. Motivo de "escolha" de diálise peritoneal: exaustão de acesso vascular para hemodiálise? Reason for "choosing" peritoneal dialysis: exhaustion of vascular access for hemodialysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Novis Rocha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Pouco se conhece sobre a evolução de pacientes que iniciam DP como única alternativa. OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil clínico-demográfico e a ocorrência de peritonite em uma amostra de pacientes convertidos de HD para DP por exaustão de acesso vascular. MÉTODOS: Revisão dos prontuários de todos os pacientes do programa de DP do HGRS. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 22 pacientes com idade mediana de 47,9 anos, 54,5% de homens, 84,2% de negros ou mulatos, 68,2% procedentes do interior da Bahia. DP foi a modalidade inicial de TRS em apenas quatro pacientes. Os 18 pacientes restantes iniciaram TRS através de HD; neste grupo, predominou o início de HD de forma emergencial e através de cateter duplo-lúmen (CDL. Em uma mediana de 7,7 meses em HD, a maioria dos pacientes (64,7% usou mais de quatro CDL. Em apenas 7/18 (39% pacientes, a conversão de HD para DP foi feita por escolha do paciente; na maioria dos casos, 11/18 (61%, o motivo de conversão foi exaustão de acesso vascular para HD. Peritonite foi mais frequente nos pacientes que entraram em HD por exaustão de acesso vascular que no restante do grupo. CONCLUSÕES: O início de TRS de forma emergencial através de HD utilizando CDL pode levar a uma rápida exaustão de acesso vascular, deixando a DP como única alternativa viável. Este modo inadequado de "seleção" de pacientes para DP está associado a maiores chances de ocorrência de peritonite.INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the prognosis of patients beginnig peritoneal dialysis (PD as their last alternative. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical-demographic profile of patients switching from hemodialysis (HD to PD, due to exhaustion of the HD vascular access, and the occurrence of peritonitis among them. METHODS: Review of the medical records of all patients in the PD program of the Hospital Roberto Santos in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: The study comprised 22 patients (median age, 47

  18. Long-term vascular, motor, and sensory donor site outcomes after ulnar forearm flap harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emile N; Chaudhry, Arif; Mithani, Suhail K; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel O; Feiner, Jeffrey M; Shaffer, Cynthia K; Call, Diana; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2014-02-01

    Use of the ulnar forearm flap (UFF) is limited by concerns for ulnar nerve injury and impaired perfusion in the donor extremity. Twenty UFFs were performed over a 6-year period. All patients underwent postoperative bilateral upper extremity arterial duplex studies. A subset of postoperative patients (n = 10) also had bilateral upper extremity sensory and motor evaluations, and functional evaluation via the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH). Motor function was tested by digital and key grip dynamometry. Ulnar nerve sensation was tested by evaluation of one- and two-point perceived pressure thresholds and two-point discrimination using the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (Sensory Management Services, LLC, Baltimore, MD). All UFFs were viable postoperatively. Mean follow-up was 28.8 months for vascular studies and 45.3 months for motor, sensory, and QuickDASH evaluations. Although mid and distal radial artery flow velocities were significantly higher in donor versus control extremities evaluated at less than 1 year postoperatively, there was no significant difference in extremities evaluated at later time points. Digital pressures, grip strength, key pinch strength, and ulnar sensation were equivalent between donor and control extremities. The mean QuickDASH score was 17.4 ± 23.8. The UFF can be harvested reliably and long-term follow-up shows no evidence of impaired vascular, motor, or sensory function in the donor extremity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Educational Infrastructure and Resources for Sustainable Access to Schooling and Outcomes: The Case of Early Literacy Development in Southern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwaru, Jacob Marriote; Oluga, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Following on the 1990 and 2000 World Conferences on Education for All, African governments increased their focus on access to schooling (but not necessarily on outcomes) by providing more facilities for increased enrolments. The learning outcomes that had been neglected led to a call to focus on more sustainable access--re-examining the quality of…

  20. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and venous stenting in hemodialysis patients with vascular access-related venous stenosis or occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christidou, Fotini P. [Renal Unit, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalpakidis, Vasilios I. [Department of Radiology, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Iatrou, Kostas D. [Department of Radiology, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Zervidis, Ioannis A. [Department of Radiology, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Bamichas, Gerasimos I. [Renal Unit, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Gionanlis, Lazaros C. [Renal Unit, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Natse, Taisir A. [Renal Unit, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Sombolos, Kostas J. [Renal Unit, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: sobolos@spark.net.gr

    2006-05-15

    Aim of the study: To present our experience with PTA and venous stenting in hemodialysis patients with vascular access (VA) related venous stenosis or occlusion. Patients - methods: We studied retrospectively 22 hemodialysis patients with VA-related venous stenosis or occlusions that were treated with PTA and subsequent stenting. The following lesions were detected by digital subtraction venography: occlusion of the brachiocephalic and/or subclavian veins in four patients, stenosis (80-90%) of the same veins in 10 patients, stenosis (80-95%) of the axillary vein in four patients, brachial vein stenosis in two patients, and cephalic vein stenosis in two patients. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 29 months (mean 15.4 {+-} 9.8 months). Primary and cumulative stent patency was recorded. Results: Twenty-two primary venous PTA-stent implantation procedures were performed using 25 stents. The initial deployment of these 25 stents was technically successful, with complete opening (>80%) of the vein's lumen in all but one patient (95.4%). The patency of the vein immediately after the stenting procedure was greater than 90% in 13 patients, 80-90% in eight patients, and less than 40% in the case involving failure. Seventeen episodes of re-obstruction occurred in 13 patients (59%), and all were treated with the same PTA-stent procedures. At the end of the study period 47 stents had been placed in patients. The 3, 6, 12 and 24-month primary patency rates were 88.3%, 65.3%, 45.6% and 25.5%, respectively. Overall cumulative stent patency was 95.4% after 3 months, 79% after 6 months, 74% after 12 months, and 62.8% after 24 months. Conclusion: PTA with primary venous stenting is an effective method for the treatment of VA-related stenosis or occlusion. However, repeat and sometimes multiple interventions are usually needed for the treatment of re-stenosis or re-occlusion episodes.

  1. Retinal vascular occlusion: a window to diagnosis of familial and acquired thrombophilia and hypofibrinolysis, with important ramifications for pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon SG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephan G Dixon,1 Carl T Bruce,1 Charles J Glueck,1 Robert A Sisk,2,3 Robert K Hutchins,2,3 Vybhav Jetty,1 Ping Wang1 1Cholesterol, Metabolism, and Thrombosis Center, Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati, 2Cincinnati Eye Institute, 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Aim: Our specific aim was to document the pathoetiologic importance of thrombophilia among females presenting with severe ischemic retinal vein (RVO or retinal artery (RAO occlusion, without typical risk factors, and to emphasize that the ophthalmologists’ diagnosis of thrombophilia has important diagnostic and therapeutic downstream ramifications for nonocular thrombosis, including reproductive outcomes. Methods: We evaluated familial and acquired thrombophilia in 60 females with RVO (central RVO, n=52; branch RVO, n=8 and 16 with RAO (central RAO, n=11; branch RAO, n=5. They were referred by retinologists, without typical risk factors for RVO/RAO and/or severe ocular ischemic presentation. We focused on extraocular thrombotic events, particularly pregnancy complications, including unexplained spontaneous abortion, pre-eclampsia–eclampsia. Thrombophilia measurements in the 76 females were compared with 62 healthy normal females without ocular vascular occlusions (OVOs. Results: The 76 females with OVO were more likely than 62 normal female controls to have high homocysteine (24% vs 0%, P<0.0001, high anticardiolipin antibody (immunoglobulin M, 17% vs 3%, P=0.012, high (>150% factor VIII (42% vs 11%, P<0.0001, and high (>150% factor XI (22% vs 4%, P=0.004. Of the 76 females, 26 (34% had ≥1 spontaneous abortion; 17 (22% had ≥2 spontaneous abortions and/or pre-eclampsia–eclampsia. Compared to 62 healthy female controls, these 17 females with pregnancy complications had high homocysteine (29% vs 0%, P=0.0003, high anticardiolipin antibody immunoglobulin M (24% vs 3%, P=0.02, high factor VIII (38% vs 11%, P=0.02, and were

  2. Vascular thoracic outlet syndrome. Longer posterior rib stump causes poor outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, Leontien I.; Smit, Andries J.; Ebels, Tjark

    Objective: To assess the role of the relative length of the posterior rib stump in outcome after transaxittary first rib resection for thoracic outlet syndrome. Methods: All patients with a transaxittary first rib resection between January 1990 and February 2004 were selected. Relative rib stump

  3. Nova técnica para treinamento em acessos vasculares guiados por ultrassom utilizando modelo de tecido animal New technique for ultrasound-guided vascular access training using an animal tissue model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Barbosa de Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A ultrassonografia Doppler deixou de ter seu uso apenas como método diagnóstico e vem galgando espaço nos procedimentos terapêuticos. Com maior aplicabilidade e uso de cateteres venosos centrais e procedimentos guiados por ultrassom, há preocupação com a melhora da eficácia e segurança durante o procedimento, assim como com a diminuição das potenciais complicações. Para isso, o treinamento da técnica em modelos (phantoms é desejável. Os modelos industrializados para treinamento em acesso vascular guiado por ultrassom são caros e não reproduzem adequadamente a ecotextura e a densidade dos tecidos humanos. Na tentativa de treinar e aprimorar os profissionais para o uso do ultrassom em procedimentos de acessos vasculares, desenvolveu-se um modelo animal de baixo custo, fácil confecção e excelente aplicabilidade.Duplex ultrasonography has not been used only as a noninvasive diagnostic method. Recently it has been applied for therapeutic procedures. Due to the increasing use and applicability of central venous catheters and eco-guided vascular procedures, there are concerns about improving results regarding accuracy and safety, reducing complication rates during those procedures. It would be desirable that training was accomplished using phantoms before actual procedures in human subjects. Industrialized phantoms are expensive and they do not reproduce human's ecographic density and texture. In order to train and improve ultrasound guided vascular access, we have developed a cheap animal tissue model, which is of easy preparation and applicability.

  4. Acceso vascular inusual para cateterismo cardiaco en pacientes con cardiopatía congénita compleja: reporte de un caso Unusual vascular access for cardiac catheterization in patients with complex congenital heart disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Mosquera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La obtención del acceso vascular es fundamental en la realización de diferentes procedimientos de cateterismo cardíaco. Los cateterismos a repetición y las cirugías cardíacas múltiples pueden resultar en una marcada incidencia de pérdida de estos sitios de acceso, razón por la cual, en algunas oportunidades, es necesario el uso de técnicas no convencionales. Se reporta el caso de un paciente de un año de edad en quien fue necesario el abordaje retroperitoneal de la arteria ilíaca común.Obtaining vascular access is essential in the realization of different cardiac catheterization procedures. The recurrent catheterizations and multiple cardiac surgeries may result in marked incidence of loss of these access sites, which is why sometimes it is necessary to use unconventional techniques. We report the case of a one year old patient that necessitated the retroperitoneal approach of the common iliac artery.

  5. Risk factors and outcomes for nosocomial infection after prosthetic vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariñas, María Carmen; Campo, Ana; Duran, Raquel; Sarralde, José Aurelio; Nistal, Juan Francisco; Gutiérrez-Díez, José Francisco; Fariñas-Álvarez, Concepción

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for nosocomial infections (NIs) and predictors of mortality in patients with prosthetic vascular grafts (PVGs). This was a prospective cohort study of all consecutive patients who underwent PVG of the abdominal aorta with or without iliac-femoral involvement and peripheral PVG from April 2008 to August 2009 at a university hospital. Patients younger than 15 years and those with severe immunodeficiency were excluded. The follow-up period was until 3 years after surgery or until death. There were 261 patients included; 230 (88.12%) were male, and the mean age was 67.57 (standard deviation, 10.82) years. The reason for operation was aortic aneurysm in 49 (18.77%) patients or lower limb arteriopathy in 212 (81.23%) patients. NIs occurred in 71 (27.20%) patients. Of these, 42 were surgical site infections (SSIs), of which 61.9% occurred in the lower extremities (14 superficial, 10 deep, and 2 PVG infections) and 38.1% in the abdomen (7 superficial, 7 deep, and 2 PVG infections); 15 were respiratory tract infections; and 15 were urinary tract infections. Active lower extremity skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) at the time of surgery was a significant predictor of NI for both types of PVG (abdominal aortic PVG: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 12.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-138.19; peripheral PVG: adjusted OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.08-5.47). Other independent predictors of NI were mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR, 55.96; 95% CI, 3.9-802.39) for abdominal aortic PVG and low hemoglobin levels on admission (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99) and emergent surgery (adjusted OR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.51-12.74) for peripheral PVG. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.92%. The probability of surviving the first month was 0.96, and significant predictors of mortality were active lower extremity SSTI (adjusted risk ratio [RR], 12.07; 95% CI, 1.04-154.75), high postsurgical glucose levels (adjusted RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1

  6. Three Decades of Atherosclerotic Reno-vascular Disease Management - Changing Outcomes in an Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vassallo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Optimized medical therapy has improved cardiovascular outcomes in the general population. To investigate whether changes in the management of atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD have had an impact on clinical outcomes. Methods: Recruitment into this single-center prospective cohort study started in 1986. Data was analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into four groups based on relationship of diagnosis year to landmark randomized controlled trials (RCT; group 1 - pre-large RCT data (1986-2000; group 2 - post-early RCT (2001-2004; group 3 - ASTRAL study recruitment era (2004-2009; group 4 - post-ASTRAL (2009-2014. Results: In total, 872 patients were followed for a median 54.9 months (IQR 20.2-96.2. Over successive time-periods, there was an increase in baseline utilization of renin angiotensin blockade (RAB (group 4: 69% vs. group 1: 31%, pConclusions: Although fewer patients are being investigated for ARVD in our center, these have more cardiovascular comorbidities. Nonetheless, optimized medical therapy may have contributed towards improved proteinuria, renal function and clinical outcomes in patients diagnosed with ARVD.

  7. Reproductive Health Outcomes of Insured Women Who Access Oral Levonorgestrel Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine-Bennett, Tina; Merchant, Maqdooda; Sinclair, Fiona; Lee, Justine W.; Goler, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the level of risk for women who seek emergency contraception through various clinical routes and the opportunities for improved care provision. Methods This study looked at a retrospective cohort to assess contraception and other reproductive health outcomes among women aged 15-44 who accessed oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception through an office visit or the call center at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2010 to 2011. Results Of 21,421 prescriptions, 14,531(67.8%) were accessed through the call center. In the subsequent 12 months, 12,127(56.6%) women had short-acting contraception (pills, patches, rings, depot medroxyprogesterone) dispensed and 2,264(10.6%) initiated very effective contraception (intrauterine contraception, implants, sterilization). Initiation of very effective contraception was similar for women who accessed it through the call center -1,569(10.8%) and office visits – 695(10.1%) (adjusted OR 1.02 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.13). In the subsequent 6 months, 2,056(9.6%) women became pregnant. Women who accessed emergency contraception through the call center were less likely to become pregnant within 3 months of accessing emergency contraception than woman who accessed it through office visits (adjusted OR 0.82 95% CI 0.72-0.94); however they were more likely to become pregnant within 4-6 months (adjusted OR 1.37 95%CI 1.16-1.60). Among women who were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, 689(7.8%) and 928(7.9%) were positive in the 12 months before and after accessing emergency contraception, respectively. Conclusions Protocols to routinely address unmet need for contraception at every call for emergency contraception and all office visits including visits with primary care providers should be investigated. PMID:25751211

  8. Reproductive health outcomes of insured adolescent and adult women who access oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine-Bennett, Tina; Merchant, Maqdooda; Sinclair, Fiona; Lee, Justine W; Goler, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    To assess the level of risk for adolescents and women who seek emergency contraception through various clinical routes and the opportunities for improved care provision. This study looked at a retrospective cohort to assess contraception and other reproductive health outcomes among adolescents and women aged 15-44 years who accessed oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception through an office visit or the call center at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2010 to 2011. Of 21,421 prescriptions, 14,531 (67.8%) were accessed through the call center. In the subsequent 12 months, 12,127 (56.6%) adolescents and women had short-acting contraception (pills, patches, rings, depot medroxyprogesterone) dispensed and 2,264 (10.6%) initiated very effective contraception (intrauterine contraception, implants, sterilization). Initiation of very effective contraception was similar for adolescents and women who accessed it through the call center-1,569 (10.8%) and office visits-695 (10.1%) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-1.13). In the subsequent 6 months, 2,056 (9.6%) adolescents and women became pregnant. Adolescents and women who accessed emergency contraception through the call center were less likely to become pregnant within 3 months of accessing emergency contraception than woman who accessed it through office visits (adjusted OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.94); however, they were more likely to become pregnant within 4-6 months (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.60). Among adolescents and women who were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, 689 (7.8%) and 928 (7.9%) were positive in the 12 months before and after accessing emergency contraception, respectively. Protocols to routinely address unmet needs for contraception at every call for emergency contraception and all office visits, including visits with primary care providers, should be investigated.

  9. Improving Functional Outcomes for Vascular Amputees Through Use of Mirror Therapy and Elimination of the Effects of Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Helen; Dickerson, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effectiveness of combining an amputee limb cover to eliminate the effects of electromagnetic fields (i.e., pain) and a Mirror Therapy exercise program to improve functional outcomes for vascular amputees. A cross-sectional repeated-measures design was used with 14 participants with either acute amputations or surgery at least 8 to 24 months previously. The 4-week intervention included the use of an amputee limb cover and mirror therapy exercises each day. The outcome measures were activities of daily living interference (e.g., self-care, walking, car transfer, low chair transfer, sleep), and well-being (e.g., satisfaction, mood, quality of life) at three times (pre- and posttreatment and maintenance). Participants with acute amputations made significant improvements in the areas of self-care, walking, car transfer, sleep, mood, and quality of life, while the subacute participants improved significantly in sleep and satisfaction. A reduction in the time required before prosthetic fitting decreased from 12 weeks to 8 weeks for acute amputees and an improvement in wearing tolerance from 0-2 to 8-12 hours for the subacute amputees were unexpected results suggesting the combined intervention may improves the extent to which amputees can increase participation in their activities of everyday living.

  10. High early uterine vascular resistance values increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome independently from placental VEGF and VEGFR1 reactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Sándor; Németh, Júlia; Sára, Levente; Gidai, János; Tóth, Péter; Schaff, Zsuzsanna; Paulin, Ferenc; Pajor, Attila

    2011-06-01

    From data in the literature, we hypothesized that high vascular resistance values in the uterine arteries at the end of the first trimester would increase adverse pregnancy outcomes and therefore might be accompanied by changes in VEGF/VEGFR1 immunoreactivities. In our university hospital 82 women (Study I n=62 and Study II n=20) were divided into two groups according to their uterine vascular resistance values. Uterine vascular resistance values were measured in the 10-13th weeks of gestation by color-Doppler ultrasonography. Women were divided into low and high vascular resistance groups. In the prospective follow-up study (Study I) the data of the pregnancy outcome were recorded. In cross-sectional study (Study II), VEGF and VEGFR1 immunoreactivities were measured on the tissue samples from women who underwent termination of pregnancy. In the high vascular resistance group (PI>2.3), the probability of adverse pregnancy outcome was significantly higher (40.0% vs. 12.8%). No differences in VEGF and VEGFR1 immunoreactivities were observed between groups. In both groups, intense VEGF immunoreactivity was observed in the maternal glandular epithelium and in the decidual cells. Weak reactivity was observed in the villous trophoblast. VEGFR1 immunoreactivity was intense in all regions. Our data suggest that high vascular resistance values in the first trimester are independent from VEGF/VEGFR1 immunoreactivities and markedly increase the probability of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This may be used for early screening of pregnant women in the first trimester. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of lesion calcification on angiographic outcomes after Absorb everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation: An observation from the ABSORB Japan trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohya, M. (Masanobu); K. Kadota (Kazushige); Y. Sotomi (Yohei); K. Kozuma (Ken); K. Tanabe (Kengo); Uematsu, M. (Masaaki); Kawasaki, T. (Tomohiro); Morino, Y. (Yoshihiro); Tobaru, T. (Tetsuya); Nakao, K. (Koichi); Tachibana, K. (Kouichi); Kishi, K. (Koichi); Shibata, Y. (Yoshisato); S. Ying (Shihwa); Kusano, H. (Hajime); G.W. Stone (Gregg); J.J. Popma (Jeffrey); Y. Onuma (Yoshinobu); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); T. Kimura (Takeshi)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAims: We aimed to investigate the impact of lesion calcification on angiographic outcomes after Absorb everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation in comparison with those after cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-EES) implantation. Methods and

  12. The Outcomes of Salvage Surgery for Vascular Injury in The Extremities: A Special Consideration For Delayed Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Krishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A seven years retrospective study was performed in 45 consecutive vascular injuries in the extremities to investigate the pattern of injuries, managements and outcomes. Motor-vehicle accidents were the leading cause of injuries (80%, followed by industrial injuries (11.1% and iatrogenic injuries (4.4%. Popliteal and brachial artery injuries were commonly involved (20%. Fifteen (33.3% patients had fractures, dislocation or fracture dislocation around the knee joint and 6 (13.3% patients had soft tissue injuries without fracture. Traumatic arterial transection accounted for 34 (75.6% cases, followed by laceration in 7 (15.6% and 9 (6.7% contusions. Associated nerve injuries were seen in 8 (17.8 % patients using intra-operative findings as the gold standard, both conventional angiogram (CA and computerized tomography angiogram (CTA had 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity in determining the site of arterial injuries. The mean ischemic time was 25.31 hours (4 - 278 hours. Thirty-three (73.3 % patients were treated more than 6 hours after injury and 6 patients underwent revascularization after 24 hours; all had good collateral circulation without distal pulses or evidence of ischemic neurological deficit. The mean ischemic time in 39 patients who underwent revascularization within 24 hours was 13.2 hours. Delayed amputation was performed in 5 patients (11.1%. Of the 6 patients who underwent delayed revascularization, one patient had early amputation, one -had delayed amputation following infection and multiple flap procedures while the rest of the patients’ limbs survived. Joint stiffness was noted in 10 patients (22.2% involving the knee joint, elbow and shoulder in two patients each. Infection was also noted in 5 patients (11.1% with two of them were due to infected implants. Other complications encountered included nonunion (2 patients, 4.4%, delayed union (1 patient, 2.2%, limb length discrepancy (1 patient, 2.2%, hematoma (1 patient, 2.2% and

  13. Association of vascular endothelial factors with cardiovascular outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease patients: a 4-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambod, Mehdi; Heine, Gunnar H; Seiler, Sarah; Dominic, Elizabeth A; Rogacev, Kyrill S; Dwivedi, Rama; Ramezani, Ali; Wing, Maria R; Amdur, Richard L; Fliser, Danilo; Raj, Dominic S

    2014-10-01

    Angiogenic cytokines fms-like tyrosine kinase-1(sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. In this study we examine the association between these vascular endothelial factors and atherosclerosis, cardiovascular outcome, and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Serum level of PlGF and sFlt-1 were measured in 301 patients with CKD, who were followed for up to 4 years. Primary outcomes were CV events and all-cause mortality. Carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT) was used as marker of atherosclerosis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to assess the association of biomarkers and clinical outcomes. Mean (SD) PlGF and sFlt-1 were 5.45 ng/ml (3.76) and 68.6 (28.0) pg/ml, respectively. During the follow up time, 60 patients (19.9%) experienced CV events and 22 patients (7.3%) died. Compared with low PlGF, patients with PlGF above median level had higher CV events (12.7% vs. 27.2%, p = 0.002) and mortality (2.0% vs. 12.6%, p mortality (HR 3.41, 95% CI: 1.49-9.51, p = 0.019). In CKD patients not yet on dialysis, higher serum level of PlGF and sFlt-1 are associated with increased mortality, but not CV events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Visualizing the Acute Effects of Vascular-Targeted Therapy In Vivo Using Intravital Microscopy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Correlation with Endothelial Apoptosis, Cytokine Induction, and Treatment Outcome

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    Mukund Seshadri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The acute effects of the vascular-disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA were investigated in vivo using intravital microscopy (IVM and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Changes in vascular permeability and blood flow of syngeneic CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinomas were assessed at 4 and 24 hours after DMXAA treatment (30 mg/kg, i.p. and correlated with induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, endothelial damage [CD31/terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT], and treatment outcome. Intravital imaging revealed a marked increase in vascular permeability 4 hours after treatment, consistent with increases in intratumoral mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α. Parallel contrast-enhanced MRI studies showed a ~ 4-fold increase in longitudinal relaxation rates (ΔR1, indicative of increased contrast agent accumulation within the tumor. Dualimmunostained tumor sections (CD31/TdT revealed evidence of endothelial apoptosis at this time point. Twenty-four hours after treatment, extensive hemorrhage and complete disruption of vascular architecture were observed with IVM, along with a significant reduction in ΔR1 and virtual absence of CD31 immunostaining. DMXAA-induced tumor vascular damage resulted in significant long-term (60-day cures compared to untreated controls. Multimodality imaging approaches are useful in visualizing the effects of antivascular therapy in vivo. Such approaches allow cross validation and correlation of findings with underlying molecular changes contributing to treatment outcome.

  15. Open access colonoscopy: Critical appraisal of indications, quality metrics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaoui, Rony; Ramdass, Sheryl; Friderici, Jennifer; Desilets, David J

    2016-08-01

    In an era of cost containment and measurement of value, screening for colon cancer represents a clear target for better accountability. Bundling payment is a real possibility and will likely have to rely on open-access colonoscopy (OAC). OAC is a method to allow patients to undergo endoscopy without prior evaluation by a gastroenterologist. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the indications and outcomes among patients scheduled for OAC or traditional colonoscopy at a tertiary medical center. We hypothesized that outcomes in OAC patients would be similar to those from traditional referral modes. Using a standardized data abstraction form, we documented indications for colonoscopy, clinical outcomes (complications, emergency room visits, phone calls), and compliance with quality indicators (QI) in a random sample of 1000 patients who underwent an outpatient colonoscopy at an academic medical center in 2013. We compared baseline characteristics and outcomes between two cohorts: OAC vs. patients who were scheduled after previous evaluation by a gastroenterologist or physician assistant or non-open access colonoscopy (NOAC). Patients in the OAC group were more likely to be male, non-Hispanic, to be privately insured, and to have screening (vs. diagnostic) indication. However they were significantly less likely than those in the NOAC group to have a procedure performed once scheduled, (45.5% vs. 66.9%, pmetrics such as documentation of prep quality (99.8% vs. 98.8%, p=0.24). Patients undergoing OAC are more likely to have a screening colonoscopy but with overall similar clinical outcomes and compliance with QI to patients scheduled as NOAC. OAC remains handicapped by high cancellation and no-show rates. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How T-cell-dependent and -independent challenges access the brain: vascular and neural responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrats, Jordi; Sawchenko, Paul E

    2009-10-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used to study immune influences on the CNS, and cerebrovascular prostaglandin (PG) synthesis is implicated in mediating LPS influences on some acute phase responses. Other bacterial products, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), impact target tissues differently in that their effects are T-lymphocyte-dependent, yet both LPS and SEB recruit a partially overlapping set of subcortical central autonomic cell groups. We sought to compare neurovascular responses to the two pathogens, and the mechanisms by which they may access the brain. Rats received iv injections of LPS (2 microg/kg), SEB (1mg/kg) or vehicle and were sacrificed 0.5-3h later. Both challenges engaged vascular cells as early 0.5h, as evidenced by induced expression of the vascular early response gene (Verge), and the immediate-early gene, NGFI-B. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was detected in both endothelial and perivascular cells (PVCs) in response to LPS, but only in PVCs of SEB-challenged animals. The non-selective COX inhibitor, indomethacin (1mg/kg, iv), blocked LPS-induced activation in a subset of central autonomic structures, but failed to alter SEB-driven responses. Liposome mediated ablation of PVCs modulated the CNS response to LPS, did not affect the SEB-induced activational profile. By contrast, disruptions of interoceptive signaling by area postrema lesions or vagotomy (complete or hepatic) markedly attenuated SEB-, but not LPS-, stimulated central activational responses. Despite partial overlap in their neuronal and vascular response profiles, LPS and SEB appear to use distinct mechanisms to access the brain.

  17. Open access to large scale datasets is needed to translate knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better patient outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this guest editorial, Andrew Beck discusses the importance of open access to big data for translating knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better outcomes for cancer patients.

  18. A Prospective Evaluation of Lymphedema-Specific Quality-of-Life Outcomes Following Vascularized Lymph Node Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ketan M; Lin, Chia-Yu; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2015-07-01

    Microsurgical techniques for the treatment of lymphedema rapidly increased in popularity. Although surgical success with vascularized lymph node (VLN) transfer has been demonstrated, limited studies have investigated the influence of microsurgical treatments on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) parameters. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate changes in HRQoL following VLN transfer for upper- and lower-extremity lymphedema using a validated instrument. An Institutional Review Board-approved prospective study was performed of patients who underwent VLN transfer for symptomatic upper- or lower-limb lymphedema. A validated lymphedema-specific questionnaire-lymphoedema quality-of-life study-was utilized to assess specific quality-of-life parameters at multiple time points during the 12-month perioperative period. For a comparison with HRQoL metrics, limb circumference measurements were obtained to assess circumference differentiation. Twenty-five patients met the study criteria. Limb circumference analysis revealed significant early improvements following VLN transfer, with continued improvement during the study period (upper-limb lymphedema: 24.4 %; lower-limb lymphedema: 35.2 %). These improvements were mirrored by improvements in all HRQoL domains and overall quality of life (p lymphedema with VLN transfer procedures effectively decrease limb circumference. This improvement is mirrored by improvements in patient-reported outcomes and quality of life. These changes can be observed as soon as 1 month postoperatively, and continued steady improvement can be expected.

  19. Inflammatory choroidal neovascularization in Indian eyes: Etiology, clinical features, and outcomes to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The aim was to study the clinical profile of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV and its treatment response to intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab on pro re nata (PRN basis in Indian eyes. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients with inflammatory CNV treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF in a tertiary eye care center in Eastern India between 2009 and 2014. The data about clinical features, investigations, treatment, and outcomes were obtained from the medical records. We included patients with active inflammatory CNV but with no evidence of inflammation and were treated with anti-VEGF alone, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Main outcome measures were a clinical and etiological profile of inflammatory CNV in Indian eyes and their response to treatment. Results: Thirty eyes of 28 patients were included in the study. The mean follow-up was 17.93 ± 14.28 months (range 6–53 months. In our cohort, seven (23.33% eyes had inflammatory CNV secondary to idiopathic choroiditis, four (13.33% eyes had toxoplasmosis, idiopathic panuveitis, and Vogt Koyanaki Harada's disease each. Three (10% eyes had geographic helicoid peripapillary choroidopathy and tubercular choroiditis each. Remaining two (6.66% eyes had punctate inner choroidopathy, while multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis, resolved endogenous endophthalmitis and Hansen's diseases were the etiology in one (3.33% case of inflammatory CNV each. The mean number of injections were 2.76 (range 1–5. Among thirty eyes of inflammatory CNV, 16 (53.3% eyes showed improvement, eight (26.6% maintained the same vision, whereas six (20% eyes showed deterioration of vision. Interpretations and Conclusion: Idiopathic choroiditis was the most common cause of inflammatory CNV and PRN intravitreal anti-VEGF (ranibizumab or bevacizumab appears to have effective treatment response.

  20. Inflammatory choroidal neovascularization in Indian eyes: Etiology, clinical features, and outcomes to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rupak; Saurabh, Kumar; Bansal, Aditya; Kumar, Amitabh; Majumdar, Anindya Kishore; Paul, Swakshyar Saumya

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim was to study the clinical profile of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and its treatment response to intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab on pro re nata (PRN) basis in Indian eyes. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients with inflammatory CNV treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) in a tertiary eye care center in Eastern India between 2009 and 2014. The data about clinical features, investigations, treatment, and outcomes were obtained from the medical records. We included patients with active inflammatory CNV but with no evidence of inflammation and were treated with anti-VEGF alone, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Main outcome measures were a clinical and etiological profile of inflammatory CNV in Indian eyes and their response to treatment. Results: Thirty eyes of 28 patients were included in the study. The mean follow-up was 17.93 ± 14.28 months (range 6–53 months). In our cohort, seven (23.33%) eyes had inflammatory CNV secondary to idiopathic choroiditis, four (13.33%) eyes had toxoplasmosis, idiopathic panuveitis, and Vogt Koyanaki Harada's disease each. Three (10%) eyes had geographic helicoid peripapillary choroidopathy and tubercular choroiditis each. Remaining two (6.66%) eyes had punctate inner choroidopathy, while multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis, resolved endogenous endophthalmitis and Hansen's diseases were the etiology in one (3.33%) case of inflammatory CNV each. The mean number of injections were 2.76 (range 1–5). Among thirty eyes of inflammatory CNV, 16 (53.3%) eyes showed improvement, eight (26.6%) maintained the same vision, whereas six (20%) eyes showed deterioration of vision. Interpretations and Conclusion: Idiopathic choroiditis was the most common cause of inflammatory CNV and PRN intravitreal anti-VEGF (ranibizumab or bevacizumab) appears to have effective treatment response. PMID:28513493

  1. Treatment of hemodialysis vascular access rupture irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade: Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of N-butyl cyanoacrylate seal-off technique

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    Weng, Mei Jul; Liang, Huei Lung; Pan, Huay Ben [Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Matt Chiung Yu [Dept. of Radiology, Yuan' s General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China)

    2013-01-15

    The current study retrospectively evaluated whether the percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) seal-off technique is an effective treatment for controlling the angioplasty-related ruptures, which are irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for failed or failing hemodialysis vascular accesses. We reviewed 1588 interventions performed during a 2-year period for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites in 1569 patients. For the angioplasty-related ruptures, which could not be controlled with repeated prolonged balloon tamponade, the rupture sites were sealed off with an injection of a glue mixture (NBCA and lipiodol), via a needle/needle sheath to the rupture site, under a sonographic guidance. Technical success rate, complications and clinical success rate were reported. The post-seal-off primary and secondary functional patency rates were calculated by a survival analysis with the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty ruptures irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade occurred in 1588 interventions (1.3%). Two technical failures were noted; one was salvaged with a bailout stent-graft insertion and the other was lost after access embolization. Eighteen accesses (90.0%) were salvaged with the seal-off technique; of them, 16 ruptures were completely sealed off, and two lesions were controlled as acute pseudoaneurysms. Acute pseudoaneurysms were corrected with stentgraft insertion in one patient, and access ligation in the other. The most significant complication during the follow-up was delayed pseudoaneurysm, which occurred in 43.8% (7 of 16) of the completely sealed off accesses. Delayed pseudoaneurysms were treated with surgical revision (n = 2), access ligation (n = 2) and observation (n = 3). During the follow-up, despite the presence of pseudoaneurysms (acute = 1, delayed = 7), a high clinical success rate of 94.4% (17 of 18) was achieved, and they were utilized for hemodialysis at the mean of 411.0 days. The post

  2. HYPERREFLECTIVE FOCI AS AN INDEPENDENT VISUAL OUTCOME PREDICTOR IN MACULAR EDEMA DUE TO RETINAL VASCULAR DISEASES TREATED WITH INTRAVITREAL DEXAMETHASONE OR RANIBIZUMAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziralli, Irini P; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the potential role of hyperreflective foci (HF) in predicting visual outcome in patients undergoing treatment for macular edema due to retinal vascular diseases. Data and images of 92 patients with macular edema due to diabetes mellitus or branch retinal vein occlusion, treated with either intravitreal dexamethasone implant or ranibizumab, were analyzed. All patients underwent best-corrected visual acuity measurement, slit-lamp examination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography at baseline and at all time points of the follow-up (Month 1, 2, 3, 6, and 9). Generalized least squares random effects linear or logistic regression analysis was used to investigate potential factors associated with the final best-corrected visual acuity and number of HF, respectively. Increasing age (P edema due to retinal vascular diseases. Similar reductions in HF are achieved by intravitreal steroid and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent.

  3. Relationship between Kidney Dysfunction and Ischemic Stroke Outcomes: Albuminuria, but Not Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Is Associated with the Risk of Further Vascular Events and Mortality after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Dong-Geun

    2016-01-01

    Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are known to be associated with ischemic stroke outcomes. In this study, we investigated the longitudinal relationships of the two markers with mortality, vascular events and functional outcomes in a stroke cohort. A total of 295 patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively recruited in a single center between May 2012 and February 2015. Renal dysfunction was defined as a decreased eGFR (albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g). Good functional outcome at 6 months was defined as a modified Rankin scale score ≤ 2, and the occurrence of major vascular events (stroke, acute coronary syndrome or peripheral artery occlusion) or death was monitored. The associations between renal dysfunction and mortality, major vascular events, and 6-month functional outcome were evaluated by the Cox proportional hazards model and logistic regression analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazards ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve for composite adverse events (major vascular events or death) was also computed according to the presence or absence of albuminuria. Albuminuria, not eGFR, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.028; HR 2.15; 95% CI 1.09-4.25) and major vascular events (P = 0.044; HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.02-4.94) in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, alcohol history, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and eGFR. In addition, albuminuria was negatively associated with 6-month functional outcome in the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, alcohol history and eGFR (P = 0.001; OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.20-0.65), but the association disappeared when NIHSS score was

  4. Barriers and outcomes: TB patients co-infected with HIV accessing antiretroviral therapy in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chileshe, Muatale; Bond, Virginia Anne

    2010-01-01

    The vulnerabilities that underlie barriers faced by the rural poor whilst trying to access and adhere to "free" antiretroviral treatment (ART) demand more attention. This paper highlights barriers that poor rural Zambians co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV and their households faced in accessing ART between September 2006 and July 2007, and accounts for patient outcomes by the end of TB treatment and (more sporadically) beyond October 2009. The analysis draws on findings from wider anthropological fieldwork on the converging impact of TB, HIV and food insecurity, focusing for the purpose of this paper on ethnographic case-studies of seven newly diagnosed TB patients co-infected with HIV and their six households (one household had two TB patients). Economic barriers included being pushed into deeper poverty by managing TB, rural location, absence of any external assistance, and mustering time and extended funds for transport and "special food" during and beyond the end of TB. In the case of death, funeral costs were astronomical. Social barriers included translocation, broken marriages, a sub-ordinate household position, gender relations, denial, TB/HIV stigma and the difficulty of disclosure. Health facility barriers involved understaffing, many steps, lengthy procedures and inefficiencies (lost blood samples, electricity cuts). By the end of TB treatment, outcomes were mixed; two co-infected patients had died, three had started ART and two had yet to start ART. The three on ART underwent a striking transformation in the short term. By October 2009, two more had died and three were doing well. The study advocates nutritional support and other material support (especially transport funds) for co-infected TB patients until ART is accessed and livelihood regained. More prompt diagnosis of TB and reducing steps and increasing the reach of the ART programme in rural areas are also recommended.

  5. Antiretroviral therapy in the Malawi defence force: access, treatment outcomes and impact on mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred C Banda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS affects all sectors of the population and the defence forces are not exempt. A national survey was conducted in all public and private sectors in Malawi that provide antiretroviral therapy (ART to determine the uptake of ART by army personnel, their outcomes while on treatment, and the impact of ART on mortality in the Malawi Defence Force. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort analysis was carried out, collecting data on access and retention on treatment from all 103 public and 38 private sector ART clinics in Malawi, using standardised patient master cards and clinic registers. Observations were censored on December 31(st 2006. Independent data on mortality trends in army personnel from all causes between 2002 and 2006 were available from army records. By December 31(st 2006, there were 85,168 patients ever started on ART in both public and private sectors, of whom 547 (0.7% were army personnel. Of these, 22% started ART in WHO clinical stage 1 or 2 with a CD4-lymphocyte count of outcomes of army personnel by December 31(st 2006 were:-365 (67% alive and on ART at their registration facility, 98 (18% transferred out to another facility, 71 (13% dead, 9 (2% lost to follow-up, and 4 (<1% stopped treatment. The probability of being alive on ART at 6-, 12- and 18-months was 89.8%, 83.4% and 78.8% respectively. All-cause mortality in army personnel declined dramatically over the five year period from 2002-2006. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There has been a good access of army personnel to ART during the last five years with excellent outcomes, and this should serve as an example for other defence forces and large companies in the region.

  6. A Longitudinal Journey with BYOD Classrooms: Issues of Access, Capability and Outcome Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Adhikari

    2017-11-01

    Therefore, we have conducted a longitudinal study to investigate a BYOD initiative by a New Zealand School.  This study shares rich insights in the context of technology-mediated pedagogies and specifically BYOD classroom, as to how digital divides moved beyond access and skills to ensure inclusive learning outcomes. As a part of the five-year study of the technology-mediated teaching and learning initiative, we have been able to explain some of the unanswered questions around the issue of digital divides in the learning process. We investigated issues pertaining to digital divide in the context of BYOD classrooms to make the following revelations. First, the BYOD classroom initiative did not end up accentuating existing gaps in access to digital tools and technologies, despite earlier studies indicating towards increase in gaps. Second, our analysis strongly indicated the changing nature of digital divides with the presence of gaps in terms of information literacy and critical thinking ability, as the BYOD classroom progressed to mature stage. This was eventually bridged in the later stage, as students slowly adjusted to the classroom curricular structures in the BYOD classroom. Third, learner self-efficacy has been identified as a determinant of learning outcomes. In the earlier phase of ICT adoption, learner self-efficacy is influenced by a combination of information literacy, critical thinking ability, and positive motivation; however subsequently, self-efficacy influences affordances in various aspects of social cognitive abilities related to individual’s learning activities affecting how learners engage and apply technology to achieve learning outcomes.

  7. Early fasciotomy in patients with extremity vascular injury is associated with decreased risk of adverse limb outcomes: a review of the National Trauma Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Alik; Tan, Tze-Woei; Hamburg, Naomi M; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Joglar, Fernando; Onigman, Timna; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Eberhardt, Robert T

    2012-09-01

    Lower extremity (LE) arterial trauma and its treatment may lead to extremity compartment syndrome (ECS). In that setting, the decision to perform fasciotomies is multifactoral and is not well delineated. We evaluated the outcomes of patients with surgically treated LE arterial injury who underwent early or delayed fasciotomies. The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) was retrospectively reviewed for patients who had LE arterial trauma and underwent both open vascular repair and fasciotomies. Exclusion criteria were additional non-LE vascular trauma, head or spinal cord injuries, crush injuries, burn injuries, and declaration of death on arrival. Patients were divided into those who had fasciotomies performed within 8h (early group) or >8h after open vascular repair (late group). Comparative analyses of demographics, injury characteristics, complications, and outcomes were performed. Of the 1469 patient admissions with lower extremity arterial trauma that met inclusion criteria there were 612 patients (41.7%) who underwent fasciotomies. There were 543 and 69 patients in the early and late fasciotomy groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in age, injury severity, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, and type of vascular repair between the groups. A higher rate of iliac artery injury was observed in the late fasciotomy group (23.2% vs. 5.9%, Prisk of amputation (Odds Ratio 0.26, 95% CI 0.14-0.50, P<.0001) and 23% shorter hospital LOS (Means Ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.64-0.94, P = .01). Early fasciotomy is associated with improved outcomes in patients with lower extremity vascular trauma treated with surgical intervention. Our findings suggest that appropriate implementation of early fasciotomy may reduce amputation rates in extremity arterial injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trauma, healthcare access, and health outcomes among Southeast Asian refugees in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Burke, Georgine; Kuoch, Theanvy; Scully, Mary; Armeli, Stephen; Rajan, Thiruchandurai V

    2013-12-01

    Mental health problems among Southeast Asian refugees have been documented. However, longer term health consequences of mass violence as re-settled refugees age are less well described. This study investigated relationships among trauma symptoms, self-reported health outcomes, and barriers to healthcare among Cambodian and Vietnamese persons in Connecticut. An internet phone directory was used to generate a list of names that was compared to 2000 census data to estimate the proportion of the population in each group. From these lists, 190 telephone listings were selected at random. Interviewers telephoned selected listings to screen for eligible participants and obtain an appointment for interview. Surveys were administered through face-to-face interviews during home visits conducted in Khmer or Vietnamese. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire assessed trauma symptoms. Questions regarding the presence of physician diagnosed heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and chronic pain were adapted as written from the Health Interview Survey. Healthcare access and occurrence were measured with questions regarding cost and access, patient-provider understanding, and interpretive services. Hierarchical modeling was used to account for respondent nesting within family. Analyses controlled for age, sex, and country of origin. Individuals who reported greater trauma symptoms were more likely to report heart disease by a factor of 1.82, hypertension by a factor of 1.41, and total count of diseases by a factor of 1.22, as well as lower levels of subjective health. Greater trauma symptoms were also associated with greater lack of understanding, cost and access problems, and the need for an interpreter. Although the majority of Southeast Asian immigrants came to the United States as refugees approximately 20-30 years ago, there continues to be high levels of trauma symptoms among this population which are associated with increased risk for disease and decreased access to healthcare

  9. TREATMENT EFFECTS OF WST11 VASCULAR TARGETED PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN UROTHELIAL CELL CARCINOMA AND FEASIBILITY, SAFETY, AND LONG TERM OUTCOMES IN THE UPPER URINARY TRACT OF SWINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Katie S; Winter, Ashley G; Corradi, Renato Beluco; LaRosa, Stephen; Jebiwott, Sylvia; Somma, Alexander; Takaki, Haruyuki; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Lepherd, Michelle; Monette, Sebastien; Kim, Kwanghee; Scherz, Avigdor; Coleman, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma requires removal of kidney and ureter, compromising renal function. Non-surgical alternatives have potentially prohibitive safety concerns. We examine the feasibility and safety of ablation of the ureter and renal pelvis using endoluminal vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy in a porcine model and report efficacy of WST11 vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy in a murine model. Materials and Methods Following approval, we performed 28 endoluminal ablations in the ureters and renal pelvis of 18 swine. Intravenous infusion of WST11 (4mg/kg) followed by laser illumination (10 minutes) was performed via percutaneous access or retrograde ureteroscopic approach. Animals were followed clinically with laboratory testing, imaging and histology was evaluated at several post-ablation time points. A murine xenograft was created with the 5637 human urothelial cell carcinoma line to determine sensitivity to this therapy. Results At 24 hours, 50 mW/cm laser fluence produced superficial necrosis of the ureter and deeper necrosis (penetrating the muscularis propria or adventitia) was produced by treatment with 200 mW/cm in the ureter and renal pelvis. At 4 weeks, superficial urothelium had regenerated over the treatment site. No symptomatic obstruction, clinically relevant hydronephrosis, or abnormality of lab testing was noted up to 4 weeks. In mice, 80% had no evidence of tumor at 19 days after WST11 vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy. Conclusions Urothelial cell carcinoma appears to be sensitive to WST11 vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy. Depth of WST11 vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy treatment effects can be modulated in a dose-dependent manner by titration of light intensity. Moreover, this treatment modality, applied to the porcine upper urinary tract, is feasible via antegrade and retrograde access. PMID:26860792

  10. Improving access to psychological therapies (IAPT) and treatment outcomes: epistemological assumptions and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C H J

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is recommended as a primary treatment choice in England, for anxiety and depression, by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). It has been argued that CBT has enjoyed political and cultural dominance and this has arguably led to maintained government investment in England for the cognitive and behavioural treatment of mental health problems. The government programme 'Improving Access to Psychological Therapies' (IAPT) aims to improve the availability of CBT. The criticism of the NICE evidence-based guidelines supporting the IAPT programme, has been the dominance of the gold standard randomized controlled trial methodology, with a focus on numerical outcome data, rather than a focus on a recovery narrative. RCT-based research is influenced by a philosophical paradigm called positivism. The IAPT culture is arguably influenced by one research paradigm and such an influence can skew services only towards numerical outcome data as the only truth of 'recovery'. An interpretative paradigm could assist in shaping service-based cultures, alter how services are evaluated and improve the richness of CBT research. This paper explores the theory of knowledge (epistemology) that underpins the evidence-based perspective of CBT and how this influences service delivery. The paper argues that the inclusion of service user narrative (qualitative data) can assist the evaluation of CBT from the user's perspective and can understand the context in which people live and how they access services. A qualitative perspective is discussed as a research strategy, capturing the lived experience of under-represented groups, such as sexual, gender and ethnic minorities. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has enjoyed political and cultural dominance within mental healthcare, with renewed government investment in England for the'Improving Access to Psychological Therapies' (IAPT) programme. The criticism of the evidence-based guidelines

  11. Relationships between 2-Year Survival, Costs, and Outcomes following Carotid Endarterectomy in Asymptomatic Patients in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallaert, Jessica B; Newhall, Karina A; Suckow, Bjoern D; Brooke, Benjamin S; Zhang, Min; Farber, Adrienne E; Likosky, Donald; Goodney, Philip P

    2016-08-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for asymptomatic patients with limited life expectancy may not be beneficial or cost-effective. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among survival, outcomes, and costs within 2 years following CEA among asymptomatic patients. Prospectively collected data from 3097 patients undergoing CEA for asymptomatic disease from Vascular Quality Initiative VQI registry were linked to Medicare. Models were used to identify predictors of 2-year mortality following CEA. Patients were classified as low, medium, or high risk of death based on this model. Next, we examined costs related to cerebrovascular care, occurrence of stroke, rehospitalization, and reintervention within 2 years following CEA across risk strata. Overall, 2-year mortality was 6.7%. Age, diabetes, smoking, congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal insufficiency, absence of statin use, and contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis were independently associated with a higher risk of death following CEA. In-hospital costs averaged $7500 among patients defined as low risk for death, and exceeded $10,800 among high risk patients. Although long-term costs related to cerebrovascular disease were 2 times higher in patients deemed high risk for death compared with low risk patents ($17,800 vs. $8800, P = 0.001), high risk of death was not independently associated with a high probability of high cost. Predictors of high cost at 2 years were severe contralateral ICA stenosis, dialysis dependence, and American Society for Anesthesia Class 4. Both statin use and CHF were protective of high cost. Greater than 90% of patients undergoing CEA live long enough to realize the benefits of their procedure. Moreover, the long-term costs are supported by the effectiveness of this procedure at all levels of patient risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lysyl Oxidase Is Predictive of Unfavorable Outcomes and Essential for Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiye; Huang, Shan; Wu, Guobin; Huang, Chaoyuan; Li, Xianjian; Chen, Zhigang; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Yinnong

    2015-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is frequently overexpressed in a variety of malignancies and involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, it has been shown that LOX is closely related to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, we aimed to investigate the exact role of LOX and the correlation between LOX and VEGF in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression levels of LOX in HCC tissue and adjacent noncancerous tissue were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of LOX knockdown on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion was investigated in vitro. The role of LOX in the regulation of VEGF was further characterized in HCC cells that had been treated with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Our study showed that LOX was up-regulated in HCC cell lines and tissue. HCC patients with elevated expression of LOX had relatively shorter disease-free survival and overall survival. Knockdown of LOX reduced the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells. Additionally, the expression level of LOX positively correlated with that of VEGF. After treatment with TGF-β, the levels of LOX and VEGF were both up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. In the cells treated with siRNA of LOX, levels of VEGF and phosphorylated p38 were significantly decreased and could not be up-regulated by TGF-β. Inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling abrogated TGF-β-mediated up-regulation of VGEF but did not affect LOX expression. LOX appears to be a predictor of less favorable outcomes and may regulate the expression of VEGF via p38 MAPK signaling.

  13. Long-term outcome of vincristine-aspirin-ticlopidine (VAT) therapy for vascular tumors associated with Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Chocarro, Gloria; Bernabeu-Wittel, Jose; Ramirez-Villar, Gema Lucia

    2013-09-01

    . This study aimed to clarify the combinatorial treatment effect of agents as aspirin and ticlopidine associated with vincristine in the management of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP), a severe thrombocytopenic coagulopathy that occurs in the presence of an enlarging vascular tumor such as kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA). . A retrospective review was conducted of medical records of all children with diagnosis of KHE or TA associated with KMP treated with vincristine-aspirin-ticlopidine (VAT) therapy at two different institutions in the same country from 1994 to 2011. Clinical features, response to VAT therapy and outcomes were recorded. . Eleven patients (mean age 11 months, range 0-36), including seven females (64%) and four males (36%), were identified. Seven patients underwent incisional biopsy and two different histologies were found, KHE in four patients and TA in three patients. Tumors were located in the head and neck (n = 5), chest wall (n = 2), arm (n = 2) and retroperitoneum (n = 2). Mean platelet level was 10,200/mm(3) (range 4,000-21,000). A plaque-like lesion with ecchymosis was the most common cutaneous manifestation (63%). All patients underwent VAT therapy. Mean duration of treatment was 3.9 months for vincristine, 13.9 months for aspirin, and 13.4 months for ticlopidine. All patients are alive with a mean follow-up of 4.5 years (range, 2-17). . Antiaggregant therapy is helpful in combination with vincristine in the treatment of KMP associated with KHE and TA. Prognosis is excellent if severe thrombocytopenia is controlled despite failure in reduction of tumor size. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Children with Special Health Care Needs in CHIP: Access, Use, and Child and Family Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickafoose, Joseph S; Smith, Kimberly V; Dye, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To assess how the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) affects outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). We used data from a survey of parents of recent and established CHIP enrollees conducted from January 2012 through March 2013 as part of a congressionally mandated evaluation of CHIP. We identified CSHCN in the sample using the Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative's CSHCN screener. We compared the health care experiences of established CHIP enrollees to the pre-enrollment experiences of previously uninsured and privately insured recent CHIP enrollees, controlling for observable characteristics. Parents of 4142 recent enrollees and 5518 established enrollees responded to the survey (response rates, 46% recent enrollees and 51% established enrollees). In the 10 survey states, about one-fourth of CHIP enrollees had a special health care need. Compared to being uninsured, parents of CSHCN who were established CHIP enrollees reported greater access to and use of medical and dental care, less difficulty meeting their child's health care needs, fewer unmet needs, and better dental health status for their child. Compared to having private insurance, parents of CSHCN who were established CHIP enrollees reported similar levels of access to and use of medical and dental care and unmet needs, and less difficulty meeting their child's health care needs. CHIP has significant benefits for eligible CSHCN and their families compared to being uninsured and appears to have some benefits compared to private insurance. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  15. VASCULAR DEMENTIA

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    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak

    2010-01-01

    vascular cognitive disorders and vascular dementia (VD. The heterogeneity of vascular cognitive disorders, concurrence of vascular and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed. Data from studies of specific therapy for VD are given.

  16. Vascular access in patients with arterial insufficiency. Construction of proximal bridge fistulae based on inflow from axillary branch arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrisak, M D; Anderson, C B

    1990-01-01

    Patients with renal failure and underlying peripheral vascular disease pose a difficult management problem in establishing long-term angioaccess for chronic hemodialysis. This report summarizes our experience with five debilitated patients who developed acute upper extremity ischemia after forearm fistula construction corrected by fistula ligation. Successful angioaccess was achieved without ischemia recurrence by construction of proximal bridge fistulae with arterial inflow based on branch arteries of the axillary artery. The relatively small size of the branch vessel was the main factor in limiting fistula flow while permitting normal distal axillary artery flow. In four patients direct fistula flow measurements ranged from 200 mL per minute to 620 mL per minute. Axillary arterial flow distal to the fistula ranged from 120 to 200 mL per minute and did not significantly change after fistula construction or during temporary occlusion of the fistula. Four of the five patients continue to dialyze uneventfully from 4 to 8.5 months. One patient died after discontinuation of dialysis 1 month after operation. Images Figs. 4A and B. PMID:2375649

  17. Urban-rural differences in the association between access to healthcare and health outcomes among older adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xufan; Dupre, Matthew E; Qiu, Li; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yuan; Gu, Danan

    2017-07-19

    Studies have shown that inadequate access to healthcare is associated with lower levels of health and well-being in older adults. Studies have also shown significant urban-rural differences in access to healthcare in developing countries such as China. However, there is limited evidence of whether the association between access to healthcare and health outcomes differs by urban-rural residence at older ages in China. Four waves of data (2005, 2008/2009, 2011/2012, and 2014) from the largest national longitudinal survey of adults aged 65 and older in mainland China (n = 26,604) were used for analysis. The association between inadequate access to healthcare (y/n) and multiple health outcomes were examined-including instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability, ADL disability, cognitive impairment, and all-cause mortality. A series of multivariate models were used to obtain robust estimates and to account for various covariates associated with access to healthcare and/or health outcomes. All models were stratified by urban-rural residence. Inadequate access to healthcare was significantly higher among older adults in rural areas than in urban areas (9.1% vs. 5.4%; p rural areas (OR = 1.95-2.30) relative to their counterparts with adequate access to healthcare. In terms of ADL disability, we found significant increases in the odds of disability among rural older adults (OR = 1.89-3.05) but not among urban older adults. Inadequate access to healthcare was also associated with substantially higher odds of cognitive impairment in older adults from rural areas (OR = 2.37-3.19) compared with those in rural areas with adequate access to healthcare; however, no significant differences in cognitive impairment were found among older adults in urban areas. Finally, we found that inadequate access to healthcare increased overall mortality risks in older adults by 33-37% in urban areas and 28-29% in rural areas. However, the increased risk of mortality in

  18. Public-access AED pad application and outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Sakai, Tomohiko; Nishiyama, Chika; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Marukawa, Seishiro; Iwami, Taku

    2016-09-01

    Actual application of public-access automated external defibrillator (AED) pads to patients with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) by the public has been poorly investigated. AED applications, prehospital characteristics, and one-month outcomes of OHCAs occurring in Osaka Prefecture from 2011 to 2012 were obtained from the Utstein Osaka Project registry. Patients with a non-traumatic OHCA occurring before emergency medical service attendance were enrolled. The proportion of AED pads that were applied to the patients' chests by the public and one-month outcomes were analysed according to the location of OHCA. In total, public-access AED pads were applied to 3.5% of OHCA patients (351/9978) during the study period. In the multivariate analyses, OHCAs that occurred in public places and received bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation were associated with significantly higher application of public-access AEDs. Among the patients for whom public-access AED pads were applied, 29.6% (104/351) received public-access defibrillation. One-month survival with a favourable neurological outcome was significantly higher among patients who had an AED applied compared to those who did not (19.4% vs. 3.0%; OR: 2.76 [95% CI: 1.92-3.97]). The application of public-access AEDs leads to favourable outcomes after an OHCA, but utilisation of available equipment remains insufficient, and varies considerably according to the location of the OHCA event. Alongside disseminating public-access AEDs, further strategic approaches for the deployment of AEDs at the scene, as well as basic life support training for the public are required to improve survival rates after OHCAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Considering disparities: How do nurse practitioner regulatory policies, access to care, and health outcomes vary across four states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenberg, Andréa; Knepper, Hillary J

    Health disparities persist among morbidity and mortality rates in the United States. Contributing significantly to these disparities are the ability to pay for health care (largely, access to health insurance) and access to, and capacity of, the primary care health workforce. This article examines key determinants of health (DOH) including demographics, public and regulatory policies, health workforce capacity, and primary health outcomes of four states of the United States. The context of this study is the potential association among health care disparities and myriad DOH, among them, the restrictive nurse practitioner (NP) scope of practice (SOP) regulatory environment, which are documented to influence access to care and health outcomes. This descriptive study explores current NP SOP regulations, access to primary care, and health outcomes of key chronic disease indicators-diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in Alabama, Colorado, Mississippi, and Utah. These states represent both the greatest disparity in chronic disease health outcomes (obesity, diabetes, and hypertension) and the greatest difference in modernization of their NP SOP laws. The Affordable Care Act has greatly expanded access to health care. However, it is estimated that 23 million Americans, 7% of its total population, will remain uninsured by 2019. Restrictive and inconsistent NP SOP policies may continue to contribute to health workforce capacity and population health disparities across the country, with particular concern for primary care indicators. The study findings bring into question whether states with more restrictive NP SOP regulations impact access to primary care, which may in turn influence population health outcomes. These findings suggest the need for further research. NPs are essential for meeting the increasing demands of primary care in the United States, and quality-of-care indicator research supports their use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Outcomes of patients presenting to a dedicated rapid access lung cancer clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunican, E

    2012-02-01

    We examined the outcomes of the first 500 patients referred to a dedicated Rapid Access Lung Cancer Clinic. A total of 206 patients (41.2%) were diagnosed with a thoracic malignancy; 179 had primary lung cancer and 27 had secondary or other thoracic cancers. Pulmonary nodules requiring ongoing surveillance were found in a further 79 patients (15.8%). Of those patients found to have primary lung cancer, 24 (13.4%) had Small Cell and 145 (81%) had Non Small Cell Lung Cancer. In patients with Non small cell tumours, 26 (21.1%) were stage 1, 14 (11.4%) stage II, 37 (30.1%) stage III and 46 (37.4%) stage IV at diagnosis. For the 129 patients (72%) in whom the thoracic MDT recommended active treatment, primary therapy was surgical resection in 44 (24.6%), combined chemoradiation in 31 patients (17.3%), chemotherapy alone in 39 (21.8%) and radiation in 15 (8.4%).

  1. An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethylfuran as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis.The most active compound, (4-{[(β-D-galactopyranosyloxy]methyl}furan-3-ylmethyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF, inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin.In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(β-D-galactopyranosyloxy]methyl}furan (BGF nor methyl β-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethylfuran, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin αvβ3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site.These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis

  2. Long-term outcome of patients with persistent vascular obstruction on computed tomography pulmonary angiography 6 months after acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golpe, Rafael; Llano, Luis A. Perez de; Olalla, Castro-Anon [The Respiratory Service, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain)], e-mail: Rafael.golpe.gomez@sergas.es; Vazquez-Caruncho, Manuel [The Radiology Service, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain); Gonzalez-Juanatey, Carlos [The Cardiology Service, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain); Farinas, Maria Carmen [Internal Medicine Dept., Hospital Univ. Marques de Valdecilla, Santander (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Background: The incidence and clinical significance of pulmonary residual thrombosis 6 months after an acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are still not well-known. Purpose: To evaluate the association between residual vascular obstruction and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence or death. Material and Methods: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) was repeated in 97 consecutive patients 6 months after an acute episode of hemodynamically stable pulmonary embolism. We assessed the long-term consequences of residual thrombosis on vital status and incidence of recurrent VTE. Results: Six patients were lost for follow-up. The remaining 91 patients were classified according to the presence (Group 1: 18 cases) or absence (Group 2: 73 cases) of residual pulmonary vascular obstruction. After a mean {+-}SD of 2.91 {+-}0.99 years, there were eight (8.8%) deaths and 11 (12.1%) VTE recurrences. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in the incidence of death or VTE recurrence. Conclusion: Persistent pulmonary vascular obstruction on 6-month CTPA did not predict long-term adverse outcome events.

  3. Outcomes of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in the management of choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed A; DeCroos, Francis C; Storey, Philip P; Shields, Jerry A; Garg, Sunir J; Shields, Carol L

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of serial anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections for choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal osteoma. In this retrospective interventional case series, eyes with choroidal osteoma and associated choroidal neovascularization were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab or bevacizumab with or without photodynamic therapy consolidation. Resolution of subretinal fluid on optical coherence tomography and best-corrected visual acuity were assessed. Eight eyes in eight patients were treated with monthly intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections with or without photodynamic therapy. Resolution of subretinal fluid on optical coherence tomography was achieved in 7 of 8 eyes (87%) with a mean of 12.3 ± 12.6 injections (range, 1-40). Four eyes (50%) experienced at least 1 recurrence of exudation at a mean interval of 10 months (median, 7.5; range, 5-21 months), necessitating further therapy. The mean Snellen visual acuity improvement was 1 ± 4 lines (range, loss 3 to gain 7 lines) at a mean of 32-months follow-up. Serial anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy alone or with photodynamic therapy consolidation for choroidal neovascularization due to choroidal osteoma resulted in anatomical improvement and modest visual gain.

  4. Adherence to standard precaution in the peripheral vascular access Siguiendo las precauciones padrón para procedimiento de inserción vascular periférico Adesão às precauções padrão no acesso vascular periférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Alves Cirelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This prospective and quantitative study was carried out in a small private general hospital, where the adherence to standard precaution in the peripheral vascular access was evaluated. The data were collected through a questionnaire aiming to characterize the nursing team's knowledge and opinion about standard precautions and the availability of materials. In addition, a systemized observation of the procedures of vein puncture and medicine administration was performed. It was identified that 84.4% of the punctures had been carried out without gloves or previous hand washing; in 29.7% of the procedures, needles were recapped and 93.2% of the professionals reported adequate material supply. Concluding, the professionals expose themselves and patients to unnecessary risks of infection. The nursing team must be the focus of continuous interventions and future actions in order to minimize the risk of infection in the procedure of peripheral vascular access.Estudio prospectivo, cuantitativo, realizado en un hospital general privado de poca complejidad, donde fue evaluado el seguimiento de las precauciones patrón para realizar inserción vascular periférica. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de un cuestionario, con el objetivo de determinar las características del conocimiento y de opinión del equipo de enfermería sobre los temas de adhesión, precauciones patrón, disponibilidad de materiales; y por observación sistémica de los procedimientos de punción venosa y administración de medicamentos. Se identificó que 84,4% de las punciones fueron realizadas sin guantes y sin lavado previo de manos, 29,7% de las veces hubo reutilización de agujas y 93,2% de los profesionales afirmó tener una adecuada cantidad de materiales. Se concluyó que los profesionales exponen a sus pacientes y a sí mismos a riesgos de infección innecesaria. El equipo de enfermería debe enfocar su intervención y actividades futuras con el objetivo de minimizar el

  5. Systematic review of the risk of adverse outcomes associated with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labib Imran Faruque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-angiogenic therapy targeted at vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is now used to treat several types of cancer. We did a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to summarize the adverse effects of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (VEGFi, focusing on those with vascular pathogenesis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library until April 19, 2012 to identify parallel RCTs comparing a VEGFi with a control among adults with any cancer. We pooled the risk of mortality, vascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and thromboembolism, hypertension and new proteinuria using random-effects models and calculated unadjusted relative risk (RR. We also did meta-regression and assessed publication bias. We retrieved 83 comparisons from 72 studies (n = 38,078 on 11 different VEGFi from 7901 identified citations. The risk of mortality was significantly lower among VEGFi recipients than controls (pooled RR 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94 to 0.98, I2 = 0%, tau2 = 0; risk difference 2%. Compared to controls, VEGFi recipients had significantly higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI (RR 3.54, 95% CI 1.61 to 7.80, I2 = 0%, tau2 = 0, arterial thrombotic events (RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.59, I2 = 0%, tau2 = 0; hypertension (RR 3.46, 95% CI 2.89 to 4.15, I2 = 58%, tau2 = 0.16, and new proteinuria (RR 2.51, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.94, I2 = 87%, tau2 = 0.65. The absolute risk difference was 0.8% for MI, 1% for arterial thrombotic events, 15% for hypertension and 12% for new proteinuria. Meta-regression did not suggest any statistically significant modifiers of the association between VEGFi treatment and any of the vascular events. Limitations include heterogeneity across the trials. CONCLUSIONS: VEGFi increases the risk of MI, hypertension, arterial thromboembolism and proteinuria. The absolute magnitude of the excess risk

  6. The VeinViewer vascular imaging system worsens first-attempt cannulation rate for experienced nurses in infants and children with anticipated difficult intravenous access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmuk, Peter; Steiner, Jeffrey; Pop, Radu B; Farrow-Gillespie, Alan; Mascha, Edward J; Sessler, Daniel I

    2013-05-01

    The VeinViewer (Luminetx, Memphis, TN) helps identify veins by projecting an image of subcutaneous vasculature on the skin surface. We tested the primary hypothesis that VeinViewer use improves cannulation success by skilled nurses in pediatric patients with anticipated difficult IV access. A secondary goal was to evaluate the relationship between obesity and cannulation success. Patients aged 0 to 18 years were included. Anticipated cannulation difficulty was evaluated with the difficult IV access score. All cannulations were performed by members of the Intravenous Access Team. Patients were randomized to: (1) routine IV catheter insertion; or (2) insertion facilitated by the VeinViewer. The primary outcome was first-attempt insertion success. The proportion of successful insertions was evaluated using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) analysis to adjust for any imbalanced baseline variables. The effect of obesity on cannulation success was evaluated with multivariable logistic regression. Two hundred ninety-nine patients (49%) were randomly assigned to VeinViewer and 301 (51%) to routine cannulation. First-attempt cannulation success was 47% in patients assigned to VeinViewer vs 62% in patients assigned to routine cannulation, with an adjusted relative "risk" (95% confidence interval), of 0.76 (0.63-0.91). The Z-statistic of -3.6 crossed the "harm" boundary (Z < -2.41), with corresponding P value of 0.0003. The trial was stopped on statistical grounds since the harm boundary for the primary outcome was crossed. There was no association between first-attempt success and the 4-level categorization of obesity after adjusted for baseline variables (P = 0.94). The VeinViewer worsened first-attempt IV insertion success by skilled nurses. Surprisingly, first-attempt success for IV cannulation was not worsened by obesity.

  7. Usefulness of repeated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide measurements as incremental predictor for long-term cardiovascular outcome after vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goei, Dustin; van Kuijk, Jan-Peter; Flu, Willem-Jan; Hoeks, Sanne E; Chonchol, Michel; Verhagen, Hence J M; Bax, Jeroen J; Poldermans, Don

    2011-02-15

    Plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) levels improve preoperative cardiac risk stratification in vascular surgery patients. However, single preoperative measurements of NT-pro-BNP cannot take into account the hemodynamic stress caused by anesthesia and surgery. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the incremental predictive value of changes in NT-pro-BNP during the perioperative period for long-term cardiac mortality. Detailed cardiac histories, rest left ventricular echocardiography, and NT-pro-BNP levels were obtained in 144 patients before vascular surgery and before discharge. The study end point was the occurrence of cardiovascular death during a median follow-up period of 13 months (interquartile range 5 to 20). Preoperatively, the median NT-pro-BNP level in the study population was 314 pg/ml (interquartile range 136 to 1,351), which increased to a median level of 1,505 pg/ml (interquartile range 404 to 6,453) before discharge. During the follow-up period, 29 patients (20%) died, 27 (93%) from cardiovascular causes. The median difference in NT-pro-BNP in the survivors was 665 pg/ml, compared to 5,336 pg/ml in the patients who died (p = 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analyses, adjusted for cardiac history and cardiovascular risk factors (age, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, body mass index, type of surgery and the left ventricular ejection fraction), demonstrated that the difference in NT-pro-BNP level between pre- and postoperative measurement was the strongest independent predictor of cardiac outcome (hazard ratio 3.06, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 6.91). In conclusion, the change in NT-pro-BNP, indicated by repeated measurements before surgery and before discharge is the strongest predictor of cardiac outcomes in patients who undergo vascular surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors, vascular lesion distribution, outcome and recurrence of strokes due to intracranial atherosclerosis: One year data from Hyderabad stroke registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Ram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asian countries and probably in India. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the risk factors, distribution of vascular lesions, recurrence and outcome of stroke due to ICAS. Methodology: A total of 100 consecutive patients of ischemic stroke due to ICAS were enrolled prospectively from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, and followed for 1 year for treatment compliance and recurrence. The details about demographics, risk factors, and vascular lesions were noted. Results: There were 68 males and 32 females. Hypertension (HTN, diabetes, alcohol, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 82%, 52%, 34%, 33%, 28%, and 23%, respectively. The number of arteries involved were middle cerebral artery, 53 (37.3%; posterior cerebral artery, 24 (16.9%; internal cerebral artery, 21 (14.8%; vertebral artery, 18 (12.7%; basilar artery, 6 (4.2%; and anterior cerebral artery, 6 (4.2%. Seventeen (17% patients had a recurrent stroke during 1 year follow-up. The presence of uncontrolled HTN and diabetes mellitus after discharge were significantly associated with stroke recurrence (P < 0.05. The use of dual antiplatelet agents and statins was found to have a significant effect in the prevention of recurrent stroke (P < 0.05. Severe stroke at presentation and presence of hemiparesis were the predictors for unfavorable outcome at 3 months (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Risk factors, distribution of vascular lesions and high recurrence of stroke due to ICAS in this study is similar to that reported from other Asian countries. Aggressive medical management and risk factor control remains the best strategy for preventing recurrence.

  9. Markers of T cell infiltration and function associate with favorable outcome in vascularized high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelin N Townsend

    Full Text Available When T cells infiltrate the tumor environment they encounter a myriad of metabolic stressors including hypoxia. Overcoming the limitations imposed by an inadequate tumor vasculature that contributes to these stressors may be a crucial step to immune cells mounting an effective anti-tumor response. We sought to determine whether the functional capacity of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL could be influenced by the tumor vasculature and correlated this with survival in patients with ovarian cancer.In 196 high-grade serous ovarian tumors, we confirmed that the tumor vascularity as measured by the marker CD31 was associated with improved patient disease-specific survival. We also found that tumors positive for markers of TIL (CD8, CD4 and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3 and T cell function (granzyme B and T-cell restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1 correlated significantly with elevated vascularity. In vitro, hypoxic CD8 T cells showed reduced cytolytic activity, secreted less effector cytokines and upregulated autophagy. Survival analysis revealed that patients had a significant improvement in disease-specific survival when FoxP3 expressing cells were present in CD31-high tumors compared to patients with FoxP3 expressing cells in CD31-low tumors [HR: 2.314 (95% CI 1.049-5.106; p = 0.0377]. Patients with high vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expressing tumors containing granzyme B positive cells had improved survival compared to patients with granzyme B positive cells in VEGF-low tumors [HR: 2.522 (95% CI 1.097-5.799; p = 0.0294].Overall, this data provides a rationale for developing strategies aimed at improving the adaptability and function of TIL to hypoxic tumor conditions.

  10. Therapeutic Vascular Targeting and Irradiation: Correlation of MRI Tissue Changes at Cellular and Molecular Levels to Optimizing Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    cylindrical copper tube about 2 cm deep and acting as a single-turn solenoid ), is placed around the tumor-bearing pedicle. Shimming is performed on the...number of perfused vessels was evident at 2 h (21 6/mm2 vs. 145 23/mm2 pre-CA4P, p 0.01), followed by recovered per- fusion at 24 h (114 19/mm2...Horsman MR, et al. Acute effects of vascular modifying agents in solid tumors assessed by nonin- vasive laser Doppler flowmetry and near infrared

  11. Using Learning Analytics to Assess Student Engagement and Academic Outcomes in Open Access Enabling Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Mirella; Shah, Mahsood; Vazquez, Jenny; Griffiths, Zoe; Jackson, Brian; Burgess, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Curriculum design, teaching methods, assessments and range of academic support need to be inclusive in Open Access Enabling courses. The findings of this study confirm a correlation between student access to online learning materials and a positive impact on grades in science courses. More specifically, students who frequently use the online…

  12. Outcomes of Out‐of‐Hospital Cardiac Arrest by Public Location in the Public‐Access Defibrillation Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yukiko; Iwami, Taku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Background The strategy to place public‐access automated external defibrillators (AEDs) has not yet been established in real settings. Methods and Results This, prospective, population‐based observational study in Osaka, Japan, included consecutive out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with resuscitation attempts during 7 years, from January 2005 through December 2011. The trends in the proportion of public‐access AED use and 1‐month survival with neurologically favorable outcome were evaluated by location. Factors associated with neurologically favorable outcome (defined as cerebral performance category 1 or 2) after ventricular fibrillation were also assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 9453 bystander‐witnessed OHCAs of cardiac origin were documented and 894 (9.5%) of them occurred at public places. The proportion of public‐access AED use significantly increased from 0.0% (0/20) in 2005 to 41.2% (7/17) in 2011 at railway stations and from 0.0% (0/7) to 56.5% (13/23) at sports facilities. Mean time from collapse to shock was 5.0 minutes among those who received shocks with public‐access AEDs. The proportion of neurologically favorable outcome was 28.0% (33/118) at railway stations, 51.6% (48/93) at sports facilities, 23.3% (20/86) in public buildings, and 41.9% (13/31) in schools. In multivariate analysis, early defibrillation, irrespective of bystander or emergency medical service (EMS) personnel, was significantly associated with neurologically favorable outcome (adjusted odds ratio for 1‐minute increment, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.92). Conclusions This large, population‐based OHCA registry demonstrated that earlier shock, irrespective the shock provider (bystander or EMS personnel), contributed to improving outcome, and a public‐access defibrillation program was successfully implemented so that shocks with public‐access AEDs were delivered to over 40% of bystander‐witnessed OHCAs

  13. Out of hospital cardiac arrest outside home in Sweden, change in characteristics, outcome and availability for public access defibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenqvist Mårten; Hollenberg Jacob; Herlitz Johan; Ringh Mattias; Svensson Leif

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A large proportion of patients who suffer from out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outside home are theoretically candidates for public access defibrillation (PAD). We describe the change in characteristics and outcome among these candidates in a 14 years perspective in Sweden. Methods All patients who suffered an OHCA in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted between 1992 and 2005 and who were included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register (SCAR). We in...

  14. Inhibition of heparin precipitation, bacterial growth, and fungal growth with a combined isopropanol-ethanol locking solution for vascular access devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Daniel; Laconi, Nicholas S; Alcantar, Norma A; West, Leigh A; Buttice, Audrey L; Patel, Saumil; Kayton, Mark L

    2015-03-01

    Clinical reports of ethanol-lock use for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections have been marked by the occurrence of serious catheter occlusions, particularly among children with mediports. We hypothesized that precipitate forms when ethanol mixes with heparin at the concentrations relevant for vascular access devices, but that the use of a combination of two alcohols, ethanol and isopropanol, would diminish heparin-related precipitation, while retaining anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effects. Heparin (0-100units/mL) was incubated in ethanol-water solutions (30%-70% vol/vol) or in an aqueous solution containing equal parts (35% and 35% vol/vol) of isopropanol and ethanol. Precipitation at temperatures from 4 to 40°C was measured in nephelometric turbidity units using a benchtop turbidimeter. Growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans colonies were measured following exposure to solutions of ethanol or isopropanol-ethanol. Groupwise comparisons were performed using analysis of variance with Bonferroni-corrected, post-hoc T-testing. Seventy percent ethanol and heparin exhibit dose-dependent precipitation that is pronounced and significant at the concentrations typically used in mediports (pethanol solution rather than 70% ethanol (pethanol solutions under 70% form less precipitate with heparin, such concentrations are also less effective at bacterial colony inhibition than solutions of either 70% ethanol or 35% isopropanol-35% ethanol (pethanol locking solution inhibits bacterial and fungal growth similarly to 70% ethanol, but results in less precipitate than 70% ethanol when exposed to heparin. Further study of a combined isopropanol-ethanol locking solution for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections should focus on the determination as to whether such a locking solution may reduce the rate of precipitation-related catheter occlusion, and whether it may be administered with low systemic toxicity

  15. Treatment of hand ischemia following angioaccess surgery using the distal revascularization interval-ligation technique with preservation of vascular access: description of an 18-case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Carmine; Riehl, Gregory; Porcu, Paolo; Pichot, Olivier; Palacin, Pedro; Maghlaoua, Mohamed; Magne, Jean-Luc

    2004-11-01

    Hand ischemia is a rare complication of angioaccess surgery for hemodialysis. Management usually requires ligation of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The purpose of this report is to describe our experience with the use of the distal revascularization interval-ligation (DRIL) technique for treatment of ischemia without ligation of the AVF. From January 1999 to September 2002, the DRIL technique was used to treat 18 patients (10 men, 8 women, 10 diabetic patients) with severe paresthesia of the hand (n = 9) and finger necrosis (n = 10). The AVF was located at the elbow in 16 patients and at the wrist in 2 patients. Mean flow distal to the AVF was less than 10 mL in 5 patients, less than 5 mL in 10, and unmeasurable in 3. The conduit used for all DRIL arterial bypasses, including 15 brachiobrachial bypasses, 1 axillobrachial bypass, 1 brachioradial bypass, and 1 radioradial bypass, was the great saphenous vein graft. Trophic manifestations required finger amputation in five patients, pulpar necrosis resection in four, and transmetacarpal amputation of the index finger in one patient. Symptoms disappeared in 13 patients (73%) and improved in 5 (27%). The time required for healing of finger amputations and trophic manifestations ranged from 15 days to 2 months. Mean arterial flow through the DRIL bypass was 50 mL/min (range, 20-90 mL/min). With a mean follow-up interval of 16 months (range, 5-48 months), primary patency of the DRIL artery bypass and AVF was 94% and the limb salvage rate was 100%. The DRIL technique is the most effective procedure for treatment of angioaccess-induced hand ischemia. This technique can be used to achieve persistent relief of symptoms with continued access patency. The DRIL artery bypass improves vacularization of the hand, and ligature of the artery stops the vascular steal without affecting hemodialysis access. The DRIL technique should be proposed as first-line treatment for hand ischemia due to AVF for hemodialysis.

  16. Pelvic injuries in combination with vascular lesions of branches from the iliac artery: Outcome - Incidence - Treatment strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H.; Klemt, C.; Uhrmeister, P.

    2002-01-01

    The acute haemorrhagic shock is one of the leading causes for death following severe pelvic injuries. Typical bleeding sources are fractured spongiosa surfaces, lesions of the major venous plexus or ruptures of branches originating from the iliac artery. This study characterizes the population...... from active hemorrhage because of vascular lacerations of iliac artery branches. Average of ISS, PTS, part of multiple injured patients, prevalence of rotary and vertical unstable fractures as well as mortality of patients with accompanying arterial injury was found to be much higher when compared...... to all patients with pelvic fractures. The immediate diagnostical angiography (70.59%) possibly in combination with a therapeutic embolization (41.18%) is a well established part in the treatment of patients with mainly pelvic bleeding sources. In most cases a surgical intervention is required. Initial...

  17. Evaluation of an open-access CBT-based Internet program for social anxiety: Patterns of use, retention, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryman, M Taylor; McTeague, Lisa M; Olino, Thomas M; Heimberg, Richard G

    2017-10-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been established as both efficacious and effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. However, most research has been conducted in controlled settings, and little is known regarding the utility of such programs in an open-access format. The present study examined the use, adherence, and effectiveness of Joyable, an open-access, Internet-delivered, coach-supported CBT-based intervention for social anxiety. Participants were 3,384 registered users (Mage [SD] = 29.82 [7.89]; 54% male) that created an account between 2014 and 2016. Characteristics of use, factors related to attrition and adherence, and within-group outcomes were examined. The primary outcome measure was the Social Phobia Inventory. On average, participants remained in the program for 81.02 days (SD = 60.50), during which they completed 12.14 activities (SD = 11.09) and 1.53 exposures (SD = 3.18). About half (57%) had contact with a coach. Full adherence to the program was achieved by 16% of participants, a rate higher than previously published open-access studies of ICBT. Social anxiety symptoms were significantly reduced for participants that engaged in the program, with medium within-group effects from baseline through the cognitive restructuring module (d = 0.63-0.76) and large effects from baseline through the exposure module (d = 1.40-1.83). Response rates were high (72%). Exposures and coach contact were significant predictors of retention and outcome. This open-access online CBT-based program is effective in reducing social anxiety symptoms and has the potential to extend Internet-based mental health services to socially anxious individuals unwilling or unable to seek face-to-face evidence-based therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Long-Term Visual Outcomes for a Treat and Extend Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Regimen in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mrejen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF therapy, clinicians are now focused on various treatment strategies to better control neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Herein, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with treatment-naïve NVAMD initially classified based on fluorescein angiography (FA alone or with an anatomic classification utilizing both FA and optical coherence tomography (OCT and correlated long-term visual outcomes of these patients treated with an anti-VEGF Treat-and-Extend Regimen (TER with baseline characteristics including neovascular phenotype. Overall, 185 patients (210 eyes were followed over an average of 3.5 years (range 1–6.6 with a retention rate of 62.9%, and visual acuity significantly improved with a TER that required a mean number of 8.3 (±1.6 (± standard deviation intravitreal anti-VEGF injections/year (range 4–13. The number of injections and the anatomic classification were independent predictors of visual acuity at 6 months, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. Patients with Type 1 neovascularization had better visual outcomes and received more injections than the other neovascular subtypes. There were no serious adverse events. A TER provided sustained long-term visual gains. Eyes with Type 1 neovascularization had better visual outcomes than those with other neovascular subtypes.

  19. Real-world outcomes in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Hemal; Tufail, Adnan; Daien, Vincent; Lee, Aaron Y; Nguyen, Vuong; Ozturk, Mehmet; Barthelmes, Daniel; Gillies, Mark C

    2018-01-02

    Clinical trials identified intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGF agents) have the potential to stabilise or even improve visual acuity outcomes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a sight-threatening disease. Real-world evidence allows us to assess whether results from randomised controlled trials can be applied to the general population. We describe the development of global registries, in particular the Fight Retinal Blindness! registry that originated in Australia, the United Kingdom AMD Electronic Medical Records User Group and the IRIS registry in the USA. Real-world observations relating to efficacy, safety and resource utilisation of intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular AMD are then summarised. Novel observations that would have been challenging to identify in a clinical trial setting are then highlighted, including the risk of late disease reactivation, outcomes in second versus first treated eyes, and the increased risk of posterior capsular rupture during cataract surgery in patients who have received intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy. We conclude by exploring future directions in the field. This includes the development of a global consensus on real-world outcome measures to allow greater comparison of results. Real-world neovascular AMD outcome registries can be linked with other databases to determine systemic safety or genetic predictors of treatment efficacy. Machine learning offers opportunities to extract useful insights from "Big Data" often collected in these registries. Real-world registries could be used by drug regulatory authorities and industry as an alternative to more costly and time-consuming phase 4 clinical trials, potentially allowing medication costs to be based on outcomes achieved. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the first national program to bring the power of the patient to vascular research and care. ... Our recent national Vascular Research Summit brought together leaders from 31 institutions to generate collaborative projects for ...

  1. Outcomes in Adenomyosis Treated with Uterine Artery Embolization Are Associated with Lesion Vascularity: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study of 252 Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    Full Text Available To study the therapeutic effects of uterine artery embolization (UAE on adenomyosis and to investigate the association between uterine blood supply and artery embolization treatment outcomes.Using digital subtraction angiography (DSA imaging data, we retrospectively evaluated the vascular features of 252 adenomyosis patients treated with UAE. The cases were classified based on the equality of uterine blood supply (equal and unequal subgroups and the degree of vascularity at the adenomyosis lesion site (hypervascular, isovascular and hypovascular subgroups. Patients were followed-up for 5 years after UAE. Improvements in dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia were evaluated based on the relief of the patients' symptoms. The improvement rates among the different subgroups were analyzed and compared.The improvement rates of dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia were 74.0% and 70.9%, respectively, at the short-term (12-month follow-up and 70.4% and 68.8%, respectively, at the long-term (5-year follow-up. No statistically significant differences were observed in the improvement rates for dysmenorrhea or menorrhagia between the equal and unequal blood supply subgroups at either the short- or long-term follow-up. The improvement rates for dysmenorrhea among the hypervascular, isovascular and hypovascular subgroups were 86.5%, 71.8% and 58.8%, respectively, at the short-term follow-up (p = 0.002 and 83.6%, 67.3% and 52.8%, respectively, at the long-term follow-up (p = 0.005. The improvement rates for menorrhagia in the hypervascular, isovascular and hypovascular subgroups were 81.0%, 68.3% and 60.7%, respectively, at the short-term follow-up (p = 0.024 and 79.4%, 61.4% and 62.2%, respectively, at the long-term follow-up (p = 0.052.UAE is effective in treating patients with adenomyosis in both the short and long term. The outcomes of patients with adenomyosis were significantly correlated with lesion vascularity.

  2. Comparison of early clinical outcomes between ABSORB bioresorbable vascular scaffold and everolimus-eluting stent implantation in a real-world population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costopoulos, Charis; Latib, Azeem; Naganuma, Toru; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Sato, Katsumasa; Figini, Filippo; Sticchi, Alessandro; Carlino, Mauro; Chieffo, Alaide; Montorfano, Matteo; Colombo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To compare the early clinical outcomes between ABSORB bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) and cobalt chromium everolimus-eluting stents in real-world patients with mostly complex disease. BVS represents the most interesting development in the drug-eluting stent field over recent years with promising results emerging from clinical trials. Available data however on the use of the ABSORB in real-world patients is limited. All patients (n = 92) treated with BVS and 1296 patients treated with EES were included in this study. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for differences in baseline clinical characteristics, yielding 92 patient pairs (BVS = 92 patients with 137 lesions and EES = 92 patients with 124 lesions). Clinical outcomes were examined between the 2 groups at 6-months. In both groups, most lesions were classified as either B2 or C (83.9% vs. 77.4%, P = 0.19). Predilatation (97.8% vs. 75.8%, P < 0.01) as well as postdilation (99.3% vs. 77.4%, P < 0.01) was more common in the BVS group. Clinical outcomes at 6-months were similar between the two groups with respect to both target lesion revascularization (3.3% vs. 5.4%, P = 0.41) and major adverse cardiac events (defined as the composite of target vessel revascularization, follow-up myocardial infraction and all-cause death) (3.3% vs. 7.6%, P = 0.19). ABSORB BVS for the treatment of complex lesions appears to be associated with good procedural and early clinical outcomes similar to those observed with conventional drug-eluting stents. Larger studies with long-term follow-up are required in order to fully assess the role of BVS in the treatment of such lesions and how this compares with that of conventional stents. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Access, Outcomes, and Social Mobility in a Stratified System of Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Educational attainment sits at the core of research on social stratification in the United States. An extensive literature details the inequalities in access to levels of education, the socioeconomic rewards conferred upon those reaching higher levels of schooling, and the prospects for social mobility among those able to attain a college degree.…

  4. An Ecological Perspective on U.S. Latinos' Health Communication Behaviors, Access, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Vikki S.; Ang, Alfonso; Suro, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    U.S. Latinos experience constrained access to formal health care resources, contributing to higher incidence of preventable diseases and chronic health conditions than the general population. The authors explore whether a rich set of informal health communication connections--to friends, family, radio, television, Internet, newspapers, magazines,…

  5. Access to Higher Education in Colombia: An Assessment of Public Policy and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe Correa, Lina

    2012-01-01

    This research analyzes a set of national policy initiatives, 2002-2010, regularly referred to as Colombia's "Educational Revolution". Together these policies constitute a Colombian effort to increase access to higher education, an effort in partnership with the World Bank. The dissertation presents findings on policy goals, efforts,…

  6. Challenges in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Access | Donor search and selection | Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jöris, Monique Maria

    2013-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis are aimed at improving the whole spectrum of unrelated HSCT in order to help as many patients in need of HSCT as possible. It covers three different but related topics; from access to HSCT to optimizing donor search and selection of acceptable mismatches to

  7. Food access and diet quality are associated with quality of life outcomes among HIV-infected individuals in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tia Palermo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is associated with poor nutritional and clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS. Few studies investigate the link between food insecurity, dietary diversity and health-related quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether household food access and individual dietary diversity are associated with health-related quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda. METHODS: We surveyed 902 people living with HIV/AIDS and their households from two clinics in Northern Uganda. Health-related quality of life outcomes were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS-HIV Survey. We performed multivariate regressions to investigate the relationship between health-related quality of life, household food insecurity and individual dietary diversity. RESULTS: People living with HIV/AIDS from severe food insecurity households have mean mental health status scores that are 1.7 points lower (p<.001 and physical health status scores that are 1.5 points lower (p<.01. Individuals with high dietary diversity have mean mental health status scores that were 3.6 points higher (p<.001 and physical health status scores that were 2.8 points higher (p<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Food access and diet quality are associated with health-related quality of life and may be considered as part of comprehensive interventions designed to mitigate psychosocial consequences of HIV.

  8. Temporary vascular shunting in vascular trauma: A 10-year review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five patients with non-viable limbs had the vessel ligated. Conclusions. A TIVS in the damage control setting is both life- and limb-saving. These shunts can be inserted safely in a facility without access to a surgeon with vascular surgery experience if there is uncontrollable bleeding or the delay to definitive vascular surgery ...

  9. Temporary vascular shunting in vascular trauma: A 10-year review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    part of a damage control procedure, 7 patients were referred from a hospital without access to vascular surgical facilities with the TIVS in situ, and in the remaining 6 patients the TIVS was inserted during repair of a lower limb fracture with an associated vascular injury. Damage control procedure. Twenty-two patients had a ...

  10. Impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on vascular function and blood pressure: Relevance for cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, G; Catena, C; Novello, M; Bertin, N; Sechi, L A

    2017-03-01

    To overview the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on blood vessels and blood pressure (BP) and their relevance for cardiovascular prevention. The importance of omega-3 PUFA for the cardiovascular system has come under the spotlight during the last decades. These fatty acids are present in variable amounts in cell membranes of mammal species, and their content affects a variety of cellular functions. Evidence obtained in animal and human studies suggests that omega-3 PUFA affect many steps of the atherosclerotic process. In blood vessels, omega-3 PUFA improve endothelial function; promote vasodilatation through relaxation of smooth muscle cells; exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic actions; delay development of plaques and increase their stability; and decrease wall stiffening. Omega-3 PUFA might affect BP, and studies conducted with ambulatory monitoring suggest that supplementation with these fatty acids decreases the average 24-h BP levels. This effect on BP is related to the pretreatment membrane content of omega-3 PUFA, and this might explain some inconsistencies among intervention trials. Meta-analyses indicate that omega-3 PUFA have a mild but significant BP lowering effect. While encouraging results were initially obtained with the use of omega-3 PUFA supplements in secondary prevention trials, meta-analyses have not confirmed the ability of these fatty acids to decrease the risk of coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Omega-3 PUFA are associated with significant improvement in vascular function and lowering of BP. However, the evidence currently supporting the role of these fatty acids in cardiovascular prevention is weak and needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and birth outcomes: insights from the Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Nisreen A; Cade, Janet E; McArdle, Harry J; Greenwood, Darren C; Hayes, Helen E; Simpson, Nigel A B

    2015-06-28

    Fe deficiency anaemia during early pregnancy has been linked with low birth weight and preterm birth. However, this evidence comes mostly from studies measuring Hb levels rather than specific measures of Fe deficiency. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal Fe status during the first trimester of pregnancy, as assessed by serum ferritin, transferrin receptor and their ratio, with size at birth and preterm birth. In the Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy) study, we recruited 362 infants and their mothers after delivery in Leeds, UK. Biomarkers were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester of pregnancy. The cohort included sixty-four (18 %) small for gestational age (SGA) babies. Thirty-three babies were born preterm (9 %; between 34 and 37 weeks). First trimester maternal Fe depletion was associated with a higher risk of SGA (adjusted OR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 4·1). This relationship was attenuated when including early pregnancy Hb in the model, suggesting it as a mediator (adjusted OR 1·6, 95 % CI 0·8, 3·2). For every 10 g/l increase in maternal Hb level in the first half of pregnancy the risk of SGA was reduced by 30 % (adjusted 95 % CI 0, 40 %); levels below 110 g/l were associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of SGA (95 % CI 1·0, 9·0). There was no evidence of association between maternal Fe depletion and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·5, 95 % 0·6, 3·8). The present study shows that depleted Fe stores in early pregnancy are associated with higher risk of SGA.

  12. Impact of Socioeconomic Inequality on Access, Adherence, and Outcomes of Antiretroviral Treatment Services for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Hwang, Jongnam; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Latkin, Noah Reed Knowlton; Tran, Ngoc Kim; Minh Thuc, Vu Thi; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Le, Huong Thi; Tran, Tho Dinh; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring an equal benefit across different patient groups is necessary while scaling up free-of-charge antiretroviral treatment (ART) services. This study aimed to measure the disparity in access, adherence, and outcomes of ART in Vietnam and the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) characteristics on the levels of inequality. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1133 PLWH in Vietnam. ART access, adherence, and treatment outcomes were self-reported using a structured questionnaire. Wealth-related inequality was calculated using a concentration index, and a decomposition analysis was used to determine the contribution of each SES variable to inequality in access, adherence, and outcomes of ART. Based on SES, minor inequality was found in ART access and adherence while there was considerable inequality in ART outcomes. Poor people were more likely to start treatment early, while rich people had better adherence and overall treatment outcomes. Decomposition revealed that occupation and education played important roles in inequality in ART access, adherence, and treatment outcomes. The findings suggested that health services should be integrated into the ART regimen. Furthermore, occupational orientation and training courses should be provided to reduce inequality in ART access, adherence, and treatment outcomes.

  13. Comparison of long-term clinical outcomes among different vascularized lymph node transfers: 6-year experience of a single center's approach to the treatment of lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, Pedro; Agko, Mouchammed; Perez Coca, John Jaime; Manrique, Oscar J; Chang, Wei-Ling; Nicoli, Fabio; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes among different vascularized lymph node transfers (VLNT) used at our institution. Between July 2010 and July 2016, all patients with International Society of Lymphology (ISL) stages II-III who underwent VLNT were evaluated. Demographic and clinical data (limb circumference, infectious episodes, lymphoscintigraphic studies) were recorded pre-operatively. Clinical outcomes, complications, and additional excisional procedures were analyzed post-operatively. At least 2-year follow-up was required for inclusion. Overall, 83 patients (Stage II:47, Stage III:36) met the inclusion criterion. Mean follow-up was 32.8 months (range, 24-49). Lymph node flaps used were groin (n = 13), supraclavicular (n = 25), gastroepiploic (n = 42), ileocecal (n = 2), and appendicular (n = 1). Total mean circumference reduction rate was 29.1% (Stage II) and 17.9% (Stage III) (P < 0.05). A paired t-test showed that VLNT significantly decreased the number of infections (P < 0.05). Three patients reported no improvement of the symptoms. Major complications included one flap loss and one donor site hematoma. After the period of follow-up, 18 patients (21.7%) underwent additional excisional procedures. VLNT is a promising technique used for the treatment of lymphedema and appears to be more effective in moderate stages (Stage II). Patients with advanced stage lymphedema (Stage III) may benefit from additional excisional procedures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Access to Majority Language and Educational Outcomes: South Asian Background Students in Postcolonial Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Linda; Zhang, Qunying; Cruickshank, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which South Asian students in Hong Kong are gaining fluency in Chinese and the impact of this on their educational outcomes in the postcolonial context of an official shift to a trilingual (Cantonese, English, and Putonghua) and biliterate (Chinese and English) society. It focuses on the teaching and learning of…

  15. Development of a functional, internet-accessible department of surgery outcomes database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, William L; Lincourt, Amy E; Gersin, Keith; Kercher, Kent; Iannitti, David; Kuwada, Tim; Lyons, Cynthia; Sing, Ronald F; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Heniford, B Todd; Rucho, Susan

    2008-06-01

    The need for surgical outcomes data is increasing due to pressure from insurance companies, patients, and the need for surgeons to keep their own "report card". Current data management systems are limited by inability to stratify outcomes based on patients, surgeons, and differences in surgical technique. Surgeons along with research and informatics personnel from an academic, hospital-based Department of Surgery and a state university's Department of Information Technology formed a partnership to develop a dynamic, internet-based, clinical data warehouse. A five-component model was used: data dictionary development, web application creation, participating center education and management, statistics applications, and data interpretation. A data dictionary was developed from a list of data elements to address needs of research, quality assurance, industry, and centers of excellence. A user-friendly web interface was developed with menu-driven check boxes, multiple electronic data entry points, direct downloads from hospital billing information, and web-based patient portals. Data were collected on a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant server with a secure firewall. Protected health information was de-identified. Data management strategies included automated auditing, on-site training, a trouble-shooting hotline, and Institutional Review Board oversight. Real-time, daily, monthly, and quarterly data reports were generated. Fifty-eight publications and 109 abstracts have been generated from the database during its development and implementation. Seven national academic departments now use the database to track patient outcomes. The development of a robust surgical outcomes database requires a combination of clinical, informatics, and research expertise. Benefits of surgeon involvement in outcomes research include: tracking individual performance, patient safety, surgical research, legal defense, and the ability to provide accurate information

  16. Safety and efficacy outcomes of infrapopliteal endovascular procedures performed in patients with critical limb ischemia according to the Society for Vascular Surgery objective performance goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Cesar; Acin, Francisco; Lopez de Maturana, Ignacio; de Haro, Joaquin; Bleda, Silvia; Paz, Belky; Esparza, Leticia

    2014-02-01

    Objective performance goals (OPGs) are a set of standardized end points generated from well documented historical controls against which new therapeutic procedures may be compared in single-arm studies. Recently, the Society for Vascular Surgery suggested a set of OPGs designed from vein bypass controls that could be used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular devices applied to critical limb ischemia through a noninferiority analysis. Our aim is to analyze the results of infrapopliteal endovascular procedures performed in patients with critical limb ischemia according to these OPG end points. This is a retrospective study of 121 infrapopliteal endovascular procedures. The tibial intervention was combined with a femoropopliteal angioplasty in 70 procedures. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), major adverse limb events (MALEs), and major amputations at 30 days were recorded as safety outcomes. Freedom from any MALE or perioperative death (Freedom from MALE + POD) and amputation-free survival were calculated as primary efficacy end points at both 12 months and at 8 years. The 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all the end points were calculated to perform a noninferiority comparison using OPGs as the reference. The incidence of MACEs, MALEs, and amputation at 30 days were 5% (95% CI: 2-10% [OPG-MACE amputation 67%]) and an amputation-free survival of 78% (95% CI: 69-85% [OPG-amputation-free survival >68%]) at 12 months. Freedom from MALE + POD and amputation-free survival at 8 years decreased to 60% (95% CI: 49-69%) and to 26% (95% CI: 11-44%), respectively. Infrapopliteal endovascular procedures performed in everyday vascular surgery practice could meet the main OPG end points proposed for catheter-based treatment of critical limb ischemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing HIV Treatment Access and Outcomes Amongst HIV Infected Children and Adolescents in Resource Limited Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Ameena Ebrahim; Singh, Yagespari; Singh, Michelle; Noveve, Nobuntu; Magasana, Vuyolwethu; Ramraj, Trisha; Abdullah, Fareed; Coovadia, Ashraf H; Bhardwaj, Sanjana; Sherman, Gayle G

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Increasing access to HIV-related care and treatment for children aged 0-18 years in resource-limited settings is an urgent global priority. In 2011-2012 the percentage increase in children accessing antiretroviral therapy was approximately half that of adults (11 vs. 21 %). We propose a model for increasing access to, and retention in, paediatric HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings. Methods Following a rapid appraisal of recent literature seven main challenges in paediatric HIV-related care and treatment were identified: (1) lack of regular, integrated, ongoing HIV-related diagnosis; (2) weak facility-based systems for tracking and retention in care; (3) interrupted availability of dried blood spot cards (expiration/stock outs); (4) poor quality control of rapid HIV testing; (5) supply-related gaps at health facility-laboratory interface; (6) poor uptake of HIV testing, possibly relating to a fatalistic belief about HIV infection; (7) community-associated reasons e.g. non-disclosure and weak systems for social support, resulting in poor retention in care. Results To increase sustained access to paediatric HIV-related care and treatment, regular updating of Policies, review of inter-sectoral Plans (at facility and community levels) and evaluation of Programme implementation and impact (at national, subnational, facility and community levels) are non-negotiable critical elements. Additionally we recommend the intensified implementation of seven main interventions: (1) update or refresher messaging for health care staff and simple messaging for key staff at early childhood development centres and schools; (2) contact tracing, disclosure and retention monitoring; (3) paying particular attention to infant dried blood spot (DBS) stock control; (4) regular quality assurance of rapid HIV testing procedures; (5) workshops/meetings/dialogues between health facilities and laboratories to resolve transport-related gaps and to facilitate return of

  18. Bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) for in-stent chronic total occlusion: Antegrade recanalization and IVUS-guided BVS implantation by radial access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medda, Massimo [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Istituto Clinico Sant' Ambrogio, Milano (Italy); Casilli, Francesco, E-mail: frcasill@tin.it [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Istituto Clinico Sant' Ambrogio, Milano (Italy); Bande, Marta [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Istituto Clinico Sant' Ambrogio, Milano (Italy); Latini, Maria Giulia [Cardiologia Interventistica, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milano (Italy); Ghommidh, Mehdi [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Istituto Clinico Sant' Ambrogio, Milano (Italy); Del Furia, Francesca [Unità Operativa di Cardiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera di Melegnano, Milano (Italy); Inglese, Luigi [Interventistica Cardiovascolare, Gruppo Sanitario Policlinico di Monza, Milano (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    The completely absorbable stents represent one of the latest innovations in the field of interventional cardiology, prospecting the possibility of “vascular repair”. In the published trials (ABSORB Cohort A and B, ABSORB EXTEND, and ABSORB II, III and IV) chronic total occlusions (CTOs) were considered an exclusion criteria. More recently the CTO-ABSORB pilot study demonstrated the safety and feasibility of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) use in case of CTO recanalization. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of in-stent occlusion successfully treated with an everolimus-eluting BVS and discuss its potential advantages in such kind of lesions.

  19. Correlation of degree of hypothyroidism with survival outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Erin B; Tantravahi, Srinivas K; Poole, Austin; Agarwal, Archana M; Straubhar, Alli M; Batten, Julia A; Patel, Shiven B; Wells, Chesley E; Stenehjem, David D; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2015-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common adverse effect of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFR-TKI) therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Some studies have shown an association with improved survival. However, hypothyroidism severity has not been correlated with survival outcomes. We report the incidence and severity of VEGFR-TKI therapy-associated hypothyroidism in correlation with the survival outcomes of patients with mRCC. A retrospective analysis of patients with mRCC who received VEGFR-TKIs (2004 through 2013) was conducted from a single institutional database. Hypothyroidism, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. Of 125 patients with mRCC, 65 were eligible. Their median age was 59 years (range, 45-79 years), and 46 (70.8%) were male. Hypothyroidism occurred in 25 patients (38.5%), of whom 13 had a peak thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level > 10 mIU/L during treatment. The median OS was significantly longer in patients with a peak TSH > 10 mIU/L than in patients with a peak TSH of ≤ 10 mIU/L (not reached vs. 21.4 months, P = .005). On multivariate analysis, risk criteria, number of previous therapies, and severe hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/L) during VEGFR-TKI therapy remained significant for improvements in PFS and OS. The severity of VEGFR-TKI therapy-associated hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/L) was associated with improved survival outcomes in patients with mRCC and should not necessitate a dose reduction or therapy discontinuation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ACCESSIBLE HOUSING AND HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE: MEASUREMENTS OF WELLBEING OUTCOMES FOLLOWING HOME MODIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillippa Carnemolla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The multi-dimensional relationship between housing and population health is now well recognised internationally, across both developing and developed nations. This paper examines a dimension within the housing and health relationship – accessibility – that to date has been considered difficult to measure. This paper reports on the mixed method results of larger mixed-method, exploratory study designed to measure the impact of home modifications on Health-Related Quality of Life, supported by qualitative data of recipients’ experiences of home modifications. Data was gathered from 157 Australian HACC clients, who had received home modifications. Measurements were taken for both before and after home modifications and reveal that home modifications were associated with an average 40% increase in Health-Related Quality of Life levels. The qualitative results revealed that participants positively associated home modifications across six effect themes: increased safety and confidence, improved mobility at home, increased independence, supported care-giving role, increased social participation, and ability to return home from hospital. This exploratory research gives an insight into the potential for accessible architecture to impact improvements in community health and wellbeing.

  1. Effects of improved access to transportation on emergency obstetric care outcomes in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucunguzi, Stephen; Wamani, Henry; Lochoro, Peter; Tylleskar, Thorkild

    2014-09-01

    Reduction in maternal mortality has not been appreciable in most low-income countries. Improved access to transport for mothers is one way to improve maternal health. This study evaluated a free-of-charge 24-hour ambulance and communication services intervention in Oyam district using 'Caesarean section rate' (CSR) and compared with the neighbouring non-intervention district. Ecological data were collected retrospectively from maternity/theatre registers in October 2010 for 3 years pre and 3 years intervention period. The average CSR in the intervention district increased from 0.57% before the intervention to 1.21% (p = 0.022) during the intervention, while there was no change in the neighbouring district (0.51% to 0.58%, p = 0.512). Hospital deliveries increased by over 50% per year with a slight reduction in the average hospital stillbirths per 1000 hospital births in the intervention district (46.6 to 37.5, p = 0.253). Reliable communication and transport services increased access to and utilization of maternal health services, particularly caesarean delivery services.

  2. Direct access to a hospital offering intravenous thrombolysis therapy improves functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Park, Hyun-Seok; Choi, Jae-Hyung; Kang, Myung-Jin; Huh, Jae-Taeck

    2014-08-01

    Referral from other hospitals is one of the primary causes of delayed thrombolysis therapy after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We aimed to evaluate whether direct access to a hospital offering intravenous thrombolysis therapy was associated with good functional outcome in AIS patients treated with thrombolysis. We enrolled patients who received intravenous thrombolysis within 3 hours of symptom onset at our stroke center. We divided these patients into two groups: those with a direct admission to our stroke center and those with indirect admission by referral from other community hospitals. We investigated onset-to-door time and onset-to-recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) time according to admission mode. We then assessed the association between a direct admission and favorable outcome at 90 days. A total of 232 patients (mean age of 66.6 years, median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 10) were included. A total of 48.7% of AIS patients treated with intravenous thrombolytic therapy were transferred from other hospitals. Patients who were directly admitted to our stroke center had a shorter onset-to-door time (61 versus 120 minutes, pintravenous thrombolysis therapy could shorten onset-to-rtPA time and improve stroke outcome in patients with AIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Vascular Depression Hypothesis: Mechanisms Linking Vascular Disease with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Warren D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Vascular Depression’ hypothesis posits that cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes. This hypothesis stimulated much research that has improved our understanding of the complex relationships between late-life depression (LLD), vascular risk factors, and cognition. Succinctly, there are well-established relationships between late-life depression, vascular risk factors, and cerebral hyperintensities, the radiological hallmark of vascular depression. Cognitive dysfunction is common in late-life depression, particularly executive dysfunction, a finding predictive of poor antidepressant response. Over time, progression of hyperintensities and cognitive deficits predicts a poor course of depression and may reflect underlying worsening of vascular disease. This work laid the foundation for examining the mechanisms by which vascular disease influences brain circuits and influences the development and course of depression. We review data testing the vascular depression hypothesis with a focus on identifying potential underlying vascular mechanisms. We propose a disconnection hypothesis, wherein focal vascular damage and white matter lesion location is a crucial factor influencing neural connectivity that contributes to clinical symptomatology. We also propose inflammatory and hypoperfusion hypotheses, concepts that link underlying vascular processes with adverse effects on brain function that influence the development of depression. Testing such hypotheses will not only inform the relationship between vascular disease and depression but also provide guidance on the potential repurposing of pharmacological agents that may improve late-life depression outcomes. PMID:23439482

  4. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on skeletal, vascular, or cancer outcomes: a trial sequential meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg D; Reid, Ian R

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with many disorders, leading to calls for widespread supplementation. Some investigators suggest that more clinical trials to test the effect of vitamin D on disorders are needed. We did a trial sequential meta-analysis of existing randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplements, with or without calcium, to investigate the possible effect of future trials on current knowledge. We estimated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease, stroke or cerebrovascular disease, cancer, total fracture, hip fracture, and mortality in trial sequential analyses using a risk reduction threshold of 5% for mortality and 15% for other endpoints. The effect estimate for vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium for myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease (nine trials, 48 647 patients), stroke or cerebrovascular disease (eight trials 46 431 patients), cancer (seven trials, 48 167 patients), and total fracture (22 trials, 76 497 patients) lay within the futility boundary, indicating that vitamin D supplementation does not alter the relative risk of any of these endpoints by 15% or more. Vitamin D supplementation alone did not reduce hip fracture by 15% or more (12 trials, 27 834 patients). Vitamin D co-administered with calcium reduced hip fracture in institutionalised individuals (two trials, 3853 patients) but did not alter the relative risk of hip fracture by 15% or more in community-dwelling individuals (seven trials, 46 237 patients). There is uncertainty as to whether vitamin D with or without calcium reduces the risk of death (38 trials, 81 173). Our findings suggest that vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium does not reduce skeletal or non-skeletal outcomes in unselected community-dwelling individuals by more than 15%. Future trials with similar designs are unlikely to alter these conclusions. Health Research Council of New Zealand. Copyright

  5. Influence of a rural environment on patient access and outcomes for bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Kristie L; Cox, Stephanie J; Tabone, Lawrence E

    2017-04-01

    Despite a higher rate of obesity in rural populations, there is a 23% decrease in performed bariatric procedures. The influence of a rural environment on surgical outcomes and treatment efficacy is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed all bariatric surgeries performed in a large university hospital in West Virginia from September 2012 to September 2014. Patients were categorized based on their rural-urban commuting area codes. Subject demographic characteristics, insurance provider, type of surgery, completion of program, preoperative body mass index (BMI), percent excess weight loss (%EWL), and percent total weight loss (%TWL) at 6 and 12 months postoperatively, and follow-up appointment attendance were collected. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted. A total of 122 patients were evaluated with 82 receiving surgery. Of these patients, 77 had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and 5 had Sleeve Gastrectomy. Nine patients out of 82 were lost to follow-up at 6 months (n = 73), and 12 patients out of 62 were lost to follow-up at 12 months (n = 50). Rural patients were .283 times less likely to receive bariatric surgery, (P = .004). However, this relationship was confounded by insurance provider; after controlling for this variable, the relationship between rural status and surgery completion was nonsignificant (P = .066). Rural status did not predict change in BMI, %EWL, or %TWL at 6 months (P = .738; P = .848; P = .334) or 12 months (P = .902; P = .143; P = .195), or compliance for follow-up appointments (P = .232). Rural bariatric patients seem to have decreased success at completing bariatric programs, which is likely confounded by insurance type. Yet, when the rural patient is able to realize the benefits of bariatric surgery, their outcomes are unchanged compared with urban patients. Although the study is limited by sample size, it highlights the need for reducing obstacles for bariatric surgery in an already underserved population, the rural community

  6. Ethnicity and acute myocardial infarction: risk profile at presentation, access to hospital management, and outcome in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnoor M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available M Abdelnoor,1,2 J Eritsland,2 C Brunborg,1 S Halvorsen21Unit of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 2Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, Oslo, NorwayBackground: Previous studies in North America have shown ethnic variation in the presentation of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, and sex and racial differences in the management and outcome of AMI. In the present study, our aim was to investigate the risk profile of AMI for patients with minority background compared with indigenous Norwegians, at hospital presentation, and to investigate racial differences in hospital care and outcomes.Patients and methods: A dual-design study was adopted: a cross-sectional study to examine ethnic differences of risk prevalence at hospital presentation and a cohort study to estimate access to angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, and hospital and long-term mortality. From a study population of 3105 patients with AMI presenting at Oslo University Hospital between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2007, we identified 147 cases of AMI in patients with minority background and selected a random sample of 588 indigenous Norwegians with AMI as controls. Prognostic and explanatory strategies were used in the analysis.Results: Compared with indigenous Norwegians with AMI, AMI patients with minority background suffered their AMI 10 years younger, were generally male, were twice as likely to be smokers, three times as likely to have type 2 diabetes, had lower high-density lipoprotein levels. This group also had 50% less history of hypertension. In terms of hospital care, AMI patients with minority background had shorter times from onset of symptoms to PCI and the same frequency of access to angiography and acute PCI as indigenous Norwegians when adjusting for the confounding effect of age, sex, and nature of myocardial infarction with or without ST elevation.Conclusion: At presentation to hospital, patients with minority background had a

  7. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging vascular changes, apolipoprotein E genotype, and development of dementia in the neurocognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, David C; Potter, Guy G; McQuoid, Douglas R; MacFall, James R; Payne, Martha E; Burke, James R; Plassman, Brenda L; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2007-10-01

    Several studies suggest that depression is a risk factor for development of dementia in the elderly. In a study of older depressed individuals, the authors examined both neuroimaging and genetic factors in development of dementia. The authors hypothesized that change in subcortical gray matter and white matter hyperintensity volumes would be associated with development of dementia, as would presence of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele. The sample consisted of 161 older depressed subjects without dementia who had magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline and at two years. Blood samples were also taken to determine APOE genotype. All participants were treated with antidepressants using a guideline-based treatment algorithm. Their cognitive status was evaluated annually. A consensus panel of experts evaluated each case to determine cognitive status and assign a diagnosis. Twenty subjects became demented over the follow-up period (5.4 years on average). Change in white matter hyperintensity volume was significantly associated with development of dementia, especially among non-Alzheimer dementias. There was a trend for change in subcortical gray matter hyperintensity volume to be associated with incident dementia. APOE genotype was not associated with onset of dementia. Worsening cerebrovascular disease in older depressed adults is associated with cognitive decline and dementia, particularly of the non-Alzheimer disease type. The association of change in white matter lesion volume and incident dementia among depressed elders extends the vascular depression hypothesis of geriatric depression to include cognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly.

  8. Aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor and clinical outcomes correlation after single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Thiago; Lima, Luiz H; Polido, Júlia; Duong, Jimmy; Okuda, Érika; Oshima, Akiyoshi; Serracarbassa, Pedro; Regatieri, Caio V; Belfort, Rubens

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in aqueous humor after a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this prospective interventional case series study, 24 eyes of 24 patients with types 1 and 2 choroidal neovascularization secondary to neovascular AMD were treated with a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. Aqueous humor samples were obtained before the intravitreal injection and at one week, one month, and three months follow-up periods. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and three spectral-domain optical coherence tomography parameters (central retinal thickness, macular volume and macular area) were also analyzed and correlated with VEGF expression at the baseline and each follow-up period. All of the ninety-six aqueous humor study taps were well tolerated by the study patients without adverse events. Increased VEGF levels (mean ± SD = 179.7 ± 88.3 pg/mL) were observed in the aqueous humor of all study patients before the intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. At all follow-up periods, compared to baseline, levels of VEGF significantly reduced (P  0.005), CRT, MV and MA also reduced in comparison to baseline. Single intravitreal bevacizumab injection in eyes with neovascular AMD resulted in a substantial decrease of aqueous VEGF levels 1 week after treatment with the greatest improvement of clinical outcomes occurring at 1 month follow-up.

  9. Endometrial and Subendometrial Vascularity by Three-Dimensional (3D) Power Doppler and Its Correlation with Pregnancy Outcome in Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet V; Agarwal, Ritu; Sharma, Urmila; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh; Bandwal, Pradeep

    2016-10-01

    To study the role of endometrial and subendometrial blood flow measured by 3D power Doppler as predictors of pregnancy in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. A hospital-based prospective study of two hundred and twenty-one (221) women undergoing FET cycles with a triple-line endometrium ≥7 mm on day 14 endometrial and subendometrial blood flow was assessed using 3D power Doppler, and various indices endometrial volume, subendometrial volume and their vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation flow index (VFI) were obtained and compared between the pregnant and the non-pregnant group. Primary outcome was clinical pregnancy. Out of 221 women, 97(43.89 %) became pregnant, while 124 (56.10 %) failed to become pregnant. The endometrial volume was comparable between the two groups. Endometrial VI, FI and VFI were significantly higher in the pregnant as compared to the non-pregnant group. There was a significant difference in subendometrial VI and VFI between the two groups, but FI was similar. Endometrial and subendometrial vascularity by 3D power Doppler can be a useful parameter in predicting pregnancy in FET cycles.

  10. Randomized trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin on peripheral vascular and other major vascular outcomes in 20,536 people with peripheral arterial disease and other high-risk conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    The Heart Protection Study (HPS) provides an opportunity to assess directly the effects of cholesterol-lowering therapy on major vascular events (defined as myocardial infarction, coronary death, stroke, or revascularization) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In addition, the effects on peripheral vascular events (ie, non-coronary revascularization, aneurysm repairs, major amputations or PAD deaths) can be assessed. 6748 UK adults with PAD and 13,788 other high-risk participants were randomly allocated to receive 40 mg simvastatin daily or matching placebo, yielding an average LDL cholesterol difference of 1.0 mmol/L (39 mg/dL) during a mean of 5 years. For participants with PAD, allocation to simvastatin was associated with a highly significant 22% (95% CI 15-29) relative reduction in the rate of first major vascular event following randomisation (895 [26.4%] simvastatin-allocated vs 1101 [32.7%] placebo-allocated; P 50 (SE 7) per 1000 without pre-existing PAD. Overall, among all participants, there was a 16% (5-25) relative reduction in the rate of first peripheral vascular event following randomisation (479 [4.7%] simvastatin vs 561 [5.5%] placebo), largely irrespective of baseline LDL cholesterol and other factors. This effect chiefly reflects a 20% (8-31) relative reduction in non-coronary revascularization procedures (334 [3.3%] vs 415 [4.0%]; P = .002). HPS demonstrates the benefits of cholesterol-lowering statin therapy in patients with PAD, regardless of their presenting cholesterol levels and other presenting features. Allocation to 40 mg simvastatin daily reduces the rate of first major vascular events by about one-quarter, and that of peripheral vascular events by about one-sixth, with large absolute benefits seen in participants with PAD because of their high vascular risk. Consequently, statin therapy should be considered routinely for all patients with PAD.

  11. [Vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, H.F. de; Gijn, J. van

    2004-01-01

    Vascular dementia is one of the most frequently occurring dementia syndromes. Its prevalence is about 5% among subjects above 85 years of age. Elevated blood pressure and atherosclerosis are the most important risk factors. According to international criteria, vascular dementia usually occurs within

  12. Costs and Outcomes of Increasing Access to Bariatric Surgery: Cohort Study and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Martin C; Charlton, Judith; Prevost, Toby; Booth, Helen; Fildes, Alison; Ashworth, Mark; Littlejohns, Peter; Reddy, Marcus; Khan, Omar; Rudisill, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    To estimate costs and outcomes of increasing access to bariatric surgery in obese adults and in population subgroups of age, sex, deprivation, comorbidity, and obesity category. A cohort study was conducted using primary care electronic health records, with linked hospital utilization data, for 3,045 participants who underwent bariatric surgery and 247,537 participants who did not undergo bariatric surgery. Epidemiological analyses informed a probabilistic Markov model to compare bariatric surgery, including equal proportions with adjustable gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy, with standard nonsurgical management of obesity. Outcomes were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and net monetary benefits at a threshold of £30,000 per QALY. In a UK population of 250,000 adults, there may be 7,163 people with morbid obesity including 1,406 with diabetes. The immediate cost of 1,000 bariatric surgical procedures is £9.16 million, with incremental discounted lifetime health care costs of £15.26 million (95% confidence interval £15.18-£15.36 million). Patient-years with diabetes mellitus will decrease by 8,320 (range 8,123-8,502). Incremental QALYs will increase by 2,142 (range 2,032-2,256). The estimated cost per QALY gained is £7,129 (range £6,775-£7,506). Net monetary benefits will be £49.02 million (range £45.72-£52.41 million). Estimates are similar for subgroups of age, sex, and deprivation. Bariatric surgery remains cost-effective if the procedure is twice as costly, or if intervention effect declines over time. Diverse obese individuals may benefit from bariatric surgery at acceptable cost. Bariatric surgery is not cost-saving, but increased health care costs are exceeded by health benefits to obese individuals. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascular anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Jyotsna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of vascular anomalies is an emerging multidisciplinary, super-specialisation field involving several surgical, medical and radiological specialties. Over the years, development in this field has been limited because of complex nomenclature and lack of consensus on the best practice for treatment of some of the more complex vascular anomalies. It was only in 1996 that the International Society of the Study of Vascular Anomalies defined nomenclature for the anomalies and gave clear guidelines on management, allowing for improved clinical practices. As in all fields of clinical medicine, the correct diagnosis of the vascular anomalies is essential to choose the appropriate treatment. This paper gives clear guidelines for diagnosis, understanding of the anomalies and discusses their management.

  14. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and the cardio-ankle vascular index as a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes in patients on regular hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akihiko; Takita, Takako; Furuhashi, Mitsuyoshi; Maruyama, Yukitaka; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2012-06-01

    Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) are both used to evaluate arterial stiffness. The aim of the present study is to determine whether baPWV or CAVI is superior as a marker of arterial stiffness in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Of 194 patients, 59 patients had been excluded from the study due to advanced age over 76 years old (n = 29), or abnormal ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) (<0.90 or ≥1.30) (n = 30). We then followed the 135 patients (age: 60 ± 11 years, time on HD: 110 ± 93 months) for the 63 ± 4 (55-70) months. Thirty-two (23.7%) patients had expired, 22 of them of cardiovascular (CV) causes. There were 37 fatal and non-fatal CV events. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the patients with the highest tertile of baPWV (≥16.6 m/s) had a significantly lower survival rate (P < 0.01) when compared with the second (13.4 ≤ baPWV < 16.6 m/s) and the lowest tertiles (<13.4 m/s). Cox hazards analysis after adjustment for comorbid risk factors revealed that the top tertile of baPWV was a determinant of CV death (hazards ratio [HR]: 16.9 [1.1-251.8], P < 0.05) In contrast, CAVI did not associate with CV mortality or events. These findings suggest that baPWV is superior to CAVI as a predictor of CV outcomes in patients on regular HD. © 2012 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2012 International Society for Apheresis.

  15. Outcomes and computed tomography scan follow-up of bioresorbable vascular scaffold for the percutaneous treatment of chronic total coronary artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Soledad; Pan, Manuel; Romero, Miguel; Suárez de Lezo, Javier; Mazuelos, Francisco; Segura, José; Espejo, Simona; Morenate, Carmen; Blanco, Marta; Martín, Pedro; Medina, Alfonso; Suárez de Lezo, José

    2015-06-01

    Everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation in chronic total occlusion (CTO) could provide theoretical advantages at follow-up compared with metallic stents. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of BVS use for the percutaneous treatment of CTO by analyzing clinical outcomes and patency at midterm follow-up. From February 2013 to June 2014, 42 patients with 46 CTOs were treated by BVS implantation. Once the guidewire reached the distal lumen, all the occluded segments were predilated. Postdilation was performed in all patients. A multislice computed tomography was scheduled for all patients at 6 months. The mean age was 58 ± 9 years, 41 (98%) were men and 14 (33%) diabetic. The target vessel was predominantly the left anterior descending artery (22, 48%). According to the Japanese-CTO score, 21 CTOs (46%) were difficult or very difficult. Most cases were treated with an anterograde strategy (34 lesions, 74%). A hybrid procedure with a drug-eluting stent at the distal segment was the applied treatment in 7 CTOs (15%). The mean scaffold length was 43 ± 21 mm. Technical success was achieved in 45 lesions (98%), and 1 patient (2.4%) presented a non-Q periprocedural myocardial infarction. Re-evaluation was obtained in all patients at 6 ± 1 months. Two re-occlusions and a focal restenosis were identified. After 13 ± 5 months of follow-up, there were 2 repeat revascularizations (4.8%). Neither death nor myocardial infarction was documented. In conclusion, BVS for CTO seems to be an interesting strategy with a high rate of technical success and low rate of cardiac events at midterm follow-up in selected patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak; O V Uspenskaya

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00463-8 Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the e...

  17. Vascular Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Hashemilar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo is a common complaint in neurology and medicine. The most common causes of vertigo are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Meniere’s disease, and vascular disorders. Vertigo of vascular origin is usually limited to migraine, transient ischemic attacks, and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Vascular causes lead to various central or peripheral vestibular syndromes with vertigo. This review provides an overview of epidemiology and clinical syndromes of vascular vertigo. Vertigo is an illusion of movement caused by asymmetrical involvement of the vestibular system by various causes. Migraine is the most frequent vascular disorder that causes vertigo in all age groups. Vertigo may occur in up to 25% of patients with migraine. The lifetime prevalence of migrainous vertigo is almost 1%. Cerebrovascular disorders are estimated to account for 3% to 7% of patients with vertigo. Vestibular paroxysmia has been diagnosed in 1.8% to 4% of cases in various dizziness units. Vasculitic disorders are rare in the general population, but vertigo may be seen in almost up to 50% of patients with different vasculitic syndromes. Conclusions: Migraine, cerebrovascular disorders especially involving the vertebrobasilar territory, cardiocirculatory diseases, neurovascular compression of the eighth nerve, and vasculitis are vascular causes of vertigo syndromes.

  18. What Is Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy What Is Vascular Disease? What Is Vascular Disease? Vascular disease is any abnormal condition of the blood ... Privacy Policy × Your ticket for the: What Is Vascular Disease? Title What Is Vascular Disease? USD Close Print

  19. Long-term Outcome of Peripherally Implanted Venous Access Ports in the Forearm in Female Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klösges, Laura, E-mail: l.kloesges@uni-bonn.de; Meyer, Carsten, E-mail: carsten.meyer@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Boschewitz, Jack, E-mail: jack.boschewitz@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Andersson, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.andersson@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany); Rudlowski, Christian, E-mail: c.rudlowski@evk.de [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Bergisch Gladbach, Department of Gynecology (Germany); Schild, Hans H., E-mail: hans.schild@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany); Wilhelm, Kai, E-mail: kai.wilhelm@ek-bonn.de [Ev. Kliniken Bonn, Johanniter-Krankenhaus, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the long-term outcome of peripherally implanted venous access ports in the forearm at our institution in a female patient collective.MethodsBetween June 2002 and May 2011, a total of 293 female patients with an underlying malignancy had 299 forearm ports implanted in our interventional radiology suite. The mean age of the cohort was 55 ± 12 years (range 26–81 years). The majority of women suffered from breast (59.5 %) or ovarian cancer (28.1 %). Complications were classified as infectious complications, thrombotic and nonthrombotic catheter dysfunction (dislocation of the catheter or port chamber, fracture with/without embolization or kinking of the catheter, port occlusion), and others.ResultsWe analyzed a total of 90,276 catheter days in 248 port systems (47 patients were lost to follow-up). The mean device service interval was 364 days per catheter (range 8–2,132, median 223 days, CI 311–415, SD 404). Sixty-seven early (≤30 days from implantation) or late complications (>30 days) occurred during the observation period (0.74/1,000 catheter days). Common complications were port infection (0.18/1,000 days), thrombotic dysfunction (0.12/1,000 days), and skin dehiscence (0.12/1,000 days). Nonthrombotic dysfunction occurred in a total of 21 cases (0.23/1,000 days) and seemed to cumulate on the venous catheter entry site on the distal upper arm.ConclusionPeripherally implanted venous access ports in the forearm are a safe alternative to chest or upper-arm ports in female oncology patients. Special attention should be paid to signs of skin dehiscence and nonthrombotic dysfunction, especially when used for long-term treatment.

  20. A systematic review of functional outcome and quality of life following reconstruction of maxillofacial defects using vascularized free fibula flaps and dental rehabilitation reveals poor data quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijbenga, Johan G.; Schepers, Rutger H.; Werker, Paul M. N.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    Background: Reconstruction and oral rehabilitation of segmental maxillofacial defects resulting from ablative surgery is commonly achieved by osteocutaneous vascularized free fibula (VFFF) transplantation combined with implant-supported dental prostheses. We systematically reviewed the literature

  1. Determinants of Student Learning Outcomes in a Private University : From the Perspective of Diversity and Quality Assurance in the Era of Universal Access

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 有司; 鳥居, 朋子

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ learning mechanisms based on learning outcomes assessment of a Japanese private university in the era of universal access. Concretely speaking, relations among student demographics, classroom experiences and commitments to learning were revealed, and determinants of learning outcomes were explored according to an assumed model which referred to Astin’s IEO model. A self-report questionnaire survey was administered to students of X private...

  2. Out of hospital cardiac arrest outside home in Sweden, change in characteristics, outcome and availability for public access defibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenqvist Mårten

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of patients who suffer from out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA outside home are theoretically candidates for public access defibrillation (PAD. We describe the change in characteristics and outcome among these candidates in a 14 years perspective in Sweden. Methods All patients who suffered an OHCA in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was attempted between 1992 and 2005 and who were included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register (SCAR. We included patients in the survey if OHCA took place outside home excluding crew witnessed cases and those taken place in a nursing home. Results 26% of all OHCAs (10133 patients out of 38710 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Within this group, the number of patients each year varied between 530 and 896 and the median age decreased from 68 years in 1992 to 64 years in 2005 (p for trend = 0.003. The proportion of patients who received bystander CPR increased from 47% in 1992 to 58% in 2005 (p for trend The median time from cardiac arrest to defibrillation among witnessed cases was 12 min in 1992 and 10 min in 2005 (p for trend = 0.029. Survival to one month among all patients increased from 8.1% to 14.0% (p for trend = 0.01. Among patients found in a shockable rhythm survival increased from 15.3% in 1992 to 27.0% in 2005 (p for trend Conclusion In Sweden, there was a change in characteristics and outcome among patients who suffer OHCA outside home. Among these patients, bystander CPR increased, but the occurrence of VF decreased. One-month survival increased moderately overall and highly significantly among patients found in VF, even though the time to defibrillation changed only moderately.

  3. The Danish Vascular Registry, Karbase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldrup N

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaj Eldrup,1,2 Charlotte Cerqueira,3 Louise de la Motte,2,4 Lisbet Knudsen Rathenborg,2,4 Allan K Hansen2,5 1Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, 2Karbase, The Danish Vascular Registry, Aarhus, 3Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, 4Department of Vascular Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, 5Department of Vascular Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark Aim: The Danish Vascular Registry (DVR, Karbase, is monitoring arterial and advanced vein interventions conducted at all vascular departments in Denmark. The main aim of the DVR is to improve the quality of treatment for patients undergoing vascular surgery in Denmark by using the registry for quality assessment and research. Study population: All patients undergoing vascular interventions (surgical and endovascular at any vascular department in Denmark are registered in the DVR. The DVR was initiated in 1989, and each year, ~9,000 procedures are added. By January 2016, .180,000 procedures have been recorded. Since 2001, data completeness has been .90% (compared to the Danish National Patient Register. Main variables: Variables include information on descriptive patient data (ie, age, sex, height, and weight and comorbidity (ie, previous cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Process variable includes waiting time (time from event to medical contact and treatment and the type of procedures conducted. Outcome variables for in-hospital complications (ie, wound complications, myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, respiratory complications, and renal insufficiency and 30-day patency are submitted. Variables for medical treatment (antithrombotic and statin treatment, amputation, and survival are extracted from nationwide, administrative registers. Conclusion: The DVR reports outcome on key indicators for

  4. Vascular access placement in patients with chronic kidney disease Stages 4 and 5 attending an inner city nephrology clinic: a cohort study and survey of providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Narender; Kwon, Caroline; Zachariah, Teena P; Broker, Michael; Folkert, Vaughn W; Bauer, Carolyn; Melamed, Michal L

    2017-01-17

    The majority of incident hemodialysis (HD) patients initiate dialysis via catheters. We sought to identify factors associated with initiating hemodialysis with a functioning arterio-venous (AV) access. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all adult patients, age >18 years seeing a nephrologist with a diagnosis of CKD stage 4 or 5 during the study period between 06/01/2011 and 08/31/2013 to evaluate the placement of an AV access, initiation of dialysis and we conducted a survey of providers about the process. The 221 patients (56% female) in the study had median age of 66 years (interquartile range (IQR), 57-75) and were followed for a median of 1.26 years (IQR 0.6-1.68). At study entry, 81%had CKD stage 4 and 19% had CKD stage 5. By the end of study, 48 patients had initiated dialysis. Thirty-four of the patients started dialysis with a catheter (1 failed and 10 maturing AVFs), 9 with an AVF and 5 with an AVG. During the study period, 61 total AV accesses were placed (54 AVF and 7 AVG). A higher urinary protein/ creatinine ratio and a lower eGFR were associated with AV access placement and dialysis initiation. A greater number of nephrology visits were associated with AV access creation but not dialysis initiation. Hospitalizations and hospitalizations with an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) were strongly associated with dialysis initiation (odds ratio (OR) 13.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3 to 73.3, p-value = 0.004) and OR 6.6 (95% CI 1.9 to 22.8, p-value = 0.003)). More frequent nephrology clinic visits for patients with a recent hospitalization may improve rates of placement of an AV access. A hospitalization with AKI is strongly associated with the need for dialysis initiation. Nephrologists may not be referring the correct patients to get an AV access surgery.

  5. Out of hospital cardiac arrest outside home in Sweden, change in characteristics, outcome and availability for public access defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringh, Mattias; Herlitz, Johan; Hollenberg, Jacob; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Svensson, Leif

    2009-04-17

    A large proportion of patients who suffer from out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outside home are theoretically candidates for public access defibrillation (PAD). We describe the change in characteristics and outcome among these candidates in a 14 years perspective in Sweden. All patients who suffered an OHCA in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted between 1992 and 2005 and who were included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register (SCAR). We included patients in the survey if OHCA took place outside home excluding crew witnessed cases and those taken place in a nursing home. 26% of all OHCAs (10133 patients out of 38710 patients) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Within this group, the number of patients each year varied between 530 and 896 and the median age decreased from 68 years in 1992 to 64 years in 2005 (p for trend = 0.003). The proportion of patients who received bystander CPR increased from 47% in 1992 to 58% in 2005 (p for trend defibrillation among witnessed cases was 12 min in 1992 and 10 min in 2005 (p for trend = 0.029). Survival to one month among all patients increased from 8.1% to 14.0% (p for trend = 0.01). Among patients found in a shockable rhythm survival increased from 15.3% in 1992 to 27.0% in 2005 (p for trend defibrillation changed only moderately.

  6. Vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John T; Thomas, Alan

    2015-10-24

    Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the exact nature of the relation between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment, and the paucity of identifiable tractable treatment targets. Although there is an established relation between vascular and degenerative Alzheimer's pathology, the mechanistic link between the two has not yet been identified. This Series paper critiques some of the key areas and controversies, summarises treatment trials so far, and makes suggestions for what progress is needed to advance our understanding of pathogenesis and thus maximise opportunities for the search for new and effective management approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Vascular trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, T; Nobori, M; Tanaka, N

    1999-07-01

    Vascular trauma is essentially acute arterial obstruction, often combined with hemorrhage, fracture, and infection. It can be both life-threatening and limb-threatening and needs an emergency operation. In vascular trauma patient, multiple fracture and organ injury, such as brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, or gastrointestinal tract should be evaluated to decide treatment priority. When the pulse distal from the injured site is absent or diminished, vascular trauma is most likely and reconstruction should be accomplished within "the golden time (6-8 hours)". Intimal damage followed by platelet aggregation and thrombus formation will necessitate resection and repair of the site instead of simple thrombectomy. Although autogenous vein is the first choice, artificial graft can be implanted for short segment in non-infected field.

  8. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complex and serious condition encompassing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), usually in the lower extremities.1,2. Thromboses can result from venous stasis, vascular injury or hypercoagulability, and those involving the deep veins proximal to the knee are ...

  9. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  10. Improving Nigerian health policymakers’ capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers’ ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  11. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  12. Vascular management in rotationplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Craig R; Hartman, Curtis W; Simon, Pamela J; Baxter, B Timothy; Neff, James R

    2008-05-01

    The Van Nes rotationplasty is a useful limb-preserving procedure for skeletally immature patients with distal femoral or proximal tibial malignancy. The vascular supply to the lower limb either must be maintained and rotated or transected and reanastomosed. We asked whether there would be any difference in the ankle brachial index or complication rate for the two methods of vascular management. Vessels were resected with the tumor in seven patients and preserved and rotated in nine patients. One amputation occurred in the group in which the vessels were preserved. Four patients died secondary to metastatic disease diagnosed preoperatively. The most recent ankle brachial indices were 0.96 and 0.82 for the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries, respectively, in the reconstructed group. The ankle brachial indices were 0.98 and 0.96 for the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries, respectively, in the rotated group. Outcomes appear similar using both methods of vascular management and one should not hesitate to perform an en bloc resection when there is a question of vascular involvement.

  13. Development and Implementation of ExPLORE Clinical Practice, a Web-accessible Comparative Outcomes Tool for California Hospitals and Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Peter D; Fang, Jade; Schwarzwaelder, Stephan; Jackson, Terri

    2015-01-01

    Hospital-based clinicians have little information about the outcomes of their care, much less how those outcomes compare with those of their peers. A variety of care quality indicators have been developed, but comparisons tend to be hospitalwide, and often irrelevant to the practice and patient group of many hospital clinicians. Moreover, information is not enough to transform clinical practice, as the human response to such comparisons is, "I'm doing the best I know how." What is needed is granular, clinically specific feedback with peer-mediated advice about how "positive deviants" achieve better results. This case study reports on the development and implementation of a web-accessible comparative outcomes tool, ExPLORE Clinical Practice, for hospitals and clinicians in California. We use iterative development and refinement of web tools to report comparative outcomes; incremental development of suites of procedure-patient outcome pairs specific to particular medical specialty groups; testing and refinement of response time metrics to reduce delays in report generation; and introduction of a comments section for each measure that assists with interpretation and ties results to strategies found to lead to better clinical outcomes. To date, 76 reports, each with 115 to 251 statistically evaluated outcomes, are available electronically to compare individual hospitals in California to statewide outcomes. ExPLORE Clinical Practice is one of a number of emerging systems that attempt to lever available data to improve patient outcomes. The ExPLORE Clinical Practice system combines a clinical focus on highly specific outcome measures with attention to technical issues such as crafting an intuitive user interface and graphic presentation. This case study illustrates the important advances made in using data to support clinicians to improve care for patients. We see this information as a way to start local conversations about quality improvement, and as a means of

  14. Right care, right time, right place: improving outcomes for people with spinal cord injury through early access to intervention and improved access to specialised care: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, James M; Sharwood, Lisa N; Cameron, Peter; Middleton, Paul M; Harrison, James E; Brown, Doug; McClure, Rod; Smith, Karen; Muecke, Sandy; Healy, Sarah

    2014-12-05

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is a devastating condition impacting adversely on the health and wellbeing, functioning and independence, social participation and quality of life of the injured person. In Australia, there are approximately 15 new cases per million population per year; economic burden estimates suggest 2 billion dollars annually. For optimal patient outcomes expert consensus recommends expeditious transfer ("journey and outcomes in relation to this. The aims of this study are to describe the nature and timing of events occurring before commencement of specialist care, and to quantify the association between these events and patient outcomes. The proposed observational study will recruit a prospective cohort over two years, identified at participating sites across two Australian states; Victoria and New South Wales. Included participants will be aged 16 years and older and diagnosed with a traumatic spinal cord injury. Detailed data will be collected from the point of injury through acute care and subacute rehabilitation, discharge from hospital and community reintegration. Items will include date, time, location and external cause of injury; ambulance response, assessments and management; all episodes of hospital care including assessments, vital signs, diagnoses and treatment, inter-hospital transfers, surgical interventions and their timing, lengths of stay and complications. Telephone follow-up of survivors will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months. There is limited population level data on the effect of delayed commencement of specialist care (>24 hours) in a Spinal Cord Injury Unit. Examining current health service and clinical intervention pathways in this Australian population-based sample, in relation to their outcomes, will provide an understanding of factors associated with patient flow, resource utilisation and cost, and patient and family quality of life. Barriers to streamlined effective early-care pathways and facilitators of optimal

  15. Impact of pharmacy worker training and deployment on access to essential medicines and health outcomes in Malawi: protocol for a cluster quasi-experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinga, Solomon J; Jenny, Alisa M; Larsen-Cooper, Erin; Crawford, Jessica; Matemba, Charles; Stergachis, Andy; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2014-10-11

    Access to essential medicines is core to saving lives and improving health outcomes of people worldwide, particularly in the low- and middle-income countries. Having a trained pharmacy workforce to manage the supply chain and safely dispense medicines is critical to ensuring timely access to quality pharmaceuticals and improving child health outcomes. This study measures the impact of an innovative pharmacy assistant training program in the low-income country of Malawi on access to medicines and health outcomes. We employ a cluster quasi-experimental design with pre-and post-samples and decision analytic modeling to examine access to and the use of medicines for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea for children less than 5 years of age. Two intervention districts, with newly trained and deployed pharmacy assistants, and two usual care comparison districts, matched on socio-economic, geographic, and health-care utilization indicators, were selected for the study. A baseline household survey was conducted in March 2014, prior to the deployment of pharmacy assistants to the intervention district health centers. Follow-up surveys are planned at 12- and 24-months post-deployment. In addition, interviews are planned with caregivers, and time-motion studies will be conducted with health-care providers at the health centers to estimate costs and resources use. This impact evaluation is designed to provide data on the effects of a novel pharmacy assistant program on pharmaceutical systems performance, and morbidity and mortality for the most common causes of death for children under five. The results of this study should contribute to policy decisions about whether and how to scale up the health systems strengthening workforce development program to have the greatest impact on the supply chain and health outcomes in Malawi.

  16. Preserving arteriovenous fistula outcomes during surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrogan, Damian G; Maxwell, Alexander P; Inston, Nicholas G; Krishnan, Hari; Field, Mel

    2014-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are the preferred option for vascular access, as they are associated with lower mortality in hemodialysis patients than in those patients with arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) or central venous catheters (CVCs). We sought to assess whether vascular access outcomes for surgical trainees are comparable to fully trained surgeons. A prospectively collected database of patients was created and information recorded regarding patient demographics, past medical history, preoperative investigations, grade of operating surgeon, type of AVF formed, primary AVF function, cumulative AVF survival and functional patency. One hundred and sixty-two patients were identified as having had vascular access procedures during the 6 month study period and 143 were included in the final analysis. Secondary AVF patency was established in 123 (86%) of these AVFs and 89 (62.2%) were used for dialysis. There was no significant difference in survival of AVFs according to training status of surgeon (log rank x2 0.506 p=0.477) or type of AVF (log rank x2 0.341 p=0.559). Patency rates of successful AVFs at 1 and 2 years were 60.9% and 47.9%, respectively. We have demonstrated in this prospective study that there are no significant differences in outcomes of primary AVFs formed by fully trained surgeons versus surgical trainees. Creation of a primary AVF represents an excellent training platform for intermediate stage surgeons across general and vascular surgical specialties.

  17. Evaluation of the need for chest X-rays in the management of asymptomatic, intraluminal vascular access device occlusion in childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammers, David; Connolly, Bairbre; Brandão, Leonardo R; Zupanec, Sue; Gupta, Sumit

    2017-07-01

    Venous access device (VAD) occlusion from intraluminal thrombus is a common complication during childhood cancer treatment. Current practice at many institutions is to assess VAD position with a chest X-ray (CXR) prior to intraluminal administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). We aimed to determine the utility of this practice. A retrospective chart review of children with newly diagnosed cancer with a VAD, treated at The Hospital for Sick Children between 2010 and 2011, was performed. Episodes of line occlusion were identified both by reviewing patient CXRs for indication and identifying tPA doses dispensed. These episodes were reviewed to determine whether CXR findings resulted in management other than tPA. Cases in which the X-ray resulted in a change in management were further reviewed to determine whether administration of tPA could have resulted in potential patient harm. A total of 330 patients with newly diagnosed cancer with VADs were identified. Eighty-five (25.8%) patients experienced 123 episodes of VAD occlusion. VAD occlusions occurred more frequently in patients with tunneled external central venous lines (16/39, 41.5%) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) (27/73, 37.0%) versus PORT (42/216, 19.4%; P = 0.001). There were nine (8.1%) episodes of VAD occlusion evaluated with a CXR in which the findings led to a change in management other than administering tPA. In each case, multiple specialists independently concluded that administration of tPA would have been unlikely to cause patient harm. Routine CXRs prior to the administration of tPA for asymptomatic VAD occlusion can safely be omitted. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Periareolar Access for Pectus Excavatum Correction with Silicone Implants: A New Method to Minimize Postoperative Scars-Review of the Literature, Considerations and Statistical Analysis of Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; Ciancio, Francesco; Melita, Dario; Francesco, Mori; Portincasa, Aurelio; Parisi, Domenico; Dreassi, Emanuela; Innocenti, Marco

    2017-08-01

    Pectus excavatum (PE) is one of the most frequent thoracic malformations. Generally, the malformation is not associated with functional disorders and often constitutes an aesthetic alteration with significant psychological distress. To reduce the visibility of the residual scarring produced by corrective surgery and to improve the aesthetic outcome, the authors propose a new prosthetic implant technique through a periareolar access. From January 2005 to January 2015, 11 patients affected with PE underwent the surgical procedure with a sternal prosthesis implanted through a periareolar access with the help of a fiberscope. The preoperative evaluation of the perception of the malformation and postoperation results were made using different questionnaires. The data collected in our series were compared with that reported in 4 different papers where other forms of access were used: sternal, inframammary and transumbilical. No major complications or dislocation of the implants were reported. Among the complications, 6 postoperative seromas were reported. The patients' perception of improvement through the use of 2 questionnaires and an evaluation scale showed substantial improvement in all the aesthetic outcomes. The periareolar technique provides excellent cosmetic results compared to the sternal one. This access causes fewer complications and necessitates a shorter average hospital stay than the sternum access. To conclude, according to what is shown in the literature, periareolar access seems to be a quicker procedure, requiring a shorter stay in hospital, and results in scars that can more easily be hidden and are more accepted by patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  19. Enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis as a metastatic complication of hemodialysis vascular access-related sepsis: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Osman Zikrullah; Kara, Ekrem; Belice, Tahir; Ayaz, Teslime; Baydur Sahin, Serap; Ozturk, Cinar; Yildirim, Safak; Metin, Yavuz; Sahutoglu, Tuncay

    2016-07-01

    Catheter and/or arteriovenous (A-V) graft-related bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Endocarditis, septic arthritis, epidural abscess, septic embolism, and osteomyelitis are the most common complications of catheter and/or A-V graft-related bacteremia; however, endogenous endophthalmitis is rarely seen. To the best of our knowledge, Enterococcus faecalis is the first case report in this population. We hereby report a case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by E. faecalis as a complication of catheter and/or A-V graft-related bacteremia in a diabetic patient, who was undergoing HD for 5 years. We also discuss the etiology, clinical features, and outcomes of endogenous endophthalmitis in HD patients with a brief review of the literature. Although broad-spectrum parenteral (intravenous and intravitreal) antibiotics were used for 4 weeks, evisceration of the left eye could not be avoided. Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare but rapidly blinding complication of catheter and/or A-V graft-related bacteremia in HD patients. It can develop as a result of silent catheter and/or A-V graft infections, which may lead to recurrent bacteremia. E. faecalis should be considered as a pathogen in this population who had recent history of catheter or A-V graft procedure. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  20. Estradiol modulates post-ischemic cerebral vascular remodeling and improves long-term functional outcome in a rat model of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelt, Agnieszka A.; Carpenter, Randall S.; Lobo, Merryl R.; Zeng, Huadong; Solanki, Rajanikant B.; Zhang, An; Kulesza, Piotr; Pike, Martin M.

    2012-01-01

    We previously observed that 17β-estradiol (E2) augments ischemic borderzone vascular density 10 days after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. We now evaluated the effect of E2 on vascular remodeling, lesional characteristics, and motor recovery up to 30 days after injury. Peri-lesional vascular density in tissue sections from rats treated with 0.72 mg E2 pellets was higher compared to 0.18 mg E2 pellets or placebo (P) pellets: vascular density index, 1.9 ± 0.2 (0.72 mg E2) vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 (0.18 mg E2) vs. 1.5 ± 0.4 (P), p=0.01. This was consistent with perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of lesional relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF): 1.89 ± 0.32 (0.72 mg E2) vs. 1.32 ± 0.19 (P), p=0.04. Post-ischemic angiogenesis occurred in P-treated as well as E2-treated rats. There was no treatment-related effect on lesional size, but lesional tissue was better preserved in E2-treated rats: cystic component as a % of total lesion, 30 ± 12 (0.72 mg E2) vs. 29 ± 17 (0.18 mg E2) vs. 61 ± 29 (P), p=0.008. Three weeks after right middle cerebral artery territory injury, rats treated with 0.72 mg E2 pellets used the left forelimb more than P-treated or 0.18 mg E2-treated rats: limb use asymmetry score, 0.09 ± 0.43 (0.72 mg E2) vs. 0.54 ± 0.12 (0.18 mg E2) vs. 0.54 ± 0.40 (P), p=0.05. We conclude that treatment with 0.72 mg E2 pellets beginning one week prior to ischemia/reperfusion and continuing through the one-month recovery period results in augmentation of lesional vascularity and perfusion, as well as improved motor recovery. PMID:22572084

  1. The Danish Vascular Registry, Karbase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldrup, Nikolaj; Cerqueira, Charlotte; de la Motte, Louise; Rathenborg, Lisbet Knudsen; Hansen, Allan K

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish Vascular Registry (DVR), Karbase, is monitoring arterial and advanced vein interventions conducted at all vascular departments in Denmark. The main aim of the DVR is to improve the quality of treatment for patients undergoing vascular surgery in Denmark by using the registry for quality assessment and research. Study population All patients undergoing vascular interventions (surgical and endovascular) at any vascular department in Denmark are registered in the DVR. The DVR was initiated in 1989, and each year, ∼9,000 procedures are added. By January 2016, >180,000 procedures have been recorded. Since 2001, data completeness has been >90% (compared to the Danish National Patient Register). Main variables Variables include information on descriptive patient data (ie, age, sex, height, and weight) and comorbidity (ie, previous cardiovascular disease and diabetes). Process variable includes waiting time (time from event to medical contact and treatment) and the type of procedures conducted. Outcome variables for in-hospital complications (ie, wound complications, myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, respiratory complications, and renal insufficiency) and 30-day patency are submitted. Variables for medical treatment (antithrombotic and statin treatment), amputation, and survival are extracted from nationwide, administrative registers. Conclusion The DVR reports outcome on key indicators for monitoring the quality at all vascular departments in Denmark for the purpose of quality improvement. Furthermore, data are available for research and are being used in international collaborations on changes in clinical practices. PMID:27822118

  2. Vascular perfusion, body composition and muscle strength in chronic kidney disease patients on regular hemodialysis program

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardino, Bruna; Novo, André; Azevedo, Paulo; Mendes, Eugénia; Preto, Leonel

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis is a technique that effectively replaces some functions of the human kidney, allowing the survival of such patients, since loss of kidney function is incompatible with life. In most patients with chronic kidney disease, the level of renal function tends to gradually decrease over time. The most serious outcome of chronic kidney disease is renal failure. The vascular access is vital in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis and their dysfunction is a major cause o...

  3. Improved characterizing of access for assessing the impact of community design on active transportation and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed at characterizing transportation access by incorporating the Street Smart Walk : Score. This was done by conducting an assessment of common measures of street design, street : network design, land use, and Street Smart Walk Sco...

  4. Structural violence and simplified paternalistic ideas of patient empowerment decreases health care access, quality & outcome for ethnic minority patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    Increasing complexity of health care organization, rapid hyperspecialization of medical care, lack of ’patient literacy’ and pressure on patients to take over responsibility, challenges political dreams of equal access to patient centered high quality secure care....

  5. Assessment of the ovarian volume, number and volume of follicles and ovarian vascularity by three-dimensional ultrasonography and power Doppler angiography on the HCG day to predict the outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercé, Luis T; Bau, Santiago; Barco, María J; Troyano, Juan; Gay, Rosina; Sotos, Florencia; Villa, Amelia

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether ovarian blood flow is related to embryological parameters and whether it could be a predictor of outcomes of IVF/ICSI. Eighty infertile women underwent ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins after a long protocol with GnRH agonists. The ovarian volume (OV), number of follicles (NF) and follicular volume (FV) of all follicles >10 mm and vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization-flow index (VFI) were obtained by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography and power Doppler angiography (PDA) on the day of HCG administration. These parameters were tested for their relation with IVF laboratory parameters. The OV, FV, VI, FI and VFI were significantly greater in the pregnant group. The NF and FV were the only independent predictors of the number of oocytes retrieved, mature and fertilized, and the number of embryos developed and their cumulative embryo score. Nevertheless, the number of grade 1 embryos depends on the NF and the VI. The ovarian FI and the number of transferred grade 1 embryos can predict gestation in 76% of IVF patients. A low FI and non-grade 1 embryo transferred are also associated with an increased pregnancy loss. 3D ultrasonography and PDA allow for an easier ovarian assessment in IVF cycles. The predictive value of IVF outcome suggests a high clinical usefulness of this new technique.

  6. Análisis entre la recirculación medida por termodilución (BTM® y la presión venosa dinámica inicial como métodos para la detección de estenosis del acceso vascular protésico Analysis of recirculation measured by thermodilution (BTM® and initial dynamic venous pressure as methods for the detection of stenosis in prosthetic vascular access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Marín González

    2012-12-01

    aparición de eventos, se encontró relación significativa con la presión venosa dinámica inicial (pIntroduction: Vascular access problems represent the highest cause of morbility and mortality in haemodialysis patients. In turn, stenosis is the main cause of dysfunctions of the prosthetic vascular access, and when this problem is not detected in time, it may lead to thrombosis. There are a number of procedures for the detection of vascular access dysfunction, ranging from physical examination, pressure and flow measurements, and non-invasive and invasive imaging tests. Initial Dynamic Venous Pressure is a simple tool for monitoring vascular access. Aims: The aim of the study is to correlate initial dynamic venous pressure and recirculation as vascular access monitoring methods in haemodialysis patients. Material and methods: A prospective assessment of 21 patients with prostheses was carried out over 1 year. Clinical signs and objective measurement parameters were recorded such as recirculation by thermodilution, initial dynamic venous pressure with a blood flow of 200 ml/min, haemostasis time and KT/V by OCM, which were compared with the findings of the imaging tests. Measurements were taken monthly, with a total of 244. Results: PTFE prostheses represented 16.6% of the vascular accesses in our unit during the period of study. The average age was 63 years, and 57% of the patients studied were women. The mean dialysis time was 225 minutes with a Kt/V by OCM of 1.44. Of the clinical signs, the one with the highest incidence was the presence of pseudoaneurysms, in 42.8%. The mean recirculation was 10.46±2.68% and initial dynamic venous pressure 94.51±19.58 mmHg. A total of 21 events were recorded: 14 fistulographies + angioplasty, 4 thromboses with surgical repair, 2 fistulographies that did not require angioplasty and one thrombosis that was not recovered. When the recirculation and initial dynamic venous pressure measurements are compared with the appearance of

  7. Medicaid Expansions from 1997 to 2009 Increased Coverage and Improved Access and Mental Health Outcomes for Low-Income Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Stacey; Kenney, Genevieve M; Long, Sharon K; Goin, Dana E

    2016-08-01

    To assess the effects of past Medicaid eligibility expansions to parents on coverage, access to care, out-of-pocket (OOP) spending, and mental health outcomes, and consider implications for the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion. Person-level data from the National Health Interview Survey (1998-2010) is used to measure insurance coverage and related outcomes for low-income parents. Using state identifiers available at the National Center for Health Statistics Research Data Center, we attach state Medicaid eligibility thresholds for parents collected from a variety of sources to NHIS observations. We use changes in the Medicaid eligibility threshold for parents within states over time to identify the effects of changes in eligibility on low-income parents. We find that expanding Medicaid eligibility increases insurance coverage, reduces unmet needs due to cost and OOP spending, and improves mental health status among low-income parents. Moreover, our findings suggest that uninsured populations in states not currently participating in the ACA Medicaid expansion would experience even larger improvements in coverage and related outcomes than those in participating states if they chose to expand eligibility. The ACA Medicaid expansion has the potential to improve a wide variety of coverage, access, financial, and health outcomes for uninsured parents in states that choose to expand coverage. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Effect of access site, gender, and indication on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention: Insights from the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Kunadian, Vijay; Anderson, Simon; Ratib, Karim; Sperrin, Mathew; Zaman, Azfar; Ludman, Peter F; de Belder, Mark A; Nolan, James; Mamas, Mamas A

    2015-07-01

    Gender is a strong predictor of periprocedural major bleeding complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The access site represents an important site of such bleeding complications, which has driven adoption of the transradial access (TRA) use during PCI, although female gender is an independent predictor of transradial PCI failure. This study sought to define gender differences in access site practice and study associations between access site choice and clinical outcomes for PCI over a 6-year period, through the analysis of the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society observational database. In-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (a composite of in-hospital mortality and in-hospital myocardial reinfarction and target vessel revascularization), in-hospital bleeding complications, and 30-day mortality were studied based on gender and access site choice (transfemoral access, TRA) in 412,122 patients who underwent PCI between 2007 and 2012 in the United Kingdom. Use of TRA increased in both genders over time, although this lagged behind in women (21% in 2007 to 58% in 2012) compared with men (24% in 2007 to 64% in 2012). In both men and women, TRA was independently associated with a lower in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular event (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% CI 0.76-0.90; OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.84), in-hospital major bleeding (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.44-0.66; OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.20-0.33), and 30-day mortality (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.89; OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71-0.94), respectively. Where possible, TRA should be considered as the preferred access site choice for PCI, particularly in women in whom the greatest reductions bleeding end points were observed across all indications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric vascularized composite allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Gaby; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Rampazzo, Antonio; Papay, Francis; Siemionow, Maria Z; Zins, James E

    2014-10-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has experienced a growing acceptance, which has led to a debate centered on extending the indications of the procedure to include pediatric patients. The aim of this article was to discuss such indications based on the evidence in pediatric solid organ transplantation, reconstructive surgery in children, and VCA in adult patients. Papers published on the outcomes of pediatric solid organ transplantation, growth after replantation of extremities, vascularized autologous tissue transfer, craniofacial surgery, orthognathic procedures, facial fractures, and outcomes after repair of peripheral nerves in children were reviewed. Although the outcomes of solid organ transplantation in children have improved, the transplanted organs continue to have a limited lifespan. Long-term immunosuppressive therapy exposes the patients to an increased lifetime risk of infections, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and malignancy. Growth impairment and learning disabilities are other relevant drawbacks, which affect the pediatric recipients. Nonadherence to medication is a common cause of graft dysfunction and loss among the adolescent transplant recipients. Rejection episodes, hospitalizations, and medication adverse effects contribute negatively to the quality of life of the patients. Although normal growth after limb transplantation could be expected, pediatric facial transplant recipients may present with arrest of growth of transplanted midfacial skeleton. Considering the non-life-threatening nature of the conditions that lead to eligibility for VCA, it is suggested that it is premature to extend the indications of VCA to include pediatric patients under the currently available immunosuppressive protocols.

  10. Impact of community based nurse-led clinics on patient outcomes, patient satisfaction, patient access and cost effectiveness: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sue; Crawford, Tonia; Currie, Jane; River, Jo; Betihavas, Vasiliki

    2017-08-01

    The role and scope of nursing practice has evolved in response to the dynamic needs of individuals, communities, and healthcare services. Health services are now focused on maintaining people in their communities, and keeping them out of hospital where possible. Community based nurse-led clinics are ideally placed to work towards this goal. The initial impetus for these services was to increase patient access to care, to provide a cost-effective and high quality streamlined service. This systematic review aimed to identify the impact of nurse-led clinics in relation to patient outcomes, patient satisfaction, impact on patient access to services, and cost effectiveness. A review of community based nurse-led clinic research in Medline, CINAHL and Embase was undertaken using MeSH terms: Nurse-managed centres, Practice, Patterns, Nurse, Ambulatory Care, keywords: nurse-led clinic, nurse led clinic, community and phrases primary health care and primary care. Papers were appraised using the Joanna Briggs Appraisal criteria. The final review comprised 15 studies with 3965 participants. Most studies explored patient satisfaction which was largely positive towards nurse-led clinics. Patient outcomes reported were typically from self-report, although some papers addressed objective clinical measures; again positive. Access was reported as being increased. Cost-effectiveness was the least reported impact measure with mixed results. Nurse-led clinics have largely shown positive impact on patient outcomes, patient satisfaction, access to care and mixed results on cost-effectiveness. Future research evaluating NLCs needs to adopt a standardised structure to provide rigorous evaluations that can rationalise further efforts to set up community based nurse-led clinical services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is neighbourhood access to tobacco outlets related to smoking behaviour and tobacco-related health outcomes and hospital admissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rosanne; Foster, Sarah A; Pereira, Gavin; Villanueva, Karen; Wood, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Although the harms of tobacco use are widely accepted, few studies have examined the relationship between access to tobacco outlets and hospital admissions. This study aimed to examine the relationship between neighbourhood access to tobacco outlets, smoking and hospital admissions and self-reported morbidity. Responses as to smoking behaviour were obtained from 12,270 adult participants in Western Australia (2003-2009) and individually record-linked to hospital admissions and geographically linked to tobacco outlets. Neighbourhood access to tobacco outlets was marginally positively associated with being a current versus a past smoker. Tobacco outlet access was also positively associated with heart disease for smokers but not non-smokers. For smokers, each additional outlet within 1600m of home was associated with a 2% increase in the odds of heart disease. Smokers with greater access to tobacco outlets were more likely to be diagnosed with or admitted to hospital for heart disease. Regulating the density of tobacco outlets in the community has immense potential to improve health benefits and our results motivate the need for future longitudinal studies to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: access to treatment, prediction of long-term outcome with neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Joseph; Feusner, Jamie D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews issues related to a major challenge to the field for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): improving access to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Patient-related barriers to access include the stigma of OCD and reluctance to take on the demands of CBT. Patient-external factors include the shortage of trained CBT therapists and the high costs of CBT. The second half of the review focuses on one partial, yet plausible aid to improve access – prediction of long-term response to CBT, particularly using neuroimaging methods. Recent pilot data are presented revealing a potential for pretreatment resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to forecast OCD symptom severity up to 1 year after completing CBT. PMID:26229514

  13. Venous thromboembolism and vascular access thrombosis in patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis: Cross-sectional results of the Vienna InVestigation of AtriaL fibrillation and thromboembolism in patients on hemoDIalysis (VIVALDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königsbrügge, Oliver; Lorenz, Matthias; Auinger, Martin; Schmaldienst, Sabine; Klauser-Braun, Renate; Kletzmayr, Josef; Grilz, Ella; Posch, Florian; Antlanger, Marlies; Pabinger, Ingrid; Säemann, Marcus; Ay, Cihan

    2017-08-19

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) are at risk for occurrence of vascular access thrombosis and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Understanding the extent of these complications and identifying risk factors can help improve management strategies. Adult HD patients were cross-sectionally recruited into the Vienna InVestigation of AtriaL fibrillation and thromboembolism in patients on hemoDIalysis (VIVALDI). In this investigation, retrospective data on the incidence and risk of VTE and vascular access thrombosis was analyzed using logistic regression and negative binomial regression for counts of vascular access thrombosis episodes. The analysis includes 626 patients on HD, which constitutes 73% of the total HD population in Vienna, Austria. One-hundred-seventy-eight patients (28.4%) had 275 vascular access thrombosis events during 2463.1 patient-years on HD, corresponding to an incidence rate (IR) of 111.6 events per 1000 patient-years on HD. In the multivariable negative binomial regression model, we found that patients suffered from vascular access thrombosis 2.5 times more often (IR ratio 2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-4.68, p=0.001) if toxic nephropathy was their cause of ESRD (n=28, 4.5%) compared to patients with other causes of ESRD. Sixty-one patients (9.7%) had a history of VTE and the IR of VTE events during the time on HD was 10.9 per 1000 patient-years on HD (women: IR 15.1, men IR 8.6). Female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.90, 95%CI 1.07-3.36, p=0.029) and atrial fibrillation (OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.10-3.64, p=0.023) were independently associated with VTE. Thromboembolic events including vascular access thrombosis and VTE are frequent complications in patients on HD. Risk evaluation for thromboembolism, including sex and clinical parameters, may identify high-risk patients and improve their clinical management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: access to treatment, prediction of long-term outcome with neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neill J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph O'Neill,1 Jamie D Feusner,2 1Division of Child Psychiatry, 2Division of Adult Psychiatry, UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This article reviews issues related to a major challenge to the field for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD: improving access to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Patient-related barriers to access include the stigma of OCD and reluctance to take on the demands of CBT. Patient-external factors include the shortage of trained CBT therapists and the high costs of CBT. The second half of the review focuses on one partial, yet plausible aid to improve access – prediction of long-term response to CBT, particularly using neuroimaging methods. Recent pilot data are presented revealing a potential for pretreatment resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to forecast OCD symptom severity up to 1 year after completing CBT. Keywords: follow-up, access to treatment, relapse, resting-state fMRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  15. Perinatal outcomes among migrant mothers in the United Kingdom: Is it a matter of biology, behaviour, policy, social determinants or access to health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthussery, Shuby

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines trends in perinatal outcomes among migrant mothers in the UK, and it explores potential contributors to disparities focusing on pregnancy, birth and the first year of life. Trends in perinatal outcomes indicate that ethnic minority grouping, regardless of migrant status, is a significant risk factor for unfavourable outcomes. It is unclear whether migrant status per se adds to this risk as within-group comparisons between UK-born and foreign-born women show variable findings. The role of biological and behavioural factors in producing excess unfavourable outcomes among ethnic minority mothers, although indicated, is yet to be fully understood. UK policies have salient aspects that address ethnic inequalities, but their wide focus obscures provisions for migrant mothers. Direct associations between socio-economic factors, ethnicity and adverse infant outcomes are evident. Evidence is consistent about differential access to and utilisation of health services among ethnic minority mothers, in particular recently arrived migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Sound Access Parent Outcomes Instrument (SAPOI): Construction of a new instrument for children with severe multiple disabilities who use cochlear implants or hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Denyse V; Ritter, Kathryn; Mousavi, Amin; Vatanapour, Shabnam

    2016-01-01

    To report on the Phase 2 development of the Sound Access Parent Outcomes Instrument (SAPOI), a new instrument focused on formalizing outcomes that parents of children with severe multiple disabilities (SMD) who use amplification prioritize as important. Phase 2 of this project involved item selection and refinement of the SAPOI based on (a) Phase 1 study participant input, (b) clinical specialist feedback, and (c) test-retest instrument reliability. Phase 1 participant responses were utilized to construct a draft version of the SAPOI. Next, clinical specialists examined the instrument for content validity and utility and instrument reliability was examined through a test-retest process with parents of children with SMD. The draft SAPOI was constructed based on Phase 1 participant input. Clinical specialists supported content validity and utility of the instrument and the inclusion of 19 additional items across four categories, namely Child Affect, Child Interaction, Parent Well-being, and Child's Device Use. The SAPOI was completed twice at one-month intervals by parents of children with SMD to examine instrument reliability across the four categories (Child Affect, Child Interaction, Parent Well-being, and Child's Device Use). Instrument reliability was strong-to-excellent across all four sections. The SAPOI shows promise as a much-needed addition to the assessment battery currently used for children with SMD who use cochlear implants and hearing aids. It provides valuable information regarding outcomes resulting from access to sound in this population that currently used assessments do not identify.

  17. A simple tissue model for practicing ultrasound guided vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The use of ultrasound in anaesthetic practice continues to be more established and the use of ultrasound guidance in establishing vascular access is recommended by various groups. We have developed a tissue model for the practice and skills development in ultrasound vascular access. Method: The tissue ...

  18. An overview of the outcomes and impact of specialist and advanced nursing and midwifery practice, on quality of care, cost and access to services: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Mary; O'Connor, Laserina; Cashin, Andrew; Smith, Rita; O'Brien, Denise; Nicholson, Emma; O'Leary, Denise; Fealy, Gerard; McNamara, Martin; Glasgow, Mary Ellen; Stokes, Diarmuid; Egan, Claire

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic rapid review and narrative synthesis of the literature of the outcomes and impact of specialist and advanced nursing and midwifery practice regarding quality of care, cost and access to services. A rapid review was undertaken of the relevant national and international literature, regulatory and policy documents relating to the establishment and definition of nurses' and midwives' specialist and advanced practice roles. A search of the Cumulative Index to the Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed (MEDLINE) was undertaken from 2012 to 2015. The study also included primary data collection on the perceived impact of specialist and advanced practice nursing and midwifery roles and enablers and barriers to these roles using semi-structured interviews. These are not included in this paper. To facilitate a systematic approach to searching the literature, the PICO framework, was adapted. The database search yielded 437 articles relevant to the analysis of specialist and advanced practice in relation to quality care, cost and access to services with additional articles added in a manual review of reference lists. In the final review a total of 86 articles were included as they fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The evidence presented in the 86 articles indicates that nursing and midwifery practitioners continue to be under-utilised despite the evidence that greater reliance on advanced nurse practitioners could improve accessibility of primary care services while also saving on cost. Results point to continued difficulties associated with accurate measurement of the impact of these roles on patient outcomes. This review demonstrates that there is a need for robust measurement of the impact of these roles on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ESRD QIP - Vascular Access - Payment Year 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment Year 2015 ESRD QIP data by facility: % hemodialysis patients using an arteriovenous fistula, % hemodialysis patients using an intravenous catheter

  20. ESRD QIP - Vascular Access - Payment Year 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment Year 2015 ESRD QIP data by facility: % hemodialysis patients using an arteriovenous fistula, % hemodialysis patients using an intravenous catheter

  1. Patient Satisfaction After Femoral Arterial Access Site Closure Using the ExoSeal{sup ®} Vascular Closure Device Compared to Manual Compression: A Prospective Intra-individual Comparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, Claus Christian, E-mail: claus.christian.pieper@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Thomas, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.thomas@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany); Nadal, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.nadal@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University of Bonn, Institute for Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology (Germany); Willinek, Winfried A., E-mail: w.willinek@bk-trier.de; Schild, Hans Heinz, E-mail: hans.schild@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Meyer, Carsten, E-mail: carsten.meyer@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo intra-individually compare discomfort levels and patient satisfaction after arterial access closure using the ExoSeal{sup ®} vascular closure device (VCD) and manual compression (MC) in a prospective study design.MethodsPatients undergoing two planned interventions from 07/2013 to 09/2014 could participate in the study. Access closure was performed with an ExoSeal{sup ®}-VCD in one and MC in the other intervention. Patients were clinically and sonographically examined and were given questionnaires 1 day after intervention [groin- and back-pain during bedrest (100-point visual analog scale; 0: no pain); comfortability of bedrest (10-point Likert scale, 1: comfortable), satisfaction with closure (10-point Likert scale, 1: very satisfied)]. Results were analyzed in a cross-over design.Results48 patients (29 male, median age 62.5 (32–88) years) were included. An ExoSeal{sup ®}-VCD was used first in 25 cases. As four of these subsequently refused MC as second intervention, data from 44 patients could be analyzed. All closures were technically successful (successful device deployment) without major complications. Groin- and back-pain after VCD-use/MC was 0 (0–15) vs. 10 (0–80) and 0 (0–75) vs. 25 (0–90), respectively (p < 0.0001). Bedrest after VCD-use was more comfortable than after MC [1 (range 1–7) vs. 6 (2–10); p < 0.0001]. Satisfaction with the closure procedure and with the intervention in general was higher after VCD-use compared to MC [1 (1–3) vs. 5 (2–10) and 1 (1–2) vs. 2 (1–4), respectively; p < 0.0001].ConclusionIntra-individual comparison showed pain levels and discomfort to be significantly lower after ExoSeal{sup ®} use compared to MC. VCD closure was associated with higher satisfaction both with the closure itself and with the intervention in general.

  2. Patient profile and periprocedural outcomes of bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation in comparison with drug-eluting and bare-metal stent implantation. Experience from ORPKI Polish National Registry 2014–2015

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    Łukasz Rzeszutko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are limited data on the comparison of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS and drug-eluting stent (DES/bare-metal stent (BMS implantation in an unselected population of patients with coronary artery disease. Aim : To compare the periprocedural outcomes and patient profile of BVS and DES/BMS implantation in an all-comer population from the ORPKI Polish National Registry. Material and methods: A total of 141,324 consecutive patients from 151 invasive cardiology centers in Poland were included in this prospective registry between January 2014 and June 2015. Periprocedural data on patients with at least one BVS (Absorb, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA, DES or BMS (all available types implantation in de novo lesions during index percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina (SA or acute coronary syndrome were collected. Results : Bioresorbable vascular scaffold was the most often used in patients with SA, in single-vessel disease and in younger male patients. Bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation was significantly more often associated with periprocedural administration of ticagrelor/prasugrel (6.8% vs. 3.6%; p = 0.001 and use of intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography in comparison with the DES/BMS group (2.8% vs. 0.6% and 1.8% vs. 0.1%, respectively; p = 0.001 for both. The incidence of periprocedural death was significantly lower in the BVS group than the DES/BMS group (0.04% vs. 0.32%; p = 0.02, but this difference was no longer significant after adjustment for covariates. On the other hand, coronary artery perforation occurred significantly more often during BVS delivery (0.31% vs. 0.12%; p = 0.01, and BVS implantation was identified as an independent predictor of coronary artery perforation in multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 6.728, 95% CI: 2.394–18.906; p = 0.001. Conclusions : Patients treated with BVS implantation presented an acceptable safety and efficacy profile in

  3. Health economics and outcomes research within drug development: challenges and opportunities for reimbursement and market access within biopharma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nooten, Floortje; Holmstrom, Stefan; Green, Julia; Wiklund, Ingela; Odeyemi, Isaac A O; Wilcox, Teresa K

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare decision makers who determine funding for new medical technologies depend on manufacturers to provide evidence of the technology's efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness. Constrained budgets and increasing reliance on formal health technology assessment (HTA) have created an abundance of external hurdles that manufacturers must navigate to ensure successful product commercialization. These demands have pushed pharmaceutical companies to adjust their internal structures to coordinate generation of appropriate evidence. In this article we summarize internal and external opportunities for manufacturers to establish a foundation of evidence for successful market access, starting in Phase I of development and continuing throughout the post-approval product lifecycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes of three strategies for interrupting prolonged sitting time in postmenopausal women: A pilot, laboratory-based, randomized, controlled, 4-condition, 4-period crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Kerr

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting is associated with cardiometabolic and vascular disease. Despite emerging evidence regarding the acute health benefits of interrupting prolonged sitting time, the effectiveness of different modalities in older adults (who sit the most is unclear.In preparation for a future randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 10 sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women (mean age 66 years ±9; mean body mass index 30.6 kg/m2 ±4.2 in a 4-condition, 4-period crossover feasibility pilot study in San Diego to test 3 different sitting interruption modalities designed to improve glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes compared to a prolonged sitting control condition. The interruption modalities included: a 2 minutes standing every 20 minutes; b 2 minutes walking every hour; and c 10 minutes standing every hour. During each 5-hr condition, participants consumed two identical, standardized meals. Blood samples, blood pressure, and heart rate were collected every 30 minutes. Endothelial function of the superficial femoral artery was measured at baseline and end of each 5-hr condition using flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Participants completed each condition on separate days, in randomized order. This feasibility pilot study was not powered to detect statistically significant differences in the various outcomes, however, analytic methods (mixed models were used to test statistical significance within the small sample size.Nine participants completed all 4 study visits, one participant completed 3 study visits and then was lost to follow up. Net incremental area under the curve (iAUC values for postprandial plasma glucose and insulin during the 5-hr sitting interruption conditions were not significantly different compared to the control condition. Exploratory analyses revealed that the 2-minute standing every 20 minutes and the 2-minute walking every hour conditions were associated with a significantly lower glycemic response to the second

  5. Acute glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes of three strategies for interrupting prolonged sitting time in postmenopausal women: A pilot, laboratory-based, randomized, controlled, 4-condition, 4-period crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Crist, Katie; Vital, Daniela G; Dillon, Lindsay; Aden, Sabrina A; Trivedi, Minaxi; Castellanos, Luis R; Godbole, Suneeta; Li, Hongying; Allison, Matthew A; Khemlina, Galina L; Takemoto, Michelle L; Schenk, Simon; Sallis, James F; Grace, Megan; Dunstan, David W; Natarajan, Loki; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged sitting is associated with cardiometabolic and vascular disease. Despite emerging evidence regarding the acute health benefits of interrupting prolonged sitting time, the effectiveness of different modalities in older adults (who sit the most) is unclear. In preparation for a future randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 10 sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women (mean age 66 years ±9; mean body mass index 30.6 kg/m2 ±4.2) in a 4-condition, 4-period crossover feasibility pilot study in San Diego to test 3 different sitting interruption modalities designed to improve glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes compared to a prolonged sitting control condition. The interruption modalities included: a) 2 minutes standing every 20 minutes; b) 2 minutes walking every hour; and c) 10 minutes standing every hour. During each 5-hr condition, participants consumed two identical, standardized meals. Blood samples, blood pressure, and heart rate were collected every 30 minutes. Endothelial function of the superficial femoral artery was measured at baseline and end of each 5-hr condition using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Participants completed each condition on separate days, in randomized order. This feasibility pilot study was not powered to detect statistically significant differences in the various outcomes, however, analytic methods (mixed models) were used to test statistical significance within the small sample size. Nine participants completed all 4 study visits, one participant completed 3 study visits and then was lost to follow up. Net incremental area under the curve (iAUC) values for postprandial plasma glucose and insulin during the 5-hr sitting interruption conditions were not significantly different compared to the control condition. Exploratory analyses revealed that the 2-minute standing every 20 minutes and the 2-minute walking every hour conditions were associated with a significantly lower glycemic response to the second meal

  6. Geographical disparities in the health of iranian women: Health outcomes, behaviors, and health-care access indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Bayati; Vahid Yazdi Feyzabadi; Arash Rashidian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Women's health is a key factor affecting the health of the whole population. Tackling inequality in determinants of health is recognized as the main path toward reducing the inequality in health outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the provincial inequality in determinants of women's health and health care in Iran. Methods: Using the Moss's model (2002) as a comprehensive framework of determinants of women's health, including ?geopolitical environment,? ?culture, norms, sanctions...

  7. Comparative outcome of bidirectional Glenn shunt in patients with pulmonary vascular resistance > or = 3.5 woods units versus < 3.5 woods units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Arif; Arfi, Amin Muhammed; Hussamuddin, Muhammed; Haneef, Ali A; Jamjoom, Ahmad; Al-Ata, Jameel; Mo, Galal

    2008-10-01

    Moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension is considered to be an absolute contraindication to the performance of bidirectional Glenn (BDG) shunting. However, BDG shunting has been performed in young children with pulmonary hypertension associated with unrestricted pulmonary blood flow. In this study, the medical records of patients who underwent BDG starting from October 2000 to March 2004 were reviewed. Patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of indexed pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRI) measured in room air: a high-risk group (n = 12) with PVRI > or = 3.5 Woods units (WU)/m(2) and a low-risk group (n = 28) with PVRI Glenn shunting was PVRI >3.5 WU/m(2) on 100% oxygen. Hospital mortality was 17% (2 of 12) in the high-risk group and 4% (1 of 28) in the low-risk group. Of 10 survivors in the high-risk group, 1 had undergone a Kawashima procedure, 7 had undergone Fontan procedures (with 1 death), and 2 were awaiting the completion of Fontan procedures as of this writing. In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest that in young children with increased pulmonary flow, BDG shunting can be safely performed, despite the apparent elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure to inoperable levels, provided PVRI decreases to < or = 3.5 WU/m(2) on 100% oxygen.

  8. Effects of the Use of Non-Calcium Phosphate Binders in the Control and Outcome of Vascular Calcifications: A Review of Clinical Trials on CKD Patients

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    Piergiorgio Bolasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcifications produce a high impact on morbidity and mortality rates in patients affected by chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD. Effects are manifested from the more advanced stages of CKD (stages 3-4, particularly in patients undergoing dialysis (CKD5D. In recent years, a large number of therapeutic options have been successfully used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT, despite eliciting less marked effects on nonbone calcifications associated with CKD-MBD. In addition to the use of Vitamin D and analogues, more recently treatment with calcimimetic drugs has also been undertaken. The present paper aims to analyze comparative and efficacy studies undertaken to assess particularly the impact on morbidity and mortality rates of non-calcium phosphate binders. Moreover, the mechanism of action underlying the depositing of calcium and phosphate along blood vessel walls, irrespective of the specific contribution provided in reducing the typical phosphate levels observed in CKD largely at more advanced stages of the disease, will be investigated. The aim of this paper therefore is to evaluate which phosphate binders are characterised by the above action and the mechanisms through which these are manifested.

  9. Guy’s Stone Score (GSS Based on Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP Findings Predicting Upper Pole Access Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL Outcomes

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    Bannakij Lojanapiwat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To predict the success rate and complications following percutaneous nephrolithotomy via the upper pole using the Guy’s Stone Score (GSS based on the findings of a preoperative intravenous pyelogram (IVP. Patients and Methods. Two hundred and twenty-seven renal operations, which were carried out using PCNL via the upper pole, were classified according to the GSS assigned. Any complications were classified according to the Clavien classification. The success rates and incidence of any complications were compared between each GSS. Results. The immediate success rates were 87.50% of GSS1, 71.43% of GSS2, 53.62% of GSS3, and 38.46% of GSS4, P<0.01. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in stone size, overall immediate success rate, operative time, number of access tracts, and frequency of tubeless PCNL. Major complications (a Clavien score of 3–5 were significantly higher in the cases with a higher GSS. Conclusion. A GSS based on an IVP is a simple and reliable tool in predicting the success rate and possible complications following upper pole access PCNL.

  10. Carbonic Anhydrase 9 Expression Increases with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor–Targeted Therapy and Is Predictive of Outcome in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Grant D.; O’Mahony, Fiach C.; Laird, Alexander; Rashid, Sukaina; Martin, Sarah A.; Eory, Lel; Lubbock, Alexander L.R.; Nanda, Jyoti; O’Donnell, Marie; Mackay, Alan; Mullen, Peter; McNeill, S. Alan; Riddick, Antony C.P.; Aitchison, Michael; Berney, Daniel; Bex, Axel; Overton, Ian M.; Harrison, David J.; Powles, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a lack of biomarkers to predict outcome with targeted therapy in metastatic clear cell renal cancer (mccRCC). This may be because dynamic molecular changes occur with therapy. Objective To explore if dynamic, targeted-therapy-driven molecular changes correlate with mccRCC outcome. Design, setting, and participants Multiple frozen samples from primary tumours were taken from sunitinib-naïve (n = 22) and sunitinib-treated mccRCC patients (n = 23) for protein analysis. A cohort (n = 86) of paired, untreated and sunitinib/pazopanib-treated mccRCC samples was used for validation. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi) was used to support the findings. Intervention Three cycles of sunitinib 50 mg (4 wk on, 2 wk off). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Reverse phase protein arrays (training set) and immunofluorescence automated quantitative analysis (validation set) assessed protein expression. Results and limitations Differential expression between sunitinib-naïve and treated samples was seen in 30 of 55 proteins (p cancer alters molecular markers of treatment resistance. Measuring carbonic anhydrase 9 levels may be helpful in determining which patients benefit from therapy. PMID:24821582

  11. Using Polymeric Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

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    Alida Abruzzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the high occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increasing numbers of patients requiring vascular access, there is a significant need for small-diameter (<6 mm inner diameter vascular graft that can provide long-term patency. Despite the technological improvements, restenosis and graft thrombosis continue to hamper the success of the implants. Vascular tissue engineering is a new field that has undergone enormous growth over the last decade and has proposed valid solutions for blood vessels repair. The goal of vascular tissue engineering is to produce neovessels and neoorgan tissue from autologous cells using a biodegradable polymer as a scaffold. The most important advantage of tissue-engineered implants is that these tissues can grow, remodel, rebuild, and respond to injury. This review describes the development of polymeric materials over the years and current tissue engineering strategies for the improvement of vascular conduits.

  12. Effect of the arteriovenous access for hemodialysis on subendocardial viability ratio, pulse pressure and hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizinho, Ricardo Senos; Santos, Catarina; Lucas, Carlos; Adragão, Teresa; Barata, José Diogo

    2014-10-01

    In some patients the potential benefits of the arteriovenous (AV) access over catheter for hemodialysis seem to be outweighed by global cardiovascular status deterioration. We prospectively evaluated 44 pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients submitted to vascular access creation during a follow-up of 25 ± 9 months. We performed pulse wave analysis and biochemical assessment before and 2 months after AV access construction, and we registered premature vascular access thrombosis, and all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalizations throughout follow-up. We found a statistically significant decrease in the subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) and pulse pressure (PP) parameters after AV access creation while brain natriuretic peptide significantly increased. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified SEVR ≤113 % evaluated 2 months after vascular access construction as the best cutoff value for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalizations. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a SEVR ≤113 % was associated with all-cause (p = 0.010) and cardiovascular (p = 0.029) hospitalizations; Cox regression analysis verified a 4.9-fold higher risk of all-cause hospitalization in patients with SEVR ≤113 % (p = 0.005). To our best knowledge, this report indicates, for the first time, that despite the decrease in PP parameters, the creation of a vascular access for hemodialysis was also associated with a reduction of SEVR which predicted a worse clinical outcome. We argue that the decrease of pulse pressure after arteriovenous construction may reflect a new hemodynamic set-point after vascular access creation and may not indicate a protective cardiovascular effect.

  13. Optimal treatment of vascular birthmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jochen A; Dünne, Anja A; Lippert, Burkard M; Folz, Benedikt J

    2003-01-01

    Optimal functional and cosmetic outcomes for vascular lesions require a thorough preoperative diagnosis of vascular anomalies, since correct classification of each vascular lesion has a direct influence on the treatment of choice. Many different classification systems have been discussed controversially. Based on clinical practicality and significant accuracy of forecast with regard to the clinical course of a lesion, Mulliken and Glowacki's biologic classification gained most clinical relevance and has become accepted as the official classification scheme by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). Based on comprehensive description of relevant literature results, the current communication shall give an overview of differing, internationally accepted treatments. Although conservative management can be proposed for uncomplicated hemangiomas occurring in infancy, the proliferative progression of these lesions provides an adequate indication for treatment, while vascular malformations, which usually persist throughout life, always require therapeutic intervention if they start to cause clinical symptoms. Based on individual parameters (such as diameter, location and growth dynamics), different treatments, including cryotherapy, corticosteroids, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, surgery, and/or embolization, can be performed successfully. Currently, however, none of these treatments represents the solitary treatment of choice.

  14. Immediate and midterm outcomes following primary PCI with bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation in patients with ST-segment myocardial infarction: insights from the multicentre "Registro ABSORB Italiano" (RAI registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ielasi, Alfonso; Cortese, Bernardo; Varricchio, Attilio; Tespili, Maurizio; Sesana, Marco; Pisano, Francesco; Loi, Bruno; Granata, Francesco; Moscarella, Elisabetta; Silva Orrego, Pedro; La Vecchia, Luigi; Steffenino, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    In this multicentre prospective registry we sought to evaluate the immediate and midterm clinical outcomes following single or multiple overlapping bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation in the STEMI setting. A prospective cohort analysis was performed on all STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI with BVS implantation. Between December 2012 and February 2014, 1,232 STEMI patients underwent primary PCI at the participating centres. Of these, 74 (6.0%) received a BVS, 18 (24.3%) of them were multiple and overlapping. Procedural success was obtained in 72 (97.3%) cases without differences between the groups (overlapping BVS 100% vs. single BVS 96.4%, p=0.5). One patient experienced a reinfarction due to subacute BVS thrombosis which was successfully managed with balloon-only PCI while the other patient had a "slow-flow" phenomenon (final TIMI flow 2). At six-month follow-up, two non-fatal MI (2.7%), three target lesion revascularisations (4.1%), and one subacute BVS thrombosis were reported in three patients (one [5.6%] overlapping BVS and two [3.6%] in the single BVS group, p=0.5). All the events were successfully managed with re-PCI. BVS implantation in STEMI patients can be successfully performed with a high procedural success rate and encouraging midterm outcomes. Larger randomised trials and longer follow-up are needed to assess the potential clinical benefit of BVS versus new-generation DES in this setting.

  15. Association Between Portable Screen-Based Media Device Access or Use and Sleep Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ben; Rees, Philippa; Hale, Lauren; Bhattacharjee, Darsharna; Paradkar, Mandar S

    2016-12-01

    Sleep is vital to children's biopsychosocial development. Inadequate sleep quantity and quality is a public health concern with an array of detrimental health outcomes. Portable mobile and media devices have become a ubiquitous part of children's lives and may affect their sleep duration and quality. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether there is an association between portable screen-based media device (eg, cell phones and tablet devices) access or use in the sleep environment and sleep outcomes. A search strategy consisting of gray literature and 24 Medical Subject Headings was developed in Ovid MEDLINE and adapted for other databases between January 1, 2011, and June 15, 2015. Searches of the published literature were conducted across 12 databases. No language restriction was applied. The analysis included randomized clinical trials, cohort studies, and cross-sectional study designs. Inclusion criteria were studies of school-age children between 6 and 19 years. Exclusion criteria were studies of stationary exposures, such as televisions or desktop or personal computers, or studies investigating electromagnetic radiation. Of 467 studies identified, 20 cross-sectional studies were assessed for methodological quality. Two reviewers independently extracted data. The primary outcomes were inadequate sleep quantity, poor sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness, studied according to an a priori protocol. Twenty studies were included, and their quality was assessed. The studies involved 125 198 children (mean [SD] age, 14.5 [2.2] years; 50.1% male). There was a strong and consistent association between bedtime media device use and inadequate sleep quantity (odds ratio [OR], 2.17; 95% CI, 1.42-3.32) (P sleep quality (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.88) (P = .003, I2 = 76%), and excessive daytime sleepiness (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.32-5.61) (P = .007, I2 = 50%). In addition, children who had access to (but did not use) media

  16. Plant Vascular Biology 2013: vascular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Robertas; Heo, Jung-Ok; Helariutta, Ykä

    2014-04-01

    About 200 researchers from around the world attended the Third International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2013) held in July 2013 at the Rantapuisto Conference Center, in Helsinki, Finland (http://www.pvb2013.org). The plant vascular system, which connects every organ in the mature plant, continues to attract the interest of researchers representing a wide range of disciplines, including development, physiology, systems biology, and computational biology. At the meeting, participants discussed the latest research advances in vascular development, long- and short-distance vascular transport and long-distance signalling in plant defence, in addition to providing a context for how these studies intersect with each other. The meeting provided an opportunity for researchers working across a broad range of fields to share ideas and to discuss future directions in the expanding field of vascular biology. In this report, the latest advances in understanding the mechanism of vascular trafficking presented at the meeting have been summarized.

  17. Experiences of outcome monitoring in service users with psychosis: Findings from an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI) demonstration site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam; Johns, Louise; Onwumere, Juliana; Garety, Philippa; Milosh, Craig; Iredale, Catherine; Peters, Emmanuelle; Webster, Adrian; Jolley, Suzanne

    2017-09-01

    Psychological therapy services are increasingly required to instate routine outcome monitoring (ROM), to demonstrate the clinical and economic impact of interventions. Professionals' views of ROM are an acknowledged barrier to implementation. Service user perspectives have rarely been examined, but acceptability and perceptions of ROM are critical to successful implementation. We investigated service users' experiences of ROM in an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness psychosis demonstration site. ROM comprised a periodic assessment battery completed at baseline, mid-therapy, and end-of-therapy and a single measure completed session-by-session. Qualitative and quantitative feedback were sought at each periodic ROM administration, and, for sessional ROM, at mid-therapy and end-of-therapy. Demographic and clinical correlates of satisfaction were examined cross-sectionally at baseline. Consistency of satisfaction over time and associations of satisfaction with engagement were examined longitudinally. Service users rated baseline (n = 281/289), mid-therapy (n = 114/121), end-of-therapy (n = 124/154), and session-by-session (mid-therapy n = 63/87 and end-of-therapy n = 90/123) ROM from 0 ('extremely unhelpful') to 10 ('extremely helpful') and gave qualitative feedback. Service users predominantly found ROM helpful (score 6-10; 64-72%) or neutral (score 5; 19-29%). Finding ROM less helpful was associated with younger age and poorer general outcomes, but not with psychotic symptoms or therapy dropout. Emerging qualitative themes included feeling understood, valuing opportunities to reflect, expressing feelings, and tracking progress towards goals. Shorter batteries would be preferable, particularly for younger respondents, and those with poorer outcomes. ROM is acceptable for people with psychosis. Tailoring assessments to specific subgroups should be considered. Routine outcome monitoring for psychological therapy is

  18. 50. Primary PCI for STEMI patients at KACC: Has patient’s access and hospital outcome improved over the last 5 years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Saeed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary PCI (pPCI is Class1 indication to treat patients (pts with S-T elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI. In 2010, 56% of STEMI pts presented to KACC were treated with pPCI with hospital mortality of 2.3% compared to 11.3% for those who did not qualify mainly due to late presentation. We aim to compare pts access, reason for no access to pPCI and hospital outcome 5 yrs on. Data from 2010 at KACC showed relatively low access to pPCI for STEMI pts primarily due to late presentation and initial thrombolysis. We believe that pts access to pPCI would have improved over the last 5 years due to improved public awareness and expanding evidenced-based health provision. This is a retrospective study to analyze and compare data for STEMI pts during 2010 (G1 = 223 pts and those treated between August 2014 and August 2015 (G2 = 288 pts. We compared demographic and baseline characteristics, pts access, reason for no access and hospital mortality for the two groups. We used student-t test to compare continuous variables and Chi-square test to compare categorical onesOf the 288 pts in G2, 247 pts (85% were males with average age of 57 yrs. 49% were diabetics, 48% hypertensive, 48% were smokers and 27% were obese. These were not different in G1. Of G2, 164 pts (57% only had access to pPCI compared to 56% in G1 (p = 0.536-NS. In G2, the main reasons for no pPCI was late presentation in 47% vs 53% in G1; P = 0.34-NS and 27% due to thrombolysis vs 17% in G1 (p = 0.11NS. Hospital mortality in G2 was 4% in those treated with pPCI compared to 2.3% in G1 (P = 0.522-NS. Mortality In pts who did not receive pPCI in G2 was 8% compared to 11.3% in G1 (p = 0.49-NS. Females in G2 has about 3 times higher mortality. Compared to 2010, pts treated for STEMI in the last 12 months at KACC still have same, relatively low access to pPCI due mainly to persistent pattern of late presentation and prior thrombolysis which reflect apparent lack of direct access

  19. Can Chinese Herbal Medicine Adjunctive Therapy Improve Outcomes of Senile Vascular Dementia? Systematic Review with Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingfeng; Zou, Yuanping; Kong, Lingshuo; Wang, Ningsheng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; Cao, Ye; Wang, Kezhu; Chen, Yunbo; Mi, Suiqing; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Shuyi; Xu, Weihua; Liang, Weixiong

    2015-12-01

    Many publications have reported the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in combination with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for senile vascular dementia (SVD), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM adjunctive therapy (CHMAT), which is CHM combined with RP, in the treatment of SVD. Publications in seven electronic databases were searched extensively, and 27 trials with a total of 1961 patients were included for analysis. Compared with RP alone, CHMAT significantly increased the effective rate [odds ratio (OR) 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30, 3.86]. In addition, CHMAT showed benefits in detailed subgroups of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD 3.01, 95% CI 2.15, 3.87), 8 weeks (weighted mean difference (WMD) 2.30, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32), 12 weeks (WMD 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.69), and 24 weeks (WMD 3.25, 95% CI 2.61, 3.88), and in the activity of daily living scale score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD -4.64, 95% CI -6.12, -3.17), 8 weeks (WMD -4.30, 95% CI -6.04, -2.56), 12 weeks (WMD -3.89, 95% CI -4.68, -3.09), and 24 weeks (WMD -4.04, 95% CI -6.51, -1.57). Moreover, CHMAT had positive effects on changes in the Hasegawa dementia scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, as well as blood fat levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein E), platelet aggregation rate (1-min platelet aggregation rate, 5-min platelet aggregation rate, and maximal platelet aggregation rate), and blood rheology (whole-blood viscosity and hematocrit). No serious or frequently occurring adverse effects were reported. Weaknesses of methodological quality in most trials were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, while

  20. Geographical Disparities in the Health of Iranian Women: Health Outcomes, Behaviors, and Health-care Access Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mohsen; Feyzabadi, Vahid Yazdi; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-01-01

    Women's health is a key factor affecting the health of the whole population. Tackling inequality in determinants of health is recognized as the main path toward reducing the inequality in health outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the provincial inequality in determinants of women's health and health care in Iran. Using the Moss's model (2002) as a comprehensive framework of determinants of women's health, including "geopolitical environment," "culture, norms, sanctions," "women's roles in reproduction and production," "health-related mediators," and "health outcome" categories, we chose 13 indicators. Afterward, using data sources including the Iranian Multiple Indicators of Demographics and Health Survey, the National Organization for Civil Registration, and Statistics Centre of Iran, we analyzed provincial inequality in these indicators in Iran (2011). Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve were used for measuring inequality. Gini coefficients calculated as follows; life satisfaction level (0.027), literate women (0.398), women with proper knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention (0.483), unemployed women (0.380), women without an income (0.384), women who use at least one type of mass media (0.389), women who used computer or internet (0.467), women who had received pregnancy care from a skill birth attendant (SBA) (0.420), women who had delivered with the help of an SBA (0.426), women who currently smoke cigarettes (0.603), women who currently consume hookah (0.561), women with at least one chronic disease (0.438), and women's deaths in 2010 and 2011 (0.393 and 0.359, respectively). We found large provincial disparities in determinants of women's health in Iran. Determinants such as lifestyle, health behavior, health knowledge, and health-care services availability should be considered by health policymakers in addressing the inequality in women's health at a provincial level.

  1. Evaluation of an open access echocardiography service in the Netherlands: a mixed methods study of indications, outcomes, patient management and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heur, Leanne M S G; Baur, Leo H B; Tent, Marleen; Lodewijks-van der Bolt, Cara L B; Streppel, Marjolijn; Winkens, Ron A G; Stoffers, Henri E J H

    2010-02-10

    In our region (Eastern South Limburg, The Netherlands) an open access echocardiography service started in 2002. It was the first service of this kind in The Netherlands. Our study aims were: (1) to evaluate demand for the service, participation, indications, echocardiography outcomes, and management by the general practitioner (GP); (2) to analyse changes in indications and outcomes over the years. (1) Data from GP request forms, echocardiography reports and a retrospective GP questionnaire on management (response rate 83%) of 625 consecutive patients (Dec. 2002-March 2007) were analysed cross-sectionally. (2) For the analysis of changes over the years, data from GP request forms and echocardiography reports of the first and last 250 patients that visited the service between Dec. 2002 and Feb. 2008 (n = 1001) were compared. The echocardiography service was used by 81% of the regional GPs. On average, a GP referred one patient per year to the service. Intended indications for the service were dyspnoea (32%), cardiac murmur (59%), and peripheral oedema (17%). Of the other indications (22%), one-third was for evaluation of suspected left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Expected outcomes were left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) (43%, predominantly diastolic) and valve disease (25%). We also found a high proportion of LVH (50%). Only 24% of all echocardiograms showed no relevant disease. The GP followed the cardiologist's advice to refer the patient for further evaluation in 71%. In recent patients, more echocardiography requests were done for 'cardiac murmur' and 'other' indications, but less for 'dyspnoea'. The proportions of patients with LVD, LVH and valve disease decreased and the proportion of patients with no relevant disease increased. The number of advices by the cardiologists increased. Overall, GPs used the open access echocardiography service efficiently (i.e. with a high chance of finding relevant pathology), but efficiency decreased slightly over the years

  2. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  3. Irregular vascular pattern by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and high serum Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein level predict poor outcome after successful radiofrequency ablation in patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Hitomi; Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Yasui, Yutaka; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Shoko; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2016-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is considered the most effective treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients unsuitable for resection. However, poor outcome after RFA has occasionally been reported worldwide. To predict such an outcome, we investigated imaging findings using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid and serum tumor markers before RFA. This study included 176 early-stage HCC patients who had initially achieved successful RFA. Patients were examined using CEUS; their levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin before RFA were measured. Sonazoid provided parenchyma-specific contrast imaging and facilitated tumor vascular architecture imaging through maximum intensity projection (MIP). Kaplan-Meier analysis examined cumulative rates of local tumor progression, intrasubsegmental recurrence, and survival; factors associated with these were determined with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Local tumor progression (n = 15), intrasubsegmental recurrence (n = 46), and death (n = 18) were observed. Irregular pattern in MIP classification and serum AFP-L3 level (>10%) before RFA were identified as independent risk factors for local tumor progression and intrasubsegmental recurrence. These two factors were independently associated with poor survival after RFA (irregular pattern in MIP: hazard ratio, (HR) = 8.26; 95% confidence interval, (CI) = 2.24-30.3; P = 0.002 and AFP-L3 > 10%: HR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.09-7.94; P = 0.033). Irregular MIP pattern by CEUS and high level of serum AFP-L3 were independent risk factors for poor outcome after successful RFA. The Patients with these findings should be considered as special high-risk group in early-stage HCC. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Water Access, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions and Health Outcomes among Two Settlement Types in Rural Far North Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Tyler J; Yoo, Joshua; Garabed, Rebecca; Mouhaman, Arabi; Lee, Jiyoung

    2017-04-20

    The Far North region in Cameroon has been more heavily impacted by cholera than any other region over the past decade, but very little has been done to study the drivers of waterborne diseases in the region. We investigated the relationship between water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) parameters, microbial and antibiotic resistance (AR) contamination levels in drinking water, and health outcomes using health survey and molecular analysis during June and July of 2014 in two settlement types (agro-pastoralist villages and transhumant pastoralist camps). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine fecal contamination sources, enteric pathogens, and antibiotic resistance genes. Ruminant-associated fecal contamination was widespread in both settlement types (81.2%), with human-associated contamination detected in 21.7% of the samples. Salmonella spp. (59.4%) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli ( stx 1 44.9% and stx 2 31.9%) were detected across all samples. Tetracycline resistance was found only in village samples. A significant difference in diarrheal incidence within the past 28 days among young children was found between camps (31.3%) and villages (0.0%). Our findings suggest that water contamination may play an important role in contributing to gastrointestinal illness, supporting the need for future research and public health intervention to reduce gastrointestinal illness in the area.

  5. Accessibility to cochlear implants in Belgium: State of the art on selection, reimbursement, habilitation, and outcomes in children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raeve, Leo; Wouters, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    Belgium, and especially the northern region called Flanders, has been a center of expertise in cochlear implants and early hearing screening for many years. Some of their surgeons and engineers were pioneers in the development of cochlear implants and in 1998 Flanders was the first region in Europe to implement a universal hearing screening program for all neonates. The Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance has reimbursed cochlear implants in children and adults since 1994 and bilateral implantation in children under the age of 12 years since February 2010. These deaf children, screened and implanted early, achieve higher auditory, speech and language outcomes and increasing numbers are going to regular schools using fewer interpreters. In 2010, 93% of severe-to-profound deaf preschool children in Flanders had received cochlear implants and 25% had bilateral implants. Although on average twice as many adults as children are implanted a year in Belgium, we have less research data available from this adult population. Also very little is published about the growth curves and minimal rehabilitation requirements (intensity, duration etc.) after implantation for both children and adults. So, there still remain many challenges for the future. PMID:23453148

  6. Adolescent/Youth Reproductive Mobile Access and Delivery Initiative for Love and Life Outcomes (ARMADILLO) Study: formative protocol for mHealth platform development and piloting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Lianne; L'Engle, Kelly L; Tamrat, Tigest; Plourde, Kate F; Mangone, Emily R; Agarwal, Smisha; Say, Lale; Hindin, Michelle J

    2015-08-07

    There is a high unmet need for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services among youth (ages 15-24) worldwide (MacQuarrie KLD. Unmet Need for Family Planning among Young Women: Levels and Trends 2014). With the proliferation of mobile technology, and its popularity with this age group, mobile phones offer a novel and accessible platform for a discreet, on-demand service providing SRH information. The Adolescent/Youth Reproductive Mobile Access and Delivery Initiative for Love and Life Outcomes (ARMADILLO) formative study will inform the development of an intervention, which will use the popular channel of SMS (text messages) to deliver SRH information on-demand to youth. Following the development of potential SMS message content in partnership with SRH technical experts and youth, formative research activities will take place over two phases. Phase 1 will use focus group discussions (FGDs) with youth and parents/caregivers to develop and test the appropriateness and acceptability of the SMS messages. Phase 2 will consist of 'peer piloting', where youth participants will complete an SRH outcome-focused pretest, be introduced to the system and then have three weeks to interact with the system and share it with friends. Participants will then return to complete the SRH post-test and participate in an in-depth interview about their own and their peers' opinions and experiences using ARMADILLO. The ARMADILLO formative stage will culminate in the finalization of country-specific ARMADILLO messaging. Reach and impact of ARMADILLO will be measured at later stages. We anticipate that the complete ARMADILLO platform will be scalable, with the potential for national-level adoption.

  7. Validation of the 2015 prostate cancer grade groups for predicting long-term oncologic outcomes in a shared equal-access health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Ariel A; Howard, Lauren E; Tay, Kae Jack; Tsivian, Efrat; Sze, Christina; Amling, Christopher L; Aronson, William J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kane, Christopher J; Terris, Martha K; Freedland, Stephen J; Polascik, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    A 5-tier prognostic grade group (GG) system was enacted to simplify the risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer in which Gleason scores of ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9 or 10 are considered GG 1 through 5, respectively. The authors investigated the utility of biopsy GG for predicting long-term oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy in an equal-access health system. Men who underwent prostatectomy at 1 of 6 Veterans Affairs hospitals in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed. The prognostic ability of biopsy GG was examined using Cox models. Interactions between GG and race also were tested. In total, 2509 men were identified who had data available on biopsy Gleason scores, covariates, and follow-up. The cohort included men with GG 1 (909 patients; 36.2%), GG 2 (813 patients; 32.4%), GG 3 (398 patients; 15.9%), GG 4 (279 patients; 11.1%), and GG 5 (110 patients; 4.4%) prostate cancer. The cohort included 1002 African American men (41%). The median follow-up was 60 months (interquartile range, 33-90 months). Higher GG was associated with higher clinical stage, older age, more recent surgery, and surgical center (P prostate cancer, metastases, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (all P Cancer 2017;123:4122-4129. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Geographical Disparities in the Health of Iranian Women: Health Outcomes, Behaviors, and Health-care Access Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mohsen; Feyzabadi, Vahid Yazdi; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-01-01

    Background: Women's health is a key factor affecting the health of the whole population. Tackling inequality in determinants of health is recognized as the main path toward reducing the inequality in health outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the provincial inequality in determinants of women's health and health care in Iran. Methods: Using the Moss's model (2002) as a comprehensive framework of determinants of women's health, including “geopolitical environment,” “culture, norms, sanctions,” “women's roles in reproduction and production,” “health-related mediators,” and “health outcome” categories, we chose 13 indicators. Afterward, using data sources including the Iranian Multiple Indicators of Demographics and Health Survey, the National Organization for Civil Registration, and Statistics Centre of Iran, we analyzed provincial inequality in these indicators in Iran (2011). Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve were used for measuring inequality. Results: Gini coefficients calculated as follows; life satisfaction level (0.027), literate women (0.398), women with proper knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention (0.483), unemployed women (0.380), women without an income (0.384), women who use at least one type of mass media (0.389), women who used computer or internet (0.467), women who had received pregnancy care from a skill birth attendant (SBA) (0.420), women who had delivered with the help of an SBA (0.426), women who currently smoke cigarettes (0.603), women who currently consume hookah (0.561), women with at least one chronic disease (0.438), and women's deaths in 2010 and 2011 (0.393 and 0.359, respectively). Conclusions: We found large provincial disparities in determinants of women's health in Iran. Determinants such as lifestyle, health behavior, health knowledge, and health-care services availability should be considered by health policymakers in addressing the inequality in women's health at a provincial level. PMID:28348721

  9. Measuring MERCI: exploring data mining techniques for examining the neurologic outcomes of stroke patients undergoing endo-vascular therapy at Erlanger Southeast Stroke Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Matthew; Cao, Yu; Devlin, Thomas; Baxter, Blaise; Thornton, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia (MERCI) has been supported by medical trials as an improved method of treating ischemic stroke past the safe window of time for administering clot-busting drugs, and was released for medical use in 2004. The importance of analyzing real-world data collected from MERCI clinical trials is key to providing insights on the effectiveness of MERCI. Most of the existing data analysis on MERCI results has thus far employed conventional statistical analysis techniques. To the best of our knowledge, advanced data analytics and data mining techniques have not yet been systematically applied. To address the issue in this thesis, we conduct a comprehensive study on employing state of the art machine learning algorithms to generate prediction criteria for the outcome of MERCI patients. Specifically, we investigate the issue of how to choose the most significant attributes of a data set with limited instance examples. We propose a few search algorithms to identify the significant attributes, followed by a thorough performance analysis for each algorithm. Finally, we apply our proposed approach to the real-world, de-identified patient data provided by Erlanger Southeast Regional Stroke Center, Chattanooga, TN. Our experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed approach performs well.

  10. Benefits of global partnerships to facilitate access to medicines in developing countries: a multi-country analysis of patients and patient outcomes in GIPAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandoros Sotiris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to medicines in developing countries continues to be a significant problem due to lack of insurance and lack of affordability. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML, a rare disease, can be treated effectively, but the pharmaceutical treatment available (imatinib is costly and unaffordable by most patients. GIPAP, is a programme set up between a manufacturer and an NGO to provide free treatment to eligible CML patients in 80 countries worldwide. Objectives To discuss the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of patients participating in GIPAP; to research the impact GIPAP is having on health outcomes (survival of assistance-eligible CML patients; and to discuss the determinants of such outcomes and whether there are any variations according to socio-economic, demographic, or geographical criteria. Methods Data for 13,568 patients across 15 countries, available quarterly, were analysed over the 2005-2007 period. Ordered Probit panel data analysis was used to analyze the determinants of a patient's progress in terms of participation in the programme. Four waves of patients entering quarterly in 2005 were used to evaluate patient survival over the sample period. Results All patients in the sample are eligible to receive treatment provided they report to a facility quarterly. 62.3% of patients were male and 37.7% female. The majority (84.4% entered during the chronic phase of the disease and their average age was 38.4 years. Having controlled for age, location and occupation, the analysis showed that patients were significantly much more likely to move towards a better health state after receiving treatment irrespective of their disease stage at the point of entry to the program (OR = 30.5, α = 1%; and that the larger the gap between diagnosis and approval for participation in the program, the more likely it is that patients' condition deteriorates (OR = 0.995, α = 1%, due to absence of treatment. Regressions to account

  11. Benefits of global partnerships to facilitate access to medicines in developing countries: a multi-country analysis of patients and patient outcomes in GIPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavos, Panos; Vandoros, Sotiris; Garcia-Gonzalez, Pat

    2009-12-31

    Access to medicines in developing countries continues to be a significant problem due to lack of insurance and lack of affordability. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML), a rare disease, can be treated effectively, but the pharmaceutical treatment available (imatinib) is costly and unaffordable by most patients. GIPAP, is a programme set up between a manufacturer and an NGO to provide free treatment to eligible CML patients in 80 countries worldwide. To discuss the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of patients participating in GIPAP; to research the impact GIPAP is having on health outcomes (survival) of assistance-eligible CML patients; and to discuss the determinants of such outcomes and whether there are any variations according to socio-economic, demographic, or geographical criteria. Data for 13,568 patients across 15 countries, available quarterly, were analysed over the 2005-2007 period. Ordered Probit panel data analysis was used to analyze the determinants of a patient's progress in terms of participation in the programme. Four waves of patients entering quarterly in 2005 were used to evaluate patient survival over the sample period. All patients in the sample are eligible to receive treatment provided they report to a facility quarterly. 62.3% of patients were male and 37.7% female. The majority (84.4%) entered during the chronic phase of the disease and their average age was 38.4 years. Having controlled for age, location and occupation, the analysis showed that patients were significantly much more likely to move towards a better health state after receiving treatment irrespective of their disease stage at the point of entry to the program (OR = 30.5, alpha = 1%); and that the larger the gap between diagnosis and approval for participation in the program, the more likely it is that patients' condition deteriorates (OR = 0.995, alpha = 1%), due to absence of treatment. Regressions to account for the effect of large countries (India, China

  12. Collagen vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many specific conditions ...

  13. Maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osol, George; Mandala, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  14. Bypass Surgery after Endovascular Therapy for Infrapopliteal Lesion Is Not a Poor Outcome Compared with Initial Bypass Surgery by Vascular Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Koichi; Yamaoka, Terutoshi; Iwasa, Kazuomi; Ohmine, Takahiro

    2017-11-01

    It is unclear whether prior endovascular therapy (EVT) adversely affects bypass surgery. The aim of this study is to investigate treatment outcomes between initial bypass (bypass-first) and bypass surgery after EVT (EVT-first). We conducted a retrospective analysis of critical limb ischemia patients undergoing infrapopliteal bypass between November 2006 and December 2015. Graft patency, limb salvage (LS), amputation-free survival (AFS), and overall survival (OS) were examined between bypass-first and EVT-first groups. The subjects in this study were 75 patients and 82 limbs in the bypass-first group and 24 patients and 24 limbs in the EVT-first group. The average age was higher in EVT-first group (P = 0.03). The percentage of inframalleolar bypass was higher in the EVT-first group (P = 0.002). Primary patency at 1 and 2 years was 72.0% and 67.5% for the bypass-first group and 53.1% and 47.2% for the EVT-first group, respectively (P = 0.04). Inframalleolar bypass was a risk factor for lower primary patency (hazard ratio 3.07, 95% confidence interval 1.18-8.51, P = 0.02) in multivariate analysis, while there were no differences in secondary patency, LS, AFS, and OS. Bypass surgery after EVT has lower primary patency rates in comparison with primary bypass in patients submitted to infrapopliteal revascularization. Although very heterogeneous study population with a lot of bias in the indication of the revascularization, LS, OS and AFS are not affected by previous EVT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A patient advocate to facilitate access and improve communication, care, and outcomes in adults with moderate or severe asthma: Rationale, design, and methods of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apter, Andrea J; Morales, Knashawn H; Han, Xiaoyan; Perez, Luzmercy; Huang, Jingru; Ndicu, Grace; Localio, Anna; Nardi, Alyssa; Klusaritz, Heather; Rogers, Marisa; Phillips, Alexis; Cidav, Zuleyha; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2017-05-01

    Few interventions to improve asthma outcomes have targeted low-income minority adults. Even fewer have focused on the real-world practice where care is delivered. We adapted a patient navigator, here called a Patient Advocate (PA), a term preferred by patients, to facilitate and maintain access to chronic care for adults with moderate or severe asthma and prevalent co-morbidities recruited from clinics serving low-income urban neighborhoods. We describe the planning, design, methodology (informed by patient and provider focus groups), baseline results, and challenges of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 312 adults of a PA intervention implemented in a variety of practices. The PA coaches, models, and assists participants with preparations for a visit with the asthma clinician; attends the visit with permission of participant and provider; and confirms participants' understanding of what transpired at the visit. The PA facilitates scheduling, obtaining insurance coverage, overcoming patients' unique social and administrative barriers to carrying out medical advice and transfer of information between providers and patients. PA activities are individualized, take account of comorbidities, and are generalizable to other chronic diseases. PAs are recent college graduates interested in health-related careers, research experience, working with patients, and generally have the same race/ethnicity distribution as potential participants. We test whether the PA intervention, compared to usual care, is associated with improved and sustained asthma control and other asthma outcomes (prednisone bursts, ED visits, hospitalizations, quality of life, FEV1) relative to baseline. Mediators and moderators of the PA-asthma outcome relationship are examined along with the intervention's cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Signaling circuitry in vascular morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Carmen M; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa

    2010-05-01

    In this mini-review, we have highlighted the recent breakthroughs in growth factor signaling that have made conceptual changes in our understanding of how blood vessels are formed. Studies conducted over the past few years have focused on understanding the cell biology of vascular morphogenesis. The major themes include characterization of the different cell types that comprise a vascular sprout, as well as the regulatory influence of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions on signaling outcomes. In addition, novel trends have emerged, including nonconventional ways in which vascular endothelial growth factor contributes to cell survival and metabolic balance. The growth of new capillary sprouts from a preexisting vascular network requires a highly coordinated cellular response to both growth factors and morphogens. This response is sensed and triggered by cell surface receptors responsible for the activation of an intracellular cascade that efficiently initiates migration and proliferation programs. While the molecular players that coordinate these effects have been identified, recent findings have expanded our understanding of how context, in particular cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, affects endothelial cell responses to growth factors.

  17. Do low-income coronary artery bypass surgery patients have equal opportunity to access excellent quality of care and enjoy good outcome in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Hou, Yu-Chang; Chung, Kuo-Piao

    2014-09-10

    Equity is an important issue in the healthcare research field. Many studies have focused on the relationship between patient characteristics and outcomes of care. These studies, however, have seldom examined whether patients' characteristics affected their access to quality healthcare, which further affected the care outcome. The purposes of this study were to determine whether low-income coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) patients receive healthcare services with poorer quality, and if such differences in treatment result in different outcomes. A retrospective multilevel study design was conducted using claims data from Taiwan's universal health insurance scheme for 2005-2008. Patients who underwent their CABG surgery between 2006 and 2008 were included in this study. CABG patients who were under 18 years of age or had unknown gender or insured classifications were excluded. Hospital and surgeon's performance indicators in the previous one year were used to evaluate the level of quality via k-means clustering algorithm. Baron and Kenny's procedures for mediation effect were conducted to explore the relationship among patient's income, quality of CABG care, and inpatient mortality. A total of 10,320 patients were included in the study. The results showed that 5.65% of the low-income patients received excellent quality of care, which was lower than that of patients not in the low-income group (5.65% vs.11.48%). The mortality rate of low-income patients (12.10%) was also higher than patients not in the low-income group (5.25%). Also, the mortality of patients who received excellent care was half as low as patients receiving non-excellent care (2.63% vs. 5.68%). Finally, after the procedure of mediation effect testing, the results showed that the relationship between patient income level and CABG mortality was partially mediated by patterns of quality of care. The results of the current study implied that worse outcome in low-income CABG patients might be

  18. Neuro-vascular injuries associated with limb fractures | Mirdad | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuro-vascular injuries associated with limb fractures. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... Subjects: Forty three patients with bone fractures associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury seen at the Emergency Room of Assir Central Hospital from 1990 to 1999. There were ...

  19. Changes in the Profile of Endovascular Procedures Performed in Freestanding Dialysis Access Centers over 15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beathard, Gerald A; Urbanes, Aris; Litchfield, Terry

    2017-05-08

    Marked changes occurred in the vascular access profile of patients receiving hemodialysis in the United States over the 15-year period of 2001-2015. This study was undertaken to evaluate how these changes have affected dialysis access maintenance and salvage procedures performed in freestanding dialysis access centers and to examine the effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of these procedures in this setting. Data were collected from freestanding, dedicated dialysis access centers operating under a common system of management. Data were available on 689,676 dialysis access procedures. Data relating to case mix, procedure outcome, procedural time, and intraprocedural and immediate postprocedural complications were analyzed. The arteriovenous procedure profile changed from one characterized by approximately equal numbers of angioplasties and thrombectomies performed on arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) to one characterized primarily by angioplasties performed on arteriovenous fistulas. The percentage of angioplasties performed throughout the study was significantly greater than thrombectomies, with a mean of 67.9% versus 32.1% (Ppatients receiving dialysis. The incidence roughly paralleled the increasing prevalence of this type of access. A decreasing percentage of AVG utilization resulted in a progressive, roughly parallel, but disproportionately higher, decrease in the percentage of AVG procedures (Pprofile treated in freestanding, dedicated dialysis access centers changed significantly over 15 years, reflecting the changes that have occurred in the vascular access profile of the dialysis population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Quality vascular surgical care: the importance of innovation and change in an era of dwindling reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, C J; Patterson, D E; Manning, L G; Lee, S D

    2001-04-01

    Reductions in vascular surgery reimbursement emphasize the need to decrease cost while maintaining quality. Hospital solvency is essential if we are to preserve acceptable levels of nursing/support personnel and acquire new diagnostic and treatment programs. Care processes for patients undergoing carotid, aortic, or dialysis access surgery were retrospectively analyzed and new quality- and cost-oriented treatment algorithms and clinical pathways were developed and implemented using case management principles. Preoperative risk stratification, length of stay, costs, complications, outcomes, and patient satisfaction were compared before and after these revisions in the care process. Statistical analyses were done using the Wilcoxon Rank sum test and Fisher exact test. Significant reductions in length of stay, intensive care use, and cost of treatment and diagnosis were achieved without adversely affecting morbidity, mortality, or patient satisfaction. Use of algorithm, clinical pathway, and case management principles resulted in a marked improvement in the "bottom line" for vascular surgical procedures in our academic medical center.

  1. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...

  2. Stage I-IIIC right colonic cancer treated with complete mesocolic excision and central vascular ligation: quality of surgical specimen and long term oncologic outcome according to the plane of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siani, L M; Pulica, C

    2014-08-01

    Complete removal of mesocolon "as an envelope" (complete mesocolic excision, CME) with central vascular ligation and apical node dissection (CVL) in the surgical management of right sided colonic cancer is a novel technique focused on resection of the colon surrounded by its intact primitive dorsal mesentery containing the tumors and all the routes of initial cancerous diffusion; our aim was to evaluate quality of surgical specimens and the relative impact on long-term oncologic outcome when compared to less radical planes of surgery. Data were collected in 159 staged I-IIIC right sided colon cancers operated on with the concept of CME and CVL, between 2008 and 2013. Morbidity and mortality were 37.7% and 1.9% respectively. Overall and disease free survival were 80.5% and 69.8% at five years. Mesocolic, intramesocolic and muscolaris-mucosa planes of resection were achieved in 64.7%, 22.6% and 12.5% of cases, respectively: mesocolic plane of surgery impacted significantly on R0 resection rate (98%), CRMCRMCRM<1 mm of 72.2%, 86.1% and 13.8%, respectively. Stratifying patients for stage of disease, CME with CVL significantly improved survival in stage II, IIIA/B and in a subgroup of IIIC patients, with not metastatically involved apical nodes. CME with CVL follows the oncologic principle based on resection of the primitive embryological mesenterium as an intact envelope, along with central lymphadenectomy up to the apical nodes, translating in higher surgical specimens quality and significant impact on locoregional control and overall survival when compared to less radical planes of surgery.

  3. Uterine vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management.

  4. Vascular biology of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, L; Webster, R P

    2009-03-01

    Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, resolves on delivery of the placenta. Normal pregnancy is itself characterized by systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and alterations in levels of angiogenic factors and vascular reactivity. This is exacerbated in preeclampsia with an associated breakdown of compensatory mechanisms, eventually leading to placental and vascular dysfunction. The underlying pathology of preeclampsia is thought to be a relatively hypoxic or ischemic placenta. Both the placenta and maternal vasculatures are major sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which can interact to produce peroxynitrite a powerful prooxidant that covalently modifies proteins by nitration of tyrosine residues, to possibly alter vascular function in preeclampsia. The linkage between placental hypoxia and maternal vascular dysfunction has been proposed to be via placental syncytiotrophoblast basement membranes shed by the placenta or via angiogenic factors which include soluble flt1 and endoglin secreted by the placenta that bind vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PIGF) in the maternal circulation. There is also abundant evidence of altered reactivity of the maternal and placental vasculature and of the altered production of autocoids in preeclampsia. The occurrence of preeclampsia is increased in women with preexisting vascular disease and confers a long-term risk for development of cardiovascular disease. The vascular stress test of pregnancy thus identifies those women with a previously unrecognized at risk vascular system and promotes the development of preeclampsia. Preexisting maternal vascular dysfunction intensified by placental factors is possibly responsible for the individual pathologies of preeclampsia.

  5. Subsidized optimal ART for HIV-positive temporary residents of Australia improves virological outcomes: results from the Australian HIV Observational Database Temporary Residents Access Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Petoumenos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-positive (HIV+ temporary residents living in Australia legally are unable to access government subsidized antiretroviral treatment (ART which is provided via Medicare to Australian citizens and permanent residents. Currently, there is no information systematically being collected on non-Medicare eligible HIV+ patients in Australia. The objectives of this study are to describe the population recruited to the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD Temporary Residents Access Study (ATRAS and to determine the short- and long-term outcomes of receiving (subsidized optimal ART and the impact on onwards HIV transmission. Methods: ATRAS was established in 2011. Eligible patients were recruited via the AHOD network. Key HIV-related characteristics were recorded at baseline and prospectively. Additional visa-related information was also recorded at baseline, and updated annually. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the ATRAS cohort in terms of visa status by key demographic characteristics, including sex, region of birth, and HIV disease status. CD4 cell count (mean and SD and the proportion with undetectable (<50 copies/ml HIV viral load are reported at baseline, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. We also estimate the proportion reduction of onward HIV transmission based on the reduction in proportion of people with detectable HIV viral load. Results: A total of 180 patients were recruited to ATRAS by June 2012, and by July 2013 39 patients no longer required ART via ATRAS, 35 of whom became eligible for Medicare-funded medication. At enrolment, 63% of ATRAS patients were receiving ART from alternative sources, 47% had an undetectable HIV viral load (<50 copies/ml and the median CD4 cell count was 343 cells/µl (IQR: 222–479. At 12 months of follow-up, 85% had an undetectable viral load. We estimated a 75% reduction in the risk of onward HIV transmission with the improved rate of undetectable viral load. Conclusions: The

  6. Vascular Aging and Arterial Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana de Rezende Mikael

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVD account annually for almost one third of all deaths worldwide. Among the CVD, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is related to more than half of those outcomes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for SAH because it causes functional and structural damage to the arterial wall, leading to stiffness. Several studies have related oxidative stress, production of free radicals, and neuroendocrine and genetic changes to the physiopathogenesis of vascular aging. Indirect ways to analyze that aging process have been widely studied, pulse wave velocity (PWV being considered gold standard to assess arterial stiffness, because there is large epidemiological evidence of its predictive value for cardiovascular events, and it requires little technical knowledge to be performed. A pulse wave is generated during each cardiac contraction and travels along the arterial bed until finding peripheral resistance or any bifurcation point, determining the appearance of a reflected wave. In young individuals, arteries tend to be more elastic, therefore, the reflected wave occurs later in the cardiac cycle, reaching the heart during diastole. In older individuals, however, the reflected wave occurs earlier, reaching the heart during systole. Because PWV is an important biomarker of vascular damage, highly valuable in determining the patient’s global cardiovascular risk, we chose to review the articles on vascular aging in the context of cardiovascular risk factors and the tools available to the early identification of that damage.

  7. Laser speckle analysis of retinal vascular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neganova, Anastasiia Y.; Postnov, Dmitry D.; Jacobsen, Jens Christian B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of vascular responses are usually performed on isolated vessels or on single vessels in vivo. This allows for precise measurements of diameter or blood flow. However, dynamical responses of the whole microvascular network are difficult to access experimentally. We suggest to use full......-field laser speckle imaging to evaluate vascular responses of the retinal network. Image segmentation and vessel recognition algorithms together with response mapping allow us to analyze diameter changes and blood flow responses in the intact retinal network upon systemic administration of the vasoconstrictor...

  8. Improved glycemic control in veterans with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus using a Specialty Care Access Network-Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes model at primary care clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Sharon A; Roush, Laura; Julius, Mary; Sood, Ajay

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of patients with diabetes mellitus has created a need for innovative delivery of specialized care not only by diabetes specialists but also by primary care providers (PCPs) as well. A potential avenue to address this need is training of PCPs by specialists via telehealth. The Veteran Affairs (VA) Specialty Care Access Network-Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (SCAN-ECHO) program includes education and case-based learning for PCPs by a multidisciplinary specialty team utilizing videoconferencing technology. Two PCPs completed a year of SCAN-ECHO diabetes training. These two PCPs set up "diabetes mini-clinics" to treat difficult-to-control high-risk patients with diabetes mellitus from their own panel and from their colleagues in the same community-based outpatient clinic (CBOC). We utilized a retrospective program evaluation by t-test using pre/post glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) lab values after being seen by the two PCPs. A total of 39 patients, all with HbA1c > 9.0%, were seen in the two PCP mini-clinics over 15 months. The mean HbA1c improved from 10.2 ± 1.4% to 8.4 ± 1.8% (p Care of veteran patients with poorly controlled diabetes by PCPs who participated in SCAN-ECHO program leads to improvement in glycemic control. This model of health care delivery can be effective in remote or rural areas with limited availability of specialists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Training in dialysis access - charting future success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ingemar; Dolmatch, Bart; Gallieni, Maurizio; Ho, Pei; Kraines, Kelly; Liew, Ngoh C; Parakh, Rajiv; Ross, John; Slakey, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Medical education and training in dialysis access skills remains complex and inadequate as learners come from diverse backgrounds and from various specialties so that appropriate training is limited. As a result, a system of progressive education including live lectures, and hands on training has emerged, but there is controversy as to what constitutes the best educational model. Presently there is no recognized or structured training in vascular access during residency or fellowships. Here we present a model of dialysis access training for beginner to advanced surgeons. A structured hands-on and didactic surgery training certification course consisting of a one week curriculum with 49 hours of ACCME credit hours has been in effect for one year. The learning impact and the performance outcome are high but with limited attendance capacity. Pre- and post- training test results attest to training effectiveness. To increase access, an off-site training curriculum has been initiated, entailing 1-2 days (8-15 credit hours) consisting of didactic lectures and surgical training. This teaching module has moderate learning impact for 50-100 attendees.Finally, a tiered, web-based training curriculum (10 ACCME credit hours) can accommodate an unlimited number of learners, but has a lower skills learning impact. The future dialysis access training must also accommodate learners with diverse individual backgrounds, and different levels of professional (skill) development. To be effective and accessible, a variety of educational system, for example on site or web based is needed. Collaborative initiatives for global dialysis access training are currently underway.

  10. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...

  11. Early vascular complications after pediatric liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieders, E; Peeters, PMJG; Ten Vergert, EM; de Jong, KP; Porte, RJ; Zwaveling, JH; Bijleveld, CMA; Slooff, MJH

    Vascular complications have a detrimental effect on the outcome after liver transplantation. Most studies focus exclusively on hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), The current study analyzed the incidence, consequences, and risk factors for HAT, portal vein thrombosis (PVT), and venous outflow tract

  12. Vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klavdija Ovčar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developed world, five to ten percent of people older than 65 years have dementia. One fifth of dementia etiologies are due to vascular brain lesions (VaD – vascular dementia. A milder form is called vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. The main clinical criteria for VaD are: 1. cognitive decline verified with standardized cognitive test/scale, 2. evidence of the associated vascular brain lesion, 3. excluded reversible causes of cognitive decline. The main risk factors for VaD are age, atherosclerosis, diabetes and hypertension. They play a key role in pathogenesis of the cognitive impairment. Depending on the damaged brain region, different cognitive domains may be affected with or without other neurological signs. These diversities in the clinical picture challenge the correct diagnosis. Unique feature of VaD is its progression, which can be stopped, if patients receive an appropriate treatment.The treatment of VCI and VaD symptoms is similar to that in Alzheimer’s disease. More importantly, VCI may be slowed down or even stopped with proper secondary stroke prevention and good rehabilitation. The most efficient is primary stroke prevention with healthy lifestyle and treatment of acquired risk factors.

  13. Prostate-specific antigen level, stage or Gleason score: which is best for predicting outcomes after radical prostatectomy, and does it vary by the outcome being measured? Results from Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithal, Prabhakar; Howard, Lauren E; Aronson, William J; Kane, Christopher J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Terris, Martha K; Amling, Christopher L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    To assess the ability of preoperative prostate-specific antigen level, Gleason score and stage to predict prostate cancer outcomes beyond biochemical recurrence, specifically castration-resistant prostate cancer, metastases and prostate cancer-specific mortality in radical prostatectomy patients. We carried out a retrospective study of 2735 men in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database treated by radical prostatectomy from 1988 to 2011 with data available on pathological stage, grade and preoperative prostate-specific antigen. We used Cox hazards analyses to examine the predictive accuracy (c-index) of the preoperative prostate-specific antigen (log-transformed), path Gleason score (≤ 7, 3 + 4, 4 + 3 and 8-10) and path stage grouping (pT2 negative margins; pT2 positive margins; pT3a negative margins; pT3a positive margins; pT3b; vs positive nodes) to predict biochemical recurrence, castration-resistant prostate cancer, metastases and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Median follow up was 8.7 years, during which, 937 (34%) had biochemical recurrence, 108 (4%) castration-resistant prostate cancer, 127 (5%) metastases and 68 (2%) prostate cancer-specific mortality. For the outcomes of biochemical recurrence, castration-resistant prostate cancer, metastases and prostate cancer-specific mortality, the c-indices were, respectively: prostate-specific antigen 0.65, 0.66, 0.64 and 0.69; Gleason score 0.66, 0.83, 0.76 and 0.85; and pathological stage group 0.69, 0.76, 0.72 and 0.80. Gleason score can predict with very high accuracy prostate cancer-specific mortality in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Thus, Gleason score should be given more weight in nomograms to predict prostate cancer-specific mortality. Furthermore, men with a high Gleason score should be given special consideration for adjuvant treatment or referral to clinical trials because of a higher risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality. © 2015 The Japanese Urological

  14. Vascular disease burden in Indian subjects with vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Mina; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Vascular disease factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease contribute to the development of vascular dementia. As comorbidity of vascular disease factors in vascular dementia is common, we investigated the vascular disease burden in subjects with vascular dementia. To investigate the vascular disease burden due to four vascular disease factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease in Indian subjects with vascular dementia. In this study, 159 subjects with probable vascular dementia (as per NINDS-AIREN criteria) attending the memory clinic at a tertiary care hospital were assessed for the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease using standardised operational definitions and for severity of dementia on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. The data obtained was subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. Dyslipidaemia (79.25 per cent) was the most common vascular disease factor followed by hypertension (73.58 per cent), ischaemic heart disease (58.49 per cent), and diabetes mellitus (40.80 per cent). Most subjects (81.1 per cent) had two or more vascular disease factors. Subjects with more severe dementia had more vascular disease factors (sig 0.001). People with moderate to severe dementia have a significantly higher vascular disease burden; therefore, higher vascular disease burden may be considered as a poor prognostic marker in vascular dementia. Subjects with vascular dementia and their caregivers must manage cognitive impairment and ADL alongside managing serious comorbid vascular diseases that may worsen the dementia.

  15. Cognitive impairment after cerebrovascular stroke: Relationship to vascular risk factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khedr, Eman M; Hamed, Sherifa A; El-Shereef, Hala K; Shawky, Ola A; Mohamed, Khalid A; Awad, Effat M; Ahmed, Mohamed A; Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Eltahtawy, Mahmoud A

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive decline after cerebrovascular stroke has adverse outcome consequences. Since some vascular causes can be prevented and treated, the identification of stroke-related cognitive impairment is a challenge...

  16. Cardiopulmonary Manifestations of Collagen Vascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Hamza; McWilliams, Sebastian R; Bhalla, Sanjeev

    2017-10-09

    The study aimed to illustrate the cardiopulmonary findings of the following collagen vascular diseases on cross-sectional imaging: rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis), systemic lupus erythematosus, the inflammatory myopathies (polymyositis/dermatomyositis), and Sjögren's syndrome. Although collagen vascular diseases can affect any part of the body, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension are the two most important cardiopulmonary complications and are responsible for the majority of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) is a newly described entity that encompasses interstitial lung disease in patients with clinical, serologic, or morphologic features suggestive of but not diagnostic of collagen vascular disease; these patients are thought to have better outcomes than idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension determine the prognosis in collagen vascular disease patients. IPAF is a new term to label patients with possible collagen vascular disease-related interstitial lung disease. Collagen vascular disease patients are at increased risk for various malignancies.

  17. Under-provision of medical care for vascular diseases for people with dementia in primary care: a cross-sectional review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Amanda; Campbell, Stephen; Gaehl, Ella; Iliffe, Steve; Drake, Richard; Morris, Julie; Martin, Helen; Purandare, Nitin

    2013-02-01

    Vascular diseases contribute to the causation and progression of clinical dementia. To evaluate the quality of medical care for vascular diseases provided to people with dementia, the patient and practice characteristics that influence quality, and to compare care with that provided to those without dementia. Observational, cross-sectional review of primary care records of people with dementia from 52 general practices from five primary care trusts in the UK, and comparison with publicly available summary data on patients without dementia. A total of 700 patients with ≥1 diagnosed vascular disease or risk factor were identified from dementia registers. Quality of care was measured on 30 indicators from the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) for hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and smoking. Overall quality of vascular care was calculated for each patient with dementia. Level of care received by people with dementia was significantly lower compared with those without dementia for 22 of 30 (73%) indicators; most notably for measurement processes such as peripheral pulses check and neuropathy testing for diabetes, and cholesterol measures for stroke. Among people with dementia, women, those in care homes, and those with fewer comorbid physical conditions and medications were associated with lower scores for overall quality of vascular care. The quality of medical care provided to people with dementia with regard to vascular diseases is not concordant with quality, as defined by the QOF. Research is needed to improve access to high-quality care.

  18. Advancing and Translating Knowledge in Vascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Marc; Barton, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, physicians have depended on the use of written information to gain knowledge. Book printing and binding introduced by Gutenberg in the fifteenth century revolutionized and accelerated the distribution of information. Advancing medical knowledge and progress is not only linked to the scientific quality of a discovery determining it will be accepted by the peers but also by its communication and sharing of new findings with the medical community. All these factors determine whether new knowledge will advance and improve clinical practice, medical education, and ultimately, patient care, and human health. In the past decade medical publishing has witnessed a revolution with regard to the instant, online availability of published "open access" information, which can be accessed and printed from any computer connected to the internet. As an example, how language and availability of printed information may affect distribution of knowledge, we discuss the publication of the first results of balloon angioplasty in patients with peripheral vascular disease 40 years ago by Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. at the University of Zürich. Vascular Medicine, as part of Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, will provide open access provided to all published content for sharing and distributing new and most up-to-date information on clinical practice and medical knowledge in vascular medicine. We anticipate that the ongoing transformation of scientific publishing through open access will further accelerate this process and make new knowledge available even faster. Immediate, unrestricted, and rapid access to the most current knowledge published will play a role in maintaining and advancing human vascular health across the globe.

  19. Complication with intraosseous access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intraosseous access (IO) is indicated if vascular access cannot be quickly established during resuscitation. Complication rates are estimated to be low, based on small patient series, model or cadaver studies, and case reports. However, user experience with IO use in real...... physicians, anesthesiologists and pediatricians. RESULTS: 1,802 clinical cases of IO use was reported by n=386 responders. Commonly reported complications with establishing IO access were patient discomfort/pain (7.1%), difficulties with penetration of periosteum with IO needle (10.3%), difficulties...... with aspiration of bone marrow (12.3%), and bended/broken needle (4.0%). When using an established IO access the reported complications were difficulties with injection fluid and drugs after IO insertion (7.4%), slow infusion (despite use of pressure bag) (8.8%), displacement after insertion (8...

  20. Enhanced Recovery after Vascular Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena D. Stojanovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginnings of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS program were first developed for patients in colorectal surgery, and after it was established as the standard of care in this surgical field, it began to be applied in many others surgical areas. This is multimodal, evidence-based approach program and includes simultaneous optimization of preoperative status of patients, adequate selection of surgical procedure and postoperative management. The aim of this program is to reduce complications, the length of hospital stay and to improve the patients outcome. Over the past decades, special attention was directed to the postoperative management in vascular surgery, especially after major vascular surgery because of the great risk of multiorgan failure, such as: respiratory failure, myocardial infarction, hemodynamic instability, coagulopathy, renal failure, neurological disorders, and intra-abdominal complications. Although a lot of effort was put into it, there is no unique acceptable program for ERAS in this surgical field, and there is still a need to point out the factors responsible for postoperative outcomes of these patients. So far, it is known that special attention should be paid to already existing diseases, type and the duration of the surgical intervention, hemodynamic and fluid management, nutrition, pain management, and early mobilization of patients.

  1. Vascular remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Eugene Haydn; Soltani, Amir; Reid, David William; Ward, Chris

    2008-02-01

    We review the recent literature, focusing on 2006 and 2007, to produce an update on the patho-biology of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor in the asthmatic airway. In terms of conceptual development in asthma research, airway inflammation and remodelling have been regarded as separate processes or perhaps as sequential, with early inflammation leading later to remodelling. Recent insights identify a central role for vascular endothelial growth factor in stimulating both inflammation and vascular remodelling coincidentally, with the full panoply of vascular endothelial growth factor mediated events being complex and wide. Both nitric oxide and matrix metalloproteinase-9 induction may be important downstream pathogenic mechanisms. Virus-mediated exacerbations are a prime manifestation of the oscillating trajectory of clinical asthma. The early stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production is probably a central aetiological mechanism, with secondary inflammation and angiogenesis. The time scale of the latter, especially, fits with the time scale of clinico-physiological changes after exacerbation. These vascular endothelial growth factor induced changes are potentially modifiable with therapy. Insights into the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis in asthma pathogenesis now lead to potential new therapeutic possibilities and elucidate why recent advances in asthma therapeutics have been so successful.

  2. Risk factors for amputation in extremity vascular injuries in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wahbi, Abdullah; Aldakhil, Salman; Al Turki, Saud; El Kayali, Abdulrahman; Al Kohlani, Hussein; Al Showmer, Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    Amputation is most closely associated with blunt, lower limb injuries associated with vascular trauma. These vascular injuries require a special attention to prevent life and limb loss. Patient outcomes can also be improved by organizing vascular trauma data into appropriate systems to facilitate future studies.

  3. Relationship Between Arterial Access and Outcomes in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction With a Pharmacoinvasive Versus Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Strategy: Insights From the STrategic Reperfusion Early After Myocardial Infarction (STREAM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavadia, Jay; Welsh, Robert; Gershlick, Anthony; Zheng, Yinggan; Huber, Kurt; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Steg, Phillipe G; Van de Werf, Frans; Armstrong, Paul W

    2016-06-13

    The effectiveness of radial access (RA) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been predominantly established in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) with limited exploration of this issue in the early postfibrinolytic patient. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of RA versus femoral (FA) access in STEMI undergoing either a pharmacoinvasive (PI) strategy or pPCI. Within STrategic Reperfusion Early After Myocardial Infarction (STREAM), we evaluated the relationship between arterial access site and primary outcome (30-day composite of death, shock, congestive heart failure, or reinfarction) and major bleeding according to the treatment strategy received. A total of 1820 STEMI patients were included: 895 PI (49.2%; rescue PCI [n=379; 42.3%], scheduled PCI [n=516; 57.7%]) and 925 pPCI (50.8%). Irrespective of treatment strategy, there was comparable utilization of either access site (FA: PI 53.4% and pPCI 57.6%). FA STEMI patients were younger, had lower presenting systolic blood pressure, lesser Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk, and more ∑ST-elevation at baseline. The primary composite endpoint occurred in 8.9% RA versus 15.7% FA patients ( P strategy, RA was associated with improved clinical outcomes, supporting current STEMI evidence in favor of RA in PCI. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00623623. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  4. Understanding Vascular Endothelium

    OpenAIRE

    Gimbrone, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Vascular Endothelium : Nature’s Container for Blood The entire cardiovascular system, from the chambers of the heart to the smallest capillaries of peripheral tissues, is lined by a single-cell-thick continuous layer—the vascular endothelium. For many years, this gossamer membrane was thought to function largely as an inert barrier, passively separating the reactive components of the circulating blood from the cells and connective tissue matrix of the various organs of the body....

  5. Hypercholesterolaemia and vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Jason P.; Scutt, Polly; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second commonest cause of dementia. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults in developed countries, the second major cause of dementia and the third commonest cause of death. Traditional vascular risk factors–diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and smoking–are implicated as risk factors for VaD. The associations between cholesterol and small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, cognitive impairment and subsequent dementia are complex and as yet no...

  6. Open Access @ DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette

    Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review...... articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics...... such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc....

  7. Surveillance and Monitoring of Dialysis Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalathaksha Kumbar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascula