On Input Vector Representation for the SVR model of Reactor Core Loading Pattern Critical Parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.
2008-01-01
Determination and optimization of reactor core loading pattern is an important factor in nuclear power plant operation. The goal is to minimize the amount of enriched uranium (fresh fuel) and burnable absorbers placed in the core, while maintaining nuclear power plant operational and safety characteristics. The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. Recently, we proposed a new method for fast loading pattern evaluation based on general robust regression model relying on the state of the art research in the field of machine learning. We employed Support Vector Regression (SVR) technique. SVR is a supervised learning method in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The preliminary tests revealed a good potential of the SVR method application for fast and accurate reactor core loading pattern evaluation. However, some aspects of model development are still unresolved. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to conduct additional tests and analyses required for full clarification of the SVR applicability for loading pattern evaluation. We focused our attention on the parameters defining input vector, primarily its structure and complexity, and parameters defining kernel functions. All the tests were conducted on the NPP Krsko reactor core, using MCRAC code for the calculation of reactor core loading pattern critical parameters. The tested input vector structures did not influence the accuracy of the models suggesting that the initially tested input vector, consisted of the number of IFBAs and the k-inf at the beginning of the cycle, is adequate. The influence of kernel function specific parameters (σ for RBF kernel
Online Support Vector Regression with Varying Parameters for Time-Dependent Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omitaomu, Olufemi A.; Jeong, Myong K.; Badiru, Adedeji B.
2011-01-01
Support vector regression (SVR) is a machine learning technique that continues to receive interest in several domains including manufacturing, engineering, and medicine. In order to extend its application to problems in which datasets arrive constantly and in which batch processing of the datasets is infeasible or expensive, an accurate online support vector regression (AOSVR) technique was proposed. The AOSVR technique efficiently updates a trained SVR function whenever a sample is added to or removed from the training set without retraining the entire training data. However, the AOSVR technique assumes that the new samples and the training samples are of the same characteristics; hence, the same value of SVR parameters is used for training and prediction. This assumption is not applicable to data samples that are inherently noisy and non-stationary such as sensor data. As a result, we propose Accurate On-line Support Vector Regression with Varying Parameters (AOSVR-VP) that uses varying SVR parameters rather than fixed SVR parameters, and hence accounts for the variability that may exist in the samples. To accomplish this objective, we also propose a generalized weight function to automatically update the weights of SVR parameters in on-line monitoring applications. The proposed function allows for lower and upper bounds for SVR parameters. We tested our proposed approach and compared results with the conventional AOSVR approach using two benchmark time series data and sensor data from nuclear power plant. The results show that using varying SVR parameters is more applicable to time dependent data.
varying elastic parameters distributions
Moussawi, Ali
2014-12-01
The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cai, C.Z., E-mail: caiczh@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Xiao, T.T. [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-988, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, J.L.; Huang, S.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China)
2013-10-15
Highlights: • Proposed new ideas and strategies to improve energy storage density for SMES system. • One is to increase the effective current density in the superconducting coils. • Another is to optimize the configuration of the SMES coil. • A new conceive of energy compression is also proposed. -- Abstract: There are several process parameters in the growth of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} superconducting films by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The relationship between the response and process parameters is highly nonlinear and quite complicated. It is very valuable to quantitatively estimate the response under different deposition parameters. In this study, according to an experimental data set on the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) and relative resistance ratio (r{sub R}) of 17 samples of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} films deposited under various parameters, the support vector regression (SVR) combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO), was proposed to predict the T{sub c} and r{sub R} for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} films. The prediction performance of SVR was compared with that of multiple regression analysis (MRA) models. The results strongly support that the generalization ability of SVR model consistently surpasses that of MRA via leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV). The mean absolute percentage errors for T{sub c} and r{sub R} are 0.37% and 1.51% respectively via LOOCV test of SVR. Sensitivity analysis discovered the most sensitive parameters affecting the T{sub c} and r{sub R}. This study suggests that the established SVR model can be used to accurately foresee the T{sub c} and r{sub R}. And it can be used to optimizing the deposition parameters in the development of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} films via PLD.
Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trangbæk, Klaus
The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...
Modelling tourists arrival using time varying parameter
Suciptawati, P.; Sukarsa, K. G.; Kencana, Eka N.
2017-06-01
The importance of tourism and its related sectors to support economic development and poverty reduction in many countries increase researchers’ attentions to study and model tourists’ arrival. This work is aimed to demonstrate time varying parameter (TVP) technique to model the arrival of Korean’s tourists to Bali. The number of Korean tourists whom visiting Bali for period January 2010 to December 2015 were used to model the number of Korean’s tourists to Bali (KOR) as dependent variable. The predictors are the exchange rate of Won to IDR (WON), the inflation rate in Korea (INFKR), and the inflation rate in Indonesia (INFID). Observing tourists visit to Bali tend to fluctuate by their nationality, then the model was built by applying TVP and its parameters were approximated using Kalman Filter algorithm. The results showed all of predictor variables (WON, INFKR, INFID) significantly affect KOR. For in-sample and out-of-sample forecast with ARIMA’s forecasted values for the predictors, TVP model gave mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) as much as 11.24 percent and 12.86 percent, respectively.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Severe Thunderstorm Warnings (SVRs) are issued by NWS Weather Forecast Office (WFO) meteorologists when there is radar of satellite indication and/or reliable...
Experimental and Analytical Studies on Improved Feedforward ML Estimation Based on LS-SVR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xueqian Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Maximum likelihood (ML algorithm is the most common and effective parameter estimation method. However, when dealing with small sample and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, threshold effects are resulted and estimation performance degrades greatly. It is proved that support vector machine (SVM is suitable for small sample. Consequently, we employ the linear relationship between least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR’s inputs and outputs and regard LS-SVR process as a time-varying linear filter to increase input SNR of received signals and decrease the threshold value of mean square error (MSE curve. Furthermore, it is verified that by taking single-tone sinusoidal frequency estimation, for example, and integrating data analysis and experimental validation, if LS-SVR’s parameters are set appropriately, not only can the LS-SVR process ensure the single-tone sinusoid and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel characteristics of original signals well, but it can also improves the frequency estimation performance. During experimental simulations, LS-SVR process is applied to two common and representative single-tone sinusoidal ML frequency estimation algorithms, the DFT-based frequency-domain periodogram (FDP and phase-based Kay ones. And the threshold values of their MSE curves are decreased by 0.3 dB and 1.2 dB, respectively, which obviously exhibit the advantage of the proposed algorithm.
Pair- ${v}$ -SVR: A Novel and Efficient Pairing nu-Support Vector Regression Algorithm.
Hao, Pei-Yi
This paper proposes a novel and efficient pairing nu-support vector regression (pair--SVR) algorithm that combines successfully the superior advantages of twin support vector regression (TSVR) and classical -SVR algorithms. In spirit of TSVR, the proposed pair--SVR solves two quadratic programming problems (QPPs) of smaller size rather than a single larger QPP, and thus has faster learning speed than classical -SVR. The significant advantage of our pair--SVR over TSVR is the improvement in the prediction speed and generalization ability by introducing the concepts of the insensitive zone and the regularization term that embodies the essence of statistical learning theory. Moreover, pair--SVR has additional advantage of using parameter for controlling the bounds on fractions of SVs and errors. Furthermore, the upper bound and lower bound functions of the regression model estimated by pair--SVR capture well the characteristics of data distributions, thus facilitating automatic estimation of the conditional mean and predictive variance simultaneously. This may be useful in many cases, especially when the noise is heteroscedastic and depends strongly on the input values. The experimental results validate the superiority of our pair--SVR in both training/prediction speed and generalization ability.This paper proposes a novel and efficient pairing nu-support vector regression (pair--SVR) algorithm that combines successfully the superior advantages of twin support vector regression (TSVR) and classical -SVR algorithms. In spirit of TSVR, the proposed pair--SVR solves two quadratic programming problems (QPPs) of smaller size rather than a single larger QPP, and thus has faster learning speed than classical -SVR. The significant advantage of our pair--SVR over TSVR is the improvement in the prediction speed and generalization ability by introducing the concepts of the insensitive zone and the regularization term that embodies the essence of statistical learning theory
Performance of a solar chimney by varying design parameters
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Kumirai, T
2015-08-01
Full Text Available the design of solar chimneys to ensure optimal performance. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the performance of an example solar chimney by varying the design parameters and examining their effects on the interior ventilation performance... chimney by varying design parameters Tichaona Kumirai, Researcher, Built Environment CSIR Jan-Hendrik Grobler, DPSS CSIR Dr D.C.U. Conradie, Senior researcher, Built Environment CSIR 1 Introduction Trombe walls and solar chimneys are not widely...
Edge Modeling by Two Blur Parameters in Varying Contrasts.
Seo, Suyoung
2018-06-01
This paper presents a method of modeling edge profiles with two blur parameters, and estimating and predicting those edge parameters with varying brightness combinations and camera-to-object distances (COD). First, the validity of the edge model is proven mathematically. Then, it is proven experimentally with edges from a set of images captured for specifically designed target sheets and with edges from natural images. Estimation of the two blur parameters for each observed edge profile is performed with a brute-force method to find parameters that produce global minimum errors. Then, using the estimated blur parameters, actual blur parameters of edges with arbitrary brightness combinations are predicted using a surface interpolation method (i.e., kriging). The predicted surfaces show that the two blur parameters of the proposed edge model depend on both dark-side edge brightness and light-side edge brightness following a certain global trend. This is similar across varying CODs. The proposed edge model is compared with a one-blur parameter edge model using experiments of the root mean squared error for fitting the edge models to each observed edge profile. The comparison results suggest that the proposed edge model has superiority over the one-blur parameter edge model in most cases where edges have varying brightness combinations.
Constitutive Equation with Varying Parameters for Superplastic Flow Behavior
Guan, Zhiping; Ren, Mingwen; Jia, Hongjie; Zhao, Po; Ma, Pinkui
2014-03-01
In this study, constitutive equations for superplastic materials with an extra large elongation were investigated through mechanical analysis. From the view of phenomenology, firstly, some traditional empirical constitutive relations were standardized by restricting some strain paths and parameter conditions, and the coefficients in these relations were strictly given new mechanical definitions. Subsequently, a new, general constitutive equation with varying parameters was theoretically deduced based on the general mechanical equation of state. The superplastic tension test data of Zn-5%Al alloy at 340 °C under strain rates, velocities, and loads were employed for building a new constitutive equation and examining its validity. Analysis results indicated that the constitutive equation with varying parameters could characterize superplastic flow behavior in practical superplastic forming with high prediction accuracy and without any restriction of strain path or deformation condition, showing good industrial or scientific interest. On the contrary, those empirical equations have low prediction capabilities due to constant parameters and poor applicability because of the limit of special strain path or parameter conditions based on strict phenomenology.
Tracking time-varying parameters with local regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Joensen, Alfred Karsten; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov
2000-01-01
This paper shows that the recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm with forgetting factor is a special case of a varying-coe\\$cient model, and a model which can easily be estimated via simple local regression. This observation allows us to formulate a new method which retains the RLS algorithm, bu......, but extends the algorithm by including polynomial approximations. Simulation results are provided, which indicates that this new method is superior to the classical RLS method, if the parameter variations are smooth....
Control of Linear Parameter Varying Systems with Applications
Mohammadpour, Javad
2012-01-01
Control of Linear Parameter Varying Systems with Applications compiles state-of-the-art contributions on novel analytical and computational methods to address system modeling and identification, complexity reduction, performance analysis and control design for time-varying and nonlinear systems in the LPV framework. The book has an interdisciplinary character by emphasizing techniques that can be commonly applied in various engineering fields. It also includes a rich collection of illustrative applications in diverse domains to substantiate the effectiveness of the design methodologies and provide pointers to open research directions. The book is divided into three parts. The first part collects chapters of a more tutorial character on the background of LPV systems modeling and control. The second part gathers chapters devoted to the theoretical advancement of LPV analysis and synthesis methods to cope with the design constraints such as uncertainties and time delay. The third part of the volume showcases con...
Structured Linear Parameter Varying Control of Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Sloth, Christoffer; Stoustrup, Jakob
2012-01-01
High performance and reliability are required for wind turbines to be competitive within the energy market. To capture their nonlinear behavior, wind turbines are often modeled using parameter-varying models. In this chapter, a framework for modelling and controller design of wind turbines is pre...... in the controller synthesis are solved by an iterative LMI-based algorithm. The resulting controllers can also be easily implemented in practice due to low data storage and simple math operations. The performance of the LPV controllers is assessed by nonlinear simulations results....
Study on network traffic forecast model of SVR optimized by GAFSA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yuan; Wang, RuiXue
2016-01-01
There are some problems, such as low precision, on existing network traffic forecast model. In accordance with these problems, this paper proposed the network traffic forecast model of support vector regression (SVR) algorithm optimized by global artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA). GAFSA constitutes an improvement of artificial fish swarm algorithm, which is a swarm intelligence optimization algorithm with a significant effect of optimization. The optimum training parameters used for SVR could be calculated by optimizing chosen parameters, which would make the forecast more accurate. With the optimum training parameters searched by GAFSA algorithm, a model of network traffic forecast, which greatly solved problems of great errors in SVR improved by others intelligent algorithms, could be built with the forecast result approaching stability and the increased forecast precision. The simulation shows that, compared with other models (e.g. GA-SVR, CPSO-SVR), the forecast results of GAFSA-SVR network traffic forecast model is more stable with the precision improved to more than 89%, which plays an important role on instructing network control behavior and analyzing security situation.
Linear parameter varying representations for nonlinear control design
Carter, Lance Huntington
Linear parameter varying (LPV) systems are investigated as a framework for gain-scheduled control design and optimal hybrid control. An LPV system is defined as a linear system whose dynamics depend upon an a priori unknown but measurable exogenous parameter. A gain-scheduled autopilot design is presented for a bank-to-turn (BTT) missile. The method is novel in that the gain-scheduled design does not involve linearizations about operating points. Instead, the missile dynamics are brought to LPV form via a state transformation. This idea is applied to the design of a coupled longitudinal/lateral BTT missile autopilot. The pitch and yaw/roll dynamics are separately transformed to LPV form, where the cross axis states are treated as "exogenous" parameters. These are actually endogenous variables, so such a plant is called "quasi-LPV." Once in quasi-LPV form, a family of robust controllers using mu synthesis is designed for both the pitch and yaw/roll channels, using angle-of-attack and roll rate as the scheduling variables. The closed-loop time response is simulated using the original nonlinear model and also using perturbed aerodynamic coefficients. Modeling and control of engine idle speed is investigated using LPV methods. It is shown how generalized discrete nonlinear systems may be transformed into quasi-LPV form. A discrete nonlinear engine model is developed and expressed in quasi-LPV form with engine speed as the scheduling variable. An example control design is presented using linear quadratic methods. Simulations are shown comparing the LPV based controller performance to that using PID control. LPV representations are also shown to provide a setting for hybrid systems. A hybrid system is characterized by control inputs consisting of both analog signals and discrete actions. A solution is derived for the optimal control of hybrid systems with generalized cost functions. This is shown to be computationally intensive, so a suboptimal strategy is proposed that
Linear parameter-varying control for engineering applications
White, Andrew P; Choi, Jongeun
2013-01-01
The objective of this brief is to carefully illustrate a procedure of applying linear parameter-varying (LPV) control to a class of dynamic systems via a systematic synthesis of gain-scheduling controllers with guaranteed stability and performance. The existing LPV control theories rely on the use of either H-infinity or H2 norm to specify the performance of the LPV system. The challenge that arises with LPV control for engineers is twofold. First, there is no systematic procedure for applying existing LPV control system theory to solve practical engineering problems from modeling to control design. Second, there exists no LPV control synthesis theory to design LPV controllers with hard constraints. For example, physical systems usually have hard constraints on their required performance outputs along with their sensors and actuators. Furthermore, the H-infinity and H2 performance criteria cannot provide hard constraints on system outputs. As a result, engineers in industry could find it difficult to utiliz...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Wei-Chiang
2011-01-01
Support vector regression (SVR), with hybrid chaotic sequence and evolutionary algorithms to determine suitable values of its three parameters, not only can effectively avoid converging prematurely (i.e., trapping into a local optimum), but also reveals its superior forecasting performance. Electric load sometimes demonstrates a seasonal (cyclic) tendency due to economic activities or climate cyclic nature. The applications of SVR models to deal with seasonal (cyclic) electric load forecasting have not been widely explored. In addition, the concept of recurrent neural networks (RNNs), focused on using past information to capture detailed information, is helpful to be combined into an SVR model. This investigation presents an electric load forecasting model which combines the seasonal recurrent support vector regression model with chaotic artificial bee colony algorithm (namely SRSVRCABC) to improve the forecasting performance. The proposed SRSVRCABC employs the chaotic behavior of honey bees which is with better performance in function optimization to overcome premature local optimum. A numerical example from an existed reference is used to elucidate the forecasting performance of the proposed SRSVRCABC model. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed model yields more accurate forecasting results than ARIMA and TF-ε-SVR-SA models. Therefore, the SRSVRCABC model is a promising alternative for electric load forecasting. -- Highlights: → Hybridizing the seasonal adjustment and the recurrent mechanism into an SVR model. → Employing chaotic sequence to improve the premature convergence of artificial bee colony algorithm. → Successfully providing significant accurate monthly load demand forecasting.
Study on the medical meteorological forecast of the number of hypertension inpatient based on SVR
Zhai, Guangyu; Chai, Guorong; Zhang, Haifeng
2017-06-01
The purpose of this study is to build a hypertension prediction model by discussing the meteorological factors for hypertension incidence. The research method is selecting the standard data of relative humidity, air temperature, visibility, wind speed and air pressure of Lanzhou from 2010 to 2012(calculating the maximum, minimum and average value with 5 days as a unit ) as the input variables of Support Vector Regression(SVR) and the standard data of hypertension incidence of the same period as the output dependent variables to obtain the optimal prediction parameters by cross validation algorithm, then by SVR algorithm learning and training, a SVR forecast model for hypertension incidence is built. The result shows that the hypertension prediction model is composed of 15 input independent variables, the training accuracy is 0.005, the final error is 0.0026389. The forecast accuracy based on SVR model is 97.1429%, which is higher than statistical forecast equation and neural network prediction method. It is concluded that SVR model provides a new method for hypertension prediction with its simple calculation, small error as well as higher historical sample fitting and Independent sample forecast capability.
Effect of Varying Controller Parameters on the Performance of a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents the results of computer simulation studies designed to isolate the effects of the major parameters of a fuzzy logic controller namely the range of the universe of discourse, the extent of overlap of the fuzzy sets, the rules in the rule base and the modes of the output fuzzy sets on the performance of a fuzzy ...
Analysis and design of composite slab by varying different parameters
Lambe, Kedar; Siddh, Sharda
2018-03-01
Composite deck slabs are in demand because of its faster, lighter and economical construction work. Composite slab consists of cold formed deck profiled sheet and concrete either lightweight or normal. Investigation of shear behaviour of the composite slab is very complex. Shear bond strength depends on the various parameter such as a shape of sheeting, a thickness of the sheet, type of embossment and its frequency of use, shear stiffener or intermediate stiffener, type of load, an arrangement of load, length of shear span, the thickness of concrete and support friction etc. In present study finite element analysis is carried out with ABAQUS 6.13, a simply supported composite slab is considered for the investigation of the shear bond behaviour of the composite slab by considering variation in three different parameters, the shape of a sheet, thickness of sheet and shear span. Different shear spans of two different shape of cold formed deck profiled sheet i.e. with intermediate stiffeners and without intermediate stiffeners are considered with two different thicknesses (0.8 mm and 1.2 mm) for simulation. In present work, simulation of models has done for static loading with 20 mm mesh size is considered.
Mukherjee, Amritendu; Ramachandran, Parthasarathy
2018-03-01
Prediction of Ground Water Level (GWL) is extremely important for sustainable use and management of ground water resource. The motivations for this work is to understand the relationship between Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water change (ΔTWS) data and GWL, so that ΔTWS could be used as a proxy measurement for GWL. In our study, we have selected five observation wells from different geographic regions in India. The datasets are unevenly spaced time series data which restricts us from applying standard time series methodologies and therefore in order to model and predict GWL with the help of ΔTWS, we have built Linear Regression Model (LRM), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Comparative performances of LRM, SVR and ANN have been evaluated with the help of correlation coefficient (ρ) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the actual and fitted (for training dataset) or predicted (for test dataset) values of GWL. It has been observed in our study that ΔTWS is highly significant variable to model GWL and the amount of total variations in GWL that could be explained with the help of ΔTWS varies from 36.48% to 74.28% (0.3648 ⩽R2 ⩽ 0.7428) . We have found that for the model GWL ∼ Δ TWS, for both training and test dataset, performances of SVR and ANN are better than that of LRM in terms of ρ and RMSE. It also has been found in our study that with the inclusion of meteorological variables along with ΔTWS as input parameters to model GWL, the performance of SVR improves and it performs better than ANN. These results imply that for modelling irregular time series GWL data, ΔTWS could be very useful.
Observer-based linear parameter varying H∞ tracking control for hypersonic vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yiqing Huang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This article aims to develop observer-based linear parameter varying output feedback H∞ tracking controller for hypersonic vehicles. Due to the complexity of an original nonlinear model of the hypersonic vehicle dynamics, a slow–fast loop linear parameter varying polytopic model is introduced for system stability analysis and controller design. Then, a state observer is developed by linear parameter varying technique in order to estimate the unmeasured attitude angular for slow loop system. Also, based on the designed linear parameter varying state observer, a kind of attitude tracking controller is presented to reduce tracking errors for all bounded reference attitude angular inputs. The closed-loop linear parameter varying system is proved to be quadratically stable by Lypapunov function technique. Finally, simulation results show that the developed linear parameter varying H∞ controller has good tracking capability for reference commands.
Robust and Fault-Tolerant Linear Parameter-Varying Control of Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sloth, Christoffer; Esbensen, Thomas; Stoustrup, Jakob
2011-01-01
High performance and reliability are required for wind turbines to be competitive within the energy market. To capture their nonlinear behavior, wind turbines are often modeled using parameter-varying models. In this paper we design and compare multiple linear parameter-varying (LPV) controllers,...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Amroune
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the application of support vector regression (SVR and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS models that are amalgamated with synchronized phasor measurements for on-line voltage stability assessment. As the performance of SVR model extremely depends on the good selection of its parameters, the recently developed ant lion optimizer (ALO is adapted to seek for the SVR’s optimal parameters. In particular, the input vector of ALO-SVR and ANFIS soft computing models is provided in the form of voltage magnitudes provided by the phasor measurement units (PMUs. In order to investigate the effectiveness of ALO-SVR and ANFIS models towards performing the on-line voltage stability assessment, in-depth analyses on the results have been carried out on the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems considering different topologies and operating conditions. Two statistical performance criteria of root mean square error (RMSE and correlation coefficient (R were considered as metrics to further assess both of the modeling performances in contrast with the power flow equations. The results have demonstrated that the ALO-SVR model is able to predict the voltage stability margin with greater accuracy compared to the ANFIS model.
Improved SVR Model for Multi-Layer Buildup Factor Calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.
2006-01-01
The accuracy of point kernel method applied in gamma ray dose rate calculations in shielding design and radiation safety analysis is limited by the accuracy of buildup factors used in calculations. Although buildup factors for single-layer shields are well defined and understood, buildup factors for stratified shields represent a complex physical problem that is hard to express in mathematical terms. The traditional approach for expressing buildup factors of multi-layer shields is through semi-empirical formulas obtained by fitting the results of transport theory or Monte Carlo calculations. Such an approach requires an ad-hoc definition of the fitting function and often results with numerous and usually inadequately explained and defined correction factors added to the final empirical formula. Even more, finally obtained formulas are generally limited to a small number of predefined combinations of materials within relatively small range of gamma ray energies and shield thicknesses. Recently, a new approach has been suggested by the authors involving one of machine learning techniques called Support Vector Machines, i.e., Support Vector Regression (SVR). Preliminary investigations performed for double-layer shields revealed great potential of the method, but also pointed out some drawbacks of the developed model, mostly related to the selection of one of the parameters describing the problem (material atomic number), and the method in which the model was designed to evolve during the learning process. It is the aim of this paper to introduce a new parameter (single material buildup factor) that is to replace the existing material atomic number as an input parameter. The comparison of two models generated by different input parameters has been performed. The second goal is to improve the evolution process of learning, i.e., the experimental computational procedure that provides a framework for automated construction of complex regression models of predefined
Moussawi, Ali; Lubineau, Gilles; Xu, Jiangping; Pan, Bing
2015-01-01
Summary: The post-treatment of (3D) displacement fields for the identification of spatially varying elastic material parameters is a large inverse problem that remains out of reach for massive 3D structures. We explore here the potential
Long memory of financial time series and hidden Markov models with time-varying parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nystrup, Peter; Madsen, Henrik; Lindström, Erik
Hidden Markov models are often used to capture stylized facts of daily returns and to infer the hidden state of financial markets. Previous studies have found that the estimated models change over time, but the implications of the time-varying behavior for the ability to reproduce the stylized...... facts have not been thoroughly examined. This paper presents an adaptive estimation approach that allows for the parameters of the estimated models to be time-varying. It is shown that a two-state Gaussian hidden Markov model with time-varying parameters is able to reproduce the long memory of squared...... daily returns that was previously believed to be the most difficult fact to reproduce with a hidden Markov model. Capturing the time-varying behavior of the parameters also leads to improved one-step predictions....
Hybridizing DEMD and Quantum PSO with SVR in Electric Load Forecasting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Ling Peng
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Electric load forecasting is an important issue for a power utility, associated with the management of daily operations such as energy transfer scheduling, unit commitment, and load dispatch. Inspired by strong non-linear learning capability of support vector regression (SVR, this paper presents an SVR model hybridized with the differential empirical mode decomposition (DEMD method and quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm (QPSO for electric load forecasting. The DEMD method is employed to decompose the electric load to several detail parts associated with high frequencies (intrinsic mode function—IMF and an approximate part associated with low frequencies. Hybridized with quantum theory to enhance particle searching performance, the so-called QPSO is used to optimize the parameters of SVR. The electric load data of the New South Wales (Sydney, Australia market and the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO, New York, USA are used for comparing the forecasting performances of different forecasting models. The results illustrate the validity of the idea that the proposed model can simultaneously provide forecasting with good accuracy and interpretability.
Long Memory of Financial Time Series and Hidden Markov Models with Time-Varying Parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nystrup, Peter; Madsen, Henrik; Lindström, Erik
2016-01-01
Hidden Markov models are often used to model daily returns and to infer the hidden state of financial markets. Previous studies have found that the estimated models change over time, but the implications of the time-varying behavior have not been thoroughly examined. This paper presents an adaptive...... to reproduce with a hidden Markov model. Capturing the time-varying behavior of the parameters also leads to improved one-step density forecasts. Finally, it is shown that the forecasting performance of the estimated models can be further improved using local smoothing to forecast the parameter variations....
Time-varying parameter models for catchments with land use change: the importance of model structure
Pathiraja, Sahani; Anghileri, Daniela; Burlando, Paolo; Sharma, Ashish; Marshall, Lucy; Moradkhani, Hamid
2018-05-01
Rapid population and economic growth in Southeast Asia has been accompanied by extensive land use change with consequent impacts on catchment hydrology. Modeling methodologies capable of handling changing land use conditions are therefore becoming ever more important and are receiving increasing attention from hydrologists. A recently developed data-assimilation-based framework that allows model parameters to vary through time in response to signals of change in observations is considered for a medium-sized catchment (2880 km2) in northern Vietnam experiencing substantial but gradual land cover change. We investigate the efficacy of the method as well as the importance of the chosen model structure in ensuring the success of a time-varying parameter method. The method was used with two lumped daily conceptual models (HBV and HyMOD) that gave good-quality streamflow predictions during pre-change conditions. Although both time-varying parameter models gave improved streamflow predictions under changed conditions compared to the time-invariant parameter model, persistent biases for low flows were apparent in the HyMOD case. It was found that HyMOD was not suited to representing the modified baseflow conditions, resulting in extreme and unrealistic time-varying parameter estimates. This work shows that the chosen model can be critical for ensuring the time-varying parameter framework successfully models streamflow under changing land cover conditions. It can also be used to determine whether land cover changes (and not just meteorological factors) contribute to the observed hydrologic changes in retrospective studies where the lack of a paired control catchment precludes such an assessment.
Time-varying parameter models for catchments with land use change: the importance of model structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Pathiraja
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Rapid population and economic growth in Southeast Asia has been accompanied by extensive land use change with consequent impacts on catchment hydrology. Modeling methodologies capable of handling changing land use conditions are therefore becoming ever more important and are receiving increasing attention from hydrologists. A recently developed data-assimilation-based framework that allows model parameters to vary through time in response to signals of change in observations is considered for a medium-sized catchment (2880 km2 in northern Vietnam experiencing substantial but gradual land cover change. We investigate the efficacy of the method as well as the importance of the chosen model structure in ensuring the success of a time-varying parameter method. The method was used with two lumped daily conceptual models (HBV and HyMOD that gave good-quality streamflow predictions during pre-change conditions. Although both time-varying parameter models gave improved streamflow predictions under changed conditions compared to the time-invariant parameter model, persistent biases for low flows were apparent in the HyMOD case. It was found that HyMOD was not suited to representing the modified baseflow conditions, resulting in extreme and unrealistic time-varying parameter estimates. This work shows that the chosen model can be critical for ensuring the time-varying parameter framework successfully models streamflow under changing land cover conditions. It can also be used to determine whether land cover changes (and not just meteorological factors contribute to the observed hydrologic changes in retrospective studies where the lack of a paired control catchment precludes such an assessment.
Risk adjusted receding horizon control of constrained linear parameter varying systems
Sznaier, M.; Lagoa, C.; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Li, X.
2005-01-01
In the past few years, control of Linear Parameter Varying Systems (LPV) has been the object of considerable attention, as a way of formalizing the intuitively appealing idea of gain scheduling control for nonlinear systems. However, currently available LPV techniques are both computationally
An improved robust model predictive control for linear parameter-varying input-output models
Abbas, H.S.; Hanema, J.; Tóth, R.; Mohammadpour, J.; Meskin, N.
2018-01-01
This paper describes a new robust model predictive control (MPC) scheme to control the discrete-time linear parameter-varying input-output models subject to input and output constraints. Closed-loop asymptotic stability is guaranteed by including a quadratic terminal cost and an ellipsoidal terminal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Callot, Laurent; Kristensen, Johannes Tang
the monetary policy response to inflation and business cycle fluctuations in the US by estimating a parsimoniously time varying parameter Taylor rule.We document substantial changes in the policy response of the Fed in the 1970s and 1980s, and since 2007, but also document the stability of this response...
Scalable Video Streaming Adaptive to Time-Varying IEEE 802.11 MAC Parameters
Lee, Kyung-Jun; Suh, Doug-Young; Park, Gwang-Hoon; Huh, Jae-Doo
This letter proposes a QoS control method for video streaming service over wireless networks. Based on statistical analysis, the time-varying MAC parameters highly related to channel condition are selected to predict available bitrate. Adaptive bitrate control of scalably-encoded video guarantees continuity in streaming service even if the channel condition changes abruptly.
Stability of neutrino parameters and self-complementarity relation with varying SUSY breaking scale
Singh, K. Sashikanta; Roy, Subhankar; Singh, N. Nimai
2018-03-01
The scale at which supersymmetry (SUSY) breaks (ms) is still unknown. The present article, following a top-down approach, endeavors to study the effect of varying ms on the radiative stability of the observational parameters associated with the neutrino mixing. These parameters get additional contributions in the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM). A variation in ms will influence the bounds for which the Standard Model (SM) and MSSM work and hence, will account for the different radiative contributions received from both sectors, respectively, while running the renormalization group equations (RGE). The present work establishes the invariance of the self complementarity relation among the three mixing angles, θ13+θ12≈θ23 against the radiative evolution. A similar result concerning the mass ratio, m2:m1 is also found to be valid. In addition to varying ms, the work incorporates a range of different seesaw (SS) scales and tries to see how the latter affects the parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Widowati
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The applicability of parameter varying reduced order controllers to aircraft model is proposed. The generalization of the balanced singular perturbation method of linear time invariant (LTI system is used to reduce the order of linear parameter varying (LPV system. Based on the reduced order model the low-order LPV controller is designed by using synthesis technique. The performance of the reduced order controller is examined by applying it to lateral-directional control of aircraft model having 20th order. Furthermore, the time responses of the closed loop system with reduced order LPV controllers and reduced order LTI controller is compared. From the simulation results, the 8th order LPV controller can maintain stability and to provide the same level of closed-loop systems performance as the full-order LPV controller. It is different with the reduced-order LTI controller that cannot maintain stability and performance for all allowable parameter trajectories.
Parameter Estimation of a Closed Loop Coupled Tank Time Varying System using Recursive Methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basir, Siti Nora; Yussof, Hanafiah; Shamsuddin, Syamimi; Selamat, Hazlina; Zahari, Nur Ismarrubie
2013-01-01
This project investigates the direct identification of closed loop plant using discrete-time approach. The uses of Recursive Least Squares (RLS), Recursive Instrumental Variable (RIV) and Recursive Instrumental Variable with Centre-Of-Triangle (RIV + COT) in the parameter estimation of closed loop time varying system have been considered. The algorithms were applied in a coupled tank system that employs covariance resetting technique where the time of parameter changes occur is unknown. The performances of all the parameter estimation methods, RLS, RIV and RIV + COT were compared. The estimation of the system whose output was corrupted with white and coloured noises were investigated. Covariance resetting technique successfully executed when the parameters change. RIV + COT gives better estimates than RLS and RIV in terms of convergence and maximum overshoot
Dos Santos, P Lopes; Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Azevedo-Perdicoúlis, T-P; Ramos, J A; Younger, Jarred
2013-12-31
There is good evidence that naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has a strong neuroprotective role and may be a potential drug for the treatment of fibromyalgia. In previous work, some of the authors used experimental clinical data to identify input-output linear time invariant models that were used to extract useful information about the effect of this drug on fibromyalgia symptoms. Additional factors such as anxiety, stress, mood, and headache, were considered as additive disturbances. However, it seems reasonable to think that these factors do not affect the drug actuation, but only the way in which a participant perceives how the drug actuates on herself. Under this hypothesis the linear time invariant models can be replaced by State-Space Affine Linear Parameter Varying models where the disturbances are seen as a scheduling signal signal only acting at the parameters of the output equation. In this paper a new algorithm for identifying such a model is proposed. This algorithm minimizes a quadratic criterion of the output error. Since the output error is a linear function of some parameters, the Affine Linear Parameter Varying system identification is formulated as a separable nonlinear least squares problem. Likewise other identification algorithms using gradient optimization methods several parameter derivatives are dynamical systems that must be simulated. In order to increase time efficiency a canonical parametrization that minimizes the number of systems to be simulated is chosen. The effectiveness of the algorithm is assessed in a case study where an Affine Parameter Varying Model is identified from the experimental data used in the previous study and compared with the time-invariant model.
Adaptive control of chaotic systems with stochastic time varying unknown parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salarieh, Hassan [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: salarieh@mech.sharif.edu; Alasty, Aria [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: aalasti@sharif.edu
2008-10-15
In this paper based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, an adaptive control scheme is proposed for stabilizing the unstable periodic orbits (UPO) of chaotic systems. It is assumed that the chaotic system has some linearly dependent unknown parameters which are stochastically time varying. The stochastic parameters are modeled through the Weiner process derivative. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique it has been applied to the Lorenz, Chen and Rossler dynamical systems, as some case studies. Simulation results indicate that the proposed adaptive controller has a high performance in stabilizing the UPO of chaotic systems in noisy environment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franzè, Giuseppe; Lucia, Walter; Tedesco, Francesco
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to address regulation problems for constrained polytopic Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems subject to input and state constraints in which both plant measurements and command signals in the loop are sent through communication channels subject to time-varying delays (Networked Control System (NCS)). The results here proposed represent a significant extension to the LPV framework of a recent Receding Horizon Control (RHC) scheme developed for the so-called robust case. By exploiting the parameter availability, the pre-computed sequences of one- step controllable sets inner approximations are less conservative than the robust counterpart. The resulting framework guarantees asymptotic stability and constraints fulfilment regardless of plant uncertainties and time-delay occurrences. Finally, experimental results on a laboratory two-tank test-bed show the effectiveness of the proposed approach
LMI-based gain scheduled controller synthesis for a class of linear parameter varying systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Anderson, Brian; Lanzon, Alexander
2006-01-01
This paper presents a novel method for constructing controllers for a class of single-input multiple-output (SIMO) linear parameter varying (LPV) systems. This class of systems encompasses many physical systems, in particular systems where individual components vary with time, and is therefore...... of significant practical relevance to control designers. The control design presented in this paper has the properties that the system matrix of the closed loop is multi-affine in the various scalar parameters, and that the resulting controller ensures a certain degree of stability for the closed loop even when...... as a standard linear time-invariant (LTI) design combined with a set of linear matrix inequalities, which can be solved efficiently with software tools. The design procedure is illustrated by a numerical example....
Nonlinear control of linear parameter varying systems with applications to hypersonic vehicles
Wilcox, Zachary Donald
The focus of this dissertation is to design a controller for linear parameter varying (LPV) systems, apply it specifically to air-breathing hypersonic vehicles, and examine the interplay between control performance and the structural dynamics design. Specifically a Lyapunov-based continuous robust controller is developed that yields exponential tracking of a reference model, despite the presence of bounded, nonvanishing disturbances. The hypersonic vehicle has time varying parameters, specifically temperature profiles, and its dynamics can be reduced to an LPV system with additive disturbances. Since the HSV can be modeled as an LPV system the proposed control design is directly applicable. The control performance is directly examined through simulations. A wide variety of applications exist that can be effectively modeled as LPV systems. In particular, flight systems have historically been modeled as LPV systems and associated control tools have been applied such as gain-scheduling, linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), linear fractional transformations (LFT), and mu-types. However, as the type of flight environments and trajectories become more demanding, the traditional LPV controllers may no longer be sufficient. In particular, hypersonic flight vehicles (HSVs) present an inherently difficult problem because of the nonlinear aerothermoelastic coupling effects in the dynamics. HSV flight conditions produce temperature variations that can alter both the structural dynamics and flight dynamics. Starting with the full nonlinear dynamics, the aerothermoelastic effects are modeled by a temperature dependent, parameter varying state-space representation with added disturbances. The model includes an uncertain parameter varying state matrix, an uncertain parameter varying non-square (column deficient) input matrix, and an additive bounded disturbance. In this dissertation, a robust dynamic controller is formulated for a uncertain and disturbed LPV system. The developed
Nonlinear systems time-varying parameter estimation: Application to induction motors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kenne, Godpromesse [Laboratoire d' Automatique et d' Informatique Appliquee (LAIA), Departement de Genie Electrique, IUT FOTSO Victor, Universite de Dschang, B.P. 134 Bandjoun (Cameroon); Ahmed-Ali, Tarek [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Ingenieurs des Etudes et Techniques d' Armement (ENSIETA), 2 Rue Francois Verny, 29806 Brest Cedex 9 (France); Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, F. [Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S), C.N.R.S-SUPELEC, Universite Paris XI, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Arzande, Amir [Departement Energie, Ecole Superieure d' Electricite-SUPELEC, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2008-11-15
In this paper, an algorithm for time-varying parameter estimation for a large class of nonlinear systems is presented. The proof of the convergence of the estimates to their true values is achieved using Lyapunov theories and does not require that the classical persistent excitation condition be satisfied by the input signal. Since the induction motor (IM) is widely used in several industrial sectors, the algorithm developed is potentially useful for adjusting the controller parameters of variable speed drives. The method proposed is simple and easily implementable in real-time. The application of this approach to on-line estimation of the rotor resistance of IM shows a rapidly converging estimate in spite of measurement noise, discretization effects, parameter uncertainties (e.g. inaccuracies on motor inductance values) and modeling inaccuracies. The robustness analysis for this IM application also revealed that the proposed scheme is insensitive to the stator resistance variations within a wide range. The merits of the proposed algorithm in the case of on-line time-varying rotor resistance estimation are demonstrated via experimental results in various operating conditions of the induction motor. The experimental results obtained demonstrate that the application of the proposed algorithm to update on-line the parameters of an adaptive controller (e.g. IM and synchronous machines adaptive control) can improve the efficiency of the industrial process. The other interesting features of the proposed method include fault detection/estimation and adaptive control of IM and synchronous machines. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zuo-Cai; Ren, Wei-Xin; Chen, Gen-Da
2012-01-01
This paper presents a recursive Hilbert transform method for the time-varying property identification of large-scale shear-type buildings with limited sensor deployments. An observer technique is introduced to estimate the building responses from limited available measurements. For an n-story shear-type building with l measurements (l ≤ n), the responses of other stories without measurements can be estimated based on the first r mode shapes (r ≤ l) as-built conditions and l measurements. Both the measured responses and evaluated responses and their Hilbert transforms are then used to track any variation of structural parameters of a multi-story building over time. Given floor masses, both the stiffness and damping coefficients of the building are identified one-by-one from the top to the bottom story. When variations of parameters are detected, a new developed branch-and-bound technique can be used to update the first r mode shapes with the identified parameters. A 60-story shear building with abruptly varying stiffness at different floors is simulated as an example. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method can detect variations of the parameters of large-scale shear-type buildings with limited sensor deployments at appropriate locations. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Migliavacca, S.C.P.
1991-01-01
A review of the isotope separation theory for the countercurrent gas centrifuge is presented. The diffusion-convection equation is solved according to the ONSAGER-COHEN solution for the constant internal flow and adapted to an axially varying countercurrent flow. Based on that theory, a numerical program is developed for the calculation of the isotopic compositions and the separative parameters of the centrifuge. The influence of the feed flow and the internal parameters. Like cut and countercurrent flow, on the separative parameters is then analysed for a model-centrifuge, which afterwards is optimized with respect to its separative power. Finally, a comparison between the present calculation procedure and some published results, provided by different theories, shows deviations lower then 20%. (author)
Moussawi, Ali
2015-02-24
Summary: The post-treatment of (3D) displacement fields for the identification of spatially varying elastic material parameters is a large inverse problem that remains out of reach for massive 3D structures. We explore here the potential of the constitutive compatibility method for tackling such an inverse problem, provided an appropriate domain decomposition technique is introduced. In the method described here, the statically admissible stress field that can be related through the known constitutive symmetry to the kinematic observations is sought through minimization of an objective function, which measures the violation of constitutive compatibility. After this stress reconstruction, the local material parameters are identified with the given kinematic observations using the constitutive equation. Here, we first adapt this method to solve 3D identification problems and then implement it within a domain decomposition framework which allows for reduced computational load when handling larger problems.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to develop reliable reduced order modeling technologies to automatically generate nonlinear, parameter-varying (PV),...
Cao, Jiguo; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Wu, Hulin
2012-01-01
Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are widely used in biomedical research and other scientific areas to model complex dynamic systems. It is an important statistical problem to estimate parameters in ODEs from noisy observations. In this article we propose a method for estimating the time-varying coefficients in an ODE. Our method is a variation of the nonlinear least squares where penalized splines are used to model the functional parameters and the ODE solutions are approximated also using splines. We resort to the implicit function theorem to deal with the nonlinear least squares objective function that is only defined implicitly. The proposed penalized nonlinear least squares method is applied to estimate a HIV dynamic model from a real dataset. Monte Carlo simulations show that the new method can provide much more accurate estimates of functional parameters than the existing two-step local polynomial method which relies on estimation of the derivatives of the state function. Supplemental materials for the article are available online.
Evaluation of svr: a wireless sensor network routing protocol
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baloch, J.; Khanzada, T.J.S.
2014-01-01
The advancement in technology has made it possible to create small in size, low cost sensor nodes. However, the small size and low cost of such nodes comesat at price that is, reduced processing power, low memory and significantly small battery energy storage. WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) are inherently ad hoc in nature and are assumed to work in the toughest terrain. The network lifetime plays a pivotal role in a wireless sensor network. A long network lifetime, could be achieved by either making significant changes in these low cost devices, which is not a feasible solution or by improving the means of communication throughout the network. The communication in such networks could be improved by employing energy efficient routing protocols, to route the data throughout the network. In this paper the SVR (Spatial Vector Routing) protocol is compared against the most common WSN routing protocols, and from the results it could be inferred that the SVR protocol out performs its counterparts. The protocol provides an energy efficient means of communication in the network. (author)
Dynamical bifurcation in a system of coupled oscillators with slowly varying parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Parasyuk
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a fast-slow system representing n nonlinearly coupled oscillators with slowly varying parameters. We find conditions which guarantee that all omega-limit sets near the slow surface of the system are equilibria and invariant tori of all dimensions not exceeding n, the tori of dimensions less then n being hyperbolic. We show that a typical trajectory demonstrates the following transient process: while its slow component is far from the stationary points of the slow vector field, the fast component exhibits damping oscillations; afterwards, the former component enters and stays in a small neighborhood of some stationary point, and the oscillation amplitude of the latter begins to increase; eventually the trajectory is attracted by an n-dimesional invariant torus and a multi-frequency oscillatory regime is established.
Pattern formation in individual-based systems with time-varying parameters
Ashcroft, Peter; Galla, Tobias
2013-12-01
We study the patterns generated in finite-time sweeps across symmetry-breaking bifurcations in individual-based models. Similar to the well-known Kibble-Zurek scenario of defect formation, large-scale patterns are generated when model parameters are varied slowly, whereas fast sweeps produce a large number of small domains. The symmetry breaking is triggered by intrinsic noise, originating from the discrete dynamics at the microlevel. Based on a linear-noise approximation, we calculate the characteristic length scale of these patterns. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach in a simple model of opinion dynamics, a model in evolutionary game theory with a time-dependent fitness structure, and a model of cell differentiation. Our theoretical estimates are confirmed in simulations. In further numerical work, we observe a similar phenomenon when the symmetry-breaking bifurcation is triggered by population growth.
Analysis of the importance for the doses of varying parameters in the BIOPATH-program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergstroem, U.
1981-01-01
The doses to individuals and populations from water-borne nuclides leaked from a repository have been calculated earlier using the computer program BIOPATH. The turnover of nuclides in the biosphere is thereby simulated by the application of compartment theory. For the dominant nuclides in the disposal an analysis of the importance of varying parameters has been done, to decide how strongly uncertainties in data will affect resulting doses. The essential part has been the transfer coefficients but also the uptake in the food-chains has been studied. The purpose of the study has also been to make proposals for forthcoming efforts to improve the basis for such calculations. The study shows the great importance of the surface water-soil-groundwater-drinking water system for the dose. Thereby the most important question is the solubility of the nuclides in the different water reservoirs. (Auth.)
Robust control design for active driver assistance systems a linear-parameter-varying approach
Gáspár, Péter; Bokor, József; Nemeth, Balazs
2017-01-01
This monograph focuses on control methods that influence vehicle dynamics to assist the driver in enhancing passenger comfort, road holding, efficiency and safety of transport, etc., while maintaining the driver’s ability to override that assistance. On individual-vehicle-component level the control problem is formulated and solved by a unified modelling and design method provided by the linear parameter varying (LPV) framework. The global behaviour desired is achieved by a judicious interplay between the individual components, guaranteed by an integrated control mechanism. The integrated control problem is also formalized and solved in the LPV framework. Most important among the ideas expounded in the book are: application of the LPV paradigm in the modelling and control design methodology; application of the robust LPV design as a unified framework for setting control tasks related to active driver assistance; formulation and solution proposals for the integrated vehicle control problem; proposal for a re...
Effect of varying geometrical parameters of trapezoidal corrugated-core sandwich structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaid N.Z.M.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Sandwich structure is an attractive alternative that increasingly used in the transportation and aerospace industry. Corrugated-core with trapezoidal shape allows enhancing the damage resistance to the sandwich structure, but on the other hand, it changes the structural response of the sandwich structure. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of varying geometrical parameters of trapezoidal corrugated-core sandwich structure under compression loading. The corrugated-core specimen was fabricated using press technique, following the shape of trapezoidal shape. Two different materials were used in the study, glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP and carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP. The result shows that the mechanical properties of the core in compression loading are sensitive to the variation of a number of unit cells and the core thickness.
Cai, Shuiming; Hao, Junjun; Liu, Zengrong
2011-06-01
This paper studies the synchronization of coupled chaotic systems with time-varying delays in the presence of parameter mismatches by means of periodically intermittent control. Some novel and useful quasisynchronization criteria are obtained by using the methods which are different from the techniques employed in the existing works, and the derived results are less conservative. Especially, a strong constraint on the control width that the control width should be larger than the time delay imposed by the current references is released in this paper. Moreover, our results show that the synchronization criteria depend on the ratio of control width to control period, but not the control width or the control period. Finally, some numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I PUTU GEDE DIAN GERRY SUWEDAYANA
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to forecast the number of Australian tourists arrival to Bali using Time Varying Parameter (TVP model based on inflation of Indonesia and exchange rate AUD to IDR from January 2010 – December 2015 as explanatory variables. TVP model is specified in a state space model and estimated by Kalman filter algorithm. The result shows that the TVP model can be used to forecast the number of Australian tourists arrival to Bali because it satisfied the assumption that the residuals are distributed normally and the residuals in the measurement and transition equations are not correlated. The estimated TVP model is . This model has a value of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE is equal to dan root mean square percentage error (RMSPE is equal to . The number of Australian tourists arrival to Bali for the next five periods is predicted: ; ; ; ; and (January - May 2016.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas Curry
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.
Robust control and linear parameter varying approaches application to vehicle dynamics
Gaspar, Peter; Bokor, József
2013-01-01
Vehicles are complex systems (non-linear, multi-variable) where the abundance of embedded controllers should ensure better security. This book aims at emphasizing the interest and potential of Linear Parameter Varying methods within the framework of vehicle dynamics, e.g. · proposed control-oriented model, complex enough to handle some system non linearities but still simple for control or observer design, · take into account the adaptability of the vehicle's response to driving situations, to the driver request and/or to the road sollicitations, · manage interactions between various actuators to optimize the dynamic behavior of vehicles. This book results from the 32th International Summer School in Automatic that held in Grenoble, France, in September 2011, where recent methods (based on robust control and LPV technics), then applied to the control of vehicle dynamics, have been presented. After some theoretical background and a view on so...
On the link between oil price and exchange rate: A time-varying VAR parameter approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bremond, Vincent; Razafindrabe, Tovonony; Hache, Emmanuel
2015-07-01
The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between the effective exchange rate of the dollar and the oil price dynamics from 1976 to 2013. In this context, we propose to explore the economic literature dedicated to financial channels factors (exchange rate, monetary policy, and international liquidity) that could affect the oil price dynamics. In addition to oil prices and the effective exchange rate of the dollar, we use the dry cargo index as a proxy for the real economic activity and prices for precious and industrial raw materials. Using a Bayesian time-varying parameter vector auto-regressive estimation, our main results show that the US Dollar effective exchange rate elasticity of the crude oil prices is not constant across the time and remains negative from 1989. It then highlights that a depreciation of the effective exchange rate of the dollar leads to an increase of the crude oil prices. Our paper also demonstrates the growing influence of financial and commodities markets development upon the global economy. (authors)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes to develop an on-line flutter prediction tool for wind tunnel model using the parameter varying estimation (PVE) technique to...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to develop reliable reduced order modeling technologies to automatically generate parameter-varying (PV), aeroservoelastic (ASE)...
Comparison of model microbial allocation parameters in soils of varying texture
Hagerty, S. B.; Slessarev, E.; Schimel, J.
2017-12-01
The soil microbial community decomposes the majority of carbon (C) inputs to the soil. However, not all of this C is respired—rather, a substantial portion of the carbon processed by microbes may remain stored in the soil. The balance between C storage and respiration is controlled by microbial turnover rates and C allocation strategies. These microbial community properties may depend on soil texture, which has the potential to influence both the nature and the fate of microbial necromass and extracellular products. To evaluate the role of texture on microbial turnover and C allocation, we sampled four soils from the University of California's Hastings Reserve that varied in texture (one silt loam, two sandy loam, and on clay soil), but support similar grassland plant communities. We added 14C- glucose to the soil and measured the concentration of the label in the carbon dioxide (CO2), microbial biomass, and extractable C pools over 7 weeks. The labeled biomass turned over the slowest in the clay soil; the concentration of labeled biomass was more than 1.5 times the concentration of the other soils after 8 weeks. The clay soil also had the lowest mineralization rate of the label, and mineralization slowed after two weeks. In contrast, in the sandier soils mineralization rates were higher and did not plateau until 5 weeks into the incubation period. We fit the 14C data to a microbial allocation model and estimated microbial parameters; assimilation efficiency, exudation, and biomass specific respiration and turnover for each soil. We compare these parameters across the soil texture gradient to assess the extent to which models may need to account for variability in microbial C allocation across soils of different texture. Our results suggest that microbial C turns over more slowly in high-clay soils than in sandy soils, and that C lost from microbial biomass is retained at higher rates in high-clay soils. Accounting for these differences in microbial allocation
Linear parameter-varying modeling and control of the steam temperature in a Canadian SCWR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Peiwei, E-mail: sunpeiwei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Jianmin; Su, Guanghui
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Nonlinearity of Canadian SCWR is analyzed based on step responses and Nyquist plots. • LPV model is derived through Jacobian linearization and curve fitting. • An output feedback H{sub ∞} controller is synthesized for the steam temperature. • The control performance is evaluated by step disturbances and wide range operation. • The controller can stabilize the system and reject the reactor power disturbance. - Abstract: The Canadian direct-cycle Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a pressure-tube type SCWR under development in Canada. The dynamics of the steam temperature have a high degree of nonlinearity and are highly sensitive to reactor power disturbances. Traditional gain scheduling control cannot theoretically guarantee stability for all operating regions. The control performance can also be deteriorated when the controllers are switched. In this paper, a linear parameter-varying (LPV) strategy is proposed to solve such problems. Jacobian linearization and curve fitting are applied to derive the LPV model, which is verified using a nonlinear dynamic model and determined to be sufficiently accurate for control studies. An output feedback H{sub ∞} controller is synthesized to stabilize the steam temperature system and reject reactor power disturbances. The LPV steam temperature controller is implemented using a nonlinear dynamic model, and step changes in the setpoints and typical load patterns are carried out in the testing process. It is demonstrated through numerical simulation that the LPV controller not only stabilizes the steam temperature under different disturbances but also efficiently rejects reactor power disturbances and suppresses the steam temperature variation at different power levels. The LPV approach is effective in solving control problems of the steam temperature in the Canadian SCWR.
An estimation of crude oil import demand in Turkey: Evidence from time-varying parameters approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozturk, Ilhan; Arisoy, Ibrahim
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to model crude oil import demand and estimate the price and income elasticities of imported crude oil in Turkey based on a time-varying parameters (TVP) approach with the aim of obtaining accurate and more robust estimates of price and income elasticities. This study employs annual time series data of domestic oil consumption, real GDP, and oil price for the period 1966–2012. The empirical results indicate that both the income and price elasticities are in line with the theoretical expectations. However, the income elasticity is statistically significant while the price elasticity is statistically insignificant. The relatively high value of income elasticity (1.182) from this study suggests that crude oil import in Turkey is more responsive to changes in income level. This result indicates that imported crude oil is a normal good and rising income levels will foster higher consumption of oil based equipments, vehicles and services by economic agents. The estimated income elasticity of 1.182 suggests that imported crude oil consumption grows at a higher rate than income. This in turn reduces oil intensity over time. Therefore, crude oil import during the estimation period is substantially driven by income. - Highlights: • We estimated the price and income elasticities of imported crude oil in Turkey. • Income elasticity is statistically significant and it is 1.182. • The price elasticity is statistically insignificant. • Crude oil import in Turkey is more responsive to changes in income level. • Crude oil import during the estimation period is substantially driven by income.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huiguo Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the Kanai-Tajimi power spectrum filtering method proposed by Du Xiuli et al., a genetic algorithm and a quadratic optimization identification technique are employed to improve the bimodal time-varying modified Kanai-Tajimi power spectral model and the parameter identification method proposed by Vlachos et al. Additionally, a method for modeling time-varying power spectrum parameters for ground motion is proposed. The 8244 Orion and Chi-Chi earthquake accelerograms are selected as examples for time-varying power spectral model parameter identification and ground motion simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the improved bimodal time-varying modified Kanai-Tajimi power spectral model. The results of this study provide important references for designing ground motion inputs for seismic analyses of major engineering structures.
Artificial neural network modeling of DDGS flowability with varying process and storage parameters
Neural Network (NN) modeling techniques were used to predict flowability behavior in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) prepared with varying CDS (10, 15, and 20%, wb), drying temperature (100, 200, and 300°C), cooling temperature (-12, 0, and 35°C) and cooling time (0 and 1 month) levels....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Putov, B.I.
1980-01-01
A reduction in the free play may be achieved through the rational selection of the basic dimensions of the body elements, the disposition of the bodies one relative to the other and by the use of various means for passive stabilization. In the design of MPBU not only the mean values of the free play parameters, which characterize a floating base from the point of view of the time people stay on it, must be available, but also the maximal possible values of the parameters with one and the same wave state, which determine the safety of the operation of the drilling equipment. Studies in installations of various standard off shore drilling rigs showed that the mean values of the free play parameters for all off shore drilling rigs with wave heights from 0.8 to 1.2 meters are half the maximal values.
Koopman, S.J.; Mallee, M.I.P.; van der Wel, M.
2010-01-01
In this article we introduce time-varying parameters in the dynamic Nelson-Siegel yield curve model for the simultaneous analysis and forecasting of interest rates of different maturities. The Nelson-Siegel model has been recently reformulated as a dynamic factor model with vector autoregressive
Marching on in anything: solving electromagnetic field equations with a varying physical parameter
Tijhuis, A.G.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Smith, P.D.; Cloude, S.R.
2002-01-01
In this paper, we consider the determination of electromagnetic fields for a (large) number of values of a physical parameter. We restrict ourselves to the case where the linear system originates from one or more integral equations. We apply an iterative procedure based on the minimization of an
Time-Varying FOPDT Modeling and On-line Parameter Identification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Zhenyu; Sun, Zhen
2013-01-01
on the Mixed-Integer-Nonlinear Programming, Least-Mean-Square and sliding window techniques. The proposed approaches can simultaneously estimate the time-dependent system parameters, as well as the unknown disturbance input if it is the case, in an on-line manner. The proposed concepts and algorithms...
Multiple kernel SVR based on the MRE for remote sensing water depth fusion detection
Wang, Jinjin; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Jingyu
2018-03-01
Remote sensing has an important means of water depth detection in coastal shallow waters and reefs. Support vector regression (SVR) is a machine learning method which is widely used in data regression. In this paper, SVR is used to remote sensing multispectral bathymetry. Aiming at the problem that the single-kernel SVR method has a large error in shallow water depth inversion, the mean relative error (MRE) of different water depth is retrieved as a decision fusion factor with single kernel SVR method, a multi kernel SVR fusion method based on the MRE is put forward. And taking the North Island of the Xisha Islands in China as an experimentation area, the comparison experiments with the single kernel SVR method and the traditional multi-bands bathymetric method are carried out. The results show that: 1) In range of 0 to 25 meters, the mean absolute error(MAE)of the multi kernel SVR fusion method is 1.5m,the MRE is 13.2%; 2) Compared to the 4 single kernel SVR method, the MRE of the fusion method reduced 1.2% (1.9%) 3.4% (1.8%), and compared to traditional multi-bands method, the MRE reduced 1.9%; 3) In 0-5m depth section, compared to the single kernel method and the multi-bands method, the MRE of fusion method reduced 13.5% to 44.4%, and the distribution of points is more concentrated relative to y=x.
Zhai, Chun-Hui; Xuan, Jian-Bang; Fan, Hai-Liu; Zhao, Teng-Fei; Jiang, Jian-Lan
2018-05-03
In order to make a further optimization of process design via increasing the stability of design space, we brought in the model of Support Vector Regression (SVR). In this work, the extraction of podophyllotoxin was researched as a case study based on Quality by Design (QbD). We compared the fitting effect of SVR and the most used quadratic polynomial model (QPM) in QbD, and an analysis was made between the two design spaces obtained by SVR and QPM. As a result, the SVR stayed ahead of QPM in prediction accuracy, the stability of model and the generalization ability. The introduction of SVR into QbD made the extraction process of podophyllotoxin well designed and easier to control. The better fitting effect of SVR improved the application effect of QbD and the universal applicability of SVR, especially for non-linear, complicated and weak-regularity problems, widened the application field of QbD.
Masmoudi, Nabil
2014-05-01
Traveltimes are conventionally evaluated by solving the zero-order approximation of the Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin (WKB) expansion of the wave equation. This high frequency approximation is good enough for most imaging applications and provides us with a traveltime equation called the eikonal equation. The eikonal equation is a non-linear partial differential equation which can be solved by any of the familiar numerical methods. Among the most popular of these methods is the method of characteristics which yields the ray tracing equations and the finite difference approaches. In the first part of the Master Thesis, we use the ray tracing method to solve the eikonal equation to get P-waves traveltimes for orthorhombic models with arbitrary orientation of symmetry planes. We start with a ray tracing procedure specified in curvilinear coordinate system valid for anisotropy of arbitrary symmetry. The coordinate system is constructed so that the coordinate lines are perpendicular to the symmetry planes of an orthorohombic medium. Advantages of this approach are the conservation of orthorhombic symmetry throughout the model and reduction of the number of parameters specifying the model. We combine this procedure with first-order ray tracing and dynamic ray tracing equations for P waves propagating in smooth, inhomogeneous, weakly anisotropic media. The first-order ray tracing and dynamic ray tracing equations are derived from the exact ones by replacing the exact P-wave eigenvalue of the Christoffel matrix by its first-order approximation. In the second part of the Master Thesis, we compute traveltimes using the fast marching method and we develop an approach to estimate the anisotropy parameters. The idea is to relate them analytically to traveltimes which is challenging in inhomogeneous media. Using perturbation theory, we develop traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with horizontal symmetry axis (HTI) as explicit functions of the
Hua, Yongzhao; Dong, Xiwang; Li, Qingdong; Ren, Zhang
2017-05-18
This paper investigates the time-varying formation robust tracking problems for high-order linear multiagent systems with a leader of unknown control input in the presence of heterogeneous parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The followers need to accomplish an expected time-varying formation in the state space and track the state trajectory produced by the leader simultaneously. First, a time-varying formation robust tracking protocol with a totally distributed form is proposed utilizing the neighborhood state information. With the adaptive updating mechanism, neither any global knowledge about the communication topology nor the upper bounds of the parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and leader's unknown input are required in the proposed protocol. Then, in order to determine the control parameters, an algorithm with four steps is presented, where feasible conditions for the followers to accomplish the expected time-varying formation tracking are provided. Furthermore, based on the Lyapunov-like analysis theory, it is proved that the formation tracking error can converge to zero asymptotically. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is verified by simulation examples.
Rypdal, Martin; Sirnes, Espen; Løvsletten, Ola; Rypdal, Kristoffer
2013-08-01
Maximum likelihood estimation techniques for multifractal processes are applied to high-frequency data in order to quantify intermittency in the fluctuations of asset prices. From time records as short as one month these methods permit extraction of a meaningful intermittency parameter λ characterising the degree of volatility clustering. We can therefore study the time evolution of volatility clustering and test the statistical significance of this variability. By analysing data from the Oslo Stock Exchange, and comparing the results with the investment grade spread, we find that the estimates of λ are lower at times of high market uncertainty.
Enhancing damping of gas bearings using linear parameter-varying control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Galeazzi, Roberto
2017-01-01
systems to regulate the injection pressure of the fluid. Due to the strong dependencies of system performance on system parameters, the sought controller should be robust over a large range of operational conditions. This paper addresses the damping enhancement of controllable gas bearings through robust...... control approaches. Through an extensive experimental campaign the paper evaluates two robust controllers, a linear parametervarying (LPV) controller and ∞ controller, on their capability to guarantee stability and performance of a gas bearing across the large operational envelopes in rotational speed...
Liang, Hua; Miao, Hongyu; Wu, Hulin
2010-03-01
Modeling viral dynamics in HIV/AIDS studies has resulted in deep understanding of pathogenesis of HIV infection from which novel antiviral treatment guidance and strategies have been derived. Viral dynamics models based on nonlinear differential equations have been proposed and well developed over the past few decades. However, it is quite challenging to use experimental or clinical data to estimate the unknown parameters (both constant and time-varying parameters) in complex nonlinear differential equation models. Therefore, investigators usually fix some parameter values, from the literature or by experience, to obtain only parameter estimates of interest from clinical or experimental data. However, when such prior information is not available, it is desirable to determine all the parameter estimates from data. In this paper, we intend to combine the newly developed approaches, a multi-stage smoothing-based (MSSB) method and the spline-enhanced nonlinear least squares (SNLS) approach, to estimate all HIV viral dynamic parameters in a nonlinear differential equation model. In particular, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to propose a comparatively thorough procedure, accounting for both efficiency and accuracy, to rigorously estimate all key kinetic parameters in a nonlinear differential equation model of HIV dynamics from clinical data. These parameters include the proliferation rate and death rate of uninfected HIV-targeted cells, the average number of virions produced by an infected cell, and the infection rate which is related to the antiviral treatment effect and is time-varying. To validate the estimation methods, we verified the identifiability of the HIV viral dynamic model and performed simulation studies. We applied the proposed techniques to estimate the key HIV viral dynamic parameters for two individual AIDS patients treated with antiretroviral therapies. We demonstrate that HIV viral dynamics can be well characterized and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Lebegner, J.
2000-01-01
Preliminary preparations for the construction of a LILW repository in Croatia included a number of activities and projects related to the siting process, safety assessment, disposal technology and repository design, and public acceptance issues. Costs evaluations have always been a part of the developing project documentation. However, only the estimates of the facility construction and equipment acquisition costs had been included, while other costs associated with the project development and management have not been considered up to now. For the first time the infrastructure status at the potential sites has been evaluated, and the costs of the repository operations as well as the post-closure management has been estimated. Cost parameters have been considered from both technical and fiscal points of view, comparing their relative influence on the overall repository costs. Assessment of the total project costs in eight cases for the four preferential sites and two repository designs gave a clearer picture of the development and management costs differences for the considered options. Without considerations of the operational and post-operational repository management expenses, the total project costs appear to have been heavily underestimated. Also, while the construction costs for the tunnel and the surface type repositories are significantly different, this influence of the repository type on the total project costs becomes far less important when the later phases management expenses are added. Finally, the role of fiscal parameters may further diminish the site and technology impacts on the overall costs. (author)
Pineda, Evan J.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.
2015-01-01
Constituent properties, along with volume fraction, have a first order effect on the microscale fields within a composite material and influence the macroscopic response. Therefore, there is a need to assess the significance of stochastic variation in the constituent properties of composites at the higher scales. The effect of variability in the parameters controlling the time-dependent behavior, in a unidirectional SCS-6 SiC fiber-reinforced RBSN matrix composite lamina, on the residual stresses induced during processing is investigated numerically. The generalized method of cells micromechanics theory is utilized to model the ceramic matrix composite lamina using a repeating unit cell. The primary creep phases of the constituents are approximated using a Norton-Bailey, steady state, power law creep model. The effect of residual stresses on the proportional limit stress and strain to failure of the composite is demonstrated. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using a normal distribution for the power law parameters and the resulting residual stress distributions were predicted.
Orthoptic parameters and asthenopic symptoms analysis after 3D viewing at varying distances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleeviya Joseph
2018-05-01
Full Text Available AIM: To analyse visual modifications such as amplitude of accommodation, near point of convergence(NPCreopsis and near phoria associated with asthenopic symptoms after 3D viewing at varying distances.METHODS: A prospective study. Thirty young adults were randomly selected. Each individual was exposed to 3D viewing thrice in a day for a fixed distance and the distance was varied on three consecutive days. Same video of equal duration and different screen sizes were used for every distance. Cyclic 3D mode of K-multimedia(KMplayer was used for projecting the 3D video. Different variables like stereopsis, amplitude of accommodation, near point of accommodation, near phoria and asthenopic symptoms were recorded immediately after 3D video viewing. Stereopsis was measured with “Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek” or “Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research”(TNO test, amplitude of accommodation and NPC were measured using RAF ruler, near phoria was measured using prism bar and a closed ended sample questionnaire was used to know the occurrence of asthenopic symptoms. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test etc. Qualitative data was analyzed using Chi-square test.RESULTS: For every distance of 40 cm, 3 m and 6 m, amplitude of accommodation was significantly reduced by 0.66 D, 1.12 D and 1.44 D. NPC got significantly receded by 0.63 cm, 0.93 cm and 1.23 cm, and the near phoria was significantly increased by 0.87, and 2.2 prism dioptres(PDbase-in respectively. It was found that most of the subjects got pain around the eyes, headache and irritation for each viewing distance. This study also revealed that 3D video viewing in theaters may increase the symptoms of headache, watering and irritation. Symptoms like headache, watering, fatigue, irritation and nausea may increase considerably at home environment and symptoms such as headache and watering may cause significant discomfort by 3D
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linlin Gao
2015-11-01
Full Text Available From the perspective of vehicle dynamics, the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics stability control method is studied, and a four-wheel independent steering varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is proposed with the help of expert control method. In the article, a four-wheel independent steering linear quadratic regulator controller for model following purpose is designed first. Then, by analyzing the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamic characteristics and the influence of linear quadratic regulator control parameters on control performance, a linear quadratic regulator control parameter adjustment strategy based on vehicle steering state is proposed to achieve the adaptive adjustment of linear quadratic regulator control parameters. In addition, to further improve the control performance, the proposed varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is optimized by genetic algorithm. Finally, simulation studies have been conducted by applying the proposed control system to the 8-degree-of-freedom four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics model. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control system has better performance and robustness and can effectively improve the stability and steering safety of the four-wheel independent steering vehicle.
Bianchi Type-V Bulk Viscous Cosmic String in f(R,T Gravity with Time Varying Deceleration Parameter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bïnaya K. Bishi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study the Bianchi type-V string cosmological model with bulk viscosity in f(R,T theory of gravity by considering a special form and linearly varying deceleration parameter. This is an extension of the earlier work of Naidu et al., 2013, where they have constructed the model by considering a constant deceleration parameter. Here we find that the cosmic strings do not survive in both models. In addition we study some physical and kinematical properties of both models. We observe that in one of our models these properties are identical to the model obtained by Naidu et al., 2013, and in the other model the behavior of these parameters is different.
Application of SVR with chaotic GASA algorithm in cyclic electric load forecasting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wen Yu; Hong, Wei-Chiang; Dong, Yucheng; Tsai, Gary; Sung, Jing-Tian; Fan, Guo-feng
2012-01-01
The electric load forecasting is complicated, and it sometimes reveals cyclic changes due to cyclic economic activities or climate seasonal nature, such as hourly peak in a working day, weekly peak in a business week, and monthly peak in a demand planned year. Hybridization of support vector regression (SVR) with chaotic sequence and evolutionary algorithms has successfully been applied to improve forecasting accuracy, and to effectively avoid trapping in a local optimum. However, it has not been widely explored to employ SVR-based model to deal with cyclic electric load forecasting. This paper will firstly investigate the potentiality of a novel hybrid algorithm, namely chaotic genetic algorithm-simulated annealing algorithm (CGASA), with an SVR model to improve load forecasting accurate performance. In which, the proposed CGASA employs internal randomness of chaotic iterations to overcome premature local optimum. Secondly, the seasonal mechanism will then be applied to well adjust the cyclic load tendency. Finally, a numerical example from an existed reference is employed to compare the forecasting performance of the proposed SSVRCGASA model. The forecasting results show that the SSVRCGASA model yields more accurate forecasting results than ARIMA and TF-ε-SVR-SA models. -- Highlights: ► Hybridizing the seasonal adjustment mechanism into an SVR model. ► Employing chaotic sequence to improve the premature convergence of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm. ► Successfully providing significant accurate monthly load demand forecasting.
Comparison of l₁-Norm SVR and Sparse Coding Algorithms for Linear Regression.
Zhang, Qingtian; Hu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Bo
2015-08-01
Support vector regression (SVR) is a popular function estimation technique based on Vapnik's concept of support vector machine. Among many variants, the l1-norm SVR is known to be good at selecting useful features when the features are redundant. Sparse coding (SC) is a technique widely used in many areas and a number of efficient algorithms are available. Both l1-norm SVR and SC can be used for linear regression. In this brief, the close connection between the l1-norm SVR and SC is revealed and some typical algorithms are compared for linear regression. The results show that the SC algorithms outperform the Newton linear programming algorithm, an efficient l1-norm SVR algorithm, in efficiency. The algorithms are then used to design the radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. Experiments on some benchmark data sets demonstrate the high efficiency of the SC algorithms. In particular, one of the SC algorithms, the orthogonal matching pursuit is two orders of magnitude faster than a well-known RBF network designing algorithm, the orthogonal least squares algorithm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jordehi, Ahmad Rezaee
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A modified PSO has been proposed for parameter estimation of PV cells and modules. • In the proposed modified PSO, acceleration coefficients are changed during run. • The proposed modified PSO mitigates premature convergence problem. • Parameter estimation problem has been solved for both PV cells and PV modules. • The results show that proposed PSO outperforms other state of the art algorithms. - Abstract: Estimating circuit model parameters of PV cells/modules represents a challenging problem. PV cell/module parameter estimation problem is typically translated into an optimisation problem and is solved by metaheuristic optimisation problems. Particle swarm optimisation (PSO) is considered as a popular and well-established optimisation algorithm. Despite all its advantages, PSO suffers from premature convergence problem meaning that it may get trapped in local optima. Personal and social acceleration coefficients are two control parameters that, due to their effect on explorative and exploitative capabilities, play important roles in computational behavior of PSO. In this paper, in an attempt toward premature convergence mitigation in PSO, its personal acceleration coefficient is decreased during the course of run, while its social acceleration coefficient is increased. In this way, an appropriate tradeoff between explorative and exploitative capabilities of PSO is established during the course of run and premature convergence problem is significantly mitigated. The results vividly show that in parameter estimation of PV cells and modules, the proposed time varying acceleration coefficients PSO (TVACPSO) offers more accurate parameters than conventional PSO, teaching learning-based optimisation (TLBO) algorithm, imperialistic competitive algorithm (ICA), grey wolf optimisation (GWO), water cycle algorithm (WCA), pattern search (PS) and Newton algorithm. For validation of the proposed methodology, parameter estimation has been done both for
Vadivel, P.; Sakthivel, R.; Mathiyalagan, K.; Thangaraj, P.
2013-02-01
This paper addresses the problem of passivity analysis issue for a class of fuzzy bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters and time varying delays. A set of sufficient conditions for the passiveness of the considered fuzzy BAM neural network model is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities by using the delay fractioning technique together with the Lyapunov function approach. In addition, the uncertainties are inevitable in neural networks because of the existence of modeling errors and external disturbance. Further, this result is extended to study the robust passivity criteria for uncertain fuzzy BAM neural networks with time varying delays and uncertainties. These criteria are expressed in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be efficiently solved via standard numerical software. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.
Application of Hybrid Quantum Tabu Search with Support Vector Regression (SVR for Load Forecasting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng-Wen Lee
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Hybridizing chaotic evolutionary algorithms with support vector regression (SVR to improve forecasting accuracy is a hot topic in electricity load forecasting. Trapping at local optima and premature convergence are critical shortcomings of the tabu search (TS algorithm. This paper investigates potential improvements of the TS algorithm by applying quantum computing mechanics to enhance the search information sharing mechanism (tabu memory to improve the forecasting accuracy. This article presents an SVR-based load forecasting model that integrates quantum behaviors and the TS algorithm with the support vector regression model (namely SVRQTS to obtain a more satisfactory forecasting accuracy. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the alternatives.
Hou, Zhishuai; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; He, Feng; Liu, Qun; Wang, Jinhuan; Guan, Biao; Wang, Qinglong
2017-01-01
The primary goal of this study was to assess the effect of varying densities on serum reproductive parameters of immature rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental trout were maintained in intensive, pen-reared farms for 300 days in fresh water reservoirs. Initial densities were 4.6, 6.6, and 8.6 kg/m3 (40, 60, 80 ind./m3), indicated as SD1, SD2, SD3, and final densities were 31.1, 40.6, 49.3 kg/m3, respectively. A summary of the ovarian stages were observed by histological examination. Serum E2 (estradiol), T (testosterone) were evaluated by radioimmunoassay and FSH (follicle-stimulating-hormone), LH (luteinizing-hormone), vitellogenin, 17α,20β-P (17α,20βdihydroxy4-pregnen-3-one) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our findings demonstrated that ovarian development were retarded (from stage III to stage IV) at highest rearing density (SD3) after 180 days of intensive culture (over 40.6 kg/m3). In addition, we observed an inverse relationship between serum reproductive parameters and rearing density. Furthermore, compared to serum reproductive parameters of SD1, E2, T, FSH, vitellogenin, 17α,20β-P, GSI and LH of two higher density groups decreased firstly and significantly at 60 (over 15.9 kg/m 3 ), 180 (over 31.7 kg/m 3 ), 180 (over 40.6 kg/m3), 240 (over 36 kg/m3), 240 (over 36 kg/m3), 240 (over 45 kg/m3) and 300 (over 49.3 kg/m3) days, respectively. Comparing serum reproductive parameters within the same ovarian development stage of rainbow trout from varying densities revealed that higher population density also led to significantly lower overall serum reproductive parameters. Overall, this study presents the reproductive, endocrinological parameters of juvenile female rainbow trout at high rearing densities and indicates the need for rainbow trout (114.44±5.21 g, 19.69±0.31 cm) that are initially stocked at 6.6 or 8.6 kg/m3 should be classified and subdivided into lower density after 180 days of farming (not over 31.7 kg/m3).
Zhu, Suling; Lian, Xiuyuan; Wei, Lin; Che, Jinxing; Shen, Xiping; Yang, Ling; Qiu, Xuanlin; Liu, Xiaoning; Gao, Wenlong; Ren, Xiaowei; Li, Juansheng
2018-06-01
The PM2.5 is the culprit of air pollution, and it leads to respiratory system disease when the fine particles are inhaled. Therefore, it is increasingly significant to develop an effective model for PM2.5 forecasting and warnings that informs people to foresee the air quality. People can reduce outdoor activities and take preventive measures if they know the air quality is bad ahead of time. In addition, reliable forecasting results can remind the relevant departments to control and reduce pollutants discharge. According to our knowledge, the current hybrid forecasting techniques of PM2.5 do not take the meteorological factors into consideration. Actually, meteorological factors affect the concentrations of air pollution, but it is unclear whether meteorological factors are helpful for improving the PM2.5 forecasting results or not. This paper proposes a hybrid model called CEEMD-PSOGSA-SVR-GRNN, based on complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD), particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm (PSOGSA), support vector regression (SVR), generalized regression neural network (GRNN) and grey correlation analysis (GCA), for the daily PM2.5 concentrations forecasting. The main steps of proposed model are described as follows: the original PM2.5 data decomposition with CEEMD, optimal SVR selection with PSOGCA, meteorological factors selection with GCA, residual revision by GRNN and forecasting results analysis. Three cities (Chongqing, Harbin and Jinan) in China with different characteristics of climate, terrain and pollution sources are selected to verify the effectiveness of proposed model, and CEEMD-PSOGSA-SVR*, EEMD-PSOGSA-SVR, PSOGSA-SVR, CEEMD-PSO-SVR, CEEMD-GSA-SVR, CEEMD-GWO-SVR are considered to be compared models. The experimental results show that the hybrid CEEMD-PSOGSA-SVR-GRNN model outperforms other six compared models. Therefore, the proposed CEEMD-PSOGSA-SVR-GRNN model can be used to develop air quality forecasting and
Modification of textural and acidic properties of -SVR zeolite by desilication
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kubů, Martin; Opanasenko, Maksym; Shamzhy, Mariya
2014-01-01
Roč. 227, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 26-32 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-17593P Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : -SVR zeolite * desilication * hierarchical materials Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014
Lim, S. J.; Choi, R. K.; Ahn, K. D.; Ha, J. C.; Cho, C. H.
2014-12-01
As the Korea Meteorology Administration (KMA) has operated Met Office Global and Regional Ensemble Prediction System (MOGREPS) with introduction of Unified Model (UM), many attempts have been made to improve predictability in temperature forecast in last years. In this study, post-processing method of MOGREPS for surface temperature prediction is developed with machine learning over 52 locations in South Korea. Past 60-day lag time was used as a training phase of Support Vector Regression (SVR) method for surface temperature forecast model. The selected inputs for SVR are followings: date and surface temperatures from Numerical Weather prediction (NWP), such as GDAPS, individual 24 ensemble members, mean and median of ensemble members for every 3hours for 12 days.To verify the reliability of SVR-based ensemble prediction (SVR-EP), 93 days are used (from March 1 to May 31, 2014). The result yielded improvement of SVR-EP by RMSE value of 16 % throughout entire prediction period against conventional ensemble prediction (EP). In particular, short range predictability of SVR-EP resulted in 18.7% better RMSE for 1~3 day forecast. The mean temperature bias between SVR-EP and EP at all test locations showed around 0.36°C and 1.36°C, respectively. SVR-EP is currently extending for more vigorous sensitivity test, such as increasing training phase and optimizing machine learning model.
Online Energy Management of City Cars with Multi-Objective Linear Parameter-Varying L2-Gain Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boe-Shong Hong
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This work aims at online regulating transient current out of the batteries of small-sized electric cars that transport people and goods around cities. In a city with heavy traffic, transient current dominates the energy economy and propulsion capability, which are in opposition to each other. In order to manage the trade-off between energy consumption per distance and propulsion capability in transience, the authors improve on previous work on multi-objective linear parameter-varying (LPV L2-gain control. The observer embedded into this multi-objective controller no longer assumes Kalman-filtering structure, and structural conservatism is thus removed. A full-spectrum set of experiments is performed. The results reveal that the feedback design significantly improves energy-motion management.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lakshmanan, S.; Park, Ju H.; Jung, H. Y.; Balasubramaniam, P.
2012-01-01
This paper is concerned with a delay-dependent state estimator for neutral-type neural networks with mixed time-varying delays and Markovian jumping parameters. The addressed neural networks have a finite number of modes, and the modes may jump from one to another according to a Markov process. By construction of a suitable Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional, a delay-dependent condition is developed to estimate the neuron states through available output measurements such that the estimation error system is globally asymptotically stable in a mean square. The criterion is formulated in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be checked efficiently by use of some standard numerical packages
Belke, T W
2000-05-01
Six male Wistar rats were exposed to different orders of reinforcement schedules to investigate if estimates from Herrnstein's (1970) single-operant matching law equation would vary systematically with schedule order. Reinforcement schedules were arranged in orders of increasing and decreasing reinforcement rate. Subsequently, all rats were exposed to a single reinforcement schedule within a session to determine within-session changes in responding. For each condition, the operant was lever pressing and the reinforcing consequence was the opportunity to run for 15 s. Estimates of k and R(O) were higher when reinforcement schedules were arranged in order of increasing reinforcement rate. Within a session on a single reinforcement schedule, response rates increased between the beginning and the end of a session. A positive correlation between the difference in parameters between schedule orders and the difference in response rates within a session suggests that the within-session change in response rates may be related to the difference in the asymptotes. These results call into question the validity of parameter estimates from Herrnstein's (1970) equation when reinforcer efficacy changes within a session.
Sahoo, P. K.; Sahoo, Parbati; Bishi, Binaya K.; Aygün, Sezgin
2018-04-01
In this paper, we have studied homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I model with magnetized strange quark matter (MSQM) distribution and cosmological constant Λ in f(R, T) gravity where R is the Ricci scalar and T the trace of matter source. The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained under bilinear and special form of time varying deceleration parameter (DP). Firstly, we have considered two specific forms of bilinear DP with a single parameter of the form: q = α(1-t)/1+t and q = -αt/1+t, which leads to the constant or linear nature of the function based on the constant α. Second one is the special form of the DP as q = - 1 + β/1+aβ. From the results obtained here, one can observe that in the early universe magnetic flux has more effects and it reduces gradually in the later stage. For t → ∞, we get p → -Bc and ρ → Bc. The behaviour of strange quark matter along with magnetic epoch gives an idea of accelerated expansion of the universe as per the observations of the type Ia Supernovae.
Blasques, F.; Koopman, S.J.; Lasak, K.A.; Lucas, A.
2016-01-01
We study the performances of alternative methods for calculating in-sample confidence and out-of-sample forecast bands for time-varying parameters. The in-sample bands reflect parameter uncertainty, while the out-of-sample bands reflect not only parameter uncertainty, but also innovation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Y. Gasso
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The grass snake Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758 is a partly hygrophilous species, distributed throughoutUkraine. This snake may be considered as a test object for environmental biomonitoring. Modern biochemical methods make it possible to obtain new scientific data on the effects of anthropogenic pressure on reptiles. Blood is a sensitive and informative indicator of the condition of an organism as it responds quickly to most changes in exogenous and endogenous factors, and reflects negative influences on both individual and, indirectly, populations. Changes in biochemical parameters may be used as biomarkers of the state of health of reptiles in ecosystems under varying degrees of anthropogenic pressure. Due the increase in anthropogenic influence the development and introduction of new methods of perceptual research, collection of up-to-date information and development of a database of reptile biochemical parameters have become an urgent priority. We collected mature individuals of the grass snake in floodplain ecosystems on the right bank of the Dnieper River in Dnipropetrovsk city. Grass snakes from floodplain habitats on the left bank of theSamaraRiver (O.L. Belgard Prysamarskii International Biosphere Station, Novomoskovsk district, Dnipropetrovsk province were studied as the control specimens. Our study demonstrated statistically significant differences between snakes from the study sites in the amount of albumin, urea and urea nitrogen, and inorganic phosphorus, as well as in alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatise (AP activity. The amount of albumin in the blood serum of specimens from the anthropogenically transformed areas was significantly lower (by 25% than in that of the snakes caught in the control habitats. Decrease of the albumin concentration usually indicates abnormal processes in the kidneys and liver. According to the changes observed in the concentration of albumin, a corresponding increase in the albumin to
Ahmed, Shamim; Miorelli, Roberto; Calmon, Pierre; Anselmi, Nicola; Salucci, Marco
2018-04-01
This paper describes Learning-By-Examples (LBE) technique for performing quasi real time flaw localization and characterization within a conductive tube based on Eddy Current Testing (ECT) signals. Within the framework of LBE, the combination of full-factorial (i.e., GRID) sampling and Partial Least Squares (PLS) feature extraction (i.e., GRID-PLS) techniques are applied for generating a suitable training set in offine phase. Support Vector Regression (SVR) is utilized for model development and inversion during offine and online phases, respectively. The performance and robustness of the proposed GIRD-PLS/SVR strategy on noisy test set is evaluated and compared with standard GRID/SVR approach.
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Zhi-Sai Ma
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Modal parameter estimation plays an important role in vibration-based damage detection and is worth more attention and investigation, as changes in modal parameters are usually being used as damage indicators. This paper focuses on the problem of output-only modal parameter recursive estimation of time-varying structures based upon parameterized representations of the time-dependent autoregressive moving average (TARMA. A kernel ridge regression functional series TARMA (FS-TARMA recursive identification scheme is proposed and subsequently employed for the modal parameter estimation of a numerical three-degree-of-freedom time-varying structural system and a laboratory time-varying structure consisting of a simply supported beam and a moving mass sliding on it. The proposed method is comparatively assessed against an existing recursive pseudolinear regression FS-TARMA approach via Monte Carlo experiments and shown to be capable of accurately tracking the time-varying dynamics in a recursive manner.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2010-01-01
Results are presented for optimal layout of materials in the spatial and temporal domains for a 1D structure subjected to transient wave propagation. A general optimization procedure is outlined including derivation of design sensitivities for the case when the mass density and stiffness vary...
SVR-based prediction of carbon emissions from energy consumption in Henan Province
Gou, Guohua
2018-02-01
This paper analyzes the advantage of support vector regression (SVR) in the prediction of carbon emission and establishes the SVR-based carbon emission prediction model. The model is established using the data of Henan’s carbon emissions and influence factors from the 1991 to 2016 to train and test and then predict the carbon emissions from 2017 to 2021. The results show that: from the perspective of carbon emission from energy consumption, it raised 224.876 million tons of carbon dioxide from 1991 to 2016, and the predicted increment from 2017 to 2021 is 30.5563million tons with an average annual growth rate at 3%. From the perspective of growth rate among the six factors related to carbon emissions it is proved that population urbanization rate per capital GDP and energy consumption per unit of GDP influences the growth rate of carbon emissions less than the proportion of secondary industry and coal consumption ratio of carbon. Finally some suggestions are proposed for the carbon emission reduction of Henan Province.
Multiobjective Optimization for Fixture Locating Layout of Sheet Metal Part Using SVR and NSGA-II
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan Yang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Fixture plays a significant role in determining the sheet metal part (SMP spatial position and restraining its excessive deformation in many manufacturing operations. However, it is still a difficult task to design and optimize SMP fixture locating layout at present because there exist multiple conflicting objectives and excessive computational cost of finite element analysis (FEA during the optimization process. To this end, a new multiobjective optimization method for SMP fixture locating layout is proposed in this paper based on the support vector regression (SVR surrogate model and the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. By using ABAQUS™ Python script interface, a parametric FEA model is established. And the fixture locating layout is treated as design variables, while the overall deformation and maximum deformation of SMP under external forces are as the multiple objective functions. First, a limited number of training and testing samples are generated by combining Latin hypercube design (LHD with FEA. Second, two SVR prediction models corresponding to the multiple objectives are established by learning from the limited training samples and are integrated as the multiobjective optimization surrogate model. Third, NSGA-II is applied to determine the Pareto optimal solutions of SMP fixture locating layout. Finally, a multiobjective optimization for fixture locating layout of an aircraft fuselage skin case is conducted to illustrate and verify the proposed method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, Shubha, E-mail: shubhamishra03@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain (M. P.) (India); Limaye, S. N., E-mail: snl222@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Dr. H.S. Gour University, A Central University, Sagar (M.P.) (India)
2015-07-31
It is said that the -4f shells behave as core and are least perturbed by changes around metal ion surrounding. However, there are evidences that-4f shells partially involved in direct moderator interaction. A systematic investigation on the plasmonic (electronic) spectral studies of some Rare Earths[RE(III).Mod] where, RE(III) = Pr(III),Nd(III) and Mod(moderator) = Y(III),La(III),Gd(III) and Lu(III), increased moderator concentration from 0.01 mol dm{sup −3} to 0.025 mol dm{sup −3} keeping the metal ion concentration at 0.01mol dm{sup −3} have been carried out. Variations in oscillator strengths (f), Judd-Ofelt parameters (T{sub λ}),inter-electronic repulsion Racah parameters (δE{sup k}),nephelauxetic ratio (β), radiative parameters (S{sub ED},A{sub T},β{sub R},T{sub R}). The values of oscillator strengths and Judd-Ofelt parameters have been discussed in the light of coordination number of RE(III) metal ions, denticity and basicity of the moderators. The [RE(III).Mod] bonding pattern has been studies in the light of the change in Racah parameters and nephelauxetic ratio.
Vachálek, Ján
2011-12-01
The paper compares the abilities of forgetting methods to track time varying parameters of two different simulated models with different types of excitation. The observed parameters in the simulations are the integral sum of the Euclidean norm, deviation of the parameter estimates from their true values and a selected band prediction error count. As supplementary information, we observe the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. In the paper we used a modified method of Regularized Exponential Forgetting with Alternative Covariance Matrix (REFACM) along with Directional Forgetting (DF) and three standard regularized methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, D.; Mahapatra, G.S.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We study a delayed two species competitive system with imprecise biological parameters. • We consider impreciseness in the form of interval number. • We introduce parametric functional form of interval number to study the model. • We study the effect of toxicant and time delay under impreciseness. • We discuss the chaotic behavior of the model. - Abstract: We have studied the combined effect of toxicant and fluctuation of the biological parameters on the dynamical behaviors of a delayed two-species competitive system with imprecise biological parameters. Due to the global increase of harmful phytoplankton blooms, the study of dynamic interactions between two competing phytoplankton species in the presence of toxic substances is an active field of research now days. The ordinary mathematical formulation of models for two competing phytoplankton species, when one or both the species liberate toxic substances, is unable to capture the oscillatory and highly variable growth of phytoplankton populations. The deterministic model never predicts the sudden localized behavior of certain species. These obstacles of mathematical modeling can be overcomed if we include interval variability of biological parameters in our modeling approach. In this investigation, we construct imprecise models of allelopathic interactions between two competing phytoplankton species as a parametric differential equation model. We incorporate the effect of toxicant on the species in two different cases known as toxic inhibition and toxic stimulatory system. We have discussed the existence of various equilibrium points and stability of the system at these equilibrium points. In case of toxic stimulatory system, the delay model exhibits a stable limit cycle oscillation. Analytical findings are supported through exhaustive numerical simulations.
Zhou, Si-Da; Ma, Yuan-Chen; Liu, Li; Kang, Jie; Ma, Zhi-Sai; Yu, Lei
2018-01-01
Identification of time-varying modal parameters contributes to the structural health monitoring, fault detection, vibration control, etc. of the operational time-varying structural systems. However, it is a challenging task because there is not more information for the identification of the time-varying systems than that of the time-invariant systems. This paper presents a vector time-dependent autoregressive model and least squares support vector machine based modal parameter estimator for linear time-varying structural systems in case of output-only measurements. To reduce the computational cost, a Wendland's compactly supported radial basis function is used to achieve the sparsity of the Gram matrix. A Gamma-test-based non-parametric approach of selecting the regularization factor is adapted for the proposed estimator to replace the time-consuming n-fold cross validation. A series of numerical examples have illustrated the advantages of the proposed modal parameter estimator on the suppression of the overestimate and the short data. A laboratory experiment has further validated the proposed estimator.
Astuti, Yuniar Andi
2011-01-01
This study examines techniques Support Vector Regression and Decision Tree C4.5 has been used in studies in various fields, in order to know the advantages and disadvantages of both techniques that appear in Data Mining. From the ten studies that use both techniques, the results of the analysis showed that the accuracy of the SVR technique for 59,64% and C4.5 for 76,97% So in this study obtained a statement that C4.5 is better than SVR 097038020
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macabebe, E.Q.B. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Sheppard, C.J. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van, E-mail: ernest.vandyk@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)
2009-12-01
In pursuit of low-cost and highly efficient thin film solar cells, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}/CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al (CIGSS) solar cells were fabricated using a two-step process. The thickness of i-ZnO layer was varied from 0 to 454 nm. The current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of the devices were measured, and the device and performance parameters of the solar cells were obtained from the J-V curves to analyze the effect of varying i-ZnO layer thickness. The device parameters were determined using a parameter extraction method that utilized particle swarm optimization. The method is a curve-fitting routine that employed the two-diode model. The J-V curves of the solar cells were fitted with the model and the parameters were determined. Results show that as the thickness of i-ZnO was increased, the average efficiency and the fill factor (FF) of the solar cells increase. Device parameters reveal that although the series resistance increased with thicker i-ZnO layer, the solar cells absorbed more photons resulting in higher short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and, consequently, higher photo-generated current density (J{sub L}). For solar cells with 303-454 nm-thick i-ZnO layer, the best devices achieved efficiency between 15.24% and 15.73% and the fill factor varied between 0.65 and 0.67.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macabebe, E.Q.B.; Sheppard, C.J.; Dyk, E.E. van
2009-01-01
In pursuit of low-cost and highly efficient thin film solar cells, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 /CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al (CIGSS) solar cells were fabricated using a two-step process. The thickness of i-ZnO layer was varied from 0 to 454 nm. The current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of the devices were measured, and the device and performance parameters of the solar cells were obtained from the J-V curves to analyze the effect of varying i-ZnO layer thickness. The device parameters were determined using a parameter extraction method that utilized particle swarm optimization. The method is a curve-fitting routine that employed the two-diode model. The J-V curves of the solar cells were fitted with the model and the parameters were determined. Results show that as the thickness of i-ZnO was increased, the average efficiency and the fill factor (FF) of the solar cells increase. Device parameters reveal that although the series resistance increased with thicker i-ZnO layer, the solar cells absorbed more photons resulting in higher short-circuit current density (J sc ) and, consequently, higher photo-generated current density (J L ). For solar cells with 303-454 nm-thick i-ZnO layer, the best devices achieved efficiency between 15.24% and 15.73% and the fill factor varied between 0.65 and 0.67.
Predictive validity of the SVR-20 and Static-99 in a Dutch sample of treated sex offenders
de Vogel, V.; de Ruiter, C.; van Beek, D.; Mead, G.
2004-01-01
In this retrospective study, the interrater reliability and redictive validity of 2 risk assessment instruments for sexual violence are presented. The SVR-20, an instrument for structured professional judgment, and the Static-99, an actuarial risk assessment instrument, were coded from file
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lilian Huang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A new Lorenz-like chaotic system with varying parameter is proposed by adding a state feedback function. The structure of the new designed system is simple and has more complex dynamic behaviors. The chaos behavior of the new system is studied by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. And the bifurcation diagram shows a chaos-cycle-chaos evolution when the new parameter changes. Then a new synchronization scheme by a single state variable drive is given based on the new system and a chaotic parameter modulation digital secure communication system is also constructed. The results of simulation demonstrate that the new proposed system could be well applied in secure communication. Otherwise, based on the new system, the encryption and decryption of image could be achieved also.
Development of Easily Accessible Electricity Consumption Model Using Open Data and GA-SVR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seunghyeon Wang
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In many countries, DR (Demand Response has been developed for which customers are motivated to save electricity by themselves during peak time to prevent grand-scale blackouts. One of the common methods in DR, is CPP (Critical Peak Pricing. Predicting energy consumption is recognized as one of the tool for dealing with CPP. There are a variety of studies in developing the model of energy consumption, which is based on energy simulation, data-driven model or metamodelling. However, it is difficult for general users to use these models due to requirement of various sensing data and expertise. And it also takes long time to simulate the models. These limitations can be an obstacle for achieving CPP’s purpose that encourages general users to manage their energy usage by themselves. As an alternative, this research suggests to use open data and GA (Genetic Algorithm–SVR (Support Vector Regression. The model is applied to a hospital in Korea and 34,636 data sets (1 year are collected while 31,756 (11 months sets are used for training and 2880 sets (1 month are used for validation. As a result, the performance of proposed model is 14.17% in CV (RMSE, which satisfies the Korea Energy Agency’s and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers error allowance range of ±30%, and ±20% respectively.
Qi, Yafei; Zhao, Jun; An, Rui; Zhang, Juan; Liang, Shuang; Shao, Jingxia; Liu, Xiayan; An, Lijun; Yu, Fei
2016-03-01
Leaf variegation mutants constitute a unique group of chloroplast development mutants and are ideal genetic materials to dissect the regulation of chloroplast development. We have utilized the Arabidopsis yellow variegated (var2) mutant and genetic suppressor analysis to probe the mechanisms of chloroplast development. Here we report the isolation of a new var2 suppressor locus SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION (SVR10). Genetic mapping and molecular complementation indicated that SVR10 encodes a circularly permuted GTPase that has been reported as Arabidopsis thaliana NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED 1 (AtNOA1) and RESISTANT TO INHIBITION BY FOSMIDOMYCIN 1 (RIF1). Biochemical evidence showed that SVR10/AtNOA1/RIF1 likely localizes to the chloroplast stroma. We further demonstrate that the mutant of a close homologue of SVR10/AtNOA1/RIF1, BRASSINAZOLE INSENSITIVE PALE GREEN 2 (BPG2), can also suppress var2 leaf variegation. Mutants of SVR10 and BPG2 are impaired in photosynthesis and the accumulation of chloroplast proteins. Interestingly, two-dimensional blue native gel analysis showed that mutants of SVR10 and BPG2 display defects in the assembly of thylakoid membrane complexes including reduced levels of major photosynthetic complexes and the abnormal accumulation of a chlorophyll-protein supercomplex containing photosystem I. Taken together, our findings suggest that SVR10 and BPG2 are functionally related with VAR2, likely through their potential roles in regulating chloroplast protein homeostasis, and both SVR10 and BPG2 are required for efficient thylakoid protein complex assembly and photosynthesis.
Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew
2015-02-01
stochastic subspace identification (SSI) and linear parameter time-varying (LPTV) techniques. Structural response is assumed to be stationary ambient excitation produced by a Gaussian (white) noise within the operative range bandwidth of the machinery or structure in study. ERA-OKID analysis is driven by correlation-function matrices from the stationary ambient response aiming to reduce noise effects. Singular value decomposition (SVD) and eigenvalue analysis are computed in a last stage to identify frequencies and complex-valued mode shapes. Proposed assumptions are carefully weighted to account for the uncertainty of the environment. A numerical example is carried out based a spinning finite element (SFE) model, and verified using ANSYS® Ver. 12. Finally, comments and observations are provided on how this subspace realization technique can be extended to the problem of modal-parameter identification using only ambient vibration data.
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Seyedehelham Sadatiseyedmahalleh
2016-02-01
Full Text Available This research examines and proves this effectiveness connected with artificial neural networks (ANNs as an alternative approach to the use of Support Vector Machine (SVR in the tourism research. This method can be used for the tourism industry to define the turism’s demands in Iran. The outcome reveals the use of ANNs in tourism research might result in better quotations when it comes to prediction bias and accuracy. Even more applications of ANNs in the context of tourism demand evaluation is needed to establish and validate the effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Bagher Abolhasani Jabali
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Detecting critical power system events for Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA is required for reliability improvement. The approach proposed in this paper investigates the effects of events on dynamic behavior during nonlinear system response while common approaches use steady-state conditions after events. This paper presents some new and enhanced indices for event ranking based on time-domain simulation and polytopic linear parameter-varying (LPV modeling of a power system. In the proposed approach, a polytopic LPV representation is generated via linearization about some points of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of power system using wide-area measurement system (WAMS concepts and then event ranking is done based on the frequency response of the system models on the vertices. Therefore, the nonlinear behaviors of the system in the time of fault occurrence are considered for events ranking. The proposed algorithm is applied to a power system using nonlinear simulation. The comparison of the results especially in different fault conditions shows the advantages of the proposed approach and indices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ColIn, Pedro; Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Valenzuela, Octavio; Ceverino, Daniel
2010-01-01
We present numerical simulations aimed at exploring the effects of varying the sub-grid physics parameters on the evolution and the properties of the galaxy formed in a low-mass dark matter halo (∼7 x 10 10 h -1 M sun at redshift z = 0). The simulations are run within a cosmological setting with a nominal resolution of 218 pc comoving and are stopped at z = 0.43. For simulations that cannot resolve individual molecular clouds, we propose the criterion that the threshold density for star formation, n SF , should be chosen such that the column density of the star-forming cells equals the threshold value for molecule formation, N ∼ 10 21 cm -2 , or ∼8 M sun pc -2 . In all of our simulations, an extended old/intermediate-age stellar halo and a more compact younger stellar disk are formed, and in most cases, the halo's specific angular momentum is slightly larger than that of the galaxy, and sensitive to the SF/feedback parameters. We found that a non-negligible fraction of the halo stars are formed in situ in a spheroidal distribution. Changes in the sub-grid physics parameters affect significantly and in a complex way the evolution and properties of the galaxy: (1) lower threshold densities n SF produce larger stellar effective radii R e , less peaked circular velocity curves V c (R), and greater amounts of low-density and hot gas in the disk mid-plane; (2) when stellar feedback is modeled by temporarily switching off radiative cooling in the star-forming regions, R e increases (by a factor of ∼2 in our particular model), the circular velocity curve becomes flatter, and a complex multi-phase gaseous disk structure develops; (3) a more efficient local conversion of gas mass to stars, measured by a stellar particle mass distribution biased toward larger values, increases the strength of the feedback energy injection-driving outflows and inducing burstier SF histories; (4) if feedback is too strong, gas loss by galactic outflows-which are easier to produce in low
He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Dong, Hongxing
2014-12-01
Gabor descriptors have been widely used in iris texture representations. However, fixed basic Gabor functions cannot match the changing nature of diverse iris datasets. Furthermore, a single form of iris feature cannot overcome difficulties in iris recognition, such as illumination variations, environmental conditions, and device variations. This paper provides multiple local feature representations and their fusion scheme based on a support vector regression (SVR) model for iris recognition using optimized Gabor filters. In our iris system, a particle swarm optimization (PSO)- and a Boolean particle swarm optimization (BPSO)-based algorithm is proposed to provide suitable Gabor filters for each involved test dataset without predefinition or manual modulation. Several comparative experiments on JLUBR-IRIS, CASIA-I, and CASIA-V4-Interval iris datasets are conducted, and the results show that our work can generate improved local Gabor features by using optimized Gabor filters for each dataset. In addition, our SVR fusion strategy may make full use of their discriminative ability to improve accuracy and reliability. Other comparative experiments show that our approach may outperform other popular iris systems.
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Ángela Tapias Saldaña
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Esta investigación, de tipo exploratorio, cuenta con un diseño no experimental y transversal o transeccional; tuvo por objeto determinar si los instrumentos de evaluación psicológica forense HCR-20 y SVR-20 discriminan entre un grupo de reincidentes en delitos de acceso carnal violento y un grupo de sujetos judicializados por delitos menores. Hubo presencia de los indicadores, tanto del HCR-20 como del SVR-20, en los grupos. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en los puntajes de los grupos para el SVR- 20, pero no para el HCR-20. Finalmente, se observaron nuevos factores de riesgo, que podrían incluirse en instrumentos forenses.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pattisahusiwa, Asis [Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia); Liong, The Houw; Purqon, Acep [Earth physics and complex systems research group, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)
2015-09-30
Seismo-Ionospheric is a study of ionosphere disturbances associated with seismic activities. In many previous researches, heliogeomagnetic or strong earthquake activities can caused the disturbances in the ionosphere. However, it is difficult to separate these disturbances based on related sources. In this research, we proposed a method to separate these disturbances/outliers by using nu-SVR with the world-wide GPS data. TEC data related to the 26th December 2004 Sumatra and the 11th March 2011 Honshu earthquakes had been analyzed. After analyzed TEC data in several location around the earthquake epicenter and compared with geomagnetic data, the method shows a good result in the average to detect the source of these outliers. This method is promising to use in the future research.
Yu, Wenwu; Cao, Jinde
2007-09-01
Parameter identification of dynamical systems from time series has received increasing interest due to its wide applications in secure communication, pattern recognition, neural networks, and so on. Given the driving system, parameters can be estimated from the time series by using an adaptive control algorithm. Recently, it has been reported that for some stable systems, in which parameters are difficult to be identified [Li et al., Phys Lett. A 333, 269-270 (2004); Remark 5 in Yu and Cao, Physica A 375, 467-482 (2007); and Li et al., Chaos 17, 038101 (2007)], and in this paper, a brief discussion about whether parameters can be identified from time series is investigated. From some detailed analyses, the problem of why parameters of stable systems can be hardly estimated is discussed. Some interesting examples are drawn to verify the proposed analysis.
Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Takahashi, Koji; Wu, Shuang; Sasaki, Reina; Haga, Yuki; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Saito, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Kazufumi; Kiyono, Soichiro; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Imazeki, Fumio; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Naoya
2018-02-20
Interferon-free treatment can achieve higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates, even in patients in whom hepatitis C virus (HCV) could not be eradicated in the interferon treatment era. Immune restoration in the liver is occasionally associated with HCV infection. We examined the safety and effects of interferon-free regimens on HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. All 7 HCV patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) completed treatment and achieved SVR. Three patients took prednisolone (PSL) at baseline, and 3 did not take PSL during interferon-free treatment. In one HCV patient with AIH and cirrhosis, PSL were not administered at baseline, but she needed to take 40 mg/day PSL at week 8 for liver dysfunction. She also complained back pain and was diagnosed with vasospastic angina by coronary angiography at week 11. However, she completed interferon-free treatment. All 5 HCV patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) completed treatment and achieved SVR. Three of these HCV patients with PBC were treated with UDCA during interferon-free treatment. Interferon-free regimens could result in higher SVR rates in HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. As interferon-free treatment for HCV may have an effect on hepatic immunity and activity of the autoimmune liver diseases, careful attention should be paid to unexpected adverse events in their treatments. Total 12 patients with HCV and autoimmune liver diseases [7 AIH and PBC], who were treated with interferon-free regimens, were retrospectively analyzed.
Nayyar, Ashish; Sharma, Dilip; Soni, Shyam Lal; Mathur, Alok
2017-09-01
The continuous rise in the cost of fossil fuels as well as in environmental pollution has attracted research in the area of clean alternative fuels for improving the performance and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines. In the present work, n-butanol is treated as a bio-fuel and investigations have been made to evaluate the feasibility of replacing diesel with a suitable n-butanol-diesel blend. In the current research, an experimental investigation was carried out on a variable compression ratio CI engine with n-butanol-diesel blends (10-25% by volume) to determine the optimum blending ratio and optimum operating parameters of the engine for reduced emissions. The best results of performance and emissions were observed for 20% n-butanol-diesel blend (B20) at a higher compression ratio as compared to diesel while keeping the other parameters unchanged. The observed deterioration in engine performance was within tolerable limits. The reductions in smoke, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and carbon monoxide (CO) were observed up to 56.52, 17.19, and 30.43%, respectively, for B20 in comparison to diesel at rated power. However, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrocarbons (HC) were found to be higher by 17.58 and 15.78%, respectively, for B20. It is concluded that n-butanol-diesel blend would be a potential fuel to control emissions from diesel engines. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu, E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)
2013-06-10
A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Đorđević Sanela M.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized with a novel natural alkyl polyglucoside surfactant and to compare them with corresponding lecithin/polysorbate 80 - based nanoemulsions in terms of physicochemical properties and physical stability. Nanoemulsions were prepared by high pressure homogenization, using 20, 30 and 40% (w/w medium chain triglyceride as oil phase, and 4, 6 and 8% (w/w lecithin/polysorbate 80 mixture (1/1 or caprylyl/capryl glucoside as emulsifiers. The influence of emulsifier type, emulsifier concentration and oil content was investigated with respect to changes in particle size, particle size distribution, surface charge and physical stability. The influence of production parameters (number of homogenization cycles, type of homogenization process, homogenization pressure on particle size was also investigated. Analysis was performed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction, zeta potential, pH and electrical conductivity measurements. All formulations produced revealed a small droplet size ranging from 147 to 228 nm and a very narrow size distribution (polydispersity index range 0,072-0,124. Zeta potentials were about -20 mV and -50 mV for nanoemulsions stabilized with lecithin/polysorbate 80 and caprylyl/capryl glucoside, respectively. The results obtained during the stability studies (6 months at 25°C and 1 month at 40°C indicated that nanoemulsion stability was influenced by their composition. Acquired results also suggested the most appropriate production parameters: 9 homogenization cycles, homogenization pressure of 500 bar and discontinuous process of homogenization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ziyan Cai
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS has shown wide applications for treating various disorders in the central nervous system by using high frequency stimulation (HFS sequences of electrical pulses. However, upon the onset of HFS sequences, the narrow pulses could induce synchronous firing of action potentials among large populations of neurons and cause a transient phase of “onset response” that is different from the subsequent steady state. To investigate the transient onset phase, the antidromically-evoked population spikes (APS were used as an electrophysiological marker to evaluate the synchronous neuronal reactions to axonal HFS in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats. New stimulation paradigms with time-varying intensity and frequency were developed to suppress the “onset responses”. Results show that HFS paradigms with ramp-up intensity at the onset phase could suppress large APS potentials. In addition, an intensity ramp with a slower ramp-up rate or with a higher pulse frequency had greater suppression on APS amplitudes. Therefore, to reach a desired pulse intensity rapidly, a stimulation paradigm combining elevated frequency and ramp-up intensity was used to shorten the transition phase of initial HFS without evoking large APS potentials. The results of the study provide important clues for certain transient side effects of DBS and for development of new adaptive stimulation paradigms.
Yan, Yilong; Zhang, Liqiu; Feng, Li; Sun, Dezhi; Dang, Yan
2018-01-01
In this study, the potential ecological risk of heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, Cr) accumulation from anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure (CM) and corn stover (CS) was evaluated by comparing different initial substrate concentrations, digestion temperatures, and mixture ratios. Results showed that the highest volumetric methane yield of 20.3±1.4L/L reactor was achieved with a CS:CM ratio of 3:1 (on volatile solid basis) in mesophilic solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). Although co-digestion increased the concentrations of all tested heavy metals and the direct toxicity of some heavy metals, the potential ecological risk index indicated that the digestates were all classified as low ecological risk. The biogasification and risk variation of heavy metals were affected by the operating parameters. These results are significant and should be taken into consideration when optimizing co-digestion of animal manure and crop residues during full-scale projects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Detection of Buried Objects by Means of a SAP Technique: Comparing MUSIC- and SVR-Based Approaches
Meschino, S.; Pajewski, L.; Pastorino, M.; Randazzo, A.; Schettini, G.
2012-04-01
This work is focused on the application of a Sub-Array Processing (SAP) technique to the detection of metallic cylindrical objects embedded in a dielectric half-space. The identification of buried cables, pipes, conduits, and other cylindrical utilities, is an important problem that has been extensively studied in the last years. Most commonly used approaches are based on the use of electromagnetic sensing: a set of antennas illuminates the ground and the collected echo is analyzed in order to extract information about the scenario and to localize the sought objects [1]. In a SAP approach, algorithms for the estimation of Directions of Arrival (DOAs) are employed [2]: they assume that the sources (in this paper, currents induced on buried targets) are in the far-field region of the receiving array, so that the received wavefront can be considered as planar, and the main angular direction of the field can be estimated. However, in electromagnetic sensing of buried objects, the scatterers are usually quite near to the antennas. Nevertheless, by dividing the whole receiving array in a suitable number of sub-arrays, and by finding a dominant DOA for each one, it is possible to localize objects that are in the far-field of the sub-array, although being in the near-field of the array. The DOAs found by the sub-arrays can be triangulated, obtaining a set of crossings with intersections condensed around object locations. In this work, the performances of two different DOA algorithms are compared. In particular, a MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC)-type method [3] and Support Vector Regression (SVR) based approach [4] are employed. The results of a Cylindrical-Wave Approach forward solver are used as input data of the detection procedure [5]. To process the crossing pattern, the region of interest is divided in small windows, and a Poisson model is adopted for the statistical distribution of intersections in the windows. Hypothesis testing procedures are used (imposing
Linear Parameter Varying Control for Actuator Failure
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shin, Jong-Yeob
2002-01-01
.... The estimates are provided on-line by a two-stage Kalman estimator. The inherent conservatism of the LPV design is reducing through the use of a scaling factor on the uncertainty block that represents the estimation errors of the effectiveness factors...
Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K
2007-01-01
The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jianzhou; Zhu Wenjin; Zhang Wenyu; Sun Donghuai
2009-01-01
Short-term electricity demand forecasting has always been an essential instrument in power system planning and operation by which an electric utility plans and dispatches loading so as to meet system demand. The accuracy of the dispatching system, derived from the accuracy of demand forecasting and the forecasting algorithm used, will determines the economic of the power system operation as well as the stability of the whole society. This paper presents a combined ε-SVR model considering seasonal proportions based on development tendencies from history data. We use one-order moving averages to produce a comparatively smooth data series, taking the averaging period as the interval that can effectively eliminate the seasonal variation. We used the smoothed data series as the training set input for the ε-SVR model and obtained the corresponding forecasting value. Afterward, we accounted for the previously removed seasonal variation. As a case, we forecast northeast electricity demand of China using the new method. We demonstrated that this simple procedure has very satisfactory overall performance by an analysis of variance with relative verification and validation. Significant reductions in forecast errors were achieved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Jianzhou [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhu Wenjin, E-mail: crying.1@hotmail.co [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Wenyu [College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Sun Donghuai [Key Laboratory of Western Chinas Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education) College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2009-11-15
Short-term electricity demand forecasting has always been an essential instrument in power system planning and operation by which an electric utility plans and dispatches loading so as to meet system demand. The accuracy of the dispatching system, derived from the accuracy of demand forecasting and the forecasting algorithm used, will determines the economic of the power system operation as well as the stability of the whole society. This paper presents a combined epsilon-SVR model considering seasonal proportions based on development tendencies from history data. We use one-order moving averages to produce a comparatively smooth data series, taking the averaging period as the interval that can effectively eliminate the seasonal variation. We used the smoothed data series as the training set input for the epsilon-SVR model and obtained the corresponding forecasting value. Afterward, we accounted for the previously removed seasonal variation. As a case, we forecast northeast electricity demand of China using the new method. We demonstrated that this simple procedure has very satisfactory overall performance by an analysis of variance with relative verification and validation. Significant reductions in forecast errors were achieved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jianzhou; Zhu, Wenjin [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Wenyu [College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Sun, Donghuai [Key Laboratory of Western Chinas Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education) College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2009-11-15
Short-term electricity demand forecasting has always been an essential instrument in power system planning and operation by which an electric utility plans and dispatches loading so as to meet system demand. The accuracy of the dispatching system, derived from the accuracy of demand forecasting and the forecasting algorithm used, will determines the economic of the power system operation as well as the stability of the whole society. This paper presents a combined {epsilon}-SVR model considering seasonal proportions based on development tendencies from history data. We use one-order moving averages to produce a comparatively smooth data series, taking the averaging period as the interval that can effectively eliminate the seasonal variation. We used the smoothed data series as the training set input for the {epsilon}-SVR model and obtained the corresponding forecasting value. Afterward, we accounted for the previously removed seasonal variation. As a case, we forecast northeast electricity demand of China using the new method. We demonstrated that this simple procedure has very satisfactory overall performance by an analysis of variance with relative verification and validation. Significant reductions in forecast errors were achieved. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayorinde David Adeniran
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this experiment, the effect of varying dietary levels of fermented castor oil seed meal (FCSM and different methionine sources (DL-methionine and herbal methionine on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broilers. A total of 240 one-day-old Anak broiler chicks were used in the experiment lasted 56 days. The dietary experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 dietary levels of FCSM (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg and 2 methionine sources (DL-methionine and herbal methionine. The birds were weighed and randomly distributed into 8 treatments with 3 replicates of 10 birds each. During the starter phase of the experiment, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and eosinophil counts were higher (P
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Huaiguang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-08-25
This work proposes an approach for distribution system load forecasting, which aims to provide highly accurate short-term load forecasting with high resolution utilizing a support vector regression (SVR) based forecaster and a two-step hybrid parameters optimization method. Specifically, because the load profiles in distribution systems contain abrupt deviations, a data normalization is designed as the pretreatment for the collected historical load data. Then an SVR model is trained by the load data to forecast the future load. For better performance of SVR, a two-step hybrid optimization algorithm is proposed to determine the best parameters. In the first step of the hybrid optimization algorithm, a designed grid traverse algorithm (GTA) is used to narrow the parameters searching area from a global to local space. In the second step, based on the result of the GTA, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to determine the best parameters in the local parameter space. After the best parameters are determined, the SVR model is used to forecast the short-term load deviation in the distribution system.
Balabin, Roman M; Lomakina, Ekaterina I
2011-04-21
In this study, we make a general comparison of the accuracy and robustness of five multivariate calibration models: partial least squares (PLS) regression or projection to latent structures, polynomial partial least squares (Poly-PLS) regression, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and two novel techniques based on support vector machines (SVMs) for multivariate data analysis: support vector regression (SVR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs). The comparison is based on fourteen (14) different datasets: seven sets of gasoline data (density, benzene content, and fractional composition/boiling points), two sets of ethanol gasoline fuel data (density and ethanol content), one set of diesel fuel data (total sulfur content), three sets of petroleum (crude oil) macromolecules data (weight percentages of asphaltenes, resins, and paraffins), and one set of petroleum resins data (resins content). Vibrational (near-infrared, NIR) spectroscopic data are used to predict the properties and quality coefficients of gasoline, biofuel/biodiesel, diesel fuel, and other samples of interest. The four systems presented here range greatly in composition, properties, strength of intermolecular interactions (e.g., van der Waals forces, H-bonds), colloid structure, and phase behavior. Due to the high diversity of chemical systems studied, general conclusions about SVM regression methods can be made. We try to answer the following question: to what extent can SVM-based techniques replace ANN-based approaches in real-world (industrial/scientific) applications? The results show that both SVR and LS-SVM methods are comparable to ANNs in accuracy. Due to the much higher robustness of the former, the SVM-based approaches are recommended for practical (industrial) application. This has been shown to be especially true for complicated, highly nonlinear objects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Nabarun; Chakraborti, Prasun; Belkar, Sanjay
2016-01-01
This paper presents both analytical and experimental pressure analysis approach of a typical Lobe and plain bearing for determining effective performance of the bearing. This is found to be dependent on several variables viz. angular velocity (1200-1900 rpm), load (300- 750 N) and pressure angle (0.deg.-180.deg.). This study in particular has been carried out for better rectifications and comparative prediction of lobe and plain bearing in terms of pressure distribution behavior under lubrication oil grade of SAE20W40. Influencing parameters were varied in this set up only to get optimum parametric combination considering all relevant practical issues. The experimentation was done based on significant directives of relevant literatures in these sectors. Attempt was made to compare the analytical findings with experimental results and found matched appreciably. After that attention was diverted to find the nature of pressure and load carrying capacity at various fluctuating speed and load with a fixed lubrication of SAE20W40 for appropriate decision making towards its characteristic performance. The analytical data generated by MATLAB are compared with experimental data which is generated by JBTR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biswas, Nabarun; Chakraborti, Prasun [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania (India); Belkar, Sanjay [Pravara Rural Engineering CollegeLoni, Rahata taluka (India)
2016-05-15
This paper presents both analytical and experimental pressure analysis approach of a typical Lobe and plain bearing for determining effective performance of the bearing. This is found to be dependent on several variables viz. angular velocity (1200-1900 rpm), load (300- 750 N) and pressure angle (0.deg.-180.deg.). This study in particular has been carried out for better rectifications and comparative prediction of lobe and plain bearing in terms of pressure distribution behavior under lubrication oil grade of SAE20W40. Influencing parameters were varied in this set up only to get optimum parametric combination considering all relevant practical issues. The experimentation was done based on significant directives of relevant literatures in these sectors. Attempt was made to compare the analytical findings with experimental results and found matched appreciably. After that attention was diverted to find the nature of pressure and load carrying capacity at various fluctuating speed and load with a fixed lubrication of SAE20W40 for appropriate decision making towards its characteristic performance. The analytical data generated by MATLAB are compared with experimental data which is generated by JBTR.
Machine Learning of the Reactor Core Loading Pattern Critical Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krešimir Trontl
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm, and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of a machine learning model which could be used for fast loading pattern evaluation. We employ a recently introduced machine learning technique, support vector regression (SVR, which is a data driven, kernel based, nonlinear modeling paradigm, in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to evaluate the possibility of applying SVR method for reactor core loading pattern modeling. We illustrate the performance of the solution and discuss its applicability, that is, complexity, speed, and accuracy.
Machine Learning of the Reactor Core Loading Pattern Critical Parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.
2008-01-01
The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm, and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of a machine learning model which could be used for fast loading pattern evaluation. We employ a recently introduced machine learning technique, support vector regression (SVR), which is a data driven, kernel based, nonlinear modeling paradigm, in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to evaluate the possibility of applying SVR method for reactor core loading pattern modeling. We illustrate the performance of the solution and discuss its applicability, that is, complexity, speed, and accuracy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓英; 周峰; 陈忠雷; 田德; 高尚
2016-01-01
With the installed capacity of wind turbines increasing, the wind turbine output characteristics and optimal operation obtain much more concerns in the industry. This paper discusses the influence of wind turbulence on the performance of wind turbines. Wind turbine is a complex nonlinear system. Due to structure load coupling, wind variation and pitch actions, the parameters of aerodynamic subsystem are changing with operation state. Usually, PI (proportional integral) control algorithm is satisfied for a linear time invariant system. To obtain better performance, a nonlinear system needs an advanced control algorithm. To address this issue, we propose a linear parameter varying (LPV) gain scheduling control to mitigate the influence of wind turbulence on wind turbine performance.At different wind speed with variable pitch and rotor speed, the LPV control can adjust feedback gain to satisfy the changing operation point. First, we introduce the stability of LPV system and LPV controller design process. Once the stability conditions are reached, the closed-loop system is stable. Then, we derive a control model with a 2 MW wind turbine based on an actual double-fed induction generator. The input is a recommended turbulence model, Kaimal. In order to check the simulation model, the field data are compared with simulation results. The generator power and torque have similar statistic characteristics. So the model is suitable for simulation and the simulation results are credible. According to the analysis of field data, wind turbulence has a great impact on wind turbine performance, such as fatigue damage of gearbox and decreasing power generation efficiency. Therefore the economic benefits are reduced in the entire lifetime of wind turbine. Simulation results of LPV control algorithm and PI control algorithm are obtained by the software Bladed under 12 and 16 m/s wind turbulence, respectively. In time domain, the generator speed and torque are varying due to the wind
Magnússon, S H; Guðmundsdóttir, S; Reynisson, E; Rúnarsson, A R; Harðardóttir, H; Gunnarson, E; Georgsson, F; Reiersen, J; Marteinsson, V Th
2011-10-01
Campylobacter jejuni isolates from various sources in Iceland were genotyped with the aim of assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, source distribution and campylobacter transmission routes to humans. A collection of 584 Campylobacter isolates were collected from clinical cases, food, animals and environment in Iceland in 1999-2002, during a period of national Campylobacter epidemic in Iceland. All isolates were characterized by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and selected subset of 52 isolates representing the diversity of the identified PFGE types was further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and fla-SVR sequencing to gain better insight into the population structure. The results show a substantial diversity within the Icelandic Campylobacter population. Majority of the human Campylobacter infections originated from domestic chicken and cattle isolates. MLST showed the isolates to be distributed among previously reported and common sequence type complexes in the MLST database. The genotyping of Campylobacter from various sources has not previously been reported from Iceland, and the results of the study gave a valuable insight into the population structure of Camp. jejuni in Iceland, source distribution and transmission routes to humans. The geographical isolation of Iceland in the north Atlantic provides new information on Campylobacter population dynamics on a global scale. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to Icelandic Government works.
Liu, Bing-Chun; Binaykia, Arihant; Chang, Pei-Chann; Tiwari, Manoj Kumar; Tsao, Cheng-Chin
2017-01-01
Today, China is facing a very serious issue of Air Pollution due to its dreadful impact on the human health as well as the environment. The urban cities in China are the most affected due to their rapid industrial and economic growth. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to come up with new, better and more reliable forecasting models to accurately predict the air quality. This paper selected Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang as three cities from the Jingjinji Region for the study to come up with a new model of collaborative forecasting using Support Vector Regression (SVR) for Urban Air Quality Index (AQI) prediction in China. The present study is aimed to improve the forecasting results by minimizing the prediction error of present machine learning algorithms by taking into account multiple city multi-dimensional air quality information and weather conditions as input. The results show that there is a decrease in MAPE in case of multiple city multi-dimensional regression when there is a strong interaction and correlation of the air quality characteristic attributes with AQI. Also, the geographical location is found to play a significant role in Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang AQI prediction.
Machine learning of the reactor core loading pattern critical parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.
2007-01-01
The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. In this paper we investigate the applicability of a machine learning model which could be used for fast loading pattern evaluation. We employed a recently introduced machine learning technique, Support Vector Regression (SVR), which has a strong theoretical background in statistical learning theory. Superior empirical performance of the method has been reported on difficult regression problems in different fields of science and technology. SVR is a data driven, kernel based, nonlinear modelling paradigm, in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to evaluate the possibility of applying SVR method for reactor core loading pattern modelling. The starting set of experimental data for training and testing of the machine learning algorithm was obtained using a two-dimensional diffusion theory reactor physics computer code. We illustrate the performance of the solution and discuss its applicability, i.e., complexity, speed and accuracy, with a projection to a more realistic scenario involving machine learning from the results of more accurate and time consuming three-dimensional core modelling code. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.C.M.C. Rocha
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Variance components were estimated for gestation length fitting the additive direct effect of calf, maternal genetic effect and sire effect as random effects. The statistical models also included the fixed effects of contemporary group, that included the date of breeding (AI, date of birth, and sex of calf, and the covariate age of dam at calving (linear and quadratic. Two different models were used, model 1 considering GL as a trait of the calf, and model 2 considering GL as a trait of the dam. The means of gestation length for the purebred animals were 294.55 days (males and 293.34 days (females, while for the crossbred animals they were 292.49 days (males and 292.55 days (females. Variance components for the purebred animals, fitting model 1, were 14.47, 72.78 and 57.31, for the additive genetic (sigma2a, total phenotypic (sigma2p and residual (sigma2e effects, respectively, with a heritability estimate of 0.21. For the crossbred animals, variance components for sigma2a, sigma2p, sigma2e were 90.40, 127.35 and 36.95, respectively, with a heritability of 0.71. Fitting model 2, the estimated variance components for the purebred animals were 12.78, 5.01, 74.84 and 57.05 for sigma2a , sire of calf (sigma ²asire, sigma2p, and sigma2e , respectively. The sire effect accounted for 0.07 (c² of the phenotypic variance and the coefficient of repeatability was 0.17. For the crossbred animals, the variance components were 22.11 (sigma2a , 22.97 (sigma ²asire , 127.70 (sigma2p and 82.61 (sigma2e, while c² was 0.18 and repeatability was 0.17. Therefore, regarding selection of beef cattle, it is suggested to use the heritability estimate obtained by model 1, where GL is considered as a trait of the calf.Estimaram-se os componentes de variância do período de gestação (PG considerando-se o efeito direto do bezerro e os efeitos direto da vaca e aleatório do touro (pai do bezerro. Além dos efeitos aleatórios, os modelos estatísticos incluíram os
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentim da Silva
2008-04-01
Full Text Available A acidez do solo e variáveis associadas são muito importantes nos manejos dos solos, especialmente nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Com o objetivo de estudar algumas variáveis da acidez do solo e verificar a influência da mineralogia da fração argila sobre a relação entre pH em CaCl2 e grau de saturação por bases (V, amostraram-se os horizontes B e C de diferentes classes de solo no Estado do Paraná: Latossolo Bruno ácrico húmico (LBw-1, Latossolo Bruno distrófico húmico (LBw-2, Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico húmico (LVdf, Cambissolo Háplico alumínico típico (CXa e Cambissolo Húmico distroférrico típico (CHd. A fração argila foi estudada por difratometria de raios X, análise termodiferencial, análise termogravimétrica e análises químicas. As amostras de solo foram incubadas por 60 dias, após terem recebido doses crescentes de óxido de cálcio, para atingir valores preestabelecidos do grau de saturação por bases (natural, 25, 45, 60, 70, 125 e 150 %. Em seguida, determinaram-se os teores de cátions trocáveis e os valores de pH em H2O e solução de CaCl2 1 mol L-1. Os solos apresentaram o seguinte comportamento quanto à mineralogia da fração argila: mais esmectítico/vermiculítico - CXa; mais oxídico, principalmente óxidos de Fe - LVdf e óxidos de Al - LBw1; mais caulinítico, com menores teores de óxidos de Fe e Al - CHd e LBw2. Essa diversidade mineralógica foi determinante na relação pH em CaCl2 e grau de saturação por bases (V dos solos. As curvas que mostraram essa relação foram não lineares, o que significa poder tamponante diferenciado ao longo da faixa de pH em CaCl2 estudada; formato convexo dos solos mais oxídicos e côncavo dos solos cauliníticos e com argila 2:1. O formato convexo das curvas foi conseqüência da formação de cargas negativas e dissociação de H+ preferencialmente a valores elevados de pH em CaCl2 (acima de 5, devido à menor acidez (PCZ mais alto dos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr-I' Ecole (France); Gilbert, Philippe [UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr-I' Ecole (France)
2008-11-15
For a future HCCI engine to operate under conditions that adhere to environmental restrictions, reducing fuel consumption and maintaining or increasing at the same time the engine efficiency, the choice of the fuel is crucial. For this purpose, this paper presents an auto-ignition investigation concerning the primary reference fuels, toluene reference fuels and diesel fuel, in order to study the effect of linear alkanes, branched alkanes and aromatics on the auto-ignition. The auto-ignition of these fuels has been studied at inlet temperatures from 25 to 120 C, at equivalence ratios from 0.18 to 0.53 and at compression ratios from 6 to 13.5, in order to extend the range of investigation and to assess the usability of these parameters to control the auto-ignition. It appeared that both iso-octane and toluene delayed the ignition with respect to n-heptane, while toluene has the strongest effect. This means that aromatics have higher inhibiting effects than branched alkanes. In an increasing order, the inlet temperature, equivalence ratio and compression ratio had a promoting effect on the ignition delays. A previously experimentally validated reduced surrogate mechanism, for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene, has been used to explain observations of the auto-ignition process. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natália Cristina Lima Rodrigues
2007-12-01
Full Text Available RACIONAL: A glutamina é o aminoácido mais abundante no sangue, por desempenhar importante papel no sistema imune. É considerado aminoácido condicionalmente essencial em situações como desnutrição protéico-calórica. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da dieta suplementada com glutamina sobre variáveis bioquímicas e hematológicas de ratas submetidas a protocolo de desnutrição, induzido por dieta rica em lactose. MÉTODOS: Ratas Wistar fêmeas (n=20 e com 21 dias de idade, foram submetidas ou não à desnutrição calórico-protéica induzida por diarréia, através da administração de dieta rica em lactose 60% durante 15 dias. Após o período de desnutrição, animais eutróficos ou desnutridos permaneceram durante 30 dias com oferta de diferentes dietas (padrão e experimentais. De acordo com estado e tratamento nutricionais, os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos distintos: 1 GC: animais eutróficos + dieta padrão, 2 GD: animais desnutridos + dieta rica em lactose (60%, 3 GDGLN: animais desnutridos + dieta rica em glutamina (2%; e 4 GDP: animais desnutridos + dieta padrão. Após os 30 dias de tratamento nutricional, amostras de sangue foram obtidas por punção cardíaca para avaliação de variáveis bioquímicas (proteínas totais, albumina, uréia e hematológicas (quantificação da série vermelha e branca. RESULTADOS: Após 15 dias do início do experimento o ganho de peso dos grupos GD (46,4 ± 2,60g, GDGLN (39,2 ± 8,9g e GDP (33,2 ± 11,5g foi menor em relação ao controle (64 ± 4,24g, PBACKGROUND: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in blood stream, playing an important role in the immune system. It is conditionally considered an essential amino acid to certain state conditions such as protein-energy malnutrition. AIM: To verify the effect of glutamine diet supplemented on hematological and biochemical variables in rats subjected to protocol of malnutrition, induced by an enriched lactose
Influencing parameters and the behaviour of flows of varying density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plate, E.J.
1975-01-01
The contribution aims at presenting the principles of density flows in brief, and, if possible, in a non-mathematical way. This task is made difficult by the fact that there is no comprohensive work on the subject. For two-dimensional density flows, a brief communication has been published in German recently. This publication is referred to for details and literature references. The contribution is only concerned with demonstrating the difference between density flows and homogeneous fluid flows and with presenting the possibilities which exist to calculate density flows. In this context, the rendering restricts itself only to horizontal discharging processes. (orig.) [de
Incremental Closed-loop Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus
2011-01-01
, closed-loop system identification is more difficult than open-loop identification. In this paper we prove that the so-called Hansen Scheme, a technique known from linear time-invariant systems theory for transforming closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems, can be extended...
Varying parameter models to accommodate dynamic promotion effects
Foekens, E.W.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.
1999-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic effects of sales promotions. We create dynamic brand sales models (for weekly store-level scanner data) by relating store intercepts and a brand's own price elasticity to a measure of the cumulated previous price discounts - amount and time - for
Stochastic resonance in the presence of slowly varying control parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolis, C; Nicolis, G
2005-01-01
The kinetics of transitions between states in a noisy system is studied in the simultaneous presence of a periodic forcing and a ramp. It is shown that the interaction between stochastic resonance and the action of the ramp may give rise to a new method for the control of the transition rates
Iterative solution of field problems with a varying physical parameter
Tijhuis, A.G.; Beurden, M.C. van; Zwamborn, A.P.M.
2003-01-01
In modern society different trends are recognized in the usage of the available electromagnetic spectrum. One can think of a wireless communication or transport of (digital) information. The density of such applications is increasing rapidly. Obtaining electromagnetic compatibility and/or reducing
Structured Control of Affine Linear Parameter Varying Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob
2011-01-01
This paper presents a new procedure to design structured controllers for discrete-time afﬁne linear parametervarying systems (A LPV). The class of control structures includes decentralized of any order, ﬁxed order output feedback, simultaneous plant-control design, among others. A parametervarying...... non-convex condition for an upper bound on the induced L2-norm performance is solved by an iterative linear matrix inequalities (LMI) optimization algorithm. Numerical examples demostrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach....
Estimating varying coefficients for partial differential equation models.
Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J
2017-09-01
Partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to model complex dynamical systems in multiple dimensions, and their parameters often have important scientific interpretations. In some applications, PDE parameters are not constant but can change depending on the values of covariates, a feature that we call varying coefficients. We propose a parameter cascading method to estimate varying coefficients in PDE models from noisy data. Our estimates of the varying coefficients are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. The performance of our method is evaluated by a simulation study and by an empirical study estimating three varying coefficients in a PDE model arising from LIDAR data. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ady Marinho Bezerra
2007-03-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar as variáveis de manejo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei que mais influenciaram nas variáveis-respostas ao cultivo (produção, produtividade, peso final e taxa de sobrevivência, em modelos matemáticos. O banco de dados foi composto por 83 cultivos, realizados no período de 2003 a 2005, obtidos de uma fazenda comercial localizada no litoral sul de Pernambuco. Para estimar os parâmetros dos modelos, utilizou-se a técnica dos mínimos quadrados. A seleção das variáveis foi realizada com o processo "backward elimination" associado ao método de transformação de Box e Cox. A adequação das equações e os pressupostos de normalidade e homocedasticidade, para os erros, foram analisadas com base na análise de variância e análise de resíduo. É possível relacionar essas variáveis e estabelecer predições com as equações.The objective of this work was to select management variables of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that most influenced culture variable responses (production, productivity, final weight and survival rate, in mathematical models. The database was composed of 83 cultures in the period of 2003 to 2005, obtained from a shrimp farm located in the South coast of Pernambuco. To estimate the parameters of the models it was used the technique of least square. The selection of variable was carried through the backward elimination process associated to the Box and Cox transformation. The adequacy of the equations and the hypothesis of normality and homogeneous variance for the errors were analyzed based on the analysis of variance and on the analysis of residuals. It is possible to correlate those variables and to establish predictions with the equations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae
We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...
Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.
J. R.
2007-01-01
Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"
Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets
Noormets, Jaanus
2007-01-01
Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest
Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus
Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017
2007-01-01
42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia
Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.
Powell, J R
1971-12-03
Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian
2011-01-01
of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrícia Cristina Ferro
2005-10-01
Full Text Available A fim de determinar possíveis alterações nos principais parâmetros fisiológicos determinados pela infusão contínua de propofol, em diferentes doses, foram utilizados 24 cães adultos distribuídos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos (P2, P4 e P8. Os animais foram induzidos à anestesia pela administração intravenosa de propofol (10mg/kg e, ato contínuo, os cães receberam o anestésico, em infusão contínua nas doses de 0,2mg/kg/min (P2, 0,4mg/kg/min (P4 e 0,8mg/kg/min (P8. As mensurações dos valores das variáveis cardiorrespiratórias [freqüência cardíaca (FC; pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média (PAS, PAD e PAM, respectivamente; eletrocardiografia e freqüência respiratória (f] e temperatura retal (T foram realizadas antes da aplicação do fármaco (M0 e após 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos do início da infusão contínua. Os dados numéricos das variáveis estudadas foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA seguida pelo Teste F (PThe aim of this article was to establish the correlation between different rates of continuous infusion of propofol and the alterations that might occur with the physiologic parameters most commonly measured by the anesthesiologists. Twenty four adult dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups (P2, P4, P8. All the animals were induced with propofol (10mg/kg, followed immediately by the continuous infusion of the agent: 0.2mg/kg/min (P2, 0.4mg/kg/min (P4 and 0.8mg/kg/min (P8. The heart rate (HR, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP and MAP, electrocardiography (ECG, respiratory rate (RR, and body temperature (T were measured before any drug administration (M0 and 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after the start of the continuous infusion of propofol. The numerical data were submitted to Profile of Variance followed by F Test (P<0.05. The HR showed differences among groups at M20 (P2: 91 ± 14,92; P4: 113 ± 17,18; P8: 120 ± 14,84, M30 (P2: 89 ± 13,79; P4: 110 ± 14
Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Philippe Uzan
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.
Weighted approximation with varying weight
Totik, Vilmos
1994-01-01
A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.
Viana, Sérgio Manuel de Oliveira
2001-01-01
A observação do céu nocturno é uma prática que vem da Antiguidade. Desde então e durante muito tempo pensou-se que as estrelas mantinham o brilho constante. Assim foi até ao século XVI, quando David Fabricius observou uma estrela cujo brilho variava periodicamente. Dois séculos mais tarde, Jonh Goodricke descobriu uma segunda estrela e com o desenvolvimento de instrumentos de observação este conjunto foi muito alargado e hoje inclui o Sol.A variação do brilho das estrelas variáveis permite d...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.M. Almeida
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da infusão contínua da associação propofol e cetamina sobre variáveis fisiológicas e eletrocardiográficas e sua possível analgesia em 12 cadelas. Após indução com propofol, os animais receberam 0,4mg/kg/min de propofol + 0,2mg/kg/min de cetamina racêmica (n = 6, grupo PC ou 0,4mg/kg/min de propofol + 0,1mg/kg/min de cetamina S+ (n = 6, grupo PCS. Avaliaram-se: teste álgico, freqüência cardíaca (FC, parâmetros eletrocardiográficos, freqüência respiratória (FR, pressão arterial sistólica, média e diastólica (PAS, PAM, PAD, saturação da oxiemoglobina (SpO2 e temperatura retal (TR. Houve elevação da FC sem alterações eletrocardiográficas, com exceção de aumento na amplitude da onda T em um animal de cada grupo. A FR diminuiu, e os valores de SpO2 ficaram abaixo de 90% em alguns momentos nos dois grupos. PAS, PAM e PAD diminuíram, mas não houve diferença entre os protocolos. Não se observou analgesia em sete animais, três cadelas apresentaram analgesia discreta, e apenas duas demonstraram analgesia favorável. Conclui-se que os protocolos são seguros em cadelas, contudo não há analgesia suficiente para procedimento cirúrgico. As alterações eletrocardiográficas foram relacionadas à FC e à amplitude de onda T, sendo esta sugestiva de hipóxia do miocárdio.The effects of propofol and ketamine on physiological parameters, electrocardiography, and analgesia were evaluated in twelve dogs that received propofol-ketamine (0.4mg/kg/min + 0.2mg/kg/min, n=6, PK group or propofol-S+ketamine (0.4mg/kg/min + 0.1mg/kg/min, n=6, PKS group after induction of anesthesia with propofol (8.0mg/kg. Assessments of pain; heart rate (HR; electrocardiography (ECG; respiratory rate (RR; systolic, medium, and diastolic arterial pressures (SAP, MAP, DAP; saturation of hemoglobin (SpO2; and rectal temperature (RT were conducted. There was a rise in HR with no electrocardiographically changes, but an increase
Progress on MEVVA source VARIS at GSI
Adonin, A.; Hollinger, R.
2018-05-01
For the last few years, the development of the VARIS (vacuum arc ion source) was concentrated on several aspects. One of them was the production of high current ion beams of heavy metals such as Au, Pb, and Bi. The requested ion charge state for these ion species is 4+. This is quite challenging to produce in vacuum arc driven sources for reasonable beam pulse length (>120 µs) due to the physical properties of these elements. However, the situation can be dramatically improved by using the composite materials or alloys with enhanced physical properties of the cathodes. Another aspect is an increase of the beam brilliance for intense U4+ beams by the optimization of the geometry of the extraction system. A new 7-hole triode extraction system allows an increase of the extraction voltage from 30 kV to 40 kV and also reduces the outer aperture of the extracted ion beam. Thus, a record beam brilliance for the U4+ beam in front of the RFQ (Radio-Frequency Quadrupole) has been achieved, exceeding the RFQ space charge limit for an ion current of 15 mA. Several new projectiles in the middle-heavy region have been successfully developed from VARIS to fulfill the requirements of the future FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) programs. An influence of an auxiliary gas on the production performance of certain ion charge states as well as on operation stability has been investigated. The optimization of the ion source parameters for a maximum production efficiency and highest particle current in front of the RFQ has been performed. The next important aspect of the development will be the increase of the operation repetition rate of VARIS for all elements especially for uranium to 2.7 Hz in order to provide the maximum availability of high current ion beams for future FAIR experiments.
Sharma, Sanjay
2017-01-01
This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.
2005-01-01
The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simone Inoe Araújo
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Data from 2061 lactations of 532 females of the Murrah breed, daughters of 44 sires, calving from 1975 to 2001 were used to evaluate the effects of heterogeneity at variance on sires genetic evaluation. The standard deviation of the milk yield was used to classify the herds among high and low variability levels. An animal model, used to estimate variance component, included the fixed effect of herds-year, season of calving, animal random effect, permanent and temporary environments. Variance components were estimated to milk yield in both levels, considering the milk yield in each production level as different trait. Estimatives of heritability were 0.39, in general analysis, and equal to 0.33 and 0.41 for milk yield in high and low levels, respectively. Genetic correlations between high and low production levels were 58. The sires were selected according to the environment most changeable where daughters are raised, and not properly for its genetic breeding.Informações de 2061 registros de lactações de 532 fêmeas da raça Murrah, filhas de 44 reprodutores, com parições entre 1975 a 2001, foram utilizadas para se verificar a existência da heterogeneidade de variância para a produção de leite entre rebanhos e o seu impacto na classificação de reprodutores. O desvio padrão da produção de leite entre rebanhos foi utilizado para classificação dos rebanhos em níveis de alta e baixa variabilidade. Utilizou-se um modelo animal que incluiu os efeitos fixos de rebanho-ano, estação de parição, efeitos aleatórios de animal, ambiente permanente e ambiente temporário. Foram estimados os componentes de variância, considerando os rebanhos como uma única amostra e assumindo a produção de leite em cada nível de produção como característica diferente. Médias e componentes de variância foram maiores para o nível de alta produção e as estimativas de herdabilidade foram de 0,39 em ambos os níveis para a produção de leite e 0
Varying coefficients model with measurement error.
Li, Liang; Greene, Tom
2008-06-01
We propose a semiparametric partially varying coefficient model to study the relationship between serum creatinine concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among kidney donors and patients with chronic kidney disease. A regression model is used to relate serum creatinine to GFR and demographic factors in which coefficient of GFR is expressed as a function of age to allow its effect to be age dependent. GFR measurements obtained from the clearance of a radioactively labeled isotope are assumed to be a surrogate for the true GFR, with the relationship between measured and true GFR expressed using an additive error model. We use locally corrected score equations to estimate parameters and coefficient functions, and propose an expected generalized cross-validation (EGCV) method to select the kernel bandwidth. The performance of the proposed methods, which avoid distributional assumptions on the true GFR and residuals, is investigated by simulation. Accounting for measurement error using the proposed model reduced apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR among different clinical data sets derived from kidney donor and chronic kidney disease source populations.
A varying-α brane world cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Youm, Donam
2001-08-01
We study the brane world cosmology in the RS2 model where the electric charge varies with time in the manner described by the varying fine-structure constant theory of Bekenstein. We map such varying electric charge cosmology to the dual variable-speed-of-light cosmology by changing system of units. We comment on cosmological implications for such cosmological models. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirella Leme Franco Geraldini Sirol
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Foram realizados quatro estudos de simulação para verificar a distribuição de inversas de variáveis com distribuição normal, em função de diferentes variâncias, médias, pontos de truncamentos e tamanhos amostrais. As variáveis simuladas foram GMD, com distribuição normal, representando o ganho médio diário e DIAS, obtido a partir da inversa de GMD, representando dias para se obter determinado peso. Em todos os estudos, foi utilizado o sistema SAS® (1990 para simulação dos dados e para posterior análise dos resultados. As médias amostrais de DIAS foram dependentes dos desvios-padrão utilizados na simulação. As análises de regressão mostraram redução da média e do desvio-padrão de DIAS em função do aumento na média de GMD. A inclusão de um ponto de truncamento entre 10 e 25% do valor da média de GMD reduziu a média de GMD e aumentou a de DIAS, quando o coeficiente de variação de GMD foi superior a 25%. O efeito do tamanho dos grupos nas médias de GMD e DIAS não foi significativo, mas o desvio-padrão e CV amostrais médios de GMD aumentaram com o tamanho do grupo. Em virtude da dependência entre a média e o desvio-padrão e da variação observada nos desvios-padrão de DIAS em função do tamanho do grupo, a utilização de DIAS como critério de seleção pode diminuir a acurácia da variação. Portanto, para a substituição de GMD por DIAS, é necessária a utilização de um método de análise robusto o suficiente para a eliminação da heterogeneidade de variância.Four simulation studies were conducted to verify the distribution of the inverse of variables with normal distribution, relatively to variances, averages, truncation points and sample sizes. The variables simulated were GMD, with normal distribution and representing average daily gain, and DIAS defined as a multiple of the inverse of GMD and representing days to reach a fixed body weight. The SAS® (1990 system was used, for simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Natera, E.S.
1998-01-01
The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme
Weakly Coupled Oscillators in a Slowly Varying World
Park, Youngmin; Ermentrout, Bard
2016-01-01
We extend the theory of weakly coupled oscillators to incorporate slowly varying inputs and parameters. We employ a combination of regular perturbation and an adiabatic approximation to derive equations for the phase-difference between a pair of oscillators. We apply this to the simple Hopf oscillator and then to a biophysical model. The latter represents the behavior of a neuron that is subject to slow modulation of a muscarinic current such as would occur during transient attention through ...
Spacetime-varying couplings and Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostelecky, V. Alan; Lehnert, Ralf; Perry, Malcolm J.
2003-01-01
Spacetime-varying coupling constants can be associated with violations of local Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry. An analytical supergravity cosmology with a time-varying fine-structure constant provides an explicit example. Estimates are made for some experimental constraints
Detection of dynamically varying interaural time differences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlrausch, Armin; Le Goff, Nicolas; Breebaart, Jeroen
2010-01-01
of fringes surrounding the probe is equal to the addition of the effects of the individual fringes. In this contribution, we present behavioral data for the same experimental condition, called dynamically varying ITD detection, but for a wider range of probe and fringe durations. Probe durations varied...
Dual Extended Kalman Filter for the Identification of Time-Varying Human Manual Control Behavior
Popovici, Alexandru; Zaal, Peter M. T.; Pool, Daan M.
2017-01-01
A Dual Extended Kalman Filter was implemented for the identification of time-varying human manual control behavior. Two filters that run concurrently were used, a state filter that estimates the equalization dynamics, and a parameter filter that estimates the neuromuscular parameters and time delay. Time-varying parameters were modeled as a random walk. The filter successfully estimated time-varying human control behavior in both simulated and experimental data. Simple guidelines are proposed for the tuning of the process and measurement covariance matrices and the initial parameter estimates. The tuning was performed on simulation data, and when applied on experimental data, only an increase in measurement process noise power was required in order for the filter to converge and estimate all parameters. A sensitivity analysis to initial parameter estimates showed that the filter is more sensitive to poor initial choices of neuromuscular parameters than equalization parameters, and bad choices for initial parameters can result in divergence, slow convergence, or parameter estimates that do not have a real physical interpretation. The promising results when applied to experimental data, together with its simple tuning and low dimension of the state-space, make the use of the Dual Extended Kalman Filter a viable option for identifying time-varying human control parameters in manual tracking tasks, which could be used in real-time human state monitoring and adaptive human-vehicle haptic interfaces.
Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys
2008-01-01
8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"
Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana
2018-01-01
Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business based...... on often highly abstract service offerings, this requires the provider to have a clear overview of its knowledge and resources and how these can be configured to obtain the desired customization of services. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a KIBS provider can match value propositions...... with varied customer needs utilizing service modularity. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative multiple case study is organized around 5 projects allowing within-case and cross-case comparisons. Our findings describe how through the configuration of knowledge and resources a sustainable competitive...
Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.
Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.
Forecast Accuracy and Economic Gains from Bayesian Model Averaging using Time Varying Weights
L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); R.H. Kleijn (Richard); H.K. van Dijk (Herman); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)
2009-01-01
textabstractSeveral Bayesian model combination schemes, including some novel approaches that simultaneously allow for parameter uncertainty, model uncertainty and robust time varying model weights, are compared in terms of forecast accuracy and economic gains using financial and macroeconomic time
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ökzan, E.; Šmídl, Václav; Saha, S.; Lundquist, C.; Gustafsson, F.
2013-01-01
Roč. 49, č. 6 (2013), s. 1566-1575 ISSN 0005-1098 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0437 Keywords : Unknown Noise Statistics * Adaptive Filtering * Marginalized Particle Filter * Bayesian Conjugate prior Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 3.132, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/smidl-0393047.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walsh, C.; Johnston, C.; Sheehy, N.; Reilly, G. O.
2013-01-01
In this study the quantitative and qualitative image quality (IQ) measurements with clinical judgement of IQ in positron emission tomography (PET) were compared. The limitations of IQ metrics and the proposed criteria of acceptability for PET scanners are discussed. Phantom and patient images were reconstructed using seven different iterative reconstruction protocols. For each reconstructed set of images, IQ was scored based both on the visual analysis and on the quantitative metrics. The quantitative physics metrics did not rank the reconstruction protocols in the same order as the clinicians' scoring of perceived IQ (R s = -0.54). Better agreement was achieved when comparing the clinical perception of IQ to the physicist's visual assessment of IQ in the phantom images (R s = +0.59). The closest agreement was seen between the quantitative physics metrics and the measurement of the standard uptake values (SUVs) in small tumours (R s = +0.92). Given the disparity between the clinical perception of IQ and the physics metrics a cautious approach to use of IQ measurements for determining suspension levels is warranted. (authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Kasper Zinck; Stoustrup, Jakob; Brath, Per
2009-01-01
operations tend to be ill-conditioned. The paper proposes a controller construction algorithm together with various remedies for improving the numerical conditioning the algorithm.The proposed algorithm is applied to the design of a LPV controller for wind turbines, and a comparison is made with a controller...... designed using classical techniques to conclude that an improvement in performance is obtained for the entire operating envelope....
effect of varying controller parameters on the performance of a fuzzy
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr Obe
is given the primary attention. The adjustments ... hope that this discovery will make it easier to .... deciding what the output fuzzy set should be ... Such a matrix is called a fuzzy associative memory (F ..... and approximate reasoning," Proc. IEEE ...
Experimental investigations on steel-concrete composite columns for varying parameters
Aparna, V.; Vivek, D.; Neelima, Kancharla; Karthikeyan, B.
2017-07-01
In this study, the experimental investigations on steel tubes filled with different types of concrete are presented. Steel tubes filled with fibre reinforced concrete using lathe waste and steel tube with concerned confined with steel mesh were investigated. The combinations were compared with steel tubes with conventional concrete. A total of 4 concrete filled steel tube (CFST) combinations were made with tubes of diameter 100 mm with wall thickness 1.6 mm and a height of 300 mm. Axial compression test to examine the resisting capacity of the columns and push-out test for noting the bond strength were performed. Coupon tests were also conducted to determine the mechanical properties of steel. The structural behaviour of the composite columns was evaluated from on the test results. It was observed that steel tube filled fibre reinforced possessed better bond strength and resistance to axial load.
Hart, Sean; Ren, Hechen; Kosowsky, Michael; Ben-Shach, Gilad; Leubner, Philipp; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens; Halperin, Bertrand; Yacoby, Amir
Conventional s-wave superconductivity arises from singlet pairing of electrons with opposite Fermi momenta, forming Cooper pairs with zero net momentum. Recent studies have focused on coupling s-wave superconductors to systems with an unusual configuration of electronic spin and momentum at the Fermi surface, where the nature of the paired state can be modified and the system may even undergo a topological phase transition. Here we present measurements on Josephson junctions based on HgTe quantum wells coupled to aluminum or niobium superconductors, and subject to a magnetic field in the plane of the quantum well. We observe that the in-plane magnetic field modulates the Fraunhofer interference pattern, and that this modulation depends both on electron density and on the direction of the in-plane field with respect to the junction. However, the orientation of the junction with respect to the underlying crystal lattice does not impact the measurements. These findings suggest that spin-orbit coupling plays a role in the observed behavior, and that measurements of Josephson junctions in the presence of an in-plane field can elucidate the Fermi surface properties of the weak link material. NSF DMR-1206016; STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant No. DMR-1231319; NSF GRFP under Grant DGE1144152, Microsoft Corporation Project Q.
Feng, Jianyuan; Turksoy, Kamuran; Samadi, Sediqeh; Hajizadeh, Iman; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali
2017-12-01
Supervision and control systems rely on signals from sensors to receive information to monitor the operation of a system and adjust manipulated variables to achieve the control objective. However, sensor performance is often limited by their working conditions and sensors may also be subjected to interference by other devices. Many different types of sensor errors such as outliers, missing values, drifts and corruption with noise may occur during process operation. A hybrid online sensor error detection and functional redundancy system is developed to detect errors in online signals, and replace erroneous or missing values detected with model-based estimates. The proposed hybrid system relies on two techniques, an outlier-robust Kalman filter (ORKF) and a locally-weighted partial least squares (LW-PLS) regression model, which leverage the advantages of automatic measurement error elimination with ORKF and data-driven prediction with LW-PLS. The system includes a nominal angle analysis (NAA) method to distinguish between signal faults and large changes in sensor values caused by real dynamic changes in process operation. The performance of the system is illustrated with clinical data continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors from people with type 1 diabetes. More than 50,000 CGM sensor errors were added to original CGM signals from 25 clinical experiments, then the performance of error detection and functional redundancy algorithms were analyzed. The results indicate that the proposed system can successfully detect most of the erroneous signals and substitute them with reasonable estimated values computed by functional redundancy system.
Closed-loop Identification for Control of Linear Parameter Varying Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus
2014-01-01
, closed- loop system identification is more difficult than open-loop identification. In this paper we prove that the so-called Hansen Scheme, a technique known from linear time-invariant systems theory for transforming closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems, can...
Masmoudi, Nabil
2014-01-01
of characteristics which yields the ray tracing equations and the finite difference approaches. In the first part of the Master Thesis, we use the ray tracing method to solve the eikonal equation to get P-waves traveltimes for orthorhombic models with arbitrary
The effects of varying plasma parameters on silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Summers, S.; Reehal, H.S.; Shirkoohi, G.H.
2001-01-01
The technique of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is increasingly being used in electronic and photonic device applications. ECR offers a number of advantages including improved control of the deposition process, less damage to the growing film and the possibility of high deposition rates. ECR occurs in a plasma under appropriate magnetic and electric field conditions. In most cases, as in our system, this is achieved with a combination of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation and a 0.0875 T magnetic field, due to the use of standardized microwave supplies. We have studied the effects on silicon film growth of changing the magnetic field configuration to produce one or more planes of ECR within the system, and of changing the positions of the plane(s) relative to the deposition substrate. The films were grown in silane-hydrogen discharges. The magnetic field in our system was provided by two electromagnets. It was measured experimentally for a number of operating current values and then a detailed profile achieved by modelling using a proprietary software package. A process condition discharge under identical magnetic field configurations to growth was analysed by the use of a Langmuir probe and the results correlated with film properties determined by Raman spectroscopy and Dektak profilometry. (author)
Enhanced post wash retention of combed DNA molecules by varying multiple combing parameters.
Yadav, Hemendra; Sharma, Pulkit
2017-11-01
Recent advances in genomics have created a need for efficient techniques for deciphering information hidden in various genomes. Single molecule analysis is one such technique to understand molecular processes at single molecule level. Fiber- FISH performed with the help of DNA combing can help us in understanding genetic rearrangements and changes in genome at single DNA molecule level. For performing Fiber-FISH we need high retention of combed DNA molecules post wash as Fiber-FISH requires profuse washing. We optimized combing process involving combing solution, method of DNA mounting on glass slides and coating of glass slides to enhance post-wash retention of DNA molecules. It was found that average number of DNA molecules observed post-wash per field of view was maximum with our optimized combing solution. APTES coated glass slides showed lesser retention than PEI surface but fluorescent intensity was higher in case of APTES coated surface. Capillary method used to mount DNA on glass slides also showed lesser retention but straight DNA molecules were observed as compared to force flow method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On structural reliability under time-varying multi-parameter loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augusti, G.
1975-01-01
This paper intends to be a contribution towards the formulation of a procedure for the solution of the title problem that is at the same time correct and not too cumbersome for practical application. The problem is examined in detail and a number of possible alternative approaches to the solution discussed. Special attention is paid to the superimposition of loads of different origin and characteristics (e.g. long-term loads like the furniture and usual occupancy load in a building, and short-term loads like explosions, earthquakes, storms, etc.): it is recognized that a single procedure for all cases does not appear practical, and that, within a general framework, special methods must be devised according to the type of loads and structural responses. For instance, the superimposition of impulsive loads must be studied with reference to the response time of the structure. It is shown that usually, the statistics of extreme values are not sufficient for a correct study of superimposition: the instantaneous probability distributions of the load intensities are also required. (Auth.)
On structural reliability under time-varying multi-parameter loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augusti, G.
1975-01-01
Special attention will be paid to the superimposition of loads of different origin and characteristics (e.g. long-term loads like the furniture and usual occupancy load in a building and short-term loads like explosions, earthquakes, storms, etc.): it will be recognized that a single procedure for all cases does not appear practical, and that, within a general framework special method must be devised according to the type of loads and structural responses. For instance, the superimposition of impulsive loads must be studied with reference to the response time of the structure. It will be shown that usually, the statistics of extreme values are not sufficient for a correct study of superimposition: the instantaneous probability distributions of the load intensities are also required. The results obtained with respect to the loads can be joined with previous results by Augusti and Baratta (see e.g. SMiRT-2 paper M7/8) on structural strength, for the evaluation of the probability of success (i.e. the reliability) of a structural design
Rate bounded linear parameter varying control of a wind turbine in full load operation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Kasper Zinck; Stoustrup, Jakob; Brath, Per
2008-01-01
This paper considers the control of wind turbines using an LPV design technique. The controller design is done by a combination of a method that uses elimination of controller variables and a method using a congruent transformation followed by a change of variables. An investigation is performed ...
Early marketing matters : A time-varying parameter approach to persistence modeling
Osinga, E.C.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wieringa, J.E.
Are persistent marketing effects most likely to appear right after the introduction of a product? The authors give an affirmative answer to this question by developing a model that explicitly reports how persistent and transient marketing effects evolve over time. The proposed model provides
The Impact of Varied Discrimination Parameters on Mixed-Format Item Response Theory Model Selection
Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Chang, Wanchen; Dodd, Barbara G.
2013-01-01
Whittaker, Chang, and Dodd compared the performance of model selection criteria when selecting among mixed-format IRT models and found that the criteria did not perform adequately when selecting the more parameterized models. It was suggested by M. S. Johnson that the problems when selecting the more parameterized models may be because of the low…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meltzer, M.
1977-04-01
The tracer theory in steady and non-steady systems is presented. The unsteady system was applied in the study of the concentration dynamics of the National Water Carrier in Israel. A method that uses Bromine 82 for the investigation of the transfer time distribution and of the dynamics of inert matter concentration in the system is desribed. (B.G.)
Performance of Traffic Noise Barriers with Varying Cross-Section
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanja Grubeša
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The efficiency of noise barriers largely depends on their geometry. In this paper, the performance of noise barriers was simulated using the numerical Boundary Element Method (BEM. Traffic noise was particularly considered with its standardized noise spectrum adapted to human hearing. The cross-section of the barriers was varied with the goal of finding the optimum shape in comparison to classical rectangular barriers. The barrier performance was calculated at different receiver points for a fixed barrier height and source position. The magnitude of the insertion loss parameter was used to evaluate the performance change, both in one-third octave bands and as the broadband mean insertion loss value. The proposed barriers of varying cross-section were also compared with a typical T-shape barrier of the same height.
Λ( t ) cosmology induced by a slowly varying Elko field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, S.H.; Pinho, A.S.S.; Silva, J.M. Hoff da [Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Engenharia, Guaratinguetá, Departamento de Física e Química Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, 12516-410—Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Jesus, J.F., E-mail: shpereira@feg.unesp.br, E-mail: alexandre.pinho510@gmail.com, E-mail: hoff@feg.unesp.br, E-mail: jfjesus@itapeva.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Campus Experimental de Itapeva, R. Geraldo Alckmin, 519 Itapeva, SP (Brazil)
2017-01-01
In this work the exact Friedmann-Robertson-Walker equations for an Elko spinor field coupled to gravity in an Einstein-Cartan framework are presented. The torsion functions coupling the Elko field spin-connection to gravity can be exactly solved and the FRW equations for the system assume a relatively simple form. In the limit of a slowly varying Elko spinor field there is a relevant contribution to the field equations acting exactly as a time varying cosmological model Λ( t )=Λ{sub *}+3β H {sup 2}, where Λ{sub *} and β are constants. Observational data using distance luminosity from magnitudes of supernovae constraint the parameters Ω {sub m} and β, which leads to a lower limit to the Elko mass. Such model mimics, then, the effects of a dark energy fluid, here sourced by the Elko spinor field. The density perturbations in the linear regime were also studied in the pseudo-Newtonian formalism.
Varying constants, black holes, and quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlip, S.
2003-01-01
Tentative observations and theoretical considerations have recently led to renewed interest in models of fundamental physics in which certain 'constants' vary in time. Assuming fixed black hole mass and the standard form of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, Davies, Davis and Lineweaver have argued that the laws of black hole thermodynamics disfavor models in which the fundamental electric charge e changes. I show that with these assumptions, similar considerations severely constrain 'varying speed of light' models, unless we are prepared to abandon cherished assumptions about quantum gravity. Relaxation of these assumptions permits sensible theories of quantum gravity with ''varying constants,'' but also eliminates the thermodynamic constraints, though the black hole mass spectrum may still provide some restrictions on the range of allowable models
On generalized scaling laws with continuously varying exponents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sittler, Lionel; Hinrichsen, Haye
2002-01-01
Many physical systems share the property of scale invariance. Most of them show ordinary power-law scaling, where quantities can be expressed as a leading power law times a scaling function which depends on scaling-invariant ratios of the parameters. However, some systems do not obey power-law scaling, instead there is numerical evidence for a logarithmic scaling form, in which the scaling function depends on ratios of the logarithms of the parameters. Based on previous ideas by Tang we propose that this type of logarithmic scaling can be explained by a concept of local scaling invariance with continuously varying exponents. The functional dependence of the exponents is constrained by a homomorphism which can be expressed as a set of partial differential equations. Solving these equations we obtain logarithmic scaling as a special case. The other solutions lead to scaling forms where logarithmic and power-law scaling are mixed
"Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys
2008-01-01
Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk
Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.
2000-01-01
is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...
Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson
Tõnson, Margit, 1978-
2010-01-01
Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest
Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states
Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,
2012-01-01
We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar
2010-01-01
45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid
Neutron fluctuations in a medium randomly varying in time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lenard, Pal [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Imre, Pazsit [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, SE, Goteborg (Sweden)
2005-07-01
The master equation approach, which has traditionally been used for the calculation of neutron fluctuations in zero power systems with constant parameters, is extended to a case when the parameters of the system change randomly in time. We consider a forward type master equation for the probability distribution of the number of particles in a multiplying system whose properties jump randomly between two discrete states, both with and without an external source. The first two factorial moments are calculated, including the covariance. This model can be considered the unification of stochastic methods that were used either in a constant multiplying medium via the master equation technique, or in a fluctuating medium via the Langevin technique. In contrast to these methods, the one presented here can calculate the inherent noise in time-varying systems. The results obtained show a much richer characteristics of the zero power noise than that in constant systems. Even the concept of criticality has to be given a probabilistic interpretation. The asymptotic behaviour of the variance will be also qualitatively different from that in constant systems. The covariance of the neutron number in a subcritical system with a source, and the corresponding power spectrum, shows both the inherent and parametrically induced noise components. The results are relevant in medium power subcritical systems where the zero power noise is still significant, but they also have a bearing on all types of branching processes, such as evolution of biological systems, spreading of epidemics etc., which are set in a time-varying environment. (authors)
Neutron fluctuations in a medium randomly varying in time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lenard, Pal; Imre, Pazsit
2005-01-01
The master equation approach, which has traditionally been used for the calculation of neutron fluctuations in zero power systems with constant parameters, is extended to a case when the parameters of the system change randomly in time. We consider a forward type master equation for the probability distribution of the number of particles in a multiplying system whose properties jump randomly between two discrete states, both with and without an external source. The first two factorial moments are calculated, including the covariance. This model can be considered the unification of stochastic methods that were used either in a constant multiplying medium via the master equation technique, or in a fluctuating medium via the Langevin technique. In contrast to these methods, the one presented here can calculate the inherent noise in time-varying systems. The results obtained show a much richer characteristics of the zero power noise than that in constant systems. Even the concept of criticality has to be given a probabilistic interpretation. The asymptotic behaviour of the variance will be also qualitatively different from that in constant systems. The covariance of the neutron number in a subcritical system with a source, and the corresponding power spectrum, shows both the inherent and parametrically induced noise components. The results are relevant in medium power subcritical systems where the zero power noise is still significant, but they also have a bearing on all types of branching processes, such as evolution of biological systems, spreading of epidemics etc., which are set in a time-varying environment. (authors)
Optimal critic learning for robot control in time-varying environments.
Wang, Chen; Li, Yanan; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Lee, Tong Heng
2015-10-01
In this paper, optimal critic learning is developed for robot control in a time-varying environment. The unknown environment is described as a linear system with time-varying parameters, and impedance control is employed for the interaction control. Desired impedance parameters are obtained in the sense of an optimal realization of the composite of trajectory tracking and force regulation. Q -function-based critic learning is developed to determine the optimal impedance parameters without the knowledge of the system dynamics. The simulation results are presented and compared with existing methods, and the efficacy of the proposed method is verified.
Varied line-space gratings and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKinney, W.R.
1991-01-01
This paper presents a straightforward analytical and numerical method for the design of a specific type of varied line-space grating system. The mathematical development will assume plane or nearly-plane spherical gratings which are illuminated by convergent light, which covers many interesting cases for synchrotron radiation. The gratings discussed will have straight grooves whose spacing varies across the principal plane of the grating. Focal relationships and formulae for the optical grating-pole-to-exist-slit distance and grating radius previously presented by other authors will be derived with a symbolic algebra system. It is intended to provide the optical designer with the tools necessary to design such a system properly. Finally, some possible advantages and disadvantages for application to synchrotron to synchrotron radiation beamlines will be discussed
The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.
2010-01-01
The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.
Modeling information diffusion in time-varying community networks
Cui, Xuelian; Zhao, Narisa
2017-12-01
Social networks are rarely static, and they typically have time-varying network topologies. A great number of studies have modeled temporal networks and explored social contagion processes within these models; however, few of these studies have considered community structure variations. In this paper, we present a study of how the time-varying property of a modular structure influences the information dissemination. First, we propose a continuous-time Markov model of information diffusion where two parameters, mobility rate and community attractiveness, are introduced to address the time-varying nature of the community structure. The basic reproduction number is derived, and the accuracy of this model is evaluated by comparing the simulation and theoretical results. Furthermore, numerical results illustrate that generally both the mobility rate and community attractiveness significantly promote the information diffusion process, especially in the initial outbreak stage. Moreover, the strength of this promotion effect is much stronger when the modularity is higher. Counterintuitively, it is found that when all communities have the same attractiveness, social mobility no longer accelerates the diffusion process. In addition, we show that the local spreading in the advantage group has been greatly enhanced due to the agglomeration effect caused by the social mobility and community attractiveness difference, which thus increases the global spreading.
Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.
Li, Guangquan
2011-01-01
Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.
New varying speed of light theories
Magueijo, J
2003-01-01
We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying $c$, dispelling the myth that the constancy of $c$ is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a color dependent speed of light; varying $c$ induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how ``doubly special'' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space...
Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations.
Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina
2017-11-01
One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our
Identification of Time-Varying Pilot Control Behavior in Multi-Axis Control Tasks
Zaal, Peter M. T.; Sweet, Barbara T.
2012-01-01
Recent developments in fly-by-wire control architectures for rotorcraft have introduced new interest in the identification of time-varying pilot control behavior in multi-axis control tasks. In this paper a maximum likelihood estimation method is used to estimate the parameters of a pilot model with time-dependent sigmoid functions to characterize time-varying human control behavior. An experiment was performed by 9 general aviation pilots who had to perform a simultaneous roll and pitch control task with time-varying aircraft dynamics. In 8 different conditions, the axis containing the time-varying dynamics and the growth factor of the dynamics were varied, allowing for an analysis of the performance of the estimation method when estimating time-dependent parameter functions. In addition, a detailed analysis of pilots adaptation to the time-varying aircraft dynamics in both the roll and pitch axes could be performed. Pilot control behavior in both axes was significantly affected by the time-varying aircraft dynamics in roll and pitch, and by the growth factor. The main effect was found in the axis that contained the time-varying dynamics. However, pilot control behavior also changed over time in the axis not containing the time-varying aircraft dynamics. This indicates that some cross coupling exists in the perception and control processes between the roll and pitch axes.
New varying speed of light theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magueijo, Joao
2003-01-01
We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying-c, dispelling the myth that the constancy of c is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a colour-dependent speed of light; varying-c induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how 'doubly special' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space-time, with observational implications for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and gamma ray bursts. Some recent work on the physics of 'black' holes and other compact objects in VSL theories is also described, highlighting phenomena associated with spatial (as opposed to temporal) variations in c. Finally, we describe the observational status of the theory. The evidence is currently slim-redshift dependence in the atomic fine structure, anomalies with UHECRs, and (to a much lesser extent) the acceleration of the universe and the WMAP data. The constraints (e.g. those arising from nucleosynthesis or geological bounds) are tight but not insurmountable. We conclude with the observational predictions of the theory and the prospects for its refutation or vindication
Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian S.
2004-01-01
A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini......-world are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...
A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kibret, B; Premaratne, M; Lewis, P M; Thomson, R; Fitzgerald, P B
2016-01-01
It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications. (paper)
Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew
2014-01-01
Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions. (paper)
Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?
Marley, Mark Scott
2014-01-01
Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.
Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor
We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across...... with estimating volatility moments through their sample counterparts. Critical values are computed via easy-to-implement simulation. In an empirical application to S&P 500 index returns, we find strong evidence for variation in the intraday volatility pattern driven in part by the current level of volatility...
Flexible time-varying filter banks
Tuncer, Temel E.; Nguyen, Truong Q.
1993-09-01
Linear phase maximally flat FIR Butterworth filter approximations are discussed and a new filter design method is introduced. This variable cutoff filter design method uses the cosine modulated versions of a prototype filter. The design procedure is simple and different variants of this procedure can be used to obtain close to optimum linear phase filters. Using this method, flexible time-varying filter banks with good reconstruction error are introduced. These types of oversampled filter banks have small magnitude error which can be easily controlled by the appropriate choice of modulation frequency. This error can be further decreased by magnitude equalization without increasing the computational complexity considerably. Two dimensional design examples are also given.
Behavior of varying-alpha cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, John D.; Sandvik, Haavard Bunes; Magueijo, Joao
2002-01-01
We determine the behavior of a time-varying fine structure 'constant' α(t) during the early and late phases of universes dominated by the kinetic energy of changing α(t), radiation, dust, curvature, and lambda, respectively. We show that after leaving an initial vacuum-dominated phase during which α increases, α remains constant in universes such as our own during the radiation era, and then increases slowly, proportional to a logarithm of cosmic time, during the dust era. If the universe becomes dominated by a negative curvature or a positive cosmological constant then α tends rapidly to a constant value. The effect of an early period of de Sitter or power-law inflation is to drive α to a constant value. Various cosmological consequences of these results are discussed with reference to recent observational studies of the value of α from quasar absorption spectra and to the existence of life in expanding universes
Emergence of epidemics in rapidly varying networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohar, Vivek; Sinha, Sudeshna
2013-01-01
We describe a simple model mimicking disease spreading on a network with dynamically varying connections, and investigate the dynamical consequences of switching links in the network. Our central observation is that the disease cycles get more synchronized, indicating the onset of epidemics, as the underlying network changes more rapidly. This behavior is found for periodically switched links, as well as links that switch randomly in time. We find that the influence of changing links is more pronounced in networks where the nodes have lower degree, and the disease cycle has a longer infective stage. Further, when the switching of links is periodic we observe finer dynamical features, such as beating patterns in the emergent oscillations and resonant enhancement of synchronization, arising from the interplay between the time-scales of the connectivity changes and that of the epidemic outbreaks
Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS
2010-01-01
Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the
Marijuana smoking: effects of varying puff volume and breathhold duration.
Azorlosa, J L; Greenwald, M K; Stitzer, M L
1995-02-01
Two studies were conducted to quantify biological and behavioral effects resulting from exposure to controlled doses of marijuana smoke. In one study, puff volume (30, 60 and 90 ml) and in a second study, breathhold duration (0, 10 and 20 sec) were systematically varied while holding constant other smoking topography parameters (number of puffs = 10, interpuff interval = 60 sec and inhalation volume = 25% of vital capacity). Each study also varied levels of delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol marijuana cigarette content (1.75% and 3.55%). Regular marijuana users served as subjects (n = 7 in each experiment). Subjects smoked 10 puffs in each of six sessions; a seventh, nonsmoking session (all measures recorded at the same times as in active smoking sessions) served as a control. Variations in puff volume produced significant dose-related changes in postsmoking plasma delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol levels, carbon monoxide boost and subjective effects (e.g., "high"). In contrast, breathholding for 10 or 20 sec versus 0 sec increased plasma delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol levels but not CO boost or subjective effects. Task performance measures were not reliably influenced by marijuana smoke exposure within the dosing ranges examined. These findings confirm the utility of the controlled smoking technology, support the notion that cumulative puff volume systematically influences biological exposure and subjective effects, but cast doubt on the common belief that prolonged breathholding of marijuana smoke enhances classical subjective effects associated with its reinforcing value in humans.
Slowly varying dilaton cosmologies and their field theory duals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Awad, Adel; Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Archisman; Oh, Jae-Hyuk; Trivedi, Sandip P.
2009-01-01
We consider a deformation of the AdS 5 xS 5 solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the anti-de Sitter (AdS) scale thereby introducing a small parameter ε. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. We construct the supergravity (sugra) solution to first nontrivial order in ε, and find that it is smooth, horizon-free, and asymptotically AdS 5 xS 5 in the far future. When the intermediate values of the dilaton becomes small enough the curvature becomes of order the string scale and the sugra approximation breaks down. The resulting dynamics is analyzed in the dual SU(N) gauge theory on S 3 with a time dependent coupling constant which varies slowly. When Nε 5 xS 5 again. When Nε>>1, we formulate a classical adiabatic perturbation theory based on coherent states which arises in the large N limit. For large values of the 't Hooft coupling this reproduces the supergravity results. For small 't Hooft coupling the coherent state calculations become involved and we cannot reach a definite conclusion. We argue that the final state should have a dual description which is mostly smooth AdS 5 space with the possible presence of a small black hole.
Study of selected phenotype switching strategies in time varying environment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horvath, Denis, E-mail: horvath.denis@gmail.com [Centre of Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University in Košice, Jesenná 5, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Brutovsky, Branislav, E-mail: branislav.brutovsky@upjs.sk [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Physics, P.J. Šafárik University in Košice, Jesenná 5, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)
2016-03-22
Population heterogeneity plays an important role across many research, as well as the real-world, problems. The population heterogeneity relates to the ability of a population to cope with an environment change (or uncertainty) preventing its extinction. However, this ability is not always desirable as can be exemplified by an intratumor heterogeneity which positively correlates with the development of resistance to therapy. Causation of population heterogeneity is therefore in biology and medicine an intensively studied topic. In this paper the evolution of a specific strategy of population diversification, the phenotype switching, is studied at a conceptual level. The presented simulation model studies evolution of a large population of asexual organisms in a time-varying environment represented by a stochastic Markov process. Each organism disposes with a stochastic or nonlinear deterministic switching strategy realized by discrete-time models with evolvable parameters. We demonstrate that under rapidly varying exogenous conditions organisms operate in the vicinity of the bet-hedging strategy, while the deterministic patterns become relevant as the environmental variations are less frequent. Statistical characterization of the steady state regimes of the populations is done using the Hellinger and Kullback–Leibler functional distances and the Hamming distance. - Highlights: • Relation between phenotype switching and environment is studied. • The Markov chain Monte Carlo based model is developed. • Stochastic and deterministic strategies of phenotype switching are utilized. • Statistical measures of the dynamic heterogeneity reveal universal properties. • The results extend to higher lattice dimensions.
Study of selected phenotype switching strategies in time varying environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvath, Denis; Brutovsky, Branislav
2016-01-01
Population heterogeneity plays an important role across many research, as well as the real-world, problems. The population heterogeneity relates to the ability of a population to cope with an environment change (or uncertainty) preventing its extinction. However, this ability is not always desirable as can be exemplified by an intratumor heterogeneity which positively correlates with the development of resistance to therapy. Causation of population heterogeneity is therefore in biology and medicine an intensively studied topic. In this paper the evolution of a specific strategy of population diversification, the phenotype switching, is studied at a conceptual level. The presented simulation model studies evolution of a large population of asexual organisms in a time-varying environment represented by a stochastic Markov process. Each organism disposes with a stochastic or nonlinear deterministic switching strategy realized by discrete-time models with evolvable parameters. We demonstrate that under rapidly varying exogenous conditions organisms operate in the vicinity of the bet-hedging strategy, while the deterministic patterns become relevant as the environmental variations are less frequent. Statistical characterization of the steady state regimes of the populations is done using the Hellinger and Kullback–Leibler functional distances and the Hamming distance. - Highlights: • Relation between phenotype switching and environment is studied. • The Markov chain Monte Carlo based model is developed. • Stochastic and deterministic strategies of phenotype switching are utilized. • Statistical measures of the dynamic heterogeneity reveal universal properties. • The results extend to higher lattice dimensions.
Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant in Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Setare, M.R. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, Mubasher, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.pk [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, 46000 (Pakistan)
2010-02-01
We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant in a flat background in the context of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. We extract the exact differential equation determining the evolution of the dark energy density parameter, which includes G variation term. Also we discuss a cosmological implication of our work by evaluating the dark energy equation of state for low redshifts containing varying G corrections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parsa, Z.
1986-10-01
The AGS Booster is designed to be an intermediate synchrotron injector for the AGS, capable of accelerating protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The parameters listed include beam and operational parameters and lattice parameters, as well as parameters pertaining to the accelerator's magnets, vacuum system, radio frequency acceleration system, and the tunnel. 60 refs., 41 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.
2006-12-15
A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)
Behavior of cosmological models with varying G
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.; Parsons, P.
1997-01-01
We provide a detailed analysis of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes in a wide range of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. We apply solution-generating methods to three parametrized classes of scalar-tensor theory which lead naturally to general relativity in the weak-field limit. We restrict the parameters which specify these theories by the requirements imposed by the weak-field tests of gravitation theories in the solar system and by the requirement that viable cosmological solutions be obtained. We construct a range of exact solutions for open, closed, and flat isotropic universes containing matter with equation of state p≤(1)/(3)ρ and in vacuum. We study the range of early- and late-time behaviors displayed, examine when there is a open-quotes bounceclose quotes at early times, and expansion maxima in closed models. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Constructing Regional Groundwater Models from Geophysical Data of Varying Type, Age, and Quality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vest Christiansen, Anders; Auken, Esben; Marker, Pernille Aabye
for parameterization of a 3D model of the subsurface, integrating lithological information from boreholes with resistivity models. The objective is to create a direct input to regional groundwater models for sedimentary areas, where the sand/clay distribution governs the groundwater flow. The resistivity input is all......-inclusive in the sense that we include data from a variety of instruments (DC and EM, ground-based and airborne), with a varying spatial density and varying ages and quality. The coupling between hydrological and geophysical parameters is managed using a translator function with spatially variable parameters, which...
Microsatellites in varied arenas of research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K S Remya
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.
Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures
Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven
2004-01-01
The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.
TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)
2015-02-10
We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.
Observational constraints on holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin [Institute of Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Setare, M.R., E-mail: lvjianbo819@163.com, E-mail: msaridak@phys.uoa.gr, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: lxxu@dlut.edu.cn [Department of Science of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-03-01
We use observational data from Type Ia Supernovae (SN), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and observational Hubble data (OHD), and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, to constrain the cosmological scenario of holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant. We consider both flat and non-flat background geometry, and we present the corresponding constraints and contour-plots of the model parameters. We conclude that the scenario is compatible with observations. In 1σ we find Ω{sub Λ0} = 0.72{sup +0.03}{sub −0.03}, Ω{sub k0} = −0.0013{sup +0.0130}{sub −0.0040}, c = 0.80{sup +0.19}{sub −0.14} and Δ{sub G}≡G'/G = −0.0025{sup +0.0080}{sub −0.0050}, while for the present value of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter we obtain w{sub 0} = −1.04{sup +0.15}{sub −0.20}.
Neutron fluctuations in a multiplying medium randomly varying in time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pal, L. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Pazsit, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering
2006-07-15
The master equation approach, which has traditionally been used for the calculation of neutron fluctuations in multiplying systems with constant parameters, is extended to a case when the parameters of the system change randomly in time. A forward type master equation is considered for the case of a multiplying system whose properties jump randomly between two discrete states, both with and without a stationary external source. The first two factorial moments are calculated, including the covariance. This model can be considered as the unification of stochastic methods that were used either in a constant multiplying medium via the master equation technique, or in a fluctuating medium via the Langevin technique. The results obtained show a much richer characteristic of the zero power noise than that in constant systems. The results are relevant in medium power subcritical nuclear systems where the zero power noise is still significant, but they also have a bearing on all types of branching processes, such as evolution of biological systems, spreading of epidemics etc, which are set in a time-varying environment.
Neutron fluctuations in a multiplying medium randomly varying in time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, L.; Pazsit, I.
2006-01-01
The master equation approach, which has traditionally been used for the calculation of neutron fluctuations in multiplying systems with constant parameters, is extended to a case when the parameters of the system change randomly in time. A forward type master equation is considered for the case of a multiplying system whose properties jump randomly between two discrete states, both with and without a stationary external source. The first two factorial moments are calculated, including the covariance. This model can be considered as the unification of stochastic methods that were used either in a constant multiplying medium via the master equation technique, or in a fluctuating medium via the Langevin technique. The results obtained show a much richer characteristic of the zero power noise than that in constant systems. The results are relevant in medium power subcritical nuclear systems where the zero power noise is still significant, but they also have a bearing on all types of branching processes, such as evolution of biological systems, spreading of epidemics etc, which are set in a time-varying environment
Synchronization of uncertain time-varying network based on sliding mode control technique
Lü, Ling; Li, Chengren; Bai, Suyuan; Li, Gang; Rong, Tingting; Gao, Yan; Yan, Zhe
2017-09-01
We research synchronization of uncertain time-varying network based on sliding mode control technique. The sliding mode control technique is first modified so that it can be applied to network synchronization. Further, by choosing the appropriate sliding surface, the identification law of uncertain parameter, the adaptive law of the time-varying coupling matrix element and the control input of network are designed, it is sure that the uncertain time-varying network can synchronize effectively the synchronization target. At last, we perform some numerical simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.
Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.
1992-01-01
This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications
Shi, Lei; Yao, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Xiaotong; Yang, Min; Liu, Yanming
2018-01-01
The plasma sheath-surrounded hypersonic vehicle is a dynamic and time-varying medium and it is almost impossible to calculate time-varying physical parameters directly. The in-fight detection of the time-varying degree is important to understand the dynamic nature of the physical parameters and their effect on re-entry communication. In this paper, a constant envelope zero autocorrelation (CAZAC) sequence based on time-varying frequency detection and channel sounding method is proposed to detect the plasma sheath electronic density time-varying property and wireless channel characteristic. The proposed method utilizes the CAZAC sequence, which has excellent autocorrelation and spread gain characteristics, to realize dynamic time-varying detection/channel sounding under low signal-to-noise ratio in the plasma sheath environment. Theoretical simulation under a typical time-varying radio channel shows that the proposed method is capable of detecting time-variation frequency up to 200 kHz and can trace the channel amplitude and phase in the time domain well under -10 dB. Experimental results conducted in the RF modulation discharge plasma device verified the time variation detection ability in practical dynamic plasma sheath. Meanwhile, nonlinear phenomenon of dynamic plasma sheath on communication signal is observed thorough channel sounding result.
Varying Coefficient Panel Data Model in the Presence of Endogenous Selectivity and Fixed Effects
Malikov, Emir; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Sun, Yiguo
2013-01-01
This paper considers a flexible panel data sample selection model in which (i) the outcome equation is permitted to take a semiparametric, varying coefficient form to capture potential parameter heterogeneity in the relationship of interest, (ii) both the outcome and (parametric) selection equations contain unobserved fixed effects and (iii) selection is generalized to a polychotomous case. We propose a two-stage estimator. Given consistent parameter estimates from the selection equation obta...
Resonance parameter analysis with SAMMY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larson, N.M.; Perey, F.G.
1988-01-01
The multilevel R-matrix computer code SAMMY has evolved over the past decade to become an important analysis tool for neutron data. SAMMY uses the Reich-Moore approximation to the multilevel R-matrix and includes an optional logarithmic parameterization of the external R-function. Doppler broadening is simulated either by numerical integration using the Gaussian approximation to the free gas model or by a more rigorous solution of the partial differential equation equivalent to the exact free gas model. Resolution broadening of cross sections and derivatives also has new options that more accurately represent the experimental situation. SAMMY treats constant normalization and some types of backgrounds directly and treats other normalizations and/or backgrounds with the introduction of user-generated partial derivatives. The code uses Bayes' method as an efficient alternative to least squares for fitting experimental data. SAMMY allows virtually any parameter to be varied and outputs values, uncertainties, and covariance matrix for all varied parameters. Versions of SAMMY exist for VAX, FPS, and IBM computers
Disorder parameter of confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, N.; Ejiri, S.; Matsubara, Y.; Suzuki, T.
1996-01-01
The disorder parameter of confinement-deconfinement phase transition based on the monopole action determined previously in SU(2) QCD are investigated. We construct an operator which corresponds to the order parameter defined in the abelian Higgs model. The operator shows proper behaviors as the disorder parameter in the numerical simulations of finite temperature QCD. (orig.)
Program for parameter studies of steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathisen, R.P.
1982-11-01
R2-GEN is a computer code for stationary thermal parameter studies of steam generators. The geometry and data are valid for Ringhals-2 generators. Subroutines and relevant calculations are included. The program is based on a heterogeneous flow model and some applications on tubes with varying contamination are presented. (G.B.)
Global exponential stability of BAM neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan Li; Zhou Qinghua
2007-01-01
The stability property of bidirectional associate memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms are considered. By using the method of variation parameter and inequality technique, the delay-independent sufficient conditions to guarantee the uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium solution of such networks are established
Global exponential stability of BAM neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms
Wan, Li; Zhou, Qinghua
2007-11-01
The stability property of bidirectional associate memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms are considered. By using the method of variation parameter and inequality technique, the delay-independent sufficient conditions to guarantee the uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium solution of such networks are established.
A new time-varying harmonic decomposition structure based on recursive hanning window
Martins, C.H.; Silva, L.R.M.; Duque, C.A.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Teixeira, E.C.; Ribeiro, P.F.
2012-01-01
Analysis of power quality phenomena under time-varying conditions has become an important subject as the complexity of the grid increases. As a consequence, several methods have been developed/applied also to study power quality parameters during transient conditions such as time-frequency methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naradasu Kumar Ravi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Diesel engine designers are constantly on the look-out for performance enhancement through efficient control of operating parameters. In this paper, the concept of an intelligent engine control system is proposed that seeks to ensure optimized performance under varying operating conditions. The concept is based on arriving at the optimum engine operating parameters to ensure the desired output in terms of efficiency. In addition, a Support Vector Machines based prediction model has been developed to predict the engine performance under varying operating conditions. Experiments were carried out at varying loads, compression ratios and amounts of exhaust gas recirculation using a variable compression ratio diesel engine for data acquisition. It was observed that the SVM model was able to predict the engine performance accurately.
Badawy, B.; Fletcher, C. G.
2017-12-01
The parameterization of snow processes in land surface models is an important source of uncertainty in climate simulations. Quantifying the importance of snow-related parameters, and their uncertainties, may therefore lead to better understanding and quantification of uncertainty within integrated earth system models. However, quantifying the uncertainty arising from parameterized snow processes is challenging due to the high-dimensional parameter space, poor observational constraints, and parameter interaction. In this study, we investigate the sensitivity of the land simulation to uncertainty in snow microphysical parameters in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS) using an uncertainty quantification (UQ) approach. A set of training cases (n=400) from CLASS is used to sample each parameter across its full range of empirical uncertainty, as determined from available observations and expert elicitation. A statistical learning model using support vector regression (SVR) is then constructed from the training data (CLASS output variables) to efficiently emulate the dynamical CLASS simulations over a much larger (n=220) set of cases. This approach is used to constrain the plausible range for each parameter using a skill score, and to identify the parameters with largest influence on the land simulation in CLASS at global and regional scales, using a random forest (RF) permutation importance algorithm. Preliminary sensitivity tests indicate that snow albedo refreshment threshold and the limiting snow depth, below which bare patches begin to appear, have the highest impact on snow output variables. The results also show a considerable reduction of the plausible ranges of the parameters values and hence reducing their uncertainty ranges, which can lead to a significant reduction of the model uncertainty. The implementation and results of this study will be presented and discussed in details.
A thermal model for photovoltaic panels under varying atmospheric conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armstrong, S.; Hurley, W.G.
2010-01-01
The response of the photovoltaic (PV) panel temperature is dynamic with respect to the changes in the incoming solar radiation. During periods of rapidly changing conditions, a steady state model of the operating temperature cannot be justified because the response time of the PV panel temperature becomes significant due to its large thermal mass. Therefore, it is of interest to determine the thermal response time of the PV panel. Previous attempts to determine the thermal response time have used indoor measurements, controlling the wind flow over the surface of the panel with fans or conducting the experiments in darkness to avoid radiative heat loss effects. In real operating conditions, the effective PV panel temperature is subjected to randomly varying ambient temperature and fluctuating wind speeds and directions; parameters that are not replicated in controlled, indoor experiments. A new thermal model is proposed that incorporates atmospheric conditions; effects of PV panel material composition and mounting structure. Experimental results are presented which verify the thermal behaviour of a photovoltaic panel for low to strong winds.
A Novel Time-Varying Friction Compensation Method for Servomechanism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Feng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Friction is an inevitable nonlinear phenomenon existing in servomechanisms. Friction errors often affect their motion and contour accuracies during the reverse motion. To reduce friction errors, a novel time-varying friction compensation method is proposed to solve the problem that the traditional friction compensation methods hardly deal with. This problem leads to an unsatisfactory friction compensation performance and the motion and contour accuracies cannot be maintained effectively. In this method, a trapezoidal compensation pulse is adopted to compensate for the friction errors. A generalized regression neural network algorithm is used to generate the optimal pulse amplitude function. The optimal pulse duration function and the pulse amplitude function can be established by the pulse characteristic parameter learning and then the optimal friction compensation pulse can be generated. The feasibility of friction compensation method was verified on a high-precision X-Y worktable. The experimental results indicated that the motion and contour accuracies were improved greatly with reduction of the friction errors, in different working conditions. Moreover, the overall friction compensation performance indicators were decreased by more than 54% and this friction compensation method can be implemented easily on most of servomechanisms in industry.
Hydrophobicity studies of polymer thin films with varied CNT concentration
M. Rodzi, N. H.; M. Shahimin, M.; Poopalan, P.; Man, B.; M. Nor, M. N.
2013-12-01
Surface functionalization studies for re-creating a `Lotus Leaf' effect (superhydrophobic) have been carried out for the past decade; looking for the material which can provide high transparency, low energy surface and high surface roughness. Fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid thin film variations on glass to produce near-superhydrophobic surfaces is presented in this paper. There are three important parameters studied in producing hydrophobic surfaces based on the hybrid thin films; concentration of PDMS, concentration of MWCNT and droplet sizes. The study is carried out by using PDMS of varied cross linker ratio (10:1, 30:1 and 50:1) with MWCNT concentration of 1mg, 10mg and 15mg for 0.5 μl, 2.0 μl, 5.0 μl and 10 μl droplet sizes. The resulting hybrid thin films show that hydrophobicity increased with increasing cross linker ratio and MWCNT percentage in the PDMS solution. A near superhydrophobic surface can be created when using 15 mg of MWCNT with 50:1 cross linker ratio PDMS thin films, measured on 10 μl droplet size. The hybrid thin films produced can be potentially tailored to the application of biosensors, MEMS and even commercial devices.
Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate
Maity, Arnab; Huang, Jianhua Z.
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric
Stability parameters and their inter-relationships at the naviface
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Anto, A.F.; Hasse, L.; Murty, C.S.
Different forms of stability parameters used for the estimation of fluxes and studies on the structure of surface boundary layer of the marine atmosphere and their inter-relationships under the varying conditions of thermal stratifications...
Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rewoldt, G.
2003-01-01
The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results
Comparison of linear microinstability calculations of varying input realism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rewoldt, G.; Kinsey, J.E.
2004-01-01
The effect of varying 'input realism' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results
Primack, Joel R.
2000-01-01
The cosmological parameters that I emphasize are the age of the universe $t_0$, the Hubble parameter $H_0 \\equiv 100 h$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, the average matter density $\\Omega_m$, the baryonic matter density $\\Omega_b$, the neutrino density $\\Omega_\
Decker, A. J.
1982-01-01
The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
We propose a direct test of the existence of gauge duals for nonsupersymmetric asymptotically free gauge theories developing an infrared fixed point by computing the S-parameter in the electric and dual magnetic description. In particular we show that at the lower bound of the conformal window...... the magnetic S-parameter, i.e. the one determined via the dual magnetic gauge theory, assumes a simple expression in terms of the elementary magnetic degrees of freedom. The results further support our recent conjecture of the existence of a universal lower bound on the S parameter and indicates...
Radon parameters in outdoor air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porstendoerfer, J.; Zock, Ch.; Wendt, J.; Reineking, A.
2002-01-01
For dose estimation by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny in outdoor air, the equilibrium factor (F), the unattached fraction (f p ), and the activity size distribution of the radon progeny were measured. Besides the radon parameter the meteorological parameter like temperature, wind speed, and rainfall intensity were registered. The measurements were carried out continuously for several weeks to find out the variation with time (day/night) and for different weather conditions. The radon gas, the unattached and aerosol-attached radon progenies were measured with an monitor developed for continuous measurements in outdoor air with low activity concentrations. For the determination of the activity size distribution a low pressure online alpha cascade impactor was used. The measured values of the equilibrium factor varied between 0.5-0.8 depending on weather conditions and time of the day. For high pressure weather conditions a diurnal variation of the F-factor was obtained. A lower average value (F=0.25) was registered during rainy days. The obtained f p -values varied between 0.04 and 0.12. They were higher than expected. The measured activity size distribution of the radon progeny averaged over a measurement period of three weeks can be approximated by a sum of three log-normal distributions. The greatest activity fraction is adsorbed on aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with activity median diameters and geometric standard deviation values between 250-450 nm and 1.5-3.0, respectively. The activity median diameter of this accumulation mode in outdoor air was significantly greater than in indoor air (150-250 nm). An influence of the weather conditions on the activity of the accumulation particles was not significant. In contrast to the results of measurements in houses a small but significant fraction of the radon progeny (average value: 2%) is attached on coarse particles (>1000 nm). This fraction varied between 0-10%. 20
Multivariate optimization of ILC parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazarov, I.V.; Padamsee, H.S.
2005-01-01
We present results of multiobjective optimization of the International Linear Collider (ILC) which seeks to maximize luminosity at each given total cost of the linac (capital and operating costs of cryomodules, refrigeration and RF). Evolutionary algorithms allow quick exploration of optimal sets of parameters in a complicated system such as ILC in the presence of realistic constraints as well as investigation of various what-if scenarios in potential performance. Among the parameters we varied there were accelerating gradient and Q of the cavities (in a coupled manner following a realistic Q vs. E curve), the number of particles per bunch, the bunch length, number of bunches in the train, etc. We find an optimum which decreases (relative to TESLA TDR baseline) the total linac cost by 22%, capital cost by 25% at the same luminosity of 3 x 10 38 m -2 s -1 . For this optimum the gradient is 35 MV/m, the final spot size is 3.6 nm, and the beam power is 15.9 MV/m. Changing the luminosity by 10 38 m -2 s -1 results in 10% change in the total linac cost and 4% in the capital cost. We have also explored the optimal fronts of luminosity vs. cost for several other scenarios using the same approach. (orig.)
Yoon, Heonjun; Kim, Miso; Park, Choon-Su; Youn, Byeng D.
2018-01-01
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH) has received much attention as a potential solution that could ultimately realize self-powered wireless sensor networks. Since most ambient vibrations in nature are inherently random and nonstationary, the output performances of PVEH devices also randomly change with time. However, little attention has been paid to investigating the randomly time-varying electroelastic behaviors of PVEH systems both analytically and experimentally. The objective of this study is thus to make a step forward towards a deep understanding of the time-varying performances of PVEH devices under nonstationary random vibrations. Two typical cases of nonstationary random vibration signals are considered: (1) randomly-varying amplitude (amplitude modulation; AM) and (2) randomly-varying amplitude with randomly-varying instantaneous frequency (amplitude and frequency modulation; AM-FM). In both cases, this study pursues well-balanced correlations of analytical predictions and experimental observations to deduce the relationships between the time-varying output performances of the PVEH device and two primary input parameters, such as a central frequency and an external electrical resistance. We introduce three correlation metrics to quantitatively compare analytical prediction and experimental observation, including the normalized root mean square error, the correlation coefficient, and the weighted integrated factor. Analytical predictions are in an excellent agreement with experimental observations both mechanically and electrically. This study provides insightful guidelines for designing PVEH devices to reliably generate electric power under nonstationary random vibrations.
SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER. 1. ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS. ORBITAL HEIGHT >= 20,000 KM. LONGER VISIBILITY; ORBITAL PERIOD. PERTURBATIONS(MINIMUM). SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE (IMPACTS ECCENTRICITY); LUNI ...
Reassessment of safeguards parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hakkila, E.A.; Richter, J.L.; Mullen, M.F.
1994-07-01
The International Atomic Energy Agency is reassessing the timeliness and goal quantity parameters that are used in defining safeguards approaches. This study reviews technology developments since the parameters were established in the 1970s and concludes that there is no reason to relax goal quantity or conversion time for reactor-grade plutonium relative to weapons-grade plutonium. For low-enriched uranium, especially in countries with advanced enrichment capability there may be an incentive to shorten the detection time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avenhaus, R.; Heil, J.
1979-01-01
In this paper analyses are made of the values of those parameters that characterize the present safeguards system that is applied to a national fuel cycle; those values have to be fixed quantitatively so that all actions of the safeguards authority are specified precisely. The analysis starts by introducing three categories of quantities: The design parameters (number of MBAs, inventory frequency, variance of MUF, verification effort and false-alarm probability) describe those quantities whose values have to be specified before the safeguards system can be implemented. The performance criteria (probability of detection, expected detection time, goal quantity) measure the effectiveness of a safeguards system; and the standards (threshold amount and critical time) characterize the magnitude of the proliferation problem. The means by which the values of the individual design parameters can be determined with the help of the performance criteria; which qualitative arguments can narrow down the arbitrariness of the choice of values of the remaining parameters; and which parameter values have to be fixed more or less arbitrarily, are investigated. As a result of these considerations, which include the optimal allocation of a given inspection effort, the problem of analysing the structure of the safeguards system is reduced to an evaluation of the interplay of only a few parameters, essentially the quality of the measurement system (variance of MUF), verification effort, false-alarm probability, goal quantity and probability of detection
A dynamic particle filter-support vector regression method for reliability prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Zhao; Tao, Tao; ZhuoShu, Ding; Zio, Enrico
2013-01-01
Support vector regression (SVR) has been applied to time series prediction and some works have demonstrated the feasibility of its use to forecast system reliability. For accuracy of reliability forecasting, the selection of SVR's parameters is important. The existing research works on SVR's parameters selection divide the example dataset into training and test subsets, and tune the parameters on the training data. However, these fixed parameters can lead to poor prediction capabilities if the data of the test subset differ significantly from those of training. Differently, the novel method proposed in this paper uses particle filtering to estimate the SVR model parameters according to the whole measurement sequence up to the last observation instance. By treating the SVR training model as the observation equation of a particle filter, our method allows updating the SVR model parameters dynamically when a new observation comes. Because of the adaptability of the parameters to dynamic data pattern, the new PF–SVR method has superior prediction performance over that of standard SVR. Four application results show that PF–SVR is more robust than SVR to the decrease of the number of training data and the change of initial SVR parameter values. Also, even if there are trends in the test data different from those in the training data, the method can capture the changes, correct the SVR parameters and obtain good predictions. -- Highlights: •A dynamic PF–SVR method is proposed to predict the system reliability. •The method can adjust the SVR parameters according to the change of data. •The method is robust to the size of training data and initial parameter values. •Some cases based on both artificial and real data are studied. •PF–SVR shows superior prediction performance over standard SVR
Gas metal arc welding of butt joint with varying gap width based on neural networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben
2005-01-01
penetration, when the gap width is varying during the welding process. The process modeling to facilitate the mapping from joint geometry and reference weld quality to significant welding parameters, has been based on a multi-layer feed-forward network. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear least......This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...
State and parameter estimation in biotechnical batch reactors
Keesman, K.J.
2000-01-01
In this paper the problem of state and parameter estimation in biotechnical batch reactors is considered. Models describing the biotechnical process behaviour are usually nonlinear with time-varying parameters. Hence, the resulting large dimensions of the augmented state vector, roughly > 7, in
Jia, Xingyu; Liu, Zhigang; Tao, Long; Deng, Zhongwen
2017-10-16
Frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) with a single external cavity diode laser (ECDL) and time-invariant Kalman filtering is an effective technique for measuring the distance of a dynamic target. However, due to the hysteresis of the piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) actuator in the ECDL, the optical frequency sweeps of the ECDL exhibit different behaviors, depending on whether the frequency is increasing or decreasing. Consequently, the model parameters of Kalman filter appear time varying in each iteration, which produces state estimation errors with time-invariant filtering. To address this, in this paper, a time-varying Kalman filter is proposed to model the instantaneous movement of a target relative to the different optical frequency tuning durations of the ECDL. The combination of the FSI method with the time-varying Kalman filter was theoretically analyzed, and the simulation and experimental results show the proposed method greatly improves the performance of dynamic FSI measurements.
Modelling and Control of Ionic Electroactive Polymer Actuators under Varying Humidity Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Sunjai Nakshatharan
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this work, we address the problem of position control of ionic electroactive polymer soft actuators under varying relative humidity conditions. The impact of humidity on the actuation performance of ionic actuators is studied through frequency response and impedance spectroscopy analysis. Considering the uncertain performance of the actuator under varying humidity conditions, an adaptable model using the neural network method is developed. The model uses relative humidity magnitude as one of the model parameters, making it robust to different environmental conditions. Utilizing the model, a closed-loop controller based on the model predictive controller is developed for position control of the actuator. The developed model and controller are experimentally verified and found to be capable of predicting and controlling the actuators with excellent tracking accuracy under relative humidity conditions varying in the range of 10–90%.
Robust stability analysis of uncertain stochastic neural networks with interval time-varying delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Wei; Yang, Simon X.; Fu Wei; Wu Haixia
2009-01-01
This paper addresses the stability analysis problem for uncertain stochastic neural networks with interval time-varying delays. The parameter uncertainties are assumed to be norm bounded, and the delay factor is assumed to be time-varying and belong to a given interval, which means that the lower and upper bounds of interval time-varying delays are available. A sufficient condition is derived such that for all admissible uncertainties, the considered neural network is robustly, globally, asymptotically stable in the mean square. Some stability criteria are formulated by means of the feasibility of a linear matrix inequality (LMI), which can be effectively solved by some standard numerical packages. Finally, numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed criteria.
A hepatitis C virus infection model with time-varying drug effectiveness: solution and analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jessica M Conway
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Simple models of therapy for viral diseases such as hepatitis C virus (HCV or human immunodeficiency virus assume that, once therapy is started, the drug has a constant effectiveness. More realistic models have assumed either that the drug effectiveness depends on the drug concentration or that the effectiveness varies over time. Here a previously introduced varying-effectiveness (VE model is studied mathematically in the context of HCV infection. We show that while the model is linear, it has no closed-form solution due to the time-varying nature of the effectiveness. We then show that the model can be transformed into a Bessel equation and derive an analytic solution in terms of modified Bessel functions, which are defined as infinite series, with time-varying arguments. Fitting the solution to data from HCV infected patients under therapy has yielded values for the parameters in the model. We show that for biologically realistic parameters, the predicted viral decay on therapy is generally biphasic and resembles that predicted by constant-effectiveness (CE models. We introduce a general method for determining the time at which the transition between decay phases occurs based on calculating the point of maximum curvature of the viral decay curve. For the parameter regimes of interest, we also find approximate solutions for the VE model and establish the asymptotic behavior of the system. We show that the rate of second phase decay is determined by the death rate of infected cells multiplied by the maximum effectiveness of therapy, whereas the rate of first phase decline depends on multiple parameters including the rate of increase of drug effectiveness with time.
Some new results for recurrent neural networks with varying-time coefficients and delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Haijun; Teng Zhidong
2005-01-01
In this Letter, we consider the recurrent neural networks with varying-time coefficients and delays. By constructing new Lyapunov functional, introducing ingeniously many real parameters and applying the technique of Young inequality, we establish a series of criteria on the boundedness, global exponential stability and the existence of periodic solutions. In these criteria, we do not require that the response functions are differentiable, bounded and monotone nondecreasing. Some previous works are improved and extended
Effects of varying laser trimming geometries on thin film\\ud resistors
Alafogianni, Maria; Birkett, Martin; Penlington, Roger
2017-01-01
Purpose - This paper studies the effects of varying laser trim patterns on several performance parameters of thin film resistors such as the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and target resistance value.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - The benefits and limitations of basic trim patterns are taken into consideration and the plunge cut, double plunge cut and the curved L-cut were selected to be modelled and tested experimentally. A computer simulation of the laser trim patterns h...
Fitting Social Network Models Using Varying Truncation Stochastic Approximation MCMC Algorithm
Jin, Ick Hoon
2013-10-01
The exponential random graph model (ERGM) plays a major role in social network analysis. However, parameter estimation for the ERGM is a hard problem due to the intractability of its normalizing constant and the model degeneracy. The existing algorithms, such as Monte Carlo maximum likelihood estimation (MCMLE) and stochastic approximation, often fail for this problem in the presence of model degeneracy. In this article, we introduce the varying truncation stochastic approximation Markov chain Monte Carlo (SAMCMC) algorithm to tackle this problem. The varying truncation mechanism enables the algorithm to choose an appropriate starting point and an appropriate gain factor sequence, and thus to produce a reasonable parameter estimate for the ERGM even in the presence of model degeneracy. The numerical results indicate that the varying truncation SAMCMC algorithm can significantly outperform the MCMLE and stochastic approximation algorithms: for degenerate ERGMs, MCMLE and stochastic approximation often fail to produce any reasonable parameter estimates, while SAMCMC can do; for nondegenerate ERGMs, SAMCMC can work as well as or better than MCMLE and stochastic approximation. The data and source codes used for this article are available online as supplementary materials. © 2013 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.
State space modeling of time-varying contemporaneous and lagged relations in connectivity maps.
Molenaar, Peter C M; Beltz, Adriene M; Gates, Kathleen M; Wilson, Stephen J
2016-01-15
Most connectivity mapping techniques for neuroimaging data assume stationarity (i.e., network parameters are constant across time), but this assumption does not always hold true. The authors provide a description of a new approach for simultaneously detecting time-varying (or dynamic) contemporaneous and lagged relations in brain connectivity maps. Specifically, they use a novel raw data likelihood estimation technique (involving a second-order extended Kalman filter/smoother embedded in a nonlinear optimizer) to determine the variances of the random walks associated with state space model parameters and their autoregressive components. The authors illustrate their approach with simulated and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 30 daily cigarette smokers performing a verbal working memory task, focusing on seven regions of interest (ROIs). Twelve participants had dynamic directed functional connectivity maps: Eleven had one or more time-varying contemporaneous ROI state loadings, and one had a time-varying autoregressive parameter. Compared to smokers without dynamic maps, smokers with dynamic maps performed the task with greater accuracy. Thus, accurate detection of dynamic brain processes is meaningfully related to behavior in a clinical sample. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Optimal Laser Phototherapy Parameters for Pain Relief.
Kate, Rohit J; Rubatt, Sarah; Enwemeka, Chukuka S; Huddleston, Wendy E
2018-03-27
Studies on laser phototherapy for pain relief have used parameters that vary widely and have reported varying outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal parameter ranges of laser phototherapy for pain relief by analyzing data aggregated from existing primary literature. Original studies were gathered from available sources and were screened to meet the pre-established inclusion criteria. The included articles were then subjected to meta-analysis using Cohen's d statistic for determining treatment effect size. From these studies, ranges of the reported parameters that always resulted into large effect sizes were determined. These optimal ranges were evaluated for their accuracy using leave-one-article-out cross-validation procedure. A total of 96 articles met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis and yielded 232 effect sizes. The average effect size was highly significant: d = +1.36 (confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.04-1.68). Among all the parameters, total energy was found to have the greatest effect on pain relief and had the most prominent optimal ranges of 120-162 and 15.36-20.16 J, which always resulted in large effect sizes. The cross-validation accuracy of the optimal ranges for total energy was 68.57% (95% CI = 53.19-83.97). Fewer and less-prominent optimal ranges were obtained for the energy density and duration parameters. None of the remaining parameters was found to be independently related to pain relief outcomes. The findings of meta-analysis indicate that laser phototherapy is highly effective for pain relief. Based on the analysis of parameters, total energy can be optimized to yield the largest effect on pain relief.
Effects of time-varying β in SNLS3 on constraining interacting dark energy models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Shuang; Wang, Yong-Zhen; Geng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Xin
2014-01-01
It has been found that, for the Supernova Legacy Survey three-year (SNLS3) data, there is strong evidence for the redshift evolution of the color-luminosity parameter β. In this paper, adopting the w-cold-dark-matter (wCDM) model and considering its interacting extensions (with three kinds of interaction between dark sectors), we explore the evolution of β and its effects on parameter estimation. In addition to the SNLS3 data, we also use the latest Planck distance priors data, the galaxy clustering data extracted from sloan digital sky survey data release 7 and baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey, as well as the direct measurement of Hubble constant H 0 from the Hubble Space Telescope observation. We find that, for all the interacting dark energy (IDE) models, adding a parameter of β can reduce χ 2 by ∝34, indicating that a constant β is ruled out at 5.8σ confidence level. Furthermore, it is found that varying β can significantly change the fitting results of various cosmological parameters: for all the dark energy models considered in this paper, varying β yields a larger fractional CDM densities Ω c0 and a larger equation of state w; on the other side, varying β yields a smaller reduced Hubble constant h for the wCDM model, but it has no impact on h for the three IDE models. This implies that there is a degeneracy between h and coupling parameter γ. Our work shows that the evolution of β is insensitive to the interaction between dark sectors, and then highlights the importance of considering β's evolution in the cosmology fits. (orig.)
Electroweak interaction parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marciano, W.J.
1984-01-01
After a presentation of the experimentally determined parameters of the standard SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) model the author discusses the definition of the Weinberg angle. Then masses and widths of the intermediate vector bosons are considered in the framework of the Weinberg-Salam theory with radiative corrections. Furthermore the radiative decays of these bosons are discussed. Then the relations between the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark are considered. Thereafter grand unification is briefly discussed with special regards to the SU(5) prediction of some observable parameters. Finally some speculations are made concerning the observation of radiative decays in the UA1 experiments. (HSI)
Band parameters of phosphorene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lew Yan Voon, L C; Wang, J; Zhang, Y; Willatzen, M
2015-01-01
Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene. (paper)
Band parameters of phosphorene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.
2015-01-01
Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...... are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene....
How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?
Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe
2009-01-01
How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…
Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.
1998-01-01
The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report
Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...
Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
2004-01-01
The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed.......The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....
Multivariate time-varying volatility modeling using probabilistic fuzzy systems
Basturk, N.; Almeida, R.J.; Golan, R.; Kaymak, U.
2016-01-01
Methods to accurately analyze financial risk have drawn considerable attention in financial institutions. One difficulty in financial risk analysis is the fact that banks and other financial institutions invest in several assets which show time-varying volatilities and hence time-varying financial
Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wirtz, Oliver Marius
2012-07-19
Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm{sup -2} at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced
Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wirtz, Oliver Marius
2012-01-01
Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm -2 at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced damages
Boon, E.J.M.C.; Engels, F.M.; Struik, P.C.; Cone, J.W.
2005-01-01
The morphology and rumen fermentation kinetics of the maize cultivars (Zea mays L.) Vitaro and Volens were investigated in detail throughout their growing period as a first step towards understanding the relation between plant characteristics and cell wall fermentability of forage maize. Vitaro is
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kar, S.; Kakolee, K.F.; Cerchez, M.; Doria, D.; Macchi, A.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.; Osterholz, J.; Quinn, K.; Ramakrishna, B.; Sarri, G.; Willi, O.; Yuan, X.H.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, Marco
2013-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 12 (2013), "124030-1"-"124030-6" ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasmas * absorption Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2013
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matzuka, Brett; Mehlsen, Jesper; Tran, Hien
2015-01-01
are sparse, typical studies only include measurements of heart rate and blood pressure, as a result it is difficult to determine what mechanisms that are impaired. It is known, that blood pressure regulation is mediated by changes in heart rate, vascular resistance, cardiac contractility and a number...... of other factors. Given that numerous factors contribute to changing these quantities it is difficult to devise a physiological model describing how they change in time. One way is to build a model that allows these controlled quantities to change and to compare dynamics between subject groups. To do so...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kar, S; Kakolee, K F; Doria, D; Quinn, K; Ramakrishna, B; Sarri, G; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M; Cerchez, M; Osterholz, J; Willi, O; Macchi, A; McKenna, P; Yuan, X H; Neely, D
2013-01-01
Temporal evolution of plasma jets from micrometre-scale thick foils following the interaction of intense (3 × 10 20 W cm −2 ) laser pulses is studied systematically by time resolved optical interferometry. The fluid velocity in the plasma jets is determined by comparing the data with 2D hydrodynamic simulation, which agrees with the expected hole-boring (HB) velocity due to the laser radiation pressure. The homogeneity of the plasma density across the jets has been found to be improved substantially when irradiating the laser at circular polarization compared to linear polarization. While overdense plasma jets were formed efficiently for micrometre thick targets, decreasing the target areal density and/or increasing the irradiance on the target have provided indication of transition from the ‘HB’ to the ‘light sail (LS)’ regime of RPA, characterized by the appearance of narrow-band spectral features at several MeV/nucleon in proton and carbon spectra. (paper)
Jiménez, T.; Koole, G.M.
2004-01-01
Temporary overload situations in queues can be approximated by fluid queues. We strengthen earlier results on the comparison of multi-server tandem systems with their fluid limits. At the same time we give conditions under which economies of scale hold. We apply the results to call centers. ©
Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor
Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV
2011-04-19
A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.
Extreme events as foundation of Levy walks with varying velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutner, Ryszard
2002-01-01
In this work we study the role of extreme events [E.W. Montroll, B.J. West, in: J.L. Lebowitz, E.W. Montrell (Eds.), Fluctuation Phenomena, SSM, vol. VII, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979, p. 63; J.-P. Bouchaud, M. Potters, Theory of Financial Risks from Statistical Physics to Risk Management, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001; D. Sornette, Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences. Chaos, Fractals, Selforganization and Disorder: Concepts and Tools, Springer, Berlin, 2000] in determining the scaling properties of Levy walks with varying velocity. This model is an extension of the well-known Levy walks one [J. Klafter, G. Zumofen, M.F. Shlesinger, in M.F. Shlesinger, G.M. Zaslavsky, U. Frisch (Eds.), Levy Flights and Related Topics ion Physics, Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 450, Springer, Berlin, 1995, p. 196; G. Zumofen, J. Klafter, M.F. Shlesinger, in: R. Kutner, A. Pekalski, K. Sznajd-Weron (Eds.), Anomalous Diffusion. From Basics to Applications, Lecture Note in Physics, vol. 519, Springer, Berlin, 1999, p. 15] introduced in the context of chaotic dynamics where a fixed value of the walker velocity is assumed for simplicity. Such an extension seems to be necessary when the open and/or complex system is studied. The model of Levy walks with varying velocity is spanned on two coupled velocity-temporal hierarchies: the first one consisting of velocities and the second of corresponding time intervals which the walker spends between the successive turning points. Both these hierarchical structures are characterized by their own self-similar dimensions. The extreme event, which can appear within a given time interval, is defined as a single random step of the walker having largest length. By finding power-laws which describe the time-dependence of this displacement and its statistics we obtained two independent diffusion exponents, which are related to the above-mentioned dimensions and which characterize the extreme event kinetics. In this work we show the
Sea surface stability parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, A.H.; Suich, J.E.
1978-01-01
A number of studies dealing with climatology of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean have been published in the last ten years. These published studies have dealt with directly measured meteorological parameters, e.g., wind speed, temperature, etc. This information has been useful because of the increased focus on the near coastal zone where man's activities are increasing in magnitude and scope, e.g., offshore power plants, petroleum production, and the subsequent environmental impacts of these activities. Atmospheric transport of passive or nonpassive material is significantly influenced by the turbulence structure of the atmosphere in the region of the atmosphere-ocean interface. This research entails identification of the suitability of standard atmospheric stability parameters which can be used to determine turbulence structure; the calculation of these parameters for the near-shore and continental shelf regions of the U.S. east coast from Cape Hatteras to Miami, Florida; and the preparation of a climatology of these parameters. In addition, a climatology for average surface stress for the same geographical region is being prepared
Measuring the chargino parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
by measuring the cross-sections with polarized beams at e+e- collider ... is given by the fundamental SUSY parameters: the SU(2) gaugino mass Е¾, the higgsino .... two points in the plane which are symmetric under the interchange ¾Д ° ¾К.
General image acquisition parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teissier, J.M.; Lopez, F.M.; Langevin, J.F.
1993-01-01
The general parameters are of primordial importance to achieve image quality in terms of spatial resolution and contrast. They also play a role in the acquisition time for each sequence. We describe them separately, before associating them in a decision tree gathering the various options that are possible for diagnosis
Quantization of physical parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackiw, R.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge
1984-01-01
Dynamical models are described with parameters (mass, coupling strengths) which must be quantized for quantum mechanical consistency. These and related topological ideas have physical application to phenomenological descriptions of high temperature and low energy quantum chromodynamics, to the nonrelativistic dynamics of magnetic monopoles, and to the quantum Hall effect. (author)
IRI profile parameters at equatorial latitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinisch, B.W.; Huang Xueqin; Conway, J.
2002-01-01
The IRI bottom-side electron density profile is specified as a function of three parameters B0, B1, and D1 describing the F2 layer thickness and shape, and the shape of the F1 layer, respectively. Together with the URSI or CCIR coefficients for the F2 layer peak density and height, they completely specify the profiles as function of time, season and solar activity. In support of the international effort of determining the best set of parameters we have analyzed the diurnal variations of B0, B1, and D1 for Jicamarca for high solar activity during 1999 and 2000 for different seasons and magnetic activity. The B0 values vary from a minimum of ∼95 km at 0300 LT to ∼250 km at local noon (1700 UT). The diurnal variation is similar to the IRI2000 prediction. B1 varies from ∼1.9 at daytime to ∼2.2 at night. The value of D1 is ∼0.5. The parameters show little Kp dependence. Standard deviations are shown. We calculated the ionospheric total electron contents for March and April 1998 from the ionogram profiles at Jicamarca and compared them with IRI predictions using the IRI 2000 parameters. While there is fair agreement, a significant time shift of 1 to 2 hours occurs in the transition from night to daytime values. (author)
Estimation of thermal sensation during varied air temperature conditions.
Katsuura, T; Tabuchi, R; Iwanaga, K; Harada, H; Kikuchi, Y
1998-03-01
Seven male students were exposed to four varied air temperature environments: hot (37 degrees C) to neutral (27 degrees C) (HN), neutral to hot (NH), cool (17 degrees C) to neutral (CN), and neutral to cool (NC). The air temperature was maintained at the first condition for 20 min, then was changed to the second condition after 15 min and was held there for 20 min. Each subject wore a T-shirt, briefs, trunks, and socks. Each sat on a chair and was continuously evaluated for thermal sensation, thermal comfort, and air velocity sensation. Some physiological and thermal parameters were also measured every 5 s during the experiment. The correlation between thermal sensation and skin temperature at 15 sites was found to be poor. The subjects felt much warmer during the rising phase of the air temperature (CN, NH) than during the descending phase (HN, NC) at a given mean skin temperature. However, thermal sensation at the same heat flux or at the same value of the difference between skin and air temperature (delta(Tsk - Ta)) was not so different among the four experimental conditions, and the correlation between thermal sensation and heat flux or delta(Tsk - Ta) was fairly good. The multiple regression equation of the thermal sensation (TS) on 15 sites of skin temperature (Tsk; degrees C) was calculated and the coefficient of determination (R*2) was found to be 0.656. Higher coefficients of determination were found in the equations of thermal sensation for the heat flux (H; kcal.m-2.h-1) at the right and left thighs of the subjects and on delta(Tsk - Ta) (degrees C) at 4 sites. They were as follows: TS = 2.04 - 0.016 Hright - 0.036 Hleft; R*2 = 0.717, TS = 1.649 + 0.013 delta(Tsk - Ta)UpperArm - 0.036 delta(Tsk - Ta)Chest - 0.223 delta(Tsk - Ta)Thigh-0.083 delta(Tsk - Ta)LowerLeg; R*2 = 0.752, respectively.
Forecasting systems reliability based on support vector regression with genetic algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, K.-Y.
2007-01-01
This study applies a novel neural-network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecast reliability in engine systems. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in systems reliability prediction by comparing it with the existing neural-network approaches and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. To build an effective SVR model, SVR's parameters must be set carefully. This study proposes a novel approach, known as GA-SVR, which searches for SVR's optimal parameters using real-value genetic algorithms, and then adopts the optimal parameters to construct the SVR models. A real reliability data for 40 suits of turbochargers were employed as the data set. The experimental results demonstrate that SVR outperforms the existing neural-network approaches and the traditional ARIMA models based on the normalized root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error
The effect of selected parameters of the honing process on cylinder liner surface topography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pawlus, P; Dzierwa, A; Michalski, J; Reizer, R; Wieczorowski, M; Majchrowski, R
2014-01-01
Many truck cylinder liners made from gray cast iron were machined. Ceramic and diamond honing stones were used in the last stages of operation: coarse honing and plateau honing. The effect of honing parameters on the cylinder liner surface topography was studied. Selected surface topography parameters were response variables. It was found that parameters from the Sq group were sensitive to honing parameter change. When plateau honing time varied, the Smq parameter increased, while the other parameters, Spq and Svq, were stable. (papers)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mian Jiang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinearity measure is proposed to investigate the influence of slowly varying mass on severity of dynamics nonlinearity of bearing-rotor systems with pedestal looseness. A nonlinear mathematical model including the effect of slowly varying disk mass is developed for a bearing-rotor system with pedestal looseness. The varying of equivalent disk mass is described by a cosine function, and the amplitude coefficient is used as a control parameter. Then, nonlinearity measure is employed to quantify the severity of dynamics nonlinearity of bearing-rotor systems. With the increasing of looseness clearances, the curves that denote the trend of nonlinearity degree are plotted for each amplitude coefficient of mass varying. It can be concluded that larger amplitude coefficients of the disk mass varying will have more influence on the severity of dynamics nonlinearity and generation of chaotic behaviors in rotor systems with pedestal looseness.
Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaiyue Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.
Scale effects on spatially varying relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality.
Sun, Yanwei; Guo, Qinghai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Run
2014-08-01
Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality.
Optomechanical parameter estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ang, Shan Zheng; Tsang, Mankei; Harris, Glen I; Bowen, Warwick P
2013-01-01
We propose a statistical framework for the problem of parameter estimation from a noisy optomechanical system. The Cramér–Rao lower bound on the estimation errors in the long-time limit is derived and compared with the errors of radiometer and expectation–maximization (EM) algorithms in the estimation of the force noise power. When applied to experimental data, the EM estimator is found to have the lowest error and follow the Cramér–Rao bound most closely. Our analytic results are envisioned to be valuable to optomechanical experiment design, while the EM algorithm, with its ability to estimate most of the system parameters, is envisioned to be useful for optomechanical sensing, atomic magnetometry and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. (paper)
Critical parameters for ammonia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, M.; Masui, G.; Uematsu, M.
2005-01-01
(p, ρ, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for ammonia were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -1 K (T - T c ) 0.04 K, and of densities: -19 kg . m -3 (ρ - ρ c ) 19 kg . m -3 by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapor pressures were also measured at T = (310, 350, and 400) K. The critical parameters of T c and ρ c were determined based on the results of observation of the critical opalescence. The critical pressure p c was determined from the present measurements at T c on the vapor pressure curve. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented
Critical parameters for ammonia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sato, M. [Center for Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Masui, G. [Center for Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Uematsu, M. [Center for Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: uematsu@mech.keio.ac.jp
2005-09-15
(p, {rho}, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for ammonia were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -1 K (T - T {sub c}) 0.04 K, and of densities: -19 kg . m{sup -3} ({rho} - {rho} {sub c}) 19 kg . m{sup -3} by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapor pressures were also measured at T = (310, 350, and 400) K. The critical parameters of T {sub c} and {rho} {sub c} were determined based on the results of observation of the critical opalescence. The critical pressure p {sub c} was determined from the present measurements at T {sub c} on the vapor pressure curve. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-03-01
This document contains up-to-date data on existing or firmly decided prototype or demonstration LMFBR reactors (Table I), on planned commercial size LMFBR according to the present status of design (Table II) and on experimental fast reactors such as BOR-60, DFR, EBR-II, FERMI, FFTF, JOYO, KNK-II, PEC, RAPSODIE-FORTISSIMO (Table III). Only corrected and revised parameters submitted by the countries participating in the IWGFR are included in this document
Ranking as parameter estimation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine
2009-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 2 (2009), s. 142-158 ISSN 1745-7645 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2C06001; GA AV ČR 1ET100750401; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : ranking * Bayesian estimation * negotiation * modelling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/karny- ranking as parameter estimation.pdf
Calculation of shielding parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montoya Z, J.
1994-01-01
With the propose of reduce the hazard to radiation, exist three basic factors: a) time, the time to exposition to working person inside to area, from exist determined speed the doses, is proportional of the time permanence; b) distance, the reduce to doses is inverse square of the distance to exposition point; c) building, consist to interpose between source and exposition point to material. The main aspect development to the analysis of parameters distance and building. The analysis consist to development of the mathematical implicit, in the model of source radioactive, beginning with the geometry to source, distance to exposition source, and configuration building. In the final part was realize one comparative studied to calculus of parameters to blinding, employs two codes CPBGAM and MICROSHIELD, the first made as part to work thesis. The point source its a good approximation to any one real source, but in the majority of the time to propose analysis the spatial distribution of the source must realized in explicit way. The buildings calculus in volumetry's source can be approximate begin's of plan as source adaptations. It's important to have present that not only the building exist the exposition to the radiation, and the parameters time and distance plays an important paper too. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-03-01
The document has been prepared on the basis of information provided by the members of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). It contains updated parameters of 27 experimental, prototype and commercial size liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). Most of the reactors are currently in operation, under construction or in an advanced planning stage. Parameters of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (USA), PEC (Italy), RAPSODIE (France), DFR (UK) and EFFBR (USA) are included in the report because of their important role in the development of LMFBR technology from first LMFBRs to the prototype size fast reactors. Two more reactors appeared in the list: European Fast Reactor (EFR) and PRISM (USA). Parameters of these reactors included in this publication are based on the data from the papers presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IWGFR. All in all more than four hundred corrections and additions have been made to update the document. The report is intended for specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors
Wei Feng; Simon X. Yang; Haixia Wu
2014-01-01
The global asymptotic robust stability of equilibrium is considered for neutral-type hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time-varying delays and parameters uncertainties. The results we obtained in this paper are delay-derivative-dependent and establish various relationships between the network parameters only. Therefore, the results of this paper are applicable to a larger class of neural networks and can be easily verified when compared with the previously reported ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, R.J.
1994-01-01
The purpose of this study is to make an independent assessment on the parameters chosen for the ATLAS capacitor bank at LANL. The contractor will perform a study of the basic pulsed power parameters of the ATLAS device with baseline functional parameters of >25 MA implosion current and <2.5 microsecond current risetime. Nominal circuit parameters held fixed will be the 14 nH from the vacuum interface to the load, and the nominal load impedances of 1 milliohm for slow loads and 10 milliohms for fast loads. Single Ended designs, as opposed to bipolar designs, will be studied in detail. The ATLAS pulsed power design problem is about inductance. The reason that a 36 MJ bank is required is that such a bank has enough individual capacitors so that the parallel inductance is acceptably low. Since about half the inductance is in the bank, and the inductance and time constant of the submodules is fixed, the variation of output with a given parameter will generally be a weak one. In general, the dl/dt calculation demonstrates that for the real system inductances, 700 kV is the optimum voltage for the bank to drive X-ray loads. The optimum is broad, and there is little reduction in performance at voltages as low as 450 kV. The direct drive velocity analysis also shows that the optimum velocity is between 480 and 800 kV for a variety of assumptions, and that there is less than a 10% variation in velocity over this range. Voltages in the 120 kV--600 kV range are desirable for driving heavy liners. A compromise optimum operating point might be 480 kV, at which all X-ray operation scenarios are within 10% of their velocity optimum, and heavy liners can be configured to be near optimum if small enough. Based on very preliminary studies the author believes that the choice of a single operating voltage point (say, 480 kV) is unnecessary, and that a bank engineered for dual operation at 480 and 240 kV will be the best solution to the ATLAS problem
Uus Eesti film pandi eile Karlovy Varys projektorisse / Kristiina Davidjants
Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-
2008-01-01
8. juulil esilinastus Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest". Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"
Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts
African Journals Online (AJOL)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted tape inserts with air as the working fluid.
Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.
Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields
Chen, Guoning; Kwatra, Vivek; Wei, Li-Yi; Hansen, Charles D.; Zhang, Eugene
2012-01-01
Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.
Design of 2D time-varying vector fields.
Chen, Guoning; Kwatra, Vivek; Wei, Li-Yi; Hansen, Charles D; Zhang, Eugene
2012-10-01
Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects.
Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields
Chen, Guoning
2012-10-01
Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.
Do Time-Varying Covariances, Volatility Comovement and Spillover Matter?
Lakshmi Balasubramanyan
2005-01-01
Financial markets and their respective assets are so intertwined; analyzing any single market in isolation ignores important information. We investigate whether time varying volatility comovement and spillover impact the true variance-covariance matrix under a time-varying correlation set up. Statistically significant volatility spillover and comovement between US, UK and Japan is found. To demonstrate the importance of modelling volatility comovement and spillover, we look at a simple portfo...
Perturbation methods and the Melnikov functions for slowly varying oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lakrad, Faouzi; Charafi, Moulay Mustapha
2005-01-01
A new approach to obtaining the Melnikov function for homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators is proposed. The present method applies the Lindstedt-Poincare method to determine an approximation of homoclinic solutions. It is shown that the resultant Melnikov condition is the same as that obtained in the usual way involving distance functions in three dimensions by Wiggins and Holmes [Homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators. SIAM J Math Anal 1987;18(3):612
Marketingový mix HC Enegie Karlovy Vary
Štrobl, Adam
2016-01-01
Title: Marketing mix of HC Energie Karlovy Vary Objectives: This thesis is based on a questionnaire responses obtained from HC Energie Karlovy Vary fans. Its objective is focused on evaluation of their opinions on the marketing mix, their subsequent interpretation, and finally even development of recommendations for improvement based on previous analysis. Methods: Two methods are used to analyse the marketing mix. The first method is qualitative participant observation. The second method is a...
Testing for time-varying loadings in dynamic factor models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Jakob Guldbæk
Abstract: In this paper we develop a test for time-varying factor loadings in factor models. The test is simple to compute and is constructed from estimated factors and residuals using the principal components estimator. The hypothesis is tested by regressing the squared residuals on the squared...... there is evidence of time-varying loadings on the risk factors underlying portfolio returns for around 80% of the portfolios....
Bounds and asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials for varying weights
Levin, Eli
2018-01-01
This book establishes bounds and asymptotics under almost minimal conditions on the varying weights, and applies them to universality limits and entropy integrals. Orthogonal polynomials associated with varying weights play a key role in analyzing random matrices and other topics. This book will be of use to a wide community of mathematicians, physicists, and statisticians dealing with techniques of potential theory, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, as well as random matrices. .
Pemodelan Markov Switching Dengan Time-varying Transition Probability
Savitri, Anggita Puri; Warsito, Budi; Rahmawati, Rita
2016-01-01
Exchange rate or currency is an economic variable which reflects country's state of economy. It fluctuates over time because of its ability to switch the condition or regime caused by economic and political factors. The changes in the exchange rate are depreciation and appreciation. Therefore, it could be modeled using Markov Switching with Time-Varying Transition Probability which observe the conditional changes and use information variable. From this model, time-varying transition probabili...
Quantum capacity under adversarial quantum noise: arbitrarily varying quantum channels
Ahlswede, Rudolf; Bjelakovic, Igor; Boche, Holger; Noetzel, Janis
2010-01-01
We investigate entanglement transmission over an unknown channel in the presence of a third party (called the adversary), which is enabled to choose the channel from a given set of memoryless but non-stationary channels without informing the legitimate sender and receiver about the particular choice that he made. This channel model is called arbitrarily varying quantum channel (AVQC). We derive a quantum version of Ahlswede's dichotomy for classical arbitrarily varying channels. This includes...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Chang Sheng; Tseng, Tse Chuan
2014-01-01
Modal Identification from response data only is studied for structural systems under nonstationary ambient vibration. The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from nonstationary ambient vibration data by applying the random decrement algorithm with time-varying threshold level. In the conventional random decrement algorithm, the threshold level for evaluating random dec signatures is defined as the standard deviation value of response data of the reference channel. The distortion of random dec signatures may be, however, induced by the error involved in noise from the original response data in practice. To improve the accuracy of identification, a modification of the sampling procedure in random decrement algorithm is proposed for modal-parameter identification from the nonstationary ambient response data. The time-varying threshold level is presented for the acquisition of available sample time history to perform averaging analysis, and defined as the temporal root-mean-square function of structural response, which can appropriately describe a wide variety of nonstationary behaviors in reality, such as the time-varying amplitude (variance) of a nonstationary process in a seismic record. Numerical simulations confirm the validity and robustness of the proposed modal-identification method from nonstationary ambient response data under noisy conditions.
Radiation portal evaluation parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
York, R.L.
1998-01-01
The detection of the unauthorized movement of radioactive materials is one of the most effective nonproliferation measures. Automatic special nuclear material (SNM) portal monitors are designed to detect this unauthorized movement and are an important part of the safeguard systems at US nuclear facilities. SNM portals differ from contamination monitors because they are designed to have high sensitivity for the low energy gamma-rays associated with highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium. These instruments are now being installed at international borders to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination an SNM. In this paper the parameters important to evaluating radiation portal monitors are discussed. (author)
Buncher system parameter optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadlinger, E.A.
1981-01-01
A least-squares algorithm is presented to calculate the RF amplitudes and cavity spacings for a series of buncher cavities each resonating at a frequency that is a multiple of a fundamental frequency of interest. The longitudinal phase-space distribution, obtained by particle tracing through the bunching system, is compared to a desired distribution function of energy and phase. The buncher cavity parameters are adjusted to minimize the difference between these two distributions. Examples are given for zero space charge. The manner in which the method can be extended to include space charge using the 3-D space-charge calculation procedure is indicated
Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization
Jackson, Matthew R.
In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a
A Comparative Study of Distribution System Parameter Estimation Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Yannan; Williams, Tess L.; Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup
2016-07-17
In this paper, we compare two parameter estimation methods for distribution systems: residual sensitivity analysis and state-vector augmentation with a Kalman filter. These two methods were originally proposed for transmission systems, and are still the most commonly used methods for parameter estimation. Distribution systems have much lower measurement redundancy than transmission systems. Therefore, estimating parameters is much more difficult. To increase the robustness of parameter estimation, the two methods are applied with combined measurement snapshots (measurement sets taken at different points in time), so that the redundancy for computing the parameter values is increased. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. The results of this paper show that state-vector augmentation is a better approach for parameter estimation in distribution systems. Simulation studies are done on a modified version of IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder with varying levels of measurement noise and non-zero error in the other system model parameters.
Identification of time-varying structural dynamic systems - An artificial intelligence approach
Glass, B. J.; Hanagud, S.
1992-01-01
An application of the artificial intelligence-derived methodologies of heuristic search and object-oriented programming to the problem of identifying the form of the model and the associated parameters of a time-varying structural dynamic system is presented in this paper. Possible model variations due to changes in boundary conditions or configurations of a structure are organized into a taxonomy of models, and a variant of best-first search is used to identify the model whose simulated response best matches that of the current physical structure. Simulated model responses are verified experimentally. An output-error approach is used in a discontinuous model space, and an equation-error approach is used in the parameter space. The advantages of the AI methods used, compared with conventional programming techniques for implementing knowledge structuring and inheritance, are discussed. Convergence conditions and example problems have been discussed. In the example problem, both the time-varying model and its new parameters have been identified when changes occur.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1985-07-01
This document has been prepared on the basis of information compiled by the members of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). It contains parameters of 25 experimental, prototype and commercial size liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). Most of the reactors are currently in operation, under construction or in an advanced planning stage. Parameters of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (USA) are presented because its design was nearly finished and most of the components were fabricated at the time when the project was terminated. Three reactors (RAPSODIE (France), DFR (UK) and EFFBR (USA)) have been shut down. However, they are included in the report because of their important role in the development of LMFBR technology from first LMFBRs to the prototype size fast reactors. The first LMFBRs (CLEMENTINE (USA), EBR-1 (USA), BR-2 (USSR), BR-5 (USSR)) and very special reactors (LAMPRE (USA), SEFOR (USA)) were not recommended by the members of the IWGFR to be included in the report
Lyapunov Functions to Caputo Fractional Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravi Agarwal
2018-05-01
Full Text Available One of the main properties of solutions of nonlinear Caputo fractional neural networks is stability and often the direct Lyapunov method is used to study stability properties (usually these Lyapunov functions do not depend on the time variable. In connection with the Lyapunov fractional method we present a brief overview of the most popular fractional order derivatives of Lyapunov functions among Caputo fractional delay differential equations. These derivatives are applied to various types of neural networks with variable coefficients and time-varying delays. We show that quadratic Lyapunov functions and their Caputo fractional derivatives are not applicable in some cases when one studies stability properties. Some sufficient conditions for stability of equilibrium of nonlinear Caputo fractional neural networks with time dependent transmission delays, time varying self-regulating parameters of all units and time varying functions of the connection between two neurons in the network are obtained. The cases of time varying Lipschitz coefficients as well as nonLipschitz activation functions are studied. We illustrate our theory on particular nonlinear Caputo fractional neural networks.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baxa, Jaromír; Horváth, R.; Vašíček, B.
2013-01-01
Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 117-138 ISSN 1572-3089 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Financial stress * Time-varying parameter model * Endogenous regressors Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.932, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/baxa-0395375.pdf
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Bøknæs, Niels; Nielsen, P.L.
factors leading to variations and uncertainties in prediction of the right process parameters. The current work is focused on modelling of OH of solid food pieces of varying sizes cooked in one batch. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during OH of shrimps has been...
Mediation analysis with time varying exposures and mediators.
VanderWeele, Tyler J; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J
2017-06-01
In this paper we consider causal mediation analysis when exposures and mediators vary over time. We give non-parametric identification results, discuss parametric implementation, and also provide a weighting approach to direct and indirect effects based on combining the results of two marginal structural models. We also discuss how our results give rise to a causal interpretation of the effect estimates produced from longitudinal structural equation models. When there are time-varying confounders affected by prior exposure and mediator, natural direct and indirect effects are not identified. However, we define a randomized interventional analogue of natural direct and indirect effects that are identified in this setting. The formula that identifies these effects we refer to as the "mediational g-formula." When there is no mediation, the mediational g-formula reduces to Robins' regular g-formula for longitudinal data. When there are no time-varying confounders affected by prior exposure and mediator values, then the mediational g-formula reduces to a longitudinal version of Pearl's mediation formula. However, the mediational g-formula itself can accommodate both mediation and time-varying confounders and constitutes a general approach to mediation analysis with time-varying exposures and mediators.
Varying ultrasound power level to distinguish surgical instruments and tissue.
Ren, Hongliang; Anuraj, Banani; Dupont, Pierre E
2018-03-01
We investigate a new framework of surgical instrument detection based on power-varying ultrasound images with simple and efficient pixel-wise intensity processing. Without using complicated feature extraction methods, we identified the instrument with an estimated optimal power level and by comparing pixel values of varying transducer power level images. The proposed framework exploits the physics of ultrasound imaging system by varying the transducer power level to effectively distinguish metallic surgical instruments from tissue. This power-varying image-guidance is motivated from our observations that ultrasound imaging at different power levels exhibit different contrast enhancement capabilities between tissue and instruments in ultrasound-guided robotic beating-heart surgery. Using lower transducer power levels (ranging from 40 to 75% of the rated lowest ultrasound power levels of the two tested ultrasound scanners) can effectively suppress the strong imaging artifacts from metallic instruments and thus, can be utilized together with the images from normal transducer power levels to enhance the separability between instrument and tissue, improving intraoperative instrument tracking accuracy from the acquired noisy ultrasound volumetric images. We performed experiments in phantoms and ex vivo hearts in water tank environments. The proposed multi-level power-varying ultrasound imaging approach can identify robotic instruments of high acoustic impedance from low-signal-to-noise-ratio ultrasound images by power adjustments.
Robust stabilisation of time-varying delay systems with probabilistic uncertainties
Jiang, Ning; Xiong, Junlin; Lam, James
2016-09-01
For robust stabilisation of time-varying delay systems, only sufficient conditions are available to date. A natural question is as follows: if the existing sufficient conditions are not satisfied, and hence no controllers can be found, what can one do to improve the stability performance of time-varying delay systems? This question is addressed in this paper when there is a probabilistic structure on the parameter uncertainty set. A randomised algorithm is proposed to design a state-feedback controller, which stabilises the system over the uncertainty domain in a probabilistic sense. The capability of the designed controller is quantified by the probability of stability of the resulting closed-loop system. The accuracy of the solution obtained from the randomised algorithm is also analysed. Finally, numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the developed controller design approach.
Modelling Conditional and Unconditional Heteroskedasticity with Smoothly Time-Varying Structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amado, Christina; Teräsvirta, Timo
multiplier type misspecification tests. Finite-sample properties of these procedures and tests are examined by simulation. An empirical application to daily stock returns and another one to daily exchange rate returns illustrate the functioning and properties of our modelling strategy in practice......In this paper, we propose two parametric alternatives to the standard GARCH model. They allow the conditional variance to have a smooth time-varying structure of either ad- ditive or multiplicative type. The suggested parameterizations describe both nonlinearity and structural change...... in the conditional and unconditional variances where the transition between regimes over time is smooth. A modelling strategy for these new time-varying parameter GARCH models is developed. It relies on a sequence of Lagrange multiplier tests, and the adequacy of the estimated models is investigated by Lagrange...
Models of quality-adjusted life years when health varies over time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
2006-01-01
Qualityadjusted life year (QALY) models are widely used for economic evaluation in the health care sector. In the first part of the paper, we establish an overview of QALY models where health varies over time and provide a theoretical analysis of model identification and parameter estimation from...... time tradeoff (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) scores. We investigate deterministic and probabilistic models and consider five different families of discounting functions in all. The second part of the paper discusses four issues recurrently debated in the literature. This discussion includes questioning...... of these two can be used to disentangle risk aversion from discounting. We find that caution must be taken when drawing conclusions from models with chronic health states to situations where health varies over time. One notable difference is that in the former case, risk aversion may be indistinguishable from...
Vadivel, P.; Sakthivel, R.; Mathiyalagan, K.; Arunkumar, A.
2013-09-01
This paper addresses the issue of robust state estimation for a class of fuzzy bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties. By constructing the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, which contains the triple-integral term and using the free-weighting matrix technique, a set of sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) to estimate the neuron states through available output measurements such that the dynamics of the estimation error system is robustly asymptotically stable. In particular, we consider a generalized activation function in which the traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotony and differentiability of the activation functions are removed. More precisely, the design of the state estimator for such BAM neural networks can be obtained by solving some LMIs, which are dependent on the size of the time derivative of the time-varying delays. Finally, a numerical example with simulation result is given to illustrate the obtained theoretical results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vadivel, P; Sakthivel, R; Mathiyalagan, K; Arunkumar, A
2013-01-01
This paper addresses the issue of robust state estimation for a class of fuzzy bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties. By constructing the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional, which contains the triple-integral term and using the free-weighting matrix technique, a set of sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) to estimate the neuron states through available output measurements such that the dynamics of the estimation error system is robustly asymptotically stable. In particular, we consider a generalized activation function in which the traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotony and differentiability of the activation functions are removed. More precisely, the design of the state estimator for such BAM neural networks can be obtained by solving some LMIs, which are dependent on the size of the time derivative of the time-varying delays. Finally, a numerical example with simulation result is given to illustrate the obtained theoretical results. (paper)
Display Parameters and Requirements
Bahadur, Birendra
The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC
Newtonian cosmology with a time-varying constant of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McVittie, G.C.
1978-01-01
Newtonian cosmology is based on the Eulerian equations of fluid mechanics combined with Poisson's equation modified by the introduction of a time-varying G. Spherically symmetric model universes are worked out with instantaneously uniform densities. They are indeterminate unless instantaneous uniformity of the pressure is imposed. When G varies as an inverse power of the time, the models can in some cases be shown to depend on the solution of a second-order differential equation which also occurs in the Friedmann models of general relativity. In Section 3, a method for 'passing through' a singularity of this equation is proposed which entails making four arbitrary mathematical assumptions. When G varies as (time) -1 , models with initially cycloidal motion are possible, each cycle becoming longer as time progresses. Finally, gravitation becomes so weak that the model expands to infinity. Kinetic and potential energies for the whole model are derived from the basic equations; their sum is not constant. (author)
Brane world cosmologies with varying speed of light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Youm, Donam
2001-02-01
We study cosmologies in the Randall-Sundrum models, incorporating the possibility of time-varying speed of light and Newton's constant. The cosmologies with varying speed of light (VSL) were proposed by Moffat and by Albrecht and Magueijo as an alternative to inflation for solving the cosmological problems. We consider the case in which the speed of light varies with time after the radion or the scale of the extra dimension has been stabilized. We elaborate on the conditions under which the flatness problem and the cosmological constant problem can be resolved. Particularly, the VSL cosmologies may provide a possible mechanism for bringing the quantum corrections to the fine-tuned brane tensions after the SUSY breaking under control. (author)
Timetable Attractiveness Parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schittenhelm, Bernd
2008-01-01
Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make...... these timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers...... and heterogeneous traffic, add complexity to the timetable. The risk of spreading initial delays to other trains and parts of the network increases with the level of timetable complexity....
Parameter measurement of target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Dangzhong
2001-01-01
The progress of parameter measurement of target (ICF-15) in 1999 are presented, including the design and contract of the microsphere equator profiler, the precise air bearing manufacturing, high-resolution X-ray image of multi-layer shells and the X-ray photos processed with special image and data software, some plastic shells measured in precision of 0.3 μm, the high-resolution observation and photograph system of 'dew-point method', special fixture of target and its temperature distribution measuring, the dew-point temperature and fuel gas pressure of shells measuring with internal pressure of 5 - 15 (x10 5 ) Pa D 2 and wall thickness of 1.5∼3 μm
Safety Parameters Graphical Interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canamero, B.
1998-01-01
Nuclear power plant data are received at the Operations Center of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear in emergency situations. In order to achieve the required interface and to prepare those data to perform simulation and forecasting with already existing computer codes a Safety Parameters Graphical Interface (IGPS) has been developed. The system runs in a UNIX environment and use the Xwindows capabilities. The received data are stored in such a way that it can be easily used for further analysis and training activities. The system consists of task-oriented modules (processes) which communicate each other using well known UNIX mechanisms (signals, sockets and shared memory segments). IGPS conceptually have two different parts: Data collection and preparation, and Data monitorization. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, Sam
2011-01-01
The phenomenon of process damping as a stabilising effect in milling has been encountered by machinists since milling and turning began. It is of great importance when milling aerospace alloys where maximum surface speed is limited by excessive tool wear and high speed stability lobes cannot be attained. Much of the established research into regenerative chatter and chatter avoidance has focussed on stability lobe theory with different analytical and time domain models developed to expand on the theory first developed by Trusty and Tobias. Process damping is a stabilising effect that occurs when the surface speed is low relative to the dominant natural frequency of the system and has been less successfully modelled and understood. Process damping is believed to be influenced by the interference of the relief face of the cutting tool with the waveform traced on the cut surface, with material properties and the relief geometry of the tool believed to be key factors governing performance. This study combines experimental trials with Finite Element (FE) simulation in an attempt to identify and understand the key factors influencing process damping performance in titanium milling. Rake angle, relief angle and chip thickness are the variables considered experimentally with the FE study looking at average radial and tangential forces and surface compressive stress. For the experimental study a technique is developed to identify the critical process damping wavelength as a means of measuring process damping performance. For the range of parameters studied, chip thickness is found to be the dominant factor with maximum stable parameters increased by a factor of 17 in the best case. Within the range studied, relief angle was found to have a lesser effect than expected whilst rake angle had an influence.
Change in lattice parameter of tantalum due to dissolved hydrogen
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gyanendra P. Tiwari
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The volume expansion of tantalum due to the dissolved hydrogen has been determined using Bragg equation. The hydrogen was dissolved in the pure tantalum metal at constant temperature (360 °C and constant pressure (132 mbar by varying the duration of hydrogen charging. The amount of dissolved hydrogen was within the solid solubility limit. The samples with different hydrogen concentration were analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Slight peak shifts as well as peak broadening were observed. The relative changes of lattice parameters plotted against the hydrogen concentration revealed that the lattice parameters varied linearly with the hydrogen concentration.
Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate
Maity, Arnab
2012-10-01
We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.
Varied appearance of lymphoma in patients with AIDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sider, L.; Weiss, A.
1988-01-01
Lymphoma is frequently present in patients with acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). But unlike in the general population, the appearance of lymphoma in patients with AIDS is extremely varied. The computed tomographic scans, chest radiographs, and subsequent hospital courses of 15 patients with AIDS-related lymphoma are presented. The patients presented with isolated pleural effusion (six patients), pleural and pericardial effusion (one patient), pulmonary infiltrates (five patients), and mediastinal adenopathy (three patients). This varied manner of presentation of lymphoma in AIDS patients should be recognized if diagnosis is to be made in the earlier stages of presentation
Entropy Rate of Time-Varying Wireless Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cika, Arta; Badiu, Mihai Alin; Coon, Justin P.
2018-01-01
In this paper, we present a detailed framework to analyze the evolution of the random topology of a time-varying wireless network via the information theoretic notion of entropy rate. We consider a propagation channel varying over time with random node positions in a closed space and Rayleigh...... fading affecting the connections between nodes. The existence of an edge between two nodes at given locations is modeled by a Markov chain, enabling memory effects in network dynamics. We then derive a lower and an upper bound on the entropy rate of the spatiotemporal network. The entropy rate measures...
Investigating Time-Varying Drivers of Grid Project Emissions Impacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrett, Emily L.; Thayer, Brandon L.; Pal, Seemita; Studarus, Karen E.
2017-11-15
The emissions consequences of smart grid technologies depend heavily on their context and vary not only by geographical location, but by time of year. The same technology operated to meet the same objective may increase the emissions associated with energy generation for part of the year and decrease emissions during other times. The Grid Project Impact Quantification (GridPIQ) tool provides the ability to estimate these seasonal variations and garner insight into the time-varying drivers of grid project emissions impacts. This work leverages GridPIQ to examine the emissions implications across years and seasons of adding energy storage technology to reduce daily peak demand in California and New York.
Khan, Imad; Fatima, Sumreen; Malik, M. Y.; Salahuddin, T.
2018-03-01
This paper explores the theoretical study of the steady incompressible two dimensional MHD boundary layer flow of Eyring-Powell nanofluid over an inclined surface. The fluid is considered to be electrically conducting and the viscosity of the fluid is assumed to be varying exponentially. The governing partial differential equations (PDE's) are reduced into ordinary differential equations (ODE's) by applying similarity approach. The resulting ordinary differential equations are solved successfully by using Homotopy analysis method. The impact of pertinent parameters on velocity, concentration and temperature profiles are examined through graphs and tables. Also coefficient of skin friction, Sherwood and Nusselt numbers are illustrated in tabular and graphical form.
Robust Stabilization of Discrete-Time Systems with Time-Varying Delay: An LMI Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valter J. S. Leite
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Sufficient linear matrix inequality (LMI conditions to verify the robust stability and to design robust state feedback gains for the class of linear discrete-time systems with time-varying delay and polytopic uncertainties are presented. The conditions are obtained through parameter-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and use some extra variables, which yield less conservative LMI conditions. Both problems, robust stability analysis and robust synthesis, are formulated as convex problems where all system matrices can be affected by uncertainty. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the advantages of the proposed LMI conditions.
Time-varying exchange rate pass-through: experiences of some industrial countries
Toshitaka Sekine
2006-01-01
This paper estimates exchange rate pass-through of six major industrial countries using a time-varying parameter with stochastic volatility model. Exchange rate pass-through is divided into impacts of exchange rate fluctuations to import prices (first-stage pass-through) and those of import price movements to consumer prices (second-stage pass-through). The paper finds that both stages of pass-through have declined over time for all the sample countries. The decline in second-stage pass-throu...
Petitdemange, Rosine; Garanger, Elisabeth; Bataille, Laure; Bathany, Katell; Garbay, Bertrand; Deming, Timothy J; Lecommandoux, Sébastien
2017-05-17
We report the synthesis of methionine-containing recombinant elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) of different lengths that contain periodically spaced methionine residues. These ELPs were chemoselectively alkylated at all methionine residues to give polycationic derivatives. Some of these samples were found to possess solubility transitions in water, where the temperature of these transitions varied with ELP concentration, nature of the methionine alkylating group, and nature of the sulfonium counterions. These studies show that introduction and controlled spacing of methionine sulfonium residues into ELPs can be used as a means both to tune their solubility transition temperatures in water using a variety of different parameters and to introduce new side-chain functionality.
Analysis on Passivity for Uncertain Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. M. Kwon
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of passivity analysis for neural networks with time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties is considered. By the consideration of newly constructed Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, improved sufficient conditions to guarantee the passivity of the concerned networks are proposed with the framework of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, which can be solved easily by various efficient convex optimization algorithms. The enhancement of the feasible region of the proposed criteria is shown via two numerical examples by the comparison of maximum allowable delay bounds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yueyang Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the H∞ fixed-lag fault estimator design for linear discrete time-varying (LDTV systems with intermittent measurements, which is described by a Bernoulli distributed random variable. Through constructing a novel partially equivalent dynamic system, the fault estimator design is converted into a deterministic quadratic minimization problem. By applying the innovation reorganization technique and the projection formula in Krein space, a necessary and sufficient condition is obtained for the existence of the estimator. The parameter matrices of the estimator are derived by recursively solving two standard Riccati equations. An illustrative example is provided to show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed algorithm.
Energy spectrum of two-dimensional tight-binding electrons in a spatially varying magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, G.Y.; Lee, M.H.
1996-01-01
The electronic energy spectrum of a two-dimensional lattice in a spatially varying magnetic field is studied within the framework of the tight-binding model by using the scheme of the transfer matrix. It is found that, in comparison with the case of a uniform magnetic field, the energy spectrum exhibits more complicated behavior; band broadening (or gap closing) and band splitting (or gap opening) occur depending on characteristic parameters of the lattice. The origin of these phenomena lies in the existence of direct touching and indirect overlapping between neighboring subbands. Dependence of direct touching and indirect overlapping, and thus the electronic band structure together with the density of states, on characteristic parameters of the lattice is elucidated in detail. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Shengyuan; Lam, James; Ho, Daniel W.C.
2005-01-01
This Letter is concerned with the problem of robust stability analysis for interval neural networks with multiple time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties. The parameter uncertainties are assumed to be bounded in given compact sets and the activation functions are supposed to be bounded and globally Lipschitz continuous. A sufficient condition is obtained by means of Lyapunov functionals, which guarantees the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the delayed neural network for all admissible uncertainties. This condition is in terms of a linear matrix inequality (LMI), which can be easily checked by using recently developed algorithms in solving LMIs. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method
Overcoming Spurious Regression Using time-Varying Fourier ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Non-stationary time series data have been traditionally analyzed in the frequency domain by assuming constant amplitudes regardless of the timelag. A new approach called time-varying amplitude method (TVAM) is presented here. Oscillations are analyzed for changes in the magnitude of Fourier Coefficients which are ...
Electromagnetic radiation in a time-varying background medium
Budko, N.V.
2009-01-01
Analytical solutions are presented for the electromagnetic radiation by an arbitrary pulsed source into a homogeneous time-varying background medium. In the constant-impedance case an explicit radiation formula is obtained for the synchronous permittivity and permeability described by any positive
Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The flow of water in an open channel can be treated as steady, gradually varied flow for ... channel between two nodes is treated as a single reach to calculate the loss ... dition at control points and (iii) critical depth is also required to verify the ...
Adenoma detection rate varies greatly during colonoscopy training
van Doorn, Sascha C.; Klanderman, Robert B.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien
2015-01-01
The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is considered the most important quality indicator for colonoscopy and varies widely among colonoscopists. It is unknown whether the ADR of gastroenterology consultants can already be predicted during their colonoscopy training. To evaluate the ADR of fellows in
Peer influence on school learning among students of varying socio ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study examined peer Influence on School Learning among students of varying socio-economic backgrounds. One hundred and twenty students (60 males and 60 females) with a mean age 15.1 years were randomly selected from four co-educational Secondary Schools in Ikenne Local Government area of Ogun State.
Projected space-time and varying speed of light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iovane, G.; Bellucci, S.; Benedetto, E.
2008-01-01
In this paper starting from El Naschie's Cantorian space-time and our model of projected Universe, we consider its properties in connection with varying speed of light. A possible way-out of the related problem is provided by the Fantappie group approach
Frontal Neurons Modulate Memory Retrieval across Widely Varying Temporal Scales
Zhang, Wen-Hua; Williams, Ziv M.
2015-01-01
Once a memory has formed, it is thought to undergo a gradual transition within the brain from short- to long-term storage. This putative process, however, also poses a unique problem to the memory system in that the same learned items must also be retrieved across broadly varying time scales. Here, we find that neurons in the ventrolateral…
Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets
de Jong, F.C.J.M.; de Roon, F.A.
2001-01-01
We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value
Branching of positive discharge streamers in air at varying pressures
Briels, T.M.P.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Ebert, U.M.
2005-01-01
The formation of positive streamers in a 17-mm gap in air is studied at pressures varying in the range from 1010 to 100 mbar. An intensified charge coupled device camera is used to image the discharge. At high pressures, the discharge shows many branches, while at low pressure, fewer branches arise.
Conductivity studies of lithium zinc silicate glasses with varying ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WINTEC
Values of activation energy derived from σd.c., ωh and τ are almost equal within the ... materials can be changed by varying the proportion of the .... The solid line is a guide to the eye. ... does not show a maximum as d.c. conductivity drops to a.
Varying the exchange interaction between NiO nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Mørup, Steen
2006-01-01
We demonstrate that exchange interactions between antiferromagnetic nanoparticles of 57Fe-doped NiO can be varied by simple macroscopic treatments. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of the superparamagnetic relaxation behaviour show that grinding or suspension in water of nanoparticles of NiO can...
Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A 28-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of rice milling waste as a substitute on maize on the performance, nutrient utilization and the economics implication on finisher turkeys. Five turkey finisher diets were formulated by substituting maize with rice milling waste at 0%, 25%, 50%, ...
Sheep response to sugar cane tops supplemented with varying ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Twenty WAD sheep averaging 10.14kg were randomly divided into four groups of 5 replicates, and each group was fed sugarcane tops (SCT) supplemented with varying levels (0%, 25%, 50 and 75%) of Leucaena leucocephala foliage (LLF) in a completely randomized design. Results showed that sugarcane tops (SCT) ...
Scattering of a TEM wave from a time varying surface
Elcrat, Alan R.; Harder, T. Mark; Stonebraker, John T.
1990-03-01
A solution is given for reflection of a plane wave with TEM polarization from a planar surface with time varying properties. These properties are given in terms of the currents on the surface. The solution is obtained by numerically solving a system of differential-delay equations in the time domain.
Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency
Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William
2010-01-01
Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…
Karlovy Varys linastub kaks Eesti filmi / Andris Feldmanis
Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-
2007-01-01
Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"
Time-varying correlation and common structures in volatility
Liu, Yang
2016-01-01
This thesis studies time series properties of the covariance structure of multivariate asset returns. First, the time-varying feature of correlation is investigated at the intraday level with a new correlation model incorporating the intraday correlation dynamics. Second, the thesis develops a
microwave oven-induced decalcification at varying temperatures
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Uwaifoh
2012-09-30
Sep 30, 2012 ... This study was designed to evaluate the effect of decalcifying fluid types on bone tissue architecture and its staining properties following decalcification at varying temperatures. A decalcification methodology using Golding and. Stewards (GS) fluid, and Jenkings fluid (JK), and a modern household ...
Contact Dynamics of EHL Contacts under Time Varying Conditions
Venner, Cornelis H.; Popovici, G.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Dalmaz, G.; Lubrecht, A.A.; Priest, M
2004-01-01
By means of numerical simulations of two situations with time varying operating conditions it is shown that the dynamic behaviour of Elasto-Hydrodynamically Lubricated contacts in terms of vibrations can be characterized as: Changes in the mutual approach lead to film thickness changes in the inlet
Electricity Futures Prices : Time Varying Sensitivity to Fundamentals
S-E. Fleten (Stein-Erik); R. Huisman (Ronald); M. Kilic (Mehtap); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico); S. Westgaard (Sjur)
2014-01-01
textabstractThis paper provides insight in the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of prices of contracts for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the
Visualizing time-varying harmonics using filter banks
Duque, C.A.; Da Silveira, P.M.; Ribeiro, P.F.
2011-01-01
Although it is well known that Fourier analysis is in reality only accurately applicable to steady state waveforms, it is a widely used tool to study and monitor time-varying signals, such as are commonplace in electrical power systems. The disadvantages of Fourier analysis, such as frequency
Time-Varying Value of Energy Efficiency in Michigan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mims, Natalie; Eckman, Tom; Schwartz, Lisa C.
2018-04-02
Quantifying the time-varying value of energy efficiency is necessary to properly account for all of its benefits and costs and to identify and implement efficiency resources that contribute to a low-cost, reliable electric system. Historically, most quantification of the benefits of efficiency has focused largely on the economic value of annual energy reduction. Due to the lack of statistically representative metered end-use load shape data in Michigan (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings), the ability to confidently characterize the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings in the state, especially for weather-sensitive measures such as central air conditioning, is limited. Still, electric utilities in Michigan can take advantage of opportunities to incorporate the time-varying value of efficiency into their planning. For example, end-use load research and hourly valuation of efficiency savings can be used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service (KEMA 2012). In addition, accurately calculating the time-varying value of efficiency may help energy efficiency program administrators prioritize existing offerings, set incentive or rebate levels that reflect the full value of efficiency, and design new programs.
The early evolution of stars and planets with varying mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharjee, S.K.
1980-09-01
In this thesis some aspects of stellar and planetary evolution with varying mass are examined. It is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the evolution of stars in the pre-main-sequence phase with mass accretion while in the second section we discuss the spin angular momentum of the planets with mass loss. (author)
Additional Surgery after Breast-Conserving Surgery Varies Widely
A study published in the Feb. 1, 2012, issue of JAMA found that the number of women who have one or more additional surgeries to remove suspected residual tumor tissue (re-excisions) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer varies widely across surgeons and hospitals.
Steady shear viscosity of stirred yoghurts with varying ropiness
van Marle, M.E.; van Marle, M.E.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; de Kruif, C.G.; de Kruif, C.G.; Mellema, J.
1999-01-01
Stirred yogurt was viewed as a concentrated dispersion of aggregates consisting of protein particles. The steady-shear behavior of three types of stirred yogurt with varying ropiness was investigated experimentally. To describe the shear-dependent viscosity, a microrheological model was used which
Effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The physiologic basis of bleeding is a function of normal platelets and coagulation factors. This study is aimed at ascertaining the effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during menstruation. Forty menstruating students between the ages of 18 and 25 from ...
Time-varying Concurrent Risk of Extreme Droughts and Heatwaves in California
Sarhadi, A.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Ausin, M. C.
2016-12-01
Anthropogenic global warming has changed the nature and the risk of extreme climate phenomena such as droughts and heatwaves. The concurrent of these nature-changing climatic extremes may result in intensifying undesirable consequences in terms of human health and destructive effects in water resources. The present study assesses the risk of concurrent extreme droughts and heatwaves under dynamic nonstationary conditions arising from climate change in California. For doing so, a generalized fully Bayesian time-varying multivariate risk framework is proposed evolving through time under dynamic human-induced environment. In this methodology, an extreme, Bayesian, dynamic copula (Gumbel) is developed to model the time-varying dependence structure between the two different climate extremes. The time-varying extreme marginals are previously modeled using a Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inference is integrated to estimate parameters of the nonstationary marginals and copula using a Gibbs sampling method. Modelled marginals and copula are then used to develop a fully Bayesian, time-varying joint return period concept for the estimation of concurrent risk. Here we argue that climate change has increased the chance of concurrent droughts and heatwaves over decades in California. It is also demonstrated that a time-varying multivariate perspective should be incorporated to assess realistic concurrent risk of the extremes for water resources planning and management in a changing climate in this area. The proposed generalized methodology can be applied for other stochastic nature-changing compound climate extremes that are under the influence of climate change.
Kerhoulas, Lucy P; Kane, Jeffrey M
2012-01-01
Most dendrochronological studies focus on cores sampled from standard positions (main stem, breast height), yet vertical gradients in hydraulic constraints and priorities for carbon allocation may contribute to different growth sensitivities with position. Using cores taken from five positions (coarse roots, breast height, base of live crown, mid-crown branch and treetop), we investigated how radial growth sensitivity to climate over the period of 1895-2008 varies by position within 36 large ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) in northern Arizona. The climate parameters investigated were Palmer Drought Severity Index, water year and monsoon precipitation, maximum annual temperature, minimum annual temperature and average annual temperature. For each study tree, we generated Pearson correlation coefficients between ring width indices from each position and six climate parameters. We also investigated whether the number of missing rings differed among positions and bole heights. We found that tree density did not significantly influence climatic sensitivity to any of the climate parameters investigated at any of the sample positions. Results from three types of analyses suggest that climatic sensitivity of tree growth varied with position height: (i) correlations of radial growth and climate variables consistently increased with height; (ii) model strength based on Akaike's information criterion increased with height, where treetop growth consistently had the highest sensitivity and coarse roots the lowest sensitivity to each climatic parameter; and (iii) the correlation between bole ring width indices decreased with distance between positions. We speculate that increased sensitivity to climate at higher positions is related to hydraulic limitation because higher positions experience greater xylem tensions due to gravitational effects that render these positions more sensitive to climatic stresses. The low sensitivity of root growth to all climatic variables
Search Parameter Optimization for Discrete, Bayesian, and Continuous Search Algorithms
2017-09-01
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS SEARCH PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION FOR DISCRETE , BAYESIAN, AND CONTINUOUS SEARCH ALGORITHMS by...to 09-22-2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SEARCH PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION FOR DISCRETE , BAYESIAN, AND CON- TINUOUS SEARCH ALGORITHMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...simple search and rescue acts to prosecuting aerial/surface/submersible targets on mission. This research looks at varying the known discrete and
Vesicle biomechanics in a time-varying magnetic field.
Ye, Hui; Curcuru, Austen
2015-01-01
Cells exhibit distortion when exposed to a strong electric field, suggesting that the field imposes control over cellular biomechanics. Closed pure lipid bilayer membranes (vesicles) have been widely used for the experimental and theoretical studies of cellular biomechanics under this electrodeformation. An alternative method used to generate an electric field is by electromagnetic induction with a time-varying magnetic field. References reporting the magnetic control of cellular mechanics have recently emerged. However, theoretical analysis of the cellular mechanics under a time-varying magnetic field is inadequate. We developed an analytical theory to investigate the biomechanics of a modeled vesicle under a time-varying magnetic field. Following previous publications and to simplify the calculation, this model treated the inner and suspending media as lossy dielectrics, the membrane thickness set at zero, and the electric resistance of the membrane assumed to be negligible. This work provided the first analytical solutions for the surface charges, electric field, radial pressure, overall translational forces, and rotational torques introduced on a vesicle by the time-varying magnetic field. Frequency responses of these measures were analyzed, particularly the frequency used clinically by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The induced surface charges interacted with the electric field to produce a biomechanical impact upon the vesicle. The distribution of the induced surface charges depended on the orientation of the coil and field frequency. The densities of these charges were trivial at low frequency ranges, but significant at high frequency ranges. The direction of the radial force on the vesicle was dependent on the conductivity ratio between the vesicle and the medium. At relatively low frequencies (biomechanics under a time-varying magnetic field. Biological effects of clinical TMS are not likely to occur via alteration of the biomechanics of brain
[Acoustical parameters of toys].
Harazin, Barbara
2010-01-01
Toys play an important role in the development of the sight and hearing concentration in children. They also support the development of manipulation, gently influence a child and excite its emotional activities. A lot of toys emit various sounds. The aim of the study was to assess sound levels produced by sound-emitting toys used by young children. Acoustical parameters of noise were evaluated for 16 sound-emitting plastic toys in laboratory conditions. The noise level was recorded at four different distances, 10, 20, 25 and 30 cm, from the toy. Measurements of A-weighted sound pressure levels and noise levels in octave band in the frequency range from 31.5 Hz to 16 kHz were performed at each distance. Taking into consideration the highest equivalent A-weighted sound levels produced by tested toys, they can be divided into four groups: below 70 dB (6 toys), from 70 to 74 dB (4 toys), from 75 to 84 dB (3 toys) and from 85 to 94 dB (3 toys). The majority of toys (81%) emitted dominant sound levels in octave band at the frequency range from 2 kHz to 4 kHz. Sound-emitting toys produce the highest acoustic energy at the frequency range of the highest susceptibility of the auditory system. Noise levels produced by some toys can be dangerous to children's hearing.
Determination of complex microcalorimeter parameters with impedance measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saab, T.; Bandler, S.R.; Chervenak, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Lindeman, M.A.; Porter, F.S.; Sadleir, J.
2006-01-01
The proper understanding and modeling of a microcalorimeter's response requires accurate knowledge of a handful of parameters, such as C, G, α. While a few of these parameters are directly determined from the IV characteristics, some others, notoriously the heat capacity (C) and α, appear in degenerate combinations in most measurable quantities. The consideration of a complex microcalorimeter leads to an added ambiguity in the determination of the parameters. In general, the dependence of the microcalorimeter's complex impedance on these various parameters varies with frequency. This dependence allows us to determine individual parameters by fitting the prediction of the microcalorimeter model to impedance data. In this paper we describe efforts at characterizing the Goddard X-ray microcalorimeters. With the parameters determined by this method, we compare the pulse shape and noise spectra predictions to data taken with the same devices
Accurate step-hold tracking of smoothly varying periodic and aperiodic probability.
Ricci, Matthew; Gallistel, Randy
2017-07-01
Subjects observing many samples from a Bernoulli distribution are able to perceive an estimate of the generating parameter. A question of fundamental importance is how the current percept-what we think the probability now is-depends on the sequence of observed samples. Answers to this question are strongly constrained by the manner in which the current percept changes in response to changes in the hidden parameter. Subjects do not update their percept trial-by-trial when the hidden probability undergoes unpredictable and unsignaled step changes; instead, they update it only intermittently in a step-hold pattern. It could be that the step-hold pattern is not essential to the perception of probability and is only an artifact of step changes in the hidden parameter. However, we now report that the step-hold pattern obtains even when the parameter varies slowly and smoothly. It obtains even when the smooth variation is periodic (sinusoidal) and perceived as such. We elaborate on a previously published theory that accounts for: (i) the quantitative properties of the step-hold update pattern; (ii) subjects' quick and accurate reporting of changes; (iii) subjects' second thoughts about previously reported changes; (iv) subjects' detection of higher-order structure in patterns of change. We also call attention to the challenges these results pose for trial-by-trial updating theories.
Importance of hydrological parameters in contaminant transport modeling in a terrestrial environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuduki, Katsunori; Matsunaga, Takeshi
2007-01-01
A grid type multi-layered distributed parameter model for calculating discharge in a watershed was described. Model verification with our field observation resulted in different sets of hydrological parameter values, all of which reproduced the observed discharge. The effect of those varied hydrological parameters on contaminant transport calculation was examined and discussed by simulation of event water transfer. (author)
Daya Sagar, B. S.
2005-01-01
Spatio-temporal patterns of small water bodies (SWBs) under the influence of temporally varied stream flow discharge are simulated in discrete space by employing geomorphologically realistic expansion and contraction transformations. Cascades of expansion-contraction are systematically performed by synchronizing them with stream flow discharge simulated via the logistic map. Templates with definite characteristic information are defined from stream flow discharge pattern as the basis to model the spatio-temporal organization of randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes. These spatio-temporal patterns under varied parameters (λs) controlling stream flow discharge patterns are characterized by estimating their fractal dimensions. At various λs, nonlinear control parameters, we show the union of boundaries of water bodies that traverse the water body and non-water body spaces as geomorphic attractors. The computed fractal dimensions of these attractors are 1.58, 1.53, 1.78, 1.76, 1.84, and 1.90, respectively, at λs of 1, 2, 3, 3.46, 3.57, and 3.99. These values are in line with general visual observations.
A statistical theory of cell killing by radiation of varying linear energy transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawkins, R.B.
1994-01-01
A theory is presented that provides an explanation for the observed features of the survival of cultured cells after exposure to densely ionizing high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. It starts from a phenomenological postulate based on the linear-quadratic form of cell survival observed for low-LET radiation and uses principles of statistics and fluctuation theory to demonstrate that the effect of varying LET on cell survival can be attributed to random variation of dose to small volumes contained within the nucleus. A simple relation is presented for surviving fraction of cells after exposure to radiation of varying LET that depends on the α and β parameters for the same cells in the limit of low-LET radiation. This relation implies that the value of β is independent of LET. Agreement of the theory with selected observations of cell survival from the literature is demonstrated. A relation is presented that gives relative biological effectiveness (RBE) as a function of the α and β parameters for low-LET radiation. Measurements from microdosimetry are used to estimate the size of the subnuclear volume to which the fluctuation pertains. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
Barros, Julio; Flack, Karen; Schultz, Michael
2017-11-01
Real-world engineering systems which feature either external or internal wall-bounded turbulent flow are routinely affected by surface roughness. This gives rise to performance degradation in the form of increased drag or head loss. However, at present there is no reliable means to predict these performance losses based upon the roughness topography alone. This work takes a systematic approach by generating random surface roughness in which the surface statistics are closely controlled. Skin friction and roughness function results will be presented for two groups of these rough surfaces. The first group is Gaussian (i.e. zero skewness) in which the root-mean-square roughness height (krms) is varied. The second group has a fixed krms, and the skewness is varied from approximately -1 to +1. The effect of the roughness amplitude and skewness on the skin friction will be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the effect of these parameters on the roughness function in the transitionally-rough flow regime. For example, the role these parameters play in the monotonic or inflectional nature of the roughness function will be addressed. Future research into the details of the turbulence structure over these rough surfaces will also be outlined. Research funded by U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. S. Daya Sagar
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Spatio-temporal patterns of small water bodies (SWBs under the influence of temporally varied stream flow discharge are simulated in discrete space by employing geomorphologically realistic expansion and contraction transformations. Cascades of expansion-contraction are systematically performed by synchronizing them with stream flow discharge simulated via the logistic map. Templates with definite characteristic information are defined from stream flow discharge pattern as the basis to model the spatio-temporal organization of randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes. These spatio-temporal patterns under varied parameters (λs controlling stream flow discharge patterns are characterized by estimating their fractal dimensions. At various λs, nonlinear control parameters, we show the union of boundaries of water bodies that traverse the water body and non-water body spaces as geomorphic attractors. The computed fractal dimensions of these attractors are 1.58, 1.53, 1.78, 1.76, 1.84, and 1.90, respectively, at λs of 1, 2, 3, 3.46, 3.57, and 3.99. These values are in line with general visual observations.
Time-varying properties of renal autoregulatory mechanisms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zou, Rui; Cupples, Will A; Yip, K P
2002-01-01
In order to assess the possible time-varying properties of renal autoregulation, time-frequency and time-scaling methods were applied to renal blood flow under broad-band forced arterial blood pressure fluctuations and single-nephron renal blood flow with spontaneous oscillations obtained from...... normotensive (Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans) rats, and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Time-frequency analyses of normotensive and hypertensive blood flow data obtained from either the whole kidney or the single-nephron show that indeed both the myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanisms...... have time-varying characteristics. Furthermore, we utilized the Renyi entropy to measure the complexity of blood-flow dynamics in the time-frequency plane in an effort to discern differences between normotensive and hypertensive recordings. We found a clear difference in Renyi entropy between...
Electron dynamics in solid state via time varying wavevectors
Khaneja, Navin
2018-06-01
In this paper, we study electron wavepacket dynamics in electric and magnetic fields. We rigorously derive the semiclassical equations of electron dynamics in electric and magnetic fields. We do it both for free electron and electron in a periodic potential. We do this by introducing time varying wavevectors k(t). In the presence of magnetic field, our wavepacket reproduces the classical cyclotron orbits once the origin of the Schröedinger equation is correctly chosen to be center of cyclotron orbit. In the presence of both electric and magnetic fields, our equations for wavepacket dynamics differ from classical Lorentz force equations. We show that in a periodic potential, on application of electric field, the electron wave function adiabatically follows the wavefunction of a time varying Bloch wavevector k(t), with its energies suitably shifted with time. We derive the effective mass equation and discuss conduction in conductors and insulators.
Time varying determinants of bond flows to emerging markets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasemin Erduman
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the time varying nature of the determinants of bond flows with a focus on the global financial crisis period. We estimate a time varying regression model using Bayesian estimation methods, where the posterior distribution is approximated by Gibbs sampling algorithm. Our findings suggest that the interest rate differential is the most significant pull factor of portfolio bond flows, along with the inflation rate, while the growth rate does not play a significant role. Among the push factors, global liquidity is the most important driver of bond flows. It matters the most, when unconventional monetary easing policies were first announced; and its importance as a determinant of portfolio bond flows decreases over time, starting with the Eurozone crisis, and diminishes with the tapering talk. Global risk appetite and the risk perception towards the emerging countries also have relatively small and stable significant effects on bond flows.
Modelling Time-Varying Volatility in Financial Returns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amado, Cristina; Laakkonen, Helinä
2014-01-01
The “unusually uncertain” phase in the global financial markets has inspired many researchers to study the effects of ambiguity (or “Knightian uncertainty”) on the decisions made by investors and their implications for the capital markets. We contribute to this literature by using a modified...... version of the time-varying GARCH model of Amado and Teräsvirta (2013) to analyze whether the increasing uncertainty has caused excess volatility in the US and European government bond markets. In our model, volatility is multiplicatively decomposed into two time-varying conditional components: the first...... being captured by a stable GARCH(1,1) process and the second driven by the level of uncertainty in the financial market....
Non-minimally coupled varying constants quantum cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balcerzak, Adam
2015-01-01
We consider gravity theory with varying speed of light and varying gravitational constant. Both constants are represented by non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We examine the cosmological evolution in the near curvature singularity regime. We find that at the curvature singularity the speed of light goes to infinity while the gravitational constant vanishes. This corresponds to the Newton's Mechanics limit represented by one of the vertex of the Bronshtein-Zelmanov-Okun cube [1,2]. The cosmological evolution includes both the pre-big-bang and post-big-bang phases separated by the curvature singularity. We also investigate the quantum counterpart of the considered theory and find the probability of transition of the universe from the collapsing pre-big-bang phase to the expanding post-big-bang phase
Epidemic spread in coupled populations with seasonally varying migration rates
Muzyczyn, Adam; Shaw, Leah B.
2009-03-01
The H5N1 strain of avian influenza has spread worldwide, and this spread may be due to seasonal migration of birds and mixing of birds from different regions in the wintering grounds. We studied a multipatch model for avian influenza with seasonally varying migration rates. The bird population was divided into two spatially distinct patches, or subpopulations. Within each patch, the disease followed the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for epidemic spread. Migration rates were varied periodically, with a net flux toward the breeding grounds during the spring and towards the wintering grounds during the fall. The case of two symmetric patches reduced to single-patch SIR dynamics. However, asymmetry in the birth and contact rates in the breeding grounds and wintering grounds led to bifurcations to longer period orbits and chaotic dynamics. We studied the bifurcation structure of the model and the phase relationships between outbreaks in the two patches.
Scaling properties in time-varying networks with memory
Kim, Hyewon; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong
2015-12-01
The formation of network structure is mainly influenced by an individual node's activity and its memory, where activity can usually be interpreted as the individual inherent property and memory can be represented by the interaction strength between nodes. In our study, we define the activity through the appearance pattern in the time-aggregated network representation, and quantify the memory through the contact pattern of empirical temporal networks. To address the role of activity and memory in epidemics on time-varying networks, we propose temporal-pattern coarsening of activity-driven growing networks with memory. In particular, we focus on the relation between time-scale coarsening and spreading dynamics in the context of dynamic scaling and finite-size scaling. Finally, we discuss the universality issue of spreading dynamics on time-varying networks for various memory-causality tests.
Local Feature Learning for Face Recognition under Varying Poses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a local feature learning method for face recognition to deal with varying poses. As opposed to the commonly used approaches of recovering frontal face images from profile views, the proposed method extracts the subject related part from a local feature by removing the pose...... related part in it on the basis of a pose feature. The method has a closed-form solution, hence being time efficient. For performance evaluation, cross pose face recognition experiments are conducted on two public face recognition databases FERET and FEI. The proposed method shows a significant...... recognition improvement under varying poses over general local feature approaches and outperforms or is comparable with related state-of-the-art pose invariant face recognition approaches. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE....
Accuracy limits on rapid assessment of gently varying bathymetry
McDonald, B. Edward; Holland, Charles
2002-05-01
Accuracy limits for rapidly probing shallow water bathymetry are investigated as a function of bottom slope and other relevant parameters. The probe scheme [B. E. McDonald and Charles Holland, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2767 (2001)] uses a time reversed mirror (TRM) to ensonify a thin annulus on the ocean bottom at ranges of a few km from a vertical send/ receive array. The annulus is shifted in range by variable bathymetry (perturbation theory shows that the focal annulus experiences a radial shift proportional to the integrated bathymetry along a given azimuth). The range shift implies an azimuth-dependent time of maximum reverberation. Thus the reverberant return contains information that might be inverted to give bathymetric parameters. The parameter range over which the perturbation result is accurate is explored using the RAM code for propagation in arbitrarily range-dependent environments. [Work supported by NRL.
Parameters of care for craniosynostosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McCarthy, Joseph G; Warren, Stephen M; Bernstein, Joseph
2012-01-01
A multidisciplinary meeting was held from March 4 to 6, 2010, in Atlanta, Georgia, entitled "Craniosynostosis: Developing Parameters for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management." The goal of this meeting was to create parameters of care for individuals with craniosynostosis.......A multidisciplinary meeting was held from March 4 to 6, 2010, in Atlanta, Georgia, entitled "Craniosynostosis: Developing Parameters for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management." The goal of this meeting was to create parameters of care for individuals with craniosynostosis....
effect of gasket of varying thickness on spark ignition engines
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DJFLEX
In the study of Toyota, In-line, 4 cylinders, spark ignition engine using gaskets of varying thicknesses. (1.75mm, 3.5mm, 5.25mm, 7mm and 8.75mm) between the cylinder head and the engine block, the performance characteristics of the engine was investigated via the effect of engine speed on brake power, brake thermal ...
Housing Cycles in Switzerland - A Time-Varying Approach
Drechsel, Dirk
2015-01-01
In light of the strong increase of house prices in Switzerland, we analyze the effects of mortgage rate shocks, changes in the interplay between housing demand and supply and GDP growth on house prices for the time period 1981- 2014. We employ Bayesian time-varying coefficients vector autoregressions to allow different monetary and immigration regimes over time. A number of structural changes, such as regulatory changes in the aftermath of the 1990s real estate crisis, the introduction of fre...
Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth
Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY; Sugavanam, Krishnan [Mahopac, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Seebruck-Seeon, DE
2012-01-24
Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.
Attitudes as Object-Evaluation Associations of Varying Strength
Fazio, Russell H.
2007-01-01
Historical developments regarding the attitude concept are reviewed, and set the stage for consideration of a theoretical perspective that views attitude, not as a hypothetical construct, but as evaluative knowledge. A model of attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength is summarized, along with research supporting the model’s contention that at least some attitudes are represented in memory and activated automatically upon the individual’s encountering the attitude objec...
Denitrification activity in mangrove sediments varies with associated vegetation
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Fernandes, S.O.; Dutta, P.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Bonin, P.C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.
. Eng.: 95; 2016; 671-681 Denitrification activity in mangrove sediments varies with associated vegetation Sheryl Oliveira Fernandes a, #, Pinky Dutta b, Maria-Judith Gonsalves a, Patricia C. Bonin c, P. A. LokaBharathi a, * a Biological... in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Giri et al., 2011). They provide a range of ecosystem services like soil formation, wood production, fish spawning grounds, carbon (C) storage and nutrient cycling (Murdiyarso et al., 2015). However, over...
Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?
Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie
2013-01-01
Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to ev...
Simple Model with Time-Varying Fine-Structure ``Constant''
Berman, M. S.
2009-10-01
Extending the original version written in colaboration with L.A. Trevisan, we study the generalisation of Dirac's LNH, so that time-variation of the fine-structure constant, due to varying electrical and magnetic permittivities is included along with other variations (cosmological and gravitational ``constants''), etc. We consider the present Universe, and also an inflationary scenario. Rotation of the Universe is a given possibility in this model.
Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darenskaya, N.G.; Kuznetsova, S.S.; Lebengarts, Ya.Z.
1975-01-01
Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs
Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darenskaya, N G; Kuznetsova, S S; Lebengarts, Ya Z
1975-07-01
Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs.
Phototrophic microvegetation of thermal springs in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kaštovský, J.; span class="emphasis">Komárek, Jiříspan>
2001-01-01
Roč. 123, - (2001), s. 107-120 ISSN 1438-9134. [International conference: Algae and extreme environments. Třeboň, 11.09.2000-16.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Cyanobacteria * algae * biodiversity * thermal springs * Karlovy Vary Spa * ecology * seasonality * anthropogenic factors * conservation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2000
A reciprocal Wald theorem for varying gravitational function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fay, Stephane
2004-01-01
We study when a cosmological constant is a natural issue if it is mimicked by the potential of a massive Hyperextended Scalar Tensor theory with a perfect fluid for Bianchi type I and V models. We then deduce a reciprocal Wald theorem giving the conditions such that the potential tends to a non vanishing constant when the gravitational function varies. We also get the conditions allowing the potential to vanish or diverge. (orig.)
Model Complexities of Shallow Networks Representing Highly Varying Functions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.
2016-01-01
Roč. 171, 1 January (2016), s. 598-604 ISSN 0925-2312 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13002 Grant - others:grant for Visiting Professors(IT) GNAMPA-INdAM Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : shallow networks * model complexity * highly varying functions * Chernoff bound * perceptrons * Gaussian kernel units Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 3.317, year: 2016
Tracking control of time-varying knee exoskeleton disturbed by interaction torque.
Li, Zhan; Ma, Wenhao; Yin, Ziguang; Guo, Hongliang
2017-11-01
Knee exoskeletons have been increasingly applied as assistive devices to help lower-extremity impaired people to make their knee joints move through providing external movement compensation. Tracking control of knee exoskeletons guided by human intentions often encounters time-varying (time-dependent) issues and the disturbance interaction torque, which may dramatically put an influence up on their dynamic behaviors. Inertial and viscous parameters of knee exoskeletons can be estimated to be time-varying due to unexpected mechanical vibrations and contact interactions. Moreover, the interaction torque produced from knee joint of wearers has an evident disturbance effect on regular motions of knee exoskeleton. All of these points can increase difficultly of accurate control of knee exoskeletons to follow desired joint angle trajectories. This paper proposes a novel control strategy for controlling knee exoskeleton with time-varying inertial and viscous coefficients disturbed by interaction torque. Such designed controller is able to make the tracking error of joint angle of knee exoskeletons exponentially converge to zero. Meanwhile, the proposed approach is robust to guarantee the tracking error bounded when the interaction torque exists. Illustrative simulation and experiment results are presented to show efficiency of the proposed controller. Additionally, comparisons with gradient dynamic (GD) approach and other methods are also presented to demonstrate efficiency and superiority of the proposed control strategy for tracking joint angle of knee exoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Two-dimensional phononic crystals with time-varying properties: a multiple scattering analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, D W; Cobbold, R S C
2010-01-01
Multiple scattering theory is a versatile two- and three-dimensional method for characterizing the acoustic wave transmission through many scatterers. It provides analytical solutions to wave propagation in scattering structures, and its computational complexity grows logarithmically with the number of scatterers. In this paper we show how the 2D method can be adapted to include the effects of time-varying material parameters. Specifically, a new T-matrix is defined to include the effects of frequency modulation that occurs in time-varying phononic crystals. Solutions were verified against finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations and showed excellent agreement. This new method enables fast characterization of time-varying phononic crystals without the need to resort to lengthy FDTD simulations. Also, the method of combining T-matrices to form the T-supermatrix remains unchanged provided that the new matrix definitions are used. The method is quite compatible with existing implementations of multiple scattering theory and could be readily extended to three-dimensional multiple scattering theory
Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakatos, Greg; O' Brien, John; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2006-03-10
We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.
Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lakatos, Greg; O'Brien, John; Chou, Tom
2006-01-01
We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions
Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rigby, D.; Mrugala, M.; Shideler, G.; Davidsavor, T.; Leem, J.; Buesch, D.; Sun, Y.; Potyondy, D.; Christianson, M.
2003-01-01
The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce
Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson
2003-12-17
The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce
Hu, Yong; Kwok, Jerry Weilun; Tse, Jessica Yuk-Hang; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei
2014-06-01
Nonsurgical rehabilitation therapy is a commonly used strategy to treat chronic low back pain (LBP). The selection of the most appropriate therapeutic options is still a big challenge in clinical practices. Surface electromyography (sEMG) topography has been proposed to be an objective assessment of LBP rehabilitation. The quantitative analysis of dynamic sEMG would provide an objective tool of prognosis for LBP rehabilitation. To evaluate the prognostic value of quantitative sEMG topographic analysis and to verify the accuracy of the performance of proposed time-varying topographic parameters for identifying the patients who have better response toward the rehabilitation program. A retrospective study of consecutive patients. Thirty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific LBP and 43 healthy subjects. The accuracy of the time-varying quantitative sEMG topographic analysis for monitoring LBP rehabilitation progress was determined by calculating the corresponding receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Physiologic measure was the sEMG during lumbar flexion and extension. Patients who suffered from chronic nonspecific LBP without the history of back surgery and any medical conditions causing acute exacerbation of LBP during the clinical test were enlisted to perform the clinical test during the 12-week physiotherapy (PT) treatment. Low back pain patients were classified into two groups: "responding" and "nonresponding" based on the clinical assessment. The responding group referred to the LBP patients who began to recover after the PT treatment, whereas the nonresponding group referred to some LBP patients who did not recover or got worse after the treatment. The results of the time-varying analysis in the responding group were compared with those in the nonresponding group. In addition, the accuracy of the analysis was analyzed through ROC curves. The time-varying analysis showed discrepancies in the root-mean-square difference (RMSD) parameters between the
VariVis: a visualisation toolkit for variation databases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smith Timothy D
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the Human Genome Project and recent advancements in mutation detection technologies, the volume of data available on genetic variations has risen considerably. These data are stored in online variation databases and provide important clues to the cause of diseases and potential side effects or resistance to drugs. However, the data presentation techniques employed by most of these databases make them difficult to use and understand. Results Here we present a visualisation toolkit that can be employed by online variation databases to generate graphical models of gene sequence with corresponding variations and their consequences. The VariVis software package can run on any web server capable of executing Perl CGI scripts and can interface with numerous Database Management Systems and "flat-file" data files. VariVis produces two easily understandable graphical depictions of any gene sequence and matches these with variant data. While developed with the goal of improving the utility of human variation databases, the VariVis package can be used in any variation database to enhance utilisation of, and access to, critical information.
Time-varying linear control for tiltrotor aircraft
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing ZHANG
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Tiltrotor aircraft have three flight modes: helicopter mode, airplane mode, and transition mode. A tiltrotor has characteristics of highly nonlinear, time-varying flight dynamics and inertial/control couplings in its transition mode. It can transit from the helicopter mode to the airplane mode by tilting its nacelles, and an effective controller is crucial to accomplish tilting transition missions. Longitudinal dynamic characteristics of the tiltrotor are described by a nonlinear Lagrange-form model, which takes into account inertial/control couplings and aerodynamic interferences. Reference commands for airspeed velocity and attitude in the transition mode are calculated dynamically by visiting a command library which is founded in advance by analyzing the flight envelope of the tiltrotor. A Time-Varying Linear (TVL model is obtained using a Taylor-expansion based online linearization technique from the nonlinear model. Subsequently, based on an optimal control concept, an online optimization based control method with input constraints considered is proposed. To validate the proposed control method, three typical tilting transition missions are simulated using the nonlinear model of XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft. Simulation results show that the controller can be used to control the tiltrotor throughout its operating envelop which includes a transition flight, and can also deal with vertical gust disturbances. Keywords: Constrained optimal control, Inertia/control couplings, Tiltrotor aircraft, Time-varying control, Transition mode
Radiation damage in stainless steel under varying temperature neutron irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, Naoaki [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1998-03-01
Microstructural evolution of model alloys of 316SS was examined by neutron irradiation at JMTR under cyclic temperature varying condition. In the case of Fe-16Cr-17Ni, formation of interstitial loops and voids are strongly suppressed by varying the temperature from 473K to 673K. By adding Ti as miner element (0.25wt%), however, abnormal accumulation of vacancies (void swelling of 11%dpa at 0.1dpa) was observed. Theoretical analysis standing on the rate theory of defect clustering and simulation irradiation experiments with heavy ions indicates that the vacancy-rich condition which appears temporally during and after changing the temperature from low to high brings these results. It was also shown that only 1 dpa pre-irradiation at low temperature changes swelling behavior at high temperature above several 10 dpa. The understanding of non-steady-state defect processes under temperature varying irradiation is very important to estimate the radiation damage under fusion environment where short-term and long-term temperature variation is expected. (author)
Shape and Spatially-Varying Reflectance Estimation from Virtual Exemplars.
Hui, Zhuo; Sankaranarayanan, Aswin C
2017-10-01
This paper addresses the problem of estimating the shape of objects that exhibit spatially-varying reflectance. We assume that multiple images of the object are obtained under a fixed view-point and varying illumination, i.e., the setting of photometric stereo. At the core of our techniques is the assumption that the BRDF at each pixel lies in the non-negative span of a known BRDF dictionary. This assumption enables a per-pixel surface normal and BRDF estimation framework that is computationally tractable and requires no initialization in spite of the underlying problem being non-convex. Our estimation framework first solves for the surface normal at each pixel using a variant of example-based photometric stereo. We design an efficient multi-scale search strategy for estimating the surface normal and subsequently, refine this estimate using a gradient descent procedure. Given the surface normal estimate, we solve for the spatially-varying BRDF by constraining the BRDF at each pixel to be in the span of the BRDF dictionary; here, we use additional priors to further regularize the solution. A hallmark of our approach is that it does not require iterative optimization techniques nor the need for careful initialization, both of which are endemic to most state-of-the-art techniques. We showcase the performance of our technique on a wide range of simulated and real scenes where we outperform competing methods.
Influence of Some Variable Parameters on Horizontal Elliptic Micro ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study investigates the laminar flow and heat transfer characteristics in elliptic micro-channels of varying axis ratios and with internal longitudinal fins, operating in a region that is hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed; purposely to determine the effects of some salient fluid and geometry parameters such as ...
Effect of material parameters on the compactibility of backfill materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keto, P.; Kuula-Vaeisaenen, P.; Ruuskanen, J.
2006-05-01
The effect of different parameters on compactibility of mixture of bentonite and ballast as well as Friedland-clay was studied in laboratory with two different types of compaction tests. The material parameters varied were grain size distribution of the ballast material, grain shape, water ratio and bentonite content (15/30%). The other parameters varied were salinity of the mixing water, mixing process and compaction method and energy. Ballast materials with varying grain size distributions were produced from Olkiluoto mica-gneiss with different type of crushing processes. In addition, sand was chosen for ballast material due to its uniform grain size distribution and rounded grain shape. The maximum grain size of the ballast materials was between 5-10 mm. When comparing the compactibility of ballast materials, the highest dry densities were gained for ballast materials with graded grain size distribution. The compaction behaviour of the tested bentonite ballast mixtures is dominated by the bentonite content. The other parameters varied did not have significant effect on the compactibility of the mixtures with bentonite content of 30%. This can be explained with the amount of bentonite that is higher than what is needed to fill up the volume between the ballast grains. The results gained with the two different compaction tests are comparable. Both the bentonite/ballast mixtures and the Friedland clay behaved similarly when compacted with three different compaction pressures (180, 540 and 980 kPa). (orig.)
Varying hemin concentrations affect Porphyromonas gingivalis strains differently.
Ohya, Manabu; Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu
2016-05-01
Porphyromonas gingivalis requires heme to grow, however, heme availability and concentration in the periodontal pockets vary. Fluctuations in heme concentration may affect each P. gingivalis strain differently, however, this was never fully demonstrated. Here, we elucidated the effects of varying hemin concentrations in representative P. gingivalis strains. Throughout this study, representative P. gingivalis strains [FDC381 (type I), MPWIb-01 (type Ib), TDC60 (type II), ATCC49417 (type III), W83 (type IV), and HNA99 (type V)] were used and grown for 24 h in growth media under varying hemin concentrations (5 × , 1 × , 0.5 × , 0.1 × ). Samples were lysed and protein standardized. Arg-gingipain (Rgp), H2O2, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were subsequently measured. We focused our study on 24 h-grown strains which excluded MPWIb-01 and HNA99. Rgp activity among the 4 remaining strains varied with Rgp peaking at: 1 × for FDC381, 5 × for TDC60, 0.5 × for ATCC49417, 5 × and 0.5 × for W83. With regards to H2O2 and SOD amounts: FDC381 had similar H2O2 amounts in all hemin concentrations while SOD levels varied; TDC60 had the lowest H2O2 amount at 1 × while SOD levels became higher in relation to hemin concentration; ATCC49417 also had similar H2O2 amounts in all hemin concentrations while SOD levels were higher at 1 × and 0.5 × ; and W83 had statistically similar H2O2 and SOD amounts regardless of hemin concentration. Our results show that variations in hemin concentration affect each P. gingivalis strain differently. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Muonium hyperfine parameters in Si1-x Ge x alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, Philip; Lichti, Roger; Cottrell, Stephen; Yonenaga, Ichiro
2006-01-01
We present studies of muonium behaviour in bulk, Czochralski-grown Si 1- x Ge x alloy material, focusing in particular on the hyperfine parameter of the tetrahedral muonium species. In contrast to the bond-centred species, the hyperfine parameter of the tetrahedral-site muonium centre (Mu T ) appears to vary non-linearly with alloy composition. The temperature dependence of the Mu T hyperfine parameter observed in low-Ge alloy material is compared with that seen in pure Si, and previous models of the Mu T behaviour in Si are discussed in the light of results from Si 1- x Ge x alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheng Li; Yang Huizhong
2009-01-01
This paper considers the robust stability of a class of uncertain Markovian jumping Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (UMJCGNNs) with mixed time-varying delays. The parameter uncertainties are norm-bounded and the mixed time-varying delays comprise discrete and distributed time delays. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, some robust stability conditions guaranteeing the global robust convergence of the equilibrium point are derived. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.
Cheong, Chin Wen
2008-02-01
This article investigated the influences of structural breaks on the fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model in the Malaysian stock markets which included the Kuala Lumpur composite index and four major sectoral indices. A fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model combined with sudden changes is developed to study the possibility of structural change in the empirical data sets. Our empirical results showed substantial reduction in fractional differencing parameters after the inclusion of structural change during the Asian financial and currency crises. Moreover, the fractionally integrated model with sudden change in volatility performed better in the estimation and specification evaluations.
Masmoudi, Nabil; Pšenčí k, Ivan
2014-01-01
We present an approximate, but efficient and sufficiently accurate P-wave ray tracing and dynamic ray tracing procedure for 3D inhomogeneous, weakly orthorhombic media with varying orientation of symmetry planes. In contrast to commonly used approaches, the orthorhombic symmetry is preserved at any point of the model. The model is described by six weak-anisotropy parameters and three Euler angles, which may vary arbitrarily, but smoothly, throughout the model. We use the procedure for the calculation of rays and corresponding two-point traveltimes in a VSP experiment in a part of the BP benchmark model generalized to orthorhombic symmetry.
Li, Kelin
2010-02-01
In this article, a class of impulsive bidirectional associative memory (BAM) fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNNs) with time-varying delays is formulated and investigated. By employing delay differential inequality and M-matrix theory, some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive BAM FCNNs with time-varying delays are obtained. In particular, a precise estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on system parameters and impulsive perturbation intention. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of BAM FCNNs. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.
Time-varying value of electric energy efficiency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mims, Natalie A.; Eckman, Tom; Goldman, Charles
2017-06-30
Electric energy efficiency resources save energy and may reduce peak demand. Historically, quantification of energy efficiency benefits has largely focused on the economic value of energy savings during the first year and lifetime of the installed measures. Due in part to the lack of publicly available research on end-use load shapes (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings) and energy savings shapes, consideration of the impact of energy efficiency on peak demand reduction (i.e., capacity savings) has been more limited. End-use load research and the hourly valuation of efficiency savings are used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity and demand response planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service. This study reviews existing literature on the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings, provides examples in four geographically diverse locations of how consideration of the time-varying value of efficiency savings impacts the calculation of power system benefits, and identifies future research needs to enhance the consideration of the time-varying value of energy efficiency in cost-effectiveness screening analysis. Findings from this study include: -The time-varying value of individual energy efficiency measures varies across the locations studied because of the physical and operational characteristics of the individual utility system (e.g., summer or winter peaking, load factor, reserve margin) as well as the time periods during which savings from measures occur. -Across the four locations studied, some of the largest capacity benefits from energy efficiency are derived from the deferral of transmission and distribution system infrastructure upgrades. However, the deferred cost of such upgrades also exhibited the greatest range
WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 1: Parameter development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howarth, S.M.
1997-01-01
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program; the parameters were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probabilistic codes frequently require input values that define a statistical distribution for each parameter. Developing parameter distributions begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. The development of the parameter distribution values may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling of lab or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformation. Parameter development and documentation of the development process were very complicated, especially for those parameters based on empirical data; they required the integration of information from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) code sponsors, parameter task leaders (PTLs), performance assessment analysts (PAAs), and experimental principal investigators (PIs). This paper, Part 1 of two parts, contains a discussion of the parameter development process, roles and responsibilities, and lessons learned. Part 2 will discuss parameter documentation, traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews
Performance of weaner rabbits fed with varying levels of Tridax ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Twenty four weaner rabbits (mongrel breed) of both sexes with average weight of 350g were fed formulated diet comprising 0, 15, 30 and 45% Tridax procumbens (TRP). The parameters evaluated were nutrient intake, daily weight gain, feed, conversion ratio, incidences of diarrhoea and mortality. At the end of the study, ...
A five-dimensional model of varying fine structure constant
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
an effective theory, under the form of an improved version of the 5D Kaluza-Klein theory. 1. Introduction ... where Н = Н( ) denotes the self-interaction potential of and В its source term. ... expansion rate (Hubble parameter),. = (Ш) is the scale ...
Time-varying effects in the analysis of customer loyalty
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guillen, Montserrat; Perch Nielsen, Jens; Scheike, Thomas
2011-01-01
Insurance customers usually hold more than one contract with the same insurer. A generalization of classical survival analysis methods is used to examine the risk of losing a customer once an initial insurance policy cancellation has occurred. This method does not assume that the model parameters...
Analysing the Effect on CMB in a Parity and Charge Parity Violating Varying Alpha Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maity, Debaprasad; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC
2012-09-14
In this paper we study in detail the effect of our recently proposed model of parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating varying alpha on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photon passing through the intra galaxy-cluster medium (ICM). The ICM is well known to be composed of magnetized plasma. According to our model, the polarization and intensity of the CMB would be affected when traversing through the ICM due to non-trivial scalar photon interactions. We have calculated the evolution of such polarization and intensity collectively, known as the stokes parameters of the CMB photon during its journey through the ICM and tested our results against the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) measurement on Coma galaxy cluster. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter, {beta}, and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. Using the derived constrained on the photon-to-scalar conversion probability, {bar P}{sub {gamma}{yields}{phi}}, for Coma cluster in ref.[34] we found a contour plot in the ({omega},{beta}) parameter plane. The {beta} = 0 line in this parameter space corresponds to well-studied Maxwell-dilaton type models which has lower bound on {omega} {approx}> 6.4 x 10{sup 9} GeV. In general, as the absolute value of {beta} increases, lower bound on {omega} also increases. Our model in general predicts the modification of the CMB polarization with a non-trivial dependence on the parity violating coupling parameter {beta}. However, it is unconstrained in this particular study. We show that this effect can in principle be detected in the future measurements on CMB polarization such that {beta} can also be constrained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uzun, Yunus; Kurt, Erol
2013-01-01
Highlights: • This paper explores the piezoelectric harvester performance. • The varying magnetic field generates electricity via exciting harvester. • Generated power should be optimized via load resistance. • 0.11 mW/cm 3 Power can be generated from 500 cm 3 surrounding volume. - Abstract: This paper reports a performance exploration of a piezoelectric harvester which is positioned near an operating induction motor. The harvester includes a magnet knob in a pendulum arrangement, which ascertains mechanical vibrations under the varying magnetic field. This energy harvester transforms the ambient unused magnetic energy into the electricity due to the piezoelectric layer attached to the pendulum. It has been proven that when the motor is under operation, the varying ambient field causes a varying magnetic force at the tip of harvester, then output voltage between the terminals of piezoelectric layer is produced due to the mechanical vibrations. This output signal has some characteristics of the operating induction motor in terms of its operation frequency, number of magnetic pole and natural frequency of the harvester. Since the surrounding field of the induction motor directly depends on the current flowing through the windings and electrical parameters, both the amplitude U and the frequency ω m of the harvested voltage can be characterized after some certain parametrical explorations. It has been proven that the harvested voltage strictly depends on the electrical load, which is attached to the terminals of the harvester, after the rectifying circuit. The harvested power per surrounding volume can be increased up to 0.11 mW/cm 3 , if the entire surrounding volume of the motor is considered
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. de la Sen
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the stability properties of a class of dynamic linear systems possessing several linear time-invariant parameterizations (or configurations which conform a linear time-varying polytopic dynamic system with a finite number of time-varying time-differentiable point delays. The parameterizations may be timevarying and with bounded discontinuities and they can be subject to mixed regular plus impulsive controls within a sequence of time instants of zero measure. The polytopic parameterization for the dynamics associated with each delay is specific, so that (q+1 polytopic parameterizations are considered for a system with q delays being also subject to delay-free dynamics. The considered general dynamic system includes, as particular cases, a wide class of switched linear systems whose individual parameterizations are timeinvariant which are governed by a switching rule. However, the dynamic system under consideration is viewed as much more general since it is time-varying with timevarying delays and the bounded discontinuous changes of active parameterizations are generated by impulsive controls in the dynamics and, at the same time, there is not a prescribed set of candidate potential parameterizations.
Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances
Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.
2015-12-01
Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to different volcanic disturbances were attributable to varying degrees of mortality and subsequent availability of substrate, quantity of light and removal of competitors. While sensitive to disturbance, lichens are apparently resilient to and can quickly recolonize after a variety of large, violent volcanic
Forming of Zr-4 alloy guide tube with varied diameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Songyan; Tian Zhenye
1989-10-01
A new built-up mould method to manufacture Zr-4 alloy guide tubes with varied diameters at the middle of tube is introduced. The guide tube is used in nuclear power plants for guiding the control rods. This method has many advantages such as simple in forming, low cost of manufacturing, no need of special devices and favour of batch processing. The test results show that the accuracy of size, mechanical properties, resistance to corrosion, grain size and hydrogenate orientation of the end-products can meet the technical needs for nuclear reactor operation
Varied clinico-radiological presentations of transmigrated canines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ishita Gupta
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Canine is one of the most commonly impacted teeth in the dental arch. An unerupted permanent canine crossing the midline is called transmigration and is an unusual event. We report nine cases of impacted canine transmigration. Maxillary canine transmigration, bilateral transmigration, and transmigration associated with odontoma are rare presentations. This article discusses the varied clinico-radiologic presentations, etiology, and treatment options of transmigration. It also emphasizes the importance of panoramic radiographs for evaluation of over-retained deciduous canines or missing permanent canines.
Plasma acceleration in a wave with varying frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.A.
1978-01-01
The averaged velocity of a test particle and the averaged velocity of a plasma in an electromagnetic wave packet with varying frequency (e.g., a radiation pulse from pulsar) is derived. The total momentum left by the wave packet in regions of plasma inhomogeneity is found. In case the plasma concentration is changing due to ionization the plasma may be accelerated parallelly or antiparallelly to the direction of the wave packet propagation which is relevant for a laser induced breakdown in gas. (author)
Toluene metabolism during exposure to varying concentrations combined with exercise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bælum, Jesper; Døssing, M; Hansen, S H
1987-01-01
. In Study A, four males were exposed to clean air and to constant and varying concentrations of toluene in combination with rest and with 100 W exercise in 140 min. Exercise increased end exposure excretion rate of HA and O-cr by 47 and 114%, respectively. After exposure, all excess HA was excreted within 4...... weight and smoking habits, thus influencing the metabolite concentration standardised in relation to creatinine. It is concluded that both metabolites are estimates of toluene exposure. O-cr is more specific than HA, but the individual variation in excretion of both metabolites is large, and when...
Reduced dielectric response in spatially varying electric fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jesper Schmidt
2015-01-01
relations between the flux and the gradient of the polarization. Comparison between the theory and molecular dynamics simulations confirms this effect. The effect is significant for small length scale electric field variations and the inclusion of the flux is thus important in nanoscale modeling......In this paper, the dynamical equation for polarization is derived. From this the dielectric response to a spatially varying electric field is analyzed showing a reduced response due to flux of polarization in the material. This flux is modeled as a diffusive process through linear constitutive...
Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets
Jong, F.C.J.M. de; Roon, F.A. de
2001-01-01
We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value of the assets that can be held by domestic investors only versus the market value of the assets that can be traded freely.Our empirical analysis for 30 emerging markets shows that there are strong...
Robust topology optimization accounting for spatially varying manufacturing errors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schevenels, M.; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
This paper presents a robust approach for the design of macro-, micro-, or nano-structures by means of topology optimization, accounting for spatially varying manufacturing errors. The focus is on structures produced by milling or etching; in this case over- or under-etching may cause parts...... optimization problem is formulated in a probabilistic way: the objective function is defined as a weighted sum of the mean value and the standard deviation of the structural performance. The optimization problem is solved by means of a Monte Carlo method: in each iteration of the optimization scheme, a Monte...
Measurement of periodically varying ECE spectra using a Michelson interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurent, L.; Rodriguez, L.; Talvard, M.
1987-01-01
In some tokamak experiments the ECE spectrum is periodically varying. If the modulation frequency is small enough (less than 10 Hz) the plasma can be considered as quasi-stationary during the typical scan time of most of the Michelson interferometers. It is possible to measure simply ECE spectra at different times of the oscillation. We present here a technique which allows to measure smaller fluctuations at larger frequencies. However the analysis requires a large number of periods of oscillation at constant frequency and a scanning mirror moving at constant velocity
Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten
2008-01-01
A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...... by expanding solutions in terms of cross-sectional eigenfunctions following Stevenson’s method. A transfer matrix can be easily constructed from simple model responses of a given waveguide and later used in computing the response to any complex wave input. Energy losses due to heat conduction and viscous...
One-dimensional radionuclide transport under time-varying conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelbard, F.; Olague, N.E.; Longsine, D.E.
1990-01-01
This paper discusses new analytical and numerical solutions presented for one-dimensional radionuclide transport under time-varying fluid-flow conditions including radioactive decay. The analytical solution assumes that all radionuclides have identical retardation factors, and is limited to instantaneous releases. The numerical solution does not have these limitations, but is tested against the limiting case given for the analytical solution. Reasonable agreement between the two solutions was found. Examples are given for the transport of a three-member radionuclide chain transported over distances and flow rates comparable to those reported for Yucca Mountain, the proposed disposal site for high-level nuclear waste
Timed arrays wideband and time varying antenna arrays
Haupt, Randy L
2015-01-01
Introduces timed arrays and design approaches to meet the new high performance standards The author concentrates on any aspect of an antenna array that must be viewed from a time perspective. The first chapters briefly introduce antenna arrays and explain the difference between phased and timed arrays. Since timed arrays are designed for realistic time-varying signals and scenarios, the book also reviews wideband signals, baseband and passband RF signals, polarization and signal bandwidth. Other topics covered include time domain, mutual coupling, wideband elements, and dispersion. The auth
Epidemic spreading in time-varying community networks.
Ren, Guangming; Wang, Xingyuan
2014-06-01
The spreading processes of many infectious diseases have comparable time scale as the network evolution. Here, we present a simple networks model with time-varying community structure, and investigate susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic spreading processes in this model. By both theoretic analysis and numerical simulations, we show that the efficiency of epidemic spreading in this model depends intensively on the mobility rate q of the individuals among communities. We also find that there exists a mobility rate threshold qc. The epidemic will survive when q > qc and die when q epidemic spreading in complex networks with community structure.
Parameters of atmospheric radioactivity in Bulgaria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaneva, B.; Todorov, P.; Georgieva, D.
2006-01-01
Bulgaria is a country which is located on the Balkan Peninsula, at the Eastern part of Europe. There are a lot of polluting sources, which can affect the environmental parameters and human health. One of these parameters is a radioactivity. It can be as a result from natural and anthropological sources. One of the most important sources of radiological influence to the environment and its components is from atmosphere. Anthropological sources of atmospheric pollution are Nuclear power plants, different kinds of industrial plants, and so on. The systematic control on these parameters is made by the Ministry of environment and water in Bulgaria. The atmospheric radioactivity research is based on collecting of many samples and its examine. The collecting of these aerosol samples on different kind of filters is automatic and it is put into practice by fixed stations located in some of the main towns in Bulgaria - Sofia, Varna, Burgas, Vratza and Montana. The required amount of air for each sample is 1000m 3 . These samples are analyzed by gamma-spectrometry analysis for determination of specifies activity of natural and anthropological radionuclides in them. Monitoring data for the atmospheric radioactivity can be characterized by concentrations of Cs-137, Be-7. The results show that concentrations of Cs-137 are 3 and the concentrations for Be-7 vary from 0.7 to 15.7 mBq/m 3 . Other important radionuclides are Sr-90, Uranium and Ra-226
Performance parameters of a standalone PV plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Fathi, Amine; Nkhaili, Lahcen; Bennouna, Amin; Outzourhit, Abdelkader
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We described in details a photovoltaic power plant installed in the remote rural village Elkaria (Essaouira Morocco – 7.2 kWp). • We presented the results of monitoring and some performance parameters of the plant such as load curve. • We discussed the energy management of the plant which is based on the droop mode control. • We presented and discussed the yields and the performance ratio of the plant. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed description of a 7.2 kWp photovoltaic power plant installed in the remote rural village Elkaria (province of Essaouira in Morocco). This plant supplies 16 households with electricity through a local grid that was installed for this purpose. The results of monitoring some performance parameters of the plant such as load curve, the yields and the performance ratio are presented and discussed. The performance ratio of the PV plant varied between 33% and 70.2%. The low values of this parameter are mainly attributed to the way the battery inverter manages the energy flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Feng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The global asymptotic robust stability of equilibrium is considered for neutral-type hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time-varying delays and parameters uncertainties. The results we obtained in this paper are delay-derivative-dependent and establish various relationships between the network parameters only. Therefore, the results of this paper are applicable to a larger class of neural networks and can be easily verified when compared with the previously reported literature results. Two numerical examples are illustrated to verify our results.
Effects of varying dietary zinc levels on energy and nitrogen ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Parameters determined were dry matter intake (DMI), energy utilization and nitrogen utilization. The mean±SE of Panicum maximum, Andropogon gayanus, Pennisetum purpureum, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium, contained 31.2±5.0; 29.1± 3.0;34.6± 6.0; 45.0± 5.0 and 47.1± 4.0mg Zn/kg DM respectively.
Calibration of an Aethalometer with Respect to Varying Humidities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hannemann, A.; Weingartner, E.; Saathoff, H. [FZ Karlsruhe (Georgia); Schnalter, M. [FZ Karlsruhe (Georgia); Baltensperger, U.
2004-03-01
The determination of the light absorption coefficient of the atmospheric aerosol is important with respect to its climate forcing. Measurements of b{sub abs} by means of filter based absorption techniques (e.g. with aethalometers) require to correct for artefacts from condensable gases. Otherwise derived absorption coefficients may be too high, leading to an underestimation of climate relevant parameters such as the single scattering albedo. The corrections presented here enhance the accuracy of aethalometer datasets. (author)
The extinction probability in systems randomly varying in time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imre Pázsit
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The extinction probability of a branching process (a neutron chain in a multiplying medium is calculated for a system randomly varying in time. The evolution of the first two moments of such a process was calculated previously by the authors in a system randomly shifting between two states of different multiplication properties. The same model is used here for the investigation of the extinction probability. It is seen that the determination of the extinction probability is significantly more complicated than that of the moments, and it can only be achieved by pure numerical methods. The numerical results indicate that for systems fluctuating between two subcritical or two supercritical states, the extinction probability behaves as expected, but for systems fluctuating between a supercritical and a subcritical state, there is a crucial and unexpected deviation from the predicted behaviour. The results bear some significance not only for neutron chains in a multiplying medium, but also for the evolution of biological populations in a time-varying environment.
Vibration condition monitoring of planetary gearbox under varying external load
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartelmus, W.; Zimroz, R. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)
2009-01-15
The paper shows that for condition monitoring of planetary gearboxes it is important to identify the external varying load condition. In the paper, systematic consideration has been taken of the influence of many factors on the vibration signals generated by a system in which a planetary gearbox is included. These considerations give the basis for vibration signal interpretation, development of the means of condition monitoring, and for the scenario of the degradation of the planetary gearbox. Real measured vibration signals obtained in the industrial environment are processed. The signals are recorded during normal operation of the diagnosed objects, namely planetary gearboxes, which are a part of the driving system used in a bucket wheel excavator, used in lignite mines. It has been found that the most important factor of the proper planetary gearbox condition is connected with perturbation of arm rotation, where an arm rotation gives rise to a specific vibration signal whose properties are depicted by a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and Wigner-Ville distribution presented as a time-frequency map. The paper gives evidence that there are two dominant low-frequency causes that influence vibration signal modulation, i.e. the varying load, which comes from the nature of the bucket wheel digging process, and the arm/carrier rotation. These two causes determine the condition of the planetary gearboxes considered.
Stochastic analysis of epidemics on adaptive time varying networks
Kotnis, Bhushan; Kuri, Joy
2013-06-01
Many studies investigating the effect of human social connectivity structures (networks) and human behavioral adaptations on the spread of infectious diseases have assumed either a static connectivity structure or a network which adapts itself in response to the epidemic (adaptive networks). However, human social connections are inherently dynamic or time varying. Furthermore, the spread of many infectious diseases occur on a time scale comparable to the time scale of the evolving network structure. Here we aim to quantify the effect of human behavioral adaptations on the spread of asymptomatic infectious diseases on time varying networks. We perform a full stochastic analysis using a continuous time Markov chain approach for calculating the outbreak probability, mean epidemic duration, epidemic reemergence probability, etc. Additionally, we use mean-field theory for calculating epidemic thresholds. Theoretical predictions are verified using extensive simulations. Our studies have uncovered the existence of an “adaptive threshold,” i.e., when the ratio of susceptibility (or infectivity) rate to recovery rate is below the threshold value, adaptive behavior can prevent the epidemic. However, if it is above the threshold, no amount of behavioral adaptations can prevent the epidemic. Our analyses suggest that the interaction patterns of the infected population play a major role in sustaining the epidemic. Our results have implications on epidemic containment policies, as awareness campaigns and human behavioral responses can be effective only if the interaction levels of the infected populace are kept in check.
Student throughput variables and properties: Varying cohort sizes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucas C.A. Stoop
2017-11-01
Full Text Available A recent research paper described how student throughput variables and properties combine to explain the behaviour of stationary or simplified throughput systems. Such behaviour can be understood in terms of the locus of a point in the triangular admissible region of the H-S plane, where H represents headcounts and S successful credits, each depending on the system properties at that point. The efficiency of the student throughput process is given by the ratio S/H. Simplified throughput systems are characterised by stationary graduation and dropout patterns of students as well as by annual intakes of student cohorts of equal size. The effect of varying the size of the annual intakes of student cohorts is reported on here. The observations made lead to the establishment of a more generalised student throughput theory which includes the simplified theory as a special case. The generalised theory still retains the notion of a triangular admissible region in the H-S plane but with the size and shape of the triangle depending on the size of the student cohorts. The ratio S/H again emerges as the process efficiency measure for throughput systems in general with unchanged roles assigned to important system properties. This theory provides for a more fundamental understanding of student throughput systems encountered in real life. Significance: A generalised stationary student throughput theory through varying cohort sizes allows for a far better understanding of real student throughput systems.
Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven A. Hughes
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.
Plant Mating Systems Often Vary Widely Among Populations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael R. Whitehead
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Most flowering plants are hermaphroditic, yet the proportion of seeds fertilized by self and outcross pollen varies widely among species, ranging from predominant self-fertilization to exclusive outcrossing. A population's rate of outcrossing has important evolutionary outcomes as it influences genetic structure, effective population size, and offspring fitness. Because most mating system studies have quantified outcrossing rates for just one or two populations, past reviews of mating system diversity have not been able to characterize the extent of variation among populations. Here we present a new database of more than 30 years of mating system studies that report outcrossing rates for three or more populations per species. This survey, which includes 741 populations from 105 species, illustrates substantial and prevalent among-population variation in the mating system. Intermediate outcrossing rates (mixed mating are common; 63% of species had at least one mixed mating population. The variance among populations and within species was not significantly correlated with pollination mode or phylogeny. Our review underscores the need for studies exploring variation in the relative influence of ecological and genetic factors on the mating system, and how this varies among populations. We conclude that estimates of outcrossing rates from single populations are often highly unreliable indicators of the mating system of an entire species.
Quantum Capacity under Adversarial Quantum Noise: Arbitrarily Varying Quantum Channels
Ahlswede, Rudolf; Bjelaković, Igor; Boche, Holger; Nötzel, Janis
2013-01-01
We investigate entanglement transmission over an unknown channel in the presence of a third party (called the adversary), which is enabled to choose the channel from a given set of memoryless but non-stationary channels without informing the legitimate sender and receiver about the particular choice that he made. This channel model is called an arbitrarily varying quantum channel (AVQC). We derive a quantum version of Ahlswede's dichotomy for classical arbitrarily varying channels. This includes a regularized formula for the common randomness-assisted capacity for entanglement transmission of an AVQC. Quite surprisingly and in contrast to the classical analog of the problem involving the maximal and average error probability, we find that the capacity for entanglement transmission of an AVQC always equals its strong subspace transmission capacity. These results are accompanied by different notions of symmetrizability (zero-capacity conditions) as well as by conditions for an AVQC to have a capacity described by a single-letter formula. In the final part of the paper the capacity of the erasure-AVQC is computed and some light shed on the connection between AVQCs and zero-error capacities. Additionally, we show by entirely elementary and operational arguments motivated by the theory of AVQCs that the quantum, classical, and entanglement-assisted zero-error capacities of quantum channels are generically zero and are discontinuous at every positivity point.
Genome-wide DNA polymorphism analyses using VariScan
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Vilella Albert J
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA sequence polymorphisms analysis can provide valuable information on the evolutionary forces shaping nucleotide variation, and provides an insight into the functional significance of genomic regions. The recent ongoing genome projects will radically improve our capabilities to detect specific genomic regions shaped by natural selection. Current available methods and software, however, are unsatisfactory for such genome-wide analysis. Results We have developed methods for the analysis of DNA sequence polymorphisms at the genome-wide scale. These methods, which have been tested on a coalescent-simulated and actual data files from mouse and human, have been implemented in the VariScan software package version 2.0. Additionally, we have also incorporated a graphical-user interface. The main features of this software are: i exhaustive population-genetic analyses including those based on the coalescent theory; ii analysis adapted to the shallow data generated by the high-throughput genome projects; iii use of genome annotations to conduct a comprehensive analyses separately for different functional regions; iv identification of relevant genomic regions by the sliding-window and wavelet-multiresolution approaches; v visualization of the results integrated with current genome annotations in commonly available genome browsers. Conclusion VariScan is a powerful and flexible suite of software for the analysis of DNA polymorphisms. The current version implements new algorithms, methods, and capabilities, providing an important tool for an exhaustive exploratory analysis of genome-wide DNA polymorphism data.
Wave scattering by an axisymmetric ice floe of varying thickness
Bennetts, Luke G.; Biggs, Nicholas R. T.; Porter, David
2009-04-01
The problem of water wave scattering by a circular ice floe, floating in fluid of finite depth, is formulated and solved numerically. Unlike previous investigations of such situations, here we allow the thickness of the floe (and the fluid depth) to vary axisymmetrically and also incorporate a realistic non-zero draught. A numerical approximation to the solution of this problem is obtained to an arbitrary degree of accuracy by combining a Rayleigh-Ritz approximation of the vertical motion with an appropriate variational principle. This numerical solution procedure builds upon the work of Bennets et al. (2007, J. Fluid Mech., 579, 413-443). As part of the numerical formulation, we utilize a Fourier cosine expansion of the azimuthal motion, resulting in a system of ordinary differential equations to solve in the radial coordinate for each azimuthal mode. The displayed results concentrate on the response of the floe rather than the scattered wave field and show that the effects of introducing the new features of varying floe thickness and a realistic draught are significant.
Soil erosion under multiple time-varying rainfall events
Heng, B. C. Peter; Barry, D. Andrew; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Sander, Graham C.
2010-05-01
Soil erosion is a function of many factors and process interactions. An erosion event produces changes in surface soil properties such as texture and hydraulic conductivity. These changes in turn alter the erosion response to subsequent events. Laboratory-scale soil erosion studies have typically focused on single independent rainfall events with constant rainfall intensities. This study investigates the effect of multiple time-varying rainfall events on soil erosion using the EPFL erosion flume. The rainfall simulator comprises ten Veejet nozzles mounted on oscillating bars 3 m above a 6 m × 2 m flume. Spray from the nozzles is applied onto the soil surface in sweeps; rainfall intensity is thus controlled by varying the sweeping frequency. Freshly-prepared soil with a uniform slope was subjected to five rainfall events at daily intervals. In each 3-h event, rainfall intensity was ramped up linearly to a maximum of 60 mm/h and then stepped down to zero. Runoff samples were collected and analysed for particle size distribution (PSD) as well as total sediment concentration. We investigate whether there is a hysteretic relationship between sediment concentration and discharge within each event and how this relationship changes from event to event. Trends in the PSD of the eroded sediment are discussed and correlated with changes in sediment concentration. Close-up imagery of the soil surface following each event highlight changes in surface soil structure with time. This study enhances our understanding of erosion processes in the field, with corresponding implications for soil erosion modelling.
Flexible Demand Management under Time-Varying Prices
Liang, Yong
In this dissertation, the problem of flexible demand management under time-varying prices is studied. This generic problem has many applications, which usually have multiple periods in which decisions on satisfying demand need to be made, and prices in these periods are time-varying. Examples of such applications include multi-period procurement problem, operating room scheduling, and user-end demand scheduling in the Smart Grid, where the last application is used as the main motivating story throughout the dissertation. The current grid is experiencing an upgrade with lots of new designs. What is of particular interest is the idea of passing time-varying prices that reflect electricity market conditions to end users as incentives for load shifting. One key component, consequently, is the demand management system at the user-end. The objective of the system is to find the optimal trade-off between cost saving and discomfort increment resulted from load shifting. In this dissertation, we approach this problem from the following aspects: (1) construct a generic model, solve for Pareto optimal solutions, and analyze the robust solution that optimizes the worst-case payoffs, (2) extend to a distribution-free model for multiple types of demand (appliances), for which an approximate dynamic programming (ADP) approach is developed, and (3) design other efficient algorithms for practical purposes of the flexible demand management system. We first construct a novel multi-objective flexible demand management model, in which there are a finite number of periods with time-varying prices, and demand arrives in each period. In each period, the decision maker chooses to either satisfy or defer outstanding demand to minimize costs and discomfort over a certain number of periods. We consider both the deterministic model, models with stochastic demand or prices, and when only partial information about the stochastic demand or prices is known. We first analyze the stochastic
Edalati, L.; Khaki Sedigh, A.; Aliyari Shooredeli, M.; Moarefianpour, A.
2018-02-01
This paper deals with the design of adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control for uncertain strict-feedback nonlinear systems with asymmetric time-varying output constraints in the presence of input saturation. To approximate the unknown nonlinear functions and overcome the problem of explosion of complexity, a Fuzzy logic system is combined with the dynamic surface control in the backstepping design technique. To ensure the output constraints satisfaction, an asymmetric time-varying Barrier Lyapunov Function (BLF) is used. Moreover, by applying the minimal learning parameter technique, the number of the online parameters update for each subsystem is reduced to 2. Hence, the semi-globally uniformly ultimately boundedness (SGUUB) of all the closed-loop signals with appropriate tracking error convergence is guaranteed. The effectiveness of the proposed control is demonstrated by two simulation examples.
Improved Estimates of Thermodynamic Parameters
Lawson, D. D.
1982-01-01
Techniques refined for estimating heat of vaporization and other parameters from molecular structure. Using parabolic equation with three adjustable parameters, heat of vaporization can be used to estimate boiling point, and vice versa. Boiling points and vapor pressures for some nonpolar liquids were estimated by improved method and compared with previously reported values. Technique for estimating thermodynamic parameters should make it easier for engineers to choose among candidate heat-exchange fluids for thermochemical cycles.
Systematic of delayed neutron parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.
2000-01-01
The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Qiankun
2008-01-01
In this paper, the global exponential periodicity and stability of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays are investigated by applying the idea of vector Lyapunov function, M-matrix theory and inequality technique. We assume neither the global Lipschitz conditions on these activation functions nor the differentiability on these time-varying delays, which were needed in other papers. Several novel criteria are found to ascertain the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of periodic solution for recurrent neural network with time-varying delays. Moreover, the exponential convergence rate index is estimated, which depends on the system parameters. Some previous results are improved and generalized, and an example is given to show the effectiveness of our method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fengxia Xu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available U-model can approximate a large class of smooth nonlinear time-varying delay system to any accuracy by using time-varying delay parameters polynomial. This paper proposes a new approach, namely, U-model approach, to solving the problems of analysis and synthesis for nonlinear systems. Based on the idea of discrete-time U-model with time-varying delay, the identification algorithm of adaptive neural network is given for the nonlinear model. Then, the controller is designed by using the Newton-Raphson formula and the stability analysis is given for the closed-loop nonlinear systems. Finally, illustrative examples are given to show the validity and applicability of the obtained results.
Process parameters optimization of needle-punched nonwovens for sound absorption application
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mvubu, M
2015-12-01
Full Text Available , and stroke frequency on sound absorption properties were studied. These parameters were varied at three levels during experimental trials. From multiple regression analysis, it was observed that the depth of needle penetration alone was the most dominant...
Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.
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Anca Doloc-Mihu
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.
Multivariate Option Pricing with Time Varying Volatility and Correlations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars Peter
In recent years multivariate models for asset returns have received much attention, in particular this is the case for models with time varying volatility. In this paper we consider models of this class and examine their potential when it comes to option pricing. Specifically, we derive the risk...... neutral dynamics for a general class of multivariate heteroskedastic models, and we provide a feasible way to price options in this framework. Our framework can be used irrespective of the assumed underlying distribution and dynamics, and it nests several important special cases. We provide an application...... to options on the minimum of two indices. Our results show that not only is correlation important for these options but so is allowing this correlation to be dynamic. Moreover, we show that for the general model exposure to correlation risk carries an important premium, and when this is neglected option...