WorldWideScience

Sample records for varying pay grades

  1. Gender pay gap varies greatly by occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Wrohlich, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    The German labor market is characterized by marked occupational segregation between women and men. The median earnings in female dominated occupations are lower than those in male dominated professions. This is one of the reasons for the gender pay gap. However, there are also large differences in earnings between men and women within occupations. These profession-specific gender pay gaps are smaller in professions with a high proportion of employees in the public sector. This finding indicat...

  2. Collegiate Grading Practices and the Gender Pay Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Dowd

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Extending research findings by R. Sabot and J. Wakeman-Linn (1991, this article presents a theoretical analysis showing that relatively low grading quantitative fields and high grading verbal fields create a disincentive for college women to invest in quantitative study. Pressures on grading practices are modeled using higher education production functions.

  3. Collegiate Grading Practices and the Gender Pay Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Alicia C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a theoretical analysis showing that relatively low grading quantitative fields and high grading verbal fields create a disincentive for college women to invest in quantitative study. Extends research by R. Sabot and J. Wakeman-Linn. Models pressures on grading practices using higher education production functions. (Author/SLD)

  4. Reformist Distractions and Educational Labor: Two Perspectives on Paying for Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Bryan Warnick examines two recent analyses of the practice of paying students for grades, with a focus on educational justice. Philosopher Derrick Darby argues against cash-for-grades programs on the grounds that such programs leave educational inequality intact. Warnick contends that Darby's arguments are incomplete. Increasing…

  5. Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, Oliver Marius

    2012-07-19

    Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm{sup -2} at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced

  6. Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, Oliver Marius

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm -2 at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced damages

  7. Paying Students to Learn: An Ethical Analysis of Cash for Grades Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of schools have begun experimenting with giving students cash rewards to improve academic performance. This practice has come to be known as "cash-for-grades." In this article, I examine some of the philosophical and ethical questions involved with cash-for-grades programmes, rather than focusing on whether such…

  8. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate workers in FPI locations receive pay at five levels ranging from 5th grade pay (lowest) to 1st grade pay...

  9. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay to... inmates at a location. (a) Eligibility. Inmates in first grade pay status may be considered for premium...

  10. Influence of Rock Properties on Wear of M and SR Grade Rubber with Varying Normal Load and Sliding Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Samir Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubbers are interesting materials and are extensively used in many mining industries for material transportation. Wear of rubber is a very complex phenomenon to understand. The present study aims to explain the influence of rock properties on wear of M and SR grade rubber used in top cover of conveyor belts. Extensive laboratory experiments were conducted under four combinations of normal load and sliding speed. The wear of both the rubber types were analyzed based on the rock properties like shear strength, abrasivity index and fractal dimension. A fully instrumented testing set up was used to study the wear of rubber samples under different operating conditions. In general, wear was higher for M grade rubber compared to SR grade rubber. Increase in shear strength of rocks depicts decreasing trend for the wear of M and SR grade rubber at lower load conditions. Moreover, a higher load combination displays no definite trend in both the rubbers. The strong correlation between the wear of rubber and frictional power for all rubber-rock combinations has given rise to the parameter A, which reflects the relative compatibility between the rubber and rock. Increase of Cerchar’s Abrasivity Index of rocks shows gradual enhancement in wear for M grade rubber in all the load and speed combinations whereas, it fails in SR grade rubber due to its higher strength. The wear of rubber tends to decrease marginally with the surface roughness of rocks at highest normal load and sliding speed in M grade rubber. However, the wear of M and SR grade rubber is influenced by the surface roughness of rocks.

  11. Elastic and Viscoelastic Stresses of Nonlinear Rotating Functionally Graded Solid and Annular Disks with Gradually Varying Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam M. N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical and numerical nonlinear solutions for rotating variable-thickness functionally graded solid and annular disks with viscoelastic orthotropic material properties are presented by using the method of successive approximations.Variable material properties such as Young’s moduli, density and thickness of the disk, are first introduced to obtain the governing equation. As a second step, the method of successive approximations is proposed to get the nonlinear solution of the problem. In the third step, the method of effective moduli is deduced to reduce the problem to the corresponding one of a homogeneous but anisotropic material. The results of viscoelastic stresses and radial displacement are obtained for annular and solid disks of different profiles and graphically illustrated. The calculated results are compared and the effects due to many parameters are discussed.

  12. Risk is still relevant: Time-varying associations between perceived risk and marijuana use among US 12th grade students from 1991 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Patrick, Megan E; Miech, Richard A

    2017-11-01

    Perceived risk of harm has long been a key preventive factor for adolescent marijuana use. However, in recent years, perceived risk has decreased markedly and marijuana use has increased only slightly, leading to new questions about their association. This study investigates the magnitude and stability of the US adolescent marijuana risk/use association from 1991 to 2016, overall and by gender and race/ethnicity. Self-reported data on past 12-month marijuana use, perceived risk of regular marijuana use, gender, and race/ethnicity were obtained from 275,768 US 12th grade students participating in the nationally representative Monitoring the Future study. Time-varying effect modeling (TVEM) was used to examine the marijuana risk/use association over time. Both before and after controlling for gender and race/ethnicity, perceived risk was a strong protective factor against adolescent marijuana use. The magnitude of the great risk/use association strengthened for Hispanic students; remained generally stable over time for 12th graders overall, males, females, and White students; and weakened for Black students. The magnitude of the moderate risk/use association strengthened for 12th graders overall, males, females, White and Hispanic students, but did not continue to strengthen for Black students from 2005 onwards. In general, marijuana use prevalence decreased over time within all levels of perceived risk. Perceived risk remains a strong protective factor for adolescent marijuana use, and the protective association for moderate risk (vs. no/slight risk) is actually increasing over time. Results suggest that accurate and credible information on the risks associated with marijuana use should remain a key component of prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... increases, the Secretary or designee must take into account the average value of within-grade and quality... pay pool controls to allocate pay increases based on performance points that are directly linked to... function of the amount of money in the performance pay pool, the relative point value placed on ratings...

  14. Public sector pay in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Cribb, Jonathan; Emmerson, Carl; Sibieta, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This report looks at trends in public sector pay and compares these with what has been happening in the private sector. We start by analysing the overall levels of public and private sector pay, including how they have evolved over recent years and the differences after accounting for the different composition of the public and private sector workforces. We then examine how the difference between pay in the public and private sector varies across different groups of workers and areas of the c...

  15. Behind the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  16. 5 CFR 536.307 - Treatment of a retained rate as basic pay for other purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of a retained rate as basic pay... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.307 Treatment of a retained rate... for accumulated and annual leave under 5 CFR part 550, subpart L; (8) General Schedule pay...

  17. Gender Differences in Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    2000-01-01

    We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere, appear to be primarily due to gender-specific factors. However, the relatively large gender pay...

  18. Marine Corps Pay Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marines from 2000 to 2017. The thesis includes a literature review on economic theory related to pay incentives in the Department of Defense, a...The purpose of this thesis to provide the Marine Corps with a comprehensive report on pay incentive programs and special pay that were available to...summarization of pay incentive categories, a data analysis on take-up rates and average annual amounts at the end of each fiscal year, and a program review

  19. 3 CFR - Pay Freeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay Freeze Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 21, 2009 Pay Freeze Memorandum for the Assistant to the President and Chief... the White House staff forgo pay increases until further notice. Accordingly, as a signal of our shared...

  20. An Application of the Equal Pay Act to Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Debra H.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of legal principles governing equal pay and sex discrimination in university settings is discussed. The most objective mechanism that a university can utilize to achieve compliance with the Equal Pay Act would be implementation of a salary system that relies on experience, formal education, and time in grade. (MLW)

  1. Do discriminatory pay regimes unleash antisocial behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Grosch, Kerstin; Rau, Holger A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how pay-regime procedures affect antisocial behavior at the workplace. In a real-effort experiment we vary two determinants of pay regimes: discrimination and justification of payments by performance. In our Discrimination treatment half of the workforce is randomly selected and promoted and participate in a tournament (high-income workers) whereas the other half receives no payment (lowincome workers). Afterwards, antisocial behavior is measured by a Joy-of-Destruct...

  2. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paying premium pay. 410.402 Section 410... for Training Expenses § 410.402 Paying premium pay. (a) Prohibitions. Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, an agency may not use its funds, appropriated or otherwise available, to pay...

  3. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  4. Financial Advice: Who Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…

  5. 5 CFR 531.610 - Treatment of locality rate as basic pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of locality rate as basic pay... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Locality-Based Comparability Payments § 531.610 Treatment of... part 550, subpart L, for accumulated and accrued annual leave; (m) Grade and pay retention under 5 U.S...

  6. Board affiliation and pay gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of board affiliation on the corporate pay gap. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2011, we find that boards with a greater presence of directors appointed by block shareholders have lower pay gaps. Furthermore, the governance effects of board affiliation with and without pay are distinguished. The empirical results show that board affiliation without pay is negatively related to the pay gap, while board affiliation with pay is positively related to the pay gap. Overall, the results shed light on how block shareholders affect their companies’ pay gaps through board affiliation.

  7. Gender-Pay-Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Eicker, Jannis

    2017-01-01

    Der Gender-Pay-Gap ist eine statistische Kennzahl zur Messung der Ungleichheit zwischen Männern* und Frauen* beim Verdienst. Es gibt zwei Versionen: einen "unbereinigten" und einen "bereinigten". Der "unbereinigte" Gender-Pay-Gap berechnet den geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied auf Basis der Bruttostundenlöhne aller Männer* und Frauen* der Grundgesamtheit. Beim "bereinigten" Wert hingegen werden je nach Studie verschiedene Faktoren wie Branche, Position und Berufserfahrung herausger...

  8. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  9. Merit Pay Misfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Al

    2011-01-01

    Critics argue that the uniform salary schedule is unfair because it promotes mediocrity by rewarding poor performers while failing to recognize outstanding achievement on the job. Advocates for merit pay systems for preK-12 education also contend that the uniform salary schedule ignores the basic purpose of education--student learning. Although…

  10. Optimum size in grid soil sampling for variable rate application in site-specific management Tamanho ideal em grades de amostragem de solos para aplicação em taxa variável em manejo localizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rafael Nanni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of understanding spatial variability of soils is connected to crop management planning. This understanding makes it possible to treat soil not as a uniform, but a variable entity, and it enables site-specific management to increase production efficiency, which is the target of precision agriculture. Questions remain as the optimum soil sampling interval needed to make site-specific fertilizer recommendations in Brazil. The objectives of this study were: i to evaluate the spatial variability of the main attributes that influence fertilization recommendations, using georeferenced soil samples arranged in grid patterns of different resolutions; ii to compare the spatial maps generated with those obtained with the standard sampling of 1 sample ha-1, in order to verify the appropriateness of the spatial resolution. The attributes evaluated were phosphorus (P, potassium (K, organic matter (OM, base saturation (V% and clay. Soil samples were collected in a 100 × 100 m georeferenced grid. Thinning was performed in order to create a grid with one sample every 2.07, 2.88, 3.75 and 7.20 ha. Geostatistical techniques, such as semivariogram and interpolation using kriging, were used to analyze the attributes at the different grid resolutions. This analysis was performed with the Vesper software package. The maps created by this method were compared using the kappa statistics. Additionally, correlation graphs were drawn by plotting the observed values against the estimated values using cross-validation. P, K and V%, a finer sampling resolution than the one using 1 sample ha-1 is required, while for OM and clay coarser resolutions of one sample every two and three hectares, respectively, may be acceptable.A importância de compreender a variabilidade espacial do solo está conectada ao planejamento do manejo das culturas. Este entendimento faz com que seja possível tratar o solo não como uma entidade uniforme, mas variável, e permite o

  11. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ting-Min; Tsai, Tsung-Cheng; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-07-21

    High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI) remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher's exact or Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann-Whitney's U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133) of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005) and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033), as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038) than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a higher incidence of complications than motorcyclists. The results also

  12. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Min Hsieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. Methods: High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher’s exact or Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student’s t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann–Whitney’s U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Results: In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133 of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005 and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033, as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038 than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a

  13. Pays en transition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les périodes de transformation risquent de provoquer le chaos, mais elles sont également porteuses de rapides progrès sur le plan social et économique. Le CRDI est intervenu dans quelque 25 pays ayant amorcé une transition de la guerre à la paix, de la dictature à la démocratie ou d'une économie fermée à une.

  14. LES PAYS EN TRANSITION

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    En 2002, une certaine paix sociale avait été rétablie, bien qu'elle fut instable et souvent entachée de violence. Le pays amorçait le ... mieux comprendre comment il recueille et diffuse l'information destinée ... transition) et les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC). Les étapes suivantes ont consisté à ...

  15. Value-Added Merit Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Daniel F.

    The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…

  16. Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pay (RSLSP), providing $500 for each month/partial month served in stop loss status. Service members served under stop loss must submit a claim for the special pay. Throughout the year, the services have or extension of service, became ineligible to receive retroactive stop loss special pay. There may be

  17. When Punishment Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in groups remains a key problem because reciprocity breaks down between more than two. Punishing individuals who contribute little provides a potential answer but changes the dilemma to why pay the costs of punishing which, like cooperation itself, provides a public good. Nevertheless, people are observed to punish others in behavioural economic games, posing a problem for existing theory which highlights the difficulty in explaining the spread and persistence of punishment. Here, I consider the apparent mismatch between theory and evidence and show by means of instructive analysis and simulation how much of the experimental evidence for punishment comes from scenarios in which punishers may expect to obtain a net benefit from punishing free-riders. In repeated games within groups, punishment works by imposing costs on defectors so that it pays them to switch to cooperating. Both punishers and non-punishers then benefit from the resulting increase in cooperation, hence investing in punishment can constitute a social dilemma. However, I show the conditions in which the benefits of increased cooperation are so great that they more than offset the costs of punishing, thereby removing the temptation to free-ride on others' investments and making punishment explicable in terms of direct self-interest. Crucially, this is because of the leveraging effect imposed in typical studies whereby people can pay a small cost to inflict a heavy loss on a punished individual. In contrast to previous models suggesting punishment is disadvantaged when rare, I show it can invade until it comes into a producer-scrounger equilibrium with non-punishers. I conclude that adding punishment to an iterated public goods game can solve the problem of achieving cooperation by removing the social dilemma. PMID:23483907

  18. 20 CFR 404.1242 - Back pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Back pay. 404.1242 Section 404.1242 Employees... Prior to 1987 § 404.1242 Back pay. (a) Back pay defined. Back pay is pay received in one period of time... an employer. It includes pay made under Federal or State laws intended to create an employment...

  19. Merit pay: the Federal Government's pay-for-performance experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Holliman, Sherry Diane.

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited For many years, businesses in private industry have been utilizing and experimenting with various forms of performance-based pay. These innovations have been part of a continuing search by organizations for better approaches to administering pay. With the passing of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, the Federal Government began its form of this concept entitled, 'Merit Pay'. Although many studies have examined uses in the areas of ...

  20. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  1. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... that environmental design has altered how we design, construct and manage buildings. The book has relevance to those who not only design and engineer buildings but to those who commission architecture and those who occupy the products of this process. Hence, the user is a key consideration. The book examines via...... a number of LEED and BREEAM cases the buildings which flow from corporate environmental responsibility. A number of office and university buildings are examined from three main perspectives- the architect, client and user. One key finding is that architectural innovation has been driven by ecological...

  2. Pay as you throw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, Lisa; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Householders' response to weight-based billing for the collection of household waste was investigated with the aim of providing decision support for waste management policies. Three questions were addressed: How much and what kind of information on weight-based billing is discernible in generic Swedish waste collection statistics? Why do local authorities implement weight-based billing, and how do they perceive the results? and, Which strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing have been observed on the local level? The study showed that municipalities with pay-by-weight schemes collected 20% less household waste per capita than other municipalities. Surprisingly, no part of this difference could be explained by higher recycling rates. Nevertheless, the majority of waste management professionals were convinced that recycling had increased as a result of the billing system. A number of contradicting strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing were revealed.

  3. Paying for Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    depends only on the relative costs of producing cash and card payments and can be used by regulators to assess privately set interchange fees. When calibrated to cost data, the model implies an optimal fee that is low and may even be negative. The findings are consistent with empirical evidence of high......Do consumers and merchants use the most efficient payment instruments? I examine how interchange fees, which are fees paid from merchants' banks to consumers' banks when card transactions take place, influence the choice between cash and payment cards. I show that when consumers do not pay...... transaction fees to banks - a common feature in bank contracts - card use is declining in interchange fees, and surcharging does not neutralize interchange fees. According to my model, banks set interchange fees at too high a level, resulting in too few card payments. I derive an optimal interchange fee which...

  4. Confirming theoretical pay constructs of a variable pay scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibangilizwe Ncube

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Return on the investment in variable pay programmes remains controversial because their cost versus contribution cannot be empirically justified. Research purpose: This study validates the findings of the model developed by De Swardt on the factors related to successful variable pay programmes. Motivation for the study: Many organisations blindly implement variable pay programmes without any means to assess the impact these programmes have on the company’s performance. This study was necessary to validate the findings of an existing instrument that validates the contribution of variable pay schemes. Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted using quantitative research. A total of 300 completed questionnaires from a non-purposive sample of 3000 participants in schemes across all South African industries were returned and analysed. Main findings: Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, it was found that the validation instrument developed by De Swardt is still largely valid in evaluating variable pay schemes. The differences between the study and the model were reported. Practical/managerial implications: The study confirmed the robustness of an existing model that enables practitioners to empirically validate the use of variable pay plans. This model assists in the design and implementation of variable pay programmes that meet critical success factors. Contribution/value-add: The study contributed to the development of a measurement instrument that will assess whether a variable pay plan contributes to an organisation’s success.

  5. 5 CFR 9901.212 - Pay schedules and pay bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 9901.212 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL... Secretary may establish one or more pay schedules within each career group. (b) Each pay schedule may...

  6. Psychology of Pay and Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry, Hk.; Smelser, N.J.; Baltes, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the compensation, of managers and employees is structured along quite comparable patterns. One part consists of base pay, a second part of results-oriented pay, and a third part of secondary labor conditions. In many instances part four is composed of perquisites:

  7. Teachers' Perceptions of Merit Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Vanessa; Langheinrich, Cornelia; Loth, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to show the various perceptions teachers have on merit pay. This research was designed to examine the perceptions and attitudes of teachers towards the idea of performance based pay. This topic has been an ongoing battle within school systems since the 1800s. The participants in this study were teachers from the state…

  8. Teacher Pay and Teacher Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Can changes in teacher pay encourage more able individuals to enter the teaching profession? So far, studies of the impact of pay on the aptitude distribution of teachers have provided mixed evidence on the extent to which altering teacher salaries represents a feasible solution to the teacher quality problem. One possible reason is that these…

  9. 76 FR 52537 - Pay for Sunday Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... back pay claims permitted by the Barring Act of 1940, and noted that agencies could use the memorandum... of the Barring Act or the Back Pay Act of 1966 (as amended) and apply specifically to one Government...) An employee is entitled to pay at his or her rate of basic pay plus premium pay at a rate equal to 25...

  10. 4 CFR 5.1 - Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 5.1 Section 5.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.1 Pay. (a) Pay principles. Pay of the employees of GAO shall be fixed by the Comptroller General consistent with the principles that— (1) There be equal pay for work of...

  11. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted FPI vacation pay by the SOI when their continued good work performance justifies such pay, based on...

  12. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this...

  13. 5 CFR 532.503 - Overtime pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overtime pay. 532.503 Section 532.503... Pay and Differentials § 532.503 Overtime pay. (a)(1) Employees who are exempt from the overtime pay provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, shall be paid overtime pay in accordance with...

  14. Sno. Name of the Employee Designation Pay Band Grade Pay (In ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gowri

    P. Rajesh. Technical Assistant. 5,200-20,200. 2,800. 8. M.S. Roopashri. Administrative Assistant. 5,200-20,200. 2,800. 9. Brahmanandha N N . Administrative Assistant. 5,200-20,200. 2,400. 10 H. Chethana. Administrative Assistant. 5,200-20,200. 2,400. 11 Meghana B Yadav. Administrative Assistant. 5,200-20,200. 2,400.

  15. Hybrid All-Pay and Winner-Pay Contests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In many contests in economic and political life, both all-pay and winner-pay expenditures matter for winning. This paper studies such hybrid contests under symmetry and asymmetry. The symmetric model is very general but still yields a simple closed-form solution. More contestants tend to lead to ...... expenditures. An endogenous bias that maximizes total expenditures disfavors the high-valuation contestant but still makes her the more likely one to win....

  16. 5 CFR 550.604 - Biweekly pay periods and computation of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biweekly pay periods and computation of pay. 550.604 Section 550.604 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Computation of Pay for Biweekly Pay Periods § 550.604 Biweekly pay...

  17. 5 CFR 534.305 - Pay periods and computation of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay periods and computation of pay. 534... PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.305 Pay periods and computation of pay. (a) The requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5504, must be applied to employees of temporary...

  18. The Relationship between Pay-for-Performance Perceptions and Pay Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Robert L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assessed relationship between pay-for-performance perceptions and pay satisfaction among 104 hospital employees. Results indicated positive relationship between pay-for-performance perceptions and pay-raise satisfaction, pay-level satisfaction, and overall pay satisfaction even after effects of salary level, salary increases, performance ratings,…

  19. Unions and the Sword of Justice: Unions and Pay Systems, Pay Inequality, Pay Discrimination and Low Pay

    OpenAIRE

    A Charlwood; K Hansen; David Metcalf

    2000-01-01

    Dispersion in pay is lower among union members than among non-unionists. This reflects two factors. First, union members and jobs are more homogeneous than their non-union counterparts. Second, union wage policies within and across firms lower pay dispersion. Unions'' minimum wage targets also truncate the lower tail of the union distribution. There are two major consequences of these egalitarian union wage policies. First, the return to human capital is lower in firms which recognise unions ...

  20. Racial and Marital Status Differences in Faculty Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…

  1. 5 CFR 359.705 - Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 359.705 Section 359.705... EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Guaranteed Placement § 359.705 Pay. (a...) is entitled to receive basic pay at the highest of— (1) The rate of basic pay in effect for the...

  2. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work status...

  3. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused from a job assignment may receive administrative pay for such circumstances as a general recall for an...

  4. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI to take a particular type of training in connection with a FPI job are to receive FPI pay if the...

  5. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work status shall receive pay at the standard hourly rate, plus longevity where applicable, for all Federal...

  6. 5 CFR 551.501 - Overtime pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overtime pay. 551.501 Section 551.501 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Basic Provisions § 551.501 Overtime pay. (a) An agency...

  7. 20 CFR 218.27 - Vacation pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 218.27 Section 218.27 Employees... Beginning Date § 218.27 Vacation pay. (a) From railroad employer. Vacation pay may be credited to the... vacation pay is credited to the vacation period, the annuity can begin no earlier than the day after the...

  8. 5 CFR 9901.356 - Pay retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... position in a lower pay band offered by an activity to accommodate a disabling medical condition similar to... within the employee's new pay band or by establishing a retained rate that exceeds the maximum rate of the new pay band. Local market supplements are not considered part of base salary in applying pay...

  9. The impact of the public sector pay review bodies in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Dolton, Peter J.; Makepeace, Gerald; Marcenaro-Gutierrez, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the Pay Review Bodies (PRBs) on the public sector pay of their remit groups. We compare the real weekly earnings of groups of workers in occupations covered by PRBs, in the remainder of the public sector and in the private sector using LFS data from 1993 to 2006 for 10 occupational sub-groups. We describe how the pattern of relative occupational pay varies over time and by gender and can be interpreted as compensating pay differentials. In several public sect...

  10. The Impact of the Public Sector Pay Review Bodies in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Dolton, Peter; Makepeace, Gerry

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the Pay Review Bodies (PRBs) on the public sector pay of their remit groups. We compare the real weekly earnings of groups of workers in occupations covered by PRBs, in the remainder of the public sector and in the private sector using LFS data from 1993 to 2006 for 10 occupational sub-groups. We describe how the pattern of relative occupational pay varies over time and by gender and can be interpreted as compensating pay differentials. In several public sect...

  11. Information Security of Apple Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinru

    2016-01-01

    In the era of high-tech, the mode of payment is no longer just use cash or credit card. There are various payments come to our daily life. Online payment and other kinds of electronic payments are wildly in use by people. Apple Pay is a tool that provides easier and safer payment service for consumer. The main objective of this thesis is to understand deeply and analyze how easy and convenient Apple Pay is to use and why it is known as most secure form of payment. Besides that, there is a ...

  12. History of Pay Equity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2002-01-01

    Traces the evolution of salary-equity studies over time, and how the findings have changed with regard to pay differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Reviews the literature on salary equity for both faculty and nonfaculty academic employees. (EV)

  13. Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Examining data of a sample of UK companies over the period 2003–2006 we find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant. An increase in the number of compensation

  14. The International Instruments on Gender Pay Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Cher Weixia

    2008-01-01

    Today in the world women are earning around 78% of what men are earning. Gender pay gap ironically is still one major feature of the modern labor market, despite the fact that the right to equal pay is one of the founding principles recognized by the 1945 ILO constitution amendment. Since 1919 the right to equal pay was discussed during the preparation for the ILO constitution, scholars have been constantly making efforts to explore the potential solutions to gender pay differentials...

  15. Performance pay, sorting and social motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Variable pay links pay and performance but may also help firms in attracting more productive employees. Our experiment investigates the impact of performance pay on both incentives and sorting and analyzes the influence of repeated interactions between firms and employees on these effects. We show that (i) the opportunity to switch from a fixed wage to variable pay scheme increases the average effort level and its variance; (ii) high skill employees concentrate under t...

  16. [Women's willingness to pay for cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Son; Sung, Na-Young; Yang, Jeong Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, KuiSon

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this study is to measure women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and to identify those factors associated with this willingness to pay A population-based telephone survey was performed on 1,562 women (aged 30 years or over) for 2 weeks (9-23th, July, 2004). Data about sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, the intention of the cancer screenings and willingness to pay for cancer screening were collected. 1,400 respondents were included in the analysis. The women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and the factors associated with this willingness to pay were evaluated. The results show that 76% of all respondents have a willingness to pay for cancer screening. Among those who are willing to pay, the average and median amount of money for which the respondents are willing to pay are 126,636 (s.d.: 58,414) and 120,000 won, respectively. As the status of education & the income are higher, the average amount that women are willing to pay becomes much more. The amount of money women are willing to pay is the highest during the 'contemplation' stage. Being willing to pay or not is associated with a change of behavior (transtheoretical model), the income, the concern about the cancer risk, the family cancer history, the marital status, the general health exam, age and the place of residence. Income is associated with a greater willingness to pay. Old age was associated with a lower willingness to pay. According to the two-part model, income and TTM are the most important variables associated with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. The cancer screening participation rate is low compared with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. It is thought that we have to consider the participants' behavior that's associated with cancer screening and their willingness to pay in order to organize and manage cancer screening program.

  17. Executive pay and shareholder litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Peng; Ailsa Röell

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of executive compensation on private securities litigation. We find that incentive pay in the form of options increases the probability of securities class action litigation, holding constant a wide range of firm characteristics. We further document that there is abnormal upward earnings manipulation during litigation class periods and that insiders exercise more options and sell more shares during class periods, but that this activity is largely driven by pre-ex...

  18. Fisherman expectations and pay-lake profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Moeller; John Engelken; John Engelken

    1973-01-01

    Personal interviews with licensed fishermen in Central New York State were used to determine characteristics of fishermen who are willing to pay to fish. Willingness to pay was related to aspects of the fishing experience that most strongly influenced fishing enjoyment. Sixty-two percent of the respondents expressed a willingness to pay for a quality fishing experience...

  19. 28 CFR 0.145 - Overtime pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overtime pay. 0.145 Section 0.145... Respect to Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.145 Overtime pay. The Director of the Federal... Attorney General may prescribe, authorize overtime pay (including additional compensation in lieu of...

  20. 20 CFR 218.28 - Sick pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sick pay. 218.28 Section 218.28 Employees... Beginning Date § 218.28 Sick pay. (a) From railroad employer. If the employee is carried on the payroll while sick, the annuity can begin no earlier than the day after the last day of sick pay. However, sick...

  1. 28 CFR 551.108 - Performance pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance pay. 551.108 Section 551.108 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.108 Performance pay. The Warden may approve a pretrial inmate for performance pay...

  2. 4 CFR 5.3 - Merit pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Merit pay. 5.3 Section 5.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.3 Merit pay. The Comptroller General may promulgate regulations establishing a merit pay system for such employees of the Government Accountability Office as the...

  3. Social Comparison of Pay and Inequity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Ben

    Inequity theory differs from social exchange theory in its analysis of a worker's reaction to pay by asserting that effects on work performance caused by high or low pay are due to social comparison of fairness rather than principles of direct exchange, such as reciprocity and power. The present experiment held piece-rate pay constant at two…

  4. 5 CFR 534.604 - Pay administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... equals or exceeds the rate of basic pay the employee received immediately prior to such appointment, not... that equals or exceeds the employee's highest previous rate of basic pay in a Federal civil service.... Advancement to a higher rate takes effect on the first day of the first pay period beginning on or after...

  5. Estado nutricional e variáveis sócio-econômicas na repetência escolar: um estudo prospectivo em crianças da primeira série em Belo Horizonte, Brasil Nutritional status and socioeconomic factors associated with failure in school: a prospective study of first grade students in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de verificar a existência de associação entre repetência escolar, medidas antropométricas e variáveis sócio-econômicas em crianças da primeira série do primeiro grau, determinando qual a capacidade destas variáveis na predição da repetência. Foi desenvolvido um estudo prospectivo concorrente, acompanhando 699 crianças (95% das elegíveis em quatro escolas de Belo Horizonte. Após ajustamento por variáveis de confusão, verificou-se que as crianças cujas mães possuíam menos de oito anos de escolaridade, aquelas cujas mães exerciam ocupações não qualificadas, aquelas que residiam somente com a mãe ou somente com o pai ou outro responsável, aquelas que pertenciam a famílias cuja renda per capita era igual ou inferior a meio salário mínimo (SM, os meninos e as crianças em geral e aqueles que apresentaram índice altura/idade/sexo abaixo do percentil 10,1, estavam sob maior risco de repetência. Essas informações podem ser úteis para selecionar crianças para monitoramento e prevenção da repetência nas escolas investigadas.This study aimed to establish a correlation between anthropometric and socioeconomic variables and repetition in school for first grade pupils, as well to determine the predictive value of such variables vis-à-vis repetition. A study with a prospective and concurrent approach was developed in four elementary schools in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, with 699 children (95% percent of those eligible. After adjustment for confounders, children whose mothers had less than eight years of schooling, of mothers with unskilled jobs, from single-parent households (mother, father, or guardian, whose per capita family income was less than or equal to half the minimum wage, and who had a height/age/sex index under the 10.1 percentile were at greater risk of repeating the first grade. The data are potentially useful for selecting children to be

  6. Informal Versus Formal Search : Which Yields a Better Pay?

    OpenAIRE

    Semih Tumen

    2015-01-01

    Estimates on the effect of job contact method – i.e., informal versus formal search – on wage offers vary considerably across studies, with some of them finding a positive correlation between getting help from informal connections and obtaining high-paying jobs, while others finding a negative one. In this paper, I theoretically investigate the sources of discrepancies in these empirical results. Using a formal job search framework, I derive an equilibrium wage distribution which reveals that...

  7. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. 550.1409 Section 550.1409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is not...

  8. Information inefficiency and willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient technology: A stated preference approach for China Energy Label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Bukenya, James O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which consumers' willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient room air conditioners may be altered by correcting the information inefficiency on the China Energy Label. The data are collected from a discrete choice experiment with two alternatives (variable-speed and constant-speed room air conditioners) characterized by attributes of brand, purchase price and energy grade. Three versions of the questionnaires with choice sets differing only in energy consumption indicators were distributed randomly to 1602 potential consumers in Nanjing, China and a sample of 1569 was obtained after dropping missing data. The analysis with multinomial and mixed logit models reveal that the price premium that consumers are willing to pay for a variable-speed room AC over a constant-speed room AC increases significantly when energy consumption information becomes comparable and additional energy-related information is provided. Furthermore, the impact of information on WTP varies under different energy-saving scenarios. It is suggested that China Energy Label should correct information inefficiency by adopting same energy indicators for room ACs with different technologies and providing energy consumption information based on different climate zones. - Highlights: • Choice experiments were carried out to examine the effect of information on WTP. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if information is comparable. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if more information is provided. • The impact of information on WTP is significant when energy saving is considerable. • Some demographics influence people's WTP.

  9. Paying your marketers--properly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Elizabeth Zink

    2003-09-01

    Home health agencies have more freedom to market their services since the implementation of the prospective payment system. In order to do that, a number of agencies have turned to marketing professionals for help. A common method of compensating marketers in the business world, however, is through payment for referrals--something expressly forbidden by federal statute. Home health agencies need to know what they can and can't do to pay marketers and must train their marketers on the federal anti-kickback regulations to assure their compliance.

  10. How fields vary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Monika

    2018-03-01

    Field theorists have long insisted that research needs to pay attention to the particular properties of each field studied. But while much field-theoretical research is comparative, either explicitly or implicitly, scholars have only begun to develop the language for describing the dimensions along which fields can be similar to and different from each other. In this context, this paper articulates an agenda for the analysis of variable properties of fields. It discusses variation in the degree but also in the kind of field autonomy. It discusses different dimensions of variation in field structure: fields can be more or less contested, and more or less hierarchical. The structure of symbolic oppositions in a field may take different forms. Lastly, it analyses the dimensions of variation highlighted by research on fields on the sub- and transnational scale. Post-national analysis allows us to ask how fields relate to fields of the same kind on different scales, and how fields relate to fields on the same scale in other national contexts. It allows us to ask about the role resources from other scales play in structuring symbolic oppositions within fields. A more fine-tuned vocabulary for field variation can help us better describe particular fields and it is a precondition for generating hypotheses about the conditions under which we can expect to observe fields with specified characteristics. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  11. The Public Sector Pay Gap in France, Great Britain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Lucifora; Dominique Meurs

    2004-01-01

    We investigate public-private pay determination using French, British and Italian microdata. While traditional methods focus on parametric methods to estimate the public sector pay gap, in this paper, we use both non-parametric (kernel) and quantile regression methods to analyse the distribution of wages across sectors. We show that the public-private (hourly) wage differential is sensitive to the choice of quantile and that the pattern of premia varies with both gender and skill. In all coun...

  12. Time-varying BRDFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.

  13. The pathologist's mean grade is constant and individualizes the prognostic value of bladder cancer grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, Bas W G; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Ooms, Bert C M; Kirkels, Wim J; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Boevé, Egbert R; Jöbsis, Adriaan C; van der Kwast, Theo H

    2010-06-01

    A new grading system for bladder cancer (BCa) was adopted in 2004 to reduce observer variability and provide better prognostic information. We compared the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 and 2004 systems for observer variability and prognosis. Slides of 173 primary non-muscle-invasive BCa were reviewed two times by four pathologists. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed using κ statistics. We determined the mean grade (eg, G1/low malignant potential is 1 grade point, G2/low grade is 2 grade points) of the pathologists per grading cycle. Kaplan-Meier analyses were applied for prediction of recurrence and progression. For WHO 2004 and 1973 grading, the agreement between the pathologists was 39-74% (κ: 0.14-0.58) and 39-64% (κ: 0.15-0.41), respectively. The intraobserver agreement varied from 71% to 88% (κ: 0.55-0.81). The mean grade of a pathologist was constant (difference below 0.1 grade point) irrespective of the grading system. Conversely, mean-grade differences among the pathologists were high, up to 0.7 grade point. The mean grades for the WHO 2004 system were 0.3-0.5 grade point higher than those of WHO 1973. Mean grade distinguished low and high graders among the pathologists and was strongly linked with risk of progression in each grade category. The variation in mean grade among individual pathologists exceeded the grade shift caused by WHO 2004 grading. Knowledge of the pathologist's mean grade allows a better assessment of the prognostic value of grading. Mean grade has the potential to become a tool for quality assurance in pathology. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Explaining the Gender Wage Gap: Pay Expectations for Self, Others, and Perceptions of "Fair Pay."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip D.; Jackson, Linda A.

    This study was conducted to investigate the pay expectations of graduating seniors, and specifically, the relationship between gender and pay expectations for one's self and others. The main purpose of the study was to determine if women and men differed in their initial pay expectations. Surveys were received from 447 college seniors, including…

  15. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a "team". This ...

  16. Large-scale energy consumers pay less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denneman, A.

    2012-01-01

    The price of electricity in the Netherlands rose with 6 percent in the first quarter of 2012, whereas large business consumers are paying less. The natural gas price has risen with about 10 percent in the last year, both for households and for large business consumers. Meanwhile, households are paying twice as much for electricity and gas as large business consumers. [nl

  17. Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

  18. Sex, Money and the Equal Pay Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edwin B.

    1973-01-01

    Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…

  19. 20 CFR 404.1044 - Vacation pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 404.1044 Section 404.1044 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1044 Vacation pay. We consider...

  20. Merit Pay and the Music Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpus, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Current proponents of education reform are at present seeking to fundamentally change the system of teacher compensation by eliminating the traditional single salary schedule and instituting a merit pay system that directly links teacher pay to student achievement. To date, the scholarly literature in music education has been silent on the subject…

  1. 20 CFR 211.4 - Vacation pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 211.4 Section 211.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.4 Vacation pay. Payments made to an employee with respect to vacation or holidays shall be...

  2. 20 CFR 211.11 - Miscellaneous pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous pay. 211.11 Section 211.11 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.11 Miscellaneous pay. Any payment made to an employee by an employer which is...

  3. Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Women have made gains toward closing the gender pay gap during the past two decades. Much of the progress occurred during the 1980s, with smaller gains in the 1990s (Institute for Women's Policy Research 2004). Women's achievements in higher education are partly responsible for narrowing the pay gap in the 1980s and 1990s. As more women earned…

  4. Households' willingness to pay for public housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.; van der Vlist, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of price controls, nonmarket housing allocation mechanisms such as queueing prevent households from revealing their marginal willingness to pay for housing through market prices. We derive the households' marginal willingness to pay using the intuitive idea that the length of the

  5. Performance Pay for Teachers: Determinants and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive R.; Heywood, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and evidence on performance-related pay for teaching remain inconclusive. Teachers will respond to rewards, but an appropriate reward structure may not be devised because education is a collaborative endeavor. Here we test three hypotheses: performance-related pay among teachers is more likely to be observed when there are evident…

  6. 20 CFR 404.1805 - Paying benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying benefits. 404.1805 Section 404.1805 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Payment Procedures § 404.1805 Paying benefits. (a) As soon as possible after we have made a determination...

  7. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  8. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  9. Person-based differences in pay reactions: A compensation-activation theory and integrative conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Ingrid Smithey; Shaw, Jason D

    2018-06-07

    Compensation research has focused traditionally on how pay design characteristics (e.g., pay level, individual or group incentives) relate to average employee outcomes and, in toto, on how these outcomes affect organizational performance. Recently, scholars have begun to pay more attention to how individuals vary in the strength of their reactions to pay. Empirical research in several disciplines examines how the interplay of pay systems and person-based characteristics (psychological individual differences, demographics, and relative performance or position in a group) relate to important work-related outcomes. We develop a compensation-activation theory that frames compensation design characteristics as workplace "situations" providing cues that activate individuals' corresponding fundamental social motives made salient due to chronic or transient person-based characteristics. Where activation occurs, stronger-than-average responses to the compensation "situation" are expected. Using the theory as a lens, we synthesize and reinterpret existing research on person-based reactions to pay characteristics, including sorting, incentive/motivational effects, and effects on collective pay system reactions and unit/organizational outcomes. We conclude with a research agenda aimed at refining compensation-activation theory and advancing the study of compensation as it affects individual and organizational outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Premium Pay § 9901.364 Foreign language proficiency pay. (a) General provisions. (1) This section applies to employees who may be paid...

  11. 41 CFR 301-54.2 - What is disposable pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is disposable pay... BILLED TRAVEL CHARGE CARD General Rules § 301-54.2 What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is your..., etc. Deductions may be made from any type of pay you receive from your agency, e.g., basic pay...

  12. 5 CFR 870.204 - Annual rates of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual rates of pay. 870.204 Section 870... rates of pay. (a) (1) An insured employee's annual pay is his/her annual rate of basic pay as fixed by law or regulation. (2) Annual pay for this purpose includes the following: (i) Interim geographic...

  13. Net Pay Estimator | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits > Net Pay Estimator Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Accessibility Net Pay Estimator Click here for the Retiree Net Pay Estimator? The net pay estimator is a useful tool to estimate your net pay under different salaries, federal withholding tax exemptions, and

  14. 33 CFR 52.71 - Authority to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to pay. 52.71 Section... § 52.71 Authority to pay. (a) The Coast Guard is authorized to pay the claims of any person as the... authorized to pay any claim heretofore compensated by Congress through enactment of private law, or to pay...

  15. Social patterns of pay systems and their associations with psychosocial job characteristics and burnout among paid employees in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wan-Yu; Cheng, Yawen; Chen, Chiou-Jung

    2009-04-01

    , employment grade, job characteristics, and family care workloads. As variable pay systems have gained in popularity, findings from this study call for more attention on the tradeoff between the widely discussed management advantages of such pay systems and the health burden they place on employees.

  16. Consumer Willingness to Pay for Quality Attributes of Fresh Seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Haider, Wolfgang; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2015-01-01

    We applied a labeled choice experiment (LCE) to investigate consumer demand and choice behavior for fresh seafood in a retail market. The LCE was conducted for a large number of seafood alternatives (i.e., seafood species) labeled by the respective seafood name (e.g., cod, salmon, mussels......). Consumer heterogeneity in preference was expressed by estimating a labeled latent class model with alternative-specific effects, which varies choice probability and model parameters over seafood alternatives and across classes. The willingness to pay (WTP) for extrinsic attributes (e.g., product form...

  17. An Examination of Pay Facets and Referent Groups for Assessing Pay Satisfaction of Male Elementary School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Young, Karen Holsey; Okhremtchouk, Irina; Castaneda, Jose Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Pay satisfaction was assessed according to different facets (pay level, benefits, pay structure, and pay raises) and potential referent groups (teachers and elementary school principals) for a random sample of male elementary school principals. A structural model approach was used that considers facets of the pay process, potential others as…

  18. Tackling the take-or-pay problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Kim.

    1997-01-01

    Centrica, the gas sales, trading and services company previously part of British Gas plc, has renegotiated a number of its take-or-pay contracts with North Sea gas producers since the end of 1996. The contracts - a legacy of the British Gas monopoly era - had placed an increasing financial burden on the company as it was effectively forced to pay above-market prices for gas which it did not always want to take, while trying to remain competitive in a market where an ever growing number of independent gas suppliers were offering low-cost supplies. The author looks at how Centrica has tackled its take-or-pay problem. (author)

  19. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  20. The EEOC's New Equal Pay Act Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Kohl, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the new guidelines for enforcement of the Equal Pay Act and their implications for personnel management. Argues that there are key problem areas in the new regulations arising from considerable ambiguity and uncertainty about their interpretation. (SK)

  1. Performance Related Pay and Labor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  2. Performance Related Pay and Labour Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gielen, Anne; Kerkhofs, Marcel J M; van Ours, Jan C

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labour productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP). We find that PRP increases labour productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  3. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  4. Modernizing the Federal Government: Paying for Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    works (Barr, 2007d). Employees are rated on performance measures such as “fair and equitable treatment of taxpayers” and “customer satisfaction ... Performance Act of 2007, Senate bill 1046, Washington, D.C., 2007b. 38 Modernizing the Federal Government: Paying for Performance Vroom , Victor H...AND SUBTITLE Modernizing the federal government paying for performance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  5. Wage compression and the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence M. Kahn

    2015-01-01

    There are large international differences in the gender pay gap. In some developed countries in 2010–2012, women were close to earnings parity with men, while in others large gaps remained. Since women and men have different average levels of education and experience and commonly work in different industries and occupations, multiple factors can influence the gender pay gap. Among them are skill supply and demand, unions, and minimum wages, which influence the economywide wage returns to educ...

  6. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  7. Comparing methods for measuring consumer willingness to pay for a basic and an improved ready made soup product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Esbjerg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) for a basic chilled soup product and for an improved, self-heating version was measured by methods experimentally varied according to a 2 x 3 design, varying the basic measurement approach (contingent valuation, experimental auction, conjoint analysis) and the use of real...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372 Creating initial pay ranges. (a) DHS must, after coordination with OPM, set the initial band rate ranges for the...

  9. 5 CFR 304.104 - Determining rate of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining rate of pay. 304.104 Section... CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.104 Determining rate of pay. (a) The rate of basic pay for experts and... appropriate rate of basic pay on an hourly or daily basis, subject to the limitations described in section 304...

  10. 28 CFR 545.25 - Eligibility for performance pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility for performance pay. 545.25... WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.25 Eligibility for performance pay. (a) An inmate may receive performance pay for accomplishments in one or more of the following areas...

  11. 75 FR 81817 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Order 13561 of December 22, 2010 Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as..., it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. Pursuant to the Continuing... ``Continuing Appropriations Act''), the rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined...

  12. 41 CFR 301-76.2 - What is disposable pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is disposable pay... What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is the part of the employee's compensation remaining after the... deductions such as savings bonds, charitable contributions, etc. Deductions may be made from any type of pay...

  13. 5 CFR 534.603 - Rates of basic pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rates of basic pay. 534.603 Section 534.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.603 Rates of basic pay. (a) The...

  14. 78 FR 80451 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... of Pay By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. The rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5302(1)), as adjusted under 5 U.S...

  15. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate workers for FPI may also receive Inmate Performance Pay for participation in programs where this award is made...

  16. Performance Pay and Teacher Motivation: Separating Myth from Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on research from outside of education to evaluate some common myths about performance pay and to consider future directions for designing and evaluating performance pay systems in K-12 education. The five common myths surrounding performance pay include: (1) Performance pay systems improve performance; (2) Performance pay…

  17. 5 CFR 532.507 - Pay for holiday work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay for holiday work. 532.507 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.507 Pay for holiday work. (a) An employee who is entitled to holiday premium pay and who performs work on a holiday which is not overtime work shall be paid the...

  18. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such adjustments take effect on the 1st day of the first pay period... basic pay that equals or exceeds the applicant's highest previous Federal rate of basic pay, not to... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judge pay system. 930...

  19. Shareholder voice on executive pay : A decade of Dutch say on pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, Christoph; Lafarre, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands adopted shareholders’ say on pay over a decade ago. The general meeting of shareholders must approve the remuneration policy and any amendments to it. This Dutch approach offers fruitful insights into how say on pay works in practice. In the light of the recent European proposal to

  20. Pay Equity Act, 17 May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1988 Pay Equity Act of Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Nova Scotia enacted similar legislation in 1988.) This act defines "female-dominated class" or "male-dominated class" as a class with 60% or more female or male incumbents, respectively. The objective of this act is to achieve pay equity among public sector employers and employees by identifying systemic gender discrimination through a comparison of the relative wages and value of the work performed by female- and male-dominated classes. The value of work is to be determined by considering the skill, effort, and responsibility required by the work as well as the conditions under which it is performed. A difference in wages between a female- and male-dominated class performing work of equal or comparable value can be justified by a formal performance appraisal system or formal seniority system that does not discriminate on the basis of gender or by a skills shortage which requires a temporary inflation in wages to attract workers for a certain position. No wages shall be reduced to implement pay equity. Implementation of pay equity will include the work of bargaining agents to achieve agreement on salient points. Pay equity may be implemented in four stages over a period of 24 months.

  1. Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in Terms of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998: Lessons from the International Labour Organisation and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamier Ebrahim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Equal pay is an area of employment law that is complex and not easily understood. This complexity is recognised by the International Labour Organisation (ILO, which notes that equal pay for work of equal value has proved to be difficult to understand, both with regard to what it entails and in its application. Amendments have been made to the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA to include a specific provision to regulate equal pay claims in the form of section 6(4-(5 of the EEA. The amendments were made in terms of the Employment Equity Amendment Act 47 of 2013, which came into effect on 1 August 2014 by presidential proclamation. Prior to section 6(4, the EEA did not contain a specific provision regulating equal pay claims. Claims could be brought in terms of section 6(1 of the EEA, which prohibits unfair discrimination on a number of grounds. The recent amendments to the EEA in the form of section 6(4-(5 (including the Employment Equity Regulations and the Code of Good Practice on Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in respect of equal pay claims is a response to the ILO's criticism of South Africa's failure to include specific equal pay provisions in the EEA. Section 6(4 of the EEA provides for three causes of action in respect of equal pay. They are as follows: (a equal pay for the same work; (b equal pay for substantially the same work; and (c equal pay for work of equal value. The first two causes of action are not difficult to understand as opposed to the third cause of action, which is complex. The ILO has recognised the complexity of the third cause of action, "equal pay for work of equal value". In Mangena v Fila South Africa 2009 12 BLLR 1224 (LC, the Labour Court remarked in the context of an equal pay for work of equal value claim that it does not have expertise in job grading and in the allocation of value to particular occupations. This article will deal with the third cause of action only, "equal pay for work of equal value". The

  2. 5 CFR 9901.305 - Rate of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rate of pay. 9901.305 Section 9901.305... (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration General § 9901.305 Rate of pay. (a) The term “rate of pay” in 5 U.S.C... overtime and other premium pay rates (including compensatory time off); and (2) The rates comprising the...

  3. Pay equity, minimum wage and equality at work

    OpenAIRE

    Rubery, Jill

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the underlying causes of pay discrimination embedded within the organization of the labour market and structures of pay and reward. Discusses the need to focus on pay equity as part of a general strategy of promoting equity and decent work and examines the case for using minimum wage policies in comparison to more targeted equal pay policies to reduce gender pay equity. Identifies potential obstacles to or support for such policies and describes experiences of the use of minimum wages...

  4. Laos. Un pays en mutation, Vatthana Pholsena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Bouté

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available C’est avec un regard neuf et une approche originale que Vatthana Pholsena a relevé le défi d’écrire l’ouvrage Laos. Un pays en mutation, le dernier-né de la collection « Asie Plurielle » (Belin qui a déjà proposé une longue série d’ouvrages de présentation générale des pays d’Asie. Cet ouvrage vient combler un grand manque dans la littérature sur le Laos. Aucun ouvrage généraliste en langue française n’existant jusque-là sur ce petit pays d’Asie du Sud-Est, le lecteur curieux devait se référ...

  5. The gender pay gap in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Leaker

    2008-01-01

    Measuring differences between mens' and womens' earnings, presents estimates from ASHE, the LFS and the NES panel data setThe gender pay gap is a measure of the difference between the earnings of men and women. This article presents estimates of the gender pay gap from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, the Labour Force Survey and the New Earnings Survey panel data set. It examines how different personal and labour market characteristics influence the earnings of men and women.The resul...

  6. Willingness to Pay for Insurance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan V.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lau, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Danish population, and information on household income and wealth from registers at Statistics Denmark. The results show that the willingness to pay is marginally higher than the actuarially fair value under expected utility theory, but significantly higher under rank-dependent utility theory, and up......We estimate how much Danish households are willing to pay for auto, home, and house insurance. We use a unique combination of claims data from a large Danish insurance company, measures of individual risk attitudes and discount rates from a field experiment with a representative sample of the adult...

  7. Java Card for PayTv Application

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Pallab

    2013-01-01

    Smart cards are widely used along with PayTV receivers to store secret user keys and to perform security functions to prevent any unauthorized viewing of PayTV channels. Java Card technology enables programs written in the Java programming language to run on smart cards. Smart cards represent one of the smallest computing platforms in use today. The memory configuration of a smart card are of the order of 4K of RAM, 72K of EEPROM, and 24K of ROM. Using Java card provides advantages to the ind...

  8. Pay inequality in 25 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses disparity in women’s pay across 25 European countries using EU-SILC 2005. First, the gender pay gap is examined. Next, the impact of parenthood is analysed. We show that women suffer a wage disadvantage compared with men all over Europe, except for Poland. Motherhood usually reinforces the gender gap but most discrimination is sex-related so that it concerns all women as potential mothers. There is no uniform relationship between the parenthood and the gender wage gap.

  9. The public sector pay gap in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Raffaela

    2010-01-01

    I investigate the public-private pay gap using Italian microdata covering the period 1980-2006. Even after controlling for observable characteristics of the labour force, I find a positive wage premium for the public sector, almost negligible during the eighties and averaging at about 12 percent in the period 1993-2006. While the pay gap for women and workers in southern regions turns out to be higher than the average in the whole sample period, the greater advantage from working in the publi...

  10. Willingness to Pay for Insurance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan V.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lau, Morten I.

    We estimate the maximum amount that Danish households are willing to pay for three different types of insurance: auto, home and house insurance. We use a unique combination of claims data from the largest private insurance company in Denmark, measures of individual risk attitudes and discount rates...... possible states of nature, where all uncertainty is realized in the initial period and any loss incurred by an accident is subtracted from initial wealth. The estimated willingness to pay is based on annual claims and should thus be considered as an annual premium. Since there is some uncertainty about...... of the insurance claims....

  11. Willingness to pay for improved respiratory and cardiovascular health: a multiple-format, stated-preference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F R; Banzhaf, M R; Desvousges, W H

    2000-06-01

    This study uses stated-preference (SP) analysis to measure willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce acute episodes of respiratory and cardiovascular ill health. The SP survey employs a modified version of the health state descriptions used in the Quality of Well Being (QWB) Index. The four health state attributes are symptom, episode duration, activity restrictions and cost. Preferences are elicited using two different SP formats: graded-pair and discrete-choice. The different formats cause subjects to focus on different evaluation strategies. Combining two elicitation formats yields more valid and robust estimates than using only one approach. Estimates of indirect utility function parameters are obtained using advanced panel econometrics for each format separately and jointly. Socio-economic differences in health preferences are modelled by allowing the marginal utility of money relative to health attributes to vary across respondents. Because the joint model captures the combined preference information provided by both elicitation formats, these model estimates are used to calculate WTP. The results demonstrate the feasibility of estimating meaningful WTP values for policy-relevant respiratory and cardiac symptoms, even from subjects who never have personally experienced these conditions. Furthermore, because WTP estimates are for individual components of health improvements, estimates can be aggregated in various ways depending upon policy needs. Thus, using generic health attributes facilitates transferring WTP estimates for benefit-cost analysis of a variety of potential health interventions. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Liking of traditional cheese and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We review herein the relevance of credence and sensory attributes for cheese liking as a basis for subsequent discussion on attributes related to traditional dairy products such as place of origin, process characteristics, etc. Several studies suggest that place of origin may have a positive impact on consumer evaluation. In addition, protected designation of origin labels generally affects consumers’ purchasing decisions, with a premium price paid for traditional products. Some of the main dimensions of traditional food products are: familiarity of the product, processing through traditional recipes, sensory properties and origins. However, different dimensions can be relevant for consumers of different countries. Southern European regions frequently tend to associate the concept of traditional with broad concepts such as heritage, culture or history; whereas central and northern European regions tend to focus mainly on practical issues such as convenience, health or appropriateness. Sensitivity to traditional cheese attributes may also vary according to different groups of consumers with older, more educated and wealthier subjects showing higher willingness to pay and acceptance levels. Given that sensory properties play a central role in product differentiation, we can conclude that information about credence attributes, if reliable, positively perceived and directed to sensitive groups of consumers, is able to affect consumer liking and willingness to pay for traditional cheese. Thus, it provides a further potential tool for product differentiation to small-scale traditional farms, where husbandry is often based on extensive rearing systems and production costs tend to be higher.

  13. Can Benford's Law explain CEO pay?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, Shibashish

    2018-01-01

    Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Issue: This study applies the statistical properties of Benford’s Law to CEO pay. Benford’s ‘Law’ states that in an unbiased dataset, the first digit values are usually unequally allocated when considering the logical expectations of equal distribution. In this

  14. How to Pay for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Charles C.

    The financial crisis for institutions of higher education is deepening. Higher tuition rates may be one of the answers, but this would exclude even more young people from attending college because of inability to pay, at a time when greater equality of opportunity in higher education has become an important goal. Federal support has helped but not…

  15. The Pays de Gex on the Menu

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Did you know that you can swing from tree to tree like Tarzan (or Jane!) in the brand new forest adventure centre at the Col de la Faucille? And that, in addition to Crozet-Lélex, Mijoux-La Faucille and La Vattay, the Pays de Gex boasts a fourth ski resort at Menthières above Bellegarde-sur-Valserine? All these attractions, and hundreds of others that the Pays de Gex has to offer, were presented at a special exhibition stand in CERN's Restaurant No. 1 last week. For the tenth year running, the Pays de Gex-La Faucille Tourist Office and Geneva's fourteen Coop restaurants had organised a special week devoted to promoting the Pays de Gex-Monts Jura region. Thousands of information leaflets were handed out and visitors had the opportunity to take part in a big raffle with no fewer than 145 prizes to be won: ski passes, Juraventure entrance tickets, meal vouchers courtesy of local hotels and restaurants, and subscriptions to the Val Vital fitness centre in Divonne-les-Bains. The Coop restaur...

  16. Pay for performance in the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to an explanation of why pay for performance (PFP) in the public sector has difficulties in functioning properly and why, despite the difficulties, its use is continued. To do so, the paper draws on insights from behavioural economics. The explanation focuses on cognitive...

  17. Multiple Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Data for a sample of UK companies over the period 2003-2006 are analyzed using a variety of econometric methods. We find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant.

  18. An Accounting Program Merit Pay Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.; Wagner, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. Before the effectiveness of merit-based salary plans can be examined empirically, it must be determined which accounting programs use such a system. In this study, the 852 accounting programs in the United…

  19. 77 FR 11599 - January 2012 Pay Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... definitions can be found at http://www.opm.gov/oca/12tables/locdef.asp . The 2012 locality pay percentages... increased in 2012. The memo is available at http://www.opm.gov/flsa/oca/11tables/Extend_2012.pdf . On.... (See http://www.opm.gov/oca/compmemo/index.asp .) The memorandum transmitted Executive Order 13594 and...

  20. Job Evaluation: Pay Equity Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecham, Robert C.

    It has been hypothesized that current methods of determining pay rates value the characteristics of jobs held primarily by men differently than the characteristics of jobs held primarily by women, resulting in lower earnings for women. A policy capturing approach using numerically rated job characteristics (PAQ data) was applied separately to the…

  1. How to pay in LicenseScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Chong, C.N.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Current DRM systems do not provide flexible payment methods, requiring the user to handle the payment by hand. For instance, when the user needs to pay for watching a movie, she needs to decide which available payment method is the most optimal and suitable. This is a rather cumbersome process for

  2. The Trouble with Pay for Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Structured interviews with 575 administrators and supervisors in 6 school districts finds 8 impediments to school board implementation of an effective merit pay system for these employees: Lack of knowledge, teacher heritage, supervisor's ability, supervisor's motivation, managerial prerogatives, amount of rewards, and type of rewards. Offers…

  3. The case of the unpopular pay plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeld, T; Coil, M; Berwick, D; Nyberg, T; Beer, M

    1992-01-01

    Three years after launching the team-based Quality For All program, Top Chemical Company CEO Sam Verde was searching for a team-based compensation system that would reflect his company's new philosophy. With a committee gathered to discuss the issue, Verde confronts the fact that changing pay plans is an issue few people can agree on. "Very simply," explains vice president for compensation Gilbert Porterfield, "the plan is designed to give employees working on teams real incentives for constant improvement and overall excellence. The variable aspect of the system pays employees for the performance of their group." This doesn't sit well with the others. "It's going to punish teams like mine for the failings of others instead of rewarding us for the work we do and have already done," says packaging team representative Ruth Gibson. Another committee member feels that team-based anything is a "motivational happy land that doesn't square with how people really work." While Verde likes the proposed pay plan, he has doubts over whether his employees will accept the risk. Upper management has no problem basing 60% of its pay on TopChem's performance. But getting line employees to risk part of their salaries--even as little as 4%--on the ups and downs of the chemical industry may be more trouble than it's worth. Four experts on compensation reveal where Top Chemical went wrong in its plan and how Sam Verde might bring about change successfully.

  4. 32 CFR 728.14 - Pay patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Members of the Uniformed Services on Active Duty § 728.14 Pay patients. Care is provided on a reimbursable basis to: Coast Guard active duty officers...

  5. Teacher-Pay Experiments Mounting Amid Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The debate over linking teacher pay to student test scores that ignited on Capitol Hill recently underscores the growing momentum--and continued controversy--behind tying what teachers earn to what students learn. Both the National Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers came out swinging against language in a draft bill for…

  6. Households’ willingness to pay for access to outdoor recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Cathrine Ulla

    and the profile of the price premium. There is a large correlation between the income level within a neighborhood and the level of outdoor recreation. Controlling for unobserved quality through fixed effects reveals that the price premium increases with prices, but when controlling for the general price level...... using the trade price of neighboring homes (a lag), the price premium becomes constant. Controlling for local neighborhood affluence and unobserved quality on a larger scale yields the same results as the spatial lag term but with a more robust model due to the absence of endogeneity. The paper offers......This paper investigates how household demand for access to nature varies across a Danish housing market. I use conditional quantile regressions to estimate the implicit price for a change in nature area conditional on the home price. If there are systematic differences in the willingness to pay...

  7. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  8. Graded manifolds and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with

  9. Power and pay: The union and equal pay at B.C. Electric/Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creese, G.

    1993-01-01

    The struggle for equal pay for women in one large office union, the Office and Technical Employees' Union (OTEU), at British Columbia Electric/Hydro is analyzed. The analysis concentrates on the second phase of the equal pay movement that preoccupied the union for over 30 years starting in 1949. Equal pay for equal job-evaluation was finally achieved in 1981, yet this struggle did not produce a subsequent questioning of gender bias within the job evaluation process or the structure of the existing hierarchy of jobs. The study illustrates some of the ways that gender hierarchies and inequities are defined and reinforced by employers seeking to maintain profits by keeping labor costs down, as BC Electric/Hydro resisted eliminating the differential in male and female pay, systematically restructured unequal pay, and continually resorted to lower community standards even when the company's own job evaluation system suggested equal comparators with male jobs. Gendered jobs are also shaped by union practices, as evidenced by the OTEU's role in restructuring the postwar gender division of labor in the late 1940s, as well as their early and persistent challenges to the female differential but, at the same time, the continued marginalization of equal pay as a women's issue rather than a general union issue. 66 refs

  10. Power and pay: The union and equal pay at B. C. Electric/Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creese, G

    The struggle for equal pay for women in one large office union, the Office and Technical Employees' Union (OTEU), at British Columbia Electric/Hydro is analyzed. The analysis concentrates on the second phase of the equal pay movement that preoccupied the union for over 30 years starting in 1949. Equal pay for equal job-evaluation was finally achieved in 1981, yet this struggle did not produce a subsequent questioning of gender bias within the job evaluation process or the structure of the existing hierarchy of jobs. The study illustrates some of the ways that gender hierarchies and inequities are defined and reinforced by employers seeking to maintain profits by keeping labor costs down, as BC Electric/Hydro resisted eliminating the differential in male and female pay, systematically restructured unequal pay, and continually resorted to lower community standards even when the company's own job evaluation system suggested equal comparators with male jobs. Gendered jobs are also shaped by union practices, as evidenced by the OTEU's role in restructuring the postwar gender division of labor in the late 1940s, as well as their early and persistent challenges to the female differential but, at the same time, the continued marginalization of equal pay as a women's issue rather than a general union issue. 66 refs.

  11. The Dilemmas of Adopting Performance Related Pay as a Reward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dilemmas of Adopting Performance Related Pay as a Reward Strategy for ... over automatic pay increase (formal and transparent reward systems linked to ... of reward and compensation, and low level of motivation and performance.

  12. 49 CFR 92.21 - Deduction from pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... salary offset may be made, the chief of the accounting or finance office of the paying DOT operating... accounting or finance office of the paying DOT operating element before collection of the indebtedness by...

  13. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  14. Understanding the "Family Gap" in Pay for Women with Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Waldfogel

    1998-01-01

    As the gender gap in pay between women and men has been narrowing, the 'family gap' in pay between mothers and nonmothers has been widening. One reason may be the institutional structure in the United States, which has emphasized equal pay and opportunity policies but not family policies, in contrast to other countries that have implemented both. The authors now have evidence on the links between one such family policy and women's pay. Recent research suggests that maternity leave coverage, b...

  15. 27 CFR 70.103 - Failure to pay tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to pay tax. 70.103... § 70.103 Failure to pay tax. Whoever fails to pay any tax imposed by Part I of Subchapter A of Chapter... penalty of 5 percent of the tax due but unpaid. For additional penalties for failure to pay tax, see 27...

  16. Relative pay and job satisfaction: some new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Anh; Taylor, Jim; Bradley, Steve

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of job satisfaction using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The determinants of interest include actual pay, relative pay, hours of work, job autonomy and several personal characteristics. We also investigate the determinants of satisfaction with pay conditional on a worker's satisfaction with other domains of job satisfaction, such as satisfaction with job security. We find that relative pay is statistically significant but that i...

  17. Employee perspectives on individualized pay : Attitudes and fairness perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Stråberg, Teresia

    2010-01-01

    The use of various types of individualized pay setting has increased dramatically in Sweden. In order for individualized pay to work as an incentive, the pay system has to be perceived as fair. This thesis focuses on the various subjective perceptions that arise in relation to individualized pay setting, since such perceptions may have consequences for employee attitudes and behavior. Using survey data from Swedish human service workers (Study I and II) as well as other public employees (Stud...

  18. Incentive pay and gender gaps in the Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Westling, Tatu

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of incentive pay on gender pay gaps in Finland, Norway and Sweden among professionals and managers within MNCs. Mercer 2009 Total Remuneration Survey data is utilised. Uniform job ladder, occupation, industry and wage definitions enable consistent cross-country comparisons. In addition to the between-country variation, the within-country variation of gender gap with respect to incentive pay is analysed. The results indicate that gender pay gaps differ among the ...

  19. Who pays for health care in Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy; Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P; Somanathan, Aparnaa; Adhikari, Shiva Raj; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Harbianto, Deni; Garg, Charu C; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Herrin, Alejandro N; Huq, Mohammed N; Ibragimova, Shamsia; Karan, Anup; Kwon, Soon-man; Leung, Gabriel M; Lu, Jui-fen Rachel; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Pande, Badri Raj; Racelis, Rachel; Tin, Keith; Tisayaticom, Kanjana; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Wan, Quan; Yang, Bong-Min; Zhao, Yuxin

    2008-03-01

    We estimate the distributional incidence of health care financing in 13 Asian territories that account for 55% of the Asian population. In all territories, higher-income households contribute more to the financing of health care. The better-off contribute more as a proportion of ability to pay in most low- and lower-middle-income territories. Health care financing is slightly regressive in three high-income economies with universal social insurance. Direct taxation is the most progressive source of finance and is most so in poorer economies. In universal systems, social insurance is proportional to regressive. In high-income economies, the out-of-pocket (OOP) payments are proportional or regressive while in low-income economies the better-off spend relatively more OOP. But in most low-/middle-income countries, the better-off not only pay more, they also get more health care.

  20. Tabanidae (Diptera) des pays-bas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, M.

    1967-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cette mise au point des Tabanides des Pays-Bas a été rendue possible grâce à la collaboration de M. V. S. van der Goot, département d'Entomologie, Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam, que nous remercions pour son amabilité. Nous avons pu étudier aussi les collections du Rijksmuseum van

  1. The consumer pays the energy bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulmeester, P.; Haffner, R.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    The liberalization of the energy market for small-scale consumers in the Netherlands coincides with a period in which consumers have to pay high energy bills. However, the cause of this is not the liberalization, but the high oil prices and raised taxes. In this article an overview is given of the total energy bill n the Netherlands, its components and the first effects of the liberalization process [nl

  2. How to pay in LicenseScript

    OpenAIRE

    Corin, R.J.; Chong, C.N.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2003-01-01

    Current DRM systems do not provide flexible payment methods, requiring the user to handle the payment by hand. For instance, when the user needs to pay for watching a movie, she needs to decide which available payment method is the most optimal and suitable. This is a rather cumbersome process for the user that can be avoided by the specification of payment policies. A payment policy automates the payment process of each content usage, choosing the best alternative among the possible payment ...

  3. Volume 10 No. 11 November 2010 4364 WILLINGNESS TO PAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... to pay a premium, to buy an organic vegetable instead of a conventional one. The amount is a percentage ... the attitude, motives and willingness to pay for a range of organic products. The author laid ... organic products, buying preferences and willingness to pay premiums for selected organic vegetables.

  4. Some Thoughts on the Equal Pay Act and Coaching Salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Phyllis

    This paper discusses the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as it applies to women athletic coaches and physical education teachers. The following points are considered: (1) application of the Equal Pay Act; (2) advantage of voluntary compliance with the Equal Pay Act; (3) factors used to measure "equal work"; (4)…

  5. 29 CFR 1614.408 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 1614.408 Section 1614.408... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.408 Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A..., three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay Act regardless of whether he or she...

  6. 12 CFR 268.407 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 268.407 Section... Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A complainant is authorized under section 16(b) of the Fair Labor Standards..., if the violation is willful, three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay Act...

  7. 5 CFR 531.214 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 531.214... Changes § 531.214 Setting pay upon promotion. (a) General. An agency must set an employee's payable rate of basic pay upon promotion following the rules in this section, consistent with 5 U.S.C. 5334(b...

  8. 29 CFR 1614.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Pay Act. 1614.202 Section 1614.202 Labor Regulations... OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.202 Equal Pay Act. (a) In its enforcement of the Equal Pay Act, the Commission has the authority to investigate an agency's employment practices on...

  9. 5 CFR 534.504 - Annual adjustment in pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual adjustment in pay. 534.504 Section 534.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.504 Annual adjustment...

  10. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to retirement pay by the Department of Veterans Affairs under Pub. L. 87-875 (sec. 11(b), Pub. L. 85-857) from date...

  11. 76 FR 80191 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Order 13594 of December 19, 2011 Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as... Appropriations and Surface Transportation Extensions Act, 2011 (Public Law 111-322), which freezes certain pay... full applicable locality pay rates in non-foreign areas pursuant to the Non-Foreign Area Retirement...

  12. 29 CFR 70.42 - Consent to Pay Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consent to Pay Fees. 70.42 Section 70.42 Labor Office of the....42 Consent to Pay Fees. (a) The filing of a request under this subpart will be deemed to constitute an agreement by the requester to pay all applicable fees charged under this part up to and including...

  13. 22 CFR 512.22 - Deduction from pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Deduction from pay. 512.22 Section 512.22... 1982 Salary Offset § 512.22 Deduction from pay. (a) Deduction by salary offset, from an employee's disposable current pay, shall be subject to the following circumstances: (1) When funds are available, the...

  14. 36 CFR 1202.52 - How do I pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I pay? 1202.52 Section... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Individual Access to Records § 1202.52 How do I pay? You must pay by check or money order. Make your check or money order payable to the National Archives and...

  15. 12 CFR 268.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal Pay Act. 268.202 Section 268.202 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 268.202 Equal Pay Act. Complaints alleging violations of the Equal Pay Act shall be processed under this part. ...

  16. 29 CFR 778.409 - Provision for overtime pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision for overtime pay. 778.409 Section 778.409 Labor... Regular Rate Principles Guaranteed Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.409 Provision for overtime pay. The section 7(f) contract must provide for compensation at not less than one and one-half...

  17. 77 FR 70381 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... 3206-AM51 General Schedule Locality Pay Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: On behalf of the President's Pay Agent, the Office of Personnel Management is issuing proposed regulations to tie the metropolitan area portion of locality pay...

  18. 44 CFR 353.7 - Failure to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to pay. 353.7 Section... LICENSEE RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND PREPAREDNESS § 353.7 Failure to pay. In any case where there is a dispute over the FEMA bill or where FEMA finds that a licensee has failed to pay a prescribed fee required...

  19. 27 CFR 70.97 - Failure to pay tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to pay tax. 70.97... § 70.97 Failure to pay tax. (a) Negligence—(1) General. If any part of any underpayment (as defined in... section 6651 of the Internal Revenue Code (relating to failure to file such return or pay tax) shall be...

  20. 38 CFR 3.654 - Active service pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Active service pay. 3.654..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.654 Active service pay. (a) General. Pension, compensation, or retirement pay will be discontinued under the circumstances...

  1. 44 CFR 354.7 - Failure to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to pay. 354.7 Section 354.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... PROGRAM § 354.7 Failure to pay. Where a licensee fails to pay a prescribed fee required under this part...

  2. 5 CFR 531.603 - Locality pay areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Locality pay areas. 531.603 Section 531.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Locality-Based Comparability Payments § 531.603 Locality pay areas. (a) Locality rates of...

  3. 40 CFR 66.61 - Duty to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty to pay. 66.61 Section 66.61... COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Payment § 66.61 Duty to pay. (a) Except where the owner or... who submits a petition pursuant to § 66.52 shall pay the penalty amount calculated by the owner or...

  4. 78 FR 21503 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Order 13641 of April 5, 2013 Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as... Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013 (Public Law 113-6), which requires certain pay... follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. Pursuant to the Consolidated and Further Continuing...

  5. 78 FR 649 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the... certain pay schedules for civilian Federal employees may take effect on the first day of the first applicable pay period beginning after the date specified in section 106(3) of Public Law 112-175, it is...

  6. 29 CFR 1450.23 - Deduction from pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deduction from pay. 1450.23 Section 1450.23 Labor... OWED THE UNITED STATES Salary Offset § 1450.23 Deduction from pay. (a) Deduction by salary offset, from an employee's current disposable pay, shall be subject to the following conditions: (1) Ordinarily...

  7. Equal pay legislation and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Polachek, Solomon W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite equal pay legislation dating back 50 years, American women still earn 22% less than their male counterparts. In the UK, with its Equal Pay Act of 1970, and France, which legislated in 1972, the gap is 21% and 17% respectively, and in Australia it remains around 17%. Thus, the gender pay gap continues to be an important policy issue.

  8. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  9. 75 FR 21155 - National Equal Pay Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ..., helps women achieve wage fairness. This law brings us closer to ending pay disparities based on gender... Enforcement Task Force to bolster enforcement of pay discrimination laws, making sure women get equal pay for... America A Proclamation Throughout our Nation's history, extraordinary women have broken barriers to...

  10. 78 FR 21811 - National Equal Pay Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ..., 2013 National Equal Pay Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Over... of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 9, 2013, as National Equal Pay Day. I call upon all... Vol. 78 Thursday, No. 70 April 11, 2013 Part V The President Proclamation 8955--National Equal Pay...

  11. 75 FR 9544 - Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... inmate may receive performance pay only for that portion of the month that the inmate was working... Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule... work and performance pay by removing redundant language and provisions that relate solely to staff...

  12. Grading Practices and Distributions Across Internal Medicine Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Sara B; Torre, Dario M; DeFer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Clerkship evaluation and grading practices vary widely between U.S. medical schools. Grade inflation continues to exist, and grade distribution is likely to be different among U.S. medical schools. Increasing the number of available grades curtails "grade inflation." A national survey of all Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine members was administered in 2011. The authors assessed key aspects of grading. Response rate was 76%. Among clerkship directors (CDs), 61% of respondents agreed that grade inflation existed in the internal medicine clerkship at their school, and 43% believed that it helped students obtain better residency positions. With respect to grading practices, 79% of CDs define specific behaviors needed to achieve each grade, and 36% specify an ideal grade distribution. In addition, 44% have a trained core faculty responsible for evaluating students, 35% describe formal grading meetings, and 39% use the Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (RIME) scheme. Grading scales were described as follows: 4% utilize a pass/fail system, 13% a 3-tier (e.g., Honors/Pass/Fail), 45% 4-tier, 35% 5-tier, and 4% 6+-tier system. There was a trend to higher grades with more tiers available. Grade inflation continues in the internal medicine clerkship. Almost half of CDs feel that this practice assists students to obtain better residency positions. A minority of programs have a trained core faculty who are responsible for evaluation. About one third have formal grading meetings and use the RIME system; both have been associated with more robust and balanced grading practices. In particular, there is a wide variation between schools in the percentage of students who are awarded the highest grade, which has implications for residency applications. Downstream users of clinical clerkship grades must be fully aware of these variations in grading in order to appropriately judge medical student performance.

  13. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  14. The Effects of Introducing Advertising in Pay TV: A Model of Asymmetric Competition between Pay TV and Free TV

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Dietl; Markus Lang; Panlang Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of asymmetric competition between a pay TV and a free TV broadcaster. Our model shows that the pay TV broadcaster has incentives to place advertising on its channel if the marginal return on advertising exceeds the viewers' disutility from advertising. In this case, however, the pay TV advertising level is always below the corresponding level on free TV. The pay TV advertising level can increase with a higher viewer disutility from advertising but the p...

  15. Does obfuscating excessive CEO pay work? The influence of remuneration report readability on say-on-pay votes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, Reggy; Kuang, Yu Flora; Qin, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses whether reducing ‘readability’ is an effective obfuscation strategy for influencing the level of shareholder say-on-pay voting dissent in firms with excessive CEO pay. Based on a sample of UK-listed firms, our results indicate that in cases of excessive CEO pay, a less readable

  16. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes.

  17. Design choices made by target users for a pay-for-performance program in primary care: an action research approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, K.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Jacobs, J.E.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International interest in pay-for-performance (P4P) initiatives to improve quality of health care is growing. Current programs vary in the methods of performance measurement, appraisal and reimbursement. One may assume that involvement of health care professionals in the goal setting and

  18. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  19. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  20. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  1. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  2. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  3. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer’s utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, generating different purchase decisions and optimal prices across...... individuals. When a good’s fixed price is lower than a threshold fair value, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, accounting for previously unexplained field experimental evidence. An increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer’s utility...... and may further lower the purchase rate, resulting in a further increase in purchase price....

  4. Willingness to pay for wholesome canteen takeaway

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for a new intervention at the workplace: wholesome canteen takeaways (CTA), i.e. a low fat meal with a large amount of vegetables prepared at the workplace canteen that only requires re-heating. The contingent valuation method was used to elicit the WTP. Two surveys were carried out in Denmark; one large-scale Internet based survey and one survey at a workplace that introduced CTA. The results from the large-scal...

  5. On the Effectiveness of Incentive Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2015-01-01

    research addressing the need to better understand how interdependencies arise among management control system elements and how they affect organisational effectiveness. Based on an in-depth case study on the implementation of a new incentive system in a manufacturing firm, we seek to provide more research...... and insight into how incentive pay features in complementary and substitutional relationships in an individual organisational setting. Greater insight can help illustrate how complementary and substitutional relationships unfold in even more complex ways than current research indicates, as well as how...

  6. EMBL pay settlement will cost millions

    CERN Multimedia

    Abott, A

    1999-01-01

    A labour dispute at EMBL, Heidelberg, was settled last week at a cost of at least DM4 million for the organisation's 16 member states. The lab has asked for clarification on whether the ruling from the IL0 refers simply to a salary adjustment from 1995 or also to a backdated implementation of higher salary scales. This second option would cost considerably more - 8 percent of the budget in back pay and DM3.5 million per annum (1/2 page).

  7. Managing poorly performing clinicians: health care providers' willingness to pay for independent help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Verity; Sussex, Jon; Ryan, Mandy; Tetteh, Ebenezer

    2012-03-01

    To determine the willingness to pay (WTP) of senior managers in the UK National Health Service (NHS) for services to help manage performance concerns with doctors, dentists and pharmacists. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit senior managers' preferences for a support service to help manage clinical performance concerns. The DCE was based on: a literature review; interviews with support service providers and clinical professional bodies; and discussion groups with managers. From the DCE responses, we estimate marginal WTP for aspects of support services. 451 NHS managers completed the DCE questionnaire. NHS managers are willing to pay for: advice, 'facilitation', and behavioural, health, clinical and organisational assessments. Telephone advice with written confirmation was valued most highly. NHS managers were willing to pay £161.56 (CI: £160.81-£162.32) per year per whole time equivalent doctor, dentist or pharmacist, for support to help manage clinical performance concerns. Marginal WTP varied across respondent subgroups but was always positive. Health care managers valued help in managing the clinicians' performance, and were willing to pay for it from their organisations' limited funds. Their WTP exceeds the current cost of a UK body providing similar support. Establishing a central body to provide such services across a health care system, with the associated economies of scale including cumulative experience, is an option that policy makers should consider seriously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 5 CFR 550.172 - Relation to overtime, night, and holiday pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relation to overtime, night, and holiday..., and holiday pay. Premium pay for Sunday work is in addition to premium pay for holiday work, overtime... used to compute the pay for holiday work, overtime pay, or night pay differential. Law Enforcement...

  9. Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J R

    1971-12-03

    Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.

  10. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation-the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex-would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  11. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Z. Ramsøy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  12. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K.; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing. PMID:29662432

  13. Paying for Mitigation: A Multiple Country Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Kataria, Mitesh; Krupnick, Alan; Lampi, Elina; Loefgren, Aasa; Ping Qin; Chung, Susie; Sterner, Thomas

    2010-05-15

    Unique survey data from a contingent valuation study conducted in three different countries (China, Sweden, and the United States) were used to investigate the ordinary citizen's willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. We find that a large majority of the respondents in all three countries believe that the mean global temperature has increased over the last 100 years and that humans are responsible for the increase. A smaller share of Americans, however, believes these statements, when compared to the Chinese and Swedes. A larger share of Americans is also pessimistic and believes that nothing can be done to stop climate change. We also find that Sweden has the highest WTP for reductions of CO{sub 2}, while China has the lowest. Thus, even though the Swedes and Chinese are similar to each other in their attitudes toward climate change, they differ considerably in their WTP. When WTP is measured as a share of household income, the willingness to pay is the same for Americans and Chinese, while again higher for the Swedes

  14. Refusal to pay electricity bill is illegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    Pursuant to a judgement passed by the Lower Court of Hamburg, the author discusses probable legal arguments justifying the refusal to pay one's electricity bill, the so-called electricity bill boycott. Following an analysis of the power supply contract and of the content and the limits of the fundamental right of freedom of conscience, as well as of the concept of free enterprise and of the legal effect of licenses under the nuclear law, his point of view stated in the article is to agree with the decision of the court saying that the operation of a nuclear power plant licensed under the nuclear law does not mean an infringement of the right of freedom of conscience. It can further not be accepted to let people refuse to pay their electricity bill by referring to the right of freedom of speech, by alleging conduct against public policy on the part of the public utilities, or by referring to the right of opposition. (HSCH) [de

  15. Gender Differences in Pay Histories and Views on Pay Entitlement among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Serge; Curtis, James

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether gender differences in recent pay experience influence entitlement views by providing different standards for female and male students' judgments of their entitlements. Responses from 309 undergraduate students reveal that income gaps in the full-time working world extended to their own recent work experiences and that these past…

  16. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  17. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  18. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  19. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  20. Executive compensation, financial performance and say on pay votes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 was passed as a response to the late-2000s recession. A shareholder opt-in executive pay vote was introduced as a solution to the managerial power problem. We examine the results of this recommended solution and prove its viability. We find that there is a stronger association between high CEO pay and low say-on-pay vote support for firms with negative financial performance. We also find the market-to-book ratio is significantly lower for companies that failed say-on-pay votes. Furthermore, regulated industries such as financial services are more likely receive unfavourable say-on-pay votes. We document an increase in the sensitivity of CEO pay to poor performance. Overall, these finds are consistent with calls for less “rewards for failure” that led to the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

  1. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCall-backâ pay. 778.221 Section 778.221 Labor Regulations...Regular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.221 “Call-back” pay. (a) General. In the interest of... payments consist of a specified number of hours' pay at the applicable straight time or overtime rates...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6653-1 - Failure to pay tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to pay tax. 301.6653-1 Section 301.6653... Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts § 301.6653-1 Failure to pay tax. (a) Negligence or intentional... paragraph (b)(2) of this section. (e) Failure to pay stamp tax. Any person (as defined in section 6671(b...

  3. Performance pay, sorting and the dimensions of job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    C Green; J S Heywood

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of performance related pay on several dimensions of job satisfaction. In cross-sectional estimates, performance related pay is associated with increased overall satisfaction, satisfaction with pay, satisfaction with job security and satisfaction with hours. It appears to be negatively associated with satisfaction with the work itself. Yet, after accounting for worker fixed-effects, the positive associations remain and the negative association vanishes. Th...

  4. CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON PRE-PAY MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta-Madalina MEGHISAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to identify the preferences of the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services young users from Romania. Approach/ methodology: The analysis of the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services was made using statistical functions: descriptive statistics, t test, correlation and factor analysis. Results: According to the analysis made, we could underline the habits of usage from the part of pre-pay mobile telecommunications services consumers. Originality: The paper drew an objective analysis on the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services from the perspective of young consumers.

  5. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  6. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    this threshold, however, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, in line with previously unexplained evidence from field experiments. Moreover, an increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer's utility and may further lower the purchase rate......Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular in a wide range of industries. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer's utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, which generates different purchase...... decisions and optimal prices across individuals. When a good is sold at a fixed price higher than a threshold value, a price that the individual thinks is fair, the adoption of PWYW increases his utility and hence results in a weakly higher purchase rate. When a good is sold at a fixed price lower than...

  7. Nuclear opponents sentenced to pay electricity rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    In its decison of March 19, 1980 the Local Court of Hamburg sentenced a nuclear opponent to pay the sum withheld to the electricity supply utility. He had remitted 10 per cent of the rate on a blocked account. A right to refuse payment cannot be founded on Art. 4 of the Basic Law, since the freedom of conscience is not unilimited but may be restricted by the legal system or by obligations undertaken by oneself. Nor does the defendant have a right to withhold, since he is not entitled to a counter-claim from the power supply contract. Against the right to refuse payment in good faith speaks the fact that the plaintiff operates the nuclear power plant legally persuant to a licence. Even if the licence was withdrawn by an administrative court, this would not abolish with retroactive effect the existing reasonability of payment. (HSCH) [de

  8. The Pays de Gex celebrates science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    From 18 to 23 October, the Fête de la Science will be celebrated at various venues in the Pays de Gex and at CERN.   Physiscope will perform awe-inspiring demonstrations in the Globe. The Physiscope team will give demonstrations for schools and the general public in the Globe, performing awe-inspiring experiments to answer questions like "Can you drive a nail in with a banana?" or "Is it possible to survive a 100,000 volt shock?" The Esplanade du Lac in Divonne-les-Bains will host a Café des Sciences and performances by the children of the Lycée International in Ferney-Voltaire. The Physiscope is an educational venture of the Physics section of the University of Geneva and the research programme MaNEP. The programme of the Fête de la Science can be consulted here.      

  9. Pay, working conditions, and teacher quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A; Rivkin, Steven G

    2007-01-01

    Eric Hanushek and Steven Rivkin examine how salary and working conditions affect the quality of instruction in the classroom. The wages of teachers relative to those of other college graduates have fallen steadily since 1940. Today, average wages differ little, however, between urban and suburban districts. In some metropolitan areas urban districts pay more, while in others, suburban districts pay more. But working conditions in urban and suburban districts differ substantially, with urban teachers reporting far less administrator and parental support, worse materials, and greater student problems. Difficult working conditions may drive much of the difference in turnover of teachers and the transfer of teachers across schools. Using rich data from Texas public schools, the authors describe in detail what happens when teachers move from school to school. They examine how salaries and student characteristics change when teachers move and also whether turnover affects teacher quality and student achievement. They note that both wages and student characteristics affect teachers' choices and result in a sorting of teachers across schools, but they find little evidence that teacher transitions are detrimental to student learning. The extent to which variations in salaries and working conditions translate into differences in the quality of instruction depends importantly on the effectiveness of school personnel policies in hiring and retaining the most effective teachers and on constraints on both entry into the profession and the firing of low performers. The authors conclude that overall salary increases for teachers would be both expensive and ineffective. The best way to improve the quality of instruction would be to lower barriers to becoming a teacher, such as certification, and to link compensation and career advancement more closely with teachers' ability to raise student performance.

  10. Who will pay the ecological debts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.; Benka, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ecological ignorance of the past has to be addressed. The question is who will pay the ecological debts. State officials know exactly who should pay. According to them the main part of the burden should be carried by companies - the successors of the former socialist factories and companies that inherited the ecological debts. The companies object to this idea. And their reason is obvious - the estimated cost of the disposal of all high risk tips, old chemical stores and contaminated soil amounts to a prohibitive 100 billions Slovak crowns (2.63 billion EUR). The Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic has been working on legislation that would address the ecological debt in a comprehensive way for two years. But the final effect is minimal. The draft legislation presented in 2004 did not pass the commenting process and after pressure from the commercial sector the Ministry finally withdrew its draft. The Ministry then formed a working group with representatives of industries that was supposed to find a solution acceptable for both environmentalists and industries. But no progress has been made so far. 'The original bill was superficial and not supported by expert studies. And was presented too early,' explained Jozef Mikulec, a representative of the Industry Association of Slovakia, and argued that not even the European Union has yet issued a dedicated directive addressing the environmental burden. In his opinion the existing legislation - the Act on Water - is sufficient: and the closed and liquidated petrol stations provide a good enough example. At some old petrol stations the distribution pipes were leaking. The Ministry of Environment wants a new act. In its opinion the Act on Water only addresses the ecological debts on an ad hoc basis but does not offer a comprehensive solution. Enforceability measures are missing. 'We cannot even investigate the locations of ecological burdens as without new legislation we do not have access to production plants

  11. Equal pay by gender and by nationality: a comparative analysis of Switzerland's unequal equal pay policy regimes across time

    OpenAIRE

    Erne, Roland; Imboden, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    What explains the adoption of two different policies on equal pay by gender (EPG) and by nationality (EPN) in Switzerland? And why is the liberal, litigation-based, equal pay policy regime set up by the Gender Equality Act of 1996 much less effective than the neocorporatist ‘accompanying measures’ to the Bilateral European Union–Switzerland Agreement on Free Movement of Persons adopted in 1999 to ensure equal pay for workers of different national origins? The formation of two different policy...

  12. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  13. Estrelas variáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Sérgio Manuel de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    A observação do céu nocturno é uma prática que vem da Antiguidade. Desde então e durante muito tempo pensou-se que as estrelas mantinham o brilho constante. Assim foi até ao século XVI, quando David Fabricius observou uma estrela cujo brilho variava periodicamente. Dois séculos mais tarde, Jonh Goodricke descobriu uma segunda estrela e com o desenvolvimento de instrumentos de observação este conjunto foi muito alargado e hoje inclui o Sol.A variação do brilho das estrelas variáveis permite d...

  14. Paying you back or paying me forward: understanding rewarded and unrewarded organizational citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, M Audrey; Meglino, Bruce M; Lester, Scott W; Jeong, Sophia S

    2010-03-01

    The definition of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has evolved from one in which the behavior is unrewarded to one in which rewards play a significant role. As a result, little is known about mechanisms that sustain unrewarded OCB. We used the theory of other orientation to examine 2 mechanisms based on the norm of reciprocity: the obligation to reciprocate the benefits already received from another ("paying you back") and the expected reciprocity that one's actions will stimulate future benefits from another ("paying me forward"). We propose that these mechanisms are more or less influential depending on one's motivational orientation. In 3 experiments using both trait and state indicators of other orientation, we found that the prosocial behavior of individuals higher in other orientation was more strongly influenced by the obligation to reciprocate and less affected by the expectation of reciprocity. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Willingness to Pay for Environmental Health Risk Reductions When There are Varying Degrees of Life Expectancy: A White Paper (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of existing value of statistical life (VSL) estimates in benefit-cost analysis relates to relatively short changes in life expectancy. The authors' strategy for addressing this question is to briefly survey the existing economics literature.

  16. Gender inequality, gender pay gap, and pay inequity: Perceptions and reactions in Finnish society and workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Khoreva, Violetta

    2012-01-01

    A growing awareness of gender inequality as well as a conviction that it should be eliminated has produced a number of studies aiming at uncovering its reasons. Much less attention has been given to the subjective dimension of how individuals perceive gender inequality. One of the main elements of gender inequality, the gender pay gap, has also received considerable attention by scholars all around the world. However, several researchers documented that their respondents did not perceive the...

  17. CRA Grade Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...

  18. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  19. Willingness to pay for National Health Insurance Fund among public servants in Juba City, South Sudan: a contingent evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaza, Robert; Alier, Paul Kon; Kirabira, Peter; Ogubi, David; Lako, Richard Lino Loro

    2017-08-30

    This study assessed willingness to pay for National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) among public servants in Juba City. NHIF is the proposed health insurance scheme for South Sudan and aims at achieving universal health coverage for the entire nation's population. One compounding issue is that over the years, governments' spending on healthcare has been decreasing from 8.4% of national budget in 2007 to only 2.2% in 2012. A cross-sectional study design using contingent evaluation was employed; data on willingness to pay was collected from 381 randomly selected respondents and 13 purposively selected key informants working for the national, state and Juba County in September 2015. Qualitative data were analysed using conceptual content analysis. T-tests and linear regressions were performed to determine association between WTP for NHIF and independent variables. Up to 381 public servants were interviewed, of which 68% indicated willingness to pay varying percentages of total monthly individual income for NHIF. Over two-thirds (67.8%) of those willing to pay could pay up to 5% of their total monthly income, 22.9% could pay up to 10% and the rest could pay 25%. Over 80% were willing to pay up to 50 SSP (1 USD = 10 SSP) premiums for medical consultation, laboratory services and drugs. The main factors influencing the respondents' decisions were awareness, alternative sources of income, household size, insurance cover and religion. Willingness to pay is mainly influenced by awareness, alternative sources of individual income, household size, insurance cover and religion. Most of the public servants were aware of and willing to pay for NHIF and prefer a premium of up to 5% of total monthly income. There is need to create awareness and reach out to those who do not know about the scheme in addition to a detailed analysis of other stakeholders. Consideration could be made by the Government of South Sudan to start the scheme at the earliest opportunity since the majority of

  20. 77 FR 23595 - National Equal Pay Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... President, empowers women to recover wages lost to discrimination by extending the time period in which an...--regardless of the innovator's gender. On National Equal Pay Day, let us resolve to become a Nation that... injustice of wage discrimination, and join efforts to achieve equal pay. [[Page 23596

  1. Survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in selected business organisations in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Social Sciences ... The study was an attempt at investigating the relatedness of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in business organizations in Lagos Nigeria.

  2. Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    The general-equilibrium effects of performance-related teacher pay include long-term incentive and teacher-sorting mechanisms that usually elude experimental studies but are captured in cross-country comparisons. Combining country-level performance-pay measures with rich PISA-2003 international achievement micro data, this paper estimates…

  3. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9701.353... upon promotion. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, upon an employee's promotion, DHS... basic pay after promotion may not be less than the minimum rate of the higher band. (b) DHS will issue...

  4. 40 CFR 57.109 - Maintenance of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of pay. 57.109 Section 57.109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS General § 57.109 Maintenance of pay. The Administrator will not approve...

  5. Shortchanged: The Hidden Costs of Lockstep Teacher Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNTP, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Nobody goes into teaching to get rich, but that's no excuse not to pay teachers as professionals. Compensation is one of the most important factors in determining who enters the teaching profession and how long they stay--yet 90 percent of all U.S. school districts pay teachers without any regard for their actual performance with students,…

  6. Teacher Merit Pay: Is It a Good Idea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2009-01-01

    President Obama's education agenda, which unhappily seems to be George W. Bush's program squared, contains two major features that will impact teacher pay and working conditions. The first is that charter schools are to be promoted aggressively. The second is an insistence on teacher merit pay. In this article, the author talks about teacher merit…

  7. 5 CFR 831.1003 - Deductions from pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deductions from pay. 831.1003 Section 831.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1003 Deductions from pay. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this...

  8. Merit Pay and Music Education: A Motivation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recently, state and federal legislators have emphasized teacher quality in their efforts to improve public education. Many reformers believe that merit pay may prove invaluable in attracting highly qualified educators to the workforce and retaining them, as well as in improving students' test scores. While merit pay's ability to recruit and retain…

  9. Constructing a Measure of Private-pay Nursing Home Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kali S; Silver, Benjamin; Gozalo, Pedro L; Dosa, David; Grabowski, David C; Makineni, Rajesh; Mor, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    Nursing home (NH) care is financed through multiple sources. Although Medicaid is the predominant payer for NH care, over 20% of residents pay out-of-pocket for their care. Despite this large percentage, an accepted measure of private-pay NH occupancy has not been established and little is known about the types of facilities and the long-term care markets that cater to this population. To describe 2 novel measures of private-pay utilization in the NH setting, including the proportion of privately financed residents and resident days, and examine their construct validity. Retrospective descriptive analysis of US NHs in 2007-2009. We used Medicare claims, Medicare Enrollment records, and the Minimum Data Set to create measures of private-pay resident prevalence and proportion of privately financed NH days. We compared our estimates of private-pay utilization to payer data collected in the NH annual certification survey and evaluated the relationships of our measures with facility characteristics. Our measures of private-pay resident prevalence and private-pay days are highly correlated (r=0.83, Ppay residents and days in higher quality facilities. This new methodology provides estimates of private-pay resident prevalence and resident days. These measures were correlated with estimates using other data sources and validated against measures of facility quality. These data set the stage for additional work to examine questions related to NH payment, quality of care, and responses to changes in the long-term care market.

  10. Be vigilant, this government is coming after your pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Mike

    2016-02-10

    When chancellor George Osborne accepted what might have been a couple of luncheon vouchers from Google in payment of ten years' unpaid UK tax, the Department of Health submitted its evidence to the Pay Review Body in favour of extending 'plain time working' and introducing performance-related incremental pay progression.

  11. 22 CFR 214.42 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 214.42 Section 214.42... Advisory Committees § 214.42 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) A.I.D. follows OMB/CSC guidelines in section 11 of... experts, their compensation shall be fixed in accordance with CSC guidelines and regulations, and the...

  12. 50 CFR 510.9 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 510.9 Section 510... ACT § 510.9 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Compensation of members and staff of, and consultants to the... accordance with guidelines established by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget pursuant to...

  13. 44 CFR 12.18 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 12.18 Section 12.18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.18 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Members. Subject to the...

  14. The university workers' willingness to pay for commuting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, G.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Rietveld, P.

    2012-01-01

    Using a dynamic approach, employing data on job mobility, we demonstrate that university workers' marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting distance is about €0. 25 per kilometre travelled. This corresponds to a marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting time of about 75 % of the

  15. Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

  16. Do Consumers Pay More Using Debit Cards than Cash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnemark, Emma; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We conduct an incentivized experiment to study the effect of the payment method on spending. We find that the willingness to pay is higher when subjects pay with debit cards compared to cash. The result is robust to controlling for cash-on-hand constraints, spending type, price familiarity...

  17. Equal pay for women in science is achievable

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    x

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... introduced a bill, the SECURE Water Act, that would expand the survey's groundwater and stream-flow monitoring programmes. Equal pay for women in science is achievable. Aggressive academic management can correct pay disparities between male and female scientists, say researchers. Their study.

  18. Adequacy of Pay Structure and Its Impact on Personal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Salim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pay structure consists of two salient elements: monetary and non-monetary rewards. The ability of administrators to adequately provide these rewards may have a significant impact on personal outcomes. Although this relationship is vital, the role of adequacy of pay structures as an important antecedent was given less emphasis in the organizational pay structure research literature. Thus, this study was undertaken to examine the association between the adequacy of pay structure and personal outcomes. A survey method was conducted to collect data from employees who worked in private institutions of higher learning in Malaysia. The SmartPLS path model analysis demonstrated that job satisfaction and organizational commitment were important outcomes of the adequacy of pay structure in the studied organizations. Furthermore, this study also provided the relevant discussions, implications and conclusion.

  19. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Diane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33, which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI levy (part of VAT is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and

  20. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazili, James; Gyapong, John; McIntyre, Diane

    2011-06-27

    Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National

  1. 5 CFR 550.131 - Authorization of pay for holiday work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization of pay for holiday work... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.131 Authorization of pay for holiday work. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, an employee who performs holiday work is...

  2. 20 CFR 10.216 - How is the pay rate for COP calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for COP purposes is equal to the employee's regular “weekly” pay (the average of the weekly pay over... occurred during the 45-day period are to be reflected in the weekly pay determination. (b) The weekly pay... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the pay rate for COP calculated? 10...

  3. 5 CFR 534.406 - Conversion to the SES pay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the SES pay system. (a) On the first day of the first applicable pay period beginning on or after... rate of basic pay that is equal to the employee's rate of basic pay, plus any applicable locality-based... first day of the first applicable pay period beginning on or after January 1, 2004. If an SES member's...

  4. LHCb: full-steam strategy pays off

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    LHCb looks at LHC proton collisions from a special angle. The experiment studies rare decays of the B particle to look into the physical processes that might hide new physics. Designed to operate at moderate luminosity, LHCb has been more daring for the last year and is running at conditions tougher than the nominal. The new strategy is paying off, as important physics results have just started to emerge…   Event display presented at the EPS-HEP 2011 conference showing a B0s meson decaying into a μ+ and μ- pair.  The LHCb detector was originally designed to run at moderate luminosity and low interaction pile-up. In other words, unlike the CMS and ATLAS experiments, the whole LHCb experimental set-up and data-taking infrastructure was designed to process just one proton interaction for each bunch crossing. For the last year, however, this has all been old news. A change in LHCb strategy was made possible when it became clear that the LHC was going to first i...

  5. INDUSTRIAL BRANDING – DOES IT PAY OFF?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BUTNARIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a world characterized by the growth of global competition, a key question raised by business-to-business marketers is if brands in industrial markets really pay off, that is in which contexts and for what type of customers branding efforts are important and can bring competitive advantages for the companies owning those brands. The particularities and importance of branding in business has become a major field of scientific debate in the last years, but there are still questions unanswered and aspects unclear and under researched. Traditionally, B2B managers have been more skeptical about the benefits of branding, arguing that the organizational buying process is rational and focused on functional characteristics of the products and not based on the emotional values used in the B2C context. In this paper, we review the literature on brand equity in industrial markets and propose a synthetic conceptual model, with the purpose to shed more light on the issue of industrial branding.

  6. The New Urban Success: How Culture Pays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Hristova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban economists have put forward the idea that cities that are culturally interesting tend to attract “the creative class” and, as a result, end up being economically successful. Yet it is still unclear how economic and cultural dynamics mutually influence each other. By contrast, that has been extensively studied in the case of individuals. Over decades, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu showed that people's success and their positions in society mainly depend on how much they can spend (their economic capital and what their interests are (their cultural capital. For the first time, we adapt Bourdieu's framework to the city context. We operationalize a neighborhood's cultural capital in terms of the cultural interests that pictures geo-referenced in the neighborhood tend to express. This is made possible by the mining of what users of the photo-sharing site of Flickr have posted in the cities of London and New York over 5 years. In so doing, we are able to show that economic capital alone does not explain urban development. The combination of cultural capital and economic capital, instead, is more indicative of neighborhood growth in terms of house prices and improvements of socio-economic conditions. Culture pays, but only up to a point as it comes with one of the most vexing urban challenges: that of gentrification.

  7. The New Urban Success: How Culture Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Desislava; Aiello, Luca M.; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-04-01

    Urban economists have put forward the idea that cities that are culturally interesting tend to attract `the creative class' and, as a result, end up being economically successful. Yet it is still unclear how economic and cultural dynamics mutually influence each other. By contrast, that has been extensively studied in the case of individuals. Over decades, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu showed that people's success and their positions in society mainly depend on how much they can spend (their economic capital) and what their interests are (their cultural capital). For the first time, we adapt Bourdieu's framework to the city context. We operationalize a neighborhood's cultural capital in terms of the cultural interests that pictures geo-referenced in the neighborhood tend to express. This is made possible by the mining of what users of the photo-sharing site of Flickr have posted in the cities of London and New York City over five years. In so doing, we are able to show that cultural capital rather than economic capital is more indicative of neighborhood growth in terms of house prices and improvements of socio-economic conditions. Culture pays, but only up to a point. Cultural capital also comes with one of the most vexing urban challenges: that of gentrification.

  8. How to Pay for Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael E; Kaplan, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The United States stands at a crossroads in how to pay for health care. Fee for service, the dominant payment model in the U.S. and many other countries, is now widely recognized as perhaps the single biggest obstacle to improving health care delivery. A battle is currently raging, outside of the public eye, between the advocates of two radically different payment approaches: capitation and bundled payments. The stakes are high, and the outcome will define the shape of the health care system for many years to come, for better or for worse. In this article, the authors argue that although capitation may deliver modest savings in the short run, it brings significant risks and will fail to fundamentally change the trajectory of a broken system. The bundled payment model, in contrast, triggers competition between providers to create value where it matters--at the individual patient level--and puts health care on the right path. The authors provide robust proof-of-concept examples of bundled payment initiatives in the U.S. and abroad, address the challenges of transitioning to bundled payments, and respond to critics' concerns about obstacles to implementation.

  9. Households' willingness to pay for overhead-to-underground conversion of electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNair, Ben J., E-mail: Ben.McNair@anu.edu.a [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Crawford Building, Lennox Crossing, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Bennett, Jeff [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Crawford Building, Lennox Crossing, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Hensher, David A.; Rose, John M. [Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies, The Business School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    Underground low-voltage electricity networks have several advantages over overhead networks including reliability of supply, safety and improved visual amenity. The economic viability of replacing existing overhead networks with new underground networks depends on the value of these benefits to households, but no complete value estimates are available in the literature. This paper represents a contribution towards addressing this research gap. A stated choice survey is used to estimate willingness to pay for undergrounding in established residential areas in Canberra, Australia. Average willingness to pay is at least A$6838 per household and there is significant variation in preferences over the population. The results suggest that benefits would be highest in areas with higher household income and older residents where visual amenity, safety, tree trimming, or restrictions on the use of yard space are of concern. - Research highlights: {yields} A choice experiment is used to estimate values for undergrounding electricity wires. {yields} Average willingness to pay is at least A$6838 per household in Canberra, Australia. {yields} Preferences vary considerably over the population. {yields} Benefits would be highest in areas with higher income and older residents.

  10. Willingness to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance: an analysis of dairy farmers in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Ameer; Chander, Mahesh; Bardhan, Dwaipayan

    2013-02-01

    In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance.

  11. Administrators' Pay Rises Less than Inflation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Debra E.

    1990-01-01

    For the second time in three years, raises for administrators have fallen behind the inflation rate, says a survey conducted by the College and University Personnel Association. At public institutions increases have remained stable. At private institutions, which rely on tuition to finance their payroll, raises tended to vary more. (MLW)

  12. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  13. Non-performance of the Severance Pay Program in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vodopivec

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Combining information from the Firm Survey of Labor Costs with the information about claims filed with the Guarantee Fund by workers whose employers defaulted on their severance pay obligations, the paper analyzes the so-called non-performance problem of severance pay – the fact that coverage, and thus legal entitlement, does not guarantee the actual receipt of the benefit – as experienced in Slovenia in 2000. The findings are threefold: (i one-third of total obligations incurred by firms failed to be honored and only a small portion of defaulted severance pay claims was reimbursed by the Guarantee Fund; (ii while both men and women seem to be equally affected, workers older than 40 were disproportionally represented among those whose severance pay claims failed to be honored; and, (iii among firms that incurred severance pay liabilities, larger and more productive firms were more likely to observe their fiduciary obligations and pay them out. These findings corroborate the weaknesses of severance pay as an income protection program, pointing to the large scale of the non-performance problem and the inequities created by it.

  14. Take-or-Pay under Japanese energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namikawa, Ryoichi

    2003-01-01

    Japan has tried to increase the import of liquefied natural gas (LNG) because of the nation's fragile energy supply structure. In Japan, almost all LNG is imported under long-term contracts with a Take-or-Pay clause, although buyers assume considerable risk under such a clause. This paper tries to determine why the Take-or-Pay clause has been retained in LNG import contracts in Japan, focusing on the relation between Take-or-Pay and energy security policy. It is found that the government has not pursued a consistent, consecutive policy on Take-or-Pay under the changing energy situation after oil crises. On the one hand, the government has accepted Take-or-Pay because it secures a stable supply of LNG, but on the other hand, it has tried to scrap Take-or-Pay in order to reduce buyers' risk. Furthermore, it was not until the middle/late 1990s that the government implemented deregulation. It is concluded that the government's energy security policy has played an important role in keeping Take-or-Pay in Japan

  15. Who Pays for Dates? Following Versus Challenging Gender Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Lever

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chivalry dictates that on a “date,” the man pays, whereas egalitarian ideals suggest that gender should not determine who pays. We examined the extent to which people embrace or reject these competing notions. Unmarried heterosexual participants (N = 17,607 reported their behaviors and attitudes regarding who does and who should pay for dates on a survey posted on NBCNews.com. Although most men (74% and women (83% report that both members of the couple contribute to dating expenses after dating for 6 months, most men (84% and women (58% reported that men still pay more expenses. Many women (39% wished men would reject their offers to pay and 44% of women were bothered when men expected women to help pay. Many women, however, were bothered when men won’t accept their money (40%. Nearly two thirds of men (64% believed that women should contribute and nearly half of men (44% said they would stop dating a woman who never pays. Nevertheless, the majority of men said they feel guilty when accepting women’s money (76%. These data illustrate how many people are resisting or conforming to traditional gender norms in one telling aspect of dating that historically was related to the male’s displaying benevolent sexism, dominance, and ability to fulfill breadwinner role during courtship.

  16. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  17. Pricing of on-line advertising: pay-per-view or pay-per-click?

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the choice of pay-per-view (PPV) and price-per-click (PPC) when a web publisher is a price taker in the market for advertising banners, and the number of visits is decreasing in advertising. The main result is that the web publisher should always choose either PPV or PPC. If the click-through rate is exogenous, then the optimal amount of advertising is the same for both pricing metholds and the choice of pricing method is given by the click-through rate. If the click-through rate i...

  18. Racial and Ethnic Differences in What Smokers Report Paying for Their Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Kong, Amanda Y; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-07-01

    Smoking rates and tobacco-related health problems vary by race and ethnicity. We explore whether cigarette prices, a determinant of tobacco use, differ across racial and ethnic groups, and whether consumer behaviors influence these differences. We used national Tobacco Use Supplement data from 23 299 adult smokers in the United States to calculate average reported cigarette pack prices for six racial and ethnic groups. Using multivariate regression models, we analyzed the independent effect of race and ethnicity on price, and whether these effects changed once indicators of carton purchasing, menthol use, Indian reservation purchase, and state market prices were incorporated. American Indians and whites pay similar amounts and report the lowest prices. Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians reported paying $0.42, $0.68, and $0.89 more for a pack of cigarettes than whites. After accounting for differences in consumer behaviors, these gaps shrunk to $0.27, $0.29, and $0.27, respectively, while American Indians paid $0.38 more than whites. Pack buying was associated with $0.99 higher per-pack prices than carton buying, which was most common among whites. Additionally, people who purchased off an Indian reservation reporting paying $1.54 more than those who purchased on reservation. Average reported cigarette prices vary by race and ethnicity, in part due to differences in product use and purchase location. Tobacco price policies, especially those that target low prices for multipack products or on Indian reservations may increase the prices paid by whites and American Indians, who smoke at the highest rates and pay the least per pack. This study examines differences in reported prices paid by different racial and ethnic groups, using recent, national data from the United States. Results indicating that racial and ethnic groups that smoke at the highest rates (American Indians and whites) also pay the least are consistent with evidence that price is a key factor in cigarette

  19. Paying for obesity: a changing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lisa A; Cooper, Julie

    2009-06-01

    Coverage for obesity related services is highly variable. Despite this, health plans, purchasers, and states have mounted numerous recent initiatives. To identify the range of approaches being used to address coverage and reimbursement for childhood obesity services. Key informant interviews were conducted using a semi-structured protocol to identify the types of activities they or their organization were engaged in to address childhood obesity, to learn about private payer policies and procedures, to identify best practices, potential resources and/or other key informants. Domains addressed in the protocol included scope of the respondent's organization's activities, the rationale for supporting obesity activities, the degree to which obesity services were a covered benefit and what if any barriers or challenges were encountered in implementation, the policy climate within which the organization operates (e.g. state legislation, initiatives or task forces), and any assessment of the impact and/or cost of implementing their initiatives. The individuals interviewed represented respondents from each of the following categories: employer, health plan, and state insurance programs and conducted by phone between November 2007 and March 2008. In addition to the information gathered by the key informant interviews we conducted a search of the relevant peer review and grey literature between 2005 and 2008 and input from a national expert advisory group. Significant variation, as well as recent changes, were identified in both the private and public sector. Approaches included new benefits and incentives for parents and providers. Only anecdotal evidence of impact of the recent changes was available. There is important forward movement in how public and private players are addressing paying for obesity related services. Medicaid and SCHIP programs have an opportunity to provide additional leadership. Substantial investments in evaluation and research are needed to learn

  20. Performance Pay and Ethnic Wage Differences in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Colin P. Green; John S. Heywood; Nikolaos Theodoropoulos

    2012-01-01

    In the first study using British data, we show that the average wage advantage of holding a performance pay job is greater for minorities than that for Whites. This generates a smaller ethnic wage gap among performance pay jobs than among time rate jobs. Yet, this pattern is driven by those receiving bonuses not those receiving performance related pay and it is evident only for Asians and for those in managerial jobs. Moreover, it is partially driven by sorting in which the more able take bon...

  1. Are Consumers Willing to Pay for Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayga, Rodolfo M. Jr.; Woodward, Richard; Aiew, Wipon

    2005-09-01

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for irradiated food using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e., ground beef), real cash, and actual exchange in a market setting. Single-bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. Our results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of food-borne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Our respondents are willing to pay a premium of about $0.77 for a pound of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost to irradiate the product

  2. The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Alan; Petrongolo, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Women in Britain who work part-time have, on average, hourly earnings about 25% less than that of women working full-time. This gap has widened greatly over the past 30 years. This paper tries to explain this part-time pay penalty. It shows that a sizeable part of the penalty can be explained by the differing characteristics pf FT and PT women. Inclusion of standard demographics halves the estimate of the pay penalty. But inclusion of occupation makes the pay penalty very small, suggesting th...

  3. The gender pay gap in informal employment in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Rokicka, Magdalena; Ruzik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the gender pay gap in the formal and informal labour markets in Poland. The authors verify the hypothesis of the existence of a gender pay gap in informal work and compare this gap with the one observed in the formal (registered) labour market. Various analyses of available data show that size and characteristics of gender pay gap differ depending on the level of earnings. The inequality of earnings among unregistered women and men is more pronounced at the b...

  4. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  5. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  6. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  7. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  8. The Fifth Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Michael; And Others

    An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…

  9. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  10. Strines Textiles make M and T pay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Monitoring and targeting procedures at Strines Textiles, Stockport, are playing a crucial role in the company's fight to reduce energy costs. Now fully re-established, following a management buy out in 1982, Strines Textiles is earning an ever increasing reputation for quality printing in a wide range of designs on considerably varied fabrics: from light-weight dress fabrics in fashion designs to waterproof combat camouflage prints with exacting demands in quality and shade control.

  11. 76 FR 32859 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... and the strong racial, ethnic, and cultural ties which bind together the residents of those places and... cultural ties. 5 U.S.C. 5304. Comment 9 ``The locality pay system is not intended to allow the Government...

  12. Who's Gonna Pay the Piper for Free Online Databases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacso, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Discusses new pricing models for some online services and considers the possibilities for the traditional online database market. Topics include multimedia music databases, including copyright implications; other retail-oriented databases; and paying for free databases with advertising. (LRW)

  13. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007–2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept......, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA...... level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive....

  14. Stated Preference Survey Estimating the Willingness to Pay ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national stated preference survey designed to elicit household willingness to pay for reductions in impinged and entrained fish at cooling water intake structures. To improve estimation of environmental benefits estimation

  15. Factors Influencing the Willingness to Pay User Fees

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, George W.

    2012-01-01

    In this Note I explore the factors which influence the demand side of program participation, or the willingness to pay (WTP). The WTP estimates can help you determine how many people will participate in an event at each fee level.

  16. Health financing: Who pays for equitable health systems? | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... Countries rich and poor face difficult choices in funding quality health care for ... while 31 member states of the World Health Organization pay less than ... on how poor families are benefiting from services – or being excluded.

  17. Drivers willingness to pay progressive rate for street parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study finds willingness to pay and price elasticity for on-street parking demand using stated : preference data obtained from 238 respondents. Descriptive, statistical and economic analyses including : regression, generalized linear model, and f...

  18. Willingness to pay for rural telephone services: Implications for rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications on poverty reduction in Southeast Nigeria. The key research problem was the inability of the telephone providers or regulatory agencies to estimate the amount the people were willing to pay ...

  19. Willingness-to-pay and policy-instrument choice for climate-change policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchen, Matthew J.; Boyle, Kevin J.; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates in support of a national climate-change policy that are comparable with the costs of actual legislative efforts in the U.S. Congress. Based on a survey of 2034 American adults, we find that households are, on average, willing to pay between $79 and $89 per year in support of reducing domestic greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions 17% by 2020. Even very conservative estimates yield an average WTP at or above $60 per year. Taking advantage of randomized treatments within the survey valuation question, we find that mean WTP does not vary substantially among the policy instruments of a cap-and-trade program, a carbon tax, or a GHG regulation. But there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of those willing to pay across policy instruments. Greater education always increases WTP. Older individuals have a lower WTP for a carbon tax and a GHG regulation, while greater household income increases WTP for these same two policy instruments. Republicans, along with those indicating no political party affiliation, have a significantly lower WTP regardless of the policy instrument. But many of these differences are no longer evident after controlling for respondent opinions about whether global warming is actually happening. - Highlights: ► First willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates for actual national climate-change policy in the U.S. ► WTP does not vary among the instruments of a cap-and-trade program, a carbon tax, or a GHG regulation. ► There are differences in the characteristics of those willing to pay across policy instruments. ► No differences after controlling for opinions about whether global warming is actually happening

  20. Nursing home administrator compensation: pay equity and determinants of salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Douglas A

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the issue of gender-based pay inequality. Male NHAs earn 7 percent more than female NHAs, but factors such as education, experience, tenure, facility size, ownership, location, competition, and emphasis on private pay census account for the difference. The findings, however, indicate that racial inequalities and gender differences among married NHAs may be present, requiring further investigation. Key implications of the results are discussed.

  1. Performance-related pay and gender wage differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of performance-related pay (PRP) on gender wage differences using Finnish linked employer-employee panel data. Controlling for unobserved person and firm effects, we find that bonuses increase women's earnings slightly less than men's, but the economic significance of the difference is negligible. Piece rates and reward rates, however, tend to increase gender wage differentials. Thus, the nature of a performance related pay plan is important for gauging the impact of PRP o...

  2. Equal Pay: A Thirty-Five Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ida L.

    Issued on the 35th anniversary of the signing of the Equal Pay Act (1963), this report is a historical analysis of the economic trends affecting women workers from the years leading up to passage of the act through the present. It is divided into three time periods to highlight important developments: Part I--The Early Impact of the Equal Pay Act,…

  3. Merit pay as a motivator in the federal sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 required the implementation of the Merit Pay System for a portion of the Federal civilian workforce as a means of increasing productivity through the use of monetary incentives. To test the validity of this concept, several theories of worker motivation are reviewed and their relation to money motivation and pay-for-performance is established. These relationships are compared to the results of dat...

  4. Willingness to pay for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael P; Chiang-Colvin, Alexis S; Bosco, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    The outcomes of ACL reconstructions in terms of patient satisfaction and function are well known. Most orthopaedic surgeons feel that Medicare and other payors do not reimburse enough for this surgery. The purpose of this study is to determine how much patients are willing to pay for this surgery and compare it to reimbursement rates. We constructed a survey which described the function and limitations of an ACL deficient knee and the expected function of that knee after an ACL reconstruction. We then asked the volunteers how much they would be willing to pay for an ACL reconstruction if it were their knee. We also gathered data on the yearly earnings and Tegner activity level of the volunteers. In all, 143 volunteers completed the survey. We computed correlation coefficients between willingness to pay and both yearly earnings and Tegner activity level. The average amount that the volunteers were willing to pay for an ACL reconstruction was $4,867.00. There was no correlation between yearly earnings and willingness to pay. The correlation coefficient was 0.34. There was a weak correlation between Tegner activity level and willingness to pay. This correlation coefficient was 0.81. The Medicare allowable rate for ACL reconstruction (CPT 29888) in the geographic area of the study was $1,132.00. The data demonstrates that patients are willing to pay much more than traditional payors for ACL reconstruction. These payors undervalue the benefit of this surgery to the patient. There is increasing pressure on orthopaedic surgeons to not participate in insurance plans that reimburse poorly. This places an increasing financial burden on the patient. This study suggests that patients may be willing to pay more for their surgery than their insurance plan and accept more of this burden.

  5. Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypotheses that overall wage compression and low female supply relative to demand reduce a country's gender pay gap. Using micro-data for 22 countries over the 1985-94 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap. Since it is likely that labor market institutions are responsible for an important portion of international differences in wage inequality, the inverse relationship between ...

  6. Equal Opportunity? Gender Gaps in CEO Appointments and Executive Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Keloharju, Matti; Knüpfer, Samuli; Tåg, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses exceptionally rich data on Swedish corporate executives and their personal characteristics to study gender gaps in CEO appointments and pay. Both gaps are sizeable: 18% for CEO appointments and 27% for pay. At most one-eight of the gaps can be attributed to observable gender differences in executives' and their firms' characteristics. Further tests suggest that unobservable gender differences in characteristics are unlikely to account for the remaining gaps. Instead, our resul...

  7. Health at Work and Low-pay:a European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Cottini; Claudio Lucifora

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between health, working conditions and pay in Europe. In particular, we measure health at work using self-assessed indicators for overall, as well as physical and mental health, using the 2005 wave of the EWCS (European Working Conditions Survey) for 15 EU countries. We find that, controlling for personal characteristics, (adverse) working conditions are associated with poor health status – both physical and mental. Low pay plays a role, mainly for men...

  8. Transient nature of cooperation by pay-it-forward reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yutaka; Takezawa, Masanori; Kinjo, Takuji; Nakawake, Yo; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-01-20

    Humans often forward kindness received from others to strangers, a phenomenon called the upstream or pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity. Some field observations and laboratory experiments found evidence of pay-it-forward reciprocity in which chains of cooperative acts persist in social dilemma situations. Theoretically, however, cooperation based on pay-it-forward reciprocity is not sustainable. We carried out laboratory experiments of a pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity game (i.e., chained gift-giving game) on a large scale in terms of group size and time. We found that cooperation consistent with pay-it-forward reciprocity occurred only in a first few decisions per participant and that cooperation originated from inherent pro-sociality of individuals. In contrast, the same groups of participants showed persisting chains of cooperation in a different indirect reciprocity game in which participants earned reputation by cooperating. Our experimental results suggest that pay-it-forward reciprocity is transient and disappears when a person makes decisions repeatedly, whereas the reputation-based reciprocity is stable in the same situation.

  9. An Analysis of Merit Pay Reforms in Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brulle

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available With roots in behaviorist philosophy, performance pay for teachers is often linked to accountability regimes in school reform. The theory girding such programs suggests that pay as an economic incentive can help cause teachers to increase student outcomes as measured by standardized test scores. What is little noticed by many educationists, but particularly by policy makers, is how programmatic effects affect the ontology of educational environment. There are several ways to approach the viability of such programs. In this study of three pay-for-performance programs, two in the U.S. and one in the UK, we provide theoretic insights in light of three variables: (i their psychological framework, (ii teacher efficacy and the teacher-student relationship, and (iii how the psychological impact of such programs coincides with larger institutional forces. Using theory to examine pay-for-performance is necessary in order to get beneath mere data and secure more thorough understandings of the phenomenological impacts of performance pay. And better understanding of these foundational features is necessary, even critical, in order to fully appreciate the economic and informational trade-offs in implementation. Our study suggests that as a small-scale reform measure and when it specifically accounts for complexities of educational production, performance pay may be a viable reform option.

  10. Does it pay to be beautiful?

    OpenAIRE

    Sierminska, Eva

    2015-01-01

    It is a well-established view amongst economists that good-looking people have a better chance of employment and can earn more than those who are less physically attractive. A “beauty premium” is particularly apparent in jobs where there is a productivity gain associated with good looks, though this is different for women and men, and varies across countries. People also sort into occupations according to the relative returns to their physical characteristics; good-looking people take jobs wh...

  11. Role of linguistic skills in fifth-grade mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-03-01

    The current study investigated the direct and indirect relations between basic linguistic skills (i.e., phonological skills and grammatical ability) and advanced linguistic skills (i.e., academic vocabulary and verbal reasoning), on the one hand, and fifth-grade mathematics (i.e., arithmetic, geometry, and fractions), on the other, taking working memory and general intelligence into account and controlling for socioeconomic status, age, and gender. The results showed the basic linguistic representations of 167 fifth graders to be indirectly related to their geometric and fraction skills via arithmetic. Furthermore, advanced linguistic skills were found to be directly related to geometry and fractions after controlling for arithmetic. It can be concluded that linguistic skills directly and indirectly relate to mathematical ability in the upper grades of primary education, which highlights the importance of paying attention to such skills in the school curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Teachers’ perceptions of individual performance-related pay in practice : A picture of a counterproductive pay system

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This article describes and discusses Swedish upper-secondary teachers’ perceptions of the effects of individual performance-related pay (PRP) in the context of educational restructuring and governance. The empirical data were generated through semi-structured interviews of 23 teachers. Power’s distinction between programmatic and technological elements of audit is used as a frame of reference for the problematization of the pay system. The findings demonstrate a wide gap between the programma...

  13. A varying-α brane world cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, Donam

    2001-08-01

    We study the brane world cosmology in the RS2 model where the electric charge varies with time in the manner described by the varying fine-structure constant theory of Bekenstein. We map such varying electric charge cosmology to the dual variable-speed-of-light cosmology by changing system of units. We comment on cosmological implications for such cosmological models. (author)

  14. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  15. Searching for Determinants of Pay or Not to Pay Cash Dividend in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triasesiarta Nur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} A dividend decision of a firm is an outcome of various considerations. These considerations differ across time and industry. Based on asymetric information – agency theory thougtht, this study re-examined various variables that have a bearing on the dividend decision of a firm. In addition to examining the impact of corporate fundamentals on  dividend policy, the study also analyzed the effect of expropriation trigger variables (family ownership, cash funds, the level of diversification and Related Party Transaction/RPT on a dividend policy. The results of panel logistic regression indicated that Cash Funds, RPT, Profitability, Size, Growth, Debt and Macroecomics variables are the determinants of the dividend policy for Indonesian listed public companies, observed during 2002 to 2010.   Keywords: dividend policy-pay and not pay cash dividend, expropriation, asymmetry information, agency theory,  family ownership, cash funds, level of diversification, related party transaction, panel data analysis.

  16. Does it pay to have a network contact? Social network ties, workplace racial context, and pay outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmec, Julie A; Trimble, Lindsey B

    2009-06-01

    This article investigates how social network use to find work affects pay. Analyses using the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality consider the extent to which a network contact's influence level affects a job applicant's pay, whether this effect differs for white, black, and Latino contacts, and how workplace racial context moderates this relationship. Three main findings emerge. First, having an influential contact--one with hiring authority--compared to having no contact yields higher pay. Second, white and minority contact influence on pay differs: among minority contacts, being an outsider (i.e., someone not employed by the firm to which the applicant applies) is associated with higher pay, but being an employee of the firm--an insider--is not. Third, regardless of workplace racial context, black and Latino contacts' influence is most beneficial when their race/ethnicity is not known to the hiring agent. We offer a new interpretation of the mixed findings with regard to the relationship between social network use and pay.

  17. Validating "Value Added" in the Primary Grades: One District's Attempts to Increase Fairness and Inclusivity in Its Teacher Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Polasky, Sarah; Holloway-Libell, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    One urban district in the state of Arizona sought to use an alternative achievement test (i.e., the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress for Primary Grades (MAP)) to include more value-added ineligible teachers in the districts' growth and merit pay system. The goal was to allow for its K-2 teachers to be more…

  18. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  19. The impact of consumer awareness of water sector issues on willingness to pay and cost recovery in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    The recovery of costs in water utilities is a key element in sustainability of both the provider and of the water resource itself. This paper examines the role played by consumer awareness in their willingness to pay for water supply in two cities in Zambia. Research conducted in Kitwe and Lusaka reveals that level of awareness, willingness to pay and cost recovery all vary directly. Whereas awareness may increase consumers’ willingness to pay, therefore assisting service provider’s cost recovery, the research presented here also reveals that factors such as ability to pay, affordability of bills, quality of water and of the service provided, as well as good business-consumer relations are important factors affecting a utility’s ability to recover its costs. If water utilities are to attain sustainability over the long-term, they will have to embark on and maintain consumer awareness programmes, raise the quality of service (e.g., through improved operation and maintenance), and develop and apply the right water tariff.

  20. People's willingness to pay for health insurance in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Curt; Thanh, Nguyen X; Chuc, Nguyen Tk; Emmelin, Anders; Lindholm, Lars

    2008-08-11

    The inequity caused by health financing in Vietnam, which mainly relies on out-of-pocket payments, has put pre-payment reform high on the political agenda. This paper reports on a study of the willingness to pay for health insurance among a rural population in northern Vietnam, exploring whether the Vietnamese are willing to pay enough to sufficiently finance a health insurance system. Using the Epidemiological Field Laboratory for Health Systems Research in the Bavi district (FilaBavi), 2070 households were randomly selected for the study. Existing FilaBavi interviewers were trained especially for this study. The interview questionnaire was developed through a pilot study followed by focus group discussions among interviewers. Determinants of households' willingness to pay were studied through interval regression by which problems such as zero answers, skewness, outliers and the heaping effect may be solved. Households' average willingness to pay (WTP) is higher than their costs for public health care and self-treatment. For 70-80% of the respondents, average WTP is also sufficient to pay the lower range of premiums in existing health insurance programmes. However, the average WTP would only be sufficient to finance about half of total household public, as well as private, health care costs. Variables that reflect income, health care need, age and educational level were significant determinants of households' willingness to pay. Contrary to expectations, age was negatively related to willingness to pay. Since WTP is sufficient to cover household costs for public health care, it depends to what extent households would substitute private for public care and increase utilization as to whether WTP would also be sufficient enough to finance health insurance. This study highlights potential for public information schemes that may change the negative attitude towards health insurance, which this study has uncovered. A key task for policy makers is to win the trust of the

  1. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  2. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  3. 29 CFR 778.325 - Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay. 778.325... COMPENSATION Special Problems Reduction in Workweek Schedule with No Change in Pay § 778.325 Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay. The same reasoning applies to salary covering straight time pay for a...

  4. 5 CFR 9701.323 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... individual pay increase. An employee who meets or exceeds performance expectations (i.e., has a rating of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for pay increase associated...) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.335 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a supplement adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... expectations and is entitled to any pay increase associated with a supplement adjustment, as provided in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for pay increase associated...) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and...

  6. 28 CFR 545.22 - Institution work and performance pay committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institution work and performance pay... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.22 Institution work... Institution Inmate Work and Performance Pay Committee to administer the institution's work and performance pay...

  7. 29 CFR 1620.28 - Relationship to other equal pay laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PAY ACT § 1620.28 Relationship to other equal pay laws. The provisions of various State or local laws may differ from the equal pay provisions set forth in the FLSA. No provisions of the EPA will excuse... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to other equal pay laws. 1620.28 Section 1620...

  8. 29 CFR 1620.1 - Basic applicability of the Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic applicability of the Equal Pay Act. 1620.1 Section 1620.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.1 Basic applicability of the Equal Pay Act. (a) Since the Equal Pay Act, 29 U.S.C...

  9. The Relationship between Pay and Job Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Piccolo, Ronald F.; Podsakoff, Nathan P.; Shaw, John C.; Rich, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the motivational aspects of pay are well-documented, the notion that high pay leads to high levels of satisfaction is not without debate. The current study used meta-analysis to estimate the population correlation between pay level and measures of pay and job satisfaction. Cumulating across 115 correlations from 92 independent samples,…

  10. 5 CFR 610.407 - Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... schedule who performs work on a holiday is entitled to basic pay, plus premium pay at a rate equal to basic pay, for the work that is not in excess of the employee's compressed work schedule for that day. For... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium pay for holiday work for...

  11. Reactions to merit pay increases: a longitudinal test of a signal sensitivity perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jason D; Duffy, Michelle K; Mitra, Atul; Lockhart, Daniel E; Bowler, Matthew

    2003-06-01

    The relationships among merit pay raises, trait positive affectivity (PA), and reactions to merit pay increases (pay attitudes and behavioral intentions) were explored in a longitudinal study of hospital employees. Drawing on signal sensitivity theory, the authors expected that PA would moderate the relationship between merit pay raise size and reactions to the increase such that pay raise size would be more strongly related to pay attitudes and behavioral intentions among those low in PA. Results strongly supported the predictions in the case of reactions to the raise amount (happiness and effort intentions) but not for pay level satisfaction. Implications of the results and directions for future research are identified.

  12. Nursing Gender Pay Differentials in the New Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara L; Butler, Matthew J; Butler, Richard J; Johnson, William G

    2018-01-01

    The gender pay gap in the United States is an ongoing issue, affecting women in nearly all occupations. Jobs traditionally associated with men tend to pay better than traditionally female-dominated jobs, and there is evidence to suggest within-occupation gender pay differences as well. We compared and contrasted gender wage disparities for registered nurses (RNs), relative to gender wage disparities for another female-dominated occupation, teachers, while controlling for sociodemographic factors. Using data in the American Community Survey, we analyzed the largest U.S. random representative sample of self-identified RNs and primary or secondary school teachers from 2000 to 2013 using fixed-effects regression analysis. There is greater disparity between nurse pay by gender than in teacher pay by gender. In addition, the net return in wages for additional education is higher for school teachers (21.7%) than for RNs (4.7%). Findings support preferential wages for men in nursing, more so than for men in teaching. The substantial gender disparities are an indirect measure of the misallocation of resources in effective patient care. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. PERFORMANCE BASED PAY AS A DETERMINANT OF JOB SATISFACTION: A STUDY IN MALAYSIA GIATMARA CENTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Azman ISMAIL; Nurhana M RAFIUDDIN; Mohd Hamran MOHAMAD; Norashikin Sahol HAMID; Aniza WAMIN; Nurzawani ZAKARIA

    2011-01-01

    Compensation management literature highlights that performance based pay has two major characteristics: participation in pay systems and adequacy of pay. The ability of management to properly implement such pay systems may lead to increased job satisfaction in organizations. Though, the nature of this relationship is interesting, little is known about the influence of performance based pay on job satisfaction in compensation management literature. Therefore, this study was conducted to examin...

  14. Consumers’Willingness to Pay for Safety Attributes of Bread in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Anyam, Osemeke E.; Fashogbon, Ayodele E.; Oni, Omobowale A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined consumer’s willingness to pay for food safety attributes in bread in Lagos metropolis. It empirically analyzed the factors driving willingness to pay for improved bread and the effect of attributes on willingness to pay and mean willingness to pay for improved bread. The data for the study using a well-structured questionnaire containing Choice Experiment (CE) questions for eliciting willingness to pay was collected from 150 respondents using a two-stage random sampling te...

  15. Consumers' willingness to pay for irradiated prepared ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayga, R.M. Jr.; Woodward, R.; Aiew, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for reducing the risk of contracting foodborne illness using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e. prepared ground beef), real cash and actual exchange in a market setting. Respondents were given positive information about the nature of food irradiation. Single bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. The results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of foodborne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Respondents are willing to pay a premium of about US $0.77 for 450 g (1 pound) of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost of irradiating the product. (author)

  16. Willingness to pay for environmental quality: evidence from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polinard, J L; Wrinkle, R D

    1980-01-01

    The environmental movement evidenced a period of extremely rapid growth during the 1960's and early 1970's. Some recent studies have indicated a decline in general public concern with environmental problems. In this paper we attempt to provide some new evidence which might be of assistance in ascertaining the relative status of concern for the economy, concern for the environment, and willingness to pay for environmental quality. The study focuses upon a major city in a large energy producing state with a large ethnic (Mexican-American) minority. Our data indicate that concern for the environment is not a highly salient issue for our respondents. Economic concerns far outweigh environmental issues. Additionally, willingness to pay for environmental quality is not a unidimensional trait. Perception of who is responsible for pollution rather than perception of a deteriorating environment is a significant indicator of willingness to pay for environmental quality.

  17. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails the redu......The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails...... the reduction of a 30% discount on the driver's car insurance premium, which therefore produced the name, Pay as You Speed. The ISA equipment consists of a GPS-based On Board Unit with a mobile phone connection to a web server. The project was planned for a three-year test period with 300 young car drivers...

  18. Managing imperfect competition by pay for performance and reference pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Henry Y

    2018-01-01

    I study a managed health service market where differentiated providers compete for consumers by choosing multiple service qualities, and where copayments that consumers pay and payments that providers receive for services are set by a payer. The optimal regulation scheme is two-sided. On the demand side, it justifies and clarifies value-based reference pricing. On the supply side, it prescribes pay for performance when consumers misperceive service benefits or providers have intrinsic quality incentives. The optimal bonuses are expressed in terms of demand elasticities, service technology, and provider characteristics. However, pay for performance may not outperform prospective payment when consumers are rational and providers are profit maximizing, or when one of the service qualities is not contractible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparison of the Managerial Characteristics of Mid-Grade Navy Unrestricted Line Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    policy-making lvel , but who have some say in how policy will be implemented and consider- able involvement in carrying out the implementation." Gartaganis...survey subheadings: business/management, communica- tions/language, education, fine and performing arts, health, history, mathematics and science...three pay grades, the heaviest concentration of the war- fare officers’ academic degrees was in mathematics and science. The submariners had the

  20. Don't pay taxes, save your money!

    OpenAIRE

    Bradáč, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Don't Pay Taxes, Save Your Money!" focuses on the impact of the existence of tax havens on private and public sector. On the theoretical level, it shows the attractivity of tax havens for sufficiently large firms that can afford to pay costs of tax planning and profit manipulations. On the empirical level, it shows that tax havens are really the most successful jurisdictions in attracting foreign investors. In the end, two models of tax competition are introduced in order to ...

  1. Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    1776) theory of compensating differences, and Rosen (1986) devised what has become the standard neoclassical economic theory relating wages to the...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-4774 October 2011 Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence Curtis J. Simon...OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  2. The Gender Pay Gap in Europe from a Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    FOUBERT, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principle of equal pay for men and women for work of equal value has been key to the European Union ever since its foundation. It was laid down in the original Treaty, and brought into practice by several directives. Also the Court of Justice's case law has boosted its importance. Notwithstanding these efforts at the legal level, the average gender pay gap for the 27 EU Member States (17.6% in 2008) is hardly diminishing. It is against this worrisome background that the European Commision...

  3. Payment for ecosystem services - paying mussel producers for nitrogen mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Zandersen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    to the marine environment, and the costs of implementing these abatement measures for nutrient load reductions are increasing at the margin. The nutrient uptake by the mussels can be regarded an ecosystem service, that might be utilized, but which need motivation and incentives for the mussel producers...... as a transferable development right where farmers buy the right to continue current fertilizer practices by paying for N retention in another location (here in the water bodies). It is also possible to learn from the GHG policy where it is possible to pay for abatement elsewhere, where it’s more cost...

  4. Geographically differentiated pay in the labour market for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert F; Ma, Ada H Y; Scott, Anthony; Bell, David; Roberts, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This novel application of spatial wage theory to health service labour markets analyses the competitiveness of nurse's pay and how this differs between local labour markets in Britain. A switching regression model is estimated to derive standardised spatial wage differentials (SSWDs) for nurses and their comparators. An SSWD gap is constructed and its relationship to vacancies estimated. A reduction in the gap in a local area is shown to result in an increase in the long-term vacancy rate for National Health Service (NHS) nurses. The competitiveness of nursing pay is shown to have a strong effect on the ability of the NHS to attract and retain nurses.

  5. Spacetime-varying couplings and Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelecky, V. Alan; Lehnert, Ralf; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2003-01-01

    Spacetime-varying coupling constants can be associated with violations of local Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry. An analytical supergravity cosmology with a time-varying fine-structure constant provides an explicit example. Estimates are made for some experimental constraints

  6. Detection of dynamically varying interaural time differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlrausch, Armin; Le Goff, Nicolas; Breebaart, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    of fringes surrounding the probe is equal to the addition of the effects of the individual fringes. In this contribution, we present behavioral data for the same experimental condition, called dynamically varying ITD detection, but for a wider range of probe and fringe durations. Probe durations varied...

  7. Making Information Visual: Seventh Grade Art Information and Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Joel; Schau, Elizabeth; Ayers, Rachael

    2008-01-01

    Seventh grade students entering South East Junior High in Iowa City come from eight elementary feeder schools, as well as from schools around the world. Their information literacy skills and knowledge of reference sources vary, but since all seventh graders and new eighth graders are required to take one trimester of Visual Studies, all entering…

  8. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  9. Coupled plasmon modes and their localization in graded plasmonic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J.J.; Yakubo, K.; Yu, K.W.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmonic waves occur in the subwavelength scale with transverse confinement below the diffraction limit. In this work, we report results of longitudinal localization-delocalization transitions of coupled plasmon modes in graded chains of metallic nanodots. Two graded models are studied: graded index of refraction in the host medium and incremental spacing between the nanoparticles. The coupled plasmon modes in these graded systems exhibit strong localization, showing a tunable passband in finite size systems. These localized modes survive in presence of weak loss in the nanodots. To understand the localization mechanism, we construct equivalent systems of one-dimensional coupled harmonic oscillators, whose coupling strength or masses are gradually varied from one end to the other, with additional on-site potentials. Confining and transmitting electromagnetic energy in these structures may pave new way for many fruitful applications in plasmonics

  10. Parallel search engine optimisation and pay-per-click campaigns: A comparison of cost per acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter T. Kritzinger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is imperative that commercial websites should rank highly in search engine result pages because these provide the main entry point to paying customers. There are two main methods to achieve high rankings: search engine optimisation (SEO and pay-per-click (PPC systems. Both require a financial investment – SEO mainly at the beginning, and PPC spread over time in regular amounts. If marketing budgets are applied in the wrong area, this could lead to losses and possibly financial ruin. Objectives: The objective of this research was to investigate, using three real-world case studies, the actual expenditure on and income from both SEO and PPC systems. These figures were then compared, and specifically, the cost per acquisition (CPA was used to decide which system yielded the best results. Methodology: Three diverse websites were chosen, and analytics data for all three were compared over a 3-month period. Calculations were performed to reduce the figures to single ratios, to make comparisons between them possible. Results: Some of the resultant ratios varied widely between websites. However, the CPA was shown to be on average 52.1 times lower for SEO than for PPC systems. Conclusion: It was concluded that SEO should be the marketing system of preference for e-commerce-based websites. However, there are cases where PPC would yield better results – when instant traffic is required, and when a large initial expenditure is not possible.

  11. Trends in China’s gender employment and pay gap: estimating gender pay gaps with employment selection

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Wei; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the United States and European countries, China has witnessed a widening gender pay gap in the past two decades. Nevertheless, the size of the gender pay gap could still be underestimated as a result of not accounting for the low-wage women who have dropped out of the labor force. As shown by a large and representative set of household survey data in China, since the 1980s the female employment rate has been falling and the gap between male and female employment rates has been ...

  12. Executive turnover: the influence of dispersion and other pay system characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Jake G; Guthrie, James P; Ji, Yong-Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Yeon

    2011-05-01

    Using tournament theory as a guiding theoretical framework, in this study, we assess the organizational implications of pay dispersion and other pay system characteristics on the likelihood of turnover among individual executives in organizational teams. Specifically, we estimate the effect of these pay system characteristics on executive turnover decisions. We use a multi-industry, multilevel data set composed of executives in publicly held firms to assess the effects of pay dispersion at the individual level. Consistent with previous findings, we find that pay dispersion is associated with an increased likelihood of executive turnover. In addition, we find that other pay characteristics also affect turnover, both directly and through a moderating effect on pay dispersion. Turnover is more likely when executives receive lower portions of overall top management team compensation and when they have more pay at risk. These conditions also moderate the relationship between pay dispersion and individual turnover decisions, as does receiving lower compensation relative to the market.

  13. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...... have been profiled in the news. The model is provided to ensure that degree candidates are academic experts in their field, having earned the credential through rigorous study....

  14. Improving Teaching Effectiveness: Merit Pay vs. Organizational Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushardt, Stephen C.; Fowler, Aubrey R.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies four conditions which cause merit pay systems to fail to increase teacher performance: lack of skills, the poor timing of rewards, an inability to measure performance; and competing reinforcers. Explains why organizational culture is a more effective mediator of rewards. (SD)

  15. Household willingness to pay for green electricity in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorić, Jelena; Hrovatin, Nevenka

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the willingness to pay for electricity generated from renewable energy sources in Slovenia. The results confirm that age, household income, education and environmental awareness play the most important role in explaining household attitudes to green electricity programmes. While the willingness to participate in green electricity programmes is influenced by education and environmental awareness, the willingness to pay for green electricity predominantly depends on household income. The results imply that green marketing should be accompanied by awareness-raising campaigns and should target younger, well-educated and high-income households. The expressed median willingness to pay is found to exceed the current level of mandatory charges for green electricity. Nevertheless, recent increases in final electricity prices might have already exhausted the capacity for additional voluntary contributions. - Highlights: ► Paper analyses attitudes to green electricity in one of the new EU member states. ► Willingness to participate is primarily influenced by education and environmental awareness. ► In contrast, willingness to pay for green electricity depends on household income. ► Both decisions are negatively influenced by age. ► Due to the recent price increases there may be no room left for additional voluntary contributions.

  16. Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Private Irrigation Supply in Nandom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated farmers willingness to pay (WTP) for private irrigation in Nandom district, Ghana. The study randomly sampled 236 farmers and analyzed data using descriptive statistics and ordered logit regression model. Results revealed that 94.5 percent of the farmers were WTP for private irrigation services with ...

  17. 26 CFR 31.6151-1 - Time for paying tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time for paying tax. 31.6151-1 Section 31.6151-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE...

  18. The Equal Pay Act: Higher Education and the Court's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Swanson, Austin D.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 for college and university employees are reviewed through an examination of trends in court decisions and legal treatment of the issues. It is concluded that case law has been evolutionary, with concepts of "equal,""work," and others not altered drastically by the courts in recent years.…

  19. Equal Pay Act: Wage Differentials for Time of Day Worked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Richard Alan

    1974-01-01

    The Supreme Court held in Corning Glass Works cases involving male only employees for night shifts that the time of day worked could constitute a factor other than sex whereby the wage differential might qualify as an exception under the Equal Pay Act. Shift differentials could be legal if proven to be nondiscriminatory. (LBH)

  20. The Equal Pay Act: The First 30 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Suzanne M.; Hodge, John W.; Mishra, Jitendra M.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis by decade of the effects of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 shows that women's earnings relative to men's increased by 10 cents from 1960-1990. Black and Hispanic women's earnings lagged further behind. More education and experience did not help women narrow the gap. (SK)

  1. households' ability and willingness to pay for the provision of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... Using probit regression, it is observed that gender, educational status and ... The current study seeks to bridge this gap by examining the ... section two was on willingness and ability to pay for the provision of toilet facilities in ... The reason being that, the CVM method is more superior to other valuation.

  2. Measuring rural homeowners' willingness to pay for land conservation easements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong-Hoon Cho; David H. Newman; J. Michael Bowker

    2005-01-01

    Rapid growth of rural communities in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Macon County, North Carolina has been giving rise to concerns over declining environmental quality and increasing need for land-use policy. This paper examines willingness to pay (WTP) for hypothetical conservation easements as an alternative land-use policy for the county. Despite the fact that Macon...

  3. When Unified Teacher Pay Scales Meet Differential Alternative Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the extent to which unified teacher pay scales and differential alternatives produce opportunity costs that are asymmetric in math and verbal skills. Data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond 1997 and 2003 follow-ups are used to estimate a fully parametric, selection-corrected wage equation for nonteachers, which is then used to…

  4. Geographical scoping and willingness-to-pay for nature protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botzen, W. J.Wouter; van Beukering, Pieter J.H.

    2018-01-01

    This study offers a Choice Experiment (CE) analysis of geographical scope effects. About 500 stated preference surveys were conducted to estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) for nature protection in the Netherlands and the Caribbean Netherlands which became part of the Netherlands’ constitution just

  5. 5 CFR 9901.354 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9901.354... promotion. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, upon an employee's promotion, the employee.... The decision to grant a promotion increase exceeding 12 percent must be reviewed and approved by an...

  6. Profiles of Merit Pay Provisions in Ohio School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Chris; Ingle, W. Kyle

    2018-01-01

    A small number of districts in Ohio from a variety of locales have adopted merit pay provisions. Using Springer's (2009) taxonomy of teacher compensation, we analyzed compensation provisions of these districts. We asked: What are the characteristics of these districts? What criteria are used to determine merit? Who is determining who receives…

  7. Skills, Competencies and Gender: Issues for Pay and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebler, Marie; And Others

    The extent to which skill and competency-based systems used by work organizations in the United Kingdom may contribute to maintenance of the pay gap between men and women was examined through a review of the following: pertinent literature from the United Kingdom and United States; 15 published case studies; current Institute for Employment…

  8. Dutch Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Broiler Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Zomer, Sigourney

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes Dutch consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the welfare of broiler chickens and the consequences for nonhuman animal welfare policies. Using data from a discrete-choice experiment and a random parameter logit model, this study showed that consumers particularly value

  9. Lower Pay for Women's Coaches: Refuting Some Common Justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph P.

    1995-01-01

    The two standard justifications for different salaries paid to male and female coaches under 1963 and 1964 civil rights/equal pay legislation must fail under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which independently prohibits gender discrimination in employment and mandates equal athletic opportunity for female students. Some suggestions…

  10. Air Force Integrated Personnel and Pay System (AFIPPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Technical Guidance to include Information Technolgy (IT) Standards identified in the Technical View One (1) (TV-1) and implementation guidance of GIG...Compliant with Global Information Grid (GIG) Technical Guidance to include Information Technolgy (IT) Standards identified in the Technical View One...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Air Force Integrated Personnel and Pay System (AFIPPS) Defense Acquisition Management

  11. 44 CFR 208.12 - Maximum Pay Rate Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Physicians. DHS uses the latest Special Salary Rate Table Number 0290 for Medical Officers (Clinical... Personnel, in which case the Maximum Pay Rate Table would not apply. (3) Compensation for Sponsoring Agency... organizations, e.g., HMOs or medical or engineering professional associations, under the revised definition of...

  12. Will Volunteers in a Youth Sports Event Become Paying Visitors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Renuka; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2017-01-01

    and broad social benefits influenced that decision. For instance, the strong sense that the event has educational value and showcased the arctic region for tourism were important considerations for volunteers becoming paying guests. Although age nor gender of the volunteers was a factor, those who were...

  13. Pay Equity: An Issue of Race, Ethnicity, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    While the continuing wage gap between men and women, Whites and non-Whites has been well documented, the purpose of this study was to examine the role which discrimination on the basis of race/ethnicity as well as sex plays in the setting of wages. Whether pay equity is an effective means of remedying race-based wage discrimination was also…

  14. Willingness to pay for electricity from renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Houston, A.H.

    1996-09-01

    National polls reveal widespread public preference and willingness to pay more for renewables. ``Green pricing`` programs attempt to capitalize on these preferences and on an expressed willingness to pay more for environmental protection. This report explores the utility option of green pricing as a method of aggregating public preferences for renewables. It summarizes national data on public preferences for renewables and willingness to pay (WTP) for electricity from renewable energy sources; examines utility market studies on WTP for renewables and green-pricing program features; critiques utility market research on green pricing; and discusses experiences with selected green-pricing programs. The report draws inferences for program design and future research. Given the limited experiences with the programs so far, the evidence suggests that programs in which customers pay a monthly premium for a specific renewable electricity product elicit a higher monthly financial commitment per customer than programs asking for contributions to unspecified future actions involving renewables. The experience with green-pricing programs is summarized and factors likely to affect customer participation are identified.

  15. 5 CFR 550.113 - Computation of overtime pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under 5 U.S.C. 5305 or similar provision of law), the overtime hourly rate is 11/2 times his or her... a holiday at the same rate as for overtime work performed on another day. (d) An employee whose rate of basic pay is fixed on an annual or monthly basis and adjusted from time to time in accordance with...

  16. Bridging the Wage Gap: Pay Equity and Job Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Geraldine A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the growing gap between the wages of women and men and reviews arguments opposing pay equity. Cites occupational segregation and sex-based wage discrimination as causes for the wage gap, and considers some remedies that have proven to be effective: negotiation, collective bargaining, litigation, and job evaluation studies. (KH)

  17. Team Performance Pay and Motivation Theory: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions of a team performance pay program in a large suburban school district through the lens of motivation theories. Mixed data analysis was used to analyze teacher responses from two archival questionnaires (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Responses from teachers who participated in the team…

  18. Image-Based Collection and Measurements for Construction Pay Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Prior to each payment to contractors and suppliers, measurements are made to document the actual amount of pay items placed at the site. This manual process has substantial risk for personnel, and could be made more efficient and less prone to human ...

  19. Dynamic Incentive Effects of Relative Performance Pay: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); J.A. Non (Arjan); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe conduct a field experiment among 189 stores of a retail chain to study dynamic incentive effects of relative performance pay. Employees in the randomly selected treatment stores could win a bonus by outperforming three comparable stores from the control group over the course of four

  20. On Paying Attention: Flagpoles, Mindfulness, and Teaching Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Keith

    2008-01-01

    To pay attention--to observe, to see the richness and detail that is right before everyone--is the essence of mindfulness. It is also, the author argues, the essence of good writing--the kind of writing for which there is a long American tradition of writers such as Emerson, Thoreau, E. B. White, Barry Lopez, Annie Dillard, Joan Didion, John…

  1. From Equal to Equivalent Pay: Salary Discrimination in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Ester

    1977-01-01

    Examines the federal statutes barring sex discrimination in employment and argues that the work of any two professors is comparable but not equal. Suggests using regression analysis to prove salary discrimination and discusses the legal justification for adopting regression analysis and the standard of comparable pay for comparable work.…

  2. The Work for Pay Exchange in Public School Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, William L.; Gibson, R. Oliver

    This study explains assessments of fair pay for public school administrators in terms of some individual, job-related, and contextual variables, and it tests Jaques' hypothesis that time-span of discretion is the unconscious measure of level of work in bureaucracies. Data were gathered primarily through telephone interviews with…

  3. Households Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    Environmental Economics Policy Forum for Ethiopia (EEPFE), Ethiopian ... directly—should be able to participate in municipal discussions on improving .... solid waste management (SWM) payment that the public pays for improved ..... 6 Private firms may be subcontracted by the waste collection cooperatives, which are.

  4. Corporate governance and executive pay: evidence from a recent reform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paligorova, Teodora

    -, č. 331 (2007), s. 1-49 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : corporate governance * the Sarbanes-Oxley Act * incentive pay Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp331.pdf

  5. 5 CFR 9901.371 - Conversion into NSPS pay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 9901.371 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL....231 for conversion rules related to determining an employee's career group, pay schedule, and band...

  6. Willingness to Pay for Rural Telephone Services: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... This study assessed Willingness to Pay (WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications for agricultural technology transfer in Southeast Nigeria. ... The sample was made up of 240 agro-based entrepreneurs and 60 extension staff.

  7. 28 CFR 545.26 - Performance pay provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supervision and instruction, safety and care of equipment, ability to work with others, and overall job..., physical demands, working conditions (exposed to dusts, odors, etc.), and the degree of responsibility held... inmate may receive special bonus pay based on the inmate's exceptional work in a temporary job assignment...

  8. Diplomatic Mission: President Obama's Path to Performance Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarick, Andy

    2011-01-01

    In his first major education speech as a presidential candidate, Senator Barack Obama affirmed his support of teachers unions. Less than two years later, in his first major education address as president, delivered to the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce in March 2009, Obama explicitly backed paying teachers for performance, a reform the unions…

  9. Liability to pay retirement benefits when contributions were not paid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the conduct of employers who are associated with retirement funds, who have failed to pay their employees' contributions into such retirement funds. In particular, the article responds to the critique levelled at the approach adopted by both our courts and the office of the Pension Funds Adjudicator ...

  10. Comparing Different European Income Tax Policies Making Work Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond); J.M. Julsing

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRaising the participation at the lower end of the labour market abstract is hindered by the high burden of taxation. Therefore, recently, in some European countries serious efforts have been made to make work pay. In this paper an overview of these current efforts is given. With the

  11. Do Consumers Pay More Using Debit Cards than Cash?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnemark, Emma; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    We conduct an incentivized experiment to test whether the willingness to pay is higher for debit cards compared to cash for three consumer products. Our findings support this conjecture also after controlling for cash availability, spending type, price familiarity and consumption habits...

  12. Governance by Green Taxes: Making Pollution Prevention Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    a comparative study of the water policies of Denmark, France, Germany and the Netherlands, he shows how, in contrast to administrative regulation, green taxes have made pollution prevention pay and promoted the "ecological modernization" of industry. He goes on, however, to challenge the prevailing orthodoxy...

  13. Visitors' Motivation and Willingness to Pay for Conservation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-20

    Apr 20, 2018 ... zoos shows their willingness to pay for conservation services at the zoos. Income (r = 0.25, p ... Therefore, to address the gap, the objective of this study is to ..... and gender had significant relationship with visitors. WTP. This is ...

  14. 5 CFR 550.707 - Computation of severance pay fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) in effect at separation. (3) For prevailing rate positions in which the amount of night shift... schedules, determine for each week in the averaging period the value of night shift differential pay... effect at separation. (4) For positions with seasonal work requirements, compute the weekly average of...

  15. Willingness to pay for ecosystem benefits of Agroforestry driven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the Willingness To Pay (WTP) for ecosystem benefits derivable from Agroforestry (AF) driven green growth practice in Ogun state, Nigeria. The environmental service functions of AF were valued. Multi-stage sampling procedure involving purposive and simple random sampling was adopted in ...

  16. Willingness to pay for organic vegetables in Abeokuta, South West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home ... The choice of the study area was premised on the fact that it is the ... In the model, willingness to pay was specified as 1 if willing and 0 otherwise. The results of ...

  17. Pay Equity Act (No. 34 of 1987), 29 June 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of Ontario, Canada's 1987 Pay Equity Act. The Act seeks to redress systemic gender discrimination in compensation for work performed by employees in "female job classes" and applies to all private sector employers in Ontario with 10 or more employees, all public sector employers, and the employees of applicable employers. The Act continues to apply even if an employer subsequently reduces the number of employees below 10. The Act calls for identification of systemic gender discrimination in compensation through comparisons between female job classes and male job classes in terms of compensation and value of work performed, which is a composite of skill, effort, and responsibility normally required. Pay equity is deemed achieved when the job rate for the female job class is at least equal to the rate for a male job class in the same establishment. If there is no male job class to use for comparison, pay equity is achieved when the female job rate is at least equal to the job rate of a male job class in the same establishment that, at the time of comparison, had a higher job rate while performing work of lower value than the female job class. Differences in compensation between a female and a male job class are allowed if they result from a formal seniority system that does not discriminate on basis of gender, a temporary training or development assignment equally available to males and females, a specified merit compensation plan, actions taken as the result of a gender-neutral reevaluation process, or a skills shortage leading to a temporary inflation in compensation. Pay equity will not be achieved by reducing any employee's compensation. The Act establishes a Pay Equity Commission to oversee implementation.

  18. Willingness To Pay for Social Health Insurance in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Mehrara, Mohsen; Sari, Ali Akbari; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Moeini, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The substantial level of out-of-pocket expenditure for health care by the population causes policy makers to draw particular attention to the proposal of a social health insurance for uninsured members of the community. Hence, it is essential to gather reliable information about the amount of Willingness To Pay (WTP) for health insurance. We assessed the WTP for health insurance in Iran in order to suggest an affordable social health insurance. Method: The study sample included 300 household heads in all Iranian provinces. The double bounded dichotomous choice approach was used to elicit the WTP. Result: The average WTP for social health insurance per person per month was 137 000 Rial (5.5 $US). Household heads with higher levels of education, income and those who worked had more WTP for the health insurance. Besides, the WTP increased in direct proportion to the number of insured members of each household and in inverse proportion to the family size. Conclusions: From a policy point of view, the WTP value can be used as a premium in a society. An important finding of this study is that although households’ Willingness To Pay is not more than the total insurance premium, households are willing to pay more than the premium they ought to pay for health insurance coverage. That is, total insurance premium is 150 000 Rials and households ought to pay approximately half of this sum. This can afford policy makers the ideal opportunity to provide good insurance coverage for medical services according to the need of society. PMID:25168979

  19. The influence of lumber grade on machine productivity in the rough mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Jan Wiedenbeck; Rubin Shmulsky; Anura Perera; Anura Perera

    1999-01-01

    Lumber grade effect on hardwood-part processing time was investigated with a digitally described lumber database in conjunction with a crosscut-first rough mill yield optimization simulator. In this study, the digital lumber sample was subdivided into five hardwood lumber grades. Three cutting bills with varying degrees of difficulty were Cut." The three cutting...

  20. Financial gains and risks in pay-for-performance bonus algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Jerry; Drozd, Edward M; Smith, Kevin; Trisolini, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given to evidence-based process indicators associated with quality of care, while much less attention has been given to the structure and key parameters of the various pay-for-performance (P4P) bonus and penalty arrangements using such measures. In this article we develop a general model of quality payment arrangements and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the key parameters. We then conduct simulation analyses of four general P4P payment algorithms by varying seven parameters, including indicator weights, indicator intercorrelation, degree of uncertainty regarding intervention effectiveness, and initial baseline rates. Bonuses averaged over several indicators appear insensitive to weighting, correlation, and the number of indicators. The bonuses are sensitive to disease manager perceptions of intervention effectiveness, facing challenging targets, and the use of actual-to-target quality levels versus rates of improvement over baseline.

  1. Willingness to pay and determinants of choice for improved malaria treatment in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Edward R; Sharma, Vijaya R; Mills, Anne

    2003-07-01

    A logit model is used to estimate provider choice from six types by malaria patients in rural Nepal. Patient characteristics that influence choice include travel costs, income category, household size, gender, and severity of malaria. Income effects are introduced by assuming the marginal utility of money is a step function of expenditures on the numeraire. This method of incorporating income effects is ideally suited for situations when exact income data is not available. Significant provider characteristics include wait time for treatment and wait time for laboratory results. Household willingness to pay (wtp) is estimated for increasing the number of providers and for providing more sites with blood testing capabilities. Wtp estimates vary significantly across households and allow one to assess how much different households would benefit or lose under different government proposals.

  2. Incentive Design and Quality Improvements: Evidence from State Medicaid Nursing Home Pay-for-Performance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konetzka, R Tamara; Skira, Meghan M; Werner, Rachel M

    2018-01-01

    Pay-for-performance (P4P) programs have become a popular policy tool aimed at improving health care quality. We analyze how incentive design affects quality improvements in the nursing home setting, where several state Medicaid agencies have implemented P4P programs that vary in incentive structure. Using the Minimum Data Set and the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting data from 2001 to 2009, we examine how the weights put on various performance measures that are tied to P4P bonuses, such as clinical outcomes, inspection deficiencies, and staffing levels, affect improvements in those measures. We find larger weights on clinical outcomes often lead to larger improvements, but small weights can lead to no improvement or worsening of some clinical outcomes. We find a qualifier for P4P eligibility based on having few or no severe inspection deficiencies is more effective at decreasing inspection deficiencies than using weights, suggesting simple rules for participation may incent larger improvement.

  3. Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  4. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business based...... on often highly abstract service offerings, this requires the provider to have a clear overview of its knowledge and resources and how these can be configured to obtain the desired customization of services. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a KIBS provider can match value propositions...... with varied customer needs utilizing service modularity. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative multiple case study is organized around 5 projects allowing within-case and cross-case comparisons. Our findings describe how through the configuration of knowledge and resources a sustainable competitive...

  5. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.

  6. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.

  7. Do we pay our community preceptors? Results from a CERA clerkship directors' survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, David; Jerpbak, Christine M; Margo, Katherine L; Power, David V; Slatt, Lisa M; Tarn, Derjung M

    2014-03-01

    Family medicine clerkships depend heavily on community-based family physician preceptors to teach medical students. These preceptors have traditionally been unpaid, but in recent years some clerkships have started to pay preceptors. This study determines trends in the number and geographic region of programs that pay their community preceptors, identifies reasons programs pay or do not pay, and investigates perceived advantages and disadvantages of payment. We conducted a cross-sectional, electronic survey of 134 family medicine clerkship directors at allopathic US medical schools. The response rate was 62% (83/132 clerkship directors). Nineteen of these (23%) currently pay community preceptors, 11 of whom are located in either New England or the South Atlantic region. Sixty-three percent of programs who pay report that their community preceptors are also paid for teaching other learners, compared to 32% of those programs who do not pay. Paying respondents displayed more positive attitudes toward paying community preceptors, though a majority of non-paying respondents indicated they would pay if they had the financial resources. The majority of clerkships do not pay their community preceptors to teach medical students, but competition from other learners may drive more medical schools to consider payment to help with preceptor recruitment and retention. Medical schools located in regions where there is competition for community preceptors from other medical and non-medical schools may need to consider paying preceptors as part of recruitment and retention efforts.

  8. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  9. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  10. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  11. Paying health workers for performance in Battagram district, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javeed Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in using pay-for-performance mechanisms in low and middle-income countries in order to improve the performance of health care providers. However, at present there is a dearth of independent evaluations of such approaches which can guide understanding of their potential and risks in differing contexts. This article presents the results of an evaluation of a project managed by an international non-governmental organisation in one district of Pakistan. It aims to contribute to learning about the design and implementation of pay-for-performance systems and their impact on health worker motivation. Methods Quantitative analysis was conducted of health management information system (HMIS data, financial records, and project documents covering the period 2007-2010. Key informant interviews were carried out with stakeholders at all levels. At facility level, in-depth interviews were held, as were focus group discussions with staff and community members. Results The wider project in Battagram had contributed to rebuilding district health services at a cost of less than US$4.5 per capita and achieved growth in outputs. Staff, managers and clients were appreciative of the gains in availability and quality of services. However, the role that the performance-based incentive (PBI component played was less clear--PBI formed a relatively small component of pay, and did not increase in line with outputs. There was little evidence from interviews and data that the conditional element of the PBIs influenced behaviour. They were appreciated as a top-up to pay, but remained low in relative terms, and only slightly and indirectly related to individual performance. Moreover, they were implemented independently of the wider health system and presented a clear challenge for longer term integration and sustainability. Conclusions Challenges for performance-based pay approaches include the balance of rewarding individual

  12. Understanding Gender-Based Wage Discrimination: Legal Interpretation and Trends of Pay Equity in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Gaye

    1990-01-01

    Traces the history of laws and litigation concerning pay equity issues, also referred to as wage equity and comparable worth. Suggests that universities and colleges identify possible problems and take voluntary corrective measures before pay-equity problems arise. (MLF)

  13. Paying Personal Property Transportation Contracts at the Defense Finance and Accounting Service-Indianapolis Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridges, W

    1997-01-01

    ...-IN). This report identifies the issues that DFAS-IN needs to resolve before it can pay transportation FAR contracts and presents an operating concept for paying those bills using electronic data interchange (EDI...

  14. 5 CFR 535.104 - Requests for and granting critical position pay authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other human resources flexibilities and pay authorities, such as recruitment, relocation, and retention... the use of other available human resources flexibilities and pay authorities. Agency requests must... could not, through diligent and comprehensive recruitment efforts and without using the critical...

  15. The effects of pay for performance on disparities in stroke, hypertension, and coronary heart disease management: interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Tayu; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), a major pay-for-performance programme, was introduced into United Kingdom primary care in April 2004. The impact of this programme on disparities in health care remains unclear. This study examines the following questions: has this pay for performance programme improved the quality of care for coronary heart disease, stroke and hypertension in white, black and south Asian patients? Has this programme reduced disparities in the quality of care between these ethnic groups? Did general practices with different baseline performance respond differently to this programme? Retrospective cohort study of patients registered with family practices in Wandsworth, London during 2007. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was used to take into account the previous time trend. Primary outcome measures were mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. Our findings suggest that the implementation of QOF resulted in significant short term improvements in blood pressure control. The magnitude of benefit varied between ethnic groups with a statistically significant short term reduction in systolic BP in white and black but not in south Asian patients with hypertension. Disparities in risk factor control were attenuated only on few measures and largely remained intact at the end of the study period. Pay for performance programmes such as the QOF in the UK should set challenging but achievable targets. Specific targets aimed at reducing ethnic disparities in health care may also be needed.

  16. Preparation of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid from technical grade phosphoric acid by liquid-liquid detraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimoradi, M.; Borji, F.; Kishani, A.

    2002-01-01

    Pay attention to increasing consumption of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid in various industries and food industries and on in on hand and lack of preparation between production and distribution of this products its purification is so vital. In this article of liquid-liquid extraction method with normal hexane-mixture of ammonia and acetone-diisopropyl alcohol and normal butanol solvents and these determination of distribution coefficient each one with ph-me try titration we can evaluate effectiveness and sufficiency each one. Because of proper coefficient distribution and its local production of normal butanol solvent and low price is the best solvent. To phosphoric acid modifying coefficient distribution for extraction of phosphoric acid we can add a little value sulfuric acid to the mixture and to remove flouride impurity we add a little Na 2 O. After extraction stage extracted phosphoric acid in the normal strips by evaluating with distilled water and then by passing the carbon active bed and following passes of cationic resine column and concentrated with vacuum distillation. Conclusion of this article is produce of phosphoric acid 85% w/w and food grade from impure phosphoric acid 52% w/w with technical grade

  17. Cesarean Delivery Rates Vary 10-Fold Among US Hospitals; Reducing Variation May Address Quality, Cost Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Law, Michael R.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the United States, and cesarean rates are increasing. Working with 2009 data from 593 US hospitals nationwide, we found that cesarean rates varied tenfold across hospitals, from 7.1 percent to 69.9 percent. Even for women with lower-risk pregnancies, in which more limited variation might be expected, cesarean rates varied fifteen-fold, from 2.4 percent to 36.5 percent. Thus, vast differences in practice patterns are likely to be driving the costly overuse of cesarean delivery in many US hospitals. Because Medicaid pays for nearly half of US births, government efforts to decrease variation are warranted. We focus on four promising directions for reducing these variations, including better coordination of maternity care, more data collection and measurement, tying Medicaid payment to quality improvement, and enhancing patient-centered decision making through public reporting. PMID:23459732

  18. Retention, Incentives, and DoD Experience Under the 40-Year Military Pay Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Beth J. Asch, James Hosek, Jennifer Kavanagh, Michael G. Mattock Retention, Incentives, and DoD Experience Under the 40-Year Military Pay Table C O...Authorization Act (NDAA) directed the Secretary of Defense to review the military’s pay tables, focusing on whether the 40-year pay table is still justified as...a retention tool. Congress extended the pay tables to 40 years as part of the fiscal year 2007 NDAA to pro- vide an incentive for the most

  19. An immodest proposal: pay equity for nursing faculty who do clinical teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughn, S

    1992-05-01

    Pay equity, the concept of equal pay for equal or comparable work, will continue to be of paramount importance to women as the 20th century draws to a close. While it might have been anticipated that women in academic settings would enjoy pay equity, clinical teaching in nursing education provides a model for gender discrimination as related to women's work. Elements of proposal development and a case study for contesting pay inequity are presented.

  20. Varying constants, black holes, and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S.

    2003-01-01

    Tentative observations and theoretical considerations have recently led to renewed interest in models of fundamental physics in which certain 'constants' vary in time. Assuming fixed black hole mass and the standard form of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, Davies, Davis and Lineweaver have argued that the laws of black hole thermodynamics disfavor models in which the fundamental electric charge e changes. I show that with these assumptions, similar considerations severely constrain 'varying speed of light' models, unless we are prepared to abandon cherished assumptions about quantum gravity. Relaxation of these assumptions permits sensible theories of quantum gravity with ''varying constants,'' but also eliminates the thermodynamic constraints, though the black hole mass spectrum may still provide some restrictions on the range of allowable models

  1. Interference studies with two hospital-grade and two home-grade glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Martha E; Baskin, Leland B; Braakman, Sandy; Presti, Steven; Dubois, Jeffrey; Shirey, Terry

    2009-10-01

    Interference studies of four glucose meters (Nova Biomedical [Waltham, MA] StatStrip [hospital grade], Roche Diagnostics [Indianapolis, IN] Accu-Chek Aviva [home grade], Abbott Diabetes Care [Alameda, CA] Precision FreeStyle Freedom [home grade], and LifeScan [Milpitas, CA] SureStep Flexx [hospital grade]) were evaluated and compared to the clinical laboratory plasma hexokinase reference method (Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer). These meters were chosen to reflect the continuum of care from hospital to home grade meters commonly seen in North America. Within-run precision was determined using a freshly prepared whole blood sample spiked with concentrated glucose to give three glucose concentrations. Day-to-day precision was evaluated using aqueous control materials supplied by each vendor. Common interferences, including hematocrit, maltose, and ascorbate, were tested alone and in combination with one another on each of the four glucose testing devices at three blood glucose concentrations. Within-run precision for all glucose meters was glucose meters. Ascorbate caused differences (percentage change from a sample without added interfering substances) of >5% with pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ)-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies (Aviva and Freestyle) and the glucose oxidase-based Flexx meter. Maltose strongly affected the PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based meter systems. When combinations of interferences (ascorbate, maltose, and hematocrit mixtures) were tested, the extent of the interference was up to 193% (Aviva), 179% (FreeStyle), 25.1% (Flexx), and 5.9% (StatStrip). The interference was most pronounced at low glucose (3.9-4.4 mmol/L). All evaluated glucose meter systems demonstrated varying degrees of interference by hematocrit, ascorbate, and maltose mixtures. PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies showed greater susceptibility than glucose oxidase-based systems. However, the modified glucose oxidase-based amperometric method (Nova StatStrip) was

  2. Laboratory study on subgrade soil stabilization using RBI grade 81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia, J. Bernadette; Kamalambikai, B.; Prasanna Kumar, R.; Dharini, K.

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigates the effect of reinforcing the sub grade soils with RBI 81 material. A soil nearby was collected and preliminary tests were conducted to classify the soil and it was found from the results that the sample collected was a poorly graded clay. Subsequently Tests such as Proctor Compaction, CBR, and UCC were conducted to study the various engineering properties of the identified soil. In addition to the above tests were also conducted on the soil by reinforcing with varying percentages of RBI 81. From the analysis of test results it was found that this material (RBI 81) will significantly improve the CBR value of the soil.

  3. Hospitalized women's willingness to pay for an inpatient screening mammogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Waseem; Harris, Ché Matthew; Landis, Regina; Bridges, John F P; Wright, Scott M

    2014-01-01

    Lower rates for breast cancer screening persist among low income and uninsured women. Although Medicare and many other insurance plans would pay for screening mammograms done during hospital stays, breast cancer screening has not been part of usual hospital care. This study explores the mean amount of money that hospitalized women were willing to contribute towards the cost of a screening mammogram. Of the 193 enrolled patients, 72% were willing to pay a mean of $83.41 (95% CI, $71.51-$95.31) in advance towards inpatient screening mammogram costs. The study's findings suggest that hospitalized women value the prospect of screening mammography during the hospitalization. It may be wise policy to offer mammograms to nonadherent hospitalized women, especially those who are at high risk for developing breast cancer. © 2014 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PAY SYSTEM AND SOCIAL SECURITY IN SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela – Andreea Nastasie

    2012-01-01

    In the current context of economic crisis which manifests the world can see a very important role of the pay systems and social security in economic and social life. Staff wages means establishing a salary entitlements owed to employees and their payment, as established at the end of collective or individual employment contracts. In Spain there are various collective agreements according to geographical areas and activities. A fair and balanced wage was and will remain a core area of human re...

  5. Framing influences willingness to pay but not willingness to accept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Vosgerau, J.; Loewenstein, G.

    2013-01-01

    The authors show, with real and hypothetical payoffs, that consumers are willing to pay substantially less for a risky prospect when it is called a “lottery ticket,” “raffle,” “coin flip,” or “gamble” than when it is labeled a “gift certificate” or “voucher.” Willingness to accept, in contrast, is

  6. Evaluating the fair market value of pay for performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jen; Higgins, Alexandra

    2014-04-01

    When assessing a pay-for-performance arrangement, the following factors should be considered: Existence and/or size of minimum savings threshold before savings are allocated. Savings allocation percentage available to physicians. Benchmarks used to measure quality against past performance and/or medical evidence. Ways in which quality outcomes are measured and paid for. Per member per month payments for patient management. Physician investment (participation fee, time, or capital). Existence of downside risk to physicians. Employed compensation structure (if applicable).

  7. Evaluating pay-as-you-go social security systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Andreas; Wüthrich, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for welfare analysis of unfunded social security systems. Based on an overlapping generations model with endogenous labor supply, we derive a formula for the evaluation of existing pay-as-you-go social security systems that depends on impulse response functions and projected growth rates only. We propose an implementation strategy based on reduced form estimates of a VAR model that is valid under weak assumptions about the deep structure of the model. Our meth...

  8. CEO pay-performance sensitivity in the South African context

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Bussin

    2015-01-01

    The topic of executive pay-performance sensitivity has resulted in mixed research findings. Literature related to executive remuneration constructs, company performance measures and the underlying theories is critically reviewed in this article. The literature is compared to research findings within the South African context pre, during and post the Global Financial Crisis of 2008. The researcher found similar results in the South African context compared to research in other countries and in...

  9. households' ability and willingness to pay for the provision of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the provision of sanitary facilities to deal with this poor sanitation problem. The current ... with 72 percent and Upper West region with 71 percent. .... Female (%). Total (%). 10 – 20. 5.88. 6.10. 6.00. 21 – 30. 27.94. 35.37. 32.00. 31 – 40 .... study sought to find out how many households will be able to pay money for these.

  10. The Family Gap in Pay: Evidence from Seven Industrialized Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Harkness, Susan; Waldfogel, Jane

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we use microdata on employment and earnings from a variety of industrialized countries to investigate the family gap in pay - the differential in hourly wages between women with children and women without children. We present results from seven countries: Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Finland, and Sweden. We find that there is a good deal of variation across our sample countries in the effects of children on women's employment. We also find l...

  11. The family gap in pay: evidence from seven industrialised countries

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Harkness; Jane Waldfogel

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we use microdata on employment and earnings from a variety of industrialised countries to investigate the family gap in pay - the differential in hourly wages between women with children and women without children. We present results from seven countries: Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Finland, and Sweden. We find that there is a good deal of variation across our sample countries in the effects of children on women's employment. We also find l...

  12. Determinan Willingness To Pay (Wtp) Iuran Peserta Bpjs Kesehatan

    OpenAIRE

    Aryani, Maya Andita; Muqorrobin, Masyhudi

    2013-01-01

    : This study aims at identifying the factors that affect willingness to pay (WTP) participants of BPJS Kesehatan Class III in Yogyakarta will be analyzed by using the approach of contingent valuation method (CVM). Variables use to measure WTP in this research include age, number of family members, the last education taken, level of earnings, and assumptions of society about Sharia system using primary data by questionnaire and interview methods to 144 respondents. Results analysis of this stu...

  13. Individual and Household Willingness to Pay for Public Goods

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether willingness to pay (WTP) for the benefits generated by a public good should be elicited on an individual or on a household basis is addressed. Differences between individual and household WTP may arise when members of the household are mutually altruistic. It is shown that, for general specifications of altruism, household WTP is less than the sum of household members' individual WTP. Implications for the choice between household and individual measures of WTP are conside...

  14. Paying for payments: free payments and optimal interchange fees

    OpenAIRE

    Korsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Do consumers and merchants use the most efficient payment instruments? I examine how inter- change fees, which are fees paid from merchants' banks to consumers' banks when card transactions take place, influence the choice between cash and payment cards. I show that when consumers do not pay transaction fees to banks - a common feature in bank contracts - card use is declining in interchange fees, and surcharging does not neutralize interchange fees. According to my model, banks set interchan...

  15. Equal Pay for Equal Work in Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Kacey Y

    2018-02-01

    The most compelling data suggest women in academic obstetrics and gynecology earn approximately $36,000 less than male colleagues per year in regression models correcting for commonly cited explanatory variables. Although residual confounding may exist, academic departments in the United States should consider rigorous examination of their own internal metrics around salary to ensure gender-neutral compensation, commonly referred to as equal pay for equal work.

  16. Has Performance Pay Increased Wage Inequality in Britain?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, Mark L.; Bryson, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) we show performance pay (PP) increased earnings dispersion among men and women, and to a lesser extent among full-time working women, in the decade of economic growth which ended with the recession of 2008. PP was also associated with some compression in the lower half of the wage distribution for women. The effects were predominantly associated with a broad measure of PP that included bonuses. However, these effects were modest and th...

  17. Federal Personnel: Federal/Private Sector Pay Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Choices of Both Government and Union Status," Journal of Labor Economics , Vol. 6 (1988), pp. 229-53; Alan B. Krueger, "Are Public Sector Workers Paid...Differential in the United States," Journal of Labor Economics , Vol. 38, No. 2 (1990), pp. 270-293. 5A discussion of these explanations can be found in...federal earnings, one can obtain an estimate of the pay gap that is attributable to federal employment In labor economics research, both methods are

  18. Rich or poor: Who should pay higher tax rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murilo Castro de Oliveira, Paulo

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic agent model is introduced with an annual random wealth multiplicative process followed by taxes paid according to a linear wealth-dependent tax rate. If poor agents pay higher tax rates than rich agents, eventually all wealth becomes concentrated in the hands of a single agent. By contrast, if poor agents are subject to lower tax rates, the economic collective process continues forever.

  19. The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2014

    2014-01-01

    You've probably heard that men are paid more than women are paid over their lifetimes. But what does that mean? Are women paid less because they choose lower-paying jobs? Is it because more women work part time than men do? Or is it because women tend to be the primary caregivers for their children? The American Association of University Women's…

  20. The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2014

    2014-01-01

    It's been said that men are paid more than women are paid over their lifetimes. But what does that mean? Are women paid less because they choose lower-paying jobs? Is it because more women work part time than men do? Or is it because women tend to be the primary caregivers for their children? AAUW's "The Simple Truth about the…

  1. Costs of Military Pay and Benefits in the Defense Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    arithmetic reasoning, mathematics knowledge, paragraph comprehension, and word knowledge. Percentile scores measure aptitude relative to the entire...is not actuarially fair—it does not financially compensate the military retiree for what could easily be four decades of smaller annuity pay- ments...during a month in which the member is serving in a designated combat zone.37 One report estimates that to achieve an actuarially fair out- come, the

  2. Bribery: Who Pays, Who Refuses, What Are the Payoffs?

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Hunt; Sonia Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    We provide a theoretical framework for understanding when an official angles for a bribe, when a client pays, and the payoffs to the client's decision. We test this framework using a new data set on bribery of Peruvian public officials by households. The theory predicts that bribery is more attractive to both parties when the client is richer, and we find empirically that both bribery incidence and value are increasing in household income. However, 65% of the relation between bribery incidenc...

  3. Consumer Perception and Willingness to Pay for Local Food

    OpenAIRE

    Bazzani, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of empirical studies recently investigated consumers' valuation for local food products. However, different aspects related to the local food consumption still remain vague or unexplored. As such, the objective of the present research is to fulfill the existing literature using a mixed methodological approach for the investigation of consumers' preferences and Willingness to Pay (WTP) for local food products. First of all, local food is still a blurred concept ...

  4. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Taruberekera, Noah; Longfield, Kim; Snider, Jeremy

    2011-10-26

    Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline.PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.

  5. Theory and Practice in CEO Pay: A Course Module and Integrative Case Based on Boeing Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschen, John F.; Smith, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    Business students may dream of receiving pay packages like that of Michael Eisner at Disney. However, many of them will work for the compensation consultant who determines the economics of the pay arrangements, for the valuation consultant who values the different components of the pay arrangements, for the accountant who must audit the financial…

  6. Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay: Theory and Evidence from Minnesota's Q Comp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Carl; Wiswall, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Recent research attributes the lack of merit pay in teaching to the resistance of teachers. This article examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. We develop a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. We show that if teachers are risk…

  7. 26 CFR 301.6316-5 - Manner of paying tax by foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... currency to be deposited shall be that amount which, when converted at the rate of exchange used on the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of paying tax by foreign currency. 301....6316-5 Manner of paying tax by foreign currency. (a) Time and place to pay. The unpaid tax required to...

  8. 3 CFR 8366 - Proclamation 8366 of April 28, 2009. National Equal Pay Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Despite these achievements, 46 years since the passage of the Equal Pay Act and 233 years since our Nation... 28, 2009 Proc. 8366 National Equal Pay Day, 2009By the President of the United States of America A... finally catch up with a man’s from the previous year. On National Equal Pay Day, we underscore the...

  9. 29 CFR 1620.20 - Pay differentials claimed to be based on extra duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pay differentials claimed to be based on extra duties. 1620.20 Section 1620.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.20 Pay differentials claimed to be based on extra duties. Additional...

  10. Using Outperformance Pay to Motivate Academics: Insiders' Accounts of Promises and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers have investigated the appropriateness of pay for outperformance, (also called "merit-based pay" and "performance-based pay") for academics, but a review of this body of work shows that the voice of academics themselves is largely absent. This article is a contribution to addressing this gap, summarising the…

  11. A Better Way to Pay: Five Rules for Reforming Teacher Compensation. Backgrounder. No, 2681

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Despite ongoing debates over the adequacy of teacher compensation, the design of merit pay systems, and the structure of pension benefits, there is broad agreement that teacher pay should be designed to recruit--and retain--the highest-quality teachers in a cost-effective manner. Policymakers should avoid across-the-board pay increases, and focus…

  12. 75 FR 35953 - Enhancing Payment Accuracy Through a ``Do Not Pay List''

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Payment Accuracy Through a ``Do Not Pay List'' Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and... Management and Budget (OMB) in consultation with agencies, shall be collectively known as the ``Do Not Pay... process for determining whether the information provided on the ``Do Not Pay List'' is sufficient to stop...

  13. 76 FR 1096 - Pay Under the General Schedule and Recruitment, Relocation, and Retention Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... RIN 3206-AM13 Pay Under the General Schedule and Recruitment, Relocation, and Retention Incentives... instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Jerome D. Mikowicz, Deputy Associate Director, Pay and Leave...-0824; or by e-mail at pay[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Office of...

  14. 76 FR 80268 - Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific or Professional Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... 3206-AL88 Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific or Professional Positions AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to amend rules for setting and adjusting pay of senior-level (SL) and scientific or professional (ST) employees. The Senior Professional Performance Act of 2008 changes pay for these employees by providing for...

  15. Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lastly, this article seeks to ascertain whether the EEA (including the Employment Equity Regulations) provides an adequate legal framework for determining an equal pay for work of equal value claim. Keywords: Equal pay; Employment Equity Act; Equality Act; International Labour Organisation; Equal Pay Guide; Equal ...

  16. 41 CFR 302-3.419 - For what property will my agency pay property management services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false For what property will my agency pay property management services? 302-3.419 Section 302-3.419 Public Contracts and Property....419 For what property will my agency pay property management services? Your agency will only pay for...

  17. 12 CFR 557.14 - What interest rate may I pay on savings accounts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate may I pay on savings... DEPOSITS Deposit Activities of Federal Savings Associations § 557.14 What interest rate may I pay on savings accounts? (a) You may pay interest at any rate or anticipated rate of return on savings accounts...

  18. Does Collective Bargaining Influence the Pay Satisfaction of Elementary School Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, David G.; Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of collective bargaining on teacher pay satisfaction and offer knowledge of the factors contributing to the pay satisfaction of public elementary school teachers. The study focuses on how human capital, occupational characteristics, and job related characteristics impact the pay satisfaction of…

  19. 76 FR 27080 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Pay Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Activities: Application To Pay Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...: Application To Pay Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman (Form I-408). This is a proposed extension of an...: Application To Pay Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman. OMB Number: 1651-0106. Form Number: I-408. Abstract: CBP...

  20. 78 FR 28717 - Advancing Pay Equality in the Federal Government and Learning From Successful Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...) affect the compensation of similarly situated men and women, and to promote gender pay equality in the... gender pay equality; and (e) any best practices the agency has employed to improve gender pay equality... Equality in the Federal Government and Learning From Successful Practices Memorandum for the Heads of...

  1. 5 CFR 9901.372 - Conversion or movement out of NSPS pay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... worksite, and pay as of the day immediately before the date of conversion or movement out of NSPS. An... employee's pay band. If the employee's adjusted salary equals or exceeds the step 4 rate of the second... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion or movement out of NSPS pay...

  2. 47 CFR 64.1509 - Disclosure and dissemination of pay-per-call information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... each such service; and (4) A statement of the pay-per-call service provider's name, business address... name and mailing address of any provider of pay-per-call services offered by that carrier; and (2... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure and dissemination of pay-per-call...

  3. Gender Differences in Pay Expectations: The Roles of Job Intention and Self-View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Mary; Dubois, Cathy L. Z.; Fox-Cardamone, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Because pay expectations play a role in the persistent gender pay gap, we surveyed 435 undergraduate students to examine the impacts of gender, job intentions, and self-views on the pay expectations of pre-career women and men. Our findings showed a gender gap in which women expected to be paid less than men expected to be paid at the beginning…

  4. Home-based radiology transcription and a productivity pay plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K

    1997-01-01

    Shands Hospital in Gainesville, Fla., decided to evaluate the way it provided transcription services in its radiology department. It identified four goals: increased productivity, decreased operating expense, finding much needed space in the radiology department and increasing employee morale. The department performs 165,000 procedures annually, with 66 radiologists, 29 faculty, and 37 residents and fellows on staff. Six FTEs comprised the transcription pool in the radiology department, with transcription their only duty. Transcriptionists were paid an hourly rate based on their years of service, not their productivity. Evaluation and measurement studies were undertaken by the hospital's management systems engineering department. The transcriptionists' hours were then changed to provide coverage during the periods of heaviest dictation. The productivity level of the transcription staff was also measured and various methods of measurement reviewed. The goal was a pure incentive pay plan that would reward employees for every increase in productivity. The incentive pay plan was phased in over a three-month period. Transcriptionists were paid for work performed, with no base pay beyond minimum wage. The move to home-based transcription was planned. The necessary equipment was identified and various issues specific to working at home were addressed. Approximately six months later, the transcriptionists were set up to work at home. The astounding results achieved are presented: 28% increase in productivity, operational cost savings exceeding $25,000 and a space savings of 238 square feet.

  5. Information on the thefts committed in the Pays de Gex

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A large number of e-mails are currently circulating regarding thefts committed in the Pays de Gex. At CERN's request, the French authorities have provided the following information: A few armed robberies, muggings and attacks at private houses were committed in the Pays de Gex in December 2006 and January 2007. As a result, a night squad has been set up to supplement the Gendarmerie's Peloton de Surveillance et d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie (PSIG) in order to reinforce the visibility of the police presence. In this context, the Authorities point out that the number of crimes and offences committed in the Pays de Gex in 2006 dropped by 16% (this figure also relates to thefts and includes break-ins). If you notice people acting suspiciously, you are advised to notify the Gendarmerie immediately (the emergency telephone number in France is 17) and to make a note of the number and appearance of the persons concerned (height, age, hair colour, build, clothing, distinguishing features, etc.), as well as t...

  6. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO. This study investigates the willingness of economy class air passengers to pay to compensate for the CO2 emissions produced during their journeys from Taiwan to Hong Kong. Together with the Spike model, a framework known as the contingent valuation (CV method offers a way to investigate how much the air passenger would be willing to pay to offset a journey’s airplane-generated CO2 emissions. The Spike model was applied to address the problem of zero willingness to pay (WTP. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the results found in previous studies and therefore can provide valuable insights into pricing strategies for airlines.

  7. Electronic pay and leave statements (e-Payslips)

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of measures to simplify and rationalise administrative procedures, the FI and IT Departments proposed a project to introduce electronic pay and leave statements. The project was launched at the beginning of 2004 after it had been approved by the Director of the Finance and Human Resources Departments. The project was presented to the GTPA (Groupe de Travail sur les Procédures Administratives) and discussed at the meeting of the SCC (Standing Concertation Committee) on 8 July 2004. The system designed and developed by the IT Department is now operational. What will change? Members of the personnel who currently receive a paper copy of their pay and/or leave statement will, in future, receive monthly e-mail notification of their electronic pay and leave statement, instead of the paper document. The current project does not affect retired members of the personnel. Each person receiving the e-mail notification will be invited to consult these electronic statements by clicking on a link p...

  8. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  9. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline var...

  10. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    hypoechogenic areas of varying sizes in the renal cortex. A negative ultrasonographic finding is no proof of the absence of renal trauma. As low-grade renal injury is difficult to detect by mere clinical examination or by a single imaging method, the authors regard as necessary to actively look for them, taking into consideration the mechanism of injury, haematuria findings and evaluation of ultrasonographic and CT scans.

  11. 29 CFR 1620.27 - Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil... OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.27 Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil... equal pay under the Equal Pay Act has no relationship to whether the employee is in the lower paying job...

  12. "Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk

  13. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...

  14. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  15. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  16. Õunpuu Karlovy Varys edukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid

  17. The effectiveness of take-or-pay clauses under the Brazilian courts; A eficacia das clausulas de 'take-or-pay' nos tribunais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno A.; Travassos, Cristiano H. [Tess Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The international energy industry, where the sale of their commodities (oil, natural gas, biofuels and its derivatives), typically uses in its long-term contracts clauses take-or-pay. However, questioning about the Brazilian judicial effectiveness of such clauses appears each day. This paper aims to establish a rationale clause of take-or-pay; have terms and typical conditions of one clause of take-or-pay; discuss the existing national law on the subject; list the main questions arising from the applicability of the terms of take-or-pay, and the potential solutions to the current scenario.

  18. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  19. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  20. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)