WorldWideScience

Sample records for varying glycemic index

  1. Comparison of two diets of varying glycemic index on carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Vacca, Maria; De Marco, Donata; Cinquegrana, Giorgio; Laccetti, Marco; Bresciani, Alessandro; Covetti, Giuseppe; Iannuzzo, Gabriella; Rubba, Paolo; Parillo, Mario

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with an increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness. Increased carotid wall thickening and rigidity are considered markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of two hypocaloric diets of varying glycemic index on weight loss and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in obese children. Seventy consecutive obese children attending the Outpatient Weight Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics were invited to participate in an intensive dietary protocol. Twenty-six accepted and were randomly assigned to two different groups: the first group followed a hypocaloric low-glycemic index diet and the second a hypocaloric high-glycemic index diet. Anthropometric measures and biochemical tests were performed in all children. Quantitative B-mode ultrasound scans were used to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) and diameters of the common carotid artery. Considering both groups together, at 6 months, body mass index decreased from 28.3 +/- 3.1 to 25.8 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2), systolic blood pressure from 119 +/- 12 to 110 +/- 11 mmHg (Pglycemic index diet. These results justify the advice to obese children to follow a low-glycemic index diet in order to improve their cardiometabolic profile.

  2. Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.......We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status....

  3. 24-Hour Glucose Profiles on Diets Varying in Protein Content and Glycemic Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baak, Marleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that the postprandial state is an important factor contributing to the risk of chronic diseases. Not only mean glycemia, but also glycemic variability has been implicated in this effect. In this exploratory study, we measured 24-h glucose profiles in 25 overweight participants in a long-term diet intervention study (DIOGENES study on Diet, Obesity and Genes), which had been randomized to four different diet groups consuming diets varying in protein content and glycemic index. In addition, we compared 24-h glucose profiles in a more controlled fashion, where nine other subjects followed in random order the same four diets differing in carbohydrate content by 10 energy% and glycemic index by 20 units during three days. Meals were provided in the lab and had to be eaten at fixed times during the day. No differences in mean glucose concentration or glucose variability (SD) were found between diet groups in the DIOGENES study. In the more controlled lab study, mean 24-h glucose concentrations were also not different. Glucose variability (SD and CONGA1), however, was lower on the diet combining a lower carbohydrate content and GI compared to the diet combining a higher carbohydrate content and GI. These data suggest that diets with moderate differences in carbohydrate content and GI do not affect mean 24-h or daytime glucose concentrations, but may result in differences in the variability of the glucose level in healthy normal weight and overweight individuals. PMID:25093276

  4. 24-Hour Glucose Profiles on Diets Varying in Protein Content and Glycemic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen A. van Baak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is increasing that the postprandial state is an important factor contributing to the risk of chronic diseases. Not only mean glycemia, but also glycemic variability has been implicated in this effect. In this exploratory study, we measured 24-h glucose profiles in 25 overweight participants in a long-term diet intervention study (DIOGENES study on Diet, Obesity and Genes, which had been randomized to four different diet groups consuming diets varying in protein content and glycemic index. In addition, we compared 24-h glucose profiles in a more controlled fashion, where nine other subjects followed in random order the same four diets differing in carbohydrate content by 10 energy% and glycemic index by 20 units during three days. Meals were provided in the lab and had to be eaten at fixed times during the day. No differences in mean glucose concentration or glucose variability (SD were found between diet groups in the DIOGENES study. In the more controlled lab study, mean 24-h glucose concentrations were also not different. Glucose variability (SD and CONGA1, however, was lower on the diet combining a lower carbohydrate content and GI compared to the diet combining a higher carbohydrate content and GI. These data suggest that diets with moderate differences in carbohydrate content and GI do not affect mean 24-h or daytime glucose concentrations, but may result in differences in the variability of the glucose level in healthy normal weight and overweight individuals

  5. Experience and acceptability of diets of varying protein content and glycemic index in an obese cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McConnon, A; Horgan, G W; Lawton, C

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives:To investigate acceptability and tolerability of diets of different protein and glycemic index (GI) content aimed at weight maintenance following a phase of rapid weight loss, as part of a large pan-European dietary intervention trial.Subjects/Methods:The Diogenes study (www...

  6. The glycemic index issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Miller, Jennie; Buyken, Anette E

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, many of the concerns surrounding the glycemic index have been addressed by methodological studies and clinical trials comparing diets carefully matched for other nutrients. These findings are reviewed together with new observational evidence for the role of the dietary glycemic index in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. The determination and classification of the glycemic index of a food product is now standardized by the International Standards Organization. Systematic studies using isoenergetic single and mixed meals have shown that glycemic index and/or glycemic load are stronger predictors of postprandial glycemia and insulinemia than carbohydrate content alone. In overweight individuals, a diet that combined modestly higher protein and lower glycemic index carbohydrates was the most effective diet for prevention of weight regain. New observational studies have reported increased risks of coronary heart disease associated with higher intakes of carbohydrates from high glycemic index foods. Epidemiological evidence has emerged linking dietary glycemic index to visceral fat and inflammatory disease mortality. There is growing recognition that replacing saturated fat with refined, high glycemic index carbohydrates increases postprandial glycemia and may be detrimental for weight control and predisposition to cardiovascular and inflammatory disease. In contrast, low glycemic index carbohydrates reduce risk.

  7. Postprandial blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes for carbohydrates with varying glycemic index foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shogo; Noguchi, Claudia Cecilia Yamamoto; Furutani, Eiko

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes consists of maintaining postprandial normoglycemia using the correct prandial insulin dose according to food intake. Nonetheless, it is hardly achieved in practice, which results in several diabetes-related complications. In this study we present a feedforward plus feedback blood glucose control system that considers the glycemic index of foods. It consists of a preprandial insulin bolus whose optimal bolus dose and timing are stated as a minimization problem, which is followed by a postprandial closed-loop control based on model predictive control. Simulation results show that, for a representative carbohydrate intake of 50 g, the present control system is able to maintain postprandial glycemia below 140 mg/dL while preventing postprandial hypoglycemia as well.

  8. The Glycemic Index

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Pauline

    2004-01-01

    The glycemic index is a ranking of carbohydrate containing foods. Foods are ranked according to their immediate effect on blood sugar levels. The higher a f ood raises blood sugar, the higher its glycemic index. Scientists published the first index in 1981 when they were researching diet therapy for diabetes. This first list contained 51 foods, and the list has continued to expand, with the most recent official list containing 750 foods. Fruits, grains, dairy products, some vegetables, pastas...

  9. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögebakan, Özlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes).......We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes)....

  10. Glycemic index in diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahelić, Dario; Jenkins, Alexandra; Bozikov, Velimir; Pavić, Eva; Jurić, Klara; Fairgrieve, Christopher; Romić, Dominik; Kokić, Slaven; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The Glycemic Index (GI) is a rating system that ranks carbohydrate-containing foods according to their postprandial blood glucose response relative to the same quantity of available carbohydrate of a standard such as white bread or glucose...

  11. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with lower GI foods. For many people with diabetes, carbohydrate counting along with choosing healthy foods and maintaining ... and-fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/understanding-carbohydrates/glycemic-index-and-diabetes.html?loc=ff-slabnav . Accessed July 21, 2016. ...

  12. Glycemic impact, glycemic glucose equivalents, glycemic index, and glycemic load: definitions, distinctions, and implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monro, John A; Shaw, Mick

    2008-01-01

    .... RGI differs from glycemic index (GI) because it refers to food and depends on food intake, whereas GI refers to carbohydrate and is a unitless index value unresponsive to food intake. Glycemic load (GL...

  13. Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria; Larsen, Thomas M; Damsgaard, Camilla T; van Baak, Marleen A; Jebb, Susan; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Kunešová, Marie; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Kafatos, Anthony

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status. Secondary analyses were performed within the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (2006-2008), a randomized controlled dietary intervention. Nine hundred and thirty-eight overweight and obese adults from eight European countries entered an 8-wk low-calorie-diet period. Seven hundred and seventy-three adults who lost at least 8% of their body weights were randomized to one of five ad libitum diets for 6 mo: 1) low-protein (LP)/low-GI (LGI); 2) LP/high-GI (HGI); 3) high-protein (HP)/LGI; 4) HP/HGI; and 5) control diet. MetSyn prevalence and a standardized MetSyn score were assessed at baseline, after the low-calorie diet, and after the intervention. Weight loss among participants while on the low-calorie diet significantly reduced MetSyn prevalence (33.9% versus 15.9%; P < 0.001) and MetSyn score (-1.48 versus -4.45; P < 0.001). During weight maintenance, significant changes in MetSyn score were observed between the groups, with the highest increase detected in the LP/HGI group (P = 0.039, partial η(2) = 0.023). Protein, GI, and their interaction did not have isolated effects on study outcomes. Neither protein nor GI affected MetSyn status in this sample of European overweight and obese adults. However, a diet with a combination of an increased protein-to-carbohydrate ratio with low-GI foods had beneficial effects on MetSyn factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Glycemic index and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brand-Miller, Janette C; Holt, Susanna H A; Pawlak, Dorota B; McMillan, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    .... In contrast, diets based on low-fat foods that produce a low glycemic response (low-GI foods) may enhance weight control because they promote satiety, minimize postprandial insulin secretion, and maintain insulin sensitivity...

  15. Glycemic index, glycemic load and childhood obesity: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Rouhani; Roya Kelishadi; Mahin Hashemipour; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Leila Azadbakht

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several evidences have been reported so far in terms of the relationship between obesity and glycemic index and glycemic load in children. However, the number of review studies that have dealt with recent findings is quite low. The purpose of present study is to review the existing evidences in this regard. Materials and Methods: First of all, the phrases: "Glycaemic index", "Glycaemic load", "Glycemic index" OR "Glycemic load" accompanied by one of the words: "Adolescent", "Y...

  16. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  17. Glycemic index, glycemic load and childhood obesity: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Rouhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several evidences have been reported so far in terms of the relationship between obesity and glycemic index and glycemic load in children. However, the number of review studies that have dealt with recent findings is quite low. The purpose of present study is to review the existing evidences in this regard. Materials and Methods: First of all, the phrases: "Glycaemic index", "Glycaemic load", "Glycemic index" OR "Glycemic load" accompanied by one of the words: "Adolescent", "Young", "Youth" "Children" OR "Child" were searched in texts of articles existing in ISI and PUBMED databases which were obtained out of 1001 articles. Among these, some articles, which reviewed the relationship of obesity with glycemic index and glycemic load, were selected. Finally, 20 articles were studied in current review study. Results: The majority of cross-sectional studies have found children′s obesity directly linked with glycemic index and glycemic load; however, cohort studies found controversial results. Also, the intervention studies indicate the negative effect of glycemic index and glycemic load on obesity in children. Conclusion: Published evidences reported inconsistent results. It seems that existing studies are not sufficient and more studies are needed in this regard.

  18. Glycemic index, glycemic load and childhood obesity: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Kelishadi, Roya; Hashemipour, Mahin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Several evidences have been reported so far in terms of the relationship between obesity and glycemic index and glycemic load in children. However, the number of review studies that have dealt with recent findings is quite low. The purpose of present study is to review the existing evidences in this regard. FIRST OF ALL, THE PHRASES: "Glycaemic index", "Glycaemic load", "Glycemic index" OR "Glycemic load" accompanied by one of the words: "Adolescent", "Young", "Youth" "Children" OR "Child" were searched in texts of articles existing in ISI and PUBMED databases which were obtained out of 1001 articles. Among these, some articles, which reviewed the relationship of obesity with glycemic index and glycemic load, were selected. Finally, 20 articles were studied in current review study. The majority of cross-sectional studies have found children's obesity directly linked with glycemic index and glycemic load; however, cohort studies found controversial results. Also, the intervention studies indicate the negative effect of glycemic index and glycemic load on obesity in children. Published evidences reported inconsistent results. It seems that existing studies are not sufficient and more studies are needed in this regard.

  19. Honey and Glycemic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Silici

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L. from the nectar of blossoms or from secretions of living parts of plants or excretions of plant sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which honeybees collect, transform and combine with specific substances of their own, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature. Besides being of carbohydrate-rich food, honey has been used as a functional food for its potential health benefits. To explain how different kinds of carbohydrate-rich foods directly affect blood sugar, the researchers developed the concept of the “glycemic index” (GI that ranks carbohydrates on a scale based on how quickly and how much they raise blood sugar levels after eating. The diet should include adequate and healthy balance of nutrients, and according to many health professionals the concept of GI provides a useful means of selecting the most appropriate carbohydrate containing foods for the maintenance of health and the treatment of several disease states. There have been some studies on determining the GI of honey. Further more, we need to determine the GI of various honey types with different botanical and geografical origin. Researches on the issue will serve to bring awareness in the public consciousness.

  20. Counting Carbs? Understanding Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how the carbs in different foods raise blood sugar. White rice, for example, has a higher glycemic index than brown rice, which has more complex carbs. But it’s not just the types of carbs that matter. The more carbs you eat, the more your blood sugar rises. “The glycemic index really doesn’t take ...

  1. Should glycemic index and glycemic load be considered in dietary recommendations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Nielsen, Birgit M.; Grau, K.

    2008-01-01

    High glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been proposed to be associated with increased risk of lifestyle diseases. Since protein intake varies little in humans, adherence to the common recommendation to reduce fat intake probably leads to increases in carbohydrate intake, which emphas...

  2. The glycemic index: methodology and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Cyril W C; Augustin, Livia S A; Emam, Azadeh; Josse, Andrea R; Saxena, Nishta; Jenkins, David J A

    2006-01-01

    The glycemic index concept owes much to the dietary fiber hypothesis that fiber would reduce the rate of nutrient absorption and increase the value of carbohydrate foods in the maintenance of health and treatment of disease. However, properties and components of food other than its fiber content contribute to the glycemic and endocrine responses postprandially. The aim of the glycemic index classification of foods was therefore to assist in the physiological classification of carbohydrate foods which, it was hoped, would be of relevance in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Over the past two decades low glycemic index diets have been reported to improve glycemic control in diabetic subjects, to reduce serum lipids in hyperlipidemic subjects and possibly to aid in weight control. In large cohort studies, low glycemic index or glycemic load diets (glycemic index multiplied by total carbohydrate) have also been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reduced C-reactive protein concentrations and with a decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. More recently, some case-control and cohort studies have also found positive associations between the dietary glycemic index and the risk of colon, breast and other cancers. While the glycemic index concept continues to be debated and there remain inconsistencies in the data, sufficient positive findings have emerged to suggest that the glycemic index is an aspect of diet of potential importance in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  3. Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Risk of Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    George, Stephanie Materese; Mayne, Susan T.; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Park, Yikyung; Schatzkin, Arthur; Flood, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Albert; Subar, Amy F.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have provided limited evidence for a harmful effect of high glycemic index and dietary glycemic load on cancer. The authors analyzed associations among glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of cancer in women and men in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study. Published glycemic index values were assigned to 225 foods/food groups. Glycemic load was calculated by multiplying the glycemic index, carbohydrate content, and intake frequency of individual foo...

  4. Glycemic index in sport nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondazzi, Luca; Arcelli, Enrico

    2009-08-01

    Carbohydrates (CHO) can be classified on the basis of their glycemic index (GI), and the use of this classification has been increasingly supported by science. Because of its impact on blood glucose and insulin responses following the ingestion of CHO foods, the GI has been studied in many fields of medicine, including sport nutrition. As a new tool in sport nutrition, glycemic index manipulation has been evaluated to improve the first and second phases of glycogen recovery, glycogen load, and exercise metabolism, including control of rebound hypoglycemia and, it is interesting to note, stimulation of lipid oxidation for longer availability of glucose sources during endurance exercise. Although attractive, the use of GI in sport nutrition has received only partial support from available experimental evidence. At the biochemical level, consistent evidence has been attained to suggest that GI manipulation can determine variations in adipocyte lipolysis, plasma free fatty acids levels, and lipid and CHO oxidation rates during exercise. However, when the effects of GI manipulation have been assessed at the functional level, the results have been inconsistent, with evidence of improved exercise performance in some studies, but not in many others. The purpose of the current article is to review the effects and limits of GI manipulation in sport nutrition, and to propose an overall strategy for its application.

  5. [Starch digestion and glycemic indexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Yang, Yuexin; Wang, Guodong; Bian, Lihua

    2003-11-01

    After determined carbohydrate classification, two biscuits products, were evaluated glycemic indexes (GI) and insulin indexes (II). The analytical results showed that the two biscuits were with lower water content and higher lipid than bread. In term of carbohydrate (CHO), the ratio of slow digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) to total CHO for two biscuits (> 60%) were higher than bread (18.3%), although the sugar content were also higher. Contrast to GI and II value of glucose (as 100%), the GI and II for bread was 96.2% and 105.2%, respectively. The GIs for both biscuits were lower than 55%, as well as the IIs lower than 73%. It was showed that carbohydrate classification determination is a good way for food industry to produce products with ideal GI value.

  6. Metabolic responses to high glycemic index and low glycemic index meals: a controlled crossover clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bressan Josefina; Cecon Paulo R.; Marins João CB; Pereira Letícia G; Cocate Paula G; Alfenas Rita CG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The consumption of low glycemic index (LGI) foods before exercise results in slower and more stable glycemic increases. Besides maintaining an adequate supply of energy during exercise, this response may favor an increase in fat oxidation in the postprandial period before the exercise compared to high glycemic index (HGI) foods. The majority of the studies that evaluated the effect of foods differing in glycemic index on substrate oxidation during the postprandial period b...

  7. Glycemic load, glycemic index, and body mass index in Spanish adults12345

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez, Michelle A; Covas, Maria Isabel; Marrugat, Jaume; Vila, Joan; Schröder, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Background: Studies on obesity and glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) have had inconsistent results, perhaps in part because of underreporting or to heterogeneous dietary patterns across food cultures.

  8. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors: the diet, obesity, and genes (DiOGenes) study: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögebakan, Ozlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A; van Baak, Marleen A; Jebb, Susan A; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Hlavaty, Petr; Weickert, Martin O; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2011-12-20

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes). DiOGenes is a pan-European controlled dietary intervention study in 932 overweight adults who first lost body weight on an 8-week low-calorie diet and were then randomized to 1 of 5 ad libitum diets for 26 weeks. The diets were either high or low protein or high or low glycemic index in 4 combinations or control. Weight loss (-11.23 kg; 95% confidence interval, -11.54 to -10.92; Pdiets than in those on high-glycemic-index diets (Pdiets achieved a -0.25 mg/L greater reduction in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (95% confidence interval, -0.59 to -0.17) than those on high-protein diets (Peffects. Low-glycemic-index carbohydrates and, to a lesser extent, low-protein intake may specifically reduce low-grade inflammation and associated comorbidities in overweight/obese adults. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00390637.

  9. Glycemic Index, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Load, and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in a Prospective Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Jiao; Andrew Flood; Amy F. Subar; Albert R. Hollenbeck; Arthur Schatzkin; Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon

    2009-01-01

    .... Insulin resistance has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. We prospectively investigated the associations between glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and available carbohydrates dietary constituents...

  10. Dietary glycemic load, glycemic index and colorectal cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, M.P.; Mullie, P.F.F.; Brants, H.A.M.; Heinen, M.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Since hyperinsulinemia is implicated in the development of colorectal cancer, determinants of serum insulin levels, like the glycemic load and the glycemic index of the diet, could influence cancer risk. Our objective was to evaluate whether a diet with a high glycemic load or glycemic index is

  11. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  12. The concept of low glycemic index and glycemic load foods as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of low glycemic index and glycemic load foods as panacea for type 2 diabetes mellitus; prospects, challenges and solutions. ... article examines the concepts of low glycemic indices (GIs) and glycemic load (GL) foods as key drivers in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes as well as their shortcomings.

  13. Glycemic index, insulinemic index, and satiety index of kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kai Ling; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2012-08-01

    To determine glycemic, insulinemic, and satiety indices of 3 types of kefir. This study was divided into 3 phases. In phase 1, 50 g of available carbohydrate from low-fat strawberry kefir or orange kefir was tested, and in phase 2, low-fat plain kefir containing 25 g of available carbohydrates was tested for glycemic index (GI), in both cases compared with an equivalent amount of glucose. In phase 3, 1000-kJ portions of all 3 types of kefirs were compared with white bread with the same energy content to determine the insulinemic index (II) and satiety index (SI) of all 3 kefirs. In all phases, a single-meal, randomized crossover design was performed in which the test meals were given to healthy adults, 5 men and 5 women. The total incremental plasma glucose area under the curve (iAUC) for strawberry, orange, and plain kefirs was significantly lower compared with the respective high-GI control food, which was glucose solution. However, the IIs and SIs of kefir did not differ significantly from the white bread. Kefir is a low- to moderate-GI food; however, its II was high. Although kefir had higher water content, the SI of kefir was not significantly different from white bread.

  14. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance: the Inter99 study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lau, Cathrine; Faerch, Kristine; Glümer, Charlotte; Tetens, Inge; Pedersen, Oluf; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index, daily glycemic load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women...

  15. Glycemic Index, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Load, and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Li; Flood, Andrew; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    Diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load have been associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. We prospectively investigated the associations between glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and available carbohydrates dietary constituents (starch and simple sugar) intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. We followed the participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study from 1995/1996 through December 2003. A ...

  16. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and pulse wave reflection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Rodriguez, J I; Gomez-Marcos, M A; Patino-Alonso, M-C; Rodrigo-De Pablo, E; Cabrejas-Sánchez, A; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, M S; Repiso-Gento, I; Gonzalez-Viejo, N; Maderuelo-Fernandez, J A; Agudo-Conde, C; Garcia-Ortiz, L

    2015-01-01

    Diets with a high glycemic index (GI), high glycemic load (GL), or both, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study examined the association of GI and GL in a regular diet with the peripheral augmentation index (i.e., a marker of vascular aging) in a sample of adults. Cross-sectional study. The findings presented in this manuscript are a subanalysis of the EVIDENT study whose purpose was to analyze the relationship between lifestyle and arterial aging. For the sample population, 1553 individuals aged 20-80 years were selected through random sampling from the patients of general practitioners at six health centers in Spain. GI and GL for each patient's diet were calculated from a previously validated, semi-quantitative, 137-item food frequency questionnaire. The peripheral augmentation index corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (PAIx75) was measured with pulse-wave application software (A-Pulse CASP). Based on a risk factor adjusted regression model, for every 5 unit increase in GI, the PAIx75 increased by 0.11 units (95% CI: 0.04-0.19). Similarly, for every increase in 10 units in GL, the PAIx75 increased by 1.13 (95% CI: 0.21-2.05). High PAIx75 values were observed in individuals with diets in the third GI tertile (i.e., the highest), and lower PAIx75 values in those with diets in the first tertile (i.e., the lowest), (93.1 vs. 87.5, respectively, p = 0.001). GI and GL were directly associated with PAIx75 values in adults without cardiovascular diseases regardless of age, gender, physical activity, and other confounders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of wafers with lowered glycemic index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact on an organism is made by lack of culture of food of the population and low physical activity. It leads to violations of carbohydrate and lipidic exchange, development of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular and other diseases. Relevance of development of foodstuff, in particular – the confectionery promoting decrease in risk of developing of such pathologies is proved. A research objective – development of a compounding of wafers with the lowered glycemic index. As an object of a research the wafers baked in house conditions are chosen. In work various characteristics are analysed (hygroscopicity, a cariogenicity sweet degree, power value, a glicemic index and a glycemic response the sweetening substances, the choice of fructose as sugar substitute for production of wafers with the lowered glycemic index is reasonable. By optimization of a compounding of wafers the amount of sugar was replaced with amount of sweetener, equivalent on sweet. As a result of predesigns the interval of a variation of amount of the fructose entered into a compounding of wafers is established. Further assessment of the indicators of quality forming consumer demand of products – appearance, taste, a smell, existence of a crunch is carried out. Humidity of the received wafers after their production and in the course of storage is also investigated. Decrease in a glycemic index was fixed by amount of glucose in blood. Its measurements saw by means of the glucose meter "on an empty stomach" and after the use of wafers to a complete recovery of level of sugar in blood. The confectionery made on the optimized compounding practically doesn't differ on caloric content from a control sample, and glucose level in blood after their use on about 20% below.

  18. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to glucose intolerance among Greenland's Inuit population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Aerde, Marieke A; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Intake of carbohydrates which elicit a large glycemic response is hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes. However, studies assessing the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and diabetes are inconsistent. Only few studies have studied the relationship between GI ...

  19. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to glucose intolerance among Greenland's Inuit population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerde, van M.A.; Witte, D.R.; Jeppesen, C.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intake of carbohydrates which elicit a large glycemic response is hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes. However, studies assessing the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and diabetes are inconsistent. Only few studies have studied the relationship

  20. Effect of prior meal macronutrient composition on postprandial glycemic responses and glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-11-01

    Background: The potential impact of prior meal composition on the postprandial glycemic response and glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations remains unclear.Objective: We determined the effect of meals that varied in macronutrient composition on the glycemic response and determination of GI and GL values of a subsequent standard test food.Design: Twenty healthy participants underwent 6 test sessions within 12 wk. The subjects received each of 3 isocaloric breakfast meals (i.e., high carbohydrate, high fat, or high protein) on separate days in a random order, which was followed by a standard set of challenges (i.e., white bread and a glucose drink) that were tested on separate days in a random order 4 h thereafter. Each challenge provided 50 g available carbohydrate. Arterialized venous blood was sampled throughout the 2-h postchallenge period. GI, GL, and insulin index (II) values were calculated with the use of the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method, and serum lipids were determined with the use of standard assays.Results: The consumption of the high-protein breakfast before the white-bread challenge attenuated the rise in the postprandial serum glucose response (P glycemic response and the determination of GI and GL values for white bread. Future studies are needed to determine whether the background food macronutrient composition influences mean dietary GI and GL values that are calculated for eating patterns, which may alter the interpretation of the associations between these values and chronic disease risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01023646. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected Chinese traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Jun; Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Huang, Ya-Jun

    2010-03-28

    To determine the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values of Chinese traditional foods in Hong Kong. Fifteen healthy subjects (8 males and 7 females) volunteered to consume either glucose or one of 23 test foods after 10-14 h overnight fast. The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed immediately before, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value for the test food as a percentage of each subject's average IAUC value for the glucose. The GL value of each test food was calculated as the GI value of the food multiplied by the amount of the available carbohydrate in a usual portion size, divided by 100. Among all the 23 Chinese traditional foods tested, 6 of them belonged to low GI foods (Tuna Fish Bun, Egg Tart, Green Bean Dessert, Chinese Herbal Jelly, Fried Rice Vermicelli in Singapore-style, and Spring Roll), 10 of them belonged to moderate GI foods (Baked Barbecued Pork Puff, Fried Fritter, "Mai-Lai" Cake, "Pineapple" Bun, Fried Rice Noodles with Sliced Beef, Barbecue Pork Bun, Moon Cakes, Glutinous Rice Ball, Instant Sweet Milky Bun, and Salted Meat Rice Dumpling), the others belonged to high GI foods (Fried Rice in Yangzhou-Style, Sticky Rice Wrapped in Lotus Leaf, Steamed Glutinous Rice Roll, Jam and Peanut Butter Toast, Plain Steamed Vermicelli Roll, Red Bean Dessert, and Frozen Sweet Milky Bun). The GI and GL values for these Chinese traditional foods will provide some valuable information to both researchers and public on their food preference.

  2. Glycemic index and glycemic load of commercial Italian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazzina, F; Dall'Asta, M; Casiraghi, M C; Sieri, S; Del Rio, D; Pellegrini, N; Brighenti, F

    2016-05-01

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are useful parameters in the nutritional classification of carbohydrate foods. Diets characterized by a low GI and/or a low GL have been repeatedly and independently associated with decreased risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to report the GI and GL value of carbohydrate-rich foods available on the Italian market and mostly consumed in Italy. GI values were determined according to FAO/WHO (1997) and ISO (2010). Overall, the 141 commercial foods that were analyzed represent food categories that are the source of >80% carbohydrate intake in Italy. The food items chosen were based mainly on the market share of the brand within each food category and grouped into 13 food categories: 1) beverages: fermented milk drink, juice, smoothie, soft drink; 2) biscuits; 3) breads; 4) bread substitutes; 5) breakfast cereals; 6) cakes and snacks; 7) candy and confectionery; 8) cereals; 9) desserts and ice-creams; 10) marmalade and jam; 11) pasta; 12) pizza; 13) sugar and sweetener. This database of commercial Italian foods partly overcomes the lack of information on GI and GL of local foods, contributing to a better understanding of the association between GI/GL and health and providing a more informed choice to Italian consumers and health practitioners. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The study of glycemic index of Gen-Premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyavarakul, Apussanee

    2013-08-01

    To determine the glycemic index of Gen-Premium. Ten healthy volunteers were included for testing glycemic index of Gen-Premium. After the overnight fast, the subjects consumed 50 grams of glucose (reference food) within five minutes. The blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes for measuring of plasma glucose. One day later the same subjects consumed 50 grams of carbohydrate from Gen-Premium (test food) within five minutes. After complete the data, the glycemic index was calculated by the standard method. The glycemic index of Gen-Premium was 27.29, which classify in low GI food. According to the methodology of glycemic index determination, the glycemic index of Gen-Premium is 27.29, which is considered to be favorably low.

  4. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and common psychological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Azadbakht, Leila; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Potential associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with psychological disorders remain uncertain. We investigated the relations of dietary GI and GL with psychological distress, anxiety, and depression. A total of 3363 nonacademic members of the staff of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were included in this cross-sectional study. GI and GL were assessed by using a validated, self-administered, dish-based, semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Validated Iranian versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and General Health Questionnaire-12 were used to assess anxiety, depression, and psychological distress. After control for potential confounders, individuals in the top tertile of GI had greater odds of depression (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.02; P-trend = 0.03) and a trend for greater odds of anxiety (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 0.97, 2.38; P trend = 0.06) compared with those in the first tertile. Higher GL values were linked to lower odds for mental disorders (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.90; P-trend = 0.009), depression (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.93; P-trend = 0.02), and psychological distress (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P-trend = 0.01). Significant interactions were observed between GI and sex for depression (P = 0.01) and psychological distress (P = 0.046) in the crude model. In stratified analyses by sex, after control for potential confounders, a greater GI was linked to a higher odds of depression (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.94; P-trend = 0.001) and psychological distress (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.14; P-trend = 0.001) in women but not in men. Our findings support a direct link between the odds of depression and dietary GI but inverse associations between GL and mental disorders, depression, and psychological distress. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02362113. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Effect of the glycemic index of carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Rebecca C; Lee, Stephen; Choi, James Y J; Atkinson, Fiona S; Stockmann, Karola S; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2010-10-01

    Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance), androgens and insulin-like growth factor-1 and its binding proteins were assessed at baseline and at eight weeks, a period corresponding to the school term. Forty-three subjects (n = 23 low glycemic index and n = 20 high glycemic index) completed the study. Diets differed significantly in glycemic index (mean ± standard error of the mean, low glycemic index 51 ± 1 vs. high glycemic index 61 ± 2, p = 0.0002), but not in macronutrient distribution or fiber content. Facial acne improved on both diets (low glycemic index -26 ± 6%, p = 0.0004 and high glycemic index -16 ± 7%, p = 0.01), but differences between diets did not reach significance. Change in insulin sensitivity was not different between diets (low glycemic index 0.2 ± 0.1 and high glycemic index 0.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.60) and did not correlate with change in acne severity (Pearson correlation r = -0.196, p = 0.244). Longer time frames, greater reductions in glycemic load or/and weight loss may be necessary to detect improvements in acne among adolescent boys.

  6. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  7. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the cooper center longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Carrie E; Barlow, Carolyn E; Halton, Thomas L; Haskell, William L

    2010-12-01

    Previous research examining the relationships among glycemic index, glycemic load, and the metabolic syndrome has resulted in inconsistent findings. The objective of this study was to examine whether glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components after adjustment for cardiorespiratory fitness, an objective measure of physical activity habitus. Cross-sectional study. Women (n=1,775) and men (n=9,137) who completed a comprehensive medical examination between October 1987 and March 1999, including maximal treadmill exercise test and 3-day dietary records at the Cooper Clinic, Dallas, TX. Metabolic syndrome and its components, defined by the revised Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate sex-specific odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to evaluate the associations among glycemic index, glycemic load, and prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components, while adjusting for potential confounding variables. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 24% in men and 9% in women. A positive association across quintiles of glycemic index and metabolic syndrome, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in men was observed in the fully adjusted model (P for trendglycemic index was positively associated with large waist girth, low HDL-C, and elevated triglycerides (P for trendglycemic index, glycemic load, and metabolic syndrome that control for cardiorespiratory fitness are needed. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Food glycemic index, as given in glycemic index tables, is a significant determinant of glycemic responses elicited by composite breakfast meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Thomas M S; Yang, Ming; Zeng, Xiao Yi; Atkinson, Fiona; Brand-Miller, Janette C

    2006-06-01

    Recent studies have concluded that the carbohydrate content and glycemic index (GI) of individual foods do not predict the glycemic and insulinemic effects of mixed meals. We hypothesized that these conclusions may be unwarranted because of methodologic considerations. The aim was to ascertain whether the GI and carbohydrate content of individual foods influence glucose and insulin responses elicited by realistic mixed meals in normal subjects. With the use of a crossover design, we determined the glucose and insulin responses of 6 test meals in 16 subjects in Sydney and the glucose responses of 8 test meals in 10 subjects in Toronto and then the results were pooled. The 14 different test meals varied in energy (220-450 kcal), protein (0-18 g), fat (0-18 g), and available carbohydrate (16-79 g) content and in GI (35-100; values were rounded). The glucose and insulin responses of the Sydney test meals varied over a 3-fold range (P responses of the Toronto test meals varied over a 2.4-fold range (P responses were not related to the fat or protein content of the test meal. Carbohydrate content (P = 0.002) and GI (P = 0.022) alone were related to glucose responses; together they accounted for 88% of the variation in the glycemic response (P response was significantly related to the glucose response (r = 0.94, P = 0.005). When properly applied in realistic settings, GI is a significant determinant of the glycemic effect of mixed meals in normal subjects. For mixed meals within the broad range of nutrient composition that we tested, carbohydrate content and GI together explained approximately 90% of the variation in the mean glycemic response, with protein and fat having negligible effects.

  10. Use of the glycemic index in nutrition education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Galvão Cândido

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the lack of studies providing practical guidance for the use of the glycemic index has been indicated as the cause of its little use in nutrition education. The aim of this study is to give instructions on the use of the glycemic index as a tool to be used in nutrition education to estimulate the consumption of low glycemic index foods. Studies published over the past 12 years, in addition to classic studies on this topic, found in the databases MedLine, ScienceDirect, SciELO and Lilacs exploring the importance of the glycemic index and the factors that affect the glycemic index were selected for this article. The preparation of lists grouping foods according to their glycemic index should be based on information found in tables and specific web sites. This is an interesting strategy that must be very carefully conducted, considering the eating habits of the assisted people. To reduce the postprandial blood glucose response, high glycemic index foods should be consumed in association with the following foods: high protein and low fat foods, good quality oils and unprocessed foods with high fiber content. Caffeine should also be avoided. The glycemic index should be considered as an additional carbohydrate-selection tool, which should be part of a nutritionally balanced diet capable of promoting and/or maintaining body weight and health.

  11. Metabolic responses to high glycemic index and low glycemic index meals: a controlled crossover clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocate, Paula G; Pereira, Letícia G; Marins, João C B; Cecon, Paulo R; Bressan, Josefina; Alfenas, Rita C G

    2011-01-05

    The consumption of low glycemic index (LGI) foods before exercise results in slower and more stable glycemic increases. Besides maintaining an adequate supply of energy during exercise, this response may favor an increase in fat oxidation in the postprandial period before the exercise compared to high glycemic index (HGI) foods. The majority of the studies that evaluated the effect of foods differing in glycemic index on substrate oxidation during the postprandial period before the exercise are acute studies in which a single meal is consumed right before the exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming two daily HGI or LGI meals for five consecutive days on substrate oxidation before the exercise and in the concentrations of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids before and during a high intensity exercise. Fifteen male cyclists, aged 24.4 ± 3.8 years, with body mass index of 21.9 ± 1.4 kg.m⁻² and a V(O2 max) of 70.0 ± 5.3 mL.kg⁻¹.min⁻¹, participated in this crossover study. All test meals were consumed in the laboratory. On days 1 and 5, substrate oxidation (30 minutes before and 90 minutes after breakfast (HGI or LGI)) and diet-induced thermogenesis (90 minutes postprandial) were assessed before the exercise. The levels of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids were determined during 2 h after breakfast on these same days. Ninety minutes after breakfast, subjects completed a 30 min cycloergometric exercise at 85 to 95% of their maximum heart rate, during which lactate concentrations were assessed. The consumption of HGI meals resulted in higher areas under the glycemic and insulinemic curves in the postprandial period. However, glycemia did not differ by study treatment during exercise. There were no differences in free fatty acids in the postprandial period or in lactate levels during exercise. LGI meals resulted in lower fat oxidation and higher carbohydrate oxidation than the HGI meal in the postprandial period

  12. Metabolic responses to high glycemic index and low glycemic index meals: a controlled crossover clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The consumption of low glycemic index (LGI) foods before exercise results in slower and more stable glycemic increases. Besides maintaining an adequate supply of energy during exercise, this response may favor an increase in fat oxidation in the postprandial period before the exercise compared to high glycemic index (HGI) foods. The majority of the studies that evaluated the effect of foods differing in glycemic index on substrate oxidation during the postprandial period before the exercise are acute studies in which a single meal is consumed right before the exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming two daily HGI or LGI meals for five consecutive days on substrate oxidation before the exercise and in the concentrations of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids before and during a high intensity exercise. Methods Fifteen male cyclists, aged 24.4 ± 3.8 years, with body mass index of 21.9 ± 1.4 kg.m-2 and a VO2 max of 70.0 ± 5.3 mL.kg-1.min-1, participated in this crossover study. All test meals were consumed in the laboratory. On days 1 and 5, substrate oxidation (30 minutes before and 90 minutes after breakfast (HGI or LGI)) and diet-induced thermogenesis (90 minutes postprandial) were assessed before the exercise. The levels of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids were determined during 2 h after breakfast on these same days. Ninety minutes after breakfast, subjects completed a 30 min cycloergometric exercise at 85 to 95% of their maximum heart rate, during which lactate concentrations were assessed. Results The consumption of HGI meals resulted in higher areas under the glycemic and insulinemic curves in the postprandial period. However, glycemia did not differ by study treatment during exercise. There were no differences in free fatty acids in the postprandial period or in lactate levels during exercise. LGI meals resulted in lower fat oxidation and higher carbohydrate oxidation than the HGI meal in the

  13. Metabolic responses to high glycemic index and low glycemic index meals: a controlled crossover clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Josefina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of low glycemic index (LGI foods before exercise results in slower and more stable glycemic increases. Besides maintaining an adequate supply of energy during exercise, this response may favor an increase in fat oxidation in the postprandial period before the exercise compared to high glycemic index (HGI foods. The majority of the studies that evaluated the effect of foods differing in glycemic index on substrate oxidation during the postprandial period before the exercise are acute studies in which a single meal is consumed right before the exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming two daily HGI or LGI meals for five consecutive days on substrate oxidation before the exercise and in the concentrations of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids before and during a high intensity exercise. Methods Fifteen male cyclists, aged 24.4 ± 3.8 years, with body mass index of 21.9 ± 1.4 kg.m-2 and a VO2 max of 70.0 ± 5.3 mL.kg-1.min-1, participated in this crossover study. All test meals were consumed in the laboratory. On days 1 and 5, substrate oxidation (30 minutes before and 90 minutes after breakfast (HGI or LGI and diet-induced thermogenesis (90 minutes postprandial were assessed before the exercise. The levels of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids were determined during 2 h after breakfast on these same days. Ninety minutes after breakfast, subjects completed a 30 min cycloergometric exercise at 85 to 95% of their maximum heart rate, during which lactate concentrations were assessed. Results The consumption of HGI meals resulted in higher areas under the glycemic and insulinemic curves in the postprandial period. However, glycemia did not differ by study treatment during exercise. There were no differences in free fatty acids in the postprandial period or in lactate levels during exercise. LGI meals resulted in lower fat oxidation and higher carbohydrate oxidation than the

  14. Understanding the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Their Practical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarim, Fernanda Lorenzi; Stancanelli, Mirtes; Brenzikofer, Rene; de Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2009-01-01

    We have introduced the study of synthesis pathways using two experiments: 1--the determination of the glycemic index (GI) of some foods and the effects of fiber and fat on the GI; 2--the determination of blood glucose levels after the ingestion of meals with high and low glycemic loads (GL). After a practice assembly, when the foods and meals that…

  15. Carbohydrate and protein but not fat or fiber affects glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values have been calculated using data derived from instruments designed to estimate daily food intake. Since the absolute amount of carbohydrate (CHO) and combination of CHO with other macronutrients and fiber is highly variable among...

  16. Decrease in Glycemic Index Associated with Improved Glycemic Control among Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L; Gellar, Lauren; Nathanson, Brian H; Pbert, Lori; Ma, Yunsheng; Ockene, Ira; Rosal, Milagros C

    2015-06-01

    Glycemic index and glycemic load are used to facilitate glucose control among adults with type 2 diabetes, with a low glycemic index diet associated with improved glycemic control. To examine long-term longitudinal associations between changes in glycemic index and glycemic load with glycemic and metabolic control among Latino adults with diabetes. Secondary data from intervention and comparison participants in the Latinos en Control trial (2006 to 2008) were analyzed. Data on dietary intake and metabolic characteristics were from low-income, Latino adults (N=238; 87.7% Puerto Rican) with type 2 diabetes. The Latinos en Control trial was a randomized clinical trial targeting diabetes self-management among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomized to a group-based behavioral intervention or usual care and followed through 12 months. Outcomes included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles, anthropometrics, and blood pressure. Glycemic index and load were analyzed using data from three 24-hour dietary recalls conducted at baseline, 4 months, and 12 months. Repeated measures regression models were used to examine change in glycemic index and load associated with metabolic characteristics at 12 months. Covariates included sex, age, body mass index, blood pressure, total energy intake, medication use and intensity, physical activity, intervention status (intervention vs usual care), and time. Increases in glycemic index from baseline to 12 months were associated with increased logarithm of HbA1c levels (β=0.003; P=0.034) and waist circumference (β=0.12; P=0.026) over time, but not with fasting glucose, blood lipids, or body mass index. There was modest evidence to support small, positive associations between glycemic load and HbA1c levels and waist circumference. Lowering glycemic index is associated with improvements in certain metabolic risk factors among Latinos with diabetes. Targeting glycemic index may be an

  17. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and glycemic response to pomelo in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shi-Ying; Xu, Wei-Jie; Tao, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Xin-Rong; Yuan, Gang; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Hu, Shu-Hong; Zhang, Mu-Xun; Liu, Zhe-Long; Yu, Xue-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Food intake has a great influence on blood glucose in patients with diabetes. This study was to determine the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of a particular pomelo named Majia pomelo and its effects on postprandial glucose (PPG) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Twenty healthy subjects and 20 T2D patients (controlled on lifestyle measures and/or metformin) were tested on 2 separate days with 50 g of glucose and 50 g equivalent of carbohydrates from Majia pomelo for GI measurement. To test effects of Majia pomelo on PPG, 19 hospitalized T2D patients (controlled on insulin therapy) were selected for a 9-day study. The dose of insulin for each patient was adjusted on the first 3 days. A total of 100 mg Majia pomelo was consumed per meal in the last 3 tested days. Blood glucose was measured to evaluate the glycemic excursions. The GIs for Majia pomelo in healthy individuals and T2D patients were 78.34±1.88 and 72.15±1.95 respectively. The value of GL was as low as 4.23 in diabetic patients with serving size of 100 g pomelo, indicting Majia pomelo as a high GI but low GL fruit. Consumption of Majia pomelo in hospitalized T2D patients did not cause significant glucose fluctuation. It was concluded that high GI pomelo can serve as a low GL fruit if it is consumed with a limited daily amount and thus can be supplied to diabetic patients. These results may mean more varieties of food choices for T2D patients.

  18. Decrease in Glycemic Index Associated with Improved Glycemic Control among Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L.; Gellar, Lauren; Nathanson, Brian; Pbert, Lori; Ma, Yunsheng; Ockene, Ira; Rosal, Milagros C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glycemic index and glycemic load are used to facilitate glucose control among adults with type 2 diabetes, with a low glycemic index diet associated with improved glycemic control. Objective To examine long-term longitudinal associations between changes in glycemic index and glycemic load with glycemic and metabolic control among Latino adults with diabetes. Design Secondary data from intervention and comparison participants in the Latinos en Control trial (2006–2008) were analyzed. Participants/setting Data on dietary intake and metabolic characteristics were from low-income, Latino adults (N=238; 87.7% Puerto Rican) with type 2 diabetes. Intervention The Latinos en Control trial was a randomized clinical trial targeting diabetes self-management among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomized to a group-based behavioral intervention or usual care and followed through 12 months. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles, anthropometrics, and blood pressure. Statistical Analysis Glycemic index and load were analyzed using data from three 24-hour dietary recalls conducted at baseline, 4 months, and 12 months. Repeated measures regression models were used to examine change in glycemic index and load associated with metabolic characteristics at 12 months. Covariates included sex, age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total energy intake, medication use and intensity, physical activity, intervention status (intervention vs. usual care), and time. Results Increases in glycemic index from baseline to 12 months were associated with increased logarithm of HbA1c levels (β=0.003; p=0.034) and waist circumference (β=0.12; p=0.026)over time, but not with fasting glucose, blood lipids, or BMI. There was modest evidence to support small, positive associations between glycemic load and HbA1c levels and waist circumference. Conclusions Lowering glycemic index is associated with

  19. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study is a nonpharmacolo......OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study...... and high glycemic load or diets with a high content of total carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the probability of having insulin resistance. Furthermore, intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance....

  20. Continuous glucose monitoring to assess the ecologic validity of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricatore, Anthony N; Ebbeling, Cara B; Wadden, Thomas A; Ludwig, David S

    2011-12-01

    The circumstances under which the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are derived do not reflect real-world eating behavior. Thus, the ecologic validity of these constructs is incompletely known. This study examined the relation of dietary intake to glycemic response when foods are consumed under free-living conditions. Participants were 26 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes who participated in a randomized trial of lifestyle modification. The current study includes baseline data, before initiation of the intervention. Participants wore a continuous glucose monitor and simultaneously kept a food diary for 3 d. The dietary variables included GI, GL, and intakes of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate, sugars, and fiber. The glycemic response variables included AUC, mean and SD of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) values, percentage of CGM values in euglycemic and hyperglycemic ranges, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions. Relations between daily dietary intake and glycemic outcomes were examined. Data were available from 41 d of monitoring. Partial correlations, controlled for energy intake, indicated that GI or GL was significantly associated with each glycemic response outcome. In multivariate analyses, dietary GI accounted for 10% to 18% of the variance in each glycemic variable, independent of energy and carbohydrate intakes (P glycemic stability and variability.

  1. Continuous glucose monitoring to assess the ecologic validity of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeling, Cara B; Wadden, Thomas A; Ludwig, David S

    2011-01-01

    Background: The circumstances under which the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are derived do not reflect real-world eating behavior. Thus, the ecologic validity of these constructs is incompletely known. Objective: This study examined the relation of dietary intake to glycemic response when foods are consumed under free-living conditions. Design: Participants were 26 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes who participated in a randomized trial of lifestyle modification. The current study includes baseline data, before initiation of the intervention. Participants wore a continuous glucose monitor and simultaneously kept a food diary for 3 d. The dietary variables included GI, GL, and intakes of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate, sugars, and fiber. The glycemic response variables included AUC, mean and SD of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) values, percentage of CGM values in euglycemic and hyperglycemic ranges, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions. Relations between daily dietary intake and glycemic outcomes were examined. Results: Data were available from 41 d of monitoring. Partial correlations, controlled for energy intake, indicated that GI or GL was significantly associated with each glycemic response outcome. In multivariate analyses, dietary GI accounted for 10% to 18% of the variance in each glycemic variable, independent of energy and carbohydrate intakes (P glycemic stability and variability. PMID:22071699

  2. Use of the glycemic index in nutrition education

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Galvão Cândido; Elisângela Vitoriano Pereira; Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the lack of studies providing practical guidance for the use of the glycemic index has been indicated as the cause of its little use in nutrition education. The aim of this study is to give instructions on the use of the glycemic index as a tool to be used in nutrition education to estimulate the consumption of low glycemic index foods. Studies published over the past 12 years, in addition to classic studies on this topic, found in the databases MedLine, ScienceDirect, SciELO and Li...

  3. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance: the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cathrine; Faerch, Kristine; Glümer, Charlotte; Tetens, Inge; Pedersen, Oluf; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2005-06-01

    To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index, daily glycemic load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. The Inter99 study is a nonpharmacological intervention study. We used baseline data and examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and an estimate of insulin resistance in 5,675 subjects at 30-60 years. The dietary intake was estimated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI, and waist circumference. Intake of lactose was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P glycemic load and intake of glucose, fructose, dietary fiber, total carbohydrate, fruit, and vegetables were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P glycemic load and total carbohydrate and attenuated the association with fruit and vegetables. No significant associations were observed for daily glycemic index or sucrose. Habitual intake of diets with a high glycemic index and high glycemic load or diets with a high content of total carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the probability of having insulin resistance. Furthermore, intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance.

  4. Effect of glycemic index on obesity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elisângela Vitoriano; Costa, Jorge de Assis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate the effect of glycemic index (GI) on biochemical parameters, food intake, energy metabolism, anthropometric measures and body composition in overweight subjects. Simple blind study, in which nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to consume in the laboratory two daily low GI (n = 10) or high GI (n = 9) meals, for forty-five consecutive days. Habitual food intake was assessed at baseline. Food intake, anthropometric measures and body composition were assessed at each 15 days. Energy metabolism and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study. Low GI meals increased fat oxidation, and reduced waist circumference and HOMA-IR, while high GI meals increased daily dietary fiber and energy intake compared to baseline. There was a higher reduction on waist circumference and body fat, and a higher increase on postprandial fat oxidation in response to the LGI meals than after high GI meals. High GI meals increased fasting respiratory coefficient compared to baseline and low GI meals. The results of the present study showed that the consumption of two daily low GI meals for forty-five consecutive days has a positive effect on obesity control, whereas, the consumption of high GI meals result has the opposite effect.

  5. Influence of glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet on the risk of overweight and adiposity in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Cristine Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the glycemic index and the glycemic load of the diet with the risk of overweight and high adiposity in children with 5 years of age. Methods: Cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of 232 children born and living in Diamantina (MG, Brazil. Parents and/or guardians provided the food intake data, using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, past history and socioeconomic conditions. Anthropometric and fatness data were collected from the children. The dietary glycemic index and the glycemic load were calculated from the food intake. The glycemic index and glycemic load effect on overweight and adiposity in children was assessed by the Poisson regression (p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of overweight by body mass index was 17.3%, and high adiposity was observed in 3.4% and 6.9% by triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold, respectively. No difference was reported between the mean body mass index, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold according to the glycemic index and glycemic load tertiles; however, the overweight group presented a higher carbohydrate intake (p=0.04. No association was found between glycemic index and glycemic load with overweight and adiposity among the children assessed. Conclusions: The glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet were not identified as risk factors for overweight and adiposity in this cross-sectional study.

  6. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farideh Shishebor; Zahra Shamekhi; Majid Karandish; Seyed Mahmood Latifi

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran...

  7. Effects of Carbohydrate and Dietary Fiber Intake, Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on HDL Metabolism in Asian Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Abe, Shinichi; Tada, Norio; Sako, Akahito

    2014-01-01

    .... There may be interracial differences in effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism. Here we reviewed published articles about effects of carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL...

  8. Adipose Lipolysis Unchanged by Preexercise Carbohydrate regardless of Glycemic Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel A; Willingham, Brandon D; Smith, Kyle A; Kisiolek, Jacob N; Morrissey, Margaret C; Saracino, Patrick G; Ragland, Tristan J; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2017-11-20

    To determine the impact of pre-exercise carbohydrate of different glycemic indices on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) metabolism and running performance. Ten trained male runners completed three experimental trials consisting of 30 min at 60% VO2max, 30 min at 75% VO2max, and a 5-km time trial (TT). Thirty min prior to exercise, participants consumed one of three beverages: 1) 75 g low glycemic index modified starch supplement (UCAN), 2) 75 g high glycemic index glucose-based supplement (G), or 3) a flavor-matched non-caloric placebo (PL). SCAAT lipolysis was assessed via microdialysis. Prior to exercise, blood glucose and insulin were elevated with G vs. PL (+53.0 ± 21.3 mg[BULLET OPERATOR]dL [SD]; p glycemic index carbohydrate. However, these changes are not the result of alterations in SCAAT lipolysis, nor do they affect running performance.

  9. Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, blood lipids, and C-reactive protein

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, Emily B.; Cook, Nancy R.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Ridker, Paul M; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Liu, Simin

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrate quantity and quality may influence risk of cardiovascular disease through blood lipid concentrations and inflammation. We measured dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) among 18,137 healthy women ≥ 45 years old without diagnosed diabetes using a food-frequency questionnaire. We assayed fasting total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio, triacylglycerols (TG), and C-reactive protein (CRP). We evaluated associations with dietary GI and GL using ...

  10. Dietary Glycemic Index, Dietary Glycemic Load, Blood Lipids, and Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez; Gerardo Huitrón-Bravo; Talavera, Juan O.; Susana Castañón; Katia Gallegos-Carrillo; Yvonne Flores; Jorge Salmerón

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) with blood lipid concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD) in nondiabetic participants in the Health Worker Cohort Study (HWCS). Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was performed, using data from adults who participated in the HWCS baseline assessment. We collected information on participants' socio-demographic conditions, dietary patterns and physical activity via self-adm...

  11. Influence of glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet on the risk of overweight and adiposity in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kellen Cristine; Nobre, Luciana Neri; Vicente, Sofia Emanuelle de Castro Ferreira; Moreira, Lidiane Lopes; Lessa, Angelina do Carmo; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the glycemic index and the glycemic load of the diet with the risk of overweight and high adiposity in children with 5 years of age. Methods: Cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of 232 children born and living in Diamantina (MG, Brazil). Parents and/or guardians provided the food intake data, using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, past history and socioeconomic conditions. Anthropometric and fatness data were collected from the children. The dietary glycemic index and the glycemic load were calculated from the food intake. The glycemic index and glycemic load effect on overweight and adiposity in children was assessed by the Poisson regression (pindex was 17.3%, and high adiposity was observed in 3.4% and 6.9% by triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold, respectively. No difference was reported between the mean body mass index, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold according to the glycemic index and glycemic load tertiles; however, the overweight group presented a higher carbohydrate intake (p=0.04). No association was found between glycemic index and glycemic load with overweight and adiposity among the children assessed. Conclusions: The glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet were not identified as risk factors for overweight and adiposity in this cross-sectional study. PMID:27215968

  12. Influence of glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet on the risk of overweight and adiposity in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kellen Cristine; Neri Nobre, Luciana; Emanuelle de Castro Ferreira Vicente, Sofia; Lopes Moreira, Lidiane; do Carmo Lessa, Angelina; Alves Lamounier, Joel

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the association between the glycemic index and the glycemic load of the diet with the risk of overweight and high adiposity in children with 5 years of age. Cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of 232 children born and living in Diamantina (MG, Brazil). Parents and/or guardians provided the food intake data, using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, past history and socioeconomic conditions. Anthropometric and fatness data were collected from the children. The dietary glycemic index and the glycemic load were calculated from the food intake. The glycemic index and glycemic load effect on overweight and adiposity in children was assessed by the Poisson regression (pindex was 17.3%, and high adiposity was observed in 3.4% and 6.9% by triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold, respectively. No difference was reported between the mean body mass index, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold according to the glycemic index and glycemic load tertiles; however, the overweight group presented a higher carbohydrate intake (p=0.04). No association was found between glycemic index and glycemic load with overweight and adiposity among the children assessed. The glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet were not identified as risk factors for overweight and adiposity in this cross-sectional study. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Shishebor; Zahra Shamekhi; Majid Karandish; Seyed Mahmood Latifi

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of Iranian food program and blood lipids. Materials & Methods: The subjects were 95 women working in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences in the range of 20 to 55 years old...

  14. [The glycemic index of some foods common in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Roca-Vides, R A; López-Pérez, R J; de Vivero, I; Ruiz-Velazco, M

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the increase of glycemia due to the ingestion of usual food in Mexico, portions with 50 g of carbohydrate form white corn tortilla, yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice, potatoes, beans brown and black, nopal (prickle pear cactus) and peanuts, compared with white bread, were given to 21 healthy and 27 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Serum glucose and insulin were measured every 30 min for 180 min long. Glycemic index was obtained as: (area under curve of glucose with test food/area under curve of glucose with white bread) X 100. A corrected index was calculated subtracting the area corresponding to initial values. Insulin index was obtained similarly. Each sample was studied 14-18 times. Glycemic and insulin indexes of white and yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice and potatoes were not different from bread (P greater than 0.05). Corrected glycemic indexes of brown beans (54 +/- 15, +/- SE) and black beans (43 +/- 17) were low (p less than 0.05), as well as corrected insulin indexes (69 +/- 11 and 64 +/- 10 respectively, (P less than 0.02). Peanuts had low glycemic (33 +/- 17, P less than 0.01), but normal insulin index. Nopal had very low glycemic and insulin indexes (10 +/- 17 and 10 +/- 16, P less than 0.0001). These data might be useful in prescribing diets for diabetic subjects.

  15. Glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Flood, Andrew; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2009-04-01

    Diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load have been associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. We prospectively investigated the associations between glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and available carbohydrates dietary constituents (starch and simple sugar) intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. We followed the participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study from 1995/1996 through December 2003. A baseline self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake and exposure information. A total of 1,151 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were identified from 482,362 participants after excluding first-year of follow-up. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for pancreatic cancer. There were no associations between glycemic index, total or available carbohydrates, gycemic load, and pancreatic cancer risk. Participants with high free fructose and glucose intake were at a greater risk of developing pancreatic cancer (highest compared with lowest quintile, RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.04-1.59; P trend = 0.004 and RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.10-1.67; P trend = 0.005, respectively). There were no statistically significant interactions by body mass index, physical activity, or smoking status. Our results do not support an association between glycemic index, total or available carbohydrate intake, and glycemic load and pancreatic cancer risk. The higher risk associated with high free fructose intake needs further confirmation and elucidation.

  16. Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load and endometrial cancer risk: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Helen G; Kitahara, Cari M; Murray, Liam J; Dodd, Kevin W; Black, Amanda; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Cantwell, Marie M

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk has been directly associated with glycemic load. However, few studies have investigated this link, and the etiological role of specific dietary carbohydrate components remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate associations of carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load with endometrial cancer risk in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Recruitment took place in 1993-2001. Over a median of 9.0 years of follow-up through 2009, 386 women developed endometrial cancer among 36,115 considered in the analysis. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 124-item diet history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Significant inverse associations were detected between endometrial cancer risk and total available carbohydrate intake (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.90), total sugars intake (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.96), and glycemic load (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.84) when women in the highest quartile of intake were compared with those in the lowest. These inverse associations were strongest among overweight and obese women. No associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for glycemic index or dietary fiber. Our findings contrast with previous evidence and suggest that high carbohydrate intakes and glycemic loads are protective against endometrial cancer development. Further clarification of these associations is warranted.

  17. Effect of the Glycemic Index of Carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Jennie C. Brand-Miller; Peter Petocz; Stockmann, Karola S.; Atkinson, Fiona S.; Choi, James Y. J.; Stephen Lee; Reynolds, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2) were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance), androgen...

  18. Glycemic index, glycemic load and insulinemic index of Chinese starchy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lu, Shin; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-10-21

    To determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and insulinemic index (II) of five starchy foods that are commonly used in Chinese diets. Ten healthy subjects aged between 20-30 years were recruited. Each subject was asked to consume 50 g of available carbohydrate portions of test foods and reference food. Finger capillary blood samples were collected at the start of eating and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after consumption. The GI and II of foods were calculated from the ratio of incremental area under the glucose/insulin response curves of test and reference foods. The GL for each test food was determined from its GI value and carbohydrate content. The results showed that brown rice elicited the highest postprandial glucose and insulin responses, followed by taro, adlay, yam and mung bean noodles, which produced the lowest. Among the five starchy foods, brown rice evoked the highest GI and GL at 82 ± 0.2 and 18 ± 0.2, followed by taro (69 ± 0.4, 12 ± 0.2), adlay (55 ± 0.4, 10 ± 0.2), yam (52 ± 0.3, 9 ± 0.0) and mung bean noodles (28 ± 0.5, 7 ± 0.2), respectively. The II values of the test foods corresponded with GI values. Similarly, brown rice gave the highest II at 81 ± 0.1, followed by taro (73 ± 0.3), adlay (67 ± 0.3), yam (64 ± 0.5) and mung bean noodles (38 ± 0.3). All five starchy foods had lower GI, GL and II than reference bread (P < 0.05). The GI, GL and II values of starchy foods provide important information for the public to manage their diet and could be useful for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus.

  19. Food Addiction, High-Glycemic-Index Carbohydrates, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerz, Belinda; Lennerz, Jochen K

    2017-11-20

    Treatment success in obesity remains low, and recently food addiction has been delineated as an underlying etiologic factor with therapeutic relevance. Specifically, current treatment focuses on reduced food intake and increase of physical activity, whereas interventions for addiction encompass behavioral therapy, abstinence, and environmental interventions such as taxation, restrictions on advertising, and regulation of school menus. Here, we reviewed the pertinent literature on food addiction with a specific focus on the role of high-glycemic-index carbohydrates in triggering addictive symptoms. Three lines of evidence support the concept of food addiction: (a) behavioral responses to certain foods are similar to substances of abuse; (b) food intake regulation and addiction rely on similar neurobiological circuits; (c) individuals suffering from obesity or addiction show similar neurochemical and brain activation patterns.High-glycemic-index carbohydrates elicit a rapid shift in blood glucose and insulin levels, akin to the pharmacokinetics of addictive substances. Akin to drugs of abuse, glucose and insulin signal to the mesolimbic system to modify dopamine concentration. Sugar elicits addiction-like craving, and self-reported problem foods are rich in high-glycemic-index carbohydrates. These properties make high-glycemic-index carbohydrates plausible triggers for food addiction. Food addiction is a plausible etiological factor contributing to the heterogeneous condition and phenotype of obesity. In at least a subset of vulnerable individuals, high-glycemic-index carbohydrates trigger addiction-like neurochemical and behavioral responses. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  20. Glycemic acute changes in type 2 diabetics caused by low and high glycemic index diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Reis, C E; Dullius, J

    2011-01-01

    Low-glycemic index diets may improve the glycemic control in type 2 diabetes but the debate over their effectiveness continues. To test the effects of low-glycemic index diets on acute glycemic control (2 days) by measuring capillary blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. This was a crossover randomized clinical trial with 12 type 2 diabetics which were randomly divided into 2 groups and targeted the following draft diets for low and high glycemic index (LGI and HGI) for 2 consecutive days in 2 consecutive weeks. Group 1 followed an LGI diet in week 1 and an HGI diet in week 2, group 2 adopted the contrary. They were oriented to maintain medication and lifestyle and to follow the recommendations. Measurements were made of glycemia capillaries in 2 days (fasting, before lunch, post-prandial lunch and before dinner) and one last in fasting on day 3. A food record during the days and the counting of carbohydrates meals was made. The software SigmaStat (version 2.03) was used, with a statistical significance criterion of p carbohydrates ingested by the LGI group was lower (p carbohydrates, being favorable for diabetics. Mean blood glucose on the first day was lower in the LGI group (p < 0.05).

  1. Low Glycemic Index Prototype Isomaltulose—Update of Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresch, Constanze Christin; Petry, Sebastian Friedrich; Theis, Stephan; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Linn, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Low glycemic index diets are supposed to achieve a more beneficial effect on blood glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus and may also provide metabolic benefits for the general population. A prototype of a low-glycemic index carbohydrate is the natural occurring disaccharide isomaltulose that can be commercially produced from sucrose (beet sugar) to industrial scale. It is currently used in various food and drink applications as well as special and clinical nutrition feeds and formula diet as a food ingredient and alternative sugar. Here we provide an overview on clinical trials with isomaltulose including an analysis of its effects on glycemia and fat oxidation as compared to high glycemic index sugars and carbohydrates. In addition, we discuss recent reports on beneficial effects in weight-loss maintenance and pregnancy. PMID:28406437

  2. Low Glycemic Index Prototype Isomaltulose-Update of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresch, Constanze Christin; Petry, Sebastian Friedrich; Theis, Stephan; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Linn, Thomas

    2017-04-13

    Low glycemic index diets are supposed to achieve a more beneficial effect on blood glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus and may also provide metabolic benefits for the general population. A prototype of a low-glycemic index carbohydrate is the natural occurring disaccharide isomaltulose that can be commercially produced from sucrose (beet sugar) to industrial scale. It is currently used in various food and drink applications as well as special and clinical nutrition feeds and formula diet as a food ingredient and alternative sugar. Here we provide an overview on clinical trials with isomaltulose including an analysis of its effects on glycemia and fat oxidation as compared to high glycemic index sugars and carbohydrates. In addition, we discuss recent reports on beneficial effects in weight-loss maintenance and pregnancy.

  3. Influence of high glycemic index and glycemic load diets on blood pressure during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; Baur, Louise A; Smith, Wayne; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to prospectively examine the association between the glycemic index and glycemic load of foods consumed and the dietary intakes of carbohydrates, sugars, fiber, and principal carbohydrate-containing food groups (eg, breads, cereals, and sugary drinks) with changes in blood pressure during adolescence. A total of 858 students aged 12 years at baseline (422 girls and 436 boys) were examined from 2004-2005 to 2009-2011. Dietary data were assessed from validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Blood pressure was measured using a standard protocol. In girls, after adjusting for age, ethnicity, parental education, parental history of hypertension, baseline height, baseline blood pressure, change in body mass index, and time spent in physical and sedentary activities, each 1-SD (1-SD = 7.10 g/d) increase in baseline dietary intake of total fiber was associated with a 0.96-, 0.62-, and 0.75-mmHg decrease in mean systolic (P = 0.02), diastolic (P = 0.01), and arterial blood pressures (P = 0.002), respectively, 5 years later. In girls, each 1-SD increase in dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrate, and fructose was concurrently related to increases of 1.81 (P = 0.001), 4.02 (P = 0.01), 4.74 (P = 0.01), and 1.80 mm Hg (P = 0.03) in systolic blood pressure, respectively, >5 years. Significant associations between carbohydrate nutrition variables and blood pressure were not observed among boys. Excessive dietary intake of carbohydrates, specifically from high glycemic index/glycemic load foods, could adversely influence blood pressure, particularly in girls, whereas fiber-rich diets may be protective against elevated blood pressure during adolescence.

  4. Glycemic load, glycemic index, bread and incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Zazpe, Itziar; Vazquez-Ruiz, Zenaida; Benito-Corchon, Silvia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2014-10-22

    To evaluate prospectively the relationship between white, or whole grain bread, and glycemic index, or glycemic load from diet and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort. We followed-up 9 267 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 5 years. Dietary habits at baseline were assessed using a semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Average yearly weight change was evaluated according to quintiles of baseline glycemic index, glycemic load, and categories of bread consumption. We also assessed the association between bread consumption, glycemic index, or glycemic load, and the incidence of overweight/obesity. White bread and whole-grain bread were not associated with higher weight gain. No association between glycemic index, glycemic load and weight change was found.White bread consumption was directly associated with a higher risk of becoming overweight/obese (adjusted OR (≥2 portions/day) versus (≤1 portion/week): 1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.81; p for trend: 0.008). However, no statistically significant association was observed between whole-grain bread, glycemic index or glycemic load and overweight/obesity. Consumption of white bread (≥2 portions/day) showed a significant direct association with the risk of becoming overweight/obese.

  5. Glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Uchôa Passos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases. Nine fruits were investigated: coconut water (for the purpose of this study, coconut water was classified as a “fruit”, guava, tamarind, passion fruit, custard apple, hog plum, cashew, sapodilla, and soursop. The GI and GL were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol. The GL was calculated taking into consideration intake recommendation guidelines; 77.8% of the fruits had low GI although significant oscillations were observed in some graphs, which may indicate potential risks of disease. Coconut water and custard apple had a moderate GI, and all fruits had low GL. The fruits evaluated are healthy and can be consumed following the daily recommended amount. However, caution is recommended with fruits causing early glycemic peak and the fruits with moderated GI (coconut water and custard apple.

  6. Cassava Flour Substitution Modulates Glycemic Responses and Glycemic Index of Wheat Breads in Apparent Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ebelechukwu N; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ozumba, Augusta U; Adewale, Chris O; Kayode, Funmi O; Asieba, Godfrey O; Adesegha, Olubukola I; Elemo, Gloria N

    2017-07-04

    Different carbohydrate foods produce different glycemic responses even with little or no difference in macronutrient composition. Cassava constitutes one of the major staples in Nigeria. Four blends of cassava-wheat bread samples with 0, 10, 15, and 20% cassava flour inclusion were fed individually to groups of healthy human volunteers. Subjects were studied on separate occasions in the morning after a 10-12-hr overnight fast. Blood glucose responses were measured at intervals of 30 min over a period of 2 hr. Glucose was used as a reference food. There were normal glucose responses to the bread samples studied. Increase in cassava incorporation led to less significant glycemic responses. The glycemic index values ranged from 91-94. Results from this study indicate that the inclusion of cassava flour in bread production might not pose a threat to blood glucose response of individuals.

  7. Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Lung Cancer Risk in Non-Hispanic Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, Stephanie C; Daniel, Carrie R.; Ye, Yuanqing; Pierzynski, Jeanne A.; Roth, Jack A.; Wu, Xifeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Postprandial glucose (PPG) and insulin responses play a role in carcinogenesis. We evaluated the association between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), markers of carbohydrate intake and PPG, and lung cancer risk in non-Hispanic whites. Methods GL and GI were assessed among 1,905 newly diagnosed lung cancer cases recruited from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas and 2,413 healthy controls recruited at Kelsey-Seybold Clinics in Houston. We assessed associations between quintiles of GI/GL and lung cancer risk and effect modification by various risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results We observed a significant association between GI (5th vs 1st quintile (Q)) OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.21–1.83, P-trend glycemic index and other lung cancer risk factors may jointly and independently influence lung cancer etiology. Impact Understanding the role of glycemic index in lung cancer could inform prevention strategies and elucidate biological pathways related to lung cancer risk. PMID:26944871

  8. Evaluation of Pistacia lentiscus Fatty Oil Effects on Glycemic Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Pistacia lentiscus Fatty Oil Effects on Glycemic Index, Liver Functions and Kidney Functions of New Zealand Rabbits. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  9. Glycemic index in the management of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Juanola Falgarona, Martí

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) are one of the main causes of disability and death worldwide. It has been proposed that high glycemic index (GI) and high glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS and cardiovascular disease. To date, evidence suggests possible benefits of the GI/GL for the prevention and management of obesity and MetS. We aimed to analyze the association between dietary GI and GL and the risk of to develop Met...

  10. Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, D; Chan, D S M; Lau, R; Vieira, R; Greenwood, D C; Kampman, E; Norat, T

    2012-04-01

    Dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load are thought to influence colorectal cancer risk through hyperinsulinemia. We review and quantitatively summarize in a meta-analysis the evidence from prospective cohort studies. We searched the PubMed database for prospective studies of carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load and colorectal cancer risk, up to October 2011. Summary relative risks were estimated by the use of a random effects model. We identified 14 cohort studies that could be included in the meta-analysis of carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load and colorectal cancer risk. The summary RR for high versus low intake was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.87-1.14, I2 = 31%) for carbohydrate, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99-1.16, I2 = 28%) for glycemic index, and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.91-1.10, I2 = 39%) for glycemic load. In the dose-response analysis, the summary RR was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84-1.07, I2 = 58%) per 100 grams of carbohydrate per day, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99-1.15, I2 = 39%) per 10 glycemic index units, and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.95-1.08, I2 = 47%) per 50 glycemic load units. Exclusion of one or two outlying studies reduced the heterogeneity, but the results were similar. This meta-analysis of cohort studies does not support an independent association between diets high in carbohydrate, glycemic index, or glycemic load and colorectal cancer risk.

  11. Pregnancy and Glycemic Index Outcomes study: effects of low glycemic index compared with conventional dietary advice on selected pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert G; Casey, Shelly A; Quinn, Eleanor G; Cleary, Jane M; Tapsell, Linda C; Milosavljevic, Marianna; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2014-03-01

    Eating carbohydrate foods with a high glycemic index (GI) has been postulated to result in fetoplacental overgrowth and higher infant body fat. A diet with a low glycemic index (LGI) has been shown to reduce birth percentiles and the ponderal index (PI). We investigated whether offering LGI dietary advice at the first antenatal visit would result in a lower fetal birth weight, birth percentile, and PI than providing healthy eating (HE) advice. This advice had to be presented within the resources of routine antenatal care. The Pregnancy and Glycemic Index Outcomes study was a 2-arm, parallel-design, randomized, controlled trial that compared the effects of LGI dietary advice with HE advice on pregnancy outcomes. Eligible volunteers who attended for routine antenatal care at glycemic load was the only significant dietary predictor (P = 0.046) of primary outcomes but explained <1% of all variation. A low-intensity dietary intervention with an LGI diet compared with an HE diet in pregnancy did not result in any significant differences in birth weight, fetal percentile, or PI.

  12. High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women : a population-based follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W. J.; de Bruijne, Leonie M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this work was to assess whether high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Background The associations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of CVD are not well established, particularly

  13. Diets with High or Low Protein Content and Glycemic Index for Weight-Loss Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; van Baak, Marleen; Jebb, Susan A.; Papadaki, Angeliki; Pfeiffer, Andreas F.H.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Kunešová, Marie; Pihlsgård, Mats; Stender, Steen; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H.M.; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. Methods We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie diet. Participants were randomly assigned, in a two-by-two factorial design, to one of five ad libitum diets to prevent weight regain over a 26-week period: a low-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a low-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, or a control diet. Results A total of 1209 adults were screened (mean age, 41 years; body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 34), of whom 938 entered the low-calorie-diet phase of the study. A total of 773 participants who completed that phase were randomly assigned to one of the five maintenance diets; 548 completed the intervention (71%). Fewer participants in the high-protein and the low-glycemic-index groups than in the low-protein–high-glycemic-index group dropped out of the study (26.4% and 25.6%, respectively, vs. 37.4%; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01 for the respective comparisons). The mean initial weight loss with the low-calorie diet was 11.0 kg. In the analysis of participants who completed the study, only the low-protein–high-glycemic-index diet was associated with subsequent significant weight regain (1.67 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 2.87). In an intention-to-treat analysis, the weight regain was 0.93 kg less (95% CI, 0.31 to 1.55) in the groups assigned to a high-protein diet than in those assigned to a low-protein diet (P = 0.003) and 0.95 kg less (95% CI, 0.33 to 1.57) in the groups assigned to a low-glycemic-index diet than in those assigned to a high-glycemic-index diet (P = 0.003). The analysis involving

  14. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; van Baak, Marleen; Jebb, Susan A; Papadaki, Angeliki; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Kunešová, Marie; Pihlsgård, Mats; Stender, Steen; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne

    2010-11-25

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie diet. Participants were randomly assigned, in a two-by-two factorial design, to one of five ad libitum diets to prevent weight regain over a 26-week period: a low-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a low-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, or a control diet. A total of 1209 adults were screened (mean age, 41 years; body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 34), of whom 938 entered the low-calorie-diet phase of the study. A total of 773 participants who completed that phase were randomly assigned to one of the five maintenance diets; 548 completed the intervention (71%). Fewer participants in the high-protein and the low-glycemic-index groups than in the low-protein-high-glycemic-index group dropped out of the study (26.4% and 25.6%, respectively, vs. 37.4%; P=0.02 and P=0.01 for the respective comparisons). The mean initial weight loss with the low-calorie diet was 11.0 kg. In the analysis of participants who completed the study, only the low-protein-high-glycemic-index diet was associated with subsequent significant weight regain (1.67 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 2.87). In an intention-to-treat analysis, the weight regain was 0.93 kg less (95% CI, 0.31 to 1.55) in the groups assigned to a high-protein diet than in those assigned to a low-protein diet (P=0.003) and 0.95 kg less (95% CI, 0.33 to 1.57) in the groups assigned to a low-glycemic-index diet than in those assigned to a high-glycemic-index diet (P=0.003). The analysis involving participants who completed the intervention

  15. Relation between Breast Cancer and High Glycemic Index or Glycemic Load: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullie, Patrick; Koechlin, Alice; Boniol, Mathieu; Autier, Philippe; Boyle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest form of cancer in women worldwide. It has been suggested that chronic hyperinsulinemia associated with insulin resistance plays a role in breast cancer etiology. To test the hyperinsulinemia hypothesis, a dietary pattern associated with a high glycemic index and glycemic load, both proxies for chronic hyperinsulinemia, should be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. A meta-analysis restricted to prospective cohort studies was undertaken using a random effects model with tests for statistical significance, publication bias and heterogeneity. The metric for analysis was the risk of breast cancer in the highest relative to the lowest glycemic index and glycemic load dietary pattern. A dietary pattern with a high glycemic index was associated with a summary relative risk (SRR) of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.11), and a high glycemic load with a SRR of 1.06 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.13). Adjustments for body mass index [BMI], physical activity and other lifestyle factors did not influence the SRR, nor did menopausal status and estrogen receptor status of the tumor. In conclusion, the current evidence supports a modest association between a dietary pattern with high glycemic index or glycemic load and the risk of breast cancer.

  16. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Ermini, Ilaria; Occhini, Daniela; Sieri, Sabina; Brighenti, Furio; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Ambrogetti, Daniela; Palli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD) and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83%) and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories) with those with low MBD (N1+P1) through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048) while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further investigations.

  17. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Masala

    Full Text Available A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83% and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories with those with low MBD (N1+P1 through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048 while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further

  18. Effect of glycemic index and glycemic load on energy intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-09-01

    Several studies assessed the effect of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) on energy intake in children but findings are not consistent in this regard. The aim of this study is to summarize and assess the evidence for the effect of GI and GL on energy intake by conducting a meta-analysis on published randomized clinical trials. Our search process was conducted in PUBMED, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. The following keywords were searched in any part of published articles: "glycemic index" OR "glycaemic index" OR "glycemic load" OR "glycaemic load" OR "energy intake" AND "child" OR "children" OR "adolescent" OR "youth." We gathered 5099 articles. Non-clinical trial studies that did not intervene by GI or GL or those not assessing energy intake as a dependent variable and those that were conducted on patients over age 18 y were excluded. Each included study was evaluated three times and the exclusion criteria was checked. Eventually, six studies from 1999 to 2012 met the criteria (213 participants ages 4-17.5 y). There is heterogeneity in the study's participants in the present paper. Children with type 2 diabetes, obesity, or normal-weight children were recruited in different studies. Overall effect of consuming low GI (LGI) and low GL (LGL) meals on energy intake was not significant. Subgroup analysis showed that LGI (not LGL) meals decreased subsequent energy intake, whereas heterogeneity was significant in the LGI group of studies. Although a slight asymmetry was shown by Begg's funnel plot, the Egger's asymmetry was not significant. We did not find any evidence of publication bias for studies assessing the effect of low GI or GL meals on energy intake. Consuming LGI diet (not LGL) has favorable effect on reducing energy intake and obesity, subsequently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Glycemic index, glycemic load and glycemic response: An International Scientific Consensus Summit from the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium (ICQC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, L S A; Kendall, C W C; Jenkins, D J A; Willett, W C; Astrup, A; Barclay, A W; Björck, I; Brand-Miller, J C; Brighenti, F; Buyken, A E; Ceriello, A; La Vecchia, C; Livesey, G; Liu, S; Riccardi, G; Rizkalla, S W; Sievenpiper, J L; Trichopoulou, A; Wolever, T M S; Baer-Sinnott, S; Poli, A

    2015-09-01

    The positive and negative health effects of dietary carbohydrates are of interest to both researchers and consumers. International experts on carbohydrate research held a scientific summit in Stresa, Italy, in June 2013 to discuss controversies surrounding the utility of the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response (GR). The outcome was a scientific consensus statement which recognized the importance of postprandial glycemia in overall health, and the GI as a valid and reproducible method of classifying carbohydrate foods for this purpose. There was consensus that diets low in GI and GL were relevant to the prevention and management of diabetes and coronary heart disease, and probably obesity. Moderate to weak associations were observed for selected cancers. The group affirmed that diets low in GI and GL should always be considered in the context of diets otherwise understood as healthy, complementing additional ways of characterizing carbohydrate foods, such as fiber and whole grain content. Diets of low GI and GL were considered particularly important in individuals with insulin resistance. Given the high prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes worldwide and the consistency of the scientific evidence reviewed, the expert panel confirmed an urgent need to communicate information on GI and GL to the general public and health professionals, through channels such as national dietary guidelines, food composition tables and food labels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Shishebor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of Iranian food program and blood lipids. Materials & Methods: The subjects were 95 women working in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences in the range of 20 to 55 years old. Glycemic index and Glycemic load of the food program was analyzed with 24-hour food recall questionnaires (4-6 recall. For calculating GI and GL, Iranian food GI tables, and also, international GI and GL table were used. The levels of blood lipids including HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides of the blood were measured and the level of LDL Cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. Also, Anthropometric measurements were done using standard methods. Resulst: The mean age of subjects in this study was 36 years. GI mean was 72.1 and GL mean was 153.2. In this study, there was no significant relation between HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and Blood TG with Glycemic index and Glycemic load of food program. Conclusion: Unlike findings of west and Asian countries, both dietary GI and GL were not correlated with metabolic factors including blood lipid levels in this study , underreporting of individuals may influence the results of the study.

  1. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cust, Anne E.; Slimani, Nadia; Kaaks, Rudolf; van Bakel, Marit; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Laville, Martine; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Lajous, Martin; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Noethlings, Ute; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quiros, J. Ramon; Jakszyn, Paula; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Berglund, Goran; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Goeran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Du, Huaidong; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bingham, Shelia; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio

    2007-01-01

    The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004),

  2. Glycemic index and glycemic load and their association with C-reactive protein and incident type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Kuijsten, A.; Sijbrands, E.J.G.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether the Glycemic Index (GI) or Glycemic Load (GL) of a diet is associated with C-reactive Protein (CRP) and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective study. Materials and Methods. Our analysis included 4,366 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline. During

  3. Dietary Fiber, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load in Relation to Breast Cancer Prognosis in the HEAL Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, F.N.; Kampman, E.; McTiernan, A.; Bernstein, L.; Baumgartner, K.; Baumgartner, R.; Ambs, A.; Ballard-Barbash, R.; Neuhouser, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary intake of fiber, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) may influence breast cancer survival, but consistent and convincing evidence is lacking. Methods: We investigated associations of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, GI, and GL with breast cancer prognosis among

  4. Dietary fiber, carbohydrates, glycemic index, and glycemic load in relation to breast cancer prognosis in the HEAL cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, F.N.; Kampman, E.; McTiernan, A.; Bernstein, L.; Baumgartner, K.; Baumgartner, R.; Ambs, A.; Ballard-Barbash, R.; Neuhouser, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary intake of fiber, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) may influence breast cancer survival, but consistent and convincing evidence is lacking. METHODS: We investigated associations of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, GI, and GL with breast cancer prognosis among

  5. Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Chan, D.S.; Lau, R.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load are thought to influence colorectal cancer risk through hyperinsulinemia. We review and quantitatively summarize in a meta-analysis the evidence from prospective cohort studies. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for

  6. Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and colorectal cancer risk : a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Chan, D.S.M.; Lau, R.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load are thought to influence colorectal cancer risk through hyperinsulinemia. We review and quantitatively summarize in a meta-analysis the evidence from prospective cohort studies. Methods We searched the PubMed database for prospective

  7. A Randomized Trial about Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Improves Outcomes among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla K.; Gutschall, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Glycemic index (GI) represents the postprandial glucose response of carbohydrate foods, and glycemic load (GL) represents the quantity and quality of carbohydrate consumed. A diet lower in GI and GL may improve diabetes management. A 9-week intervention regarding GI and GL was evaluated among adults in the age range of 40-70 years who had had type…

  8. Understanding basic carbohydrate counting, glycemic index, and glycemic load for improved glycemic control in Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Lidia Guadalupe Compeán; Berry, Diane C; Ruiz, Octelina Castillo; González, Eunice Reséndiz; Pérez, Paulina Aguilera; Rivas, Elva Del Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus generally have poor glycemic control. Constant hyperglycemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes can cause microvascular and macrovascular complications that lead to early morbidity and mortality. Good glycemic control requires a balance between diet, exercise, and medication, but dietary balance is difficult to achieve for many patients. Of the macronutrients, carbohydrates mostly affect blood glucose levels. Basic carbohydrate counting, glycemic index, and glycemic load are important tools for patients to master to control their blood glucose levels.

  9. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to glucose intolerance among Greenland's Inuit population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aerde, Marieke A; Witte, Daniel R; Jeppesen, Charlotte; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2012-08-01

    Intake of carbohydrates which elicit a large glycemic response is hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes. However, studies assessing the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and diabetes are inconsistent. Only few studies have studied the relationship between GI and GL and markers of glucose metabolism, mostly in western populations. To determine the relationship between GI and GL and indices of glucose metabolism and prevalence of diabetes in Greenland's Inuit population. The Inuit Health in Transition Study is a geographically representative cross-sectional study among aged ≥18years. Diet was assessed using a 67-item food frequency questionnaire. Logistic and linear regression was used to assess the association between GI and GL and diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose, 2h plasma glucose, HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-%β. No association was found between GI and GL and diabetes. GL was significantly inversely associated with IFG (OR: 0.91 (0.84-0.98)). While GI was positively associated with FPG, GL was positively associated with both HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-%β and inversely associated with IFG. These findings do not support a link between dietary GI or GL and risk of type 2 diabetes among Greenland's Inuit population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Glycemic index: is it a predictor of metabolic and vascular disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, Salwa W

    2014-07-01

    The role of glycemic index on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors received considerable attention in light of the current increase in cardiometabolic disorders. We aimed to deal and identify the recently published prospective epidemiological studies as well as randomized controlled studies investigating the associations of metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic index. The main prospective studies and meta-analysis grouping the recent prospective and clinical interventions are discussed. Recently, during the last few years, evidence exists that high glycemic index/glycemic load diets contribute to risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, low glycemic index/glycemic load diets were found to be effective in the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. The use of the low glycemic index notion in the dietary recommendations for children, adolescents and adults might play a role in the prevention, and or treatment, of metabolic diseases and their cardiovascular complications.

  11. Glycemic response and glycemic index of semolina spaghetti enriched with barley β-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillo, Stefania; Ranawana, D Viren; Pratt, Megan; Henry, C Jeya K

    2011-06-01

    The postprandial glycemic response and glycemic index (GI) of spaghetti made with semolina and the addition of two β-glucan barley concentrates, Glucagel (GG) and Barley Balance (BB), was studied. For each type of β-glucan concentrate, six spaghetti samples containing increasing percentages (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) of β-glucan were made. Nine healthy subjects were recruited for measuring the glycemic response and GI. Subjects were served portions of the test foods (50 g of available carbohydrates) and a reference food (50 g of glucose) on separate occasions. Capillary blood glucose was measured up to 120 min after consuming the spaghetti. The total glycemic response was calculated geometrically as the incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) using the trapezoid rule. The GI was calculated geometrically by expressing the IAUC for the test food as a percentage of each subject's average IAUC for the glucose. The IAUC for spaghetti with and without β-glucan was significantly less compared with glucose. The GG spaghetti had IAUC values similar to the spaghetti without β-glucan concentrate. The BB spaghetti showed IAUC values lower than that of the spaghetti without β-glucan. In particular, the spaghetti with 10% BB had an IAUC 52% lower (P ≤ 0.017) than the spaghetti with β-glucan. The GI values for spaghetti with GG were statistically similar to the control. The GI of BB spaghetti decreased with increasing BB concentrations. In particular, the GI of 10% BB spaghetti was 54% lower (P ≤0.02; GI = 29) than that of the control (GI = 64). The BB concentrate significantly decreases the IAUC and GI of spaghetti at a dose of 10%. GI at the same concentrations does not. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Slowly digestible starch: concept, mechanism, and proposed extended glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genyi; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2009-11-01

    Starch is the major glycemic carbohydrate in foods, and its nutritional property is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. A classification of starch into rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and resistant starch (RS) based on the in vitro Englyst test is used to specify the nutritional quality of starch. Both the RDS and RS fractions have been extensively studied while there are only limited studies on the intermediate starch fraction of SDS, particularly regarding its structural basis and slow digestion mechanism. The current understanding of SDS including its concept, measurement method, structural basis and mechanism, physiological consequences, and approaches to make SDS is reviewed. An in vivo method of extended glycemic index (EGI) is proposed to evaluate its metabolic effect and related health consequences.

  13. INDEKS GLISEMIK KACANG-KACANGAN [Glycemic Index of Selected Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono 1

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional management for diabetic patients based on selection of low available carbohydrate foods has been criticized because the same availability of carbohydrate in different foods may result in different degree of glycemic response. This management is now being corrected by additional aid in selecting foods with the glycemic index (GI of foods. GI is a measure of the glycemic response to the carbohydrate component within a food relative to the response to an equal carbohydrate portion of reference food (glucose or white bread. In Indonesia, data of the glycemic index of foods is still very limited. The objectives of the research are to provide GI of selected legumes, including red bean (Vigna umbellata, Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus, cow pea (Vigna sinensis ENDL, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan MILLSPAUGH, edible podded peas (Pisum sativum LINN and soy bean (Glycine max MERR. Eleventh health and normal volunteers (not diabetic were provided. The volunteers took an overnight fasting, blood were drawn in the morning and analyzed for serum glucose. Then they were given the test legumes containing total carbohydrates equivalent to 25-g glucose to be consumed. Blood samples were drawn for glucose measurement every 30 minutes until 120 min after meal. Serum glucose was determined enzymatically and the glucose responses were drawn graphically. The GI of the beans studied was lowest for red bean (26 and highest for mung bean (76, Edible podded pea and soy bean had similar value of GI i.e. 30 and 31; whereas pigeon and cow pea had a higher value i.e. 35 and 51, respectively.

  14. Diet compounds, glycemic index and obesity-related cardiac effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Yeda S; Burneiko, Regina M; Seiva, Fabio R F; Almeida, Flávia Q A; Galhardi, Cristiano Machado; Filho, José Luiz V B Novelli; Mani, Fernanda; Novelli, Ethel L B

    2008-02-20

    Diet compounds may influence obesity-related cardiac oxidative stress and metabolic sifting. Carbohydrate-rich diet may be disadvantageous from fat-rich diet to cardiac tissue and glycemic index rather than lipid profile may predict the obesity-related cardiac effects. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=8/group): (C) receiving standard chow (3.0 kcal/g); (CRD) receiving carbohydrate-rich diet (4.0 kcal/g), and (FRD) receiving fat-rich diet (4.0 kcal/g). Rats were sacrificed after the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 60 days of dietary treatments. Lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters were determined in serum. Myocardial samples were used to determine oxidative stress, metabolic enzymes, glycogen and triacylglycerol. FRD rats showed higher final body weight and body mass index than CRD and C. Serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were higher in FRD than in CRD, while triacylglycerol and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were higher in CRD than in FRD. CRD rats had the highest myocardial lipid hydroperoxide and diminished superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Myocardial glycogen was lower and triacylglycerol was higher in CRD than in C and FRD rats. Although FRD rats had depressed myocardial-reducing power, no significant changes were observed in myocardial energy metabolism. Myocardial beta-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase, as well as the enhanced lactate dehydrogenase/citrate synthase ratio indicated that fatty acid degradation was decreased in CRD rats. Glycemic index was positively correlated with obesity-related cardiac effects. Isoenergetic carbohydrate-rich and fat-rich diets induced different degree of obesity and differently affected lipid profile. Carbohydrate-rich diet was deleterious relative to fat-rich diet in the heart enhancing lipoperoxidation and shifting the metabolic pathway for energy production. Glycemic index rather than dyslipidemic profile may predict the obesity

  15. [Glycemic, insulinemic index, glycemic load of soy beverage with low and high content of carbohydrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres y Torres, Nimbe; Palacios-González, Berenice; Noriega-López, Lilia; Tovar-Palacio, Armando R

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of soy has increased in Western countries due to the benefits on health and the attitude of the people to consume natural products as alternative to the use of pharmacological therapies. However, there is no evidence whether the consumption of 25 g of soy protein as recommended by the Food and Drug Administration has some effect on glucose absorption and consequently on insulin secretion. The aim of the present study was to determine glycemic index (GI), insulinemic index (InIn), and glycemic load (GL) of several soy beverages containing low or high concentration of carbohydrates, and compare them with other foods such as peanuts, whole milk, soluble fiber and a mixed meal on GI and InIn. The results showed that soy beverages had low or moderate GI, depending of the presence of other compounds like carbohydrates and fiber. Consumption of soy beverages with low concentration of carbohydrates produced the lowest insulin secretion. Therefore, these products can be recommended in obese and diabetic patients. Finally soy beverages should contain low maltodextrins concentration and be added of soluble fiber.

  16. Glycemic index and glycemic load in the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Salas, María de Jesús; Novelo-Huerta, Hilda Irene; De León-Salas, Marcela Alejandra; Sánchez-Murillo, Mayra Elisa; Mata-Obregón, María Del Carmen; Garza-Juárez, Aurora de Jesús

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that support the clinical usage of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in the prevention of chronic disease. To determine the GI and GL of the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit. An analytic, transversal study was made involving 25 healthy volunteers accepted by an informed consent with a normal body mass index, glucose, glycoside hemoglobin, cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The homogeneity of the population was evaluated with anthropometrical and biochemical data using principal component analysis (PCA). The equivalent of 50 g of carbohydrates test food (tuna) and 50 g of dextrose as food standard was provided for the measure of the glucose curve. The GI was determined by calculating the area under the curve by the triangulation method. The CG was reported as the product of IG by carbohydrate loading provided. The IG of the tuna was 48.01 ± 17.4, classified as low, while the CG was 24.0 ± 8.7 rated as high. The chemometric analysis by PCA showed that the selection of the normal population for determining the IG, it is important to consider the values of cholesterol and triglycerides.

  17. Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, blood lipids, and C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Emily B; Cook, Nancy R; Stampfer, Meir J; Ridker, Paul M; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Buring, Julie E; Manson, JoAnn E; Liu, Simin

    2008-03-01

    Carbohydrate quantity and quality may influence the risk of cardiovascular disease through blood lipid concentrations and inflammation. We measured dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) among 18137 healthy women > or = 45 years old without diagnosed diabetes using a food-frequency questionnaire. We assayed fasting total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio; triacylglycerols (TG); and C-reactive protein (CRP). We evaluated associations with dietary GI and GL using a cross-sectional design, adjusting for age, body mass index, lifestyle factors, and other dietary factors. Dietary GI was significantly associated with HDL and LDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, TG, and CRP (comparing top to bottom quintile difference in HDL cholesterol = -2.6 mg/dL, LDL cholesterol = 2.2 mg/dL, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio = 0.16, TG = 12 mg/dL, and CRP = 0.21 mg/L). Dietary GL was associated with HDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, and TG (comparing top to bottom quintile HDL cholesterol = -4.9 mg/dL, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio = 0.24, and TG = 13 mg/dL). Differences in blood lipids and CRP between extreme quintiles of dietary GI and GL were small, but may translate into a clinically meaningful difference in cardiovascular risk.

  18. Dietary Carbohydrate, Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Breast Cancer Risk Among Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, Amina; Degoul, Julie; Hainaut, Pierre; Chajes, Veronique; Biessy, Carine; Torres Mejia, Gabriela; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno Macia, Hortensia; Ortega, Caro; Angeles-Llerenas, Anjélica; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Very few studies have focused on the relationship among dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and breast cancer risk in Latin American women. Our objective was to assess the associations among dietary carbohydrate, GI, GL, and risk of breast cancer, and to further investigate these associations by levels of overweight/obesity and physical activity. We used data from a Mexican population-based case-control study. We recruited a 1,000 women with incident breast cancer and 1,074 matched control women ages 35 to 69 years between 2004 and 2007. We used conditional logistic regression models and energy-adjusted carbohydrates, GI, and GL using the residual method. Total carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. The odds ratio in the highest versus the lowest quartile was 1.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 1.7; P trend = 0.03). In stratified analyses by body mass index (BMI), the positive association between carbohydrate and risk of premenopausal breast cancer was only observed among overweight women. The odds ratio comparing the top with the bottom quartile was 1.9 (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.0; P trend = 0.01) among women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m. No association was observed among women with BMI carbohydrate diets are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among premenopausal Mexican women.

  19. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Sohrab, Golbon; Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Moslehi, Nazanin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-07-01

    Data available on the effect of quality (glycemic index [GI]) and quantity (glycemic load [GL]) of carbohydrates on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary GI, GL, and CVD risk factors among Tehranian adults, the participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. This population- based cross-sectional study was conducted on 2457 subjects (46% men and 54% women), aged 19 to 84 years. Dietary GI and GL were measured using a validated 168- item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles were measured. The mean intakes of GI and GL were 68.3 and 244.8, respectively. Rice (26.6%) and bread (19.0%) were the major contributors to dietary GI and GL, respectively. Higher dietary GI and GL were associated with high intakes of carbohydrate, fiber, refined grain, fruits, simple sugar, snack, and desserts. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary variables, a higher dietary GI was positively associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations among obese subjects. Dietary GL was positively associated with fasting and 2-h blood glucose among nonobese subjects, after adjustment for confounders.   Dietary GI and GL were associated with a few CVD risk factors, and body mass index levels may modulate these associations.

  20. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu; Ma, Yinghua; Chen, Yajun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Chinese children. A total of 234 Chinese schoolchildren aged 8-11 years in Guangdong participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day dietary record. Seven established cardiovascular indicators were analyzed in this study: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Higher dietary GI was significantly associated with higher TG levels (P = 0.037) and lower HDL-C levels (P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional intake, physical activity, and body mass index z score. LDL-C was found to differ across tertiles of dietary GL. The middle tertile tended to show the highest level of LDL-C. TC, FPG, and blood pressure were independent of both dietary GI and GL. Our findings suggest that higher dietary GI is differentially associated with some CVD risk factors, including lower HDL-C and higher TG, in school-aged children from south China.

  1. Effect of the Glycemic Index of Carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. Brand-Miller

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2 were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance, androgens and insulin-like growth factor-1 and its binding proteins were assessed at baseline and at eight weeks, a period corresponding to the school term. Forty-three subjects (n = 23 low glycemic index and n = 20 high glycemic index completed the study. Diets differed significantly in glycemic index (mean ± standard error of the mean, low glycemic index 51 ± 1 vs. high glycemic index 61 ± 2, p = 0.0002, but not in macronutrient distribution or fiber content. Facial acne improved on both diets (low glycemic index −26 ± 6%, p = 0.0004 and high glycemic index −16 ± 7%, p = 0.01, but differences between diets did not reach significance. Change in insulin sensitivity was not different between diets (low glycemic index 0.2 ± 0.1 and high glycemic index 0.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.60 and did not correlate with change in acne severity (Pearson correlation r = −0.196, p = 0.244. Longer time frames, greater reductions in glycemic load or/and weight loss may be necessary to detect improvements in acne among adolescent boys.

  2. [The value of glycemic index and glycemic load from selected corn flakes eaten with milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Jolanta; Bator, Ewa; Bronkowska, Monika; Piotrowska, Ewa; Orzeł, Dagmara; Wyka, Joanna; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates consumed with the daily diet are the cause of fluctuations in the concentrations of glucose in the blood, known as the glycemic effect. Glucose content in blood after eating any meal, and usually reaches its maximum after 20-30 min after ingestion of food and then gradually decreases to 1-2 hours to return to fasting levels. Knowing the GI along with information on their composition and nutrient content is important in terms of knowing the effect of carbohydrates on health. The glycemic indexes (GI) and the calculate values of the glycemic loads (GL) of the corn flakes eaten with milk (nesquik chocolate balls, cheerios, muesli tropical, fitness chocolate, oatmeal and instant flakes, corn flakes) were investigated. The relationship between IG and sex was calculated and examined. 67 young, healthy volunteers: 42 women and 25 men participated in the study. The average age of the participants was between 23.1 +/- 1.0 years, mean BMI- 22.4 +/- 3.1 kg/m2. Cereal with milk were given in 50 grams of digestible carbohydrates. The reference product was a solution in water (250 ml) containing 50 g glucose. In the morning, 7 times the blood was calleced - on an empty stomach and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after eating. An average value GI and GL were calculated (for women and men), which were respectively: 48,6 and 25,5 - the milk soup with nesquik chocolate balls, 67,5 and 36,1 the milk soup with cheerios, 58,8 and 31,9 - the milk soup with muesli tropical, 66,7 and 34,9 - the milk soup with fitness chocolate, 42,5 and 23,4 - the milk soup with oatmeal flakes, 54,0 and 29,5 - the milk soup with oatmeal instant flakes, 54,4 i 27,9 - the milk soup with corn flakes. The results allowed the meal for the meals of low and medium GI. Showed statistically significant correlation between the glycemic index and gender of respondents.

  3. Consumption of a high glycemic load but not a high glycemic index diet is marginally associated with oxidative stress in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Andrea Y; Jakits, Holly E; Flood, Andrew; Thomas, William; Gross, Myron; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2015-01-01

    Research studies have suggested that chronic consumption of high glycemic index foods may lead to chronically high oxidative stress. This is important because oxidative stress is suspected to be an early event in the etiology of many disease processes. We hypothesized that dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were positively associated with oxidative stress assessed by plasma F2-isoprostanes in healthy, premenopausal women (body mass index [BMI] = 24.7 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) and age 25.3 ± 3.5 years, mean ± SD). We measured plasma F2-isoprostanes in 306 healthy premenopausal women at the baseline visit for the Women In Steady Exercise Research study, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dietary glycemic index and load were calculated from the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire, and participants were divided into quartiles of dietary glycemic index and of glycemic load. Plasma F2-isoprostanes were compared across quartile groups of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load using linear regression models. Plasma F2-isoprostanes (pg/mL) increased with quartile of glycemic load (test for linear trend, P = .033), and also increased with quartile of glycemic index in participants with BMI ≥ 25 (P = .035) but not in those with BMI glycemic index and P = .065 for quartiles of glycemic load). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwood, Darren C; Threapleton, Diane E; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cleghorn, Christine L; Nykjaer, Camilla; Woodhead, Charlotte; Burley, Victoria J

    2013-01-01

    Diets with high glycemic index (GI), with high glycemic load (GL), or high in all carbohydrates may predispose to higher blood glucose and insulin concentrations, glucose intolerance, and risk of type 2 diabetes...

  5. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Chen, Chuhe; Young, Deborah R.; Mitchell, Diane; Elmer, Patricia; Wang, Yanfang; Batch, Bryan; Champagne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is inconclusive. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help par...

  6. Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women.

    OpenAIRE

    Lajous, Martin; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fabre, Alban; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Diets high in carbohydrates may result in chronically elevated insulin concentrations and may affect breast cancer risk by stimulation of insulin receptors or through insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. Insulin response to carbohydrate intake is increased in insulin-resistant states such as obesity. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate carbohydrate intake, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) and subsequent overall and hormone-rece...

  7. Yogurt Is a Low-Glycemic Index Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Thomas Ms

    2017-07-01

    High yogurt intake is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although several mechanisms could explain this association, this paper addresses the glycemic and insulinemic impact of yogurt. There is evidence that low-glycemic index (GI) and low-glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with a reduced risk of T2DM. The 93 GI values for yogurt in the University of Sydney's GI database have a mean ± SD of 34 ± 13, and 92% of the yogurts are low-GI (≤55). The 43 plain yogurts in the database have a lower GI than the 50 sweetened yogurts, 27 ± 11 compared with 41 ± 11 (P index (II) is higher than its GI. High insulin responses may be deleterious because hyperinsulinemia is associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Nevertheless, this may not be a concern for yogurt because, although its II is higher than its GI, the II of yogurt is within the range of II values for nondairy low-GI foods. In addition, mixed meals containing dairy protein elicit insulin responses similar to those elicited by mixed meals of similar composition containing nondairy protein. Because the GI of yogurt is lower than that of most other carbohydrate foods, exchanging yogurt for other protein and carbohydrate sources can reduce the GI and GL of the diet, and is in line with recommended dietary patterns, which include whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, fish, vegetable oils, and yogurt. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, blood lipids, and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Talavera, Juan O; Castañón, Susana; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) with blood lipid concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD) in nondiabetic participants in the Health Worker Cohort Study (HWCS). Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was performed, using data from adults who participated in the HWCS baseline assessment. We collected information on participants' socio-demographic conditions, dietary patterns and physical activity via self-administered questionnaires. Dietary GI and dietary GL were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were assessed with standardized procedures. CHD risk was estimated according to the sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms. Results. IIn the 5,830 individuals aged 20 to 70 who were evaluated, dietary GI and GL were significantly associated with HDL-C, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and triglycerides serum levels. Subjects with high dietary GI have a relative risk of 1.56 (CI 95%; 1.13-2.14), and those with high dietary GL have a relative risk of 2.64 (CI 95%; 1.15-6.58) of having an elevated CHD risk than those who had low dietary GI and GL. Conclusions. Our results suggest that high dietary GI and dietary GL could have an unfavorable effect on serum lipid levels, which are in turn associated with a higher CHD risk.

  9. Association of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with endometrial cancer risk among Chinese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang Hong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zhang, Xianglan; Ruan, Zhixian; Cai, Hui; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the association of dietary glycemic-index (GI) and glycemic-load (GL) with the risk of endometrial cancer in a population-based, case-control study of 1,199 endometrial cancer patients and 1,212 age-frequency-matched controls in urban Shanghai, China, where diets are typically high in carbohydrates and have a high GL. Information on dietary habits, physical activity, and other relevant information was collected using a validated questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Logistic regression was applied in the analysis. Dietary GI was independently associated with risk for endometrial cancer but GL and carbohydrate intake was unrelated to the risk. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for increasing quartiles of intake were 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0–2.0) for dietary GI (Ptrend: 0.07). High intake of staples, especially rice, was positively associated with endometrial cancer. The association with GI was more evident among lean and normal weight women, although the test for interaction was not significant. This study suggests that intake of high GI foods, but not carbohydrates per se, may increase risk for endometrial cancer. PMID:25495185

  10. Dietary Glycemic Index, Dietary Glycemic Load, Blood Lipids, and Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Talavera, Juan O.; Castañón, Susana; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) with blood lipid concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD) in nondiabetic participants in the Health Worker Cohort Study (HWCS). Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was performed, using data from adults who participated in the HWCS baseline assessment. We collected information on participants' socio-demographic conditions, dietary patterns and physical activity via self-administered questionnaires. Dietary GI and dietary GL were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were assessed with standardized procedures. CHD risk was estimated according to the sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms. Results. IIn the 5,830 individuals aged 20 to 70 who were evaluated, dietary GI and GL were significantly associated with HDL-C, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and triglycerides serum levels. Subjects with high dietary GI have a relative risk of 1.56 (CI 95%; 1.13–2.14), and those with high dietary GL have a relative risk of 2.64 (CI 95%; 1.15–6.58) of having an elevated CHD risk than those who had low dietary GI and GL. Conclusions. Our results suggest that high dietary GI and dietary GL could have an unfavorable effect on serum lipid levels, which are in turn associated with a higher CHD risk. PMID:20700407

  11. Dietary Glycemic Index, Dietary Glycemic Load, Blood Lipids, and Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the associations of dietary glycemic index (GI and dietary glycemic load (GL with blood lipid concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD in nondiabetic participants in the Health Worker Cohort Study (HWCS. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was performed, using data from adults who participated in the HWCS baseline assessment. We collected information on participants' socio-demographic conditions, dietary patterns and physical activity via self-administered questionnaires. Dietary GI and dietary GL were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were assessed with standardized procedures. CHD risk was estimated according to the sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms. Results. IIn the 5,830 individuals aged 20 to 70 who were evaluated, dietary GI and GL were significantly associated with HDL-C, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and triglycerides serum levels. Subjects with high dietary GI have a relative risk of 1.56 (CI 95%; 1.13–2.14, and those with high dietary GL have a relative risk of 2.64 (CI 95%; 1.15–6.58 of having an elevated CHD risk than those who had low dietary GI and GL. Conclusions. Our results suggest that high dietary GI and dietary GL could have an unfavorable effect on serum lipid levels, which are in turn associated with a higher CHD risk.

  12. Overall glycemic index and glycemic load of vegan diets in relation to plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Annika; Ströhle, Alexander; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the overall glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intake of dietary fiber, and to examine the associations between these factors and plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols in adult vegans in the German Vegan Study (GVS). Cross-sectional study, Germany. Healthy men (n = 67) and women (n = 87), who fulfilled the study criteria (vegan diet for >or=1 year prior to study start; minimum age of 18 years; no pregnancy/childbirth during the last 12 months) and who participated in all study segments. The average dietary GL of the GVS population was 144, and the average GI was 51.4. The adjusted geometric mean total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased across the increasing quartiles of GL, carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake. The associations between total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and GL density and GI were inconsistent. Also, associations between GI, GL, the intake of carbohydrates, and triacylglycerol concentration were not observed. Fiber-rich vegan diets are characterized by a low GI and a low to moderate GL. The data do not support the hypothesis that a carbohydrate-rich diet per se is associated with unfavorable effects on triaclyglycerols that would be predicted to increase the risk of coronary heart disease. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Association of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with endometrial cancer risk among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang Hong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zhang, Xianglan; Ruan, Zhixian; Cai, Hui; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the association of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with the risk of endometrial cancer in a population-based, case-control study of 1199 endometrial cancer patients and 1212 age-frequency-matched controls in urban Shanghai, China, where diets are typically high in carbohydrates and have a high GL. Information on dietary habits, physical activity, and other relevant information was collected using a validated questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Logistic regression was applied in the analysis. Dietary GI and GL were independently associated with risk for endometrial cancer but carbohydrate intake was unrelated to risk. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for increasing quartiles of intake were 1.0, 1.3, 1.4, and 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-4.0] for dietary GL (P(trend) = 0.02) and 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-2.0) for dietary GI (P(trend) = 0.02). High intake of staples, especially rice, was positively associated with endometrial cancer. The association with GI was more evident among lean and normal weight women, although the test for interaction was not significant. This study suggests that intake of high GL or GI foods, but not carbohydrates per se, may increase risk for endometrial cancer.

  14. Glycemic index and glycemic load of carbohydrates in the diabetes diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kate; Barclay, Alan; Colagiuri, Stephen; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-04-01

    Medical nutrition therapy is the first line of treatment for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and plays an essential part in the management of type 1 diabetes. Although traditionally advice was focused on carbohydrate quantification, it is now clear that both the amount and type of carbohydrate are important in predicting an individual's glycemic response to a meal. Diets based on carbohydrate foods that are more slowly digested, absorbed, and metabolized (i.e., low glycemic index [GI] diets) have been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas intervention studies have shown improvements in insulin sensitivity and glycated hemoglobin concentrations in people with diabetes following a low GI diet. Research also suggests that low GI diets may assist with weight management through effects on satiety and fuel partitioning. These findings, together with the fact that there are no demonstrated negative effects of a low GI diet, suggest that the GI should be an important consideration in the dietary management and prevention of diabetes.

  15. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Anderson, Amy L; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lee, Jung Sun; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Harris, Tamara B

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear whether immediate dietary effects on blood glucose influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to examine whether the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) were associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study is a prospective cohort study of 3075 adults who were 70-79 y old at baseline (n=1898 for this analysis). The intakes of specific nutrients and food groups and the risk of type 2 diabetes over a 4-y period were examined according to dietary GI and GL. Dietary GI was positively associated with dietary carbohydrate and negatively associated with the intakes of protein, total fat, saturated fat, alcohol, vegetables, and fruit. Dietary GL was positively associated with dietary carbohydrate, fruit, and fiber and negatively associated with the intakes of protein, total fat, saturated fat, and alcohol. Persons in the higher quintiles of dietary GI or GL did not have a significantly greater incidence of type 2 diabetes. These findings do not support a relation between dietary GI or GL and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Because dietary GI and GL show strong nutritional correlates, the overall dietary pattern should be considered.

  16. A Review of the Relationship between Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Zeinali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent decades, studies on type 2 diabetes (T2D, have adopted a new approach to the field of a more complete collection of variables related to the lifestyles and diet of people. Diet is an important factor in increasing the rate of T2D among individuals. Considering the consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet, little attention has been paid to the type of carbohydrates consumed in the incidence of T2D. The present study aimed to review the literature on the relationship between the glycemic index (GI, the glycemic load, (GL and T2D, it also targets at evaluating and comparing the results of similar studies in other countries Methods: Using search engines, including PubMed, Science Direct, Embase and Scopus, and key words such as GI, GL, diabetes; articles with cross-sectional, clinical trial, Prospective and retrospective cohort designs between 2000 to 2016 were selected. Moreover, non-English language articles were not investigate. Results: The results of these studies showed that a diet containing low GI and GL has beneficial effects on the metabolism of glucose in the body and is also considered as a factor to protect the body against T2D and its complications. Conclusions: Monitoring eating habits of people with T2D can have beneficial effects on T2D and its associated risk factors.

  17. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and metabolic profile in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, F; Pellegrini, N; Salvatici, E; Rovelli, V; Banderali, G; Radaelli, G; Scazzina, F; Giovannini, M; Verduci, E

    2017-02-01

    No data exist in the current literature on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of the diet of phenylketonuric (PKU) children. The aims of this study were to examine the dietary GI and GL in PKU children on a low-phenylalanine (Phe)-diet and to evaluate whether an association may exist between the carbohydrate quality and the metabolic profile. Twenty-one PKU children (age 5-11 years) and 21 healthy children, gender and age matched, were enrolled. Dietary (including GI and GL) and blood biochemical assessments were performed. No difference was observed for daily energy intake between PKU and healthy children. Compared to healthy controls, PKU children consumed less protein (p = 0.001) and fat (p = 0.028), and more carbohydrate (% of total energy, p = 0.004) and fiber (p = 0.009). PKU children had higher daily GI than healthy children (mean difference (95% confidence interval), 13.7 (9.3-18.3)) and higher GL (31.7 (10.1-53.2)). PKU children exhibited lower blood total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels (p index (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.515, p = 0.034). In PKU children a relationship of the dietary treatment with GI and GL, blood triglycerides and triglyceride glucose index may exist. Improvement towards an optimal diet for PKU children could include additional attention to the management of dietary carbohydrate quality. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss. Methods: Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets f...

  19. Dietary Carbohydrate, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load in Relation to Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Women’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Shikany, James M.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Caan, Bette; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Rohan, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence implicating hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in the etiology of colorectal cancer suggests that a diet characterized by a high glycemic index and load may increase the risk of this disease, but previous studies have yielded inconsistent results. We assessed the association between intake of total carbohydrates, sugars, fiber, and the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of individual diets, and risk of developing colorectal cancer among 158,800 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). We used a GI/GL database developed specifically for the WHI food-frequency questionnaire. Over an average of 7.8 years of follow-up, 1,476 incident cases of colorectal cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between dietary factors classified by quintiles and risk of colorectal cancer, with adjustment for covariates. Total carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and intake of sugars and fiber showed no association with colorectal cancer. Analyses by cancer subsite yielded null results, with the exception of a borderline positive association between glycemic load and rectal cancer (HR for the highest vs. lowest quintile 1.84, 95% confidence interval 0.95–3.56, p for trend 0.05). Analyses stratified by tertiles of body mass index and physical activity showed no evidence of effect modification by these factors. Results of this large study do not support of a role of a diet characterized by a high glycemic index or load in colorectal carcinogenesis in postmenopausal women. PMID:18618276

  20. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-04-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed.Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values.Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [n = 20-22; women: 50%; age: 50-80 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 25-30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method.Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUCi (P < 0.0001), measured meal GI (P = 0.0066), and mean GL (P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUCi (P = 0.0026), measured meal GI (P = 0.0139), and meal GL (P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUCi or II; fiber had no effect.Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as

  1. Glycemic index, glycemic load and carbohydrate intake in association with risk of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingfen; Tu, Huakang; Matin, Surena F; Tannir, Nizar M; Wood, Christopher G; Wu, Xifeng

    2017-10-26

    Carbohydrate intake affects postprandial glucose levels and insulin response, which plays a role in carcinogenesis. The relationship between carbohydrate intake, dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear. We conducted a case-control study including 854 patients with newly diagnosed RCC (cases) and 1255 healthy participants (controls) recruited since 2002. GI, GL and carbohydrate intake were obtained via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. We found that higher GI was significantly associated with RCC risk with an OR of 1.32 (95% CI, 0.99-1.74; Ptrend = 0.026) (the highest versus the lowest quartiles). We also observed an inverse association between fiber intake and RCC risk with OR of 0.70 (95% CI = 0.50-0.99) as well as between starch intake and risk of RCC with OR of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.49-0.87). Individuals with a high-GI diet and hypertension or high body mass index (BMI) had a 2.7 times (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.96-3.64) and two times (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.29-2.92) higher RCC risk, respectively, than those without these factors. Our findings suggest that a high-GI diet is associated with an increased risk of RCC, whereas increased fiber and starch intakes appear to be associated with a decreased risk of RCC. We found that reducing GI levels and increasing fiber intake could be a dietary strategy to decrease RCC risk, especially for individuals with hypertension or high BMI. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Dietary glycemic index and load, measures of glucose metabolism, and body fat distribution in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Anderson, Amy L; Kanaya, Alka M; Koh-Banerjee, Pauline; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Tylavsky, Frances A; Schwartz, Ann V; Lee, Jung Sun; Harris, Tamara B

    2005-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the rate of carbohydrate digestion and absorption may influence the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine associations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with predictors of type 2 diabetes in older adults. This study evaluated cross-sectional relations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with measures of glucose metabolism and body fat distribution in participants of the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study, a prospective cohort study of adults aged 70-80 y (n = 2248). In men, dietary glycemic index was positively associated with 2-h glucose (P for trend = 0.04) and fasting insulin (P for trend = 0.004), inversely associated with thigh intramuscular fat (P for trend = 0.02), and not significantly associated with fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, or visceral abdominal fat. Dietary glycemic load was inversely associated in men with visceral abdominal fat (P for trend = 0.02) and not significantly associated with fasting glucose, 2-h glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, or thigh intramuscular fat. In women, although dietary glycemic index and load were not significantly related to any measures of glucose metabolism or body fat distribution, the association between dietary glycemic index and 2-h glucose was nearly significant (P for trend = 0.06). The findings of this cross-sectional study indicate an association between dietary glycemic index and selected predictors of type 2 diabetes in older adults, particularly in men.

  3. Influence of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load on the occurrence of ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Maja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There are no recommendations for the dietary intake of carbohydrates compared with the dietary intake of lipids in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of high dietary glycemic load (GL on the occurrence of IHD. Methods. The case-control study was carried out between 2003 and 2004. The study group consisted of 290 patients with IHD hospitalized in the Clinical Center in the town of Niš. There were 290 controls admitted to the same medical institution as cases for a wide spectrum of acute conditions unrelated to known or potential risk factors for IHD. The data about risk factors for IHD were collected by the epidemiological questionnaire. The data about nutrition were collected by administered food frequency questionnaire. A total GL for each patient was calculated by the international tables and the standard for the glycemic index (GI was used. Standard anthropometric measurements were applied. A total level of lipids and cholesterol was determined, too. Multivariate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were obtained by multiple logistic regression models. Statistical analysis was performed with Epi Info Programme (Version 6.04 and with the SPSS for Windows (Release 8.0. Results. The patients with IHD had statistically significantly different intake of carbohydrate compared with the patients of the control group but the risk of IHD occurrence was not associated with the total intake of carbohydrate. The total average GL in the patients of the study group was statistically significantly higher compared with the patients of the control group (p < 0.05 and a high GL was independent risk factor for IHD (OR = 1.99. Conclusions. In prevention of IHD it is recommended to intake food with lower GI, for example vegetables and fruit.

  4. [Influence of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load on the occurrence of ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Maja; Nikić, Dragana; Petrović, Branislav; Rancić, Natasa; Arandelović, Mirjana

    2009-03-01

    There are no recommendations for the dietary intake of carbohydrates compared with the dietary intake of lipids in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). The aim of the study was to assess the influence of high dietary glycemic load (GL) on the occurrence of IHD. The case-control study was carried out between 2003 and 2004. The study group consisted of 290 patients with IHD hospitalized in the Clinical Center in the town of Nis. There were 290 controls admitted to the same medical institution as cases for a wide spectrum of acute conditions unrelated to known or potential risk factors for IHD. The data about risk factors for IHD were collected by the epidemiological questionnaire. The data about nutrition were collected by administered food frequency questionnaire. A total GL for each patient was calculated by the international tables and the standard for the glycemic index (GI) was used. Standard anthropometric measurements were applied. A total level of lipids and cholesterol was determined, too. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were obtained by multiple logistic regression models. Statistical analysis was performed with Epi Info Programme (Version 6.04) and with the SPSS for Windows (Release 8.0). The patients with IHD had statisticaly significantly different intake of carbohydrate compared with the patients of the control group but the risk of IHD occurrence was not associated with the total intake of carbohydrate. The total average GL in the patients of the study group was statisticaly significantly higher compared with the patients of the control group (p < 0.05) and a high GL was independent risk factor for IHD (OR = 1.99). In prevention of IHD it is recommended to intake food with lower GI, for example vegetabless and fruit.

  5. High glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with moderately increased cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Galeone, Carlotta; Gandini, Sara; Augustin, Livia S; Jenkins, David J A; Pelucchi, Claudio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    To obtain an up-to-date quantification of the association between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and the risk of cancer. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies updated to January 2015. Summary relative risks (RRs) were derived using random effects models. Seventy-five reports were evaluated in the systematic review (147,090 cases), and 72 were included in the meta-analyses by cancer site. Considering hormone-related cancers, summary RRs comparing the highest versus the lowest GI and GL intake were, respectively, 1.05 and 1.07 for breast, 1.13 and 1.17 for endometrial, 1.11 and 1.19 for ovarian, and 1.06 and 1.04 for prostate cancers. Considering digestive-tract cancers, summary RRs for GI and GL were, respectively, 1.46 and 1.25 for esophageal (squamous cell carcinoma), 1.17 and 1.10 for stomach, 1.16 (significant) and 1.10 for colorectal, 1.11 and 1.14 for liver, and 1.10 and 1.01 for pancreatic cancers. In most of these meta-analyses, significant heterogeneity among studies was observed. In subgroup analyses, case-control studies and studies from Europe tended to estimate higher RRs. High-GI and high-GL diets are related to moderately increased risk of cancer at several common sites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Carbohydrate Intake, Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Stroke: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xianlei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Shan; Cao, Gaoyang; Jin, Chao; Yu, Jiawei; Li, Xiuyang; Yan, Jing; Wang, Fudi; Yu, Wei; Ding, Fang

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between carbohydrate intake/glycemic index (GI)/glycemic load (GL) and stroke risk. A literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and CBM databases was performed to retrieve eligible studies published up to March 2014. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of this association. Publication bias was assessed by the Egger's regression asymmetry test and Begg's rank correlation test with Begg's funnel plot. All analyses were conducted using software STATA 12.0 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX) and SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). We identified 7 prospective studies that met the inclusion criteria and processed data from cohort studies to update available evidence. There were 25 independent estimates and 225 000 participants free of diabetes from 6 different countries; 3046 stroke events were included; and the follow-up range was 5 to 18 years. High GI was not associated with risk of stroke events (pooled RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99-1.21); GL was a risk factor for stroke (pooled RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.05-1.36). There was no significant association between high carbohydrate intake and stroke risk (RR = 1.12; 95% CI: 0.93-1.35). A daily high GL diet is the risk factor of stroke event, and further researches need to verify the meta-analyses results and study associated mechanisms. © 2015 APJPH.

  7. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and cancer: An overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, S; Krogh, V

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current evidence for associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL), and the risk of various types of cancer, and to summarize mechanisms proposed to explain the associations found. Medline was searched for cohort studies, case-control studies, and meta-analyses, published up to February 2016, that examined associations between dietary GI/GL and cancer. Findings from the main meta-analyses showed a weak-to-moderate association of high dietary GI/GL with increased risk of some cancers. High dietary GI but not GL was significantly and consistently associated with increased colorectal cancer risk in both cohort and case-control studies. Dietary GL was directly associated with breast and endometrial cancer risk in cohort studies. Positive associations between dietary GI or GL and cancer risk were found more frequently in case-control studies than cohort studies. The main mechanism for these associations is thought to be chronic hyperinsulinemia. Insulin is itself a mitogen and also increases the bioactivity of insulin-like growth factors which can promote cancer by inhibiting apoptosis and stimulating cell proliferation. The review has uncovered consistent evidence that high dietary GI is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer, and that high dietary GL is associated with increased risk of breast and endometrial cancer. However the risk increases are small or moderate. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between dietary carbohydrate intake, glycemic index and glycemic load, and risk of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yao; Wu, Yihua; Xu, Jinming; Ding, Kefeng; Shan, Xiaoyun; Xia, Dajing

    2017-04-01

    The association between dietary carbohydrate intake, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and risk of gastric cancer (GC) has been investigated by many studies. However, the results of these studies were controversial. The aim of our study was to systematically assess this issue. PUBMED and EMBASE were searched up to March 2015, and either a fixed- or a random-effects model was adopted to estimate overall relative risks (RRs). Dose-response, meta-regression, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were applied. Twenty-six studies with approximately 540,000 participants were finally included in this meta-analysis. High level of dietary carbohydrate intake (pooled RR 1.17, 95 % CI 0.91-1.50), GI (pooled RR 1.17, 95 % CI 0.80-1.69), and GL (pooled RR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.90-1.26) were all nonsignificantly associated with incidence of GC. In addition, no significant dose-response relationship was observed between carbohydrate intake, GI and GL, and the risk of GC. However, further subgroup analyses based on gender and geographic region suggested a significant association between higher carbohydrate intake (pooled RR 1.52, 95 % CI 1.10-2.08), GL (pooled RR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.04-1.92), and GC risk in males subgroup, and between higher carbohydrate intake (pooled RR 1.69, 95 % CI 1.36-2.09) and GC risk in Asian studies. No significant association was found between dietary carbohydrate intake, GI and GL, and risk of GC. However, significantly positive association was observed in the males subgroup and Asian studies.

  9. Changes in dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in Australian adults from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnadi, Devina Tri Lestrai; Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2017-07-01

    Background: Australians have used the glycemic index (GI) since 1995; however, there are no data on changes in carbohydrate quality over time.Objectives: The aim was to compare average dietary GI and glycemic load (GL), and contributing carbohydrate foods, in the 2 most recent national dietary surveys.Design: Dietary data from adult participants of national nutrition surveys conducted in 1995 (the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey; n = 8703) and 2012 (the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey; n = 6278), collected by a single 24-h recall, were analyzed. The differences in mean dietary GI and GL between surveys were compared by using 1-factor ANOVA. The main sources of dietary GL in the 2 surveys were also assessed. Multiple linear regression was performed to examine the contributions of the food groups to interindividual variations in dietary GI and GL.Results: Overall, dietary GI and GL decreased by 5% and 12%, respectively, from 1995 to 2012 (GI on glucose standard: 56.5 ± 6.2 compared with 53.9 ± 6.8, respectively; GL: 153.3 ± 62.1 compared with 135.4 ± 58.5, respectively; both P beverages contributed less, whereas cereal-based dishes contributed more in 2012 than in 1995. The top 20 GL-contributing food groups explained less interindividual variation in dietary GI (R2: 0.376 compared with 0.290) and GL (R2: 0.825 compared with 0.770) in 2012 than in 1995.Conclusion: Although the average dietary GI and GL declined between 1995 and 2012, trends in specific carbohydrate foods suggest that Australians are avoiding potatoes and sugary beverages in favor of a greater variety of carbohydrate foods, particularly cereal products. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Carbohydrates, glycemic index, and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Moses, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    This review critically evaluates the current evidence regarding the effect of the dietary glycemic index (GI) on pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Current evidence, although limited, consistently supports the advantages of, and has demonstrated no disadvantages of, a low-GI diet. We conclude that pregnant women with GDM are likely to benefit from following a low-GI meal pattern, with no significant side effects, and consideration of the GI should be given when formulating a diet for GDM. However, until larger scale intervention trials are completed, an exclusive low-GI diet should not replace the current recommended diets for GDM from relevant government and health agencies. Further studies that intervene at an earlier stage of pregnancy are required.

  11. Glycemic index: effect of food storage under low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cassab Carreira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of food storage under low temperature (-20ºC and the resistant starch formation, both on the glycemic index (GI. The GI of only cooked and cooked and stored foods under -20ºC for 30 days was evaluated in short-term tests with humans. Significant increase on the RS content was evidenced for all the stored foods. The food storage resulted in a significant decrease on the GI of beans and chick-peas; the GI of pasta remained the same and the GI of corn meal increased. Thus, the RS formation showed reduced influence on the glycemic index. The storage of starchy foods under low temperature can collaborate to the RS intake but its effect on the GI will depend on the characteristics of the carbohydrates of each food.O estudo foi realizado para avaliar a influência do armazenamento de alimentos sob baixa temperatura e a formação de amido resistente sobre o índice glicêmico (IG. O IG de alimentos cozidos ou cozidos e armazenados a -20ºC por 30 dias foi avaliado em ensaios de curta duração com humanos. Aumento significativo no conteúdo de AR foi evidenciado para todos os alimentos armazenados. O armazenamento dos alimentos resultou em significativa redução no IG do feijão e do grão de bico. O IG do macarrão foi o mesmo e da polenta sofreu aumento. Desta forma, a evidenciada formação de AR mostrou reduzida influência no IG. O armazenamento de alimentos fonte de amido sob baixa temperatura pode colaborar com a ingestão de AR, mas o efeito sobre o IG vai depender das características dos carboidratos de cada alimento.

  12. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, carbohydrate and fiber intake, and measures of insulin sensitivity, secretion, and adiposity in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Schulz, Mandy; Fang, Fang; Wolever, Thomas M S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Sparks, Karen C; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2005-12-01

    We studied the association of digestible carbohydrates, fiber intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load with insulin sensitivity (S(I)), fasting insulin, acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index, BMI, and waist circumference. Data on 979 adults with normal (67%) and impaired (33%) glucose tolerance from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (1992-1994) were analyzed. Usual dietary intake was assessed via a 114-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire from which nutrient intakes were estimated. Published glycemic index values were assigned to food items and average dietary glycemic index and glycemic load calculated per subject. S(I) and AIR were determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Disposition index was calculated by multiplying S(I) with AIR. Multiple linear regression modeling was employed. No association was observed between glycemic index and S(I), fasting insulin, AIR, disposition index, BMI, or waist circumference after adjustment for demographic characteristics or family history of diabetes, energy expenditure, and smoking. Associations observed for digestible carbohydrates and glycemic load, respectively, with S(I), insulin secretion, and adiposity (adjusted for demographics and main confounders) were entirely explained by energy intake. In contrast, fiber was associated positively with S(I) and disposition index and inversely with fasting insulin, BMI, and waist circumference but not with AIR. Carbohydrates as reflected in glycemic index and glycemic load may not be related to measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and adiposity. Fiber intake may not only have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and adiposity, but also on pancreatic functionality.

  13. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cust, Anne E; Slimani, Nadia; Kaaks, Rudolf; van Bakel, Marit; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Laville, Martine; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Lajous, Martin; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Nöthlings, Ute; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quirós, J Ramón; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Wirfält, Elisabet; Berglund, Göran; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Du, Huaidong; Peeters, Petra H M; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio

    2007-10-15

    The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), including 710 incident cases diagnosed during a mean 6.4 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. There were no statistically significant associations with endometrial cancer risk for increasing quartile intakes of any of the exposure variables. However, in continuous models calibrated by using 24-hour recall values, the multivariable relative risks were 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.45) per 100 g/day of total carbohydrates, 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.99) per 50 units/day of total dietary glycemic load, and 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.76) per 50 g/day of total sugars. These associations were stronger among women who had never used postmenopausal hormone therapy compared with ever users (total carbohydrates p(heterogeneity) = 0.04). Data suggest no association of overall glycemic index, total starch, and total fiber with risk, and a possible modest positive association of total carbohydrates, total dietary glycemic load, and total sugars with risk, particularly among never users of hormone replacement therapy.

  14. Glycemic index of some local staples in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli-Cophie, Divine; Agbenorhevi, Jacob K; Annan, Reginald A

    2017-01-01

    Glycemic index (GI), a measure of blood glucose level as influenced by foods has become a concern due to the increasing cases of diabetes in Ghana. In spite of this, little is known of the GI of commonly consumed carbohydrate-rich foods of the Ghanaian diet. The GI of five Ghanaian staples: fufu (locally pounded), kenkey (Ga), banku, Tuo Zaafi (TZ), and fufu (Processed powder) were determined in a crossover trial among 10 healthy nondiabetics. Participants were given 50 g portions of pure glucose on two different occasions and subsequently the test foods containing 50 g available carbohydrates. Capillary blood glucose levels of the subjects at fasting and after ingestion of the glucose and test foods were measured within a 2-hour period. The GI of the test foods were calculated by dividing the incremental area under the glucose response curve (IAUC) of the test food by the IAUC for the reference food and multiplying the result by 100. Processed-powdered fufu had the least glycemic response (31), followed by Ga kenkey (41) and locally pounded fufu (55), all recording low GI. Tuo Zaafi (68) had a medium GI and banku (73), moderately high GI. Comparison of GI between the foods using ANOVA revealed a significant difference between GIs of locally pounded fufu versus I-fufu (industrially processed fufu flour) (p = 0.026). This study showed that the five major Ghanaian staples showed low to moderately high GI. These should be considered in recommendations for diabetics.

  15. GLYCEMIC INDEX, CHOLECYSTOKININ, SATIETY AND DISINHIBITION: IS THERE AN UNAPPRECIATED PARADOX FOR OVERWEIGHT WOMEN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The clinical utility of a low glycemic index (GI) diet for appetite and food intake control is controversial. Complicating the issue is psychological and behavioral influences related to eating. The aim of the present study was to investigate the satiety and glycemic response to high and low GI meal...

  16. Índice glicêmico e carga glicêmica de dietas consumidas por indivíduos obesos Glycemic index and glycemic load of diets consumed by obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o índice glicêmico e a carga glicêmica de dietas de indivíduos obesos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo, que analisou as fichas clínicas de 80 adultos obesos, acompanhados em um serviço privado localizado em Fortaleza, Ceará. Determinaram-se o índice glicêmico e a carga glicêmica da dieta. Para verificação da associação entre índice glicêmico e carga glicêmica, e dessas variáveis com a ingestão energética diária e com o índice de massa corporal dos indivíduos, utilizou-se o teste de correlação de Pearson. O teste "t" de Student foi utilizado para verificar diferenças entre os dois índices e o sexo. Em ambos os testes adotou-se pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the glycemic index and glycemic load of diets of obese individuals. METHODS: This is a retrospective study that analyzed the medical records of 80 obese adults attending a private health care service in Fortaleza, Ceará. The glycemic index and load of their diet was determined. The Pearson correlation test was used to verify if there was an association between glycemic index and glycemic load and of these variables with their daily energy intake and body mass index. The Student's "t" test was used to verify the differences between the two indexes and gender. A significance level of p<0.05 was adopted for both tests. RESULTS: Inadequate (moderate or high glycemic index prevailed at breakfast (82.9%, afternoon snack (60.0% and dinner (64.6%. The daily glycemic index was inadequate for 78.7% of the group and predominantly moderate according to the mean found (59.23, however it was less inadequate than the daily glycemic load which was high (143.8 and worse among males. The body mass index of the group, in general and according to gender, was not associated with any of the indices. Daily energy intake was associated only with glycemic load, both generally and taking gender into account. CONCLUSION: The results point toward a higher glycemic load in

  17. Effect of glycemic index on whole-body substrate oxidation in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, E O; Galgani, J E; Aguirre, C A; Atwater, I J; Burrows, R

    2005-01-01

    Glycemic index is hypothesized to determine fuel partitioning through serum plasma insulin modifications induced by dietary carbohydrates, thereby modulating fat accretion or oxidation. To assess the glycemic effects on postprandial fuel oxidation and blood response. In all, 12 obese women were fed on a randomized crossover design with two test meals (breakfast+lunch). High- or low-glycemic meals were provided on separate days. Energy intake on high-glycemic meal was 7758+/-148 kJ and for low-glycemic meal was 7806+/-179 kJ. Carbohydrates supplied were 273+/-5 and 275+/-6 g, respectively. Macronutrient distribution was 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat and 15% protein. Fuel oxidation was measured continuously in a respiratory chamber for 10 h. Serum glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin and glucagon samples were taken for 5 h after breakfast. Glucose AUC changed significantly in response to different glycemic breakfast. Low- vs high-glycemic breakfast was 211+/-84 and 379+/-164 mmol/l (Pglycemic meal was 1.8 times more with the high-glycemic breakfast. Serum FFA were similarly suppressed by both meal types by 3 h after meal intake, but then raised significantly more with the low-glycemic meal by the fourth and fifth hour (Pglycemic index. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation was not modified by glycemic meal characteristics, being virtually the same for low- vs high-glycemic comparisons in the 5 h following breakfast and lunch (P=NS). This study demonstrates that dietary glycemic characteristics were unable to modify fuel partitioning in sedentary obese women.

  18. Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Meng, Huicui; Tighiouart, Hocine

    2016-01-01

    Background: The utility of glycemic index (GI) values for chronic disease risk management remains controversial. Although absolute GI value determinations for individual foods have been shown to vary significantly in individuals with diabetes, there is a dearth of data on the reliability of GI value determinations and potential sources of variability among healthy adults. Objective: We examined the intra- and inter-individual variability in glycemic response to a single food challenge and methodologic and biological factors that potentially mediate this response. Design: The GI value for white bread was determined by using standardized methodology in 63 volunteers free from chronic disease and recruited to differ by sex, age (18–85 y), and body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2): 20–35]. Volunteers randomly underwent 3 sets of food challenges involving glucose (reference) and white bread (test food), both providing 50 g available carbohydrates. Serum glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h postingestion, and GI values were calculated by using different area under the curve (AUC) methods. Biochemical variables were measured by using standard assays and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: The mean ± SD GI value for white bread was 62 ± 15 when calculated by using the recommended method. Mean intra- and interindividual CVs were 20% and 25%, respectively. Increasing sample size, replication of reference and test foods, and length of blood sampling, as well as AUC calculation method, did not improve the CVs. Among the biological factors assessed, insulin index and glycated hemoglobin values explained 15% and 16% of the variability in mean GI value for white bread, respectively. Conclusions: These data indicate that there is substantial variability in individual responses to GI value determinations, demonstrating that it is unlikely to be a good approach to guiding food choices. Additionally, even in healthy individuals, glycemic status

  19. Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Meng, Huicui; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-10-01

    The utility of glycemic index (GI) values for chronic disease risk management remains controversial. Although absolute GI value determinations for individual foods have been shown to vary significantly in individuals with diabetes, there is a dearth of data on the reliability of GI value determinations and potential sources of variability among healthy adults. We examined the intra- and inter-individual variability in glycemic response to a single food challenge and methodologic and biological factors that potentially mediate this response. The GI value for white bread was determined by using standardized methodology in 63 volunteers free from chronic disease and recruited to differ by sex, age (18-85 y), and body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2): 20-35]. Volunteers randomly underwent 3 sets of food challenges involving glucose (reference) and white bread (test food), both providing 50 g available carbohydrates. Serum glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h postingestion, and GI values were calculated by using different area under the curve (AUC) methods. Biochemical variables were measured by using standard assays and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean ± SD GI value for white bread was 62 ± 15 when calculated by using the recommended method. Mean intra- and interindividual CVs were 20% and 25%, respectively. Increasing sample size, replication of reference and test foods, and length of blood sampling, as well as AUC calculation method, did not improve the CVs. Among the biological factors assessed, insulin index and glycated hemoglobin values explained 15% and 16% of the variability in mean GI value for white bread, respectively. These data indicate that there is substantial variability in individual responses to GI value determinations, demonstrating that it is unlikely to be a good approach to guiding food choices. Additionally, even in healthy individuals, glycemic status significantly contributes to the variability in GI value

  20. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and stroke mortality: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyao Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke, and stroke-related mortality is inconsistent. METHODS: We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded databases using glycemic index, glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease and reference lists of retrieved articles up to April 30, 2012. We included prospective studies with glycemic index and glycemic load as the exposure and incidence of fatal and nonfatal CHD, stroke, and stroke-related mortality as the outcome variable. Pooled relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: Fifteen prospective studies with a total of 438,073 participants and 9,424 CHD cases, 2,123 stroke cases, and 342 deaths from stroke were included in the meta-analysis. Gender significantly modified the effects of glycemic index and glycemic load on CHD risk, and high glycemic load level was associated with higher risk of CHD in women (RR=1.49, 95%CI 1.27-1.73, but not in men (RR=1.08, 95%CI 0.91-1.27. Stratified meta-analysis by body mass index indicated that among overweight and obese subjects, dietary glycemic load level were associated with increased risk of CHD (RR=1.49, 95%CI 1.27-1.76; P for interaction=0.003. Higher dietary glycemic load, but not glycemic index, was positively associated with stroke (RR=1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.43. There is a linear dose-response relationship between dietary glycemic load and increased risk of CHD, with pooled RR of 1.05 (95%CI 1.02-1.08 per 50-unit increment in glycemic load level. CONCLUSION: High dietary glycemic load is associated with a higher risk of CHD and stroke, and there is a linear dose-response relationship between glycemic load and CHD risk. Dietary glycemic index is slightly associated with risk of CHD, but not with stroke and stroke-related death. Further studies are needed to verify the effects of

  1. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and stroke mortality: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jingyao; Song, Yiqing; Wang, Yuyao; Hui, Rutai; Zhang, Weili

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and stroke-related mortality is inconsistent. We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded databases using glycemic index, glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease and reference lists of retrieved articles up to April 30, 2012. We included prospective studies with glycemic index and glycemic load as the exposure and incidence of fatal and nonfatal CHD, stroke, and stroke-related mortality as the outcome variable. Pooled relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models. Fifteen prospective studies with a total of 438,073 participants and 9,424 CHD cases, 2,123 stroke cases, and 342 deaths from stroke were included in the meta-analysis. Gender significantly modified the effects of glycemic index and glycemic load on CHD risk, and high glycemic load level was associated with higher risk of CHD in women (RR=1.49, 95%CI 1.27-1.73), but not in men (RR=1.08, 95%CI 0.91-1.27). Stratified meta-analysis by body mass index indicated that among overweight and obese subjects, dietary glycemic load level were associated with increased risk of CHD (RR=1.49, 95%CI 1.27-1.76; P for interaction=0.003). Higher dietary glycemic load, but not glycemic index, was positively associated with stroke (RR=1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.43). There is a linear dose-response relationship between dietary glycemic load and increased risk of CHD, with pooled RR of 1.05 (95%CI 1.02-1.08) per 50-unit increment in glycemic load level. High dietary glycemic load is associated with a higher risk of CHD and stroke, and there is a linear dose-response relationship between glycemic load and CHD risk. Dietary glycemic index is slightly associated with risk of CHD, but not with stroke and stroke-related death. Further studies are needed to verify the effects of gender and body weight on cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Dietary Glycemic Index and the Risk of Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Anderka, Marlene; Yazdy, Mahsa M.

    2012-01-01

    Prepregnancy diabetes and obesity have been identified as independent risk factors for several birth defects, providing support for a mechanism that involves hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the development of malformations. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study from 1997 to 2007 were used to investigate the association between the maternal dietary glycemic index (DGI) and the risk of birth defects among nondiabetic women. DGI was categorized by using spline regression models and quartile distributions. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The joint effect of DGI and obesity was also examined. Among the 53 birth defects analyzed, high DGI, categorized by spline regression, was significantly associated with encephalocele (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.68), diaphragmatic hernia (aOR = 2.58), small intestinal atresia/stenosis (aOR = 2.97) including duodenal atresia/stenosis (aOR = 2.48), and atrial septal defect (aOR = 1.37). Using quartiles to categorize DGI, the authors identified associations with cleft lip with cleft palate (aOR = 1.23) and anorectal atresia/stenosis (aOR = 1.40). The joint effect of high DGI and obesity provided evidence of a synergistic effect on the risk of selected birth defects. High DGI is associated with an increased risk of a number of birth defects under study. Obesity coupled with high DGI appears to increase the risk further for some birth defects. PMID:23171874

  3. Postprandial platelet aggregation: effects of different meals and glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, K D K; Thomas, G A; Adams, M J; Ball, M J

    2012-06-01

    Hyperglycaemia is associated with increased platelet aggregation that increases the risk of thrombosis in people with type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Low glycemic index (GI) meals high in carbohydrate or moderately high in protein have been shown to acutely reduce postprandial excursions of plasma glucose and insulin compared with high carbohydrate high GI meals. However, it is not known whether these differences in glucose and insulin profile also impact on postprandial platelet aggregation. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of three iso-energetic meals, on measures of postprandial platelet aggregation, in healthy individuals. A randomised cross-over study compared the acute effects of a high GI high carbohydrate (HGI-HC), a low GI high carbohydrate (LGI-HC) and a low GI moderately high in protein and fat (LGI-MPF) meal on postprandial platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations. Comparisons were made at fasting, 60 and 120 min postprandially. A total of 32 volunteers (mean ± s.d.; age 59.9 ± 11.7 years, BMI 27.1 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. Results showed significant reductions in maximum platelet aggregation postprandially with nonsignificant differences (all P > 0.29) between the three meals. Glucose and insulin were significantly (both P 0.25) between the three test meals. In healthy individuals platelet aggregation is reduced postprandially but this decrease is similar between meals of different GI that induce different glucose and insulin responses.

  4. The dietary glycemic index during pregnancy: influence on infant birth weight, fetal growth, and biomarkers of carbohydrate metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scholl, Theresa O; Chen, Xinhua; Khoo, Chor San; Lenders, Carine

    2004-01-01

    .... A lower incremental area under the glucose response curve defines a low glycemic diet. Thus, during pregnancy the maternal diet, as measured by the glycemic index, may influence fetal growth and infant birth weight...

  5. PASTA ADDED WITH CHICKPEA FLOUR: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, IN VITRO STARCH DIGESTIBILITY AND PREDICTED GLYCEMIC INDEX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osorio-Díaz, P; Agama-Acevedo, E; Mendoza-Vinalay, M; Tovar, J; Bello-Pérez, L. A

    2008-01-01

    Pasta was prepared with of durum wheat flour mixed with chickpea flour at two different levels and its chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index were assessed...

  6. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study....

  7. Associations of dietary sugar and glycemic index with adiposity and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie N; Alexander, Katharine E; Ventura, Emily E; Kelly, Louise A; Lane, Christianne J; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M; Roberts, Chris K; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I

    2007-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between dietary carbohydrate quality, adiposity, and insulin dynamics in children. The objective of the study was to determine which aspects of dietary carbohydrate, specifically dietary sugar, fiber, glycemic index, or glycemic load, are associated with adiposity and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino children. We examined 120 overweight Latino children (10-17 y old) with a family history of type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was determined by repeated 24-h diet recalls. Adiposity was assessed by using total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin dynamics [insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response, and disposition index (an index of beta-cell function)] were measured by using a frequently sampled intravenous-glucose-tolerance test. After adjustment for covariates, total sugar (g/d) was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), BMI z scores, and total fat mass (r = 0.20, r = 0.22, and r = 21, respectively; P glycemic index, and glycemic load were not significantly correlated with adiposity or insulin dynamics before or after control for covariates. Regression analyses showed that total sugar intake explained an additional 3.4%, 4.6%, and 2.4% of the variance in BMI, BMI z scores, and total fat mass, respectively, and an additional 5.6% and 4.8% of the variance in SI and disposition index (P glycemic index or glycemic load, was associated with higher adiposity measures, lower SI, and lower measures of insulin secretion.

  8. Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Sabrina; Chan, Doris S M; Vingeliene, Snieguole; Vieira, Ana R; Abar, Leila; Polemiti, Elli; Stevens, Christophe A T; Greenwood, Darren C; Aune, Dagfinn; Norat, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    The investigation of dose-response associations between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of breast cancer stratified by menopausal status, hormone receptor status, and body mass index (BMI) remains inconclusive. A systematic review and dose-response meta-analyses was conducted to investigate these associations. As part of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, PubMed was searched up to May 2015 for relevant studies on these associations. Prospective studies reporting associations between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, or glycemic load and breast cancer risk were included. Two investigators independently extracted data from included studies. Random-effects models were used to summarize relative risks (RRs) and 95%CIs. Heterogeneity between subgroups, including menopausal status, hormone receptor status, and BMI was explored using meta-regression. Nineteen publications were included. The summary RRs (95%CIs) for breast cancer were 1.04 (1.00-1.07) per 10 units/d for glycemic index, 1.01 (0.98-1.04) per 50 units/d for glycemic load, and 1.00 (0.96-1.05) per 50 g/d for carbohydrate intake. For glycemic index, the association appeared slightly stronger among postmenopausal women (summary RR per 10 units/d, 1.06; 95%CI, 1.02-1.10) than among premenopausal women, though the difference was not statistically significant (Pheterogeneity = 0.15). Glycemic load and carbohydrate intake were positively associated with breast cancer among postmenopausal women with estrogen-negative tumors (summary RR for glycemic load, 1.28; 95%CI, 1.08-1.52; and summary RR for carbohydrates, 1.13; 95%CI, 1.02-1.25). No differences in BMI were detected. Menopausal and hormone receptor status, but not BMI, might be potential influencing factors for the associations between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and breast cancer.

  9. Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Adriana C; Williams, Christina D; Allott, Emma H; Howard, Lauren E; Grant, Delores J; McPhail, Megan; Sourbeer, Katharine N; Hwa, Lin Pao; Boffetta, Paolo; Hoyo, Cathrine; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Reported associations between dietary carbohydrate and prostate cancer (PC) risk are poorly characterized by race. We analyzed the association between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index (GI), and PC risk in a study of white (N = 262) and black (N = 168) veterans at the Durham VA Hospital. Cases were 156 men with biopsy-confirmed PC and controls (N = 274) had a PSA test but were not recommended for biopsy. Diet was assessed before biopsy with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to estimate PC risk. In multivariable analyzes, higher carbohydrate intake, measured as percent of energy from carbohydrates, was associated with reduced PC risk (3rd vs. 1st tertile, OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.81, P = 0.010), though this only reached significance in white men (p-trend = 0.029). GI was unrelated to PC risk among all men, but suggestively linked with reduced PC risk in white men (p-trend = 0.066) and increased PC risk in black men (p-trend = 0.172), however, the associations were not significant. Fiber intake was not associated with PC risk (all p-trends > 0.55). Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with reduced risk of high-grade (p-trend = 0.016), but not low-grade PC (p-trend = 0.593). Higher carbohydrate intake may be associated with reduced risk of overall and high-grade PC. Future larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body weight...

  11. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population 1-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, H.; A, van der D.L.; Bakel, van M.M.E.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Blaak, E.E.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dekker, J.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) reported inconsistent findings on their association with metabolic risk factors. This may partly have been due to differences in underlying dietary patterns. Objective: We aimed to examine the association of GI and GL

  12. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and digestible carbohydrate intake are not associated with risk op type 2 diabetes in eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van der I.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Buckland, G.; Kuijsten, A.; Schulze, M.B.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Balkau, B.; Boeing, H.; Gavrila, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The association of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We investigated associations of dietary GI, GL, and digestible carbohydrate with incident type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective

  13. Primer on dietary carbohydrates and utility of the glycemic index in equine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patricia; Geor, Raymond J

    2009-04-01

    The feeding of "low carbohydrate" or "low glycemic" diets has been recommended for management of horses with metabolic and endocrine disorders in which insulin resistance is a component. A "low carbohydrate" diet is a misnomer, however, because horses require that a significant proportion of their daily ration comprises structural carbohydrates (fiber/forage) to maintain gut health and mental wellbeing. This article provides a detailed description of the different carbohydrates in equine feeds. It also reviews the terminology used to describe glucose and insulin responses to the ingestion of carbohydrates, in particular the concept of the glycemic index. Some of the factors that influence glycemic index in humans and the glycemic response to a meal in horses are also discussed.

  14. Arabic coffee increases the glycemic index but not insulinemic index of dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mssallem, Muneera Q; Brown, Jonathan E

    2013-09-01

    To determine whether the glycemic index (GI) and insulinemic index (II) of dates could be altered by Arabic coffee consumption. This randomized cross-over study was conducted at the Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom from November 2009 to February 2010. Healthy subjects (5 males, 5 females) were recruited to the study. They were fed Khulas dates either with water, or with Arabic coffee. Plasma glucose and insulin responses were measured using standardized methods. Responses were compared with a pure glucose solution matched for available carbohydrate. The GI and II were calculated using standardized methods, and results were presented as means and standard error of mean. Glucose and insulin responses were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. The GI of dates was 55 +/- 6, which increased to 63 +/- 5 for dates consumed with Arabic coffee (p=0.08). No significant difference was observed between the II for dates, and the II of dates consumed with Arabic coffee (p=1.00). Arabic coffee consumption modestly increased the plasma glucose response of dates compared to that of dates consumed with water. Insulin levels were not significantly affected. The modestly higher glycemic response to dates in the presence of Arabic coffee indicates that this custom may be considered detrimental to health.

  15. Postprandial Metabolic Responses to Dietary Glycemic Index in Hypercholesterolemic Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bukkapatnam, Radhika N.; Berglund, Lars; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Devaraj, Sridevi; Hyson, Dianne; Rafii, Flora; Malmstein, Catharine; Villablanca, Amparo C.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women. While diet and lifestyle remain the cornerstones of prevention, a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet is associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipemia—atherosclerotic risk factors affected by postprandial conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the acute response of lipids and insulin to a low-fat/high-carbohydrate meal with either a high-glycemic or a low-glycemic index in healthy postmenopausal women. F...

  16. Effects of Low Glycemic Index Diets on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinhua; Heng, Weijun; Gao, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies of the effects of low glycemic index (LGI) diets on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have reported conflicting findings. The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on maternal and neonatal outcomes in GDM patients. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases for studies of the effects of LGI diets in GDM patients. We performed a meta-analysis of the effects of the LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on GDM outcomes. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- and fixed-effects models. Five RCTs involving 302 participants were included in our meta-analysis. No statistically significant differences in the risks of cesarean section delivery, large for gestational age, and small for gestational age were observed. The risk of macrosomia in the LGI groups was significantly lower (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10–0.71; P = 0.008) than that in the control groups. Our subgroup analysis of the effects of DF showed that LGI diets with an increased level of DF, relative to the control diet, reduced the risk of macrosomia beyond that of the LGI diets alone (RR: 0.17 vs 0.47, respectively). The subgroup analysis also showed that LGI diets in which the level of DF was approximately equivalent to that in the control diets significantly reduced the risk of insulin usage (RR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52–0.92; P = 0.01). The LGI diets reduced the risk of macrosomia in GDM patients, and LGI diets with added DF reduced the risk of macrosomia further. The LGI diets with levels of DF approximately equivalent to that in the control diets reduced the risk of insulin usage in GDM patients. PMID:27258511

  17. The effects of low and high glycemic index foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaidis Michalis G.; Fatouros Ioannis; Tofas Trifon; Jamurtas Athanasios Z.; Paschalis Vassilis; Yfanti Christina; Raptis Stefanos; Koutedakis Yiannis

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Τhe aim of this study was to examine the effects of the consumption of foods of various glycemic index values on performance, β-endorphin levels and substrate (fat and carbohydrate) utilization during prolonged exercise. Eight untrained healthy males underwent, in a randomized counterbalanced design, three experimental conditions under which they received carbohydrates (1.5 gr. kg-1 of body weight) of low glycemic index (LGI), high glycemic index (HGI) or placebo. Food was administer...

  18. Can a low-glycemic index diet reduce the need for insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert G; Barker, Megan; Winter, Meagan; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2009-06-01

    A low-glycemic index diet is effective as a treatment for individuals with diabetes and has been shown to improve pregnancy outcomes when used from the first trimester. A low-glycemic index diet is commonly advised as treatment for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the efficacy of this advice and associated pregnancy outcomes have not been systematically examined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prescribing a low-glycemic index diet for women with GDM could reduce the number of women requiring insulin without compromise of pregnancy outcomes. All women with GDM seen over a 12-month period were considered for inclusion in the study. Women (n = 63) were randomly assigned to receive either a low-glycemic index diet or a conventional high-fiber (and higher glycemic index) diet. Of the 31 women randomly assigned to a low-glycemic index diet, 9 (29%) required insulin. Of the women randomly assigned to a higher-glycemic index diet, a significantly higher proportion, 19 of 32 (59%), met the criteria to commence insulin treatment (P = 0.023). However, 9 of these 19 women were able to avoid insulin use by changing to a low-glycemic index diet. Key obstetric and fetal outcomes were not significantly different. Using a low-glycemic index diet for women with GDM effectively halved the number needing to use insulin, with no compromise of obstetric or fetal outcomes.

  19. Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Giovannucci, Edward L; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    Diets that induce a high glycemic response might increase the risk of biliary tract cancer (BTC). We evaluated the hypothesis that diets with high glycemic load (GL) and high glycemic index (GI), which are measures of the glycemic effect of foods, are associated with an increased incidence of BTC. We used data from a population-based prospective study of 76,014 Swedish adults (age 45-83 years; 57% men) who were free of cancer and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire in the autumn of 1997. Incident cancer cases were ascertained by linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a mean follow-up of 13.3 years (1,010,777 person-years), we identified 140 extrahepatic BTC cases (including 77 gallbladder cancers) and 23 intrahepatic BTC cases. A high dietary GL was associated with an increased risk of BTC. The multivariable relative risks for the highest versus lowest quartile of dietary GL were 1.63 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.01-2.63) for extrahepatic BTC, 2.14 (95% CI, 1.06-4.33) for gallbladder cancer, and 3.46 (95% CI, 1.22-9.84) for intrahepatic BTC. Dietary GI was statistically significantly positively associated with risk of extrahepatic BTC and gallbladder cancer. We observed no statistically significant association between carbohydrate intake and BTC risk, although all associations were positive. Although these data do not prove a causal relationship, they are consistent with the hypothesis that high-GL and high-GI diets are associated with an increased risk of BTC.

  20. Variation in the risk of progression between glycemic stages across different levels of body mass index: evidence from a United States electronic health records system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Steven W; Li, Qian; Huang, Joanna C; Hammer, Mette; Graf, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how the risks of glycemic stage transitions observed in clinical practice vary with body mass index (BMI). These transitions included progression from euglycemia ('normal') to prediabetes (PreD) and from PreD to type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as from normal directly to T2D, and reversions from PreD to normal. We examined the Geisinger Health System electronic health records and insurance claims data, segmenting a subject's medical history into normal, PreD, and/or T2D glycemic stages via diagnosis codes, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or fasting plasma glucose lab results, and use of anti-diabetic drugs. Weibull survival models, adjusted for age, gender, race, and smoking, were used to estimate the glycemic progression hazard ratios for BMI categories relative to normal BMI. The sample included 32,864 adults with normal glycemic levels at baseline and 4483 with PreD. The adjusted hazard ratios for normal to PreD progression ranged from 1.8 (25 ≤ BMI glycemic transitions may be recognized after the true onset since periodic glycemic testing was not required across the study population. A positive association between the risks of progression along the glycemic continuum and BMI levels was observed in a real-world United States practice setting.

  1. Effects of dietary fiber and low glycemic index diet on glucose control in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Sarah A; Morello, Candis M

    2010-11-01

    To review the effects of dietary fiber and a low glycemic index diet on glycemic risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or T2DM and dyslipidemia. Literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, The Natural Standard, and The Natural Medicines through July 2010 using the terms type 2 diabetes mellitus, dietary fiber, psyllium, and glycemic index. Articles included were randomized controlled studies or meta-analyses examining the effects of dietary interventions (dietary fiber, low glycemic index diet, or psyllium) on glycemic risk factors (glycosylated hemoglobin A₁(c) [A1C] or postprandial plasma glucose [PPG] concentrations) in subjects with T2DM or T2DM and dyslipidemia. Both psyllium supplementation and low glycemic index diets have been studied as monotherapy in the treatment of T2DM. Seven studies were reviewed (3 randomized crossover studies, 1 randomized parallel study, 3 randomized blinded parallel studies). Individually, psyllium supplementation and a low glycemic index diet improved glycemic risk factors. PPG and A1C decreased with psyllium 10.2 g per day, while A1C decreased with a low glycemic index diet (average glycemic index 59). However, the results for the low glycemic index diet are controversial. One study was underpowered to detect changes in A1C, while another study had psyllium fiber as a confounding variable. Psyllium supplementation might be an additional therapeutic option for people with T2DM who are already receiving diabetes medication and who still experience elevated PPG concentrations. Further well-designed clinical trials and adjustment for confounding variables are needed to determine the role of a low glycemic index diet in the treatment of T2DM.

  2. Low glycemic index treatment for seizures in Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibert, Ronald L; Pfeifer, Heidi H; Larson, Anna M; Raby, Annabel R; Reynolds, Ashley A; Morgan, Amy K; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2012-09-01

    The low glycemic index treatment (LGIT) is a high fat, limited carbohydrate diet used in the treatment of epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the LGIT for the treatment of refractory seizures in pediatric patients with Angelman syndrome. A pediatric Angelman syndrome cohort with refractory epilepsy was treated with the LGIT and followed prospectively over 4 months. Parents recorded a daily seizure log for a minimum of 1 month prior to the start of treatment as well as throughout the LGIT trial. Electroencephalography (EEG) and neuropsychological assessments (Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2nd Edition were obtained for each subject at both baseline and 4-month follow-up time points. Clinical evaluations of subjects were completed by a neurologist and dietitian at the time of enrollment, as well as following both the first and fourth months of dietary therapy. At each time point, blood for laboratory chemistries was drawn and anthropometric measures were obtained. Six children (mean age 3.3 years, range 1.1-4.8) with genetically confirmed Angelman syndrome initiated the LGIT, and completed the trial with no significant adverse events. Cohort averages for indices of seizure severity were as follows: age of 1.6 years at seizure onset, 3 lifetime antiepileptic drugs tried (range 1-6), and baseline seizure frequency of 10.1 events/week (range: 0.4-30.9). All subjects had a decrease in seizure frequency on the LGIT, with five of six exhibiting >80% seizure frequency reduction. All posttrial EEG studies showed improvement and three of four children with epileptiform activity on his or her baseline EEG had no discharges present on follow-up EEG. Developmental gains were noted by parents in all cases, although few of these neurocognitive gains were statistically significant on neuropsychological assessment. This is the first prospective study assessing the LGIT for epilepsy. Our

  3. DIETARY HYPERGLYCEMIA, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND METABOLIC RETINAL DISEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Jung; Taylor, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The glycemic index (GI) indicates how fast blood glucose is raised after consuming a carbohydrate-containing food. Human metabolic studies indicate that GI is related to patho-physiological responses after meals. Compared with a low-GI meal, a high-GI meal is characterized with hyperglycemia during the early postprandial stage (0~2 h) and a compensatory hyperlipidemia associated with counter-regulatory hormone responses during late postprandial stage (4~6 h). Over the past three decades, several human health disorders have been related to GI. The strongest relationship suggests that consuming low-GI foods prevents diabetic complications. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes. In this aspect, GI appears to be useful as a practical guideline to help diabetic people choose foods. Abundant epidemiological evidence also indicates positive associations between GI and risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and more recently, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in people without diabetes. Although data from randomized controlled intervention trials are scanty, these observations are strongly supported by evolving molecular mechanisms which explain the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia. This wide range of evidence implies that dietary hyperglycemia is etiologically related to human aging and diseases, including DR and AMD. In this context, these diseases can be considered metabolic retinal diseases. Molecular theories that explain hyperglycemic pathogenesis involve a mitochondria-associated pathway and four glycolysis-associated pathways, including advanced glycation end products formation, protein kinase C activation, polyol pathway, and hexosamine pathway. While the four glycolysis-associated pathways appear to be universal for both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, the mitochondria-associated mechanism appears to be most relevant to the hyperglycemic, normoxic pathogenesis. For diseases that affect tissues with highly active metabolism and that

  4. Postprandial metabolic responses to dietary glycemic index in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukkapatnam, Radhika N; Berglund, Lars; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Devaraj, Sridevi; Hyson, Dianne; Rafii, Flora; Malmstein, Catharine; Villablanca, Amparo C

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women. While diet and lifestyle remain the cornerstones of prevention, a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet is associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipemia-atherosclerotic risk factors affected by postprandial conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the acute response of lipids and insulin to a low-fat/high-carbohydrate meal with either a high-glycemic or a low-glycemic index in healthy postmenopausal women. Fifteen healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled in a randomized crossover dietary intervention study. Levels of glucose, triglyceride, free fatty acids (FFAs), and insulin were measured preprandially and for 240 minutes after consumption of the test meals. In response to the high-glycemic compared with the low-glycemic index meal, postprandial insulin levels had a higher peak (65.4 vs 48.1 microU/mL, respectively), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly higher (P=.014), serum triglyceride levels declined significantly (Pglycemic index on cardiovascular metabolic biomarkers in postmenopausal women and may have implications for dietary glycemic modification of cardiovascular risk in women. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prospective associations of dietary insulin demand, glycemic index, and glycemic load during puberty with body composition in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslowski, G; Goletzke, J; Cheng, G; Günther, A L B; Bao, J; Brand-Miller, J C; Buyken, A E

    2012-11-01

    Puberty is a so-called critical period for overweight development and is characterized by physiological insulin resistance during mid-puberty. This study addressed the hypothesis that habitual consumption of a diet inducing higher levels of postprandial glycemia or insulinemia during puberty may have an unfavorable effect on the body composition in young adulthood. Multivariate regression analysis was performed on 262 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study with at least two 3-day weighed dietary records during puberty (baseline: girls 9-14 years; boys 10-15 years) and anthropometric measurements in young adulthood (18-25 years). A published dietary glycemic index was assigned to each carbohydrate-containing food. Similarly, each food was assigned a food insulin index (insulinemic response to a 1 MJ portion of food relative to 1 MJ of glucose) using 121 values measured at Sydney University. Dietary glycemic index or glycemic load during puberty was not related to body composition in young adulthood. In contrast, a higher dietary insulin index and a higher dietary insulin load during puberty were associated with higher levels of percentage of body fat (%BF) in young adulthood, even after adjustment for early life, socioeconomic and nutritional factors; %BF in energy-adjusted tertiles of dietary insulin index were 22.9 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 21.6, 24.1), 24.5 (23.2, 25.7), 24.7 (23.5, 25.9) %, P (for trend)=0.01; %BF in energy-adjusted tertiles of dietary insulin load were 22.8 (95% CI: 21.5, 24.0), 24.5 (23.2, 25.7), 24.8 (23.6, 26.0) %, P (for trend)=0.01. Adjustment for baseline %BF attenuated these relationships (P (for trend)=0.1 and=0.08, respectively). Dietary insulin demand was not related to body mass index. This study suggests a prospective adverse influence of dietary insulin demand during puberty on %BF in young adulthood. Postprandial increases in insulinemia rather than increases in glycemia

  6. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and blood lipid levels in middle-aged Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Motoko; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Yoshita, Katsushi; Morikawa, Yuko; Ishizaki, Masao; Murakami, Kentaro; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2010-10-27

    This study investigated the association between dietary glycemic index (GI)/glycemic load (GL) and serum lipids in middle-aged Japanese men and women. The study participants were employees of a metal products factory in Japan: 2,257 men and 1,598 women aged 35 years or older. Dietary GI and GL were assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Serum lipid levels, adjusted for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, menopause status, and dietary intake of total energy, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol and fiber, were compared among GI/GL quintiles for each gender. No significant associations were observed between GI and adjusted serum lipids in men or women. In contrast, GL was inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol in men and women (p for trend=0.001 for men and lipids in male nondrinkers and between GL and LDL-cholesterol in female nondrinkers. GL was inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol and positively associated with non-HDL-cholesterol in Japanese women. These associations in men were not observed in nondrinkers. A high-GL diet for women may have an atherogenic effect through these serum lipid abnormalities.

  7. Dietary glycemic load, glycemic index, and carbohydrates on the risk of primary liver cancer among Chinese women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogtmann, E; Li, H L; Shu, X O; Chow, W H; Ji, B T; Cai, H; Gao, J; Zhang, W; Gao, Y T; Zheng, W; Xiang, Y B

    2013-01-01

    Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) typically have a positive relationship with obesity and diabetes, which are risk factors for liver cancer. However, studies on their association with liver cancer have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we assessed the association of GI, GL, and carbohydrates with liver cancer risk. A total of 72 966 women and 60 207 men from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) were included for analysis. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data were used to calculate daily dietary GI, GL, and carbohydrate intake. These values were energy adjusted and categorized into quintiles. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders. After a median follow-up time of 11.2 years for the SWHS and 5.3 years for the SMHS, 139 and 208 incident liver cancer cases were identified in the SWHS and SMHS, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression models, no statistically significant trends by quintile of GI, GL, or carbohydrate intake were observed. Stratification by chronic liver disease/hepatitis, diabetes, or body mass index (BMI) did not alter the findings. There is little evidence that dietary GI, GL, or carbohydrates affect the incidence of liver cancer in this Asian population.

  8. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and risk of age-related cataract extraction: a case-control study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Filomeno, Maria; Galeone, Carlotta; Serraino, Diego; Bidoli, Ettore; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Although a role of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in age-related cataract development is plausible, a few studies, all conducted in USA or Australia, provided results on this issue. The aim of the present study was to provide new original data from a Mediterranean population. We analyzed data from an Italian case-control study including 761 cases with cataract extraction and 1,522 hospital controls, frequency-matched with cases by center, sex, and age. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for GI and GL intakes were obtained from logistic regression models after allowance for major confounding factors, including non carbohydrate energy intake, smoking, and diabetes. The ORs of cataract extraction for the highest versus the lowest tertile were 1.20 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.91-1.57) for GI and 1.57 (95% CI 1.16-2.13) for GL, with a statistically significant trend in risk for GL (p index. The present study supports a positive association between dietary GL and the risk of cataract extraction, independently from diabetes, and a lack of association for GI.

  9. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Nanri, Akiko; Kurotani, Kayo; Goto, Atsushi; Kato, Masayuki; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-12-27

    Japanese diets contain a relatively high amount of carbohydrates, and its high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load may raise the risk of diabetes in the Japanese population. The current study evaluated the associations between the dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in a population based cohort in Japan. We observed 27,769 men and 36,864 women (45-75 y) who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. The dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire. The development of diabetes was reported in a questionnaire administered five years later, and the associations were analyzed using logistic regression after controlling for age, area, total energy intake, smoking status, family history of diabetes, physical activity, hypertension, BMI, alcohol intake, magnesium, calcium, dietary fiber and coffee intake, and occupation. The dietary glycemic load was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among women: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.13-2.04; P-trend = 0.01). The association was implied to be stronger among women with BMI women with BMI ≥ 25. The dietary glycemic index was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among men with a high intake of total fat: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.46 (95% CI, 0.94-2.28; P-trend = 0.04). Among women with a high total fat intake, those in the first and second quartiles of the dietary glycemic index had a significant reduced risk of diabetes, compared with those in the first quartile who had a lower total fat level (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 0.59 with 95% CI, 0.37-0.94, and odds ratio = 0.63 with 95% CI, 0.40-0.998 respectively). The population-based cohort study in Japan indicated that diets with a high dietary glycemic

  10. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men and women: the Japan public health center-based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Japanese diets contain a relatively high amount of carbohydrates, and its high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load may raise the risk of diabetes in the Japanese population. The current study evaluated the associations between the dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in a population based cohort in Japan. Methods We observed 27,769 men and 36,864 women (45–75 y) who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. The dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire. The development of diabetes was reported in a questionnaire administered five years later, and the associations were analyzed using logistic regression after controlling for age, area, total energy intake, smoking status, family history of diabetes, physical activity, hypertension, BMI, alcohol intake, magnesium, calcium, dietary fiber and coffee intake, and occupation. Results The dietary glycemic load was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among women: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.13-2.04; P-trend = 0.01). The association was implied to be stronger among women with BMI dietary glycemic index was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among men with a high intake of total fat: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.46 (95% CI, 0.94-2.28; P-trend = 0.04). Among women with a high total fat intake, those in the first and second quartiles of the dietary glycemic index had a significant reduced risk of diabetes, compared with those in the first quartile who had a lower total fat level (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 0.59 with 95% CI, 0.37-0.94, and odds ratio = 0.63 with 95% CI, 0.40-0.998 respectively). Conclusions The population-based cohort study in Japan indicated that diets with a high dietary

  11. Effects of Lowering Glycemic Index of Dietary Carbohydrate on Plasma Uric Acid Levels: The OmniCarb Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraschek, Stephen P; McAdams-Demarco, Mara; Gelber, Allan C; Sacks, Frank M; Appel, Lawrence J; White, Karen J; Miller, Edgar R

    2016-05-01

    The effects of carbohydrates on plasma uric acid levels are a subject of controversy. We determined the individual and combined effects of carbohydrate quality (the glycemic index) and quantity (the proportion of total daily energy [percentage of carbohydrates]) on uric acid levels. We conducted a randomized, crossover trial of 4 different diets in overweight or obese adults without cardiovascular disease (n = 163). Participants consumed each of 4 diets over a 5-week period, each of which was separated by a 2-week washout period. Body weight was kept constant. The 4 diets were high glycemic index (≥65) with high percentage of carbohydrates (58% kcal), low glycemic index (≤45) with low percentage of carbohydrates (40% kcal), low glycemic index with high percentage of carbohydrates, and high glycemic index with low percentage of carbohydrates. Plasma uric acid levels were measured at baseline and after completion of each 5-week period for comparison between the 4 diets. Of the 163 study participants, 52% were women and 50% were non-Hispanic African American subjects; their mean age was 52.6 years, and their mean ± SD uric acid level was 4.7 ± 1.2 mg/dl. Reducing the glycemic index lowered uric acid levels when the percentage of carbohydrates was low (-0.24 mg/dl; P glycemic index was high (P = 0.05). The combined effect of lowering the glycemic index and increasing the percentage of carbohydrates was -0.27 mg/dl (P glycemic index lowers uric acid levels. Future studies should examine whether reducing the glycemic index can prevent gout onset or flares. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Effects of Low- and High-Glycemic Index/Glycemic Load Diets on Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Overweight/Obese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Shikany, James M; Phadke, Radhika P.; Redden, David T.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic insulin resistance contributes to subclinical inflammation, thrombosis/impaired fibrinolysis, and dyslipidemia. The effect of dietary carbohydrate, specifically of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), on established and emerging coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors has not been elucidated fully. We conducted a randomized, cross-over feeding study of matched diets differing only in GI and GL in 24 overweight or obese but otherwise healthy men to investigate the effects on i...

  13. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population 1-3

    OpenAIRE

    Du, H; de, A; Bakel, van, B.W.M.; Kallen, van der, C.J.H.; Blaak, E.E; Greevenbroek, van, M.M.J.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dekker, J. M.; E.J.M. Feskens

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) reported inconsistent findings on their association with metabolic risk factors. This may partly have been due to differences in underlying dietary patterns. Objective: We aimed to examine the association of GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and with metabolic risk factors including blood glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). Design: The study entailed cross-sectional analys...

  14. Prospective study of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Raquel; Liu, Simin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2007-11-26

    Much uncertainty exists about the role of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in populations that traditionally subsist on a diet high in carbohydrates. We observed a cohort of 64,227 Chinese women with no history of diabetes or other chronic disease at baseline for 4.6 years. In-person interviews were conducted to collect data on dietary habits, physical activity, and other relevant information using a validated questionnaire. Incident diabetes cases were identified via in-person follow-up. Associations between dietary carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load and diabetes incidence were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. We identified 1,608 incident cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 297,755 person-years of follow-up. Dietary carbohydrate intake and consumption of rice were positively associated with risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. The multivariable-adjusted estimates of relative risk comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of intake were 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.50) for carbohydrates and 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.15) for rice. The relative risk for increasing quintiles of intake was 1.00, 1.04, 1.02, 1.09, and 1.21 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.43) for dietary glycemic index and 1.00, 1.06, 0.97, 1.23, and 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.58) for dietary glycemic load. High intake of foods with a high glycemic index and glycemic load, especially rice, the main carbohydrate-contributing food in this population, may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese women.

  15. Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates versus All Types of Carbohydrates for Treating Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Randomized Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Glycemic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Legorreta-Legorreta, Jennifer; Parra-Covarrubias, Adalberto; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Background. Due to the higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM), more pregnant women complicated with diabetes are in need of clinical care. Purpose. Compare the effect of including only low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates (CHO) against all types of CHO on maternal glycemic control and on the maternal and newborn's nutritional status of women with type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. Women (n = 107, ≤29 weeks of gestation) were randomly assigned to one ...

  16. Estimated glycemic index and dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Pérez, Faviola; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Romero-Baranzini, Ana Lourdes; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín

    2013-03-01

    The increasing demand for high-fiber products has favored the design of numerous bakery products rich in fiber such as bread, cookies, and cakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber and estimated glycemic index of cookies containing extruded wheat bran. Wheat bran was subjected to extrusion process under three temperature profiles: TP1;(60, 75, 85 and 100 °C), TP2;(60, 80, 100 and 120 °C), and TP3;(60, 80, 110 and 140 °C) and three moisture contents: (15, 23, and 31 %). Cookies were elaborated using extruded wheat bran (30 %), separated into two fractions (coarse and fine). The dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran was higher than the controls; C0 (100 % wheat flour) and C1 (30 % of no extruded bran coarse fraction) and C2 (30 % of no extruded bran fine fraction). The higher values of dietary fiber were observed on cookies from treatments 5 (TP1, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction) and 11 (TP2, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction). The estimated glycemic index of cookies ranged from 68.54 to 80.16. The dietary fiber content of cookies was increased and the lowest glycemic index corresponded to the cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran. Cookie made with the treatment 11 had a better dietary fiber content and lower estimated glycemic index.

  17. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092–1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced

  18. The Effect of Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate Feeding with Different Glycemic Index on Endurance Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salarkia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Although, it is known that feeding with carbohydrate (CHO during exercise improves endurance performance, the effects of glycemic index (GI of carbohydrate intake are less clear. This study was carried out to assess the effect of glycemic index of pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding on endurance exercise capacity. In a randomized clinical trial 52 endurance – trained men with mean age 21.7 ± 3 years, weight 69.3 ± 9 kg, height 178.4 ± 2 cm and BMI 22.6 ± 2 were studied. Subjects performed exercise treadmill at 70% VO2max after ingestion: Lentil, a low glycemic index; potato, a high glycemic index; glucose and water (as a control one hour before exercise. Blood samples were collected before and one hour after test meal and 30 minutes after exercise. To assess aerobic capacity VO2max (maximum oxygen uptake was measured at the end of the exercise trial. Endurance time was found to be longer after lentil than after the potato, glucose and control respectively (P < 0.05. At the end of exercise, the glucose group and control both gave lower plasma glucose concentrations. Changes of VO2max in lentil. Potato, glucose and control group which were not statistically significant. This study showed that a low GI meal eaten before an event increases endurance capacity during exercise. Furthermore, the low GI meal was found to maintain glucose at higher concentrations during the later stages of exercise.

  19. Dietary hyperglycemia, glycemic index and age-related metabolic retinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glycemic index (GI) indicates how fast blood glucose is raised after consuming a carbohydrate-containing food. Human metabolic studies indicate that GI is related to patho-physiological responses after meals. Compared with a low-GI meal, a high-GI meal is characterized with hyperglycemia during ...

  20. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  1. Impact of food processing on the glycemic index (GI) of potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potatoes are one of the most popular carbohydrate foods in industrialized and some developing countries. However, contradicting arguments and misconceptions on potatoes as a high glycemic index (GI) food is directly affecting potato consumption during the past years. Potato varieties, maturity level...

  2. Glycemic index treatment using Japanese foods in a girl with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Tomohiro; Hiejima, Ikuko; Nozaki, Fumihito; Hayashi, Anri; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2013-05-01

    We introduced a low glycemic index treatment using Japanese ethnic foods to a 13-year-old girl with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome caused by tuberous sclerosis complex. She had previously refused the modified Atkins diet within 2 weeks of diet treatment because of its restrictiveness. The low glycemic index treatment was implemented by limiting the daily carbohydrate intake to 50 g of foods with a glycemic index of less than 50 relative to that of glucose, which included udon, soba, and unpolished Japonica rice with natto. One month after the initiation of the diet therapy, the clusters of tonic seizures for 30 to 60 minutes during sleep were reduced from two or three times per week to once or twice per month, and the frequent myoclonic seizures in the awake state disappeared. She has been on the diet therapy for more than 1 year, and the efficacy of the diet has been sustained. Low glycemic index treatment should be considered for patients with medication-resistant epilepsy who cannot tolerate restrictive diet therapies. Japanese ethnic foods can be used for this diet therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Informing food choices and health outcomes by use of the dietary glycemic index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable epidemiologic evidence links consuming lower glycemic index (GI) diets with good health, particularly upon aging. The GI is a kinetic parameter that reflects the ability of carbohydrate (CHO) contained in consumed foods to raise blood glucose in vivo. Newer nutritional, clinical, and ex...

  4. Determination of Factors Effected Dietary Glycemic Index in Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Huseyin; Akdevelioglu, Yasemin; Bulduk, Sidika

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine how factors such as smoking, regular activity, etc. affected dietary glycemic index in university students. Methods: This study was carried out at Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. The participants were 577 randomly selected Turkish healthy female university students aged 17-32 years. The survey included a questionnaire that…

  5. Dietary Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikany, James M.; Redden, David T.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Simon, Michael S.; Liu, Simin; Lane, Dorothy S.; Tinker, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Dietary glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI), and carbohydrate could be associated with breast cancer risk by influencing long-term blood glucose and insulin concentrations. We examined associations between GL, GI, and carbohydrate and incident breast cancer in 148,767 Women’s Heath Initiative (WHI) participants. Dietary variables were estimated from food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline. Self-reported breast cancers during follow-up were confirmed by medical records review. Cox proportional hazards regression modeled time to breast cancer within quintiles of GL, GI, and carbohydrate. There were 6,115 total breast cancers after a median follow-up of 8.0 yr. We observed no associations between GL, GI, or carbohydrate and total incident breast cancer, with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the highest vs. lowest quintiles of 1.08, 0.92–1.29 (P for trend = 0.27); 1.01, 0.91–1.12 (P = 0.74); and 0.95, 0.80–1.14 (P = 0.98), respectively. There was a trend toward significance for the positive association between GL and in situ cancers (1.40, 0.94–2.13; P = 0.07). Although there was no evidence of associations between GL, GI, or carbohydrate and total breast cancer risk in WHI participants, the suggestion of an association between GL and risk of in situ cancers requires further investigation. PMID:21714685

  6. Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Their Association with C-Reactive Protein and Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertruida J. van Woudenbergh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether the Glycemic Index (GI or Glycemic Load (GL of a diet is associated with C-reactive Protein (CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective study. Materials and Methods. Our analysis included 4,366 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline. During follow-up 456 diabetes cases were confirmed. Dietary GI and GL were derived from a food-frequency questionnaire and its association with CRP was examined cross-sectionally using linear regression models. The association of GI and GL with diabetes incidence was examined using Cox proportional hazard models. Results. GL, but not GI, was associated with lnCRP at baseline (bGL=0.11 per 50 units; P=.01. When comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of GI with respect to diabetes incidence, a Relative Risk (RR of 0.95 [95%CI 0.75, 1.21] was found after adjustment for lifestyle and nutritional factors. For GL the RR for diabetes incidence was 1.00 [95%CI 0.74, 1.36]. Additional adjustment for CRP did not change RRs. Conclusion. Since GI was not associated with CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes, it is unlikely that a high GI diet induces the previously shown positive association between CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing CRP concentrations.

  7. Effects of Carbohydrate and Dietary Fiber Intake, Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on HDL Metabolism in Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Abe, Shinichi; Tada, Norio; Sako, Akahito

    2014-10-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a lipoprotein which has anti-atherogenic property by reverse cholesterol transport from the peripheral tissues to liver. Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with the development of coronary artery diseases (CADs). Various epidemiological studies have suggested that the development of CAD increase in individuals with less than 40 mg/dL of HDL-C. In spite of accumulation of evidences which suggest a significant association between low HDL-C and cardiovascular diseases, effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism remained largely unknown. There may be interracial differences in effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism. Here we reviewed published articles about effects of carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), on HDL-C metabolism, regarding meta-analyses and clinical studies performed in Asian population as important articles. Low carbohydrate intake, GI and GL may be beneficially associated with HDL metabolism. Dietary fiber intake may be favorably associated with HDL metabolism in Asian populations.

  8. Dietary fiber, whole grains, carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load in relation to risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong-Jiang; Tang, Jian-Er; Chen, Yu; Gao, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between dietary fiber, whole grains, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and prostate cancer risk are unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate these associations. Relevant studies were identified by a search of PubMed database and EMBASE database up to April 2015. A random effects model was used to calculate the summary relative risks (RRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twenty-seven epidemiological studies (18 case-control studies and nine cohort studies) were included in the final analysis. The pooled RRs of prostate cancer were 0.94 (95% CI 0.85-1.05, P=0.285), 1.13 (95% CI 0.98-1.30, P=0.095), 0.96 (95% CI 0.81-1.14, P=0.672), 1.06 (95% CI 0.96-1.18, P=0.254), and 1.04 (95% CI 0.91-1.18, P=0.590) for dietary fiber, whole grains, carbohydrate, GI, and GL, respectively. There was no evidence of significant publication bias based on the Begg's test and Egger's test. The findings of this meta-analysis indicate that, based on available information, dietary fiber, whole grains, carbohydrate, GI, and GL are not associated with the risk of prostate cancer.

  9. Glycemic Responses, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load Values of Some Street Foods Prepared from Plantain (Musa spp., AAB Genome in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Adam Kouamé

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from test foods’ GI, considering the amount of available carbohydrate in the traditional portion size. GI values were 44 for Klaclo (with Ameletiha variety at all black stage, 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow stage, 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow with black spots stage; 45 for Chips (with Ameletiha variety at green stage and 89 for Banane braisée (with Afoto variety at light green stage. GI values were inversely correlated with the total sugar and carbohydrate in foods (p < 0.01, and no relationship existed between the GI values and the amount of protein (p = 0.89. Except for Chips (GL = 12, the GLs of the others foods were high (GL > 20. Contrary to Banane braisée, the consumption of Klaclo, Aloco, and Chips may promote the control of postprandial glucose response. Data provides the first GI published values of plantain-based foods commonly consumed in the urban area of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire.

  10. Glycemic Responses, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load Values of Some Street Foods Prepared from Plantain (Musa spp., AAB Genome) in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Nestor Kouakou; Abodo, Jacko Rhedoor; Pereko, Kingsley Kwadwo Asare; N’dri, Denis Yao; Amani, Georges N’guessan

    2017-01-01

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from test foods’ GI, considering the amount of available carbohydrate in the traditional portion size. GI values were 44 for Klaclo (with Ameletiha variety at all black stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow with black spots stage); 45 for Chips (with Ameletiha variety at green stage) and 89 for Banane braisée (with Afoto variety at light green stage). GI values were inversely correlated with the total sugar and carbohydrate in foods (p foods were high (GL > 20). Contrary to Banane braisée, the consumption of Klaclo, Aloco, and Chips may promote the control of postprandial glucose response. Data provides the first GI published values of plantain-based foods commonly consumed in the urban area of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). PMID:28926965

  11. Glycemic Responses, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load Values of Some Street Foods Prepared from Plantain (Musa spp., AAB Genome) in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamé, Camille Adam; Kouassi, Nestor Kouakou; N'dri, Denis Yao; Pereko, Kingsley Kwadwo Asare; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Rhedoor, Abodo Jacko; Amani, Georges N'guessan

    2017-09-16

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from test foods' GI, considering the amount of available carbohydrate in the traditional portion size. GI values were 44 for Klaclo (with Ameletiha variety at all black stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow with black spots stage); 45 for Chips (with Ameletiha variety at green stage) and 89 for Banane braisée (with Afoto variety at light green stage). GI values were inversely correlated with the total sugar and carbohydrate in foods ( p foods were high (GL > 20). Contrary to Banane braisée, the consumption of Klaclo, Aloco, and Chips may promote the control of postprandial glucose response. Data provides the first GI published values of plantain-based foods commonly consumed in the urban area of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

  12. Fortification of seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) flour on nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Muhamad; Yahya; Raditya Hardany Nugraha, Galih; Dwi Utari, Dyah

    2017-10-01

    Pasta is a nutritious and energy product which produced from the dough of wheat flour and water. It contains less of iodine and high of glycemic index. Euchema cottonii belongs of red seaweed is food substance that contains much of iodine and dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to know the fortification effect of E. cottonii flour on the nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta. E. cottonii was collected from the culture farm of E. cottonii on the Wongsorejo beach, District of Banyuwangi, East Java on April-June 2015. Wheat flour and pasta ingredients were obtained locally at shops of Pasar Besar, Malang. Pasta was produced by weighing of components, mixing, dough, milling, steaming and drying. E. cottonii flour was added on mixing process at 0; 7; 14 and 21 % of ingredients. The parameter of this study was the level of water, lipid, protein, ash, and carbohydrate (by difference), iodine, crude fiber, the total of dietary fiber, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, and glycemic index, respectively. Data were analyzed by variance and the least square difference used to determine the difference between treatments. The highest concentration group showed more nutritious than other treatments. The characters of its product were water 6.70%, lipid 2.26%, protein 23.09%, ash 14.11%, carbohydrate 53.84%, iodine 3.71 ppm, crude fiber 8.02%, the total of dietary fiber 20.88%, soluble fiber 11.69%, insoluble fiber 9.19%, and glycemic index 44.45, respectively. In conclusion, the fortification of E. cottonii flour enhances the nutrition value, iodine content, and glycemic index of pasta.

  13. [In vitro regression model of glycemic index for carbohydrate-riched foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianwen; Wang, Zhu; Yang, Xiaoli; Liu, Jing

    2009-05-01

    To Establish the in vitro regression model of glycemic index for carbohydrate-riched food by the in vitro digestibility and composition characteristics. Thirty products were commercially available and selected on the basis of their high carbohydrate content. After determined fat, protein and carbohydrate constitutes (sugar, starch), an in vitro method for digestibility characteristics were developed to measure hydrolyzed starch at 20 min, 120 min, 240 min, 16 h, and non-digested resistant starch (RS). In vivo glycemic responses were determined by standardized methods. The relationship between the compositions and GI were also discussed through stepwise regression methods. The observed GI ranged from 26 to 113, and correlated strongly with the digestibility profile of carbohydrates. Significantly positive correlation of S20, S120 (P glycemic response of carbohydrate rich foods and predict GI value.

  14. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  15. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a high GI...... diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1 activity...... and antigen levels in overweight women. Methods 45 healthy overweight women (BMI 27.6 ± 0.2 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a parallel 10 week intervention with a low GI (n=23) or high GI (n=22) diet. Fasting blood samples were obtained before and after the 10 weeks. To study the postprandial effect of LGI...

  16. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; van Bakel, Marit M E; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Blaak, Ellen E; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M J; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Feskens, Edith J M

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) reported inconsistent findings on their association with metabolic risk factors. This may partly have been due to differences in underlying dietary patterns. We aimed to examine the association of GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and with metabolic risk factors including blood glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). The study entailed cross-sectional analyses of data from 2 joint observational studies, the CoDAM Study and the Hoorn Study. In total, 974 subjects aged 42-87 y were included in the study. The mean (+/-SD) GI was 57 +/- 4 and the mean GL was 130 +/- 39. Dairy products, potatoes and other tubers, cereal products, and fruit were the main predictive food groups for GI. GL was closely correlated with intake of total carbohydrates (r(s) = 0.97), which explained >95% of the variation in GL. After adjustment for potential confounders, GI was significantly inversely associated with HDL cholesterol and positively associated with fasting insulin, the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance, the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol, and CRP. No association was observed between GL and any of the metabolic risk factors, except for a borderline significant positive association with CRP. In this population, a low-GI diet, which is high in dairy and fruit but low in potatoes and cereals, is associated with improved insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism and reduced chronic inflammation. GL is highly correlated with carbohydrate intake and is not clearly associated with the investigated metabolic risk factors.

  17. A psychosocial risk index for poor glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David D; Axelrad, Marni E; Anderson, Barbara J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a psychosocial screening tool to predict risk for poor glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes. Participants seen for psychological screening were 196 children aged 3-18 yr at diabetes diagnosis. A psychosocial risk index was developed to predict poor glycemic control [mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 9.5%; 80 mmol/mol] 1-4 yr post diagnosis. Cutoff scores were derived for multiple levels of risk from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and likelihood ratios (LRs). Discrimination and calibration were examined in the sample, and validated in 1000 bootstrap samples. Ability to predict diabetes-related emergency-room (ER) visits and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was also tested. The risk index accounted for 16.2% of variance in mean HbA1c, discriminated between children with and without poor glycemic control [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.814, 0.713-0.915; p glycemic control of approximately 10% (LRs = 1.7, 3.2, 5.8, and 9.3). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.68 (0.43-0.86) and 0.79 (0.72-0.84) for detecting patients at moderate risk, and 0.53 (0.29-0.75) and 0.91 (0.85-0.95) for detecting high-risk patients. The index performed equally well in validation samples. This paper presents the first psychosocial risk index for poor glycemic control in children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. It is brief, easily administered, and provides a single score that translates directly into an estimate of risk that can help guide routine diabetes care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Glycemic response to carob (ceratonia siliqua L) in healthy subjects and with the in vitro hydrolysis index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milek Dos Santos, Luciana; Tomzack Tulio, Lindamir; Fuganti Campos, Leticia; Ramos Dorneles, Marcelo; Carneiro Hecke Krüger, Claudia

    2014-09-12

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vivo glycemic index of carob tablets with healthy subjects and to determine the in vitro glycemic index of carob tablets and carob flour by the hydrolysis index. Seven healthy volunteers consumed portions of carob tablets containing 26g of available carbohydrate. Their capillary blood was taken at intervals after carob or glucose consumption. The glycemic hydrolysis index by an in vitro technique was based in the release of glucose after enzymatic treatment of carob tablets and carob flour. The determination of the fiber content was performed using the enzymatic- gravimetric method. By the in vivo determination, the estimated glycemic index of carob tablets could be considered low (≤ 55). By the in vitro determination, the estimated glycemic index ranged from 40.1+0.02 of carob tablets to 40.6+0.05 of carob flour. The total fiber values obtained for carob flour samples were from 42.6% ± 0.49 to 42.9% ± 0.68 with no statistical significant differences between samples. Carob tablets and carob flour could be classified as low glycemic index food and low glycemic load food. Carob flour is a high fiber food, containing mainly high levels of insoluble fiber. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary Glycemic Index during Pregnancy Is Associated with Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring at Age 20 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Haldorsson, Thorhallur

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome is rooted in fetal life with a potential key role of nutrition during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to assess the possible associations between the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) during pregnancy and biomarkers...

  20. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charlotte El; Greenwood, Darren C; Threapleton, Diane E; Gale, Chris P; Cleghorn, Christine L; Burley, Victoria J

    2017-05-01

    Background: High blood pressure is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease.Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in healthy individuals.Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out. Databases were searched for eligible RCTs in 2 phases. MEDLINE, Embase, CAB Abstracts, BIOSIS, ISI Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1990 to December 2009. An updated search was undertaken with the use of MEDLINE and Embase from January 2010 to September 2016. Trials were included if they reported author-defined high- and low-GI or -GL diets and blood pressure, were of ≥6 wk duration, and comprised healthy participants without chronic conditions. Data were extracted and analyzed with the use of Stata statistical software. Pooled estimates and 95% CIs were calculated with the use of weighted mean differences and random-effects models.Results: Data were extracted from 14 trials comprising 1097 participants. Thirteen trials provided information on differences in GI between control and intervention arms. A median reduction in GI of 10 units reduced the overall pooled estimates for SBP and DBP by 1.1 mm Hg (95% CI: -0.3, 2.5 mm Hg; P = 0.11) and 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.2 mm Hg, 2.3; P = 0.02), respectively. Nine trials reported information on differences in GL between arms. A median reduction in GL of 28 units reduced the overall pooled estimates for SBP and DBP by 2.0 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.2, 3.8 mm Hg; P = 0.03) and 1.4 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.1, 2.6 mm Hg; P = 0.03), respectively.Conclusions: This review of healthy individuals indicated that a lower glycemic diet may lead to important reductions in blood pressure. However, many of the trials included in the analysis reported important sources of bias. This trial was registered at PROSPERO as CRD

  1. Glycemic control and variability in association with body mass index and body composition over 18months in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Leah M; Gee, Benjamin; Liu, Aiyi; Nansel, Tonja R

    2016-10-01

    The impact of adiposity on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients has important implications for preventing complications. This study examined associations of glycemic outcomes with body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and body composition in youth with type 1 diabetes. This is a secondary analysis of an 18-month randomized controlled dietary intervention trial (N=136, baseline age=12.3±2.5y, HbA1c=8.1±1.0% (65±11mmol/mol)). Measured height and weight every 3months were abstracted from medical records. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline, 12 and 18months. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycemic variability assessed by masked 3-day continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM) were obtained every 3months. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) was assessed every 6months. Adjusted random effects models for repeated measures estimated associations of time-varying BMI and body composition with time-varying glycemic outcomes. There was no treatment effect on glycemic outcomes. HbA1c was not associated with BMI or body composition indicators. 1,5-AG was inversely associated with BMI and adiposity indicators (%fat, trunk fat mass and trunk %fat), adjusting for developmental covariates. Adiposity indicators were positively associated with %glucose >180mg/dL and >126mg/dL when adjusting for developmental covariates, and %glucose >126mg/dL when additionally adjusting for diabetes-related covariates. Fewer consistent relationships were observed for 3-day mean glucose and %glucose glycemic values or mean amplitude of glycemic excursions. The role of greater BMI and adiposity in diabetes management in youth with type 1 diabetes may relate specifically to increased hyperglycemic excursions. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Dietary Fiber, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load in Relation to Breast Cancer Prognosis in the HEAL Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Fabiën N.; Kampman, Ellen; McTiernan, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; Baumgartner, Kathy; Baumgartner, Richard; Ambs, Anita; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary intake of fiber, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) may influence breast cancer survival, but consistent and convincing evidence is lacking. Methods We investigated associations of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, GI, and GL with breast cancer prognosis among n=688 stage 0 to IIIA breast cancer survivors in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. Pre- and postmenopausal women from Western Washington State, Los Angeles County, and New Mexico participated. Usual diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Total mortality, breast cancer mortality, non-fatal recurrence and second occurrence data were obtained from SEER registries and medical records. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs. Results During a median of 6.7 years follow-up after diagnosis, n= 106 total deaths, n=83 breast cancer-specific deaths and n=82 non-fatal recurrences were confirmed. We observed an inverse association between fiber intake and mortality. Multivariate-adjusted HRRs comparing high to low intake were 0.53 (95% CI 0.23-1.23) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.43-1.31). A threshold effect was observed whereby no additional benefit was observed for intakes >9 g/day. Fiber intake was suggestively inversely associated with breast-cancer specific mortality (HRR=0.68, 95% CI 0.27-1.70) and risk of non-fatal recurrence or second occurrence (HRR=0.68, 95% CI 0.27-1.70), but results were not statistically significant. Conclusion Dietary fiber was associated with a non-significant inverse association with breast cancer events and total mortality. Further studies to assess and confirm this relationship are needed in order to offer effective dietary strategies for breast cancer patients. Impact Increasing dietary fiber may an effective lifestyle modification strategy for breast cancer survivors. PMID:21430298

  3. Dietary fiber, carbohydrates, glycemic index, and glycemic load in relation to breast cancer prognosis in the HEAL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Fabiën N; Kampman, Ellen; McTiernan, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; Baumgartner, Kathy; Baumgartner, Richard; Ambs, Anita; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2011-05-01

    Dietary intake of fiber, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) may influence breast cancer survival, but consistent and convincing evidence is lacking. We investigated associations of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, GI, and GL with breast cancer prognosis among n = 688 stage 0 to IIIA breast cancer survivors in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. Premenopausal and postmenopausal women from Western Washington State, Los Angeles County, and New Mexico participated. Usual diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Total mortality, breast cancer mortality, nonfatal recurrence, and second occurrence data were obtained from SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) registries and medical records. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a median of 6.7 years follow-up after diagnosis, n = 106 total deaths, n = 83 breast cancer-specific deaths, and n = 82 nonfatal recurrences were confirmed. We observed an inverse association between fiber intake and mortality. Multivariate-adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRR) comparing high to low intake were 0.53 (95% CI 0.23-1.23) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.43-1.31). A threshold effect was observed whereby no additional benefit was observed for intakes of 9 g/d or more. Fiber intake was suggestively inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (HRR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.27-1.70) and risk of nonfatal recurrence or second occurrence (HRR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.27-1.70), but results were not statistically significant. Dietary fiber was associated with a nonsignificant inverse association with breast cancer events and total mortality. Further studies to assess and confirm this relationship are needed in order to offer effective dietary strategies for breast cancer patients. Increasing dietary fiber may an effective lifestyle modification strategy for breast cancer survivors. ©2011 AACR.

  4. Glycemic index and glycemic load and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort study (JPHC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sarah Krull; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was for the first time to assess the association between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and colorectal cancer using a prospective Japanese population-based cohort. In our study participants aged 40-69 at baseline of the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study (JPHC Study) in 10 prefectural public health centers (PHC) were included. Subjects responding to the five-year follow-up survey (1995-1999) without previous history of cancer and missing data were included in the current analysis n = 73,501 (men n = 34,560 and women n = 38,941). We reported results as hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) by Cox proportional hazards modeling. The average follow-up time was 12.5 years (919,276 person-years). A total of 1,468 colorectal cancer cases were detected. Overall, no significant results were observed; however, GL was inversely nonsignificantly associated with colon cancer in men HR = 0.74 (95% CI 0.51-1.09) and rectal cancer in women 0.52 (95% CI 0.24-1.14). The GL tended to be inversely associated with proximal colon cancer among men 0.62 (95% CI 0.36-1.08), while a positive association with the GI was observed among women 1.37 (95% CI 0.88-2.14). Sensitivity analyses excluding the first three years of observation showed similar results. Results stratified by diabetes status, BMI, smoking and red meat were nonsignificant. In conclusion, the prospective JPHC Study suggests that the GI and GL do not have a substantial impact on the risk of colorectal cancer in Japanese adults.

  5. The relationship between carbohydrate quality and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: challenges of glycemic index and glycemic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Fontanelli, Mariane; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Carioca, Antonio Augusto Ferreira; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in adults and older adults residents of São Paulo, the association of MetS with the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and the foods that contribute to dietary GI and GL in this population. Data from 591 adults and older adults participants in the Health Survey of São Paulo were used. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with a complex multistage sample design of residents in the urban area of the municipality. Dietary consumption data, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and blood samples were collected. The associations between GI, GL and MetS and its components were tested using logistic regression models, considering the sample design of the study. The prevalence of MetS in the adult and older adults residents of São Paulo was 30.3%. There was no association between GI, GL and MetS. GI and GL were positively associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), OR = 1.113 (95% CI 1.007-1.230) and OR = 1.019 (95% CI 1.002-1.037), respectively. GL was inversely associated with high blood pressure and this association differed by age group (OR = 0.981; 95% CI 0.964-0.998). Foods that most contributed to dietary GI and GL were sugar, white rice and French bread. Considering the high prevalence of low HDL-c in the population of São Paulo, GI and GL may contribute to the nutritional therapy of this dyslipidemia. However, findings should be treated with caution, considering several conflicting results between studies.

  6. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and risk of colorectal cancer: results from the EPIC-Italy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, S; Krogh, V; Agnoli, C; Ricceri, F; Palli, D; Masala, G; Panico, S; Mattiello, A; Tumino, R; Giurdanella, M C; Brighenti, F; Scazzina, F; Vineis, P; Sacerdote, C

    2015-06-15

    A carbohydrate-rich diet, resulting in high blood glucose and insulin, has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology. We investigated dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), in relation to colorectal cancer, in the prospectively recruited EPIC-Italy cohort. After a median 11.7 years, 421 colorectal cancers were diagnosed among 47,749 recruited adults. GI and GL were estimated from validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariable Cox modeling estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for associations between colorectal cancer and intakes of total, high GI and low GI carbohydrate and GI and GL. The adjusted HR of colorectal cancer for highest versus lowest GI quartile was 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.78; p trend 0.031. Increasing high GI carbohydrate intake was also significantly associated with increasing colorectal cancer risk (HR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04-2.03; p trend 0.034), whereas increasing low GI carbohydrate was associated with reducing risk (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.98; p trend 0.033). High dietary GI and high GI carbohydrate were associated with increased risks of cancer at all colon sites (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.00-1.88, HR 1.80; 95% CI 1.22-2.65, respectively), whereas high GI carbohydrate and high GL were associated with increased risk of proximal colon cancer (HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.18-3.16, HR 2.01; 95% CI 1.08-3.74, respectively). After stratification for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), cancer was significantly associated with GI, and high GI carbohydrate, in those with high WHR. These findings suggest that high dietary GI and high carbohydrate intake from high GI foods are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. © 2014 UICC.

  7. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and nutritional correlates in free-living elderly Brazilians: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Michelle A; Carlos, Jackeline V; Lopes, Raíssa C V; Januário, Bruna L; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Fisberg, Regina M

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with nutrient intake and to describe the foods that contribute to dietary GI and GL in elderly subjects. This is a cross-sectional population-based survey performed in 2003, which enrolled 804 free-living Brazilian subjects aged 60 years or older. Dietary intake was measured by a single 24-hour dietary recall applied at the subjects' homes. The usual dietary GI and GL as well as the usual energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using external variance components. Dietary GI and GL were categorized in tertiles and the usual mean of nutrient intake was described accordingly. Linear association between dietary GI and GL and nutrient intake was investigated before and after energy adjustment. Foods that contributed with at least 1% of dietary GI and GL were described. Dietary GI was positively associated with starch, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and inversely associated with total sugar, protein, fiber, and calcium. Dietary GL was strongly and positively associated with total and available carbohydrates, starch, and total sugar and inversely associated with protein, total fat, MUFA, PUFA, and cholesterol. White breads and white rice were the major contributors to dietary GI and GL in the studied population. Dietary GI and GL are important indicators of overall quality and quantity of carbohydrates from elderly Brazilians diet and are also associated with other macronutrients such as protein, fat, and fiber. The overall dietary GI and GL reflects other dietary aspects, such as composition of the diet and combination of foods consumed.

  8. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pglycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  9. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. Results: Positive associations between GI and changes in bodyweight (¿BW), percentage body fat (%BF......), and waist circumference (¿WC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates.Significant GI X sex X physical activity interactions for ABSTRACTBackground: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemicload (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase therisk of weight gain...

  10. [Comparative analysis of the glycemic response and glycemic index of instant mashed potatoes in subjects undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and control subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Valdes, Gabriel; del Valle Flores, Miguel; Vega Soto, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a successful surgical procedure for morbid obesity. However, post surgery weight regain is usual, thus applying the glycemic index could promote good weight control. To compare the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response (GR) obtained of instant mashed potatoes in individuals subjected to LSG versus control subjects. GI and GR were assessed in 10 LSG subjects and compared with 10 controls. GI methodology proposed by FAO/WHO was used; instant mashed potatoes as test food and white bread as standard food (50g available CHO). Capillary blood sample 0 (fasting), 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. The GI was determined by trapezoidal method. ANOVA was used to compare a factor between RG and IG groups; t-student to compare RG between foods. Statistical significance pglycemic responses in LSG group, and its consumption possibly favoring weight regain. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, A; Sarojini, G; Nirmala, G; Nirmalamma, N; Satyanarayana, D

    1997-01-01

    Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice preparations was studied in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. Diets containing 50 g carbohydrate equivalent were given and post-prandial blood glucose estimated at different intervals. Glycemic index calculated for different experimental diets showed that GI of amaranth-wheat composite flour diet (25:75) was the least (65.6%) followed by wheat diet (65.7%), rice diet (69.2%), amaranth-wheat flour 50:50 (75.5%), and popped amaranth in milk (97.3%). Therefore 25:75 combination of amaranth and wheat, wheat and rice can be considered low GI food, 50:50 grain amaranth and wheat medium GI food and popped amaranth and milk combination high GI food.

  12. [Relationship between glycemic control and visceral adiposity index among the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y Y; Tang, X; Sun, K X; Liu, Z K; Xiang, X; Juan, J; Song, J; Duan, Q Z; Zhaxi, D J; Hu, Y N; Yang, Y F; Shi, M Y; Tian, Y H; Huang, S P; Liu, X F; Li, N; Li, J; Wu, T; Chen, D F; Hu, Y H

    2017-06-18

    To explore the relationship between glycemic control and visceral adiposity index (VAI) among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. A community-based epidemiological field study for patients with T2DM aged ≥ 40 years was conducted in China.Every participant underwent physical examinations, biochemical tests of fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and so on, and a questionnaire, including anthropometric characteristics, lifestyle, disease history, family history, and medication use. Those participants with HbA1c ≥7.0% were classified as the poorly controlled in our analysis of relationship between glycemic control and VAI. Anthropometric characteristics, lifestyle, and biochemical indexes of the participants were compared among the groups of different VAI levels. Logistic models were applied in multiple analysis adjusting for possible confounders. A total of 1 607 patients with T2DM were recruited in our analysis with a mean age of (59.4±8.1) years and an average T2DM duration of (7.0±6.4) years. Among them, 78.3% were on hypoglycemic therapy. The cutoff points of quartiles of VAI were calculated for the males and females, respectively. According to the ascending order of the quartiles of VAI, the participants were divided into four groups, i.e. Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4. The poor glycemic control rate for these groups were 60.6%, 65.7%, 70.1%, and 71.0%, respectively (Trend χ2=12.20, Pglycemic control rate was significantly associated with VAI levels among the patients with T2DM. Compared with the participants in group Q1, the ORs of poor glycemic control for those in groups Q2, Q3, and Q4 were 1.239 (95%CI 0.918 to 1.672), 1.513 (95%CI 1.117 to 2.050), and 1.535 (95%CI 1.128 to 2.088), respectively (trend P=0.003). With each quartile increase in VAI, the OR of poor glycemic control was 1.162 (95%CI 1.054 to 1

  13. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Valéria Cristina de; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Oliveira, Gustavo Antônio de; Sales, Samuel de Souza; Reis, Fernando Fonseca dos; Pereira, Juscélia Cristina; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI) and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI) and low GI (LGI), and two were performed in th...

  14. Comparison of a low-glycemic index vs standard diabetic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visek, Jakub; Lacigova, Silvie; Cechurova, Daniela; Rusavy, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient evidence for the efficacy of a low-glycemic index (GI) diet in the management of diabetes. The goal of this study was to measure the effect of a low GI versus a standard diabetic diet in adults with diabetes type 2. This was an open label, randomized, crossover study. Twenty persons with type 2 diabetes were randomized to two groups. Each group followed a standard diabetic diet or a low glycemic index diet for 3 months. The effectiveness of the two diets was evaluated using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with endogenous glucose production measurement, indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis. Outcome measures were body mass, BMI, body fat, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting glucose, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and hepatic glucose production. Body mass after 3 months following the diabetic diet was 93 kg (83-104) vs. low glycemic index diet 92 kg (85-104) Plipid profile, insulin sensitivity or hepatic glucose production. The results are comparable with other studies showing a modest effect of a low GI diet in the management of diabetes. We found a modestly greater weight loss, body fat and BMI reduction on the low GI diet.

  15. Effect of the glycemic index on lipid oxidation and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes da Silva, M V; de Càssia Gonçalves Alfenas, R

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of the consumption of the slowly absorbed carbohydrates in a low glycemic index (GI) diet on fat oxidation, in order to obtain dietetic treatment that can favor the achievement of an adequate body composition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze studies in which the role of low GI diets on body composition, with emphasis on fat oxidation. An internet search for articles, in English or Portuguese, published since 1995, was conducted using the following key words: glycemic index, glycemic load, glycaemic index, glycaemic load, body fat, body composition, fat oxidation. Papers that described animals or humans clinical trials were selected. Data were collected from Web of Science, Science Direct, Pubmed. It was verified that the results of the majority of the analyzed studies indicated that low GI diets lead to a lower insulin response, increasing body fat oxidation. These results indicate that the consumption of low GI diet can be an important strategy to be used for the prevention and control of obesity and chronic diseases associated to it.

  16. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in the bread fortified with pomelo (Citrus maxima) fruit segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmi, S K; Sudha, M L; Shashirekha, M N

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in breads incorporated with pomelo fruit (Citrus maxima) segments. Volume of the white and brown breads supplemented with pomelo fresh segments increased, while the crumb firmness decreased. Bread with 20% fresh and 5% dry pomelo segments were sensorily acceptable. Bioactive components such as phenolics, flavonoids, naringin and carotenoids were retained to a greater extent in bread containing dry pomelo segments. The pomelo incorporated bread had higher levels of resistant starch fractions (3.87-10.96%) with low predicted glycemic index (62.97-53.13%), despite their higher total starch (69.87-75.47%) content compared to control bread. Thus pomelo segments in the product formulations lowered the glycemic index probably by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activity which could be attributed to naringin. Hence fortified bread prepared from pomelo fruit segment is recommended to gain nutritional value and to decrease the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Low Glycemic Index Diet Versus Metformin on Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Shirin; Mazloom, Zohreh; Zamani, Ali; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) continues to be highly prevalent and contributes to a rapidly growing problem worldwide. The most important therapeutic intervention for metabolic syndrome is diet modification, an intervention whose efficacy has been proven for metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of low glycemic index diet versus metformin on MetS components in adults with MetS. Fifty-one adults with MetS participated in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups of metformin and low glycemic index diet. The intervention period was eight weeks. The studied participants were compared at baseline and the end of the trial, regarding the following factors: weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c and lipid profiles (Triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol). The anthropometric measurements, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Hemoglobin A1c, serum lipid profiles (TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C) and lipoprotein ratio (LDL/HDL) showed a significant decrease after the intervention in both groups (P glycemic index diet as well as metformin can positively affect metabolic syndrome components.

  18. Design and methods of the GLYNDIET study: assessing the role of glycemic index on weight loss and metabolic risk markers

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Juanola-Falgarona; Núria Ibarrola-Jurado; Jordi Salas-Salvadó; Antoni Rabassa-Soler; Monica Bulló

    2013-01-01

    Background: Glycemic index and/or glycemic load have been explored as an alternative for the prevention and/or management of obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Objective: The purpose of the manuscript is to describe the design and methods used in the GLYNDIET Project, a study designed to simultaneously address the questions related to the exactly role of low glycaemic index carbohydrates has on weight loss. Methods: This study was designed as a 6-months ran...

  19. Effects of diets differing in glycemic index and glycemic load on cardiovascular risk factors: review of randomized controlled-feeing trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite a considerable amount of data available on the relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI) or load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in aggregate, the area remains unsettled. The aim of the present review was to summarize the effect of diets differing in GI/GL on CVD r...

  20. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the glycemic index of bakery products: influence of the reformulation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Mairal, A; Peñalva-Lapuente, C; Iglesia, I; Urtasun, L; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Remón, S; Cortés, E; Moreno, L A

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate whether the modification of ingredients of two bakery products, muffins and bread, reduces their glycemic index, by means of in vitro and in vivo procedures. In vitro and in vivo glycemic index were evaluated for two types of bread and two types of muffins including one standard product for each category. For the in vitro determination, kinetics of starch digestion method was used. For the in vivo procedure, postprandial glucose measured as IAUC was obtained in a group of eighteen healthy volunteers (ten did the test with muffins and eight with breads). In in vitro, a reduction in the expected glycemic index regarding the control muffin was achieved with the partial substitution of wheat flour by a mixture of resistant starch, dextrin and lentil flour. In breads, with the partial substitution of wheat flour by a mixture of resistant starch and dextrins, a decrease in the expected glycemic index was also observed. In in vivo, a reduction in GI was also achieved both in muffin and in bread. All the obtained GI was higher in in vitro method. Despite the fact that in vitro overestimate in vivo method, the trend in the reduction in GI seems to be similar in both methods. With the substitution assayed, a reduction in the expected glycemic index and the glycemic index were obtained both in muffins and in breads.

  1. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaka Odenigbo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is a very rich source of starch. There is increased interest in starch digestibility and the prevention and management of metabolic diseases.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of starch fractions and predicted glycemic index of different cultivars of sweet potato. Material and Method: French fries produced from five cultivars of sweet potato (‘Ginseng Red’, ‘Beauregard’, ‘White Travis’, ‘Georgia Jet clone #2010’ and ‘Georgia Jet’ were used. The level of total starch (TS, resistant starch (RS, digestible starch (DS, and starch digestion index starch digestion index in the samples were evaluated. In vitro starch hydrolysis at 30, 90, and 120 min were determined enzymatically for calculation of rapidly digestible starch (RDS, predicted glycemic index (pGI and slowly digestible starch (SDS respectively. Results: The RS content in all samples had an inversely significant correlation with pGI (-0.52; P<0.05 while RDS had positive and significant influence on both pGI (r=0.55; P<0.05 and SDI (r= 0.94; P<0.01. ‘White Travis’ and ‘Ginseng Red’ had higher levels of beneficial starch fractions (RS and SDS with low pGI and starch digestion Index (SDI, despite their higher TS content. Generally, all the cultivars had products with low to moderate GI values. Conclusion: The glycemic index of these food products highlights the health promoting characteristics of sweet potato cultivars.

  2. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Chen, Chuhe; Young, Deborah R; Mitchell, Diane; Elmer, Patricia; Wang, Yanfang; Batch, Bryan; Champagne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is inconclusive. This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC) change only (p<0.05, β=23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L) with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β=0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L) positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) changes negatively (p=0.03, β=-0.01±0.00 mg/dL or -0.00±0.00 mmol/L), and significant age interactions were observed for both. GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  3. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  4. Glycemic index of American-grown jasmine rice classified as high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Teresa H; Yuet, Wei Cheng; Hall, Micki D

    2014-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine the glycemic index (GI) of jasmine rice grown in the United States (US). Secondary objective was to compare the GI of US grown jasmine rice to those grown in Thailand. Twelve healthy subjects were served all four brands of jasmine rice and a reference food (glucose), each containing 50 g of available carbohydrate. Fingerstick blood glucose was measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after consumption following a fasting state. The GI was calculated using the standard equation. The GI values for test foods ranged from 96 to 116 and were all classified as high GI foods. No difference in GI was found between American-grown and Thailand-grown jasmine rice. Although not statistically significant, observations show glycemic response among Asian American participants may be different. GI should be considered when planning meals with jasmine rice as the main source carbohydrate.

  5. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Eric C; Yancy, William S; Mavropoulos, John C; Marquart, Megan; McDuffie, Jennifer R

    2008-12-19

    Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (diet (500 kcal/day deficit from weight maintenance diet; LGID). Both groups received group meetings, nutritional supplementation, and an exercise recommendation. The main outcome was glycemic control, measured by hemoglobin A1c. Forty-nine (58.3%) participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03), body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  6. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavropoulos John C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3% participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03, body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  7. High hydrostatic pressure processing reduces the glycemic index of fresh mango puree in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Ramos-Parra, Perla A; Moreno-Sánchez, Diana; Nieblas, Bianca; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza M; Lamadrid-Zertuche, Ana C

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines recommend the daily consumption of fruits; however, healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects receive conflicting messages regarding ingestion of fruits, such as mango, because of its sugar content. We investigated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing of fresh mango puree (MP) on the glycemic indexes (GIs) and postprandial glycemic responses of 38 healthy Mexican subjects in a randomized cross-over clinical trial. Physicochemical characterization of MP included sugar profiles by HPLC-ELSD, starch, fibers, moisture, viscosity, swelling capacity and solubility properties of alcohol insoluble residue (AIR). The mean GI for HHP-MP was significantly lower (32.7 ± 13.4) than that of unprocessed-MP (42.7 ± 19.5). A significantly higher proportion of subjects showed a low GI following the consumption of HHP-MP compared to unprocessed-MP and none of them showed a high GI for the HHP-MP, compared to a significantly higher proportion for the unprocessed-MP. The viscosity and AIR solubility values of HHP-MP samples were significantly higher, which influenced glucose peaking later (Tmax) at 45 minutes and induced 20% lower AUC values than unprocessed-MP, corresponding to greater retardation indexes. The study findings support data stating that low GI fruits are appropriate for glycemic control and that mango may be included as part of healthy subjects' diets and potentially T2DM subjects' diets. Furthermore, HHP processing of mango may offer additional benefits for glycemic control, as its performance regarding GI, AUC and Tmax was significantly better than that of the unprocessed-MP. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the impact of this commercial non-thermal pasteurization technology on glucose metabolism.

  8. Design and methods of the GLYNDIET study; assessing the role of glycemic index on weight loss and metabolic risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Rabassa-Soler, Antoni; Bulló, Mònica

    2013-01-01

    Glycemic index and/or glycemic load have been explored as an alternative for the prevention and/or management of obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. The purpose of the manuscript is to describe the design and methods used in the GLYNDIET Project, a study designed to simultaneously address the questions related to the exactly role of low glycaemic index carbohydrates has on weight loss. This study was designed as a 6-months randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial aiming to evaluate the effect of the dietary glycemic index on weightloss, satiety, glucose and insulin metabolism, lipid profile, inflammation and other emergent metabolic risk markers. Eligible subjects were community-dwelling men and women aged between 30 and 60 years, with a body mass index between 27 and 35 kg/m2. Subjects were randomly assigned to three different dietary intervention groups (low glycemic index diet, high glycemic index diet or low-fat diet), that were isocaloric, and did not differ in the amount of dietary fibre. Monthly, study subjects were scheduled for control visits where anthropometry, blood pressure, dietary habits, satiety and physical activity were assessed. Blood, urine and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the study to further molecular and biochemical measurements. The GLYNDIET study was designed to determine if there is a greater effectiveness of a carbohydrate restricted diet with low glycemic index compared to an isocaloric diet with carbohydrates of high glycemic index or low-fat diet on weight loss in middle long-term. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Potatoes, glycemic index, and weight loss in free-living individuals: practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Jody M; Edirisinghe, Indika; Masoni, Amber M; Kappagoda, Tissa; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2014-01-01

    The role of glycemic index (GI) and foods with negative attributes related to GI as part of a weight loss regimen has not been thoroughly assessed in free-living individuals. This study examined the effects of a dietary prescription for energy intake modification, GI, and potato consumption on weight loss, dietary prescription adherence, body composition, and glucose control in a free-living, self-selecting overweight population. Ninety overweight (body mass index [BMI] 29.6 ± 3.9) men and women were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups for 12 weeks. Two groups were counseled to reduce their energy intake by 500 kcal/day and consume diets that were predominantly composed of either low- or high-GI foods (low glycemic index energy reduced [LGI-ER] or high glycemic index energy reduced [HGI-ER] diet, respectively). The third group received no energy restriction, GI provision, or nutritional counseling. All groups were instructed to consume 5-7 servings of potatoes per week. Changes in weight, body composition, glucose tolerance, and triglycerides were determined at baseline and 12 weeks. There were no significant differences in weight loss or changes in body composition between the groups; however, modest weight loss and body composition changes were seen from week 0 to week 12 for all groups (p < 0.05). Difficulty achieving the prescribed GI diets was evident in this free-living setting. There were no significant changes within or among treatments for fasting concentrations of triglycerides, glucose tolerance, insulin, or insulin sensitivity. The results indicate that in a free-living population of men and women, weight loss is associated with energy intake reduction. Potato intake did not cause weight gain and following either a high- or low-GI dietary prescription was difficult for free-living subjects, emphasizing the complex nature of changing dietary patterns.

  10. Methodologic considerations in the measurement of glycemic index: glycemic response to rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and mashed potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hätönen, Katja A; Similä, Minna E; Virtamo, Jarmo R; Eriksson, Johan G; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Sinkko, Harri K; Sundvall, Jouko E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Valsta, Liisa M

    2006-11-01

    Methodologic choices affect measures of the glycemic index (GI). The effects on GI values of blood sampling site, reference food type, and the number of repeat tests have been insufficiently determined. The objective was to study the effect of methodologic choices on GI values. Comparisons were made between venous and capillary blood sampling and between glucose and white bread as the reference food. The number of tests needed for the reference food was assessed. Rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and instant mashed potato were used as the test foods. Twelve healthy volunteers were served each test food once and both reference foods 3 times at 1-wk intervals in a random order after they had fasted overnight. Capillary and venous blood samples were drawn at intervals for 3 h after each study meal. GIs and their CVs based on capillary samples were lower than those based on venous samples. Two tests of glucose solution as the reference provided stable capillary GIs for the test foods. The capillary GIs did not differ significantly when white bread was used as the reference 1, 2, or 3 times, but the variation was lower when tests were performed 2 and 3 times. Capillary GIs with white bread as the reference were 1.3 times as high as those with glucose as the reference. The capillary GIs of rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and mashed potato were 77, 74, and 80, respectively, with glucose as the reference. Capillary blood sampling should be used in the measurement of GI, and reference tests with glucose or white bread should be performed at least twice.

  11. High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwisch, James E; Hale, Lauren; Garcia, Lorena; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G; Payne, Martha E; Rossom, Rebecca C; Lane, Dorothy

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of sweetened beverages, refined foods, and pastries has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, any influence that refined carbohydrates has on mood could be commensurate with their proportion in the overall diet; studies are therefore needed that measure overall intakes of carbohydrate and sugar, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load. We hypothesized that higher dietary GI and glycemic load would be associated with greater odds of the prevalence and incidence of depression. This was a prospective cohort study to investigate the relations between dietary GI, glycemic load, and other carbohydrate measures (added sugars, total sugars, glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, starch, carbohydrate) and depression in postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study at baseline between 1994 and 1998 (n = 87,618) and at the 3-y follow-up (n = 69,954). We found a progressively higher dietary GI to be associated with increasing odds of incident depression in fully adjusted models (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.37), with the trend being statistically significant (P = 0.0032). Progressively higher consumption of dietary added sugars was also associated with increasing odds of incident depression (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.41; P-trend = 0.0029). Higher consumption of lactose, fiber, nonjuice fruit, and vegetables was significantly associated with lower odds of incident depression, and nonwhole/refined grain consumption was associated with increased odds of depression. The results from this study suggest that high-GI diets could be a risk factor for depression in postmenopausal women. Randomized trials should be undertaken to examine the question of whether diets rich in low-GI foods could serve as treatments and primary preventive measures for depression in postmenopausal women.

  12. [Leuko-glycemic index as an in-hospital prognostic marker in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Aliz, Ebrey; Moreno-Martínez, Francisco L; Pérez-Fernández, Guillermo A; Vega-Fleites, Luis F; Rabassa-López-Calleja, Magda A

    2014-01-01

    Blood glucose and white blood cell count on admission have demonstrated prognostic significance in patients with myocardial infarction; leuko-glycemic index, a recently proposed marker, still lacks enough knowledge about its value. To evaluate the leuko-glycemic index as a prognostic marker in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A retrospective study was carried out in 128 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, who were admitted between January 2009 and October 2010 in the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau. Clinical and laboratory data were collected, including glucose and white blood cell count on admission, from which we calculated the leuko-glycemic index and we evaluated its prognostic value. Patients who had a poor outcome such as death, major cardiac complications and failed-thrombolysis, showed higher values of leuko-glycemic index (Pglycemic index was an independent predictor after multivariate analysis. The leuko-glycemic index was associated with an increased occurrence of hospital complications, death and failed-thrombolysis; its pathological value was an independent predictor of in-hospital death and complications in the studied sample. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. ANALYSIS OF MACRONUTRIENCONTENT, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND CALCIUM OXALATE ELIMINATION IN Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Lukitaningsih

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the research to find alternative sources of carbohydrates as a replacement for rice has been developed. Walur is one of the carbohydrate sources that can be explored because it can be grown in any area with out special treatment. However, walur has limitation for direct consumption, because it contains calcium oxalate. The purposes of this study were to determine the chemical character (macronutrient content, calculate glycemic index and get the proper washing techniques to elimin ate calcium oxalate of walur. Macro nutrients content studied in this research include carbohydrates, fats, protein, star chand crude fiber. Analysis of macronutrients has been chemically done, while the glycemic index was measured by in vivo using glucose as a standard. Elimination of calcium oxalate was conducted by washing the fresh walur tubers using a solution of0.01NHCl-NaOH, 5% NaCl, and solution of lemon-lime. The content of oxalate before and after washing was analyzed by permanganometry method. The results showed that walur containing 4.34 ±0.07% of reducingsugar,3.24 ± 0.06 % of not-reducing sugar, 11.27±0.40 % of crude fiber,0.03±1.05 % of starchand0.57±0.01 % of protein. Qualitative analysis of fatty acids showed that hexade canoicacid, octade cadienoicacid, and the acide icosatetranoic were detected in high concentrations. The glycemic index valueof walur was relative lylow, about of 16.9. In addition, washing technique using a solution of lemon-lime was the most excellent technique and can reduce the oxalate content up to61.82%.Fromthis research, it can be concluded that walur can be used as food substitute esrice after washing treatment using lemon-lime solution to remove the calcium oxalate content.

  14. Glycemic index and quality evaluation of little millet (Panicum miliare) flakes with enhanced shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kavita B; Chimmad, Bharati V; Itagi, Sunanda

    2015-09-01

    Little millet is a minor cereal crop contains several nutraceutical components. Ready To Cook (RTC) flakes of the millet exhibited higher total dietary fiber content (22.40 %) compared to dehulled grain (15.80 %). One serving (30 g) of RTC flakes provided 2.25 g of protein, 0.13 g of fat, 0.13 g of total minerals, 9.67 mg of iron and zero trans fats. The flakes possessed a medium Glycemic Index (GI) of 52.11 ranging from 41.57 to 61.80 among normal volunteers. Glycemic Load (GL) of the flakes was a low of 9.24. The RTC flakes exhibited an acceptability index of 81.11. The flakes possessed a shelf life of more than 6 months with an acceptability index of 67.55, moisture content of 11.82 per cent and Free fatty acid content of 18.02 per cent at the end of sixth month of storage period.

  15. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie V. Kizirian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96 and late (n = 88 pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI. In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037. In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010 and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034. Higher fat intake (%E and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy. Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity.

  16. Effects of High vs Low Glycemic Index of Dietary Carbohydrate on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Insulin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M.; Carey, Vincent J.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Copeland, Trisha; Charleston, Jeanne; Harshfield, Benjamin J.; Laranjo, Nancy; McCarron, Phyllis; Swain, Janis; White, Karen; Yee, Karen; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Foods that have similar carbohydrate content can differ in the amount they raise blood glucose. The effects of this property, called the glycemic index, on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes are not well understood. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of glycemic index and amount of total dietary carbohydrate on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized crossover-controlled feeding trial conducted in research units in academic medical centers, in which 163 overweight adults (systolic blood pressure, 120–159 mm Hg) were given 4 complete diets that contained all of their meals, snacks, and calorie-containing beverages, each for 5 weeks, and completed at least 2 study diets. The first participant was enrolled April 1, 2008; the last participant finished December 22, 2010. For any pair of the 4 diets, there were 135 to 150 participants contributing at least 1 primary outcome measure. INTERVENTIONS (1) A high–glycemic index (65% on the glucose scale), high-carbohydrate diet (58% energy); (2) a low–glycemic index (40%), high-carbohydrate diet; (3) a high–glycemic index, low-carbohydrate diet (40% energy); and (4) a low–glycemic index, low-carbohydrate diet. Each diet was based on a healthful DASH-type diet. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The 5 primary outcomes were insulin sensitivity, determined from the areas under the curves of glucose and insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test; levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides; and systolic blood pressure. RESULTS At high dietary carbohydrate content, the low– compared with high–glycemic index level decreased insulin sensitivity from 8.9 to 7.1 units (−20%, P = .002); increased LDL cholesterol from 139 to 147 mg/dL (6%, P ≤ .001); and did not affect levels of HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or blood pressure. At low carbohydrate content, the

  17. The Influence of Glycemic Index on Cognitive Functioning: A Systematic Review of the Evidence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Elena; Constantinou, Marios

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the rate of carbohydrate absorption, as measured by the carbohydrate’s glycemic index (GI) on cognitive performance, is not clear. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the relevant research studies. A systematic review of English-language articles using Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES (up to July 2012) using the search terms “glyc(a)emic index” or “glycaemic load” combined with “cognitive function” or “cognition” or “memory” was carried out. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were prespecified. Eligibility of the identified studies was assessed independently by the 2 reviewers. Independent extraction of data was carried out by the 2 authors using predefined data fields. The primary outcome measure was the effect on cognitive function (CF) after the consumption of meals varying in GI. Eleven eligible studies were identified. The age range of the participants varied from 6 to 82 y old. Overall, the findings were inconsistent, with some studies showing benefits toward either the high-GI or the low-GI meal, others not finding any differences between the 2 meals, and other studies showing a positive or negative effect on performance on only some cognitive domain or domains after consumption of 1 of the 2 meals. A number of methodologic and confounding factors were identified that could explain these inconsistencies. These include the study design, the selected sample (size, age, blood glucose regulation), the timing of testing, the cognitive domain being examined, the number and type of cognitive tests used, the meals provided (composition, size), the timing of blood samples collected, as well as the possibility of bias because participants and investigators were not blinded to randomization. A low-GI meal may favor CF in adults, but the findings at present are inconclusive. On the basis of this review, it is suggested that future studies address the identified

  18. Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates versus All Types of Carbohydrates for Treating Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Randomized Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Perichart-Perera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to the higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM, more pregnant women complicated with diabetes are in need of clinical care. Purpose. Compare the effect of including only low glycemic index (GI carbohydrates (CHO against all types of CHO on maternal glycemic control and on the maternal and newborn’s nutritional status of women with type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods. Women (n=107, ≤29 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to one of two nutrition intervention groups: moderate energy and CHO restriction (Group 1: all types of CHO, Group 2: low GI foods. Results. No baseline differences in clinical data were observed. Capillary glucose concentrations throughout pregnancy were similar between groups. Fewer women in Group 2 exceeded weight gain recommendations. Higher risk of prematurity was observed in women in Group 2. No differences in glycemic control were observed between women with type 2 DM and those with GDM. Conclusions. Inclusion of low GI CHO as part of a comprehensive nutrition intervention is equally effective in improving glycemic control as compared to all types of CHO. This strategy had a positive effect in preventing excessive maternal weight gain but increased the risk of prematurity.

  19. Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates versus All Types of Carbohydrates for Treating Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Randomized Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Legorreta-Legorreta, Jennifer; Parra-Covarrubias, Adalberto; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Background. Due to the higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM), more pregnant women complicated with diabetes are in need of clinical care. Purpose. Compare the effect of including only low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates (CHO) against all types of CHO on maternal glycemic control and on the maternal and newborn's nutritional status of women with type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. Women (n = 107, ≤29 weeks of gestation) were randomly assigned to one of two nutrition intervention groups: moderate energy and CHO restriction (Group 1: all types of CHO, Group 2: low GI foods). Results. No baseline differences in clinical data were observed. Capillary glucose concentrations throughout pregnancy were similar between groups. Fewer women in Group 2 exceeded weight gain recommendations. Higher risk of prematurity was observed in women in Group 2. No differences in glycemic control were observed between women with type 2 DM and those with GDM. Conclusions. Inclusion of low GI CHO as part of a comprehensive nutrition intervention is equally effective in improving glycemic control as compared to all types of CHO. This strategy had a positive effect in preventing excessive maternal weight gain but increased the risk of prematurity.

  20. Comparison of predictive capabilities of diabetic exchange lists and glycemic index of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, D C; Thomas, W; Levitt, M D; Bantle, J P

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether the diabetic exchange lists or the glycemic index of foods better predicts postprandial responses to carbohydrate-containing foods eaten as part of a mixed meal, three test meals were developed and fed to 12 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 13 healthy subjects. Each test meal contained exactly the same exchanges (1 milk, 4 starch, 2 fruit, 2 meat, 3 fat, 1 vegetable). In one meal, foods of high glycemic index (GI) were used, in a second meal, foods of intermediate GI were used, and in a third meal foods of low GI were used. The total GIs of the meals were: high, 184; intermediate, 131; and low, 107, thus predicting responses to intermediate and low GI, which were 71 and 58%, respectively, of the responses to high GI. Although some of the observed differences in the glycemic responses to the test meals were statistically significant, primarily in healthy subjects, the differences were usually much less than predicted by the GIs of the meals. In NIDDM subjects, peak postprandial plasma glucose, plasma glucose area, plasma glucose area increment, and mean plasma glucose responses after intermediate and low GI were greater than 90% of the corresponding responses to high GI. In healthy subjects, only the plasma glucose area increment after the low-GI meal was close to the predicted response. High GI produced significantly greater insulin responses than low GI in healthy subjects. We conclude that the diabetic exchange lists more accurately predict postprandial responses to carbohydrate-containing foods eaten as part of a mixed meal than does the GI of foods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  2. Dietary insulin index and insulin load in relation to biomarkers of glycemic control, plasma lipids, and inflammation markers123

    OpenAIRE

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Jennie C. Brand-Miller; Franz, Mary; Sampson, Laura; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary glycemic index and load are widely used to estimate the effect of carbohydrate-containing foods on postprandial blood glucose concentrations and as surrogates for insulin response. The food insulin index (II) directly quantifies the postprandial insulin secretion of a food and takes into account foods with a low or no carbohydrate content.

  3. Protein Rich Flour from Hyacinth Bean as Functional Food Ingredient with Low Glycemic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi’

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich flour (PRF produced from Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet shows good potency as a functional food ingredient. The PRF was extracted from hyacinth bean using water followed by protein precipitation at its isoelectric point. The precipitate was neutralized using 1 N NaOH and the slurry was dried, ground and sieved. The objective of this research was to characterize the nutritive value of PRF i.e., protein content and amino acid profile, trypsin inhibitors activity, content of vitamins B1 and B2, the amylose and amylopectin ratio of starch and its glycemic index. The results showed that the PRF contained high protein (58.4±4.5%. The major amino acid was glutamic acid, while methionine was found as the limited amino acid of the PRF. The activity of trypsin inhibitor was low (20.4±1.6 unit/g. Moreover, PRF contains 0.2 and 3.6 mg/100 g of vitamins B1 and B2 respectively. With a high ratio of amylose (30.0±2.0% and high content of resistance starch (7.97 g/100 g, the PRF showed a low glycemic index (43.50. Based on its characteristics, this PRF can be promoted as a new food ingredient, especially for diabetic diet.

  4. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schothorst, Evert M; Bunschoten, Annelies; Verlinde, Eline; Schrauwen, Patrick; Keijer, Jaap

    2011-08-16

    A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092-1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed HF diet-induced body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight gain, resulting in significantly reduced serum leptin and resistin levels and increased adiponectin levels. We questioned how WAT is modulated and characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycemic index-mediated effects using whole genome microarrays. This showed that the LGI diet mainly exerts its beneficial effects via substrate metabolism, especially fatty acid metabolism. In addition, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton remodeling showed reduced expression, in line with lower WAT mass. An important transcription factor showing enhanced expression is PPAR-γ. Furthermore, serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were all significantly reduced by LGI diet, and simultaneously muscle insulin sensitivity was significantly increased as analyzed by protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation. Cumulatively, even though these mice were fed an HF diet, the LGI diet induced significantly favorable changes in metabolism in WAT. These effects suggest a partial overlap with pharmacological approaches by thiazolidinediones to treat insulin resistance and statins for hypercholesterolemia. It is therefore tempting to speculate that such a dietary approach might beneficially support pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance or hypercholesterolemia in humans.

  5. [Glycemic index of two varieties of pasta and two varieties of rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, Edgardo; Di Sibio, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    The IG has been extensively studied as an indicator of the physiological effects of a carbohydrate meal with applications in the management and prevention of diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity. A standard assay was performed to measure the glycemic index (GI) of two significant sources of carbohydrates following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended methodology, determining the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve of a 50g carbohydrate portion of the test food compared to the same amount of carbohydrate from a glucose solution by the same subject measured in capillary whole blood before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ingestion in a total of 9 subjects. The following results were obtained: Parboil rice: 73, Long Grain White Rice: 59; Pasta of durum wheat (Triticum durum): 71, Pasta of regular flour (Triticum aestivium): 38. This test confirms the low glycemic index of pasta made from durum wheat, and is the first measurement for pasta of common wheat flour properly characterized. It also indicates the values of the prevailing presentations of rice in the region, adding a reference for professionals and authorities.

  6. Nixtamalization Process Affects Resistant Starch Formation and Glycemic Index of Tamales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal-Moreno, Rosa María; de Dios Figueroa Cárdenas, Juan; Santiago-Ramos, David; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; Veles-Medina, José Juan; Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo

    2017-05-01

    Tamales were prepared with 3 nixtamalization processes (traditional, ecological, and classic) and evaluated for chemical composition, starch properties, and glycemic index. Resistant starch (RS) in tamales increased 1.6 to 3.7 times compared to raw maize. This increment was due to the starch retrogradation (RS3) and amylose-lipid complexes (RS5) formation. Tamales elaborated with classic and ecological nixtamalization processes exhibited the highest total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber content, and the highest RS content and lower in vivo glycemic index compared to tamales elaborated with traditional nixtamalization process. Thermal properties of tamales showed 3 endotherms: amylopectin retrogradation (42.7 to 66.6 °C), melting of amylose lipid complex type I (78.8 to 105.4), and melting of amylose-lipid complex type II (110.7 to 129.7). Raw maize exhibited X-ray diffraction pattern type A, after nixtamalization and cooking of tamales it changed to V-type polymorph structure, due to amylose-lipid complexes formation. Tamales from ecological nixtamalization processes could represent potential health benefits associated with the reduction on blood glucose response after consumption. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Effect of Endurance Training on Vaspine and Glycemic Indexes in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeed Ali Hoseini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Vaspin is an adipokine, which has been derived from and recognized in the visceral fat tissue in rat. In the present study, the effect of endurance training was investigated on vaspin and glycemic indexes of diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 45 Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic by streptozotocin toxin after one week adaptation to laboratory conditions. In the following, after measuring fasting glucose of rats, 30 rats with fasting glucose above 200mg/dl, were selected as statistical sample and randomly divided into three groups (moderate and high intensity training and control. Moderate and high intensity training groups respectively ran on treadmill with no slope for 6 weeks (three 20 minute sessions per week with the speed of 8-12m/min and 12-18m/min. Data were analyzed using statistical tests of Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey post-hoc tests. The level of significance was considered as p<0.05. Results: In this study, high-intensity training has a significant effect on the increase of vaspin. Moderate and high intensity training also had significant effects on the reductions of insulin, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance in diabetic rats. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present research, it was clarified that endurance training can significantly affect glycemic indexes in diabetic rats.

  8. Role of low-glycemic index diet in management of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A P S; Chan, R S M; Nelson, E A S; Chan, J C N

    2011-07-01

    Conventional dietary recommendation for obesity management is a low-fat energy-restricted diet, which however, only have modest and non-sustained effects on weight reduction. Alternative dietary interventions, including low-glycemic index (GI) diet, have been proposed. Glycemic index is a measure of blood glucose excursion per unit of carbohydrate. Foods with high GI are rapidly digested, absorbed and transformed into glucose. These processes cause accelerated and transient surges in blood glucose and insulin, earlier return of hunger sensation and excessive caloric intake. Conversely, low-GI diet decreases blood glucose and insulin excursion, promotes greater fat oxidation, decreases lipogenesis and increases satiety. Modern food-processing technology has produced many food products with high GI which may contribute to the burgeoning epidemic of obesity especially in children/adolescents. Epidemiological and clinical trials suggest a role for low-GI diet in the management of childhood obesity and associated cardio-metabolic risks although results are not always consistent. In this article, we shall review the physiological basis and current evidence for and against low-GI diet in obesity management, with particular focus in children and adolescents. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. In vitro starch hydrolysis and estimated glycemic index of tef porridge and injera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumoy, Habtu; Raes, Katleen

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro starch digestibility of injera and porridge from seven tef varieties and to estimate their glycemic index. The total starch, free glucose, apparent amylose, resistant, slowly digestible and rapidly digestible starches of the varieties ranged between 66 and 76, 1.8 and 2.4g/100g flour dry matter (DM), 29 and 31%, 17 and 68, 19 and 53, 12 and 30g/100g starch DM, respectively. After processing into injera and porridge, the rapidly digestible starch content increased by 60-85% and 3-69%, respectively. The estimated glycemic index of porridge and injera of the varieties ranged 79-99 and 94-137 when estimated based on model of Goni et al. (1997) whereas from 69 to 100 and 94 to 161, respectively based on Granfeldtet al. (1992). Tef porridge and injera samples studied here can be classified as medium- high GI foods, not to be considered as a proper food ingredient for diabetic people and patients in weight gain control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Matthias B; Liu, Simin; Rimm, Eric B; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2004-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an important role of carbohydrate quality in the development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to prospectively examine the association between glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber and the risk of type 2 diabetes in a large cohort of young women. In 1991, 91249 women completed a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire that assessed dietary intake. The women were followed for 8 y for the development of incident type 2 diabetes, and dietary information was updated in 1995. We identified 741 incident cases of confirmed type 2 diabetes during 8 y (716 300 person-years) of follow-up. After adjustment for age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, and other potential confounders, glycemic index was significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes (multivariate relative risks for quintiles 1-5, respectively: 1, 1.15, 1.07, 1.27, and 1.59; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.10; P for trend = 0.001). Conversely, cereal fiber intake was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes (multivariate relative risks for quintiles 1-5, respectively: 1, 0.85, 0.87, 0.82, and 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.86; P for trend = 0.004). Glycemic load was not significantly associated with risk in the overall cohort (multivariate relative risks for quintiles 1-5, respectively: 1, 1.31, 1.20, 1.14, and 1.33; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.91; P for trend = 0.21). A diet high in rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and low in cereal fiber is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Low-glycemic index carbohydrates: an effective behavioral change for glycemic control and weight management in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burani, Johanna; Longo, Palma J

    2006-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the incorporation of low-glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates into daily meal planning as an effective behavioral lifestyle change to improve glycemic control and weight management in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes. Twenty-one subjects participated in this study. All office visits and interview sessions took place in a 2-physician private medical practice setting in Wayne, New Jersey. Patients' pre- and postcounseling HbA1c and body mass index (BMI) values and their antidiabetic medication dosages were recorded. Audiotaped interviews were conducted using the 10-question Glycemic Index Foods Quiz (GIFQ) and the 29-question Interview Questionnaire (IQ). The GI values of pre- and postcounseling meals were calculated. Assessment was based on triangulating the subjects' adherence to the low-GI carbohydrate behavioral change and the primary outcome measures: HbA1c and BMI. Low-GI medical nutrition therapy (LGI-MNT) counseling reduced HbA1c by 19% (mean drop of 1.5 U) and decreased BMI by 8% (mean loss of 17 pounds). This was accomplished by the participants independently lowering the GI values of their meals by 25% (mean reduction of 15 points). Results were achieved over a time frame of 3 to 36 months from the initial LGI-MNT counseling session. Daily incorporation of low-GI carbohydrates in meal planning can be an effective diabetes self-management strategy for glycemic control and weight management. The documented responses to the subjects' conceptual and practical knowledge of the GI confirm their acceptance of this approach as a permanent behavioral lifestyle change and not a "diet." The positive results of this study attest to what worked for these subjects, inviting diabetes educators to consider offering low-GI dietary advice to their diabetes patients.

  12. Effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate diets with high vs low glycemic index on exercise performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung-Sang Wong, Stephen; Sun, Feng-Hua; Chen, Ya-Jun; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Ya-Jun Huang, Wendy

    2017-05-01

    Although pre-exercise consumption of a low-glycemic-index (LGI) carbohydrate meal is generally recommended, the findings regarding subsequent exercise performance are inconsistent. This meta-analytic study was conducted to determine whether a pre-exercise LGI carbohydrate meal leads to greater endurance performance than a pre-exercise high-glycemic-index (HGI) meal. The following electronic databases were searched until April 2016: MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The reference lists of selected articles were searched manually. Randomized controlled or crossover trials comparing the effects of LGI and HGI pre-exercise carbohydrate meals on subsequent exercise performance of healthy participants were included. The Jadad scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. A fixed-effects model was used to evaluate overall and subgroup estimates. In total, 15 eligible studies from 727 articles were included in this meta-analysis. All included studies were of low research quality. The synthesized effect size ( d  = 0.42, z  = 3.40, P  = 0.001) indicated that the endurance performance following an LGI meal was superior to that following an HGI meal. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that the treatment effect did not vary across outcome measures (exercise to exhaustion, time trial, and work output) or athletic status (trained or recreational participants). Weak evidence supports the claim that endurance performance following a pre-exercise LGI meal is superior to that following a pre-exercise HGI meal. Further high-quality research in this area is warranted.

  13. Metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients with varying degrees of glycemic control during Ramadan: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Melanie Y L; Chew, Daniel E K; Toh, Matthias P H S; Seah, Darren E J; Chua, Ruimin; Tan, Jielin; Lee, Evonne Y Q; Chan, Sui Yung; Lee, Joyce Y C

    2016-01-01

    The changes in metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients who fast during Ramadan have not been studied in Singapore. This study aimed to examine the trends of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in diabetic patients with varying degrees of glycemic control and different types of therapeutic approaches during Ramadan. The present retrospective study used a national electronic database to examine the metabolic parameter of Malay patients with type 2 diabetes. Eligible patients were stratified into three groups based on their mean HbA1c control before Ramadan: group 1 (HbA1c ≥10%), group 2 (HbA1c 7.1-9.9%) and group 3 (HbA1c ≤7%). Patients with a glomerular filtration rate Ramadan. Of 13,565 patients examined, 5,172 patients (38.1%) were eligible for this study. Mean change of HbA1c varied from -1.4% to +0.2% during Ramadan, with the greatest reduction observed in group 1 (P Ramadan (P Ramadan, particularly in patients with mean baseline HbA1c ≥10%. The type of antidiabetic agent used did not seem to contribute to glycemic changes.

  14. Long-term effects of low glycemic index/load vs. high glycemic index/load diets on parameters of obesity and obesity-associated risks: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, L; Hoffmann, G

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the long-term effects of glycemic index-related diets in the management of obesity with a special emphasis on the potential benefits of low glycemic index/load (GI/GL) in the prevention of obesity-associated risks. Electronic searches for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing low glycemic index/load versus high glycemic index/load diets were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Outcome of interest markers included anthropometric data as well as biomarkers of CVD and glycemic control. Study specific weighted mean differences were pooled using a random effect model. 14 studies were included in the primary meta-analysis. Weighted mean differences in change of C-reactive protein [WMD: -0.43 mg/dl, (95% CI -0.78 to -0.09), p = 0.01], and fasting insulin [WMD: -5.16 pmol/L, (95% CI -8.45 to -1.88), p = 0.002] were significantly more pronounced in benefit of low GI/GL diets. However decrease in fat free mass [WMD: -1.04 kg (95% CI -1.73 to -0.35), p = 0.003] was significantly more pronounced following low GI/GL diets as well. No significant changes were observed for blood lipids, anthropometric measures, HbA1c and fasting glucose. Sensitivity analysis was performed for RCTs excluding subjects with type 2 diabetes. Decreases in C-reactive protein and fasting insulin remained statistically significant in the low GI/GL subgroups. The present systematic review provides evidence for beneficial effects of long-term interventions administering a low glycemic index/load diet with respect to fasting insulin and pro-inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein which might prove to be helpful in the primary prevention of obesity-associated diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary glycemic index and retinal microvasculature in adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Aguadero, Natalia; Alonso-Dominguez, Rosario; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martin-Cantera, Carlos; Schmolling-Guinovart, Yolanda; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-10-18

    To analyze the relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI) and retinal microvasculature in adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 300 subjects from the EVIDENT II study. Dietary GI was calculated using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Retinal photographs were digitized, temporal vessels were measured in an area 0.5-1 disc diameter from the optic disc and arteriolar-venular index (AVI) was estimated with semi-automated software. AVI showed a significant difference between the tertiles of GI, after adjusting for potential confounders. The lowest AVI values were observed among subjects in the highest tertile of GI, whereas the greatest were found among those in the lowest tertile (estimated marginal mean of 0.738 vs. 0.768, p = 0.014). In adults, high dietary GI implies lowering AVI values regardless of age, gender and other confounding variables. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02016014 . Registered 9 December 2013.

  16. Taking a Low Glycemic Index Multi-Nutrient Supplement as Breakfast Improves Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary therapy is the mainstay of treatment for diabetes. This study examined the effect of a low glycemic index (GI multi-nutrient supplement, consumed in place of breakfast, on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A total of 71 participants were randomized at a 2:1 ratio into either a breakfast replacement group or a normal breakfast group for a 12-week interventional study. The primary outcome measure was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c. Nutrition status and somatometry were studied as secondary outcomes. The breakfast replacement group displayed a −0.2% absolute reduction in HbA1c (95% CI (confidence interval, −0.38% to −0.07%, p = 0.004, while the HbA1c of the control group increased 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.5%, p = 0.005. The baseline Mini Nutritional Assessment score for both groups was 26.0 and no significant changes occurred following intervention. However, there was a statistically significant difference in body mass index between the treatment and control groups (p = 0.032 due to the weight gain in the control group (increased 0.5 kg, 95% CI was 0.2 to 0.9, p = 0.007. These data suggest that breakfast replacement with a low GI multi-nutrient supplement can improve glycemic and weight control in T2DM.

  17. Glycemic acute changes in type 2 diabetics caused by low and high glycemic index diets Las variaciones de la glucosa aguda en individuos con diabetes tipo 2 causada por las dietas de bajo y alto índice glucémico

    OpenAIRE

    C. E. Gonçalves Reis; J. Dullius

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Low-glycemic index diets may improve the glycemic control in type 2 diabetes but the debate over their effectiveness continues. Objectives: To test the effects of low-glycemic index diets on acute glycemic control (2 days) by measuring capillary blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This was a crossover randomized clinical trial with 12 type 2 diabetics which were randomly divided into 2 groups and targeted the following draft diets for low and high glycemic i...

  18. Effect of dietary glycemic index on food intake, adiposity, and fasting plasma ghrelin levels in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculati, M; Rossi, F; Cena, H; Roggi, C

    2010-04-01

    An increase in lipid storage as a consequence of feeding animals with high-glycemic index (GI) diets has been observed by many authors. Ghrelin is one of the most important orexigenic hormones, and curiously, its fasting plasma levels are decreased in human obesity. As ghrelin secretion is affected by insulin concentration, we hypothesized that carbohydrates with different glycemic responses might influence fasting plasma ghrelin levels. Twenty rats were divided into two groups and fed ad libitum a low-GI or a high-GI diet for 21 days. In rats fed a high- vs low-GI diet we observed: increased food intake (18.9+/-0.6 vs 16.4+/-2.0 g/day; pfasting ghrelin levels (41.1+/-10.7 vs 59.5+/-9.8 pg/ml; p=0.05). Ghrelin appeared to be downregulated in rats fed a high-GI diet; this observation could be related to the higher food intake and fat mass observed in these rats and to the effects of insulin response on ghrelin levels.

  19. Glycemic Index of (Zummita A Commonly Barley Based Consumed Traditional Libyan Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Libya especially in Benghazi, Zummita is a traditional Libyan food consisting of 85% whole barley flour and is commonly consumed as a breakfast meal, and. Due to an increase in Type 2 diabetes and a lack of information on the effects of Zummita consumption on glycemic response, this study was performed to determine the glycemic index (GI of Zummita. Fasted healthy subjects (6 males and 6 females volunteered to consume either glucose or Zummita. The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed using capillary blood samples immediately before, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose or Zummita consumption. The GI value of Zummita was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC value for Zummita as a percentage of each subject’s average IAUC value for the glucose. The GI value of Zummita was found as 46.90 ± 7.56. This result indicates that Zummita should be classified as low GI food. More importantly, our result provides the GI value of a Libyan traditional food which was not determined previously. This valuable information will be significant for management and the prevention of diabetes mellitus in Libya and other countries having similar food tradition.

  20. Lowering the glycemic index of white bread using a white bean extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Betsy B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase 2® is a dietary supplement derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Phase 2 has been shown to inhibit alpha-amylase, the complex carbohydrate digesting enzyme, in vitro. The inhibition of alpha-amylase may result in the lowering of the effective Glycemic Index (GI of certain foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of Phase 2 would lower the GI of a commercially available high glycemic food (white bread. Methods An open-label 6-arm crossover study was conducted with 13 randomized subjects. Standardized GI testing was performed on white bread with and without the addition of Phase 2 in capsule and powder form, each in dosages of 1500 mg, 2000 mg, and 3000 mg. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA of all seven treatment groups using unadjusted multiple comparisons (t tests to the white bread control. Results For the capsule formulation, the 1500 mg dose had no effect on the GI and the 2000 mg and 3000 mg capsule doses caused insignificant reductions in GI. For the powder, the 1500 mg and 2000 mg doses caused insignificant reductions in the GI, and the 3000 mg dose had a significant effect (-20.23 or 34.11%, p = 0.023 Conclusion Phase 2 white bean extract appears to be a novel and potentially effective method for reducing the GI of existing foods without modifying their ingredient profile. Trial Registration Trial Registration: ISRCTN50347345

  1. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani S.H.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  2. Dietary glycemic index and load in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors in Cuban American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Fatma G; Zarini, Gustavo G; Cooper, Vanessa

    2010-11-01

    To examine whether dietary glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) had an effect on the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and whether the effects were dependent on the diabetes status in the Cuban American population. A case–control, single-time-point study. A total of 324 middle-aged Cuban American adults had completed data on fasting blood lipids, physical activity level and usual dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Published GI values were assigned to food items and average dietary GI and GL were calculated per participant. Subjects without type 2 diabetes (T2D) were 3.3 times more likely to be in the recommended, highest high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol category if they were in the second dietary GL tertile as compared with those in the first dietary GL tertile (P = 0.042, 95% confidence interval = 1.94, 10.78). The results of the present study suggest that in this sample of Cuban Americans a high GI or GL diet do not adversely affects blood lipids, especially among subjects without T2D.

  3. Evaluation of finger millet incorporated noodles for nutritive value and glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kamini; Srivastava, Sarita

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop finger millet incorporated noodles for diabetic patients. Finger millet variety VL-149 was taken. The finger millet flour and refined wheat flour (RWF) were evaluated for nutrient composition. The finger millet flour (FMF) was blended in various proportions (30 to 50%) in refined wheat flour and used for the preparation of noodles. Control consisted of RWF noodles. Sensory quality and nutrient composition of finger millet noodles was evaluated. The 30% finger millet incorporated noodles were selected best on the basis of sensory evaluation. Noodles in that proportion along with control were evaluated for glycemic response. Nutrient composition of noodles showed that 50% finger millet incorporated noodles contained highest amount of crude fat (1.15%), total ash (1.40%), crude fiber (1.28%), carbohydrate (78.54%), physiological energy (351.36 kcal), insoluble dietary fiber (5.45%), soluble dietary fiber (3.71%), iron (5.58%) and calcium (88.39%), respectively. However, control RWF noodles contained highest amount of starch (63.02%), amylose (8.72%) and amylopectin (54.29%). The glycemic index (GI) of 30% finger millet incorporated noodles (best selected by sensory evaluation) was observed significantly lower (45.13) than control noodles (62.59). It was found that finger millet flour incorporated noodles were found nutritious and showed hypoglycemic effect.

  4. Automated computation of glycemic index for foodstuffs using continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlup, Rudolf; Seckar, Pavel; Zapletalová, Jana; Langová, Katerina; Kudlová, Pavla; Chlupová, Karolina; Bartek, Josef; Jelenová, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a measure of the ability of a food to raise glucose levels after it is eaten. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been shown to give identical values of GI when compared to traditional methods. However, there has been no standardized protocol for measuring GI that takes into account interindividual variability and chronophysiological glycemic response to food. Our aim was (1) to create and describe software based on a Microsoft Excel 2000 spreadsheet to facilitate rapid, automated, accurate, and standardized processing of data obtained using recent CGM methodology to measure GI and its variability and (2) to assess the benefits of this new approach. Twenty healthy subjects consumed 50 grams of glucose or four alternative foodstuffs (chocolate, apple baby food, rice squares, or yogurt) at breakfast and dinner during 1 week, resulting in 300 CGMS glucose profiles; 92% of meal tests were satisfactory for evaluation. Application and functions of the software DegifXL are described. Using the new spreadsheet software DegifXL, time required for data processing for the 15 data sets for each subject was reduced from 2000 to 160 minutes relative to previously used manual methods. We characterized the GI for four foodstuffs with three replicate measurements in each of 20 subjects and evaluated between person, between time period, and between replicate GI variabilities. DegifXL, combined with CGM, was an efficient and effective tool for routine measurement of group- and subject-related GI.

  5. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pmetabolic flexibility was unaffected by refeeding at 50% CHO but clearly impaired by 65% CHO diet (Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  6. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  7. The concept of low glycemic index and glycemic load foods as panacea for type 2 diabetes mellitus; prospects, challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum Ogbonnaya

    2016-06-01

    This article examines the concepts of low glycemic indices (GIs) and glycemic load (GL) foods as key drivers in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes as well as their shortcomings. The controversies arising from the analysis of glycemic index (GI) and GL of foods such as their reproducibility as well as their relevance to the dietary management of type 2 diabetes are also discussed. Search was conducted in relevant electronic databases such as: Pubmed, Google Scholar, HINARI, the Cochrane library, Popline, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, etc to identify the current status of knowledge regarding the controversies surrounding management of diabetes with low GI and GL foods. This article suggests that in view of discrepancies that surround the results of GI versus GL of foods, any assay on the GI and GL of a food with the aim of recommending the food for the dietary management of type 2 diabetes, could be balanced with glycated hemoglobin assays before they are adopted as useful antidiabetic foods.

  8. Assigning glycemic index to foods in a recent Australian food composition database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, J C Y; Barclay, A W; Brand-Miller, J C

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the compilation of a special edition of the AUSNUT2011-2013 food composition database that includes glycemic index (GI) values. A 6-step, systematic methodology was used to assign GI to 5644 foods included in AUSNUT2011-2013. A total of 1752 (31%) foods were assigned a GI of 0 owing to low carbohydrate content; 363 (6%) had a direct match in 1 of the 4 data tables used; 1738 (31%) were assigned the GI of a 'closely related' food item; 1526 (27%) were assigned the weighted mean GI of ingredients; 205 (4%) were assigned the median GI of their corresponding food subgroup; 49 (<1%) were assigned a GI of 0 because they were not a significant source of carbohydrate in typical diets; and 5 (<1%) were assigned a default GI. We propose that this database should be used for all future Australian GI research until a subsequent version/update is compiled.

  9. Effect of glycemic index and fructose content in lunch on substrate utilization during subsequent brisk walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Chen, Ya-Jun; Huang, Ya-Jun; Hsieh, Sandy Shen-Yu

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of glycemic index (GI) and fructose content in lunch on substrate utilization during subsequent brisk walking. Ten healthy young males completed 3 main trials in a counterbalanced crossover design. They completed 60 min of brisk walking at approximately 50% maximal oxygen consumption after consuming a standard breakfast and 1 of 3 lunch meals, i.e., a low GI meal without fructose (LGI), a low GI meal that included fructose beverage (LGIF), or a high GI meal (HGI). The 3 lunch meals were isocaloric and provided 1.0 g·kg⁻¹ carbohydrate. Substrate utilization was measured using indirect respiratory calorimetry method. Blood samples were collected at certain time points. During the 2-h postprandial period after lunch, the incremental area under the blood response curve values of glucose and insulin were higher (p brisk walking, decreased carbohydrate oxidation was observed (p moderate intensity exercise.

  10. Effect of polishing on glycemic index and antioxidant properties of red and white basmati rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaratne, G M; Prasantha, B D R; Dunuwila, G R; Chandrasekara, A; Wijesinghe, D G N G; Gunasekara, D C S

    2017-12-15

    Four different pigmented dark-red (red) and non-pigmented white basmati rice varieties were tested for their nutrient composition, glycemic index (GI), total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) at 10% and 100% polished levels. The red basmati had higher content of ash, protein, fat, TPC, TAC and AOA than white basmati. Red and white basmati varieties can be classified as low GI and medium GI rice, respectively. The degree of polishing had no effect on the GI. However, there was a significant negative correlation (r>-0.81; P<0.01) between GI value with amylose, crude fiber, crude fat, crude protein, ash, AOA, TPC and TAC contents of basmati. Relatively higher levels of TPC, TAC and AOA were found in red basmati than white basmati varieties. Therefore, red basmati varieties can serve as low GI sources of functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of a low glycemic index dietary intervention on maternal dietary intake, glycemic index and gestational weight gain during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal diet is known to impact pregnancy outcome. Following a low glycemic index (GI) diet during pregnancy has been shown to improve maternal glycemia and reduce infant birthweight and may be associated with a higher fibre intake. We assessed the impact of a low GI dietary intervention on maternal GI, nutritional intake and gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy. Compliance and acceptability of the low GI diet was also examined. Method Eight hundred women were randomised in early pregnancy to receive low GI and healthy eating dietary advice or to receive standard maternity care. The intervention group received dietary advice at a group education session before 22 weeks gestation. All women completed a 3 day food diary during each trimester of pregnancy. Two hundred and thirty five women from the intervention arm and 285 women from the control arm returned complete 3x3d FDs and were included in the present analysis. Results Maternal GI was significantly reduced in the intervention group at trimester 2 and 3. The numbers of women within the lowest quartile of GI increased from 37% in trimester 1 to 52% in trimester 3 (P < 0.001) among the intervention group. The intervention group had significantly lower energy intake (P < 0.05), higher protein (% TE) (P < 0.01) and higher dietary fibre intake (P < 0.01) post intervention. Consumption of food groups with known high GI values were significantly reduced among the intervention group. Women in the intervention low GI group were less likely to exceed the Institute of Medicine’s GWG goals. Conclusion A dietary intervention in early pregnancy had a positive influence on maternal GI, food and nutrient intakes and GWG. Following a low GI diet may be particularly beneficial for women at risk of exceeding the GWG goals for pregnancy. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials Registration Number: ISRCTN54392969. PMID:24175958

  12. Dietary glycemic index in relation to metabolic risk factors and incidence of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, R M; Visscher, A W; Feskens, E J; Verhoef, P; Kromhout, D

    2000-09-01

    To examine whether a high dietary glycemic index is associated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in elderly men. Prospective study of incidence of major CHD (non-fatal myocardial infarction or death due to CHD) between 1985 and 1995 in 646 men, and a cross-sectional analysis of metabolic risk factors in 1990 in 394 men. Population based study in the Dutch town Zutphen. Men aged 64-84 y in 1985 without a history of CHD or diabetes, whose diet was assessed with the cross-check dietary history method. The dietary glycemic index was positively correlated with consumption (g carbohydrate) of wheat bread (r=0.47) and sugar products (r=0.41) and inversely with fruit (r=-0.37) and milk (r=-0.40) consumption. During 4527 person-years of follow-up, 94 cases of CHD were documented. The risk ratio for CHD was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.66-1.87) for the highest as compared to the lowest tertile of glycemic index after correction for age, body mass index, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and dietary factors (P (trend)=0.70). Furthermore, the glycemic index was not appreciably associated with blood concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols or (fasting or postload) insulin or glucose. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that a high-glycemic-index diet unfavorably affects metabolic risk factors or increases risk for CHD in elderly men without a history of diabetes or CHD.

  13. Glycemic index, glycemic load and insulin response of two formulas of isoglucose with different sweeteners and dietary fiber in healthy adults and type-2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita Dávila, Lissé; López Miranda, José; Aparicio Camargo, Daniel; Parra Zuleta, Karla; Uzcátegui González, Maria; Céspedes Nava, Virginia; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Reyna Villasmil, Nadia

    2017-06-05

    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of two formulas with the same glucose content with different sweeteners and dietary fiber for diabetics in healthy adults and in patients with type-2 diabetes (DM2). Methodology: In this randomized, double-blind crossover research, eleven healthy people and six with DM2 consumed two enteral formulas, Glucerna SR®, Laboratorios Abbott C.A. (GF) and Enterex Diabetic®, Victus C.A. (EF), sweetened with fructose y sucralose, with 1.2 and 1.3 g/100 ml of fiber source respectively (four times). Additionally, they consumed glucose solution once, obtaining blood samples at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min for controls; in the diabetics, minutes 150 and 180 were added for measuring blood glucose, basal and postprandial insulin after two and three hours. Results: The incremental area under the curve (IAUC) was lower for the formulas rather than for SG. In the healthy controls was 12,857 ± 422 for EF and 11,601 ± 272 for GF (p < 0.014). In diabetics, this curve reduced for GF (28,656 ± 123) compared to EF (29,855 ± 496) (p < 0.01). The IG resulted in 58.07 ± 8.4 and 60.7 ± 2 for GF and EF, respectively, in the controls, and 65.16 ± 0.2 and 68.06 ± 1 in diabetics, without significant differences, as well as in post-prandial insulin. Conclusions: The GI and the GL of the two formulas resulted in an intermediate value in both groups, with a glycemic profile inferior to SG. No significant differences were observed regarding insulin behavior, showing that the absorption rate of carbohydrates in these formulas is slower, with a lower glycemic impact than the pattern product; thus, making its indication acceptable for the diabetic patient.

  14. A High Dietary Glycemic Index Increases Total Mortality in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Artacho, Reyes; Ros, Emilio; Bulló, Mónica; Covas, María-Isabel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Objective Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. Material and Methods The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. Results We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15–4.04); P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. Conclusions High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25250626

  15. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue [Mus musculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that a low versus high glycemic index (GI) diet on a high fat (30% kcal fat) background (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in C57BL/6J male mice. The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed high fat diet-induced

  16. The effects of low and high glycemic index foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Tofas, Trifon; Fatouros, Ioannis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Yfanti, Christina; Raptis, Stefanos; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2011-10-20

    Τhe aim of this study was to examine the effects of the consumption of foods of various glycemic index values on performance, β-endorphin levels and substrate (fat and carbohydrate) utilization during prolonged exercise. Eight untrained healthy males underwent, in a randomized counterbalanced design, three experimental conditions under which they received carbohydrates (1.5 gr. kg-1 of body weight) of low glycemic index (LGI), high glycemic index (HGI) or placebo. Food was administered 30 min prior to exercise. Subjects cycled for 60 min at an intensity corresponding to 65% of VO2max, which was increased to 90% of VO2max, then they cycled until exhaustion and the time to exhaustion was recorded. Blood was collected prior to food consumption, 15 min prior to exercise, 0, 20, 40, and 60 min into exercise as well as at exhaustion. Blood was analyzed for β-endorphin, glucose, insulin, and lactate. The mean time to exhaustion did not differ between the three conditions (LGI = 3.2 ± 0.9 min; HGI = 2.9 ± 0.9 min; placebo = 2.7 ± 0.7 min). There was a significant interaction in glucose and insulin response (P glycemic index 30 min prior to one hour cycling exercise does not result in significant changes in exercise performance, β-endorphin levels as well as carbohydrate and fat oxidation during exercise.

  17. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...

  18. Low Glycemic Index Treatment in pediatric refractory epilepsy: the first Middle East report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Sedighi, Mostafa; Beheshti, Maryam; Azargashb, Enzollah; Ghofrani, Mohammad; Abdollahe-Gorgi, Fatemeh

    2014-08-01

    Intractable epilepsy is a challenging aspects of pediatric epilepsy. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and tolerability of Low Glycemic Index Treatment (LGIT) in pediatric patients referred to a Children's Hospital in Iran with intractable epilepsy. We studied 42 children with refractory epilepsy aged between 1.5 and 17 years of age, from October 2009 to April 2011 in the pediatric neurology department of Mofid Children's Hospital. Patient information on clinical status, seizure type, and baseline frequency, blood and urine biochemistry, neuro-imaging and the EEG were collected. LGIT was initiated on an outpatient basis and the diet was composed of 65% fat, 25% protein and 10% carbohydrate (40-60 g), and the glycemic index of foods was limited to below 50. 84% of patients were categorized as having more than one seizure per day at study entry, with the remaining children as experiencing over one seizure per week. A greater than 50% seizure reduction was observed in 71.4% of the patients after the second week, in 73.8% at the end of the first month and in 77.8% at the end of the second month. In 30% of the patients a mild increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was detected. The most important reasons for discontinuation of LGIT were restrictiveness, lack of satiation and excessive meat in this diet. No significant complications were observed during the administration of the diet. LGIT is a safe and effective adjuvant antiepileptic therapy and may be used as an alternative to the ketogenic diet in conditions when this diet cannot be used. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-versus high-glycemic index diets in women: effects on caloric requirement, substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, James F; Lopez, Beth

    2007-09-01

    Lowering dietary glycemic index appears to have positive health effects in obese and/or insulin resistant individuals. However, detailed studies in lean young men show no effect. This study was designed to test the null hypothesis that a diet rich in low-glycemic carbohydrate has no effect on lipid profile, caloric requirements, fat oxidation, or insulin sensitivity in adult women when compared to one rich in high-glycemic carbohydrate. The metabolic feeding protocol used was conducted in both a free-living and in-patient setting using a randomized crossover design. Seven women were studied on each of 2 diets in which 60% of the calories were from either high- or low-glycemic carbohydrate sources. Each diet lasted 20 days with measurements of caloric requirement, resting metabolic rate, glucose and insulin responses to diet and activity, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile over the last 7 days. Caloric requirement was determined by bomb calorimetry. Other techniques included indirect calorimetry, hydrodensitometry, stable isotope tracers, and the euglycemic clamp. On the low-glycemic index diet the women's caloric requirements were 11% +/- 1% higher, fat oxidation at fasted rest supplied an average of 45% +/- 4% versus 28% +/- 5% of oxidative requirements, average glucose and insulin levels were approximately 40% lower, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and leptin concentrations were lower, and various indices of insulin sensitivity were > 20% higher. In this group of adult women, a diet that lowered glycemic index well below that typically found in western diets increased both daily caloric requirement and fat oxidation, decreased insulin and glucose concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity.

  20. Extended Prandial Glycemic Profiles of Foods as Assessed Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring Enhance the Power of the 120-Minute Glycemic Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlup, Rudolf; Peterson, Karolina; Zapletalová, Jana; Kudlová, Pavla; Sečkař, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Background The glycemic index (GI) is routinely measured 120 minutes after food intake (GI120). The purpose of this prospective open label study was to assess (1) the dynamics of glycemia over the 210 minutes following food consumption and (2) the evolution of GIs based on 120-, 150-, 180-, and 210-minute glycemic profiles. Method Twenty healthy subjects (mean ± SE; 21.9 ± 1.39 years of age; body mass index 23.6 ± 0.63 kg/m2; 7 men and 13 women) completed the study. Each subject consumed 10 different foods with known GI120 on three separate occasions at four different times of day according to a defined meal plan over a 9-day period; 32 meals were evaluated. The GIs for intervals of 120, 150, 180 and 210 minutes after food consumption were determined using a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) to measure glycemia. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied to compare the GIs. Results Glycemia returned to baseline within 120 minutes for honey and tomato soup; within 210 minutes for white bread, choco-rice cookies, fish and potatoes, wafers, and meat ravioli with cheese; and later for dark chocolate, apricot dumplings, and choco-wheat cookies. The extended GIs were higher than the respective GI120s in eight of the foods. Conclusions The 120-minute glycemic index fails to fully account for changes in glycemia after ingestion of a mixed meal because glycemia remains above baseline for a longer period. The CGMS is a convenient method to determine the glucose response/GIs over intervals extended up to 210 minutes, which is adequate time for the absorption of most foods. PMID:20513328

  1. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships of body mass index with glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, T R; Lipsky, L M; Iannotti, R J

    2013-04-01

    Weight gain is an oft-cited outcome of improved glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes, though few studies have investigated this in youth. The purpose of this paper was to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) with glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes (n=340, 12.5 ± 1.7 year, 49% female, duration ≥ 1 year) participating in a 2-year multi-center intervention study targeting family diabetes management. BMI was calculated from height and weight measured at clinic visits. Glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) at each visit was assayed centrally. Cross-sectional associations of baseline BMI with glycemic control, and of change in BMI and HbA1c with baseline values, were examined. Longitudinal associations of time-varying BMI and HbA1c were examined using a multilevel linear mixed effects model controlling for time-varying time (months), insulin dose (units/kg/day), regimen, Tanner stage, and time invariant baseline diabetes duration, BMI, treatment group and sociodemographic characteristics. Baseline HbA1c was unrelated to baseline BMI, but was related positively to subsequent BMI change (p=0.04) and inversely to HbA1c change (p=0.002). Baseline BMI was inversely related to BMI change (p=0.01) and unrelated to HbA1c change. In multilevel regression, BMI was related inversely to HbA1c (%) (β ± SE=-0.11 ± 0.02, pdiabetes, indicating the importance of determining ways to minimize weight gain while optimizing glycemic control. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Poverty Index With Time Varying Consumption and Income Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K; Mallick, Sushanta K

    2016-01-01

    In a recent work (Chattopadhyay, A. K. et al, Europhys. Lett. {\\bf 91}, 58003, 2010) based on food consumption statistics, we showed how a stochastic agent based model could represent the time variation of the income distribution statistics in a developing economy, thereby defining an alternative \\enquote{poverty index} (PI) that largely agreed with poverty gap index data. This PI used two variables, the probability density function of the income statistics and a consumption deprivation (CD) function, representing the shortfall in the minimum consumption needed for survival. Since the time dependence of the CD function was introduced there through data extrapolation only and not through an endogenous time dependent series, this model left unexplained how the minimum consumption needed for survival varies with time. The present article overcomes these limitations and arrives at a new unified theoretical structure through time varying consumption and income distributions where trade is only allowed when the inc...

  3. Body mass index and glycemic control influence lipoproteins in children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Shalini; Hanks, Lynae; Griffin, Russell; Ashraf, Ambika P

    2016-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have an extremely high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. It is well known that dyslipidemia is a subclinical manifestation of atherosclerosis. To analyze presence and predicting factors of lipoprotein abnormalities prevalent in children with T1DM and whether race-specific differences exist between non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) in the lipoprotein characteristics. A retrospective electronic chart review including 600 (123 NHB and 477 NHW) T1DM patients aged 7.85 ± 3.75 years who underwent lipoprotein analysis. Relative to NHW counterparts, NHB T1DM subjects had a higher HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), apoB 100, lipoprotein (a), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), HDL-2, and HDL-3. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with TC, LDL-c, apoB 100, and non-HDL-c and inversely associated with HDL, HDL-2, and HDL-3. HbA1c was positively associated with TC, LDL-c, apoB 100, non-HDL-c, and HDL-3. Multilinear regression analysis demonstrated that HbA1c was positively associated with apoB 100 in both NHB and NHW, and BMI was a positive determinant of apoB 100 in NHW only. Poor glycemic control and high BMI may contribute to abnormal lipoprotein profiles. Glycemic control (in NHB and NHW) and weight management (in NHW) may have significant implications in T1DM. ApoB 100 concentrations in subjects with T1DM were determined by modifiable risk factors, BMI, HbA1C, and blood pressure, indicating the importance of adequate weight, glycemic, and blood pressure control for better diabetes care and likely lower CVD risk. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The acute effect of various glycemic index dietary carbohydrates on endothelial function in nondiabetic overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Talya; Karasik, Avraham; Koren-Morag, Nira; Kanety, Hannah; Feinberg, Micha S; Shechter, Michael

    2009-06-16

    This study sought to explore the effect of glycemic-index dietary carbohydrates on endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in overweight and obese nondiabetic volunteers. Post-prandial hyperglycemia has been recognized as a cardiovascular risk factor in both the diabetic and the general population. Endothelial dysfunction has been shown to occur in diabetic and hyperglycemic patients. We prospectively assessed brachial artery FMD in 56 healthy overweight and obese nondiabetic volunteers (38 [67.9%] men, mean age 48 +/- 6 years) on 4 separate mornings, 1 to 2 weeks apart. After overnight fasting, the percent FMD (%FMD) improvement and endothelium-independent nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (%NTG) were assessed, after which subjects received 1 of 4 group meals at each visit (placebo [water] or a carbohydrate meal of glucose, cornflakes, or high-fiber cereal). Meals were distributed in a rotating randomized fashion, such that each subject received all 4 meals once throughout the study period. Fasting and 2-h post-prandial serum glucose levels were similar in all 3 meals, whereas at 30 to 90 min, serum glucose levels were significantly higher after glucose and cornflakes (high glycemic) compared with fiber (low glycemic). Baseline %FMD, not significantly different in the 3 carbohydrate-based meals, was reduced 2 h post-prandially in all groups, showing statistical significance in only high-glycemic index meals: glucose (15 +/- 9% vs. 10 +/- 8%, p glycemic carbohydrate consumption significantly suppresses FMD in nondiabetic overweight and obese volunteers, suggesting a mechanism whereby high-glycemic meals may enhance cardiovascular risk.

  5. High-glycemic index carbohydrates abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis H; Fjaere, Even; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Midtbø, Lisa K; Jarlsby, Ragnhild H; Ma, Tao; Jia, Bingbing; Petersen, Rasmus K; Sonne, Si B; Chwalibog, André; Frøyland, Livar; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2012-05-15

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high-fat diets enriched with fish oil for 6 wk, we show that increasing amounts of sucrose in the diets dose-dependently increased energy efficiency and white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. Mice receiving fructose had about 50% less WAT mass than mice fed a high fish oil diet supplemented with either glucose or sucrose, indicating that the glucose moiety of sucrose was responsible for the obesity-promoting effect of sucrose. To investigate whether the obesogenic effect of sucrose and glucose was related to stimulation of insulin secretion, we combined fish oil with high and low glycemic index (GI) starches. Mice receiving the fish oil diet containing the low-GI starch had significantly less WAT than mice fed high-GI starch. Moreover, inhibition of insulin secretion by administration of nifedipine significantly reduced WAT mass in mice fed a high-fish oil diet in combination with sucrose. Our data show that the macronutrient composition of the diet modulates the effects of fish oil. Fish oil combined with sucrose, glucose, or high-GI starch promotes obesity, and the reported anti-inflammatory actions of fish oil are abrogated. In conclusion, our data indicate that glycemic control of insulin secretion modulates metabolic effects of fish oil by demonstrating that high-GI carbohydrates attenuate the antiobesity effects of fish oil.

  6. The association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and diet quality indices in Iranian adults: results from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, Leila; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Akhavanzanjani, Mohsen; Taheri, Marzieh; Golshahi, Jafar; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and dietary quality indices in Iranian adults. This cross section was conducted among 1571 Iranian adults aged  ≥19 years. GI, GL and diet quality indices were estimated by 24-h recall and DDS was calculated using a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire. Participants who were in the top tertile of GI had lower healthy eating index (HEI) (57.2 ± 7.8 versus 55.6 ± 8.7; p < 0.001), dietary diversity score (DDS) (3.6 ± 0.9 versus 3.3 ± 1.1; p < 0.001) and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs) for Zn, Ca, vitamin C and B2. Individuals in the lowest tertile of GL had lower HEI, MAR and NARs for Zn, vitamin B2, B3, B6, B12, vitamin D. Both GI and GL were positively related to dietary diversity score (DED) (p < 0.001). The inverse associations for GI and GL with diet quality indices may suggest the relevance of carbohydrate source in determining the diet quality indices.

  7. Pomegranate juice, but not an extract, confers a lower glycemic response on a high-glycemic index food: randomized, crossover, controlled trials in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimi, Asimina; Nyambe-Silavwe, Hilda; Gauer, Julia S; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Williamson, Gary

    2017-10-11

    Background: Low-glycemic index diets have demonstrated health benefits associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Objectives: We tested whether pomegranate polyphenols could lower the glycemic response of a high-glycemic index food when consumed together and the mechanism by which this might occur.Design: We compared the acute effect of a pomegranate juice and a polyphenol-rich extract from pomegranate (supplement) on the bread-derived postprandial blood glucose concentration in 2 randomized, crossover, controlled studies (double-blinded for the supplements), each on 16 healthy volunteers. An additional randomized, crossover, controlled study on 16 volunteers consuming constituent fruit acids in a pH-balanced solution (same pH as pomegranate) and bread was conducted to determine any contributions to postprandial responses caused by acidic beverages.Results: As primary outcome, the incremental area under the curve for bread-derived blood glucose (-33.1% ± 18.1%, P = 0.000005) and peak blood glucose (25.4% ± 19.3%, P = 0.0004) were attenuated by pomegranate juice, compared with a control solution containing the equivalent amount of sugars. In contrast, the pomegranate supplement, or a solution containing the malic and citric acid components of the juice, was ineffective. The pomegranate polyphenol punicalagin was a very effective inhibitor of human α-amylase in vitro, comparable to the drug acarbose. Neither the pomegranate extract nor the individual component polyphenols inhibited 14C-D-glucose transport across differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers, but they inhibited uptake of 14C-glucose into Xenopus oocytes expressing the human glucose transporter type 2. Further, some of the predicted pomegranate gut microbiota metabolites modulated 14C-D-glucose and 14C-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into hepatic HepG2 cells.Conclusions: These data indicate that pomegranate polyphenols, when present in a beverage but not in a supplement, can reduce the

  8. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B; Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Fuss, Paul; Rasmussen, Helen; Saltzman, Edward; Das, Sai Krupa

    2015-11-01

    To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss. Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets for 17 weeks. Diets differed in percentage energy from carbohydrate (55% or 70%) and GI (low or high) but were matched for protein, fiber, and energy. Body weight, body composition, RMR, and metabolic adaptation (measured RMR-predicted RMR) were measured during weight loss and subsequent weight stability. No effect of dietary carbohydrate content or GI on body weight loss or percentage of weight lost as fat mass (FM) was observed. Measured RMR was significantly lower (-226 kJ/day [95% CI: -314 to -138 kJ/day], P Metabolic adaptation did not differ by dietary carbohydrate content or GI and was not associated with weight regain 12 months later. Moderate-carbohydrate and low-GI diets did not preferentially reduce FM, preserve lean mass, or attenuate metabolic adaptation during weight loss compared to high-carbohydrate and high-GI diets. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. Maternal dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in early pregnancy are associated with offspring adiposity in childhood: the Southampton Women's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Crozier, Sarah R; Harvey, Nicholas C; Godfrey, Keith M; Inskip, Hazel M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Siân M

    2014-08-01

    Maternal hyperglycemia in pregnancy is associated with greater adiposity in offspring. The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) describe the glycemic response to carbohydrate ingestion. However, the influence of maternal dietary GI and GL in pregnancy on childhood adiposity is unknown. We examined relations of maternal dietary GI and GL in early and late pregnancy with offspring body composition. A total of 906 mother-child pairs from the prospective cohort the Southampton Women's Survey were included. Children underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of body composition at birth and 4 and 6 y of age. Log-transformed fat mass and lean mass were standardized with a mean (±SD) of 0 ± 1. Maternal dietary GI and GL were assessed at 11 and 34 wk of gestation by using an administered food-frequency questionnaire. After control for potential confounders, both maternal dietary GI and GL in early pregnancy were positively associated with fat mass at 4 and 6 y of age [fat mass SDs per 10-unit GI increase: β = 0.43 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.80), P = 0.02 at 4 y of age; β = 0.40 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.70), P = 0.01 at 6 y of age; fat mass SDs per 50-unit GL increase: β = 0.43 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.67), P age; β = 0.27 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.47), P = 0.007 at 6 y of age]. In contrast, there were no associations between maternal dietary GI or GL in late pregnancy and offspring fat mass at these ages. Maternal dietary GI and GL were not associated with fat mass at birth or offspring lean mass at any of the ages studied. Higher maternal dietary GI and GL in early pregnancy are associated with greater adiposity in childhood. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Impact of postharvest drying conditions on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked non-waxy long-grain rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlao, Natthawuddhi; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2017-02-01

    Wet paddy needs to be dried to reduce its moisture content after harvesting. In this study, effects of postharvest drying condition on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) were investigated. Varying drying conditions, i.e. hot-air drying at 40, 65, 90 and 115 °C, and sun drying were applied to raw paddy. After husking and polishing, polished grains were cooked using an electric rice cooker. Cooked samples were analyzed for their moisture content and amount of resistant and total starch. Five samples in both intact grain and slurry were digested under simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. The in vitro starch digestion rate was measured and the hydrolysis index (HI) and estimated glycemic index (eGI) were calculated. Cooked rice obtained from hot-air drying showed relatively lower HI and eGI than that obtained from sun-drying. Among samples from hot-air drying treatment, eGI of cooked rice decreased with increasing drying temperature, except for the drying temperature of 115 °C. As a result, cooked rice from the hot-air drying at 90 °C showed lowest eGI. The results indicated that cooked rice digestibility was affected by postharvest drying conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. An 18-mo randomized trial of a low-glycemic-index diet and weight change in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichieri, Rosely; Moura, Anibal S; Genelhu, Virginia; Hu, Frank; Willett, Walter C

    2007-09-01

    Despite interest in the glycemic index diets as an approach to weight control, few long-term evaluations are available. The objective was to investigate the long-term effect of a low-glycemic-index (LGI) diet compared with that of a high-glycemic-index (HGI) diet; all other dietary components were equal. After a 6-wk run-in, we randomly assigned 203 healthy women [body mass index (in kg/m2): 23-30] aged 25-45 y to an LGI or an HGI diet with a small energy restriction. The primary outcome measure was weight change at 18 mo. Secondary outcomes included hunger and fasting insulin and lipids. Despite requiring a run-in and the use of multiple incentives, only 60% of the subjects completed the study. The difference in glycemic index between the diets was approximately 35-40 units (40 compared with 79) during all 18 mo of follow-up, and the carbohydrate intake from energy remained at approximately 60% in both groups. The LGI group had a slightly greater weight loss in the first 2 mo of follow-up (-0.72 compared with -0.31 kg), but after 12 mo of follow-up both groups began to regain weight. After 18 mo, the weight change was not significantly different (P = 0.93) between groups (LGI: -0.41 kg; HGI: -0.26 kg). A greater reduction was observed in the LGI diet group for triacylglycerol (difference = -16.4 mg/dL; P = 0.11) and VLDL cholesterol (difference = -3.7 mg/dL; P = 0.03). Long-term weight changes were not significantly different between the HGI and LGI diet groups; therefore, this study does not support a benefit of an LGI diet for weight control. Favorable changes in lipids confirmed previous results.

  12. Higher glycemic index and glycemic load diet is associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Jessri, Mahsa; Hajizadeh, Bahareh; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2013-09-01

    Several studies have indicated the association between intake of foods high in dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with an increased risk of digestive tract cancers. We hypothesized that GI and GL may be associated with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a high-risk population in Iran. In total, we interviewed 47 cases with incident of ESCC and 96 frequency-matched hospital controls, then calculated the average dietary GI and GL via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary GL was calculated as a function of GI, carbohydrate content, and frequency of intake of certain foods. Dietary GI and GL levels were significantly higher among the ESCC cases compared with the controls (P < .05). After adjustment for potential confounders, those in the highest tertile of dietary GI had 2.95 times higher risk of ESCC compared with those in the lowest (95% confidence interval, 1.68-3.35; P for trend = .002). In addition, being in the highest tertile of dietary GL was positively associated with an ESCC risk (odds ratio, 3.49; 95% confidence interval, 2.98-4.41; P for trend = .001). Findings of the present study indicate that diets with high GI and GL might have potentially unfavorable effects on ESCC risk and suggest a possible role for excess circulating insulin and related insulin-like growth factor 1 in esophageal cancer development. © 2013.

  13. Glycemic index values of monofloral Turkish honeys and the effect oftheir consumption on glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atayoğlu, Ali Timuçin; Soylu, Meltem; Silici, Sibel; İnanç, Neriman

    2016-02-17

    Clinical trials have shown that low glycemic index (GI) nutrition reduces mean blood glucose concentrations and insulin secretions. The aim of the present study was to determine the GI values of various monofloral (citrus, milk-vetch, chestnut, thyme, lime, pine) honeys of Turkey, and the effect of their consumption on glucose metabolism. Processing data from 20 healthy volunteers, GI values were determined from the glycemia values by using the incremental area method. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels were also measured before and 120 min after the test. The GI values of citrus, thyme, lime, chestnut, pine, and milk-vetch honeys were found to be 44.9, 52.6, 55.3, 55.5, 58.8, and 69, respectively. Serum insulin and C-peptide values after honey consumption were relatively lower than those after reference food (glucose) consumption. By the end of the 120 min, serum insulin levels were significantly higher, while a significant decrease was observed after the consumption of chestnut honey (P < 0.05). Citrus and thyme honeys were determined to have low GI, while serum insulin levels were significantly lower after the consumption of chestnut honey. Long-term research is needed to compare the effects of honey consumption on healthy and diabetic individuals.

  14. A high legume low glycemic index diet improves serum lipid profiles in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Lanza, Elaine; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Colburn, Nancy H; Bagshaw, Deborah; Rovine, Michael J; Ulbrecht, Jan S; Bobe, Gerd; Chapkin, Robert S; Hartman, Terryl J

    2010-09-01

    Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber consumption = 9 g/1,000 kcal, and GI = 69) and a legume enriched (1.5 servings/1,000 kcal), high fiber (21 g/1,000 kcal), low GI (GI = 38) diet (LG) in random order. Diets were isocaloric and controlled for macronutrients including saturated fat; they were consumed each for 4 weeks with a 2-4 week break separating dietary treatments. Compared to the HA diet, the LG diet led to greater declines in both fasting serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P lipid profiles in men, compared to a healthy American diet. However, IR individuals do not achieve the full benefits of the same diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid risk factors.

  15. Glycemic index and microstructure analysis of a newly developed fiber enriched cookie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Wonik, Jasmin; Bindrich, Ute; Heinemann, Michaela; Kohrs, Heike; Schneider, Inga; Möller, Katharina; Hahn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) is associated with an elevated risk for obesity or type 2 diabetes. We investigated the GI of a newly-developed fiber enriched cookie and characterized the microstructure of ingredients used. In a study with 26 non-diabetic healthy volunteers it was shown that the fiber enriched cookie has a GI of 58.9 in relation to white bread as reference. Using a conversion factor of 1.4, the GI of the fiber enriched cookie in relation to a glucose-solution is 42.0 and can be classified as a low-GI food. Postprandial insulin concentration was significantly lower after consumption of fiber enriched cookies compared to white bread. Glucose release after in vitro digestion was significantly lower from fiber enriched cookies compared to other cookies tested. In addition to its high percentage of fiber, the cookies' low GI can be attributed to the limited gelatinization potential of the starch granules found in the ingredients used. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy it is shown that starch granule surface area of whole grain barley flour, spelt flour and oat flakes bears cluster-shaped protein-NSPS complexes that preferentially absorb water in conditions of water shortage and thereby prevent starch gelatinization.

  16. Effects of Lowering Glycemic Index of Dietary Carbohydrate on Plasma Uric Acid: The OmniCarb Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Juraschek, Stephen P; McAdams-Demarco, Mara; Gelber, Allan C.; Sacks, Frank Martin; Appel, Lawrence J.; White, Karen; Miller, Edgar R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of carbohydrates on plasma uric acid levels are a subject of controversy. We determined the individual and combined effects of carbohydrate quality (the glycemic index) and quantity (the proportion of total daily energy [percentage of carbohydrates]) on uric acid levels. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, crossover trial of 4 different diets in overweight or obese adults without cardiovascular disease (n = 163). Participants consumed each of 4 diets over a 5-w...

  17. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity

    OpenAIRE

    糟谷, 憲明; 太田, 昌一郎; 髙波, 嘉一; Kawai, Yukari; 井上, 裕; 村田, 勇; 金本, 郁男

    2015-01-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to ric...

  18. New Paradigm for the Treatment of Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome: Low Glycemic Index Diet and Modified High Amylopectin Cornstarch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuqbil, Mohammed; Go, Cristina; Nagy, Laura L; Pai, Nisha; Mamak, Eva; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2015-09-01

    Glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome is an autosomal, dominantly inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene. Decreased glucose transport into the brain results in seizures and cognitive dysfunction. The ketogenic diet is the treatment of choice, but complicated with compliance problems. Stabilization of blood glucose levels by low glycemic index diet and modified high amylopectin cornstarch would provide steady-state glucose transport into the brain to prevent seizures and cognitive dysfunction in patients with glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome as an alternative treatment. We report a new glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome patient (c.988C>T; p. Arg330X in the SLC2A1) treated with modified high amylopectin cornstarch (Glycosade) and low glycemic index diet because of compliance problems with the ketogenic diet. She was diagnosed at 11.5 years of age and was treated with the ketogenic diet between ages 12 and 18 years. She was started on modified high amylopectin cornstarch at bedtime and low glycemic index diet with meals and snacks every 3-4 hours. Within the first 6 months of therapy, she improved in her seizures and cognitive functions, but experienced compliance problems afterwards. Neuropsychological assessment was stable at 12 months of therapy. This diet was easy to apply compared with the ketogenic diet and resulted in stable neuropsychological functioning of this glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome patient. Modified high amylopectin cornstarch and low glycemic index diet might be an alternative treatment in glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome patients with compliance problems to the ketogenic diet treatment, but additional patients should be treated to prove usefulness of this new treatment. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of a low-glycemic index or a high-cereal fiber diet on type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; McKeown-Eyssen, Gail; Josse, Robert G; Silverberg, Jay; Booth, Gillian L; Vidgen, Edward; Josse, Andrea R; Nguyen, Tri H; Corrigan, Sorcha; Banach, Monica S; Ares, Sophie; Mitchell, Sandy; Emam, Azadeh; Augustin, Livia S A; Parker, Tina L; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2008-12-17

    Clinical trials using antihyperglycemic medications to improve glycemic control have not demonstrated the anticipated cardiovascular benefits. Low-glycemic index diets may improve both glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors for patients with type 2 diabetes but debate over their effectiveness continues due to trial limitations. To test the effects of low-glycemic index diets on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. A randomized, parallel study design at a Canadian university hospital research center of 210 participants with type 2 diabetes treated with antihyperglycemic medications who were recruited by newspaper advertisement and randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 diet treatments each for 6 months between September 16, 2004, and May 22, 2007. High-cereal fiber or low-glycemic index dietary advice. Absolute change in glycated hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), with fasting blood glucose and cardiovascular disease risk factors as secondary measures. In the intention-to-treat analysis, HbA(1c) decreased by -0.18% absolute HbA(1c) units (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.29% to -0.07%) in the high-cereal fiber diet compared with -0.50% absolute HbA(1c) units (95% CI, -0.61% to -0.39%) in the low-glycemic index diet (P fiber diet (P = .005). The reduction in dietary glycemic index related positively to the reduction in HbA(1c) concentration (r = 0.35, P diabetes, 6-month treatment with a low-glycemic index diet resulted in moderately lower HbA(1c) levels compared with a high-cereal fiber diet. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00438698.

  20. A low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention reduces TNF(alpha) in isolated mononuclear cells of older, obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y......; BMI: 34.2 ± 0.7 kg · m(-2)) to a 12-wk, low (LGI = 40) or high- (HGI = 80) glycemic index diet plus aerobic exercise (5 d · wk(-1), 60 min · d(-1), 80-85% heart rate(max)) intervention. All food and fluids were provided during the study. Inflammation was assessed from cytokine (TNFα and IL-6...... and prevention of inflammation and hyperglycemia. A low-glycemic index diet has antiinflammatory and antidiabetogenic effects when combined with exercise in older, obese prediabetics....

  1. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Schothorst, E.M; Bunschoten, A; Schrauwen, P; Mensink, R.P; Keijer, J

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance...

  2. The effects of low and high glycemic index foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaidis Michalis G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Τhe aim of this study was to examine the effects of the consumption of foods of various glycemic index values on performance, β-endorphin levels and substrate (fat and carbohydrate utilization during prolonged exercise. Eight untrained healthy males underwent, in a randomized counterbalanced design, three experimental conditions under which they received carbohydrates (1.5 gr. kg-1 of body weight of low glycemic index (LGI, high glycemic index (HGI or placebo. Food was administered 30 min prior to exercise. Subjects cycled for 60 min at an intensity corresponding to 65% of VO2max, which was increased to 90% of VO2max, then they cycled until exhaustion and the time to exhaustion was recorded. Blood was collected prior to food consumption, 15 min prior to exercise, 0, 20, 40, and 60 min into exercise as well as at exhaustion. Blood was analyzed for β-endorphin, glucose, insulin, and lactate. The mean time to exhaustion did not differ between the three conditions (LGI = 3.2 ± 0.9 min; HGI = 2.9 ± 0.9 min; placebo = 2.7 ± 0.7 min. There was a significant interaction in glucose and insulin response (P P

  3. The Effect of Aqua Extract of Saffron with Resistance Training on Glycemic Indexes of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Hosseini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: According to the proven effectiveness of saffron resistance and physical activity on diabetes, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycemic indexes of saffron combined with resistance training on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on 36 adult male rats. After induction of diabetes, the rats were randomly divided into four equal groups, resistance exercise (five days a week, for six days and saffron extract (25 mg/L daily, resistance exercise combined with saffron extract and control groups. After a period of six weeks, glycemic indexes were measured. The gathered data were analyzed by klomogrov – Smirnov, one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that fasting glucose in saffron aqua extract combined with resistance training group was significantly lower than both control and the RT groups ( p=0,014. Glycosylated hemoglobin group of saffron combined with resistance training was lower than the control group (p=0.011. Insulin resistance combined with resistance training in saffron aqua extract was lower than the control group (p=0.011. Conclusion: Six weeks of resistance training and consumption of saffron alone had a significant effect on glycemic indexes. However, saffron supplements with resistance training had a greater effect on control of fasting blood glucose. Key words: resistance training, saffron, glucose, HbA1C, insulin resistance, diabetes

  4. Effect of a low glycemic index compared with a conventional healthy diet on polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kate A; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Atkinson, Fiona S; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2010-07-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are intrinsically insulin resistant and have a high risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Weight loss improves risk factors, but the optimal diet composition is unknown. Low-glycemic index (low-GI) diets are recommended without evidence of their clinical effectiveness. We compared changes in insulin sensitivity and clinical outcomes after similar weight losses after consumption of a low-GI diet compared with a conventional healthy diet in women with PCOS. We assigned overweight and obese premenopausal women with PCOS (n = 96) to consume either an ad libitum low-GI diet or a macronutrient-matched healthy diet and followed the women for 12 mo or until they achieved a 7% weight loss. We compared changes in whole-body insulin sensitivity, which we assessed using the insulin sensitivity index derived from the oral-glucose-tolerance test (ISI(OGTT)); glucose tolerance; body composition; plasma lipids; reproductive hormones; health-related quality of life; and menstrual cycle regularity. The attrition rate was high in both groups (49%). Among completers, ISI(OGTT) improved more with the low-GI diet than with the conventional healthy diet (mean +/- SEM: 2.2 +/- 0.7 compared with 0.7 +/- 0.6, respectively; P = 0.03). There was a significant diet-metformin interaction (P = 0.048), with greater improvement in ISI(OGTT) among women prescribed both metformin and the low-GI diet. Compared with women who consumed the conventional healthy diet, more women who consumed the low-GI diet showed improved menstrual cyclicity (95% compared with 63%, respectively; P = 0.03). Among the biochemical measures, only serum fibrinogen concentrations showed significant differences between diets (P diets in the management of PCOS.

  5. The effect of consuming low- versus high-glycemic index meals after exercise on postprandial blood lipid response following a next-day high-fat meal

    OpenAIRE

    Kaviani, M; Chilibeck, P D; Yee, P; Zello, G A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise ...

  6. Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Reduces Glycemic Response to a High-Glycemic Index Meal in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Alderisio, Antonio; Giorgini, Marisa; Barone, Francesca; Giacco, Angela; Riccardi, Gabriele; Rivellese, Angela A; Annuzzi, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate whether fat quality, in the context of meals with high- (HGI) or low-glycemic index (LGI), influences postprandial blood glucose (PPG) response in patients with type 1 diabetes. According to a randomized crossover design, 13 patients with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump consumed two series (HGI or LGI) of meals with the same carbohydrate quantity while differing for amount and quality of fat: 1) low in fat ("low fat"), 2) high in saturated fat (butter), or 3) high in monounsaturated fat (extra-virgin olive oil) (EVOO). Premeal insulin doses were based on insulin-to-glycemic load ratios. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed and 6-h PPG evaluated. PPG was significantly different between HGI and LGI meals (P = 0.005 for time × glycemic index interaction by repeated-measures analysis [RMA]), being significantly higher during the first 3 h after the HGI meals with a later tendency to an opposite pattern. In the context of HGI meals, PPG was significantly lower after EVOO than after low fat or butter (P < 0.0001 for time × meal interaction by RMA), with a marked difference in the 0- to 3-h glucose incremental area under the curve between EVOO (mean ± SD 198 ± 274 mmol/L × 180 min) and either low fat (416 ± 329) or butter (398 ± 355) (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in PPG between the three LGI meals. Carbohydrate quality of a mixed meal influences shape and extent of PPG. Besides, using EVOO in a HGI meal attenuates the early postprandial glucose response observed when this meal is consumed with either low fat or butter. Therefore, an optimal prandial insulin administration would require considering, in addition to the quantity of carbohydrates, the quality of both carbohydrate and fat. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. The effect of consumption of low-glycemic-index and low-glycemic-load desserts on anthropometric parameters and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiana, Vasiliki; Kanellos, Panagiotis Τ; Makrilakis, Konstantinos; Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Tsitsinakis, Georgios; Kokkinos, Alexander; Perrea, Despina; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of consumption of desserts with low glycemic index (GI) and low glycemic load (GL), as part of a balanced hypo-caloric diet, on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 61 subjects with T2DM were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 30) or to the control group (n = 31). Both groups followed the same hypo-caloric (-500 kcal) diet for 12 weeks. Consumption of four portions of low-GI/low-GL desserts/week was included in the diet in the intervention group while one portion of a favorite usual sweet/week was allowed to be consumed in the control group. Thirty subjects in the control and 28 subjects in the intervention group completed the trial. Body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference were reduced significantly in both groups. Arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, and γ-GT were reduced significantly only in the intervention group; however, there were no significant differences between the two groups at endpoint. C-reactive protein was reduced in the intervention, and HDL cholesterol was also reduced in the control group; the reductions were significantly different at the end of the trial. No significant changes were observed in the other plasma lipids, uric acid, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 in either study group. Consumption of desserts with low GI/GL in a balanced hypo-caloric diet has a positive impact on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of patients with T2DM.

  8. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and intake of carbohydrate and rice in relation to risk of mortality from stroke and its subtypes in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Fujii, Kaori; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Takatsuka, Naoyoshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2010-11-01

    We assessed the relationship of the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intake of carbohydrate and rice, and risk of mortality from stroke and its subtypes. The cohort consisted of 12,561 men and 15,301 women residing in Takayama, Japan, in 1992. At the baseline, a food frequency questionnaire was administered; and the dietary GI, GL, and intake of carbohydrates and rice were estimated. Deaths from stroke occurring in the cohort were prospectively noted until 1999 with data from the office of the National Vital Statistics. The risk of mortality from stroke was assessed with a Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age; body mass index; smoking status; physical activity; history of hypertension; education; and intake of total energy, alcohol, dietary fiber, salt, and total fat. The risk of stroke subtypes was assessed in the age-adjusted model. The hazard ratios of total stroke comparing the highest vs the lowest quartiles of the dietary GI were 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-1.47) with P(trend) = .50 in men and 2.09 (95% CI, 1.01-4.31) with P(trend) = .10 in women. Among women, the association was also significant with the risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.01-5.92; P(trend) = .03); and a significant positive trend was also observed between dietary GL and mortality from hemorrhagic stroke (P(trend) = .05). The current study implies that diets with a high dietary GI increase the risk of mortality from stroke among Japanese women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary glycemic index, but not glycemic load, is positively associated with serum homocysteine concentration in free-living young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that diets which enhance diurnal insulin secretion, such as a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) diet, can be expected to increase homocysteine levels. We investigated the hypothesis that dietary GI and GL are positively associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of free-living young Japanese women. This preliminary cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol consumption, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of B vitamins (folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and riboflavin). After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, both dietary GI and GL were positively associated with homocysteine concentration (both P for trend=.001). The positive association between dietary GI and homocysteine concentration remained after further adjustment for intakes of B vitamins. Mean (95% confidence interval) values of serum homocysteine concentration for each quintile of dietary GI were 6.9 (6.7-7.2), 7.1 (6.8-7.3), 7.0 (6.7-7.2), 7.4 (7.2-7.7), and 7.3 (7.0-7.6) μmol/L, respectively (P for trend = .04). Conversely, there was no association between dietary GL and homocysteine concentration after further adjustment for intakes of B vitamins (P for trend = .40). To conclude, in a group of free-living young Japanese women, dietary GI, but not GL, was independently and positively associated with serum homocysteine concentration. © 2013.

  10. Glycemic index predicts individual glucose responses after self-selected breakfasts in free-living, abdominally obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Angela M; Wolever, Thomas M S; Chetty, V Tony; Anand, Sonia S; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Sharma, Arya M

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which an individual's glycemic response to a meal is determined by the glycemic index (GI) and other components of the meal remains unclear, especially when meals are not consumed in a highly controlled research setting. To address this question, we analyzed data collected during the run-in period of a clinical trial. Free-living, nondiabetic adults (n = 57) aged 53.9 ± 9.8 y (mean ± SD) with a BMI of 33.9 ± 5.3 kg/m(2) and waist circumference of 109 ± 11 cm underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and, on a separate day, wore a continuous glucose-monitoring system (CGMS) for 24 h during which time they recorded all foods consumed. The protein, fat, and available carbohydrate (avCHO) content and GI of the breakfast meals were calculated from the food records and the incremental areas under the glycemic response curves (iAUC) for 2 h after breakfast (iAUC(breakfast)) were calculated from CGMS data. Values for iAUC(breakfast), avCHO, fat, fiber, and BMI were normalized by log-transformation. The ability of participant characteristics and breakfast composition to predict individual iAUC(breakfast) responses was determined using step-wise multiple linear regression. A total of 56% of the variation in iAUC(breakfast) was explained by GI (30%; P fat, protein, dietary fiber, age, sex, and BMI were not significant. We concluded that, in free-living, abdominally obese adults, GI is a significant determinant of individual glycemic responses elicited by self-selected breakfast meals. In this study, GI was a more important determinant of glycemic response than carbohydrate intake.

  11. Influence of Energy Balance and Glycemic Index on Metabolic Endotoxemia in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breusing, Nicolle; Lagerpusch, Merit; Engstler, Anna Janina; Bergheim, Ina; Mueller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Overfeeding with a high-fat and/or high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet is known to increase plasma concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) that may lead to metabolic disturbances like insulin resistance. The impact of CHO quality (i.e., the glycemic index [GI]) independent of fat intake on metabolic endotoxemia remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of changes in energy balance and GI on plasma endotoxin were studied. Fifteen healthy young men overconsumed diets containing 65% CHO and 20% fat for 1 week (OF; +50% of energy requirement) followed by 3 weeks of caloric restriction (CR; -50% of energy requirement) and were then randomized to 2 weeks hypercaloric refeeding (RF, +50% of energy requirement) with either a low- or high-GI (40 vs 74) diet. During OF, subjects gained 1.9 ± 0.7 kg body weight (+0.6 ± 0.8% fat mass) followed by a weight loss of 6.1 ± 0.8 kg (-2.0 ± 0.6% fat mass) and weight regain of 4.0 ± 0.6 kg (0.9 ± 0.8% fat mass). Fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMAIR) increased with OF and RF and decreased with CR, MatsudaISI decreased by 37% after RF (all p energy balance did not reduce endotoxemia. Impaired insulin sensitivity with hypercaloric refeeding on a high-GI diet was not explained by metabolic endotoxemia.

  12. An isocaloric low glycemic index diet improves insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Suzanne; Reeves, Sue; Sharp, Kay; Jeanes, Yvonne M

    2013-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting 5% to 10% of women worldwide. Approximately half of women with PCOS are lean, yet may still present with central obesity and metabolic disturbances. Low-glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention studies have demonstrated improvements in insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant populations; however, there is little evidence of this effect in women with PCOS. This research aimed to determine the efficacy of an isocaloric low-GI dietary intervention on insulin sensitivity, independent of weight change, in women with PCOS. A nonrandomized 12-week low-GI dietary intervention, preceded by a 12-week habitual diet control phase and proceeded by a 12-week follow-up phase was conducted. Dietary intake, body composition, and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline, after completion of the habitual diet control phase, and after the low-GI dietary intervention. Twenty-six participants were recruited at baseline, 22 commenced and 21 participants completed the low-GI dietary intervention phase. The primary outcome was change in insulin sensitivity. Secondary outcomes included assessment of changes to lipids, body composition, and estimated macronutrient intake. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction were used to detect changes to outcomes across study timepoints. Twenty-one women with PCOS with mean (± standard deviation) age of 32.1±6.7 years completed the 12-week low-GI dietary intervention. As expected, no significant changes occurred during the 12-week habitual diet control phase. However, during the dietary intervention phase, dietary GI decreased from 54.5±3.5 to 48.6±5.1 (Pdiet in women with PCOS and findings may contribute to the limited research in this area. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary fiber and the glycemic index: a background paper for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Cecilie Øverby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review recent data on dietary fiber (DF and the glycemic index (GI, with special focus on studies from the Nordic countries regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and total mortality. In this study, recent guidelines and scientific background papers or updates on older reports on DF and GI published between 2000 and 2011 from the US, EU, WHO, and the World Cancer Research Fund were reviewed, as well as prospective cohort and intervention studies carried out in the Nordic countries. All of the reports support the role for fiber-rich foods and DF as an important part of a healthy diet. All of the five identified Nordic papers found protective associations between high intake of DF and health outcomes; lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, colorectal and breast cancer. None of the reports and few of the Nordic papers found clear evidence for the GI in prevention of risk factors or diseases in healthy populations, although association was found in sub-groups, e.g. overweight and obese individuals and suggestive for prevention of type 2 diabetes. It was concluded that DF is associated with decreased risk of different chronic diseases and metabolic conditions. There is not enough evidence that choosing foods with low GI will decrease the risk of chronic diseases in the population overall. However, there is suggestive evidence that ranking food based on their GI might be of use for overweight and obese individuals. Issues regarding methodology, validity and practicality of the GI remain to be clarified.

  14. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina de Faria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI and low GI (LGI, and two were performed in the fasting state with hydration: water (H2O and carbohydrate drink (CHO. Each test consisted of a pre-exercise rest period of 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of cycle ergometer with continuous load equivalent to 60% of the extrapolated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MaxExt. During the exercise, participants were hydrated every 15 minutes with 3mL per kg body weight. During each experimental test, venous blood samples were obtained for fasting and at 15-minute intervals during rest, and every 20 minutes during exercise. The gas analysis was carried out in periods of 5 minutes every 20 minutes of exercise.RESULTS: There was no difference in substrate oxidation. After 20 minutes of exercise, pre-exercise food intake procedures showed similar behavior, having only reduced blood glucose levels compared to fasting procedures (p<0.01. There was maintenance of blood glucose at stable and higher levels during exercise in relation to the other tests in the fast procedure with CHO.CONCLUSION: The data suggest that despite the similar metabolic behavior between LGI and HGI meals, the adoption of a LGI meal before the morning exercise seems to be a more suitable feeding practice due to higher tendency of rebound hypoglycemia after HGI meal and when morning exercise is performed on fasting, hydration with CHO seems to minimize the hypoglycemic risk arising from that state.

  15. Effect of dietary glycemic index on substrate transporter gene expression in human skeletal muscle after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-S; Liao, S-F; Liu, K-L; Liu, H-Y; Wu, C-L; Huang, C-Y; Mallikarjuna, K; Smith, R W; Kuo, C-H

    2009-12-01

    Skeletal muscle plays important role in the regulation of whole-body metabolism. In skeletal muscle, uptakes of glucose and fatty acid from circulation are facilitated by transmembrane substrate transporters GLUT4 and FAT/CD36, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary glycemic index (GI) on GLUT4 and FAT/CD36 gene expressions in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of exercise. Eight male subjects completed a 60-min cycling exercise at 75% maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)), and were immediately fed an isocaloric meal containing either high-GI (HGI) or low-GI (LGI) diets, with similar proportions of carbohydrate, fat and protein in a crossover design. Muscle samples from deep vastus lateralis were taken by needle biopsy immediately after exercise and 3 h after exercise. After exercise, the HGI diet produced significantly greater glucose and insulin responses compared with the LGI diet, as indicated by the greater area under the curves. Both diets resulted in rapid reductions in plasma fatty acid and glycerol below fasting level. GLUT4 mRNA was downregulated by both HGI and LGI diets to a comparable extent, whereas GLUT4 protein levels were not changed during this short period. FAT/CD36 mRNA and protein levels were substantially decreased with the HGI diet below baseline, but not with the LGI diet. This study found a significant dietary GI effect on post-exercise FAT/CD36 gene expression in human skeletal muscle. This result implicates that the differences in dietary GI are sufficient to alter fat metabolism.

  16. Dietary fiber and the glycemic index: a background paper for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Sonestedt, Emily; Laaksonen, David E.; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review recent data on dietary fiber (DF) and the glycemic index (GI), with special focus on studies from the Nordic countries regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and total mortality. In this study, recent guidelines and scientific background papers or updates on older reports on DF and GI published between 2000 and 2011 from the US, EU, WHO, and the World Cancer Research Fund were reviewed, as well as prospective cohort and intervention studies carried out in the Nordic countries. All of the reports support the role for fiber-rich foods and DF as an important part of a healthy diet. All of the five identified Nordic papers found protective associations between high intake of DF and health outcomes; lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, colorectal and breast cancer. None of the reports and few of the Nordic papers found clear evidence for the GI in prevention of risk factors or diseases in healthy populations, although association was found in sub-groups, e.g. overweight and obese individuals and suggestive for prevention of type 2 diabetes. It was concluded that DF is associated with decreased risk of different chronic diseases and metabolic conditions. There is not enough evidence that choosing foods with low GI will decrease the risk of chronic diseases in the population overall. However, there is suggestive evidence that ranking food based on their GI might be of use for overweight and obese individuals. Issues regarding methodology, validity and practicality of the GI remain to be clarified. PMID:23538683

  17. Development and validation of a comprehensive semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire that includes FODMAP intake and glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jacqueline S; Gibson, Peter R

    2010-10-01

    Fermentable, short chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) have been identified as triggers for functional gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition, excess FODMAP consumption has been implicated in the onset of Crohn's disease, and animal studies suggest that a low glycemic index diet can impair absorption of fructose, a major dietary FODMAP. Such hypotheses cannot be tested without the ability to quantify FODMAP ingestion with a validated dietary assessment tool. To assess the validity and reproducibility of a 297-item comprehensive, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in estimating intake of macro- and micronutrients, FODMAPs, and glycemic index/load. One hundred healthy participants were recruited to complete the FFQ on two occasions, plus four 1-week food diaries kept during a 12-month period. Participants exhibiting major dietary change during the study period or low energy reporting on the FFQ were excluded. Validation and reproducibility of the semi-quantitative FFQ by comparison with the mean of four 1-week food diaries. Validation was assessed using Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman's correlation, Bland-Altman, and weighted κ statistics. Reproducibility was examined using Shrout-Fleiss intraclass correlation coefficient. Seventy-two participants fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demographics of the participants were comparable with 2006 Australian Census data. Consistent with other reported FFQs, the FFQ overestimated nutrient intake by a mean 140% (range=95% to 249%). However, based on the other analyses performed, it demonstrated validity for intake of sugars, fiber, alcohol, glycemic index, glucose, FODMAPs, calcium, folate, phosphate, potassium, iron, and magnesium; moderate validation for energy, total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates, sodium, thiamin, sucrose, and retinol; poor validation for protein, mono/polyunsaturated fat, starch, glycemic load, niacin, and zinc. Riboflavin intake was not validated. Intraclass correlation

  18. Glycemic variability in relation to oral disposition index in the subjects with different stages of glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Xu, Feng; Su, Jian-Bin; Wang, Xue-Qin; Chen, Jin-Feng; Wu, Gang; Jin, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Glucose variability could be an independent risk factor for diabetes complications in addition to average glucose. The deficiency in islet β cell secretion and insulin sensitivity, the two important pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetes, are responsible for glycemic disorders. The oral disposition index evaluated by product of insulin secretion and sensitivity is a useful marker of islet β cell function. The aim of the study is to investigate glycemic variability in relation to oral disposition index in the subjects across a range of glucose tolerance from the normal to overt type 2 diabetes. 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in total 220 subjects: 47 with normal glucose regulation (NGR), 52 with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM, 8 with isolated impaired fasting glucose [IFG], 18 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and 26 with combined IFG and IGT), 61 screen-diagnosed diabetes by isolated 2-h glucose (DM2h) and 60 newly diagnosed diabetes by both fasting and 2-h glucose (DM). Insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index, ISI), insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30), and integrated β cell function measured by the oral disposition index (ΔI30/ΔG30 multiplied by the ISI) were derived from OGTT. All subjects were monitored using the continuous glucose monitoring system for consecutive 72 hours. The multiple parameters of glycemic variability included the standard deviation of blood glucose (SD), mean of blood glucose (MBG), high blood glucose index (HBGI), continuous overlapping net glycemic action calculated every 1 h (CONGA1), mean of daily differences (MODD) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE). From the NGR to IGM to DM2h to DM group, the respective values of SD (mean ± SD) (0.9 ± 0.3, 1.5 ± 0.5, 1.9 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/), MBG (5.9 ± 0.5, 6.7 ± 0.7, 7.7 ± 1.0 and 8.7 ± 1.5 mmol/L), HGBI [median(Q1-Q3)][0.8(0.2-1.2), 2.0(1.2-3.7), 3.8(2.4-5.6) and 6

  19. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirko, V; Lukanova, A; Bamia, C; Trichopolou, A; Trepo, E; Nöthlings, U; Schlesinger, S; Aleksandrova, K; Boffetta, P; Tjønneland, A; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Fagherazzi, G; Racine, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Grote, V; Kaaks, R; Boeing, H; Naska, A; Adarakis, G; Valanou, E; Palli, D; Sieri, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Panico, S; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Siersema, P D; Peeters, P H; Weiderpass, E; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Quirós, J R; Zamora-Ros, R; Sánchez, M J; Amiano, P; Huerta, J M; Barricarte, A; Johansen, D; Lindkvist, B; Sund, M; Werner, M; Crowe, F; Khaw, K T; Ferrari, P; Romieu, I; Chuang, S C; Riboli, E; Jenab, M

    2013-02-01

    The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case-control subset. Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17-1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55-0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52-0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23-1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37-0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk.

  20. Effects of low- and high-glycemic index/glycemic load diets on coronary heart disease risk factors in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikany, James M; Phadke, Radhika P; Redden, David T; Gower, Barbara A

    2009-12-01

    Chronic insulin resistance contributes to subclinical inflammation, thrombosis/impaired fibrinolysis, and dyslipidemia. The effect of dietary carbohydrate, specifically of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), on established and emerging coronary heart disease risk factors has not been elucidated fully. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding study of matched diets differing only in GI and GL in 24 overweight or obese but otherwise healthy men to investigate the effects on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, thrombosis/fibrinolysis, lipoproteins/lipids, and body composition. All meals for the high- and low-GI/GL diets were prepared in a metabolic kitchen. Each participant consumed both diets in random order for 4 weeks each, with a 4-week washout period in between. Each participant underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test for assessment of insulin sensitivity; blood sampling for the measurement of inflammatory markers, coagulation factors, and lipoproteins/lipids; and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessment of body composition at the beginning and end of each dietary period. There were no statistically significant differences in glucose metabolism factors, inflammatory markers, or coagulation factors after 4 weeks on the high- and low-GI/GL diets. The high-GI/GL diet resulted in a slightly greater reduction in fat mass and a slightly greater increase in lean mass compared with the low-GI/GL diet. The high-GI/GL diet resulted in significant, but unexpected, reductions in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was significantly reduced on the high-GI/GL diet compared with the low-GI/GL diet. Overall, high- and low-GI/GL diets of 4 weeks' duration had no consistent effects on coronary heart disease risk factors in this group of overweight/obese men.

  1. Dietary glycemic load and glycemic index and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in Dutch men and women: the EPIC-MORGEN study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koert N J Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations of glycemic load (GL and glycemic index (GI with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high dietary GL and GI increase the risk of CVD in men and women. METHODS: A large prospective cohort study (EPIC-MORGEN was conducted within the general Dutch population among 8,855 men and 10,753 women, aged 21-64 years at baseline (1993-1997 and free of diabetes and CVD. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and GI and GL were calculated using Foster-Powell's international table of GI. Information on morbidity and mortality was obtained through linkage with national registries. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs for incident coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke, while adjusting for age, CVD risk factors, and dietary factors. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.9 years, 581 CHD cases and 120 stroke cases occurred among men, and 300 CHD cases and 109 stroke cases occurred among women. In men, GL was associated with an increased CHD risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.02-1.35], while no significant association was found in women (1.09 [0.89-1.33]. GI was not associated with CHD risk in both genders, while it was associated with increased stroke risk in men (1.27 [1.02-1.58] but not in women (0.96 [0.75-1.22]. Similarly, total carbohydrate intake and starch intake were associated with a higher CHD risk in men (1.23 [1.04-1.46]; and 1.24 [1.07-1.45], but not in women. CONCLUSION: Among men, high GL and GI, and high carbohydrate and starch intake, were associated with increased risk of CVD.

  2. Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, and incidence of heart failure events: a prospective study of middle-aged and elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Emily B.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Wolk, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Objective Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), measures of the propensity of dietary carbohydrate to increase blood glucose, have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease, but their association with incidence of heart failure (HF) is unknown. We therefore assessed whether dietary GI and GL were associated with rates of HF events. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study of 36,019 women 48-83 years old without baseline HF, diabetes, or myocardial infarction who were participants in the Swedish Mammography Cohort, a prospective cohort study. Diet was measured using food-frequency questionnaires. Women were followed from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2006 for HF hospitalization or death through the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registers. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age and other risk factors were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Over 9 years of follow-up, 639 of 36,019 women died of HF (n = 54) or were hospitalized for HF for the first time (n = 585). We did not find statistically significant associations between dietary GI and HF events (RR comparing highest to lowest quartile = 1.12, 95% CI 0.87-1.45, p for trend = 0.31) or between dietary GL and HF events (RR comparing highest to lowest quartile = 1.30, 95% CI 0.87-1.93, p for trend = 0.16). Results were not significantly different in normal weight and overweight women. Conclusions In this population, dietary GI did not appear to be associated with incident HF events. There was a suggestion of an association between dietary GL and HF which did not reach statistical significance. PMID:20595647

  3. Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Are Positively Associated with Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emili; Fitó, Montserrat; Recondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel A; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Alfredo Martínez, José; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Bulló, Mònica

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate how glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its features in middle-aged and elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. Prospective, longitudinal, population-based cohort. PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. Men and women (N = 6,606) divided into three age groups (<65, 65-74, ≥75). Energy and nutrient intake was evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS and its features were defined in accordance with the criteria of the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. A positive association was observed between GI and MetS prevalence in the youngest and middle age groups for participants without diabetes mellitus, but no relationship was found for those with diabetes mellitus. During the median follow-up of 4.8 years, higher GI and GL were related to greater risk of MetS in the middle age group, independent of the presence of diabetes mellitus. Changes in dietary GI were associated with risk of developing the high fasting glucose component of the MetS in the oldest age category, and changes in dietary GL were associated with risk of developing abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high blood pressure in the youngest age category. Dietary GI and GL have a potential role in the development of MetS and associated clinical features, with particular age-dependent considerations. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and digestible carbohydrate intake are not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, Ivonne; Beulens, Joline W J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; van der A, Daphne L; Buckland, Genevieve; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Schulze, Matthias B; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Gavrila, Diana; Grote, Verena A; Key, Timothy J; Li, Kuanrong; Nilsson, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J R; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Sieri, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Feskens, Edith J M; Forouhi, Nita G; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    The association of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We investigated associations of dietary GI, GL, and digestible carbohydrate with incident type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study, including a random subcohort (n = 16,835) and incident type 2 diabetes cases (n = 12,403). The median follow-up time was 12 y. Baseline dietary intakes were assessed using country-specific dietary questionnaires. Country-specific HR were calculated and pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Dietary GI, GL, and digestible carbohydrate in the subcohort were (mean ± SD) 56 ± 4, 127 ± 23, and 226 ± 36 g/d, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, GI and GL were not associated with incident diabetes [HR highest vs. lowest quartile (HR(Q4)) for GI: 1.05 (95% CI = 0.96, 1.16); HR(Q4) for GL: 1.07 (95% CI = 0.95, 1.20)]. Digestible carbohydrate intake was not associated with incident diabetes [HR(Q4): 0.98 (95% CI = 0.86, 1.10)]. In additional analyses, we found that discrepancies in the GI value assignment to foods possibly explain differences in GI associations with diabetes within the same study population. In conclusion, an expansion of the GI tables and systematic GI value assignment to foods may be needed to improve the validity of GI values derived in such studies, after which GI associations may need reevaluation. Our study shows that digestible carbohydrate intake is not associated with diabetes risk and suggests that diabetes risk with high-GI and -GL diets may be more modest than initial studies suggested.

  5. Glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Darren C; Threapleton, Diane E; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cleghorn, Christine L; Nykjaer, Camilla; Woodhead, Charlotte; Burley, Victoria J

    2013-12-01

    Diets with high glycemic index (GI), with high glycemic load (GL), or high in all carbohydrates may predispose to higher blood glucose and insulin concentrations, glucose intolerance, and risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to conduct a systematic literature review and dose-response meta-analysis of evidence from prospective cohorts. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-process, Embase, CAB Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, and BIOSIS for prospective studies of GI, GL, and total carbohydrates in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes up to 17 July 2012. Data were extracted from 24 publications on 21 cohort studies. Studies using different exposure categories were combined on the same scale using linear and nonlinear dose-response trends. Summary relative risks (RRs) were estimated using random-effects meta-analysis. The summary RR was 1.08 per 5 GI units (95% CI 1.02-1.15; P = 0.01), 1.03 per 20 GL units (95% CI 1.00-1.05; P = 0.02), and 0.97 per 50 g/day of carbohydrate (95% CI 0.90-1.06; P = 0.5). Dose-response trends were linear for GI and GL but more complex for total carbohydrate intake. Heterogeneity was high for all exposures (I(2) >50%), partly accounted for by different covariate adjustment and length of follow-up. Included studies were observational and should be interpreted cautiously. However, our findings are consistent with protective effects of low dietary GI and GL, quantifying the range of intakes associated with lower risk. Future research could focus on the type of sugars and other carbohydrates associated with greatest risk.

  6. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from 3 large US cohorts and an updated meta-analysis123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Tobias, Deirdre K; Malik, Vasanti S; Pan, An; Hruby, Adela; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence for the relation between carbohydrate quality and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been mixed. Objective: We prospectively examined the association of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with T2D risk. Design: We prospectively followed 74,248 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984–2008), 90,411 women from the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991–2009), and 40,498 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2008) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by using a validated questionnaire and updated every 4 y. We also conducted an updated meta-analysis, including results from our 3 cohorts and other studies. Results: During 3,800,618 person-years of follow-up, we documented 15,027 cases of incident T2D. In pooled multivariable analyses, those in the highest quintile of energy-adjusted GI had a 33% higher risk (95% CI: 26%, 41%) of T2D than those in the lowest quintile. Participants in the highest quintile of energy-adjusted GL had a 10% higher risk (95% CI: 2%, 18%) of T2D. Participants who consumed a combination diet that was high in GI or GL and low in cereal fiber had an ∼50% higher risk of T2D. In the updated meta-analysis, the summary RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest with the lowest categories of GI and GL were 1.19 (1.14, 1.24) and 1.13 (1.08, 1.17), respectively. Conclusion: The updated analyses from our 3 cohorts and meta-analyses provide further evidence that higher dietary GI and GL are associated with increased risk of T2D. PMID:24787496

  7. Physicochemical composition and glycemic index of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Akanbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entails quality assessment of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat. Quality protein maize and wheat were processed into flours and mixed at various ratios for bread production. The proximate compositions, physical properties, glycemic response, functional and sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. The result showed no significant difference (p<0.05 in the proximate composition parameters of the bread samples. The loaf height (2.50 - 3.95 cm, volume (291.00 - 415.00 cm3 and specific volume(1.72 - 2.42 cm3/g decreased significantly with increasing level of quality protein maize, however, loaf length was not affected by the substitution of quality protein maize. The result of the functional properties showed that final viscosity, water absorption and swelling capacity increased with increasing level of quality protein maize. The result of the glycemic response showed that the inclusion of quality protein maize resulted in decline in the blood glucose content (glycemic index of the products. The bread samples were generally acceptable however; bread with 100% wheat was the most preferred. The result of the sensory properties showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the texture and taste of 100% wheat bread and the other samples. The study concluded that substitution of quality protein maize with wheat produced acceptable whole grain loaves that have positive effect on the reduction of blood glucose level.

  8. Can the Glycemic Index (GI) be Used as a Tool in the Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Marie-Louise F.; Eriksen, Nina M.B.; Mortensen, Lene S.; Holm, Lotte; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    The large increase in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the considerable lifetime risk of diabetes and the loss of lifetime call for concerted action to prevent T2DM and its complications. Since diabetes is characterized by abnormal glucose metabolism, the question arises of whether a high intake of carbohydrates that are rapidly absorbed as glucose may increase the risk and worsen the course of T2DM. To quantify the impact of carbohydrates on blood glucose the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL) have been applied. The GI of a food is a method of ranking carbohydrate rich foods according to their glycemic responses. GI is defined as the incremental area under the blood glucose curve of 50g carbohydrate of a test food expressed as a percentage of the area of the response to an equivalent amount of a reference food (glucose or white bread). In relation to GI/GL and prevention of T2DM there is insufficient information from observational studies to determine whether a positive association exists or not. Only randomized controlled clinical intervention studies will be able to provide the final answer. From meta-analyses of randomised controlled clinical trials comparing low and high GI diets in the treatment of diabetes it has been found that low GI diets improve the glycemic control. Labeling of foods with GI would be helpful for persons with diabetes, but the usefulness for healthy subjects remains to be clarified. At present it seems premature to introduce GI labeling for the entire population. PMID:17487328

  9. Dietary insulin index and insulin load in relation to biomarkers of glycemic control, plasma lipids, and inflammation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Franz, Mary; Sampson, Laura; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward

    2011-07-01

    Dietary glycemic index and load are widely used to estimate the effect of carbohydrate-containing foods on postprandial blood glucose concentrations and as surrogates for insulin response. The food insulin index (II) directly quantifies the postprandial insulin secretion of a food and takes into account foods with a low or no carbohydrate content. We investigated the average dietary II and insulin load (IL) in relation to biomarkers of glycemic control, plasma lipids, and inflammation markers. In a cross-sectional setting and with the use of data from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, we measured plasma concentrations of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)), HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in fasting blood samples of 4002 healthy men and women. The dietary II and IL were assessed from food-frequency questionnaires by using directly analyzed or published food II data. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quintile of II had 26% higher triglyceride concentrations than did participants in the lowest quintile of II (P for trend index (in kg/m(2)) ≥30] participants (difference between highest and lowest quintiles in the II: 72%; P for trend = 0.01). Dietary II was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol in obese participants (difference: -18%; P for trend = 0.03). Similar associations were seen for the IL. Dietary II and IL were not significantly associated with plasma C-peptide, Hb A(1c), LDL cholesterol, CRP, or IL-6. Dietary II and IL were not associated with fasting biomarkers of glycemic control but may be physiologically relevant to plasma lipids, especially in obese individuals.

  10. Dietary insulin index and insulin load in relation to biomarkers of glycemic control, plasma lipids, and inflammation markers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Franz, Mary; Sampson, Laura; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary glycemic index and load are widely used to estimate the effect of carbohydrate-containing foods on postprandial blood glucose concentrations and as surrogates for insulin response. The food insulin index (II) directly quantifies the postprandial insulin secretion of a food and takes into account foods with a low or no carbohydrate content. Objective: We investigated the average dietary II and insulin load (IL) in relation to biomarkers of glycemic control, plasma lipids, and inflammation markers. Design: In a cross-sectional setting and with the use of data from the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, we measured plasma concentrations of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c), HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in fasting blood samples of 4002 healthy men and women. The dietary II and IL were assessed from food-frequency questionnaires by using directly analyzed or published food II data. Results: After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quintile of II had 26% higher triglyceride concentrations than did participants in the lowest quintile of II (P for trend index (in kg/m2) ≥30] participants (difference between highest and lowest quintiles in the II: 72%; P for trend = 0.01). Dietary II was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol in obese participants (difference: −18%; P for trend = 0.03). Similar associations were seen for the IL. Dietary II and IL were not significantly associated with plasma C-peptide, Hb A1c, LDL cholesterol, CRP, or IL-6. Conclusion: Dietary II and IL were not associated with fasting biomarkers of glycemic control but may be physiologically relevant to plasma lipids, especially in obese individuals. PMID:21543531

  11. Postprandial lipid responses to standard carbohydrate challenges used to determine glycemic index values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior studies assessing metabolic effects of different types of carbohydrate have focused on their glycemic response. Not considered has been the response of postprandial cardiometabolic risk indicators. This study assessed the postprandial lipid responses to two forms of carbohydrates used as ref...

  12. Effects of high vs low glycemic index of dietary carbohydrate on cardiovascular disease risk factors and insulin sensitivity: the OmniCarb randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Carey, Vincent J; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Miller, Edgar R; Copeland, Trisha; Charleston, Jeanne; Harshfield, Benjamin J; Laranjo, Nancy; McCarron, Phyllis; Swain, Janis; White, Karen; Yee, Karen; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-12-17

    Foods that have similar carbohydrate content can differ in the amount they raise blood glucose. The effects of this property, called the glycemic index, on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes are not well understood. To determine the effect of glycemic index and amount of total dietary carbohydrate on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Randomized crossover-controlled feeding trial conducted in research units in academic medical centers, in which 163 overweight adults (systolic blood pressure, 120-159 mm Hg) were given 4 complete diets that contained all of their meals, snacks, and calorie-containing beverages, each for 5 weeks, and completed at least 2 study diets. The first participant was enrolled April 1, 2008; the last participant finished December 22, 2010. For any pair of the 4 diets, there were 135 to 150 participants contributing at least 1 primary outcome measure. (1) A high-glycemic index (65% on the glucose scale), high-carbohydrate diet (58% energy); (2) a low-glycemic index (40%), high-carbohydrate diet; (3) a high-glycemic index, low-carbohydrate diet (40% energy); and (4) a low-glycemic index, low-carbohydrate diet. Each diet was based on a healthful DASH-type diet. The 5 primary outcomes were insulin sensitivity, determined from the areas under the curves of glucose and insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test; levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides; and systolic blood pressure. At high dietary carbohydrate content, the low- compared with high-glycemic index level decreased insulin sensitivity from 8.9 to 7.1 units (-20%, P = .002); increased LDL cholesterol from 139 to 147 mg/dL (6%, P ≤ .001); and did not affect levels of HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or blood pressure. At low carbohydrate content, the low- compared with high-glycemic index level did not affect the outcomes except for decreasing triglycerides from

  13. Influence of the glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet in the glycemic control of diabetic children and teenagers Influencia del índice glicémico y la carga glucémica de la dieta en el control glucémico de niños y adolescentes diabéticos

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. Queiroz; I. Novato Silva; R. de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the influence of the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of the diet in the glycemic control of children and teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Methods: A total of 146 subjects, aged 7-19 years, monitored at the Division of Pediatric Endocrinology at the HC/UFMG participated in the study. The consumed diet was evaluated using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire previously validated and tested in a pilotproject. The GI of the participant´s diet wa...

  14. Effect of diets differing in glycemic index and glycemic load on cardiovascular risk factors: review of randomized controlled-feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Aleksandra S; Matthan, Nirupa R; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-03-28

    Despite a considerable amount of data available on the relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI) or load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in aggregate, the area remains unsettled. The aim of the present review was to summarize the effect of diets differing in GI/GL on CVD risk factors, by examining randomized controlled-feeding trials that provided all food and beverages to adult participants. The studies included a low and high GI/GL diet phase for a minimum of four weeks duration, and reported at least one outcome related to CVD risk; glucose homeostasis, lipid profile or inflammatory status. Ten publications representing five trials were identified. The low GI/GL compared to the high GI/GL diet unexpectedly resulted in significantly higher fasting glucose concentrations in two of the trials, and a lower area under the curve for glucose and insulin in one of the two studies during an oral glucose tolerance test. Response of plasma total, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations was conflicting in two of the studies for which data were available. There was either weak or no effect on inflammatory markers. The results of the five randomized controlled trials satisfying the inclusion criteria suggest inconsistent effects of the GI/GL value of the diet on CVD risk factors.

  15. Effect of Diets Differing in Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Review of Randomized Controlled-Feeding Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice H. Lichtenstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite a considerable amount of data available on the relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI or load (GL and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, in aggregate, the area remains unsettled. The aim of the present review was to summarize the effect of diets differing in GI/GL on CVD risk factors, by examining randomized controlled-feeding trials that provided all food and beverages to adult participants. The studies included a low and high GI/GL diet phase for a minimum of four weeks duration, and reported at least one outcome related to CVD risk; glucose homeostasis, lipid profile or inflammatory status. Ten publications representing five trials were identified. The low GI/GL compared to the high GI/GL diet unexpectedly resulted in significantly higher fasting glucose concentrations in two of the trials, and a lower area under the curve for glucose and insulin in one of the two studies during an oral glucose tolerance test. Response of plasma total, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations was conflicting in two of the studies for which data were available. There was either weak or no effect on inflammatory markers. The results of the five randomized controlled trials satisfying the inclusion criteria suggest inconsistent effects of the GI/GL value of the diet on CVD risk factors.

  16. Low glycemic index treatment for seizure control in Angelman syndrome: A case series from the Center for Dietary Therapy of Epilepsy at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocott, Olivia R; Herrington, Katherine S; Pfeifer, Heidi H; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Thibert, Ronald L

    2017-03-01

    The low glycemic index treatment, a dietary therapy that focuses on glycemic index and reduced carbohydrate intake, has been successful in reducing seizure frequency in the general epilepsy population. Epilepsy is a common feature of Angelman syndrome and seizures are often refractory to multiple medications, especially in those with maternal deletions. Dietary therapy has become a more frequently used option for treating epilepsy, often in combination with other antiepileptic drugs, due to its efficacy and favorable side effect profile. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the low glycemic index treatment for seizure control in Angelman syndrome. Through a retrospective medical record review of 23 subjects who utilized the low glycemic index treatment at the Clinic and Center for Dietary Therapy of Epilepsy at the Massachusetts General Hospital, we found that the high level of seizure control and favorable side effect profile make the low glycemic index treatment a viable treatment for seizures in Angelman syndrome. The majority of subjects in our cohort experienced some level of seizure reduction after initiating the diet, 5 (22%) maintained complete seizure freedom, 10 (43%) maintained seizure freedom except in the setting of illness or non-convulsive status epilepticus, 7 (30%) had a decrease in seizure frequency, and only 1 (4%) did not have enough information to determine seizure control post-initiation. The low glycemic index treatment monotherapy was successful for some subjects in our cohort but most subjects used an antiepileptic drug concurrently. Some subjects were able to maintain the same level of seizure control on a liberalized version of the low glycemic index treatment which included a larger amount of low glycemic carbohydrates. No correlation between the level of carbohydrate restriction and level of seizure control was found. Few subjects experienced side effects and those that did found them to be mild and easily treated. The

  17. Dietary Glycemic Load and Glycemic Index and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in Dutch Men and Women: The EPIC-MORGEN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Koert N. J.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; van der A, Daphne L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The associations of glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender. Objective To assess whether high dietary GL and GI increase the risk of CVD in men and women. Methods A large prospective cohort study (EPIC-MORGEN) was conducted within the general Dutch population among 8,855 men and 10,753 women, aged 21–64 years at baseline (1993–1997) and free of diabetes and CVD. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and GI and GL were calculated using Foster-Powell's international table of GI. Information on morbidity and mortality was obtained through linkage with national registries. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, while adjusting for age, CVD risk factors, and dietary factors. Results During a mean follow-up of 11.9 years, 581 CHD cases and 120 stroke cases occurred among men, and 300 CHD cases and 109 stroke cases occurred among women. In men, GL was associated with an increased CHD risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.02–1.35]), while no significant association was found in women (1.09 [0.89–1.33]). GI was not associated with CHD risk in both genders, while it was associated with increased stroke risk in men (1.27 [1.02–1.58]) but not in women (0.96 [0.75–1.22]). Similarly, total carbohydrate intake and starch intake were associated with a higher CHD risk in men (1.23 [1.04–1.46]; and 1.24 [1.07–1.45]), but not in women. Conclusion Among men, high GL and GI, and high carbohydrate and starch intake, were associated with increased risk of CVD. PMID:21998729

  18. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and refined carbohydrates are associated with risk of stroke: a prospective cohort study in urban Chinese women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danxia; Zhang, Xianglan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Hui; Li, Honglan; Ding, Ding; Hong, Zhen; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence on dietary carbohydrates and stroke risk remains controversial. Very few prospective cohort studies have been conducted in Asian populations, who usually consume a high-carbohydrate diet and have a high burden of stroke. Objective: We examined dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intakes of refined and total carbohydrates in relation to risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke and stroke mortality. Design: This study included 64,328 Chinese women, aged 40–70 y, with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer. A validated, interviewer-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess usual dietary intakes at baseline and during follow-up. Incident stroke cases and deaths were identified via follow-up interviews and death registries and were confirmed by review of medical records and death certificates. Results: During mean follow-ups of 10 y for stroke incidence and 12 y for stroke mortality, we ascertained 2991 stroke cases (2750 ischemic and 241 hemorrhagic) and 609 stroke deaths. After potential confounders were controlled for, we observed significant positive associations of dietary GI and GL with total stroke risk; multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for high compared with low levels (90th compared with 10th percentile) were 1.19 (1.04, 1.36) for GI and 1.27 (1.04, 1.54) for GL (both P-linearity < 0.05 and P-overall significance < 0.05). Similar linear associations were found for ischemic stroke, but the associations with hemorrhagic stroke appeared to be J-shaped. Similar trends of positive associations with stroke risks were suggested for refined carbohydrates but not for total carbohydrates. No significant associations were found for stroke mortality after multivariable adjustment. Conclusion: Our results suggest that high dietary GI and GL, primarily due to high intakes of refined grains, are associated with increased risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke in

  19. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and refined carbohydrates are associated with risk of stroke: a prospective cohort study in urban Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danxia; Zhang, Xianglan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Hui; Li, Honglan; Ding, Ding; Hong, Zhen; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on dietary carbohydrates and stroke risk remains controversial. Very few prospective cohort studies have been conducted in Asian populations, who usually consume a high-carbohydrate diet and have a high burden of stroke. We examined dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intakes of refined and total carbohydrates in relation to risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke and stroke mortality. This study included 64,328 Chinese women, aged 40-70 y, with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer. A validated, interviewer-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess usual dietary intakes at baseline and during follow-up. Incident stroke cases and deaths were identified via follow-up interviews and death registries and were confirmed by review of medical records and death certificates. During mean follow-ups of 10 y for stroke incidence and 12 y for stroke mortality, we ascertained 2991 stroke cases (2750 ischemic and 241 hemorrhagic) and 609 stroke deaths. After potential confounders were controlled for, we observed significant positive associations of dietary GI and GL with total stroke risk; multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for high compared with low levels (90th compared with 10th percentile) were 1.19 (1.04, 1.36) for GI and 1.27 (1.04, 1.54) for GL (both P-linearity < 0.05 and P-overall significance < 0.05). Similar linear associations were found for ischemic stroke, but the associations with hemorrhagic stroke appeared to be J-shaped. Similar trends of positive associations with stroke risks were suggested for refined carbohydrates but not for total carbohydrates. No significant associations were found for stroke mortality after multivariable adjustment. Our results suggest that high dietary GI and GL, primarily due to high intakes of refined grains, are associated with increased risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke in middle-aged and older urban Chinese women. © 2016

  20. A comparative study on starch digestibility, glycemic index and resistant starch of pigmented ('Njavara' and 'Jyothi') and a non-pigmented ('IR 64') rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, G; Singh, Vasudeva; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2010-12-01

    In vitro starch digestibility and glycemic indices of three rice varieties- 'Njavara', 'Jyothi' (pigmented rice verities) and 'IR 64' (non-pigmented rice) with similar amylose content were studied. Starch digestibility studies showed differences in glycemic response in three types of rice. The rate of starch hydrolysis was maximum (67.3%) in 'Njavara' rice compared to other two rice varieties. 'Njavara' exhibited the lowest kinetic constant (k) indicating inherent resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. The glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) of 'Njavara' were similar to 'Jyothi' and 'IR 64'. Resistant starch content was high in pigmented rice varieties compared to 'IR 64'. The resistant starch content of dehusked and cooked rice increased with the storage time at refrigeration temperature (4°C). 'Njavara' is an easily digestible rice and can be used for baby and geriatric foods.

  1. Dietary glycemic index is associated with less favorable anthropometric and metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome women with different phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Scheila Karen; Mário, Fernanda Missio; Alves, Bruna Cherubini; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2013-10-01

    To compare glycemic index (GI) in the usual diet of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and control women and to investigate whether dietary GI is associated with body composition and anthropometric and metabolic variables across PCOS phenotypes. Cross-sectional study. University hospital outpatient clinic. Sixty-one women with PCOS and 44 nonhirsute women with ovulatory cycles. Metabolic work-up, biochemical and hormonal assays, assessment of body composition and rest metabolic rate, physical activity (pedometer), and food consumption (food frequency questionnaire). GI, glycemic load, dietary intake, and hormone and metabolic profile in PCOS versus control and in PCOS women stratified by tertiles of GI and PCOS phenotype. Mean age was 23.7 ± 6.3 years. Participants with PCOS had higher body fat percentage, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation product, and androgen levels compared with control women. PCOS and control women in the highest tertile of GI had higher body mass index and waist circumference than those in the lowest tertile. Dietary GI was higher in the classic PCOS group. Obesity and this more severe PCOS phenotype explained 28.3% of variance in dietary GI. Dietary GI is increased in the classic PCOS phenotype and associated with a less favorable anthropometric and metabolic profile. Obesity and classic PCOS phenotype are age-independent predictors of higher dietary GI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of cinnamon on glycemic indexes and insulin resistance in adult male diabetic rats with streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEbrahim Hosseini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a common disease that for its treatment and control different methods are recommended such as the use of natural remedies and lifestyle modification. Since the use of herbal medicines have less side effects than many chemical drugs, hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in diabetic rats with streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male rats, that were randomly divided into 4 groups including non diabetic control, diabetic control and two experimental groups receiving doses 60mg/kg of cinnamon extract for 3 and 6 weeks. At the end, by phlebotomizing of rats' heart, blood glucose and insulin were measured and using HOMA score insulin resistance was measured. To be normal data distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was done and data analyzed by SPSS-20 software and ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that in the group receiving the cinnamon extract, glycemic and insulin indexes were significantly adjusted. Conclusion: Cinnamon is probably due to have flavonoid and antioxidant compounds with antioxidant by increasing glucose uptake via the different body cells and due to reduction of oxidative stress level led to adjust glycemic and insulin indexes of blood

  3. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Influence of high-carbohydrate mixed meals with different glycemic indexes on substrate utilization during subsequent exercise in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Emma J; Williams, Clyde; Mash, Laura E; Phillips, Beth; Nute, Maria L

    2006-08-01

    Few data exist on the metabolic responses to mixed meals with different glycemic indexes and their effects on substrate metabolism during exercise in women. We examined the effects of preexercise mixed meals providing carbohydrates with high (HGI) or low glycemic index (LGI) on substrate utilization during rest and exercise in women. Eight healthy, active, eumenorrheic women [aged 18.6 +/- 0.9 y; body mass: 59.9 +/- 7.1 kg; maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max): 48.7 +/- 1.1 mL . kg(-1) . min(-1)] completed 2 trials. On each occasion, subjects were provided with a test breakfast 3 h before performing a 60-min run at 65% VO(2)max on a motorized treadmill. Both breakfasts provided 2 g carbohydrate/kg body mass and were isoenergetic. The calculated GIs of the meals were 78 (HGI) and 44 (LGI). Peak plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were greater after the HGI breakfast than after the LGI breakfast (P fat oxidation was greater in the LGI trial than in the HGI trial (P glucose or serum insulin were observed during exercise. Altering the GI of the carbohydrate within a meal significantly changes the postprandial hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic responses in women. A LGI preexercise meal resulted in a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise than did an HGI meal.

  5. Glycemic index, glycemic load and glycemic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, Livia S A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The positive and negative health effects of dietary carbohydrates are of interest to both researchers and consumers. METHODS: International experts on carbohydrate research held a scientific summit in Stresa, Italy, in June 2013 to discuss controversies surrounding the utilit...

  6. A high glycemic index starch diet affects lipid storage-related enzymes in normal and to a lesser extent in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M; Rizkalla, S W; Quignard-Boulangé, A; Guerre-Millo, M; Boillot, J; Ardouin, B; Luo, J; Slama, G

    1998-11-01

    The of this study was to evaluate the chronic effects of a high (waxy corn) vs. a low (mung beans) glycemic index starch diet on the lipogenic enzymes, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Normal and diabetic (streptozotocin-injected on d 2 of life) male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed a diet containing 575 g/kg carbohydrates either as waxy cornstarch (WCS) or as mung bean starch (MBS). After 3 wk, neither body weights nor relative epididymal fat pad weights differed. In diabetic rats, the WCS diet induced high basal plasma insulin levels. Plasma triglycerides were not significantly affected by diet in either normal or diabetic rats. Adipose tissue and liver LPL activities were not modified by the type of starch in the diet. In normal rats, FAS activity and gene expression in epididymal adipose tissue but not in liver were greater in rats consuming the WCS diet than in those consuming MBS. To evaluate the implication of insulin in this regulation, two genes regulated by insulin [GLUT4 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)] were also studied. The high glycemic index WCS diet compared with the low glycemic index MBS diet resulted in lower hepatic PEPCK mRNA in both normal and diabetic rats. Normal, but not diabetic rats fed WCS had greater GLUT4 gene expression in adipocytes than did those fed MBS. We conclude that the total replacement of 575 g/kg low glycemic index starch by a high glycemic index starch for 3 wk caused the following in normal rats: 1) high FAS activity and mRNA in adipose tissue but not in liver and 2) high GLUT4 gene expression in adipose tissue. In both normal and diabetic rats this same diet resulted in lower hepatic PEPCK mRNA. Therefore, high glycemic index starch diet is implicated in stimulating FAS activity and lipogenesis and might have undesirable long-term metabolic effects.

  7. Effects comparison between low glycemic index diets and high glycemic index diets on HbA1c and fructosamine for patients with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Zhigang; Zhang, Huifeng

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of low glycemic index (GI) through the comparison of low-GI foods group and high-GI foods group on glycemic control (the measurements were HbA1c and fructosamine) for patients with diabetes. The studies were retrieved from databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google scholar from their inception to August 2014. Review Manager 5.1 and STATA package v.11.0 software were applied for the meta-analysis. Standard mean difference (SWD) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for HbA1c and fructosamine of patients with diabetes were collected and calculated in a fixed or random effects model when appropriate. Subgroup analysis stratified by study design, geographic area of participants and types of diabetes were also conducted. There were significant differences of overall effects on HbA1c between low-GI foods group and high-GI foods group (SWD=-0.42, 95%CI=-0.69 to -0.16, Pglycemic control than that of high-GI foods diets. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The glycemic index diets and the risk of metabolic syndrome in male urban population of Novosibirsk (population studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Kuntsevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the value of the glycemic index (GI diets in men of Novosibirsk, the link it with nutritional factors and assessment of the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the framework of the international project HAPIEE, random representative sample of the unorganizedpopulation of Novosibirsk included 3699 men without diabetes.Materials and metods. Assessment of the actual power – frequency method. To calculate the GI diets used data from the International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load, as well as data published Lobykinoy E.N. et al. The criteria for the metabolic syndrome were made in accordance with the Russian national guidelines All-Russian Scientific Society of Cardiology. For comparison accepted criteria National Cholesterol Education Program – Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III, 2001. Statistical analysis performed using the application package SPSS.11.5 (Bonferroni test procedure GLM. Estimation of odds ratios was performed using binary logistic regression in quartiles of glycemic index. Differences were considered statistically significant at p < 0,05. The average glycemic index diets (M ± SD in men Novosibirsk averaged 55,2 ± 3,3, the minimum value of the first quartile – 50,8 ± 2,4 and a maximum value in the fourth – 58,9 ± 1,3. Against the background of lower-GI group first quartile, the proportion of persons with obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia was significantly greater than in the quartile with the highest GI. Accordingly, the odds ratio (OR the risk of metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile minimum: OR = 0,70 (CI 0,58; 0,84; p < 0,001 (criteria All-Russian Scientific Society of Cardiology and OR = 0,69 (CI 0,54; 0,88; p < 0,001 (criteria NCEP-ATP III, 2001. Under the first quartile of the GI is set higher consumption of animal products and atherogenic saturated fatty acids. Conclusion. Against the background of higher

  9. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  10. In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2010-11-01

    Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity.

  11. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Makariti, Ifigenia P; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-10-01

    The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women’s Health Initiative1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwisch, James E; Hale, Lauren; Garcia, Lorena; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G; Payne, Martha E; Rossom, Rebecca C; Lane, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consumption of sweetened beverages, refined foods, and pastries has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, any influence that refined carbohydrates has on mood could be commensurate with their proportion in the overall diet; studies are therefore needed that measure overall intakes of carbohydrate and sugar, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load. Objective: We hypothesized that higher dietary GI and glycemic load would be associated with greater odds of the prevalence and incidence of depression. Design: This was a prospective cohort study to investigate the relations between dietary GI, glycemic load, and other carbohydrate measures (added sugars, total sugars, glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, starch, carbohydrate) and depression in postmenopausal women who participated in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study at baseline between 1994 and 1998 (n = 87,618) and at the 3-y follow-up (n = 69,954). Results: We found a progressively higher dietary GI to be associated with increasing odds of incident depression in fully adjusted models (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.37), with the trend being statistically significant (P = 0.0032). Progressively higher consumption of dietary added sugars was also associated with increasing odds of incident depression (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.41; P-trend = 0.0029). Higher consumption of lactose, fiber, nonjuice fruit, and vegetables was significantly associated with lower odds of incident depression, and nonwhole/refined grain consumption was associated with increased odds of depression. Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that high-GI diets could be a risk factor for depression in postmenopausal women. Randomized trials should be undertaken to examine the question of whether diets rich in low-GI foods could serve as treatments and primary preventive

  13. Glycemic index of split peas, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, "Lavash" bread and broad bean kernels in NIDDM subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi A

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Equal amounts of carbohydrates from various foodstuffs do not increase blood glucose to the same extent. This study was carried out, therefore, in 1996 at the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research institute in Tehran to determine the glycemic index of split pease, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, “Lavash” bread and broad bean kernels. Diabetic subjects were studied in a clinical trial. The exact amount of cabohydrate in foodstuffs was determined using AOAC. Methods. White bread was used as the reference food. After a 12-hour overnight fast on seven separate days each subject was given the test food in an amount to provide 25 g of carbohydrate. Blood glucose was determined after 0, 60, 120 minutes using orthotouidine method. Glycemi response in each individual was calculated as the area under the 2- hour glucose individual was calculated as the area under the test food glucose curve as a percentage of the mean area under the whith bread glucose curve. Glycemic indices of the test foods were 31± 8.5 for split peas, 42.9±3 for rice, 44±9 for kidney beans, 57±7 for green peas, 69±8.5 for “Lavash” bread, and 96±14 for broad bean kernels .Legumes and rice (Binam can be used efficiently in meal planning for the diabetic subjects.

  14. Effects of different protein and glycemic index diets on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Marjet J; Geraedts, Maartje C; Saris, Wim H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary glycemic index (GI) and protein affects postprandial insulin responses and consequently 24 h glucose metabolism and therefore substrate partitioning. This study investigated the mechanistic effects of different protein and GI diets on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning. After 3 days of diet and physical activity standardization, 10 healthy male subjects (BMI: 22.5 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) stayed in a respiration chamber 4 times for 36 h each time to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received four isoenergetic diets: a normal (15En%) dairy protein and low GI (60 units) (NDP-HGI) diet. During the day, blood was sampled at fixed time points for the measurement of metabolic markers and satiety hormones. The HDP-LGI diet increased 24 h protein oxidation and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p carbohydrate and fat oxidation (day and night) were found between all intervention diets. Net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) of 24 h plasma glucose decreased in the HDP-LGI diet compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p insulin levels. No difference in appetite profiles were observed between all intervention diets. The lower 24 h glycemic profile as a result of a high dairy protein diet did not lead to changes in 24 h substrate partitioning in lean healthy subjects with a normal insulin sensitivity.

  15. Oatmeal particle size alters glycemic index but not as a function of gastric emptying rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Alan R; Bajka, Balazs H; Rigby, Neil M; Wilde, Peter J; Alves-Pereira, Fatima; Mosleth, Ellen F; Rieder, Anne; Kirkhus, Bente; Salt, Louise J

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which oat particle size in a porridge could alter glucose absorption, gastric emptying, gastrointestinal hormone response, and subjective feelings of appetite and satiety. Porridge was prepared from either oat flakes or oat flour with the same protein, fat, carbohydrate, and mass. These were fed to eight volunteers on separate days in a crossover study, and subjective appetite ratings, gastric contents, and plasma glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormones were determined over a period of 3 h. The flake porridge gave a lower glucose response than the flour porridge, and there were apparent differences in gastric emptying in both the early and late postprandial phases. The appetite ratings showed similar differences between early- and late-phase behavior. The structure of the oat flakes remained sufficiently intact to delay their gastric emptying, leading to a lower glycemic response, even though initial gastric emptying rates were similar for the flake and flour porridge. This highlights the need to take food structure into account when considering relatively simple physiological measures and offering nutritional guidance.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The impact of food structure on glycemic response even in simple foods such as porridge is dependent on both timing of gastric emptying and the composition of what is emptied as well as duodenal starch digestion. Thus structure should be accounted for when considering relatively simple physiological measures and offering nutritional guidance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Poverty index with time-varying consumption and income distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Kumar, T. Krishna; Mallick, Sushanta K.

    2017-03-01

    Starting from a stochastic agent-based model to represent market exchange in a developing economy, we study time variations of the probability density function of income with simultaneous variation of the consumption deprivation (CD), where CD represents the shortfall in consumption from the saturation level of an essential commodity, cereal. Together, these two models combine income-expenditure-based market dynamics with time variations in consumption due to income. In this new unified theoretical structure, exchange of trade in assets is only allowed when the income exceeds consumption-deprivation while CD itself is endogenously obtained from a separate kinetic model. Our results reveal that the nature of time variation of the CD function leads to a downward trend in the threshold level of consumption of basic necessities, suggesting a possible dietary transition in terms of lower saturation level of food-grain consumption, possibly through an improvement in the level of living. The new poverty index, defined as CD, is amenable to approximate probabilistic prediction within a short time horizon. A major achievement of this work is the intrinsic independence of the poverty index from an exogenous poverty line, making it more objective for policy formulation as opposed to existing poverty indices in the literature.

  17. Low glycemic index breakfasts and reduced food intake in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet M; Henry, C Jeya K; Simonite, Vanessa

    2003-11-01

    Recent reports have suggested that a low glycemic index (GI) diet may have a role in the management of obesity through its ability to increase the satiety value of food and modulate appetite. To date, no long-term clinical trials have examined the effect of dietary GI on body weight regulation. The majority of evidence comes from single-day studies, most of which have been conducted in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 test breakfasts-low-GI, low-GI with 10% added sucrose, and high-GI-on ad libitum lunch intake, appetite, and satiety and to compare these with baseline values when habitual breakfast was consumed. A 3-way crossover study using block randomization of breakfast type was conducted in a school that already ran a breakfast club. A total of 37 children aged 9 to 12 years (15 boys and 22 girls) completed the study. The proportion of nonoverweight to overweight/obese children was 70:30. Children were divided into 5 groups, and a rolling program was devised whereby, week by week, each group would randomly receive 1 of 3 test breakfasts for 3 consecutive days, with a minimum of 5 weeks between the test breakfasts. Participants acted as their own control. The 3 test breakfasts were devised to match the energy and nutritional content of an individual's habitual breakfast as far as possible. All test breakfasts were composed of fruit juice, cereal, and milk with/without bread and margarine; foods with an appropriate GI value were selected. After each test breakfast, children were instructed not to eat or drink anything until lunchtime, except water and a small serving of fruit supplying approximately 10 g of carbohydrate, which was provided. Breakfast palatability, satiation after breakfast, and satiety before lunch were measured using rating scales based on previously used tools. Lunch was a buffet-style meal, and children were allowed free access to a range of foods. Lunch was served in the school hall where the rest of the

  18. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob containing snack on energy intake, satiety and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults. Results from two randomized-trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Papakonstantinou, Εmillia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E.; Makariti, Ifigenia P.; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives:\\ud The potential positive health effects of carob containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, two studies were conducted to 1.firstly determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob-snack compared to chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and 2.compare the effects of a carob vs. chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety...

  19. Decreases in Dietary Glycemic Index Are Related to Weight Loss among Individuals following Therapeutic Diets for Type 2 Diabetes1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Jenkins, David J. A.; Barnard, Neal D.; Cohen, Joshua; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of changes in glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) on weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes beginning a vegan diet or diet following the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations. The study was a 22-wk, randomized trial of 99 participants with type 2 diabetes who were counseled to follow 1 of 2 diet treatments. GI and GL changes were assessed based on 3-d dietary records. The relationships between GI/GL and changes in weight and HbA1C were calculated. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 99), the vegan group reduced GI to a greater extent than the ADA group (P vegan group (P vegan or ADA diet in reducing body weight among people with type 2 diabetes. The reduction of body weight, in turn, was predictive of decreasing HbA1C. PMID:21653575

  20. The efficacy of a high protein/low glycemic index diet intervention in non-obese patients with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Astrup, Arne

    2018-01-01

    protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet and the effects on body composition. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Of the 149 subjects who were included in the study, 76 subjects (30 males) were randomized into either a diet group (n = 38) or a control group (n = 38) and included in the present analysis. The 8 week...... intervention consisted of a high protein and low GI diet whilst the control group continued habitual diet. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients in the diet and 34 in the control group completed the study. The diet group reduced their energy intake by ~20% and had high dietary compliance. Intake of fatty fish doubled...... protein-low GI diet resulted in a greater loss of fat mass among non-obese patients with asthma. The subjects were satisfactory and highly compliant with the dietary regimen....

  1. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and

  2. Glycation-altered proteolysis as a pathobiologic mechanism that links dietary glycemic index, aging, and age-related disease in non diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that the risks for major age-related debilities including coronary heart disease, diabetes, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are diminished in people who consume lower glycemic index (GI) diets, but lack of a unifying physiobiochemical mechanism that explains...

  3. Dietary glycemic index during pregnancy is associated with biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome in offspring at age 20 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Danielsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome is rooted in fetal life with a potential key role of nutrition during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to assess the possible associations between the dietary glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL during pregnancy and biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome in young adult offspring. METHODS: Dietary GI and GL were assessed by questionnaires and interviews in gestation week 30 and offspring were clinically examined at the age of 20 years. Analyses based on 428 mother-offspring dyads were adjusted for maternal smoking during pregnancy, height, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, education, energy intake, and the offspring's ambient level of physical activity. In addition, possible confounding by gestational diabetes mellitus was taken into account. OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist circumference, blood pressure, HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and plasma levels of fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, insulin, and leptin were measured in the offspring. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between dietary GI in pregnancy and HOMA-IR (the relative increase in HOMA-IR per 10 units' GI increase was 1.09 [95% CI: 1.01, 1.16], p = 0.02, insulin (1.09 [95% CI: 1.02, 1.16], p = 0.01 and leptin (1.21 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.38], p = 0.01 in the offspring; whereas no associations were detected for GL. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that high dietary GI in pregnancy may affect levels of markers for the metabolic syndrome in young adult offspring in a potentially harmful direction.

  4. High-glycemic index carbohydrates abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Fjære, Even

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high...... that the macronutrient composition of the diet modulates the effects of fish oil. Fish oil combined with sucrose, glucose, or high-GI starch promotes obesity, and the reported anti-inflammatory actions of fish oil are abrogated. In conclusion, our data indicate that glycemic control of insulin secretion modulates......-fat diets enriched with fish oil for 6 wk, we show that increasing amounts of sucrose in the diets dose-dependently increased energy efficiency and white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. Mice receiving fructose had about 50% less WAT mass than mice fed a high fish oil diet supplemented with either glucose...

  5. Association of lower body mass index with increased glycemic variability in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yan, Rengna; Wen, Juan; Kong, Xiaocen; Li, Huiqin; Zhou, Peihua; Zhu, Honghong; Su, Xiaofei; Ma, Jianhua

    2017-09-22

    Previous studies have indicated that the pathogenesis of diabetes differs between obese and lean patients. We investigated whether newly diagnosed Chinese diabetic patients with different body mass indices (BMIs) have different glycemic variability, and we assessed the relationship between BMI and glycemic variability. This was a cross-sectional study that included 169 newly diagnosed and drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients (mean age, 51.33 ± 9.83 years; 110 men). The clinical factors and results of the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were all recorded. Glycemic variability was assessed using continuous glucose monitoring. Compared with overweight or obese patients (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2), underweight or normal-weight patients (BMI glycemic excursion (MAGE 6.64 ± 2.38 vs. 5.67 ± 2.05; P = 0.007) and postprandial glucose excursions (PPGEs) (PPGE at breakfast, 7.72 ± 2.79 vs. 6.79 ± 2.40, P = 0.028; PPGE at lunch, 5.53 ± 2.70 vs. 5.07 ± 2.40, P = 0.285; PPGE at dinner, 5.96 ± 2.24 vs. 4.87 ± 2.50, P = 0.008). BMI was negatively correlated with glycemic variability (r = -0.243, P = 0.002). On multiple linear regression analyses, BMI (β = -0.231, P = 0.013) and Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 (β = -0.204, P = 0.048) were two independent predictors of glycemic variability. In conclusion, lower BMI was associated with increased glycemic variability, characterized by elevated PPGEs, in newly diagnosed Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.

  6. The development of low glycemic index cookie bars from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) flour, and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Lily Arsanti; Huriyati, Emy; Marsono, Yustinus

    2017-05-01

    Wholegrain foods are becoming increasingly popular as a high fiber dietary supplement recommended for people with diabetes. In Indonesia, the incidence of diabetes mellitus has almost doubled recently and poses a significant health risk with the high prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. The present research aimed to develop cookie bars from foxtail millet, arrowroot flour, and kidney beans. The physical, chemical, and sensory properties were evaluated by selecting the best formula to test the glycemic index. Three formulae of cookie bars, which had different percentages of foxtail millet, kidney beans, and arrowroot flour were evaluated. The results showed that the three formulae (F1, F2, F3) had °Hue values of 53.77, 58.46, and 58.31, and breaking force of 8.37, 10.12, and 5.87 N, respectively. While all other nutritional content were significantly different between formulae, the total crude fat was not. The F2 cookie bar was selected and evaluated for the glycemic index because it has the best sensory properties, lowest total sugar and available carbohydrate content. F2 cookie bars that contain 15% foxtail millet, 15% arrowroot flour, and 30% of kidney beans have a glycemic index of 37.6 hence it could be classified as a low glycemic index cookie bar. In conclusion, our findings indicated that F2 cookie bars can be further developed as a suitable diabetic food since it has the best physico-chemical properties, sensory properties, and low glycemic index.

  7. Exercise training-induced improvement in skeletal muscle PGC-1α-mediated fat metabolism is independent of dietary glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulya, Anny; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Kelly, Karen R; Malin, Steven K; Rocco, Michael; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P

    2017-04-01

    This study hypothesized that a low-glycemic diet combined with exercise would increase expression of nuclear regulators of fat transport and oxidation in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. Nineteen subjects (64 ± 1 y; 34 ± 1 kg/m2 ) were randomized to receive isocaloric high-glycemic-index (HiGIX; 80 ± 0.6 units, n = 10) or low-glycemic-index (LoGIX; 40 ± 0.3 units, n = 9) diets combined with supervised exercise (1 h/d, 5 d/wk at ∼85% HRmax ) for 12 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the intervention to assess fasting gene and protein expression. Weight loss was similar for both groups (9.5 ± 1.3 kg). Likewise, improvements in insulin sensitivity (P glycemic index of the diets. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. Effect of glycemic control on the Diabetes Complications Severity Index score and development of complications in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalone, Kevin M; Misra-Hebert, Anita D; Hobbs, Todd M; Wells, Brian J; Kong, Sheldon X; Chagin, Kevin; Dey, Tanujit; Milinovich, Alex; Weng, Wayne; Bauman, Janine M; Burguera, Bartolome; Zimmerman, Robert S; Kattan, Michael W

    2017-10-04

    The aim of the present study was to assess the longitudinal accumulation of diabetes-related complications and the effect of glycemic control on the Diabetes Complications Severity Index (DCSI) score in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic health records from a large integrated healthcare system. People with newly diagnosed T2D were identified between 2005 and 2016 and stratified by initial HbA1c category (glycemic (HbA1c) control on longitudinal changes in DCSI scores. Of 32 174 people identified as having newly diagnosed T2D, 14 016 (44%), 21 657 (67%), and 9983 (31%) had an initial or baseline HbA1c glycemic control was significantly associated with a 10%, 19%, or 16% increase in the risk of experiencing an increased DCSI score, respectively (all P glycemic control had no apparent effect on longitudinal changes in DCSI score. Worsening or persistently poor glycemic control was associated with an increased risk of an increase in the DCSI score. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Dietary glycemic index and load in relation to risk of uterine leiomyomata in the Black Women's Health Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Wise, Lauren A

    2010-01-01

    Background: High dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote tumorigenesis by increasing endogenous concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) or the bioavailability of estradiol. In vitro studies have shown that uterine leiomyoma (UL) cells proliferate in response to IGF-I and display increased IGF-I gene expression and protein synthesis. Previous epidemiologic studies suggest that a high GL is a risk factor for endometrial and ovarian cancers, which, like UL, are hormone-responsive tumors. Objective: We investigated the relation of dietary GI and GL with UL risk in the Black Women's Health Study. Design: In this prospective cohort study, we followed 21,861 premenopausal women for incident UL from 1997 to 2007. Diet was assessed in 1995 and 2001 with food-frequency questionnaires. We used Cox regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs, controlled for potential confounders. Results: During 162,604 person-years of follow-up, there were 5800 cases of UL diagnosed by ultrasound or surgery. Dietary GI was weakly associated with UL risk overall (IRR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.19; P for trend = 0.04). Positive associations were observed between GL and UL in women aged <35 y (IRR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.37; P for trend = 0.15) and between GI and UL in college-educated women (IRR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.34; P for trend = 0.004). Conclusions: Our results suggest that high dietary GI and GL may be associated with an increased UL risk in some women. The observed associations warrant investigation in future studies. PMID:20200259

  10. Dietary glycemic load and index and risk of coronary heart disease in a large italian cohort: the EPICOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio; Berrino, Franco; Evangelista, Alberto; Agnoli, Claudia; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Veglia, Fabrizio; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Grioni, Sara; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore

    2010-04-12

    Dietary glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) in relation to cardiovascular disease have been investigated in a few prospective studies with inconsistent results, particularly in men. The present EPICOR study investigated the association of GI and GL with coronary heart disease (CHD) in a large and heterogeneous cohort of Italian men and women originally recruited to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. We studied 47 749 volunteers (15 171 men and 32 578 women) who completed a dietary questionnaire. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling estimated adjusted relative risks (RRs) of CHD and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a median of 7.9 years of follow-up, 463 CHD cases (158 women and 305 men) were identified. Women in the highest carbohydrate intake quartile had a significantly greater risk of CHD than did those in the lowest quartile (RR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.16-3.43), with no association found in men (P = .04 for interaction). Increasing carbohydrate intake from high-GI foods was also significantly associated with greater risk of CHD in women (RR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.02-2.75), whereas increasing the intake of low-GI carbohydrates was not. Women in the highest GL quartile had a significantly greater risk of CHD than did those in the lowest quartile (RR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.26-3.98), with no significant association in men (P = .03 for interaction). In this Italian cohort, high dietary GL and carbohydrate intake from high-GI foods increase the overall risk of CHD in women but not men.

  11. Effect of breakfast glycemic index on metabolic responses during rest and exercise in overweight and non-overweight adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, J K; Stevenson, E J; Tolfrey, K

    2012-04-01

    The metabolic responses to mixed breakfast meals with different glycemic indexes (GI) and their effects on substrate metabolism during exercise in adolescent girls have not been examined. The interaction with weight status also warrants investigation. This study investigated the effect of mixed breakfast meals containing high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI) carbohydrates on metabolic responses and fat oxidation during rest and exercise in overweight (OW) and non-overweight (NO) adolescent girls. A total of 8 OW and 12 NO adolescent girls consumed an isoenergetic HGI (GI=73) or LGI (GI=44) breakfast 120 min before completing a 30-min treadmill walk at 50% \\[Vdot]O(2peak). Peak blood glucose concentration was higher for HGI compared with LGI in OW (P=0.023), but not NO (P>0.05) girls. Blood glucose total area under the curve (TAUC) was 13% higher in HGI compared with LGI in OW (P=0.006), but only 4% higher in NO (P=0.072) girls. Plasma insulin data were log(e) transformed (lninsulin). Plasma lninsulin concentrations were not different between HGI and LGI (P>0.05). Peak plasma lninsulin concentration (P=0.016) and TAUC (P=0.001) were greater in OW than NO girls. Fat oxidation during postprandial rest and exercise was not different between breakfasts (P>0.05). The elevated glycemic response in HGI compared with LGI was more pronounced in OW girls, suggesting a reduced ability to cope with the metabolic demands of the HGI, but not LGI, breakfast. Manipulation of breakfast GI did not alter fat oxidation during rest or subsequent moderate intensity exercise in OW and NO adolescent girls.

  12. Improved plasma glucose control, whole-body glucose utilization, and lipid profile on a low-glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetic men: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, Salwa W; Taghrid, Laika; Laromiguiere, Muriel; Huet, Dorothée; Boillot, Josette; Rigoir, Aude; Elgrably, Fabienne; Slama, Gerard

    2004-08-01

    To determine whether a chronic low-glycemic index (LGI) diet, compared with a high-glycemic index (HGI) diet, has beneficial effects on plasma glucose control, lipid metabolism, total fat mass, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Twelve type 2 diabetic men were randomly allocated to two periods of 4 weeks of an LGI or HGI carbohydrate diet separated by a 4-week washout interval, in a crossover design. The LGI diet induced lower postprandial plasma glucose and insulin profiles and areas under the curve than after the HGI diet. At the end of the two dietary periods, the 7-day dietary records demonstrated equal daily total energy and macronutrient intake. Body weight and total fat mass were comparable. Four-week LGI versus HGI diet induced improvement of fasting plasma glucose (P glycemic control, glucose utilization, some lipid profiles, and the capacity for fibrinolysis in type 2 diabetes. Even if changes in glycemic control were modest during the 4-week period, the use of an LGI diet in a longer-term manner might play an important role in the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related disorders.

  13. Associations of Dairy Intake with Incident Prediabetes or Diabetes in Middle-Aged Adults Vary by Both Dairy Type and Glycemic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; Ma, Jiantao; Rogers, Gail; Meigs, James B; Jacques, Paul F

    2017-09-01

    Background: Inconsistent evidence describes the association between dietary intake of dairy and milk-based products and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk.Objective: Our objective was to assess associations between consumption of milk-based products, incident prediabetes, and progression to T2D in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort.Methods: Total dairy and milk-based product consumption was assessed by ≤4 food-frequency questionnaires across a mean of 12 y of follow-up in 2809 participants [mean ± SD age: 54.0 ± 9.7 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 27.1 ± 4.7; 54% female]. Prediabetes was defined as the first occurrence of fasting plasma glucose ≥5.6 to fat, and high-fat dairy consumptions were associated with a 39%, 32%, and 25% lower risk of incident prediabetes, respectively, in the highest compared with the lowest intakes (≥14 compared with fat and skim milk, whole-milk, and yogurt intakes were associated nonlinearly with incident prediabetes; moderate intake was associated with the greatest relative risk reduction. Neither cheese nor cream and butter was associated with prediabetes. Of 925 participants with prediabetes at baseline, 196 (21%) developed T2D. Only high-fat dairy and cheese showed evidence of dose-response, inverse associations with incident T2D, with 70% and 63% lower risk, respectively, of incident T2D between the highest and lowest intake categories (≥14 compared with fat dairy, ≥4 compared with glycemic status in this middle-aged US population. Baseline glycemic status may partially underlie prior equivocal evidence regarding the role of dairy intake in diabetes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Use of the glycemic index in nutrition education Uso do índice glicêmico na educação nutricional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Galvão Cândido

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the lack of studies providing practical guidance for the use of the glycemic index has been indicated as the cause of its little use in nutrition education. The aim of this study is to give instructions on the use of the glycemic index as a tool to be used in nutrition education to estimulate the consumption of low glycemic index foods. Studies published over the past 12 years, in addition to classic studies on this topic, found in the databases MedLine, ScienceDirect, SciELO and Lilacs exploring the importance of the glycemic index and the factors that affect the glycemic index were selected for this article. The preparation of lists grouping foods according to their glycemic index should be based on information found in tables and specific web sites. This is an interesting strategy that must be very carefully conducted, considering the eating habits of the assisted people. To reduce the postprandial blood glucose response, high glycemic index foods should be consumed in association with the following foods: high protein and low fat foods, good quality oils and unprocessed foods with high fiber content. Caffeine should also be avoided. The glycemic index should be considered as an additional carbohydrate-selection tool, which should be part of a nutritionally balanced diet capable of promoting and/or maintaining body weight and health.Recentemente, a falta de artigos que visam fornecer orientação quanto ao uso do índice glicêmico foi apontada como causa de sua baixa utilização na educação nutricional. O objetivo do presente trabalho é oferecer suporte para o uso do índice glicêmico como ferramenta a ser adotada na educação nutricional, para estimular o consumo preferencial de alimentos que apresentem menores valores nesse indicador. Foram selecionados estudos publicados nos últimos doze anos, além de estudos clássicos referentes ao tema, indexados nos bancos de dados MedLine, ScienceDirect, SciELO e Lilacs, que

  15. Effect of glycemic index on satiety and body weight Efeito do índice glicêmico na saciedade e no peso corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive study, the practical significance of the glycemic index of food is still debatable. The purpose of this review paper was to evaluate the effect of glycemic index on food intake and body weight based on the analysis of published studies about this topic. According to some authors, ingestion of high glycemic index diets tends to enhance appetite and promote positive energy balance. The increase of appetite associated with the ingestion of these diets is attributed to an especially sharp early post-prandial rise of blood glucose followed by a marked release of insulin and subsequent rebound relative hypoglycemia and low levels of blood fatty acids, suggesting the difficulty that the body has to access its stored metabolic fuels. Short-term investigations have generally demonstrated that ingestion of low glycemic index foods results in greater satiety and lower energy intake than high glycemic index foods. However, less is known about the importance of glycemic index to energy balance and weight control associated with chronic ingestion of foods differing in glycemic index. Carefully designed long-term studies are required to assess the efficacy of glycemic index in the treatment and prevention of obesity in humans.Apesar de vários estudos, o significado prático do índice glicêmico dos alimentos ainda é bastante discutível. O objetivo deste artigo de revisão foi avaliar o efeito do índice glicêmico na ingestão alimentar e no peso corporal, baseado na análise de estudos publicados sobre este tópico. De acordo com alguns autores, a ingestão de dietas de alto índice glicêmico tende a estimular o apetite e promover o balanço energético positivo. O aumento do apetite, associado à ingestão de tais dietas, é atribuído à elevação aguda da glicemia pós-prandial, seguida por um aumento marcante da secreção insulínica e por uma subseqüente hipoglicemia de rebote e por baixos níveis de ácidos graxos no sangue

  16. High glycemic index starch promotes hypersecretion of insulin and higher body fat in rats without affecting insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, D B; Bryson, J M; Denyer, G S; Brand-Miller, J C

    2001-01-01

    In rats, prolonged feeding of high glycemic index (GI) starch results in basal hyperinsulinemia and an elevated insulin response to an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). The aim of this study was to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance (IR) using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps. Insulin sensitivity, epididymal fat deposition and fasting leptin concentrations were compared in rats fed isocalorically a low or high GI diet for 7 wk (45% carbohydrate, 35% fat and 20% protein as energy) or a high fat diet (20% carbohydrate, 59% fat and 21% protein as energy) for 4 wk so that final body weights were similar. At the end of the study, high GI rats had higher basal leptin concentration and epididymal fat mass than the low GI group, despite comparable body weights. High GI and high fat feeding both resulted in the higher insulin response during IVGTT, but impaired glucose tolerance was seen only in rats fed high fat. The GI of the diet did not affect basal and clamp glucose uptake or hepatic glucose output, but high fat feeding induced both peripheral and hepatic IR. The findings suggest that hypersecretion of insulin without IR may be one mechanism for increased fat deposition in rats fed high GI diets.

  17. Low glycemic index diet reduces body fat and attenuates inflammatory and metabolic responses in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Júnia Maria Geraldo; Fabrini, Sabrina Pinheiro; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of glycemic index (GI) on body composition, and on inflammatory and metabolic markers concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this randomized controlled parallel trial, twenty subjects (aged 42.4 ± 5.1 years, BMI 29.2 ± 4.8 kg.m-2) were allocated to low GI (LGI) (n = 10) or high GI (HGI) (n = 10) groups. Body composition, inflammatory and metabolic markers were assessed at baseline and after 30 days of intervention. Food intake was monitored during the study using three-day food records completed on two non-consecutive weekdays and on a weekend day. Body fat reduced after the LGI intervention compared with baseline (P = 0.043) and with the HGI group (P = 0.036). Serum fructosamine concentration (P = 0.031) and TNF-α mRNA expression (P = 0.05) increased in the HGI group. Serum non-esterified fatty acids were greater in the HGI than in the LGI group (P = 0.032). IL-6 mRNA expression tended to decrease after the consumption of the LGI diet compared to baseline (P = 0.06). The LGI diet reduced body fat and prevented the negative metabolic and inflammatory responses induced by the HGI diet.

  18. Impact of a low glycemic index diet in pregnancy on markers of maternal and fetal metabolism and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer M; Mahony, Rhona M; Culliton, Marie; Foley, Michael E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2014-11-01

    This is a secondary analysis of 621 women in ROLO study, a randomized control trial of low glycemic index (GI) diet in pregnancy to prevent the recurrence of macrosomia, which aims to assess the effect of the diet on maternal and fetal insulin resistance, leptin, and markers of inflammation. In early pregnancy and at 28 weeks, serum was analyzed for insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). At delivery, cord blood concentrations of leptin, TNF-α, IL-6, and C-peptide were recorded. We found no difference between those who did or did not receive low GI advice with respect to the concentrations of any marker in early pregnancy, at 28 weeks or in cord blood. Women in the intervention arm of the study did have a lower overall rise in insulin concentrations from early pregnancy to 28 weeks gestation, P = .04. Of the women in the intervention arm, 20% were in the highest quartile for insulin change (28-week insulin - insulin at booking) compared to 29% of controls (P = .02). In conclusion, a low GI diet in pregnancy has little effect on leptin and markers of inflammation although an attenuated response to the typical increase in insulin resistance seen in pregnancy with advancing gestation was seen in those who received the low GI advice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-04

    Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence.

  20. In vitro starch digestibility, estimated glycemic index and antioxidant potential of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Sebnem; Nehir El, Sedef

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine some functional properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm, which can be a good alternative to the other dietary carbohydrate sources with its high starch content. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of taro corm was found as 205±53mgCAE/100g and 61±9mgCAE/100g, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of corm was determined as 452±72mMTEAC/100g and 244±73mMTEAC/100g, by the scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The free glucose content of corms was less than 1%, whereas the 60% of dry matter was composed of starch. According to the results, the taro corms' starch was highly digestible and higher than the 50% of the starch was composed of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) fractions. The estimated glycemic index (eGI) of taro corm was 63.1±2.5, indicating taro corm as a medium GI food and a good dietary carbohydrate alternative especially for diabetic people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of low- and high-glycemic-index meals on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P; Chilibeck, Philip D; Ciona, Dawn; Forbes, Scott; Rees, Huw; Vandenberg, Albert; Zello, Gordon A

    2010-12-01

    Consuming carbohydrate-rich meals before continuous endurance exercise improves performance, yet few studies have evaluated the ideal preexercise meal for high-intensity intermittent exercise, which is characteristic of many team sports. The authors' purpose was to investigate the effects of low- and high-glycemic-index (GI) meals on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. Sixteen male participants completed three 90-min high-intensity intermittent running trials in a single-blinded random order, separated by ~7 d, while fasted (control) and 2 hr after ingesting an isoenergetic low-GI (lentil), or high-GI (potato and egg white) preexercise meal. Serum free fatty acids were higher and insulin lower throughout exercise in the fasted condition (p carbohydrates are not provided during exercise both low- and high-GI preexercise meals improve high-intensity, intermittent exercise performance, probably by increasing the availability of muscle glycogen. However, the GI does not influence markers of substrate oxidation during high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

  2. Fat oxidation during exercise and satiety during recovery are increased following a low-glycemic index breakfast in sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Emma J; Astbury, Nerys M; Simpson, Elizabeth J; Taylor, Moira A; Macdonald, Ian A

    2009-05-01

    Consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates (CHO) before endurance exercise results in increased fat oxidation during exercise in trained men and women. It is not known if this phenomenon occurs during low intensity exercise and in untrained participants. We examined the effects of breakfasts containing high-GI (HGI) or LGI foods on substrate utilization during rest and walking exercise in sedentary women. The metabolic and appetite responses to a standard lunch consumed after exercise were also investigated. Eight healthy sedentary women completed 2 trials. On each occasion, participants were provided with a HGI or LGI breakfast 3 h before walking for 60 min. Following exercise, participants were provided with lunch and remained in the laboratory for a further 2 h. Plasma glucose and serum insulin responses (area under the curve) were higher following the HGI breakfast than following the LGI breakfast (P fat oxidation was suppressed following both breakfasts but remained higher in the LGI trial (P fat oxidation was also greater in the LGI trial (P fat oxidation during subsequent exercise and improves satiety during recovery in sedentary females.

  3. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meals with low glycemic index (GI may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence.

  4. Fatty acids, epicatechin-dimethylgallate, and rutin interact with buckwheat starch inhibiting its digestion by amylase: implications for the decrease in glycemic index by buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2010-12-08

    Glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour are lower than those made from wheat flour. To discuss the mechanism of the buckwheat flour-dependent decrease in glycemic indexes, the formation of a starch-iodine complex and amylase-catalyzed digestion of starch were studied using buckwheat flour itself and buckwheat flour from which fatty acids, rutin, and proanthocyanidins including flavan-3-ols had been extracted. Absorbance due to the formation of a starch-iodine complex was larger in extracted than control flour, and starch in extracted flour was more susceptible to pancreatin-induced digestion than starch in control flour. Fatty acids, which were found in the buckwheat flour extract, bound to amylose in the extracted flour, inhibiting its digestion by pancreatin. Rutin and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were also found in the extract, bound to both amylose and amylopectin in the extracted flour, inhibiting their digestion induced by pancreatin. We discussed from these results that the lower glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour were due to binding of fatty acids, rutin, and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were contained in buckwheat flour, to wheat flour starch.

  5. Short-term effect of macronutrient composition and glycemic index of a yoghurt breakfast on satiety and mood in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Anna; Humpeler, Susanne; Heinzl, Harald; Blasche, Gerhard; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2012-01-01

    Promoting satiety and repressing appetite is one major goal in the dietetic therapy of obesity. In the past, several studies investigated the effect of different macronutrients, especially protein and carbohydrates, on short- and long-term satiety in humans. This paper aims to directly compare the effect of protein, rolled oats (low glycemic index), sugar or cornflakes (high glycemic index), and walnuts (high amount of omega-3 fatty acids) as ingredients of a yoghurt breakfast on short-term hunger and satiety in one setting. A second objective was to study the effect of these yoghurt breakfasts on mental state. 14 healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, controlled, cross-over design study. After consuming the different test meals, volunteers repeatedly completed 2 questionnaires over a total of 3 h. The protein meal showed the highest satiety scores and the controls (low-calorie yoghurt) the lowest. The other test meals were not different among each other. Regarding mental state (mood, fatigue, and calmness), no significant difference between the test meals and the low-calorie control was observed. The glycemic index does not seem to modify satiety in this short-term setting. The similar mental state between low- and high-calorie breakfasts deserves further investigations. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The effect of an energy restricted low glycemic index diet on blood lipids, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein (a) among adolescent girls with excess weight: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Kelishadi, Roya; Hashemipour, Mahin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-12-01

    Some studies focused on the effect of the dietary glycemic index on lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in adults; however, little evidence exists among adolescents regarding the effect of a low glycemic index (LGI) diet on apolipoproteins and lipoprotein (a) (Lpa). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of an LGI diet on the lipid profile, apolipoproteins and Lpa among overweight and obese adolescent girls. For this parallel designed randomized clinical trial, 50 healthy overweight/obese girls at pubertal ages were randomly allocated to an LGI or a healthy nutritional recommendations (HNR) based diet. Equal macronutrient distributed diets were prescribed to both groups. Biochemical measurements included lipid profile, apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B and Lpa were conducted before and after 10 weeks of intervention. Forty one adolescent girls completed the study. The dietary glycemic index in the LGI group was 42.67 ± 0.067. There were no differences in the mean of blood lipid indices baseline and after intervention between two groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and Lpa. There were no significant differences in lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and Lpa between the LGI diet and the HNR-based diet and the impact of these two diets on lipid profile was equal in this trial.

  7. Association between dietary carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic index and risk of age-related cataract: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Zhang, Huina; Li, Peiwei; Gao, Tao; Lin, Jijian; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yihua; Ye, Juan

    2014-05-15

    To assess the association of dietary carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic index (GI), and risk of age-related cataract (ARC), and quantitatively estimate their dose-response relationships. We searched Medline, the Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Science Citation Index, ISI Web of Knowledge, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases before October 2013. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality. The random-effect model was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs). Dose-response analyses, subgroup analyses based on ARC subtypes, heterogeneity, and publication bias assessment were also carried out. Seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled ORs of ARC for the highest versus the lowest category of carbohydrate intake and GI were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.38) and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.00-1.32), respectively. Further subgroup analyses based on ARC subtypes suggested a marginally significant association between higher carbohydrate intake and cortical cataract risk (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.99-1.90), and a statistically significant association between higher GI and nuclear cataract risk (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.03-1.46). In addition, a significant dose-response relationship was observed between carbohydrate intake and the risk of cortical cataract. Our results indicate that higher dietary carbohydrate quantity and GI may be associated with the risk of cortical and nuclear cataract, respectively. The results should be interpreted cautiously and more studies are warranted to clarify this issue. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. Effect of a Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. A Randomized Controlled Clinici Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misciagna, G; Del Pilar Díaz, M; Caramia, D V; Bonfiglio, C; Franco, I; Noviello, M R; Chiloiro, M; Abbrescia, D I; Mirizzi, A; Tanzi, M; Caruso, M G; Correale, M; Reddavide, R; Inguaggiato, R; Cisternino, A M; Osella, A R

    2017-01-01

    Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of liver disease worldwide affecting all ages and ethnic groups and it has become a consistent threat even in young people. Our aim was to estimate the effect of a Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet (LGIMD) on the NAFLD score as measured by a Liver Ultrasonography (LUS). NUTRIzione in EPAtologia (NUTRIEPA) is a population-based Double-Blind RCT. Data were collected in 2011 and analyzed in 2013-14. 98 men and women coming from Putignano (Puglia, Southern Italy) were drawn from a previous randomly sampled population-based study and identified as having moderate or severe NAFLD. The intervention strategy was the assignment of a LGIMD or a control diet. The main outcome measure was NAFLD score, defined by LUS. After randomization, 50 subjects were assigned to a LGIMD and 48 to a control diet. The study lasted six months and all participants were subject to monthly controls/checks. Adherence to the LGIMD as measured by Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI) showed a median of 10.1. A negative interaction between time and LGIMD on the NAFLD score (-4.14, 95% CI -6.78,-1.49) was observed, and became more evident at the sixth month (-4.43, 95%CI -7.15, -1.71). A positive effect of the interaction among LGIMD, time and age (Third month: 0.07, 95% CI 0.02, 0.12; Sixth month: 0.08, 95% CI 0.03,0.13) was also observed. LGIMD was found to decrease the NAFLD score in a relatively short time. Encouraging those subjects who do not seek medical attention but still have NAFLD to follow a LGIMD and other life-style interventions, may reduce the degree of severity of the disease. Dietary intervention of this kind, could also form the cornerstone of primary prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease.

  9. Effect of adding the novel fiber, PGX®, to commonly consumed foods on glycemic response, glycemic index and GRIP: a simple and effective strategy for reducing post prandial blood glucose levels - a randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reductions in postprandial glycemia have been demonstrated previously with the addition of the novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP, PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®, to an OGTT or white bread. This study explores whether these reductions are sustained when NVP is added to a range of commonly consumed foods or incorporated into a breakfast cereal. Methods Ten healthy subjects (4M, 6F; age 37.3 ± 3.6 y; BMI 23.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2, participated in an acute, randomized controlled trial. The glycemic response to cornflakes, rice, yogurt, and a frozen dinner with and without 5 g of NVP sprinkled onto the food was determined. In addition, 3 granolas with different levels of NVP and 3 control white breads and one white bread and milk were also consumed. All meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrate. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal. The glycemic index (GI and the glycemic reduction index potential (GRIP were calculated. The blood glucose concentrations at each time and the iAUC values were subjected to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA examining for the effect of test meal. After demonstration of significant heterogeneity, differences between individual means was assessed using GLM ANOVA with Tukey test to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results Addition of NVP reduced blood glucose response irrespective of food or dose (p Conclusion Sprinkling or incorporation of NVP into a variety of different foods is highly effective in reducing postprandial glycemia and lowering the GI of a food. Clinical Trial registration NCT00935350.

  10. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to HbA1c in Japanese obese adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Saku Control Obesity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary glycemic index or load is thought to play an important role in glucose metabolism. However, few studies have investigated the relation between glycemic index (GI) or load (GL) and glycemia in Asian populations. In this cross-sectional analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Saku Control Obesity Program, we examined the relation between the baseline GI or GL and glycemia (HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose [FPG] levels), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-β), and other metabolic risk factors (lipid levels, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and adiposity measures). Methods The participants were 227 obese Japanese women and men. We used multiple linear regression models and logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounding factors such as age, sex, visceral fat area, total energy intake, and physical activity levels. Results After adjustments for potential confounding factors, GI was not associated with HbA1c, but GL was positively associated with HbA1c. For increasing quartiles of GI, the adjusted mean HbA1c were 6.3%, 6.7%, 6.4%, and 6.4% (P for trend = 0.991). For increasing quartiles of GL, the adjusted mean HbA1c were 6.2%, 6.2%, 6.6%, and 6.5% (P for trend = 0.044). In addition, among participants with HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, 20 out of 28 (71%) had a high GL (≥ median); the adjusted odds ratio for HbA1c ≥ 7.0% among participants with higher GL was 3.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2 to 8.1) compared to the participants with a lower GL (glycemic control tend to have a higher GL in an obese Japanese population. PMID:22963077

  11. The Association of Unintentional Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Index with Glycemic Progression in Non-Diabetic Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe performed a retrospective longitudinal study on the effects of changes in weight, body composition, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA indices on glycemic progression in subjects without diabetes during a four-year follow-up period in a community cohort without intentional intervention.MethodsFrom 28,440 non-diabetic subjects who participated in a medical check-up program in 2004, data on anthropometric and metabolic parameters were obtained after four years in 2008. Body composition analyses were performed with a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Skeletal muscle index (SMI, % was calculated with lean mass/weight×100. Subjects were divided into three groups according to weight change status in four years: weight loss (≤-5.0%, stable weight (-5.0 to 5.0%, weight gain (≥5.0%. Progressors were defined as the subjects who progressed to impaired fasting glucose or diabetes.ResultsProgressors showed worse baseline metabolic profiles compared with non-progressors. In logistic regression analyses, the increase in changes of HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in four years presented higher odds ratios for glycemic progression compared with other changes during that period. Among the components of body composition, a change in waist-hip ratio was the strongest predictor, and SMI change in four years was a significant negative predictor for glycemic progression. Changes in HOMA β-cell function in four years was a negative predictor for glycemic progression.ConclusionIncreased interval changes in HOMA-IR, weight gain and waist-hip ratio was associated with glycemic progression during a four-year period without intentional intervention in non-diabetic Korean subjects.

  12. Effect of preexercise glycemic-index meal on running when CHO-electrolyte solution is consumed during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen H S; Chan, Oi Won; Chen, Ya Jun; Hu, Heng Long; Lam, Chin Wan; Chung, Pak Kwong

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the effect of consuming carbohydrate- (CHO) electrolyte solution on running performance after different-glycemic-index (GI) meals. Nine men completed 3 trials in a randomized counterbalanced order, with trials separated by at least 7 days. Two hours before the run after an overnight fast, each participant consumed a high-GI (GI = 83) or low-GI (GI = 36) CHO meal or low-energy sugar-free Jell-O (GI = 0, control). The 2 isocaloric GI meals provided 1.5 g available CHO/kg body mass. During each trial, 2 ml/kg body mass of a 6.6% CHO-electrolyte solution was provided immediately before exercise and every 2.5 km after the start of running. Each trial consisted of a 21-km performance run on a level treadmill. The participants were required to run at 70% VO2max during the first 5 km of the run. They then completed the remaining 16 km as fast as possible. There was no difference in the time to complete the 21-km run (high-GI vs. low-GI vs. control: 91.1 +/- 2.0 vs. 91.8 +/- 2.2 vs. 92.9 +/- 2.0 min, n.s.). There were no differences in total CHO and fat oxidation throughout the trials, despite differences in preexercise blood glucose, serum insulin, and serum free-fatty-acid concentrations. When a CHO-electrolyte solution is consumed during a 21-km run, the GI of the preexercise CHO meal makes no difference in running performance.

  13. In vitro digestion rate and estimated glycemic index of oat flours from typical and high β-glucan oat lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; White, Pamela J

    2012-05-23

    The in vitro starch digestion rate and estimated glycemic index (GI) of oat flours and oat starches from typical and high β-glucan oat lines were evaluated along with the impact of heating on starch digestion. Flour from oat lines ('Jim', 'Paul', IA95, and N979 containing 4.0, 5.3, 7.4, and 7.7% β-glucan, respectively) was digested by pepsin and porcine pancreatin. To determine the impact of heating on starch digestion, oat slurries were prepared by mixing oat flour and water (1:8 ratio) and heating for 10 min prior to digestion. Viscosity, as measured on a Rapid Visco Analyzer, increased with increases in concentration and molecular weight of β-glucan. The in vitro starch digestion of oat flours and a control, white bread made from wheat flour, increased as the digestion time increased. Starch digestion of oat flour was slower than that of the control (p oat-flour slurries increased the starch digestion from a range of 31-39% to a range of 52-64% measured after 180 min of in vitro digestion. There were no differences in starch digestibility among oat starches extracted from the different oat lines. The GI, estimated by starch hydrolysis of oat flours, ranged from 61 to 67, which increased to a range of 77-86 after heating. Oat-flour slurries prepared from IA95 and N979 lines with high β-glucan concentrations had lower GI values than did slurries made from Jim and Paul lines. Starch digestion was negatively correlated with β-glucan concentrations in heated oat-flour slurries (R(2) = 0.92). These results illustrate that the oat soluble fiber, β-glucan, slowed the rate of starch digestion. This finding will help to develop new food products with low GI by using oat β-glucan.

  14. The use of different reference foods in determining the glycemic index of starchy and non-starchy test foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Glycemic index (GI) is intended to be a property of food but some reports are suggestive that GI is influenced by participant characteristics when glucose is used as a reference. Objective To examine the influence of different reference foods on observed GI. Design The GIs of five varieties of rice and a sugary beverage (LoGiCane™) were tested in 31 European and 32 Chinese participants using glucose or jasmine rice as reference foods. The GIs of two ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (Kellogg’s cornflakes and Sustain) were tested in 20 younger and 60 older people using glucose or Sustain as reference foods. Results The GIs of rice tended to be higher in the Chinese compared with the Europeans when glucose was used as a reference (jasmine 80 vs 68, P = 0.033; basmati 67 vs 57, P = 0.170; brown 78 vs 65, P = 0.054; Doongara 67 vs 55, P = 0.045; parboiled 72 vs 57, P = 0.011). There were no between-group differences in GI when jasmine rice was the reference. The GIs of breakfast cereals tended to be lower in younger compared with older groups (cornflakes 64 vs 81, P = 0.008; Sustain 56 vs 66, P = 0.054). There was no between-group difference in the GI of cornflakes when Sustain was the reference (cornflakes 115 vs 120, P = 0.64). There was no ethnic difference in GI when glucose was the reference for another sugary food (LoGiCane™ 60 vs 62; P = 0.69). Conclusions A starchy reference may be more appropriate than a glucose beverage when attempting to derive universally applicable GI values of starchy foods. Trial registration The Chinese/European trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12612000519853. PMID:24885045

  15. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Sheldon; Weikel, Karen; Chang, Min-Lee; Nagel, Barbara A; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; Carey, Amanda; Grant, Maria B; Fliesler, Steven J; Smith, Donald; Taylor, Allen

    2014-01-23

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major risk factors for AMD. We explored the effects of GI on development of early AMD-like features and changes to central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in Cfh-null mice. Aged 11-week-old wild type (WT) C57Bl/6J or Cfh-null mice were group pair-fed high or low GI diets for 33 weeks. At 10 months of age, mice were evaluated for early AMD-like features in the neural retina and RPE by light and electron microscopy. Brains were analyzed for Iba1 macrophage/microglia immunostaining, an indicator of inflammation. The 10-month-old WT mice showed no retinal abnormalities on either diet. The Cfh-null mice, however, showed distinct early AMD-like features in the RPE when fed a low GI diet, including vacuolation, disruption of basal infoldings, and increased basal laminar deposits. The Cfh-null mice also showed thinning of the RPE, hypopigmentation, and increased numbers of Iba1-expressing macrophages in the brain, irrespective of diet. The presence of early AMD-like features by 10 months of age in Cfh-null mice fed a low GI diet is surprising, given the apparent protection from the development of such features in aged WT mice or humans consuming lower GI diets. Our findings highlight the need to consider gene-diet interactions when developing animal models and therapeutic approaches to treat AMD.

  16. Substrate utilization during brisk walking is affected by glycemic index and fructose content of a pre-exercise meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Huang, Ya-Jun; Chen, Ya-Jun; Tsang, Ka-Fai

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether both glycemic index (GI) and fructose content of a pre-exercise meal would affect substrate utilization during subsequent brisk walking. Ten healthy young males completed 60 min of 46% [Formula: see text] brisk walking 2 h after they consumed one of three breakfasts: a low-GI meal without fructose (LGI), a low-GI meal including fructose (LGIF), and a high-GI meal without fructose (HGI). The calculated GI values for the three meals were 41, 39, and 72, respectively. Substrate utilization was measured using indirect respiratory calorimetry method. During the postprandial period, the incremental area under the blood response curve values of glucose and insulin were higher in the HGI trial, compared with those in the LGI and LGIF trials (HGI vs. LGI and LGIF: Glucose 223.6 ± 19.1 vs. 70.2 ± 7.4 and 114.1 ± 16.4 mmol min L(-1); Insulin 4257 ± 932 vs. 920 ± 319 and 1487 ± 348 mU min L(-1)). During exercise, substrate preference was distinct based on different pre-exercise carbohydrate meals. Higher fat and lower carbohydrate oxidation was observed in the LGI trial, whereas both the HGI and LGIF trials were characterized by higher carbohydrate and lower fat oxidation (LGI vs. LGIF and HGI: Carbohydrate 59.3 ± 2.4 vs. 69.8 ± 3.9 and 72.7 ± 3.9 g; Fat 22.7 ± 2.0 vs. 18.5 ± 1.7 and 17.6 ± 1.3 g; P brisk walking with that induced by a HGI breakfast. It appears that both the GI and fructose content in a breakfast individually affect substrate utilization during subsequent moderate intensity exercise.

  17. High dietary glycemic index and low fiber content are associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávia M; Steemburgo, Thais; de Mello, Vanessa D F; Tonding, Simone F; Gross, Jorge L; Azevedo, Mirela J

    2011-04-01

    To investigate possible associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and fiber content with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, 175 outpatients with type 2 diabetes (aged 61.1 ± 9.7 years; HbA(1c) 7.3% ± 1.4%; diabetes duration of 11 years [range, 5-17]) had food intake assessed by 3-day weighed-diet records. Dietary GI (according to FAO/WHO) and fiber content were categorized as high or low based on median values. MetS was defined according to the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. Patients with MetS (n = 109) had higher 24-hour GI (60.0% ± 6.3% vs 57.5% ± 6.4%), higher breakfast GI (59.8% ± 8.0% vs 55.0% ± 9.9%), and lower fiber intake at 24 hours (17.0 ± 6.6 g vs 21.2 ± 8.0 g), breakfast (1.9 [1.2-3.2] vs 3.1 [1.8-4.9] g), lunch (6.2 [3.9-8.0] vs 7.5 [4.7-9.4] g), and dinner (3.3 [2.1-5.2] vs 4.9 [3.1-6.4] g; p fiber content were also associated with MetS. When high GI and low fiber intake were combined into the same variable, associations with MetS were maintained. Increased dietary GI and reduced fiber content were positively associated with MetS, mainly due to breakfast intake, in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Intake of carbohydrates compared with intake of saturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: importance of the glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Joensen, Albert M; Stegger, Jakob; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim

    2010-06-01

    Studies have suggested that replacing saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with carbohydrates is modestly associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease, whereas replacing SFAs with polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease. The effect of carbohydrates, however, may depend on the type consumed. By using substitution models, we aimed to investigate the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) associated with a higher energy intake from carbohydrates and a concomitant lower energy intake from SFAs. Carbohydrates with different glycemic index (GI) values were also investigated. Our prospective cohort study included 53,644 women and men free of MI at baseline. During a median of 12 y of follow-up, 1943 incident MI cases occurred. There was a nonsignificant inverse association between substitution of carbohydrates with low-GI values for SFAs and risk of MI [hazard ratio (HR) for MI per 5% increment of energy intake from carbohydrates: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.07). In contrast, there was a statistically significant positive association between substitution of carbohydrates with high-GI values for SFAs and risk of MI (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.64). There was no association for carbohydrates with medium-GI values (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.21). No effect modification by sex was observed. This study suggests that replacing SFAs with carbohydrates with low-GI values is associated with a lower risk of MI, whereas replacing SFAs with carbohydrates with high-GI values is associated with a higher risk of MI.

  19. Effects of Low Glycemic Index Diets on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinhua; Heng, Weijun; Gao, Jianbo

    2016-05-01

    Studies of the effects of low glycemic index (LGI) diets on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have reported conflicting findings.The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on maternal and neonatal outcomes in GDM patients.We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases for studies of the effects of LGI diets in GDM patients. We performed a meta-analysis of the effects of the LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on GDM outcomes. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- and fixed-effects models.Five RCTs involving 302 participants were included in our meta-analysis. No statistically significant differences in the risks of cesarean section delivery, large for gestational age, and small for gestational age were observed. The risk of macrosomia in the LGI groups was significantly lower (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.71; P = 0.008) than that in the control groups. Our subgroup analysis of the effects of DF showed that LGI diets with an increased level of DF, relative to the control diet, reduced the risk of macrosomia beyond that of the LGI diets alone (RR: 0.17 vs 0.47, respectively). The subgroup analysis also showed that LGI diets in which the level of DF was approximately equivalent to that in the control diets significantly reduced the risk of insulin usage (RR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52-0.92; P = 0.01).The LGI diets reduced the risk of macrosomia in GDM patients, and LGI diets with added DF reduced the risk of macrosomia further. The LGI diets with levels of DF approximately equivalent to that in the control diets reduced the risk of insulin usage in GDM patients.

  20. Impairment of fat oxidation under high- vs. low-glycemic index diet occurs before the development of an obese phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, F; Klaus, S; Petzke, K J; Loddenkemper, C; Pfeiffer, A F H; Weickert, M O

    2010-02-01

    Exposure to high vs. low glycemic index (GI) diets increases fat mass and insulin resistance in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. However, the longer-term effects and potentially involved mechanisms are largely unknown. We exposed four groups of male C57BL/6J mice (n = 10 per group) to long-term (20 wk) or short-term (6 wk) isoenergetic and macronutrient matched diets only differing in starch type and as such GI. Body composition, liver fat, molecular factors of lipid metabolism, and markers of insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility were investigated in all four groups of mice. Mice fed the high GI diet showed a rapid-onset (from week 5) marked increase in body fat mass and liver fat, a gene expression profile in liver consistent with elevated lipogenesis, and, after long-term exposure, significantly reduced glucose clearance following a glucose load. The long-term high-GI diet also led to a delayed switch to both carbohydrate and fat oxidation in the postprandial state, indicating reduced metabolic flexibility. In contrast, no difference in carbohydrate oxidation was observed after short-term high- vs. low-GI exposure. However, fatty acid oxidation was significantly blunted as early as 3 wk after beginning of the high-GI intervention, at a time where most measured phenotypic markers including body fat mass were comparable between groups. Thus long-term high-GI feeding resulted in an obese, insulin-resistant, and metabolically inflexible phenotype in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. Early onset and significantly impaired fatty acid oxidation preceded these changes, thereby indicating a potentially causal involvement.

  1. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Yalcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs. Methods: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n = 15 and overweight group (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, n = 15. Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results: Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low (P < 0.05. The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people.

  2. Effects of Lowering Glycemic Index of Dietary Carbohydrate on Plasma Uric Acid: The OmniCarb Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraschek, Stephen P; McAdams-Demarco, Mara; Gelber, Allan C; Sacks, Frank M.; Appel, Lawrence J; White, Karen; Miller, Edgar R

    2017-01-01

    Objective The effects of carbohydrates on plasma uric acid levels are controversial. We determined the individual and combined effects of carbohydrate quality (glycemic index, GI) and quantity (proportion of total daily energy, %carb) on uric acid. Methods We conducted a randomized, crossover feeding trial in overweight or obese adults without cardiovascular disease (N=163). Participants were fed each of four diets over 5-week periods separated by 2-week washout periods. Body weight was kept constant. The four diets were: high GI (GI ≥65) with high %carb (58% kcal), low GI (GI ≤45) with low %carb (40% kcal), low GI with high %carb; and high GI with low %carb. Plasma uric acid was measured at baseline and after each feeding period for comparison between the 4 diets. Results Study participants were 52% women and 50% non-Hispanic black with a mean age of 52.6 years and a mean uric acid of 4.7 (SD, 1.2) mg/dL. Reducing GI lowered uric acid when the %carb was low (−0.24 mg/dL; P <0.001) or high (−0.17 mg/dL; P <0.001). Reducing the %carb marginally increased uric acid only when GI was high (P = 0.05). The combined effect of lowering GI and increasing the %carb was −0.27 mg/dL (P <0.001). This effect was observed even after adjustment for concurrent changes in kidney function, insulin sensitivity, and products of glycolysis. Conclusions Reducing GI lowers uric acid. Future studies should examine whether reducing GI can prevent gout onset or flares. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00608049 PMID:26636424

  3. Effects of vitamin D-fortified low fat yogurt on glycemic status, anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover in diabetic postmenopausal women: A randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Tina; Faghihimani, Elham; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Fallah, Aziz A; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-02-01

    Low levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) are common in type 2 diabetic patients and cause several complications particularly, in postmenopausal women due to their senile and physiological conditions. This study aimed to assess the effects of vitamin D-fortified low fat yogurt on glycemic status, anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover in diabetic postmenopausal women. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel-group clinical trial, 59 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received fortified yogurt (FY; 2000 IU vitamin D in 100 g/day) or plain yogurt (PY) for 12 weeks. Glycemic markers, anthropometric indexes, inflammatory, and bone turnover markers were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. After intervention, in FY group (vs PY group), were observed: significant increase in serum 25(OH)D and decrease of PTH (stable values in PY); significant improvement in serum fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, QUICKI, and no changes in serum fasting glucose and HbA1c (significant worsening of all indexes in PY); significant improvement in WC, WHR, FM, and no change in weight and BMI (stable values in PY); significant increase of omentin (stable in PY) and decrease of sNTX (significant increase in PY). Final values of glycemic markers (except HbA1c), omentin, and bone turnover markers significantly improved in FY group compared to PY group. Regarding final values of serum 25(OH)D in FY group, subjects were classified in insufficient and sufficient categories. Glycemic status improved more significantly in the insufficient rather than sufficient category; whereas the other parameters had more amelioration in the sufficient category. Daily consumption of 2000 IU vitamin D-fortified yogurt for 12 weeks improved glycemic markers (except HbA1c), anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. www.irct.ir (IRCT2013110515294N1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European

  4. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  5. Dietary glycemic load and risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Lan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Zhang, Xianglan; Cai, Hui; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mixed results have been reported in recent epidemiologic studies in Western populations that have investigated the hypothesis that high glycemic load may increase the risk of colorectal cancer. This association has not been prospectively evaluated in other populations. Objective: We examined the association of overall glycemic index and glycemic load with colorectal cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Chinese women. Design: A total of 73,061 women aged 40–70 y and free of cancer at enrollment were included in this analysis. Usual dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1997–2000) and reassessed during the first follow-up (2000–2002) through in-person interviews by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Results: During an average follow-up of 9.1 y, 475 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified. Glycemic load was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (P for trend = 0.84). The multivariable hazard ratio for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of glycemic load was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.24). Similar results were also observed for associations with dietary glycemic index and total carbohydrate intake, and results did not vary by excluding individuals with a history of diabetes from the analysis. Conclusion: This prospective study, conducted in a population with a high intake of carbohydrates, provides no evidence that a high–glycemic index diet or high glycemic load is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:20962156

  6. Block Empirical Likelihood for Longitudinal Single-Index Varying-Coefficient Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunquan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a single-index varying-coefficient model with application to longitudinal data. In order to accommodate the within-group correlation, we apply the block empirical likelihood procedure to longitudinal single-index varying-coefficient model, and prove a nonparametric version of Wilks’ theorem which can be used to construct the block empirical likelihood confidence region with asymptotically correct coverage probability for the parametric component. In comparison with normal approximations, the proposed method does not require a consistent estimator for the asymptotic covariance matrix, making it easier to conduct inference for the model's parametric component. Simulations demonstrate how the proposed method works.

  7. Association of glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of incident coronary heart disease among Whites and African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Dale; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Aragaki, Corinne; Stevens, June; Steffen, Lyn M.; Pankow, James S.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study examined whether high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with increased risk of developing CHD in Whites and African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods Data on 13,051 individuals aged 45-64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study were analyzed. The ARIC food frequency questionnaire baseline data provided GI and GL indices. A propensity score was created to estimate the effect of an individual's covariates on energy-adjusted GI or GL. During a maximum of 17 years of follow-up, 1,683 cases of CHD (371 with diabetes and 1,312 without diabetes) were recorded. Results For every 5-units increase in GI, there was a 1.16-fold (95% CI:1.01, 1.33) increased risk of incident CHD in African Americans. For every 30-units increase in GL, there was a 1.11-fold (95% CI:1.01, 1.21) increased risk of incident CHD in Whites. High GL was an especially important CHD risk factor for Whites without diabetes (per 30-units increase) (HR=1.14; 95% CI:1.02, 1.26). However, these relationships were not seen in individuals with diabetes. Conclusions Nutritional advice to reduce the GI and GL in diets of African Americans, and Whites (without diabetes) may play a role in reducing CHD risk. PMID:20609341

  8. Intramyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity are increased following a short-term low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Lu, Lan; Jesberger, John A; Barkoukis, Hope; Flask, Chris A; Kirwan, John P

    2011-09-01

    The relationship between intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) accumulation and skeletal muscle insulin resistance is complex and dynamic. We examined the effect of a short-term (7-day) low-glycemic index (LGI) diet and aerobic exercise training intervention (EX) on IMCL and insulin sensitivity in older, insulin-resistant humans. Participants (66 ± 1 yr, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a parallel, controlled feeding trial [either an LGI (LGI/EX, n = 7) or high GI (HGI/EX, n = 8) eucaloric diet] combined with supervised exercise (60 min/day, 85% HR(max)). Insulin sensitivity was determined via 40 mU·m(-2)·min(-1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and soleus IMCL and EMCL content was assessed by (1)H-MR spectroscopy with correction for fiber orientation. BMI decreased (kg/m(2) -0.6 ± 0.2, LGI/EX; -0.7 ± 0.2, HGI/EX P lipids and insulin sensitivity were not correlated; however, the change in [IMCL]/[EMCL] was negatively associated with the change in FPI (r = -0.78, P = 0.002) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.61, P = 0.03). These data suggest that increases in the IMCL pool following a low glycemic diet and exercise intervention may represent lipid repartitioning from EMCL. The lower systemic glucose levels that prevail while eating a low glycemic diet may promote redistribution of lipid stores in the muscle.

  9. Honey and Glycemic Index

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Silici; Meltem Soylu

    2015-01-01

    Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from the nectar of blossoms or from secretions of living parts of plants or excretions of plant sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which honeybees collect, transform and combine with specific substances of their own, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature. Besides being of carbohydrate-rich food, honey has been used as a functional food for its potential health benefits. To explain how different ...

  10. Glycemic Index and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School ... Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  11. Prediabetes Exhibits Decreased Disposition Index Correlated with Deterioration of Glycemic Parameters in Nonobese Japanese Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study from Medical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yasutaka; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Honjo, Jun; Abiko, Atsuko; Asai, Mahito; Haneda, Masakazu

    2017-08-01

    Prediabetes, defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), likely develops to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and independently increases cardiovascular risk. We employed disposition index (DI), a new metabolic parameter indicating the pancreatic beta cell function adjusted for insulin resistance, and investigated whether it could be altered in Japanese population with prediabetes and associated with early glucose intolerance. A total of 102 adults who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at the medical screening were designated to normal glucose tolerance (NGT), IFG, IGT, and DM. We calculated insulinogenic index (IGI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of β cell function (HOMA-β) as insulin secretory function, HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) as insulin resistance and DI, and assessed correlations between these indices and glycemic parameters. We observed graded increase of glycemic parameters in the order of NGT, IFG, IGT, and DM. HOMA-IR was significantly higher only in DM compared with NGT, although HOMA-β, IGI, and QUICKI showed no significant differences among the groups. In contrast, DI was significantly lower in IFG, IGT, and DM compared with NGT. In correlation analysis, glycemic parameters related positively to HOMA-IR, but inversely to DI. Only two parameters, IGI and particularly DI, were significantly decreased in the subjects with 1-hr postload glucose >8.6 mmol/L previously proposed as a predictor of type 2 diabetes. Our results suggest that reduction of DI promptly reflects the alteration of early glucose intolerance in Japanese population presenting with prediabetes.

  12. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to HbA1c in Japanese obese adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Saku Control Obesity Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Maki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary glycemic index or load is thought to play an important role in glucose metabolism. However, few studies have investigated the relation between glycemic index (GI or load (GL and glycemia in Asian populations. In this cross-sectional analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Saku Control Obesity Program, we examined the relation between the baseline GI or GL and glycemia (HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose [FPG] levels, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, β-cell function (HOMA-β, and other metabolic risk factors (lipid levels, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and adiposity measures. Methods The participants were 227 obese Japanese women and men. We used multiple linear regression models and logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounding factors such as age, sex, visceral fat area, total energy intake, and physical activity levels. Results After adjustments for potential confounding factors, GI was not associated with HbA1c, but GL was positively associated with HbA1c. For increasing quartiles of GI, the adjusted mean HbA1c were 6.3%, 6.7%, 6.4%, and 6.4% (P for trend = 0.991. For increasing quartiles of GL, the adjusted mean HbA1c were 6.2%, 6.2%, 6.6%, and 6.5% (P for trend = 0.044. In addition, among participants with HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, 20 out of 28 (71% had a high GL (≥ median; the adjusted odds ratio for HbA1c ≥ 7.0% among participants with higher GL was 3.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2 to 8.1 compared to the participants with a lower GL ( Conclusions Our findings suggest that participants with poor glycemic control tend to have a higher GL in an obese Japanese population.

  13. Effect of adding the novel fiber, PGX®, to commonly consumed foods on glycemic response, glycemic index and GRIP: a simple and effective strategy for reducing post prandial blood glucose levels--a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alexandra L; Kacinik, Veronica; Lyon, Michael; Wolever, Thomas Ms

    2010-11-22

    Reductions in postprandial glycemia have been demonstrated previously with the addition of the novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP), PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®), to an OGTT or white bread. This study explores whether these reductions are sustained when NVP is added to a range of commonly consumed foods or incorporated into a breakfast cereal. Ten healthy subjects (4M, 6F; age 37.3 ± 3.6 y; BMI 23.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2), participated in an acute, randomized controlled trial. The glycemic response to cornflakes, rice, yogurt, and a frozen dinner with and without 5 g of NVP sprinkled onto the food was determined. In addition, 3 granolas with different levels of NVP and 3 control white breads and one white bread and milk were also consumed. All meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrate. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal. The glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic reduction index potential (GRIP) were calculated. The blood glucose concentrations at each time and the iAUC values were subjected to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) examining for the effect of test meal. After demonstration of significant heterogeneity, differences between individual means was assessed using GLM ANOVA with Tukey test to adjust for multiple comparisons. Addition of NVP reduced blood glucose response irrespective of food or dose (p yogurt, yogurt+NVP, turkey dinner, and turkey dinner+NVP were 83 ± 8, 58 ± 7, 82 ± 8, 45 ± 4, 44 ± 4, 38 ± 3, 55 ± 5 and 41 ± 4, respectively. The GI of the control granola, and granolas with 2.5 and 5 g of NVP were 64 ± 6, 33 ± 5, and 22 ± 3 respectively. GRIP was 6.8 ± 0.9 units per/g of NVP. Sprinkling or incorporation of NVP into a variety of different foods is highly effective in reducing postprandial glycemia and lowering the GI of a food. NCT00935350.

  14. Effect of adding the novel fiber, PGX®, to commonly consumed foods on glycemic response, glycemic index and GRIP: a simple and effective strategy for reducing post prandial blood glucose levels - a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Reductions in postprandial glycemia have been demonstrated previously with the addition of the novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP), PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®), to an OGTT or white bread. This study explores whether these reductions are sustained when NVP is added to a range of commonly consumed foods or incorporated into a breakfast cereal. Methods Ten healthy subjects (4M, 6F; age 37.3 ± 3.6 y; BMI 23.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2), participated in an acute, randomized controlled trial. The glycemic response to cornflakes, rice, yogurt, and a frozen dinner with and without 5 g of NVP sprinkled onto the food was determined. In addition, 3 granolas with different levels of NVP and 3 control white breads and one white bread and milk were also consumed. All meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrate. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal. The glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic reduction index potential (GRIP) were calculated. The blood glucose concentrations at each time and the iAUC values were subjected to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) examining for the effect of test meal. After demonstration of significant heterogeneity, differences between individual means was assessed using GLM ANOVA with Tukey test to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results Addition of NVP reduced blood glucose response irrespective of food or dose (p < 0.01). The GI of cornflakes, cornflakes+NVP, rice, rice+NVP, yogurt, yogurt+NVP, turkey dinner, and turkey dinner+NVP were 83 ± 8, 58 ± 7, 82 ± 8, 45 ± 4, 44 ± 4, 38 ± 3, 55 ± 5 and 41 ± 4, respectively. The GI of the control granola, and granolas with 2.5 and 5 g of NVP were 64 ± 6, 33 ± 5, and 22 ± 3 respectively. GRIP was 6.8 ± 0.9 units per/g of NVP. Conclusion Sprinkling or incorporation of NVP into a variety of different foods is highly effective in reducing postprandial glycemia and lowering the GI of a food. Clinical Trial registration NCT

  15. Effect of the glycemic index of the diet on weight loss, modulation of satiety, inflammation, and other metabolic risk factors: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Juanola-Falgarona, M. (Martí); Salas-Salvadó, J; Ibarrola-Jurado, N.; Rabassa-Soler, A.; Díaz-López, A.; Guasch-Ferré, M.; Hernández-Alonso, P.; Balanza, R.; M. Bulló

    2014-01-01

    10.3945/ajcn.113.081216 Background: Low-glycemic index (GI) diets have been proven to have beneficial effects in such chronic conditions as type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and some types of cancer, but the effect of low-GI diets on weight loss, satiety, and inflammation is still controversial. Objective: We assessed the efficacy of 2 moderate-carbohydrate diets and a low-fat diet with different GIs on weight loss and the modulation of satiety, inflammation, and other metabolic ri...

  16. [Features of food priorities in urban population of Kazakhstan in regard of consumption of foods with high glycemic index and significant content of fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetova, S V; Terekhin, S P

    2015-01-01

    The diseases, associated with metabolism disorders, are now considered as the most common in the world, their prevalence has reached epidemic indicator values in both developed and developing countries. One of the most important methods of treatment and correction of dyslipidemic disorders and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism is the changing of eating behavior, including the literacy of consumers when choosing foods. The most significant indicators of the value of products for patients with metabolic disorders are the glycemic index and fat content. The frequency of consumption of foods with high glycemic index and significant content of fat in urban population of Kazakhstan has been investigated. A random, stratified by sex and age sampling from the number of residents (n=8219) of large cities of Kazakhstan at the age of 18-73 years has been covered. The study was performed using a specially designed questionnaire, including detailed questions on assessment of eating behavior, eating habits and diet. It has been revealed that foods with a high glycemic index and significant fat content are the predominant in frequency of consumption by the urban population of Kazakhstan. About 90% of the citizens consumed bread and bakery products daily or several times a week. Pies, cakes and cookies are consumed daily or several times per week by 35% of the surveyed, pasta products--57%, cereals--68% of the urban population. Average daily diet of fruit and vegetable set of urban residents of Kazakhstan represented 80% of the potatoes, carrots and beets. Tea and coffee admission is traditionally combined with the intake of sugar and sweets. More than 70% of surveyed population consume butter daily or several times a week. The excessive intake of foods with a large amount of fat and high glycemic index against the background of the deficiency of complete protein remains an urgent problem for several years. The obtained results dictate the need of development and implementation

  17. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Herder, Christian; Roßbach, Sarah; Roden, Michael; Wudy, Stefan A; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2017-06-10

    This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI) (both N = 253), and a pro-inflammatory-score (N = 249). Results: Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003). A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046) and an increased HSI (p = 0.006), while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009). Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1). Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  18. Indexical properties influence time-varying amplitude and fundamental frequency contributions of vowels to sentence intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated how non-linguistic, indexical information about talker identity interacts with contributions to sentence intelligibility by the time-varying amplitude (temporal envelope) and fundamental frequency (F 0 ). Young normal-hearing adults listened to sentences that preserved the original consonants but replaced the vowels with a single vowel production. This replacement vowel selectively preserved amplitude or F 0 cues of the original vowel, but replaced cues to phonetic identity. Original vowel duration was always preserved. Three experiments investigated indexical contributions by replacing vowels with productions from the same or different talker, or by acoustically morphing the original vowel. These stimulus conditions investigated how vowel suprasegmental and indexical properties interact and contribute to intelligibility independently from phonetic information. Results demonstrated that indexical properties influence the relative contribution of suprasegmental properties to sentence intelligibility. F 0 variations are particularly important in the presence of conflicting indexical information. Temporal envelope modulations significantly improve sentence intelligibility, but are enhanced when either indexical or F 0 cues are available. These findings suggest that F 0 and other indexical cues may facilitate perceptually grouping suprasegmental properties of vowels with the remainder of the sentence. Temporal envelope modulations of vowels may contribute to intelligibility once they are successfully integrated with the preserved signal.

  19. Improvement of dietary quality with the aid of a low glycemic index diet in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakatun Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Norimah, A Karim; Gilbertson, Heather; Nor Azmi, Kamaruddin

    2010-06-01

    This randomized controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of low glycemic index (GI) dietary advice on eating patterns and dietary quality in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Asian patients with T2DM (N  =  104) were randomized into 2 groups that received either low GI or conventional carbohydrate exchange (CCE) dietary advice for 12 weeks. Nutritional prescriptions were based on the medical nutrition therapy for T2DM, with the difference being in the GI component of the carbohydrates. Dietary intake and food choices were assessed with the use of a 3-day food record. At week 12, both groups achieved the recommendations for carbohydrate (52 ± 4% and 54 ± 4% of energy) and fat (30 ± 4% and 28 ± 5% of energy) intake. There were no significant differences in the reported macronutrient intake in both groups. With the low GI diet, crude fiber and dietary calcium intake increased, while the dietary GI reduced. Subjects in the lowest dietary glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) quartile consumed more parboiled/basmati rice, pasta, milk/dairy products, fruits, and dough, which are foods from the low GI category. There was a significant reduction in the hemoglobin A(1c) level at week 12 for patients in the lowest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.7 ± 0.1%) compared with those in the highest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.1 ± 0.2%). These results demonstrate the ability of low GI dietary advice to improve the dietary quality of Asian patients with T2DM.

  20. A protein-enriched low glycemic index diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation exerts beneficial effects on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosheer, Simone M; Waldschütz, Wolfgang; Itariu, Bianca K; Brath, Helmut; Stulnig, Thomas M

    2014-12-01

    The current study aims to investigate practicability and effects of a combined dietary intervention with increased relative protein content supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on metabolic control and inflammatory parameters in a real life situation in type 2 diabetes patients. In this observational study we advised thirty mostly obese patients with type 2 diabetes to follow a protein-enriched diet with carbohydrates of low glycemic index (low GI) and moderate fat reduction supplemented with omega-3 PUFA for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy parameter was the change in HbA1c; secondary parameters included changes in systemic inflammation (measured by ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, usCRP), body weight, waist circumference, fat mass. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01474603). The dietary intervention significantly reduced the primary efficacy variable HbA1c from a baseline value of 63±11mmol/mol to 59±14mmol/mol (P=0.033) and 56±12mmol/mol (P=0.001) after 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. In addition, usCRP decreased significantly at 24 weeks (P=0.039). Waist circumference, an important indicator for cardiometabolic-risk and silent inflammation, decreased from baseline 116.0±14.1cm to 114.9±13.5cm (P=0.019), 114.0±14.4cm (P=0.001), and 112.7±13.4cm (P=0.049), after 3, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Counseling a protein enriched and low glycemic index diet supplemented with long-chain omega-3 PUFA in a real-life clinical setting improves glycemic control and also reduces waist circumference and silent inflammation in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation between Dietary Glycemic Index and Blood Lipids Abnormality as a Main Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis in Healthy Women from Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Shishebor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis and subsequent coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in Iranian population. High serum lipid levels, especially the elevated level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, have been shown to be strongly related to the development of atherosclerosis. The relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI and lipid profile, particularly in nonwestern populations, has not been well studied; also, the result of studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI and main risk factor of atherosclerosis including abnormal blood lipid levels in healthy women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done to investigate the associations between dietary GI and lipid profile. The subjects were 87 female personnel of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences aged 25-55 y; they were recruited randomly. Dietary GI was calculated from six 24 hour recalls (including 4 usual days and 2 holidays. Results: The mean of dietary GI was 72.1±4.07. After adjustment for potential dietary and non- dietary confounding factors, no significant relationship was found between dietary GI with HDL-C and LDL-C. There was also no statistically significant relationship between GI and total cholesterol or fasting Triacylglycerol. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not support the hypothesis of physiologic relevance of GI and lipid profile abnormality as a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis.

  2. Higher dietary glycemic index, but not glycemic load, is associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional study of young and middle-aged Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minobe, Naoko; Murakami, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-07-20

    Epidemiologic evidence on the associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and depressive symptoms is not only limited, particularly in Asian populations where dietary GI and GL are typically higher than in Western countries, but also inconclusive. This cross-sectional study examined these associations in Japanese women. Subjects were 3963 young (age 18-years) and 3826 middle-aged (mean age 47.8 years) Japanese women. Dietary GI and GL were assessed using a validated diet history questionnaire. Depression symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score ≥16. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 50.2% for young women and 27.3% for middle-aged women. The mean (SD) values of energy-adjusted dietary GI and GL (GI for glucose = 100) were, respectively, 64.9 (4.3) and 142.0 (27.4) for young women and 65.0 (4.1) and 142.2 (29.5) for middle-aged women. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher dietary GI was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. Adjusted OR (95% CI) for depressive symptoms in the highest compared to lowest quintiles of dietary GI was 0.66 (0.52, 0.82) for young women (P for trend = 0.001) and 0.75 (0.60, 0.96) for middle-aged women (P for trend = 0.046). Conversely, there was no association between dietary GL and depressive symptoms in either age group. Dietary GI, but not GL, was inversely associated with depressive symptoms in a group of young and middle-aged Japanese women with relatively high dietary GI and GL.

  3. The effects of fat and protein on glycemic responses in nondiabetic humans vary with waist circumference, fasting plasma insulin, and dietary fiber intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Elham; Vogt, Janet A; Wolever, Thomas M S

    2006-10-01

    The effects of protein and fat on glycemic responses have not been studied systematically. Therefore, our aim was to determine the dose-response effects of protein and fat on the glycemic response elicited by 50 g glucose in humans and whether subjects' fasting plasma insulin (FPI) and diet influenced the results. Nondiabetic humans, 10 with FPI 40 pmol/L, were studied on 18 occasions after 10 14-h overnight fasts. Subjects consumed 50 g glucose dissolved in 250 mL water plus 0, 5, 10, or 30 g fat and/or 0, 5, 10, or 30 g protein. Each level of fat was tested with each level of protein. Dietary intake was measured using a 3-d food record. Gram per gram, protein reduced glucose responses approximately 2 times more than fat (P fat x protein interaction (P = 0.051). The effect of protein on glycemic responses was related to waist circumference (WC) (r = -0.56, P = 0.011) and intake of dietary fiber (r = -0.60, P = 0.005) but was unrelated to FPI or other nutrient intakes. The effect of fat on glycemic responses was related to FPI (r = 0.49, P = 0.029) but was unrelated to WC or diet. We conclude that, across the range of 0-30 g, protein and fat reduced glycemic responses independently from each other in a linear, dose-dependent fashion, with protein having approximately 3-times the effect of fat. A large protein effect was associated with high WC and high dietary-fiber intake, whereas a large fat effect was associated with low FPI. These conclusions may not apply to solid meals. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms for these effects.

  4. Effect of high and low glycemic index breakfast on postprandial metabolic parameters and satiety in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus under intensive insulin therapy: Controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Daniela R; Vicuña, Isabella A; Novik, Victoria; Vega, Claudia A

    2017-08-01

    The results of studies evaluating the metabolic effects of glycemic index (GI) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have been contradictory. Consequently, the benefits of its application are controversial and polarized opinions of international organizations have been disclosed. The above situation leads this study to evaluate the acute effect of low and high GI breakfast on the glycemic response and satiety in subjects with DM2 under intensive insulin therapy (IIT). A controlled, crossover and single-blind clinical trial was developed involving 10 obese subjects with DM2 under IIT, with a period of at least six months under IIT and with fast insulin prescription before breakfast. Subjects ingested on two different occasions a high or low GI breakfast. In both stages, glycemia was evaluated at 0 (basal), 30, 60 and 120 min, and satiety and satiation were evaluated through a visual analogue scale. In contrast to high GI breakfast, the low GI meal generated a significant decrease of 46% for the area under the curve of glucose (Δ 1940 mg/dL × 120 min, p = 0.022) and in mean glycemia evaluated at 30, 60 and 120 min. Moreover, in the low GI stage 8 of 10 patients achieved a 2 h postprandial glycemia lower than 180 mg/dL, without statistical significance. A nonsignificant increase of 12.7% (Δ 1.06 cm, p = 0.271) in satiety at 120 min in the low GI stage was observed. In contrast to high GI breakfast, the low GI breakfast generated a significantly lower glycemic response. This assay allowed for the contribution of more in depth nutritional recommendations for this group of patients. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT02881164. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-term effects of a hypocaloric diet with low glycemic index and low glycemic load on body adiposity, metabolic variables, ghrelin, leptin, and pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Geórgia F; Passos, Eduardo P; Moulin, Cileide C

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is related to hormonal disorders that affect the reproductive system. Low-glycemic index (LGI) diets seem to exert a positive effect on weight loss and on metabolic changes that result from obesity. We investigated the effects of a hypocaloric diet with an LGI and low glycemic load on anthropometric and metabolic variables, ghrelin and leptin concentrations, and the pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). The study was a randomized block-design controlled trial in which we analyzed 26 overweight or obese infertile women. Patients were assigned to a hypocaloric LGI-diet group or a control group and followed the protocol for 12 wk. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, serum lipids, reproductive hormones, leptin, acylated ghrelin, number of oocytes retrieved in the IVF cycle, and pregnancy rate were determined. There were greater reductions in body mass, BMI, percentage of body fat, waist:hip ratio, and leptin in the LGI-diet group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Despite a change of 18% in mean values, there was no significant increase in acylated ghrelin concentrations in the LGI group compared with the control group (P = 0.215). The LGI-diet group had 85.4% more oocytes retrieved than did the control group (7.75 ± 1.44 and 4.18 ± 0.87, respectively; P = 0.039) in the IVF cycle. Three patients (21.4%) in the LGI group experienced a spontaneous pregnancy during the follow-up, which generated 3 live births. The hypocaloric LGI diet promoted a decrease in BMI, percentage of body fat, and leptin concentrations, which improved oocyte development and pregnancy rate. These results support the clinical recommendation to advise overweight and obese women to lose weight through a balanced diet before being submitted for treatment with assisted reproduction technologies. A hypocaloric diet combined with LGI

  6. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Diederichs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI < 55 and higher-GI-CHO (GI ≥ 55 were related to insulin sensitivity (N = 252, hepatic steatosis index (HSI, fatty liver index (FLI (both N = 253, and a pro-inflammatory-score (N = 249. Results: Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003. A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046 and an increased HSI (p = 0.006, while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009. Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1. Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  7. Comparison of appetite responses to high- and low-glycemic index postexercise meals under matched insulinemia and fiber in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D; Gonzalez, Javier T; Rumbold, Penny L S; Walker, Mark; Shaw, James A; Stevenson, Emma J; West, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes face heightened risk of hypoglycemia after exercise. Subsequent overfeeding, as a preventative measure against hypoglycemia, negates the energy deficit after exercise. Patients are also required to reduce the insulin dose administered with postexercise foods to further combat hypoglycemia. However, the insulin dose is dictated solely by the carbohydrate content, even though postprandial glycemia is vastly influenced by glycemic index (GI). With a need to control the postexercise energy balance, appetite responses after meals differing in GI are of particular interest. We assessed the appetite response to low-glycemic index (LGI) and high-glycemic index (HGI) postexercise meals in type 1 diabetes patients. This assessment also offered us the opportunity to evaluate the influence of GI on appetite responses independently of insulinemia, which confounds findings in individuals without diabetes. Ten physically active men with type 1 diabetes completed 2 trials in a randomized crossover design. After 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% of the peak oxygen uptake, participants consumed an LGI (GI ∼37) or HGI (GI ∼92) meal with a matched macronutrient composition, negligible fiber content, and standardized insulin-dose administration. The postprandial appetite response was determined for 180 min postmeal. During this time, circulating glucose, insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations and subjective appetite ratings were determined. The HGI meal produced an ∼60% greater postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC) than did the LGI meal (P = 0.008). Insulin, glucagon, and GLP-1 did not significantly differ between trials (P > 0.05). The fullness AUC was ∼25% greater after the HGI meal than after the LGI meal (P < 0.001), whereas hunger sensations were ∼9% lower after the HGI meal than after the LGI meal (P = 0.001). Under conditions of matched insulinemia and fiber, an HGI postexercise meal suppresses

  8. Effects of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] Crude Extracts on Starch Digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS Contents of Porridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Lemlioglu-Austin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA. The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content.

  9. TFAP2B -Dietary Protein and Glycemic Index Interactions and Weight Maintenance after Weight Loss in the DiOGenes Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Background: TFAP2B rs987237 is associated with obesity and has shown interaction with the dietary fat-to-carbohydrate ratio, which has an effect on weight loss. We investigated interactions between rs987237 and protein-to-carbohydrate ratio or glycemic index (GI) in relation to weight maintenance...... percentage from fat: either low-protein/low-GI, low-protein/high-GI, high-protein/low-GI, or high-protein/high-GI diets, or a control diet for a 6-month weight maintenance period. Using linear regression analyses and additive genetic models, we investigated main and dietary interaction effects of TFAP2B rs......987237 in relation to weight maintenance. Results: In total, 468 completers of the trial were genotyped for rs987237. High-protein diets were beneficial for weight maintenance in the AA genotype group (67% of participants), but in the AG and GG groups no differences were observed for low- or high...

  10. Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aller, E E J G; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    -month intervention period.Results:During the LCD period subjects lost 11.2 (10.8, 12.0) kg (mean (95% CI)). Average weight regain over the 12-month intervention period was 3.9 (95% CI 3.0 to 4.8) kg. Subjects on the HP diets regained less weight than subjects on the LP diets. The difference in weight......Background:A high dietary protein (P) content and low glycemic index (GI) have been suggested to be beneficial for weight management, but long-term studies are scarce.Objective:The DIOGENES randomized clinical trial investigated the effect of P and GI on weight loss maintenance in overweight...

  11. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a low-glycemic index diet on pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Markovic, Tania P; Perera, Nimalie; Foote, Deborah; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is rising. There is little evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of one dietary therapy over another. We aimed to investigate the effect of a low-glycemic index (LGI) versus a conventional high-fiber diet on pregnancy outcomes, neonatal anthropometry, and maternal metabolic profile in GDM. Ninety-nine women (age 26-42 years; mean ± SD prepregnancy BMI 24 ± 5 kg/m²) diagnosed with GDM at 20-32 weeks' gestation were randomized to follow either an LGI (n = 50; target glycemic index [GI] ~50) or a high-fiber moderate-GI diet (HF) (n = 49; target GI ~60). Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day food records. Pregnancy outcomes were collected from medical records. The LGI group achieved a modestly lower GI than the HF group (mean ± SEM 47 ± 1 vs. 53 ± 1; P < 0.001). At birth, there was no significant difference in birth weight (LGI 3.3 ± 0.1 kg vs. HF 3.3 ± 0.1 kg; P = 0.619), birth weight centile (LGI 52.5 ± 4.3 vs. HF 52.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.969), prevalence of macrosomia (LGI 2.1% vs. HF 6.7%; P = 0.157), insulin treatment (LGI 53% vs. HF 65%; P = 0.251), or adverse pregnancy outcomes. In intensively monitored women with GDM, an LGI diet and a conventional HF diet produce similar pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Effects of Low versus High Glycemic Index Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Postprandial Vasodilatation and Inactivity-Induced Impairment of Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Judith; Kahlhöfer, Julia; Peter, Andreas; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-10

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether functional sugars with low compared to high glycemic index (GI) have beneficial effects on arterial stiffness during a period of low-physical activity. In a controlled cross-over dietary intervention (55% CHO, 30% fat, 15% protein), 13 healthy men (age: 23.7 ± 2.2 years, body mass index: 23.6 ± 1.9 kg/m²) completed 2 × 1 week of low physical activity following 1 week of normal physical activity (2363 ± 900 vs. 11,375 ± 3124 steps/day). During inactive phases participants consumed either low-GI (isomaltulose) or high-GI SSB (maltodextrin-sucrose), providing 20% of energy requirements. Postprandial vasodilatation (augmentation index, AIx), insulin sensitivity (IS) and Glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses were measured during a meal test before and after SSB-intervention. Compared to maltodextrin-sucrose-SSB, postprandial vasodilatation was prolonged (AIx after 120 min: 9.9% ± 4.3% vs. 11.4% ± 3.7%, p 0.05). Higher postprandial GLP-1 secretion after intake of low compared to high-GI beverages may contribute to improved postprandial vasodilatation. Although one week of low-physical activity led to marked impairment in IS, it had no effect on arterial stiffness in healthy men.