Sample records for varying fertility rates

  1. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of bovine spermatozoa of varying fertility rates and identification of biomarkers associated with fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Abdullah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male infertility is a major problem for mammalian reproduction. However, molecular details including the underlying mechanisms of male fertility are still not known. A thorough understanding of these mechanisms is essential for obtaining consistently high reproductive efficiency and to ensure lower cost and time-loss by breeder. Results Using high and low fertility bull spermatozoa, here we employed differential detergent fractionation multidimensional protein identification technology (DDF-Mud PIT and identified 125 putative biomarkers of fertility. We next used quantitative Systems Biology modeling and canonical protein interaction pathways and networks to show that high fertility spermatozoa differ from low fertility spermatozoa in four main ways. Compared to sperm from low fertility bulls, sperm from high fertility bulls have higher expression of proteins involved in: energy metabolism, cell communication, spermatogenesis, and cell motility. Our data also suggests a hypothesis that low fertility sperm DNA integrity may be compromised because cell cycle: G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation was most significant signaling pathway identified in low fertility spermatozoa. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive description of the bovine spermatozoa proteome. Comparative proteomic analysis of high fertility and low fertility bulls, in the context of protein interaction networks identified putative molecular markers associated with high fertility phenotype.

  2. Fertility Clinic Success Rates (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  3. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus. (United States)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Psenicka, Martin; Linhart, Otomar


    Standardization of fertilization protocols for sterlet Acipenser ruthenus is crucial for improving reproductive techniques and for conservation purposes. Our objectives were to determine the number of sperm (tested 430,000:1, 43,000:1, 4300:1, 430:1 sperm to egg) required to fertilize eggs and explore how pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater for 0min, 0.5min, 1min, and 10min interacts with different sperm ratios. Fertilization success ranged from 29.7% at 430:1 to 84.2% at 430,000:1. Pre-incubation time had no effect on fertilization success at 430,000:1 and 43,000:1 sperm to egg ratios, while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10min. At 0min pre-incubation the proportion of fertilized eggs increased at the 430,000:1 ratio, while at 1min fertilization increased at the 4300:1 ratio. At the 10min pre-incubation time, fertilization increased at the 43,000:1 ratio. Moreover, at the 0.5min pre-incubation time, the 43,000:1 ratio increased the fertilization rate than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for reaction or the formation of a perivitelline space. Results suggest that with a low sperm to egg ratio 0.5 to 1min pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater prior to fertilization can enhance fertilization rate of sterlet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian; Psěnička, Martin


    , while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5. min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10. min. At 0. min pre...... than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for reaction or the formation of a perivitelline space. Results suggest that with a low...... and explore how pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater for 0. min, 0.5. min, 1. min, and 10. min interacts with different sperm ratios. Fertilization success ranged from 29.7% at 430:1 to 84.2% at 430,000:1. Pre-incubation time had no effect on fertilization success at 430,000:1 and 43,000:1 sperm to egg ratios...

  5. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold


    OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  6. fertilizer and stocking rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and in this case the best economic response was achieved at a lower stocking rate than needed for ... The trial was conducted at two sites, the Bathurst Research Station (33°30'S; 26°50'E) (1986-1994) and ... Rainfall and evaporation at the Bathurst Research Station and rainfall at the Boslaagte homestead were measured ...

  7. Effects of fertilizer types and varying population on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the two-year averages,the significant percentage increases in the length of cocoyam cormel under fertilizer types were 67, 93 and 148% by inorganic, organic and inorganic + organic fertilizers, respectively. The significant percentage decreases in the length of cocoyam cormels under varying populations of 10,000, ...

  8. Air pollution and human fertility rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Jacquemin, Bénédicte


    Background: Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. Aims: We assessed the association


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Indeed, even in the Chinese context, the effectiveness of the country's .... positively related to fertility rates, since a greater likelihood of infant death requires a family to have more births in order to reach ... Infant mortality rates and fertility rates are also very closely correlated both across countries and within them (Ben-Porath ...

  10. Test procedure for variable rate fertilizer on coffee = Método para avaliação de aplicação de fertilizantes em taxa variável em café

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    Gustavo Di Chiacchio Faulin


    Full Text Available The objective was to develop and test a procedure for applying variable rates of fertilizers and evaluate yield response in coffee (Coffea arabica L. with regard to the application of phosphorus and potassium. The work was conducted during the 2004 season in a 6.4 ha field located in central São Paulo state. Two treatments were applied with alternating strips of fixed and variable rates during the whole season: one following the fertilizing procedures recommended locally, and the other based on a grid soil sampling. A prototype pneumatic fertilizer applicator was used, carrying two conveyor belts, one foreach row. Harvesting was done with a commercial harvester equipped with a customized volumetric yield monitor, separating the two treatments. Data were analyzed based on geostatistics, correlations and regressions. The procedure showed to be feasible and effective. The area that received fertilizer applications at a variable rate showed a 34% yield increase compared to the area that received a fixed rate. The variable rate fertilizer resulted in a savings of 23% in phosphate fertilizer and a 13% increase in potassium fertilizer, when compared to fixed rate fertilizer. Yield in 2005, the year after the variable rate treatments, still presented residual effect from treatments carried out during the previous cycle.O objetivo foi desenvolver um procedimento para avaliar a resposta daprodutividade de café (Coffea arabica L., a partir da aplicação de fósforo e potássio. O trabalho foi conduzido durante o ciclo produtivo do ano de 2004 em um talhão de 6,4 ha localizado na região central do Estado de São Paulo. Foram aplicados dois tratamentos emlinhas alternadas de plantas com doses fixas e variadas, um seguindo procedimentos e recomendações locais e o outro com base na amostragem de solo em grade. Para a aplicação dos fertilizantes, foi utilizado o protótipo de uma adubadora com duas esteiras independentes, uma para cada linha de plantas

  11. Influence of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on the Fertility Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out on the influence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) on the fertility rate of rabbit does under artificial insemination. The rabbit does (7-8 months old) were used for the trial. The hCG was administered to the rabbit does at varying doses: 0, 50, 100 and 150 I.U representing ...

  12. Fertility rates: the decline is stalling. (United States)

    Starke, L


    During the 1970s, the rate of total fertility in China fell from 6.4 children per woman in 1968 to 2.2 in 1980. The decline in India was more modest, but still significant at 5.8 over the period 1966-71 to 4.8 during 1976-1981. These trends helped slow the rate of world population growth from 2.1% during 1965-70 to 1.7% during 1975-80. Fertility rates are currently declining in similar fashion in Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand. While impressive and much needed to ultimately stabilize world population growth, fertility declines in China and India stalled throughout the 1980s. The fertility rate in China remained around 2.5 throughout much of the decade, while progress toward lower birth rates stalled in India after the defeat of the ruling Congress Party in the late 1970s. Moreover, 67 developing countries, home to 17% of global population, have yet to enter the phase of demographic transition. It is clear that governments must supply contraceptives and reproductive health care services to couples in need of regulating their fertility, but they must also lower the demand for children by working to improve women's lives and increase their access to and control over money, credit, and other resources.

  13. The core root microbiome of sugarcanes cultivated under varying nitrogen fertilizer application. (United States)

    Yeoh, Yun Kit; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Dennis, Paul G; Robinson, Nicole; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip


    Diazotrophic bacteria potentially supply substantial amounts of biologically fixed nitrogen to crops, but their occurrence may be suppressed by high nitrogen fertilizer application. Here, we explored the impact of high nitrogen fertilizer rates on the presence of diazotrophs in field-grown sugarcane with industry-standard or reduced nitrogen fertilizer application. Despite large differences in soil microbial communities between test sites, a core sugarcane root microbiome was identified. The sugarcane root-enriched core taxa overlap with those of Arabidopsis thaliana raising the possibility that certain bacterial families have had long association with plants. Reduced nitrogen fertilizer application had remarkably little effect on the core root microbiome and did not increase the relative abundance of root-associated diazotrophs or nif gene counts. Correspondingly, low nitrogen fertilizer crops had lower biomass and nitrogen content, reflecting a lack of major input of biologically fixed nitrogen, indicating that manipulating nitrogen fertilizer rates does not improve sugarcane yields by enriching diazotrophic populations under the test conditions. Standard nitrogen fertilizer crops had improved biomass and nitrogen content, and corresponding soils had higher abundances of nitrification and denitrification genes. These findings highlight that achieving a balance in maximizing crop yields and minimizing nutrient pollution associated with nitrogen fertilizer application requires understanding of how microbial communities respond to fertilizer use. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nitrogen dynamics in arctic tundra soils of varying age: differential responses to fertilization and warming. (United States)

    Yano, Yuriko; Shaver, Gaius R; Rastetter, Edward B; Giblin, Anne E; Laundre, James A


    In the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska, different glaciation histories have created landscapes with varying soil age. Productivity of most of these landscapes is generally N limited, but varies widely, as do plant species composition and soil properties (e.g., pH). We hypothesized that the projected changes in productivity and vegetation composition under a warmer climate might be mediated through differential changes in N availability across soil age. We compared readily available [water-soluble NH4 (+), NO3 (-), and amino acids (AA)], moderately available (soluble proteins), hydrolyzable, and total N pools across three tussock-tundra landscapes with soil ages ranging from 11.5k to 300k years. The effects of fertilization and warming on these N pools were also compared for the two younger sites. Readily available N was highest at the oldest site, and AA accounted for 80-89 % of this N. At the youngest site, inorganic N constituted the majority (80-97 %) of total readily available N. This variation reflected the large differences in plant functional group composition and soil chemical properties. Long-term (8-16 years) fertilization increased the soluble inorganic N by 20- to 100-fold at the intermediate-age site, but only by twofold to threefold at the youngest site. Warming caused small and inconsistent changes in the soil C:N ratio and AA, but only in soils beneath Eriophorum vaginatum, the dominant tussock-forming sedge. These differential responses suggest that the ecological consequences of warmer climates on these tundra ecosystems are more complex than simply elevated N-mineralization rates, and that the responses of landscapes might be impacted by soil age, or time since deglaciation.

  15. Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea fowl is a common game bird in Africa and there have been efforts to domesticate it for use as a source of human food. An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg ...

  16. Effect of weed management methods and nitrogen fertilizer rates on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inefficient weed management practices and the use of inappropriate nitrogen fertilizer rates are the major causes of low yield of wheat in Ethiopia. Therefore, field experiments were conducted at Bobicho and Faate in southern Ethiopia to determine the effect of weed management practices and N fertilizer rates on grain yield ...

  17. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  18. Association of general population suicide rates with fertility rates: a test of fertility as a measure of social integration. (United States)

    Bhandarkar, Ritesh; Shah, Ajit


    A negative correlation between societal suicide rates and social integration has been reported using data within individual countries; however, this has rarely been examined cross-nationally. The relation of general population suicide rates with fertility rates across 75 countries was examined for data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. Social integration has been defined as the extent to which members of society are bound together in social relationships, and higher fertility rates, reflecting greater vigour and unity of the family, serve as a proxy measure of social integration. Multiple regression analysis indicated that general population suicide rates in males and females were independently correlated with fertility rates. The relation of general population suicide rates with fertility rates was also curvilinear (U-shaped curve). Explanation of the observed curvilinear relationship requires further study.

  19. Fabrication and evaluation of variable rate fertilizer system

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    A Damirchi


    Full Text Available Introduction: In conventional farming, the soil and crop are considered uniform in different locations of the farm and the fertilizers are applied according to the average of soil needs with an additional percentage for safety (Loghavi, 2003. Non-essential chemical fertilizers in the field have harmful effects and social, economic and environmental concerns will increase. Many fertilizers go into the surface waters and ground waters and cause poisoning and environmental pollution without being absorbed by the plants. In variable rate technology, the soil fertilizer needs a map of all parts of the farm which is prepared with the GIS system. This map is uploaded on the computer before variable rate fertilizer machine starts. The computer continually controls the fertilizing rate for each part of the farm using a fertilizing map and global positioning system. The purpose of this study is to construct and evaluate a map-based variable rate fertilizer system that can be installed on a common fertilizer in Iran to be used as a variable rate system. Materials and methods: In common variable rate fertilizers, the rotational speed change of the distributor shaft is used to apply fertilizers. In this way, a DC motor is assembled on the main shaft of all distributors, which reduces the fertilizing accuracy. The reason for this is that there is no separation for units along the width of the fertilizer. Therefore, we used one DC motor for each distributor and another motor to rotate the agitator in the tank. System Set up: To design and select a suitable engine, the required torque for the rotation distributor shaft was measured by a torque meter and the amount of 2.1 Nm was acquired for that. With regard to the maximum rate of nitrogen fertilizer for land and tractor speed at the time of fertilizing, the order of 350 kg per hectare and 8 km per hour, the maximum distributor shaft speed and power required to rotate distributor shaft were calculated to be 55

  20. Criteria for Selecting Optimal Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates for Precision Agriculture

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    Bruno Basso

    Full Text Available Yield rates vary spatially and maps produced by the yield monitor systems are evidence of the degree of withinfield variability. The magnitude of this variability is a good indication of the suitability of implementing a spatially variable management plan. Crop simulation models have the potential to integrate the effects of temporal and multiple stress interaction on crop growth under different environmental and management conditions. The strength of these models is their ability to account for stress by simulating the temporal interaction of stress on plant growth each day during the season. The objective of paper is to present a procedure that allows for the selection of optimal nitrogen fertilizer rates to be applied spatially on previously identified management zones through crop simulation modelling. The integration of yield maps, remote sensing imagery, ground truth measurements, electrical resistivity imaging allowed for the identifications of three distinct management zones based on their ability to produce yield and their stability over time (Basso et al., 2009. After validating the model, we simulated 7 N rates from 0 to 180 kg N/ha with a 30 kg N/ha increment. The model results illustrate the different N responses for each of the zone. The analysis allowed us to identify the optimal N rate for each of the zone based on agronomic, economic and environmental sustainability of N management.

  1. Evaluation of phosphorus fertilizer rates for maize and sources for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flexible phosphorus (P) fertilizer rate recommendation could be based on variations in soil characteristics that affect yield responses. Experiments were conducted in the Department of Agronomy, LAUTECH, on the effects of P rates on maize and P sources on cowpea in four soil types. On average, soil types and P rates ...

  2. Nonmarital Fertility and the Effects of Divorce Rates on Youth Suicide Rates (United States)

    Messner, Steven F.; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Robinson, Bryan K.


    Using pooled, time-series data for a sample of 15 developed nations, we assess the effect of divorce rates on gender-specific suicide rates for youths aged 15-19 with models of relative cohort size, lagged nonmarital fertility, and an interaction term for divorce rates and nonmarital fertility. The results reveal that, for young men, relative…

  3. Effect of Expansion of Fertilization Width on Nitrogen Recovery Rate in Tea Plants (United States)

    Nonaka, Kunihiko; Hirono, Yuhei; Watanabe, Iriki

    In cultivation of tea plants, large amounts of nitrogen, compared to amounts used for other crops, have been used for fertilization, resulting in degradation of the soil environment between hedges and an increase in concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in surrounding water systems. To reduce the environmental load, new methods of fertilizer application are needed. This report deals with the effect of expansion of fertilization width on nitrogen recovery rate in tea plants. In the test field, 15 N-labeled ammonium sulfate had been applied over custom fertilization by between-hedges fertilization (fertilization width of 15cm) and wide fertilization (fertilization width of 40cm), nitrogen recovery rates were compared. Expansion of fertilization width resulted in an approximately 30% increase in nitrogen recovery rate compared to that in the case of fertilization between hedges. Increases in nitrogen recovery rates were observed with fallapplied fertilization, spring-applied fertilization, pop-up fertilizer application, and summerapplied fertilization.

  4. High ratings of satisfaction with fertility treatment are common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J


    /delivery and the report of marital benefits resulting from the infertility experience. Lower social class was a significant predictor for satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Both men and women in fertility treatment had high ratings on medical and patient-centred care. It seemed that satisfaction with the psychosocial services...

  5. Effects of fertilizer rates and cutting frequency on the marketable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field plot studies were conducted on the effects of fertilizer rates and frequencies of cut on fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentatis) growth and yield parameters. Treatments comprised four levels of commercial N20P10K10 and four cutting intervals. These were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three ...



    Taylor, C. Robert


    This note demonstrates that a certain class of stochastic problems for determination of optimal fertilizer application rates in the presence of fertilizer carry-over can be simplified to static, certainly equivalent problems. Conditions required for certainty equivalence to hold are: (1) fertilizer carry-over is agronomically equivalent to applied fertilizer; and (2) some addition of fertilizer is optimal in every decision period.

  7. Extrapair paternity rates vary with latitude and elevation in emberizid sparrows. (United States)

    Bonier, Frances; Eikenaar, Cas; Martin, Paul R; Moore, Ignacio T


    Mating systems can vary among species and populations and thus influence evolutionary trajectories, ecological traits, and population demography. The siring of offspring by an extrapair male, or extrapair paternity (EPP), is a widespread and varied phenomenon in all vertebrate classes. However, we do not understand all of the factors associated with variation in EPP rates. The breeding synchrony hypothesis suggests that EPP rates should increase with latitude and elevation, whereas the paternal care hypothesis predicts that EPP rates should decrease with elevation. To address these hypotheses, we investigated how population EPP rates vary over elevation and latitude in emberizid sparrows. In comparative analyses including the effects of phylogeny, the relationship between EPP rates and elevation depended on latitude. EPP rates were greater in higher-latitude populations. But within higher-latitude populations, EPP rates decreased with increasing elevation. These findings provide support for both the breeding synchrony and paternal care hypotheses, suggesting that in lower-latitude, higher-elevation populations, the need for male parental care does not outweigh the benefits of seeking extrapair fertilizations in populations with relatively synchronous breeding. In contrast, at higher-latitude, higher-elevation sites, the need for male parental care is greater and might drive lower rates of extrapair mating despite highly synchronous breeding.

  8. Calving rates at tidewater glaciers vary strongly with ocean temperature. (United States)

    Luckman, Adrian; Benn, Douglas I; Cottier, Finlo; Bevan, Suzanne; Nilsen, Frank; Inall, Mark


    Rates of ice mass loss at the calving margins of tidewater glaciers (frontal ablation rates) are a key uncertainty in sea level rise projections. Measurements are difficult because mass lost is replaced by ice flow at variable rates, and frontal ablation incorporates sub-aerial calving, and submarine melt and calving. Here we derive frontal ablation rates for three dynamically contrasting glaciers in Svalbard from an unusually dense series of satellite images. We combine ocean data, ice-front position and terminus velocity to investigate controls on frontal ablation. We find that frontal ablation is not dependent on ice dynamics, nor reduced by glacier surface freeze-up, but varies strongly with sub-surface water temperature. We conclude that calving proceeds by melt undercutting and ice-front collapse, a process that may dominate frontal ablation where submarine melt can outpace ice flow. Our findings illustrate the potential for deriving simple models of tidewater glacier response to oceanographic forcing.

  9. A hazard rate analysis of fertility using duration data from Malaysia. (United States)

    Chang, C


    Data from the Malaysia Fertility and Family Planning Survey (MFLS) of 1974 were used to investigate the effects of biological and socioeconomic variables on fertility based on the hazard rate model. Another study objective was to investigate the robustness of the findings of Trussell et al. (1985) by comparing the findings of this study with theirs. The hazard rate of conception for the jth fecundable spell of the ith woman, hij, is determined by duration dependence, tij, measured by the waiting time to conception; unmeasured heterogeneity (HETi; the time-invariant variables, Yi (race, cohort, education, age at marriage); and time-varying variables, Xij (age, parity, opportunity cost, income, child mortality, child sex composition). In this study, all the time-varying variables were constant over a spell. An asymptotic X2 test for the equality of constant hazard rates across birth orders, allowing time-invariant variables and heterogeneity, showed the importance of time-varying variables and duration dependence. Under the assumption of fixed effects heterogeneity and the Weibull distribution for the duration of waiting time to conception, the empirical results revealed a negative parity effect, a negative impact from male children, and a positive effect from child mortality on the hazard rate of conception. The estimates of step functions for the hazard rate of conception showed parity-dependent fertility control, evidence of heterogeneity, and the possibility of nonmonotonic duration dependence. In a hazard rate model with piecewise-linear-segment duration dependence, the socioeconomic variables such as cohort, child mortality, income, and race had significant effects, after controlling for the length of the preceding birth. The duration dependence was consistant with the common finding, i.e., first increasing and then decreasing at a slow rate. The effects of education and opportunity cost on fertility were insignificant.

  10. Sex differences in obesity associated with total fertility rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brooks

    Full Text Available The identification of biological and ecological factors that contribute to obesity may help in combating the spreading obesity crisis. Sex differences in obesity rates are particularly poorly understood. Here we show that the strong female bias in obesity in many countries is associated with high total fertility rate, which is well known to be correlated with factors such as low average income, infant mortality and female education. We also document effects of reduced access to contraception and increased inequality of income among households on obesity rates. These results are consistent with studies that implicate reproduction as a risk factor for obesity in women and that suggest the effects of reproduction interact with socioeconomic and educational factors. We discuss our results in the light of recent research in dietary ecology and the suggestion that insulin resistance during pregnancy is due to historic adaptation to protect the developing foetus during famine. Increased access to contraception and education in countries with high total fertility rate might have the additional benefit of reducing the rates of obesity in women.

  11. Home visits: why do rates vary so much?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stewart, P


    Data including information on patient age, gender, who initiated the visit and call classification was collected during office hours from 12 G.P. rural teaching practices with a combined GMS patient population of 24,720, over a 2 month period. There were a total of 603 home visits, giving an annual visiting rate of 143\\/1000. Visiting rates varied between practices from 45 to 305\\/1000 per year. When high visiting practices (>210\\/1000\\/year) were compared to low visiting rate practices (>90\\/1000\\/year), patients tended to be older (79.7 v. 74.5 years) and calls were 12 times more likely to be doctor initiated (16.6% v. 1.4%) or classified as routine( 50.7% v. 44.9%). The variation between practices was related in part to patient age but appears largely due to differences in doctor home visiting behaviour. There are no recent figures on home visiting in Ireland.

  12. Are blastocyst aneuploidy rates different between fertile and infertile populations? (United States)

    Kort, Jonathan D; McCoy, Rajiv C; Demko, Zach; Lathi, Ruth B


    This study aimed to determine if patients with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss have higher rates of embryo aneuploidy than fertile controls. This was a retrospective review of all pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) cases processed by a single reference lab prior to March 2014 after a blastocyst biopsy. Cases were excluded if no indication for PGS was designated or patients were translocation carriers. The fertile control group consisted of patients undergoing IVF with PGS for sex selection only. The comparison cohorts included those with recurrent pregnancy loss, male factor infertility, unexplained infertility, prior failed IVF, or previous aneuploid conceptions. A quasi-binomial regression model was used to assess the relationship between the dependent variable, aneuploidy rate and the independent variables, maternal age and reason for PGS. A quasi-Poisson regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between similar independent variables and the number of blastocyst biopsies per case. The initial study population consisted of 3378 IVF-PGS cycles and 18,387 analyzed trophectoderm samples. Controlling for maternal age, we observed an increased rate of aneuploidy among patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (OR 1.330, p  0.05). The increase in aneuploidy in patients with RPL and prior IVF failure was driven by both an increase in meiotic (OR 1.488 and 1.508, p < 0.05) and mitotic errors (1.269 and 1.393, p < 0.05) relative to fertile controls, while patients with prior aneuploid pregnancies had only an increased risk of meiotic error aneuploidies (OR 1.650, p < 0.05). Patients with recurrent pregnancy loss, previous IVF failures, and prior aneuploid pregnancies have a significantly higher, age-independent, aneuploidy rate compared to patients without infertility.

  13. Short-term carbon partitioning fertilizer responses vary among two full-sib loblolly pine clones (United States)

    Jeremy P. Stovall; John R. Seiler; Thomas R. Fox


    We investigated the effects of fertilizer application on the partitioning of gross primary productivity (GPP) between contrasting full-sib clones of Pinus taeda (L.). Our objective was to determine if fertilizer growth responses resulted from similar short-term changes to partitioning. A modeling approach incorporating respiratory carbon (C) fluxes,...

  14. Adverse trends in male reproductive health and decreasing fertility rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Holmboe, Stine; Jørgensen, Niels


    Healthy men produce an enormous number of sperms, far more than necessary for conception. However, several studies suggest that semen samples where the concentration of sperms is below 40 mill/mL may be associated with longer time to pregnancy or even subfertility, and specimens where the concent...... are now so low that we may be close to the crucial tipping point of 40 mill/mL spermatozoa. Consequently, we must face the possibility of more infertile couples and lower fertility rates in the future....

  15. Adenoma detection rate varies greatly during colonoscopy training. (United States)

    van Doorn, Sascha C; Klanderman, Robert B; Hazewinkel, Yark; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien


    The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is considered the most important quality indicator for colonoscopy and varies widely among colonoscopists. It is unknown whether the ADR of gastroenterology consultants can already be predicted during their colonoscopy training. To evaluate the ADR of fellows in gastroenterology and evaluate whether this predicts their ADR as gastroenterology consultants. Retrospective observational study. Academic and regional centers. Symptomatic patients undergoing colonoscopy. The variance in ADR among 7 gastroenterology fellows during their training (between May 2004 and March 2012) and of the same fellows after they registered as consultants (between October 2011 and April 2014) was evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to compare the highest detector (endoscopist with highest ADR) with the individual fellows and to evaluate whether an ADR of 20% or higher during the training was predictive of a high ADR as a consultant. During training, ADRs ranged from 14% to 36% (P training. An ADR lower than 20% during training was associated with a lower ADR as a consultant (OR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.87). Retrospective study. Variance in ADR is already present during the endoscopy training of gastroenterology fellows. Most fellows do not improve their ADR after completing their training. These findings suggest that the ADR can be predicted during colonoscopy training, and we suggest that feedback and benchmarking should be implemented early during training of fellows in an effort to improve ADR in future daily practice as a consultant. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Influence of Seed Rate and Fertilizer Type on Growth of Tridax procumbens in Subhumid Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onifade, OS.


    Full Text Available Forage production of Tridax procumbens was examined from three seed rates (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha, four types of fertilizer [(unfertilized control, single superphosphate (SSP, 18 % P, NPK (20 : 10 : 10, and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, 25 % N] and four harvest stages (6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post sowing, WPS. Fertilizer rates used were 20 kg/ha P for (SSP and 50 kg/ha N for each of NPK and CAN. Plant height (cm, density (plants/m2 and spread (cm were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Sampling for yield estimation in each plot was done at 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Mean plant height with respect to seed rate, fertilizer type and growth stage significantly (P 2000 kg DM/ha. Application of SSP, NPK and CAN gave more total DM yields than the unfertilized control plot respectively by about 69, 75 and 75 %. Total DM yield varied from 1024 kg DM/ha when T. procumbens was harvested at an earlier stage (6 WPS to 2130 kg DM/ha at a later harvest (12 WPS. The main CP of leaf was significantly (P <0.05 affected by ail the treatments imposed.

  17. Delta yield versus yield goal for estimating sunflower nitrogen fertilization rates in South Africa


    Nel A.A.; Bloem A.A.


    Sunflower nitrogen fertilization recommendations in South Africa are based on yield goals. In this approach, soil nitrogen supply is not taken into account with the result that nitrogen fertilization recommendations from different institutions are in disagreement. Delta yield, the difference between a well fertilized crop and a zero nitrogen fertilized control, was found to be a more reliable indicator of the economic optimum nitrogen rate for maize than the yield goal, in three different cou...

  18. Ejaculate and type of freezing extender affect rates of fertilization of horse oocytes in vitro. (United States)

    Roasa, L M; Choi, Y H; Love, C C; Romo, S; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K


    In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed on in vitro-matured equine oocytes in three experiments. Frozen-thawed sperm were prepared using swim-up separation and heparin treatment. In Experiment 1, fertilization was achieved with sperm from only one frozen ejaculate of four obtained from the same stallion. Within this ejaculate, fertilization rates were higher with fresh media, as compared to media held for 6-8 days before use (39.6% versus 7.3%, respectively; Pfertilization rates (4% versus 39.6%; Pfertilization rates (range, 0-3%). In Experiment 3, fertilization rates of semen frozen in an extender containing 21.5% egg yolk were lower than fertilization rates of semen from the same ejaculate but frozen with a 3% egg-yolk extender (0% versus 15%, respectively; Pfertilization in this species. These factors may help to explain the great variability in fertilization rates reported with equine IVF, both among and within laboratories.

  19. Are low Danish fertility rates explained by changes in timing of births?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Gerster, Mette; Knudsen, Lisbeth B


    AIMS: The most commonly used indicator of fertility, the period total fertility rate (TFR(p)), tends to underestimate actual fertility when women delay childbearing. The objective of this study was to examine to which extent fluctuations in Danish fertility rates result from changes in timing...... of births and, thus, whether the conventional TFR(p) is a distorted indicator of fertility quantum. In addition, we investigated whether such changes in timing explained the observed regional differences in the TFR(p) in Denmark. METHODS: The study applied age-, period-, county-, and parity-specific data...... from the Danish Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset, 1980-2001. We evaluated fluctuations in period fertility rates by the tempo-adjusted TFR(') - a proposed variant of the conventional TFR(p) taking period changes in timing of births into account. Tempo-effects were given by the difference between...

  20. Nutrient intake, digestibility and growth rate of rabbits fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty young rabbits were fed on five diets varying in cassava leaf meal (CLM} levels from 0% to 60%. Dry matter and nutrient intake and digestibility, weight gain and economics of CLM inclusion were determined The DMI (g/d) ranged from 44.24 (60% CLM) to 66.85 (15% CLM); daily live weight gain (LWG, g/d) from 8.43 ...

  1. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  2. Dressed to Present: Ratings of Classroom Presentations Vary with Attire (United States)

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Kempen, Laura; Klemm, Kayla; Senn, Rebecca; Wysocki, Rosie


    This study investigates the effects of formality of dress on ratings of classroom presentations. Participants (N = 65, 66% women) from a Midwestern university in the United States rated three female students giving a presentation designed for a health psychology class in one of four outfits: casual, party, business casual, or business formal.…

  3. Warming and nitrogen fertilization effects on winter wheat yields in northern China varied between four years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Liting; Hu, Chunsheng; Olesen, Jørgen E


    Global warming is expected to affect wheat productivity significantly, but with large regional differences depending on current climatic conditions. We conducted a study that aimed to investigate how wheat growth and development as well as yield and yield components respond to warming combined...... with nitrogen fertilization. Infrared heaters were applied above the crop and soil to provide a warming of around 2 °C at 5 cm soil depth during the whole winter wheat growing season from 2008 to 2012 at a site near Shijiazhuang in the North China Plain. Two temperature levels (warming and ambient) for winter...

  4. Neural network analysis of varying trends in real exchange rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Kaashoek (Johan); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)


    textabstractIn this paper neural networks are fitted to the real exchange rates of seven industrialized countries. The size and topology of the used networks is found by reducing the size of the network through the use of multiple correlation coefficients, principal component analysis of residuals


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Carmen


    Full Text Available The benefit of international trade is a more efficient employment of the productive forces of the world. (John Stuart Mill The exchange rate is a primary factor that influences economy. This instrument is used by some countries in order to improve the lack of balance caused as a result of the financial crisis felt in many countries considered by then infallible. The negative effects of the financial crisis can also be found in the decreased volume of commodities involved in international trade exchanges, as a consequence of modified prices and decreased offer. The globalizing trend leads to a constant expansion of exchanges between countries and to the consolidation of international cooperation. Except that economic interdependence generates an increased risk under the influence of economic, financial, monetary or political factors. The currency risk can generate either a gain or loss during foreign trade operations. The long period of RON depreciation made possible the entry of Romanian products on the international markets due to their prices. Sheltered by the gain generated by the evolution of the exchange rate, most of the exporters were not concerned by the increase of product competitiveness or by avoiding the currency risk. The fact that, for many years, the evolution of the exchange rate generated substantial losses for the exporters shows that risk coverage in Romania is, in most cases, a purely theoretical concept.

  6. Fertilization of criollo corn with vermicompost and its rate of decomposition in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ángel García Sañudo


    Full Text Available The agricultural lands of Sinaloa have been intensively cultivated for over 50 years with increasing use of chemical fertilizers and decreasing use of organic applications. This situation has led to an environmental problem which is gradually getting worse; this is this study chooses to focus on the study of the application of organic additives such as vermicompost and supermagro in the cultivation of criollo corn. The treatments studied were: T1= criollo corn organic fertilizers with mineral fertilization; T2= criollo corn with organic fertilizers and without mineral fertilization; T3= criollo corn without organic fertilizers and with mineral fertilization; T4= criollo corn without fertilization; T5= hybrid corn with mineral fertilization of N, P and K and T6= hybrid corn without fertilization. 3 t.ha- 1 of vermicompost in pre-seeding stage, 250 L.ha-1 of supermagro and mineral fertilization (350 N, 120 P, 0 K; the experimental design implemented randomized complete blocks, with four repetitions. The response variables were: CO2 release from soil, vermicompost decomposition rate in soil and corn grain yield. The accumulation of biomass in corn development stages was benefited by the stimulation of the CO2 concentration after obtaining an acceptable grain yield, with the application of vermicompost as an organic fertilizer, concluding that the application of organic additives of vermicompost and supermagro showed that criollo corn grain yield of Sinaloa is practicable in accordance with the experiment results.

  7. Estimating the impact of birth control on fertility rate in Sub-Saharan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a cross-country data drawn from 40 countries and a multiple regression analysis, this paper examines the impact of birth control devices on the rate of fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Our a-priori expectations are that the more women used birth control devices, the less will be the fertility rate in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Study the rate of fertility and risk factors of schizophrenia in Najaf, Iraq

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is designed to investigate the main risk factors, which increased the incidence of schizophrenia and the rate of fertility in patients measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) and prolactin hormone. The aim of study was to evaluate the fertility rate and risk factors of schizophrenia. Blood samples were ...

  9. Fertility and Birth Rates: Indicators of Child and Youth Well-Being. Updated. October 2016 (United States)

    Child Trends, 2016


    Tracking trends in fertility and birth rates is essential in planning for the current and future needs of multiple generations. Sustained high fertility rates lead to disproportionately large populations of young dependents, driving demand for supports for young families, for additional schools, and for affordable child care. For example, during…

  10. Lifetime models of female labor supply, wage rates, and fertility. (United States)

    Carliner, G; Robinson, C; Tomes, N


    A simple 1 period lifetime model is specified in which schooling is part of the lifetime period. This implies that an adding-up constraint is imposed on the uses of time in the lifetime including schooling, which may induce a negative correlation between years of schooling and years in the market, while producing a positive correlation between years of schooling and the fraction of the postschool lifetime spent in the market. The model is used to interpret empirical analyses based on alternative measures of lifetime labor supply and on alternative specifications of which variables may be treated as exogenous. In the empirical analysis the retrospective and longitudinal aspects of the newly available National Longitudinal Survey of Women is used to construct a measure of the fraction of the lifetime supplied to the market and measures of the lifetime wage rates of both the husband and the wife. The empirical results take the lifetime model of labor supply seriously in that the empirical measures of labor supply and wage rates bear a much closer resemblance to the theoretical concepts than measures typically employed in the literature. The estimates indicate that the "plausible assumptions" required for the true coefficient on fertility in a labor supply equation to be zero are fulfilled. These estimates are compared with those obtained using current measures as proxies for lifetime variables. Based on these estimates, an explanation is offered for the apparent contradiction between the findings of studies using a simultaneous equations approach that report no effect of fertility on female labor supply and the strong depressing effect of children on (current) labor supply obtained from research that treats children as exogenous. Current female hours appear more responsive to husbands' current earnings and female education than is the case with the lifetime variables. There are marked differences in the effects of race. The lifetime hours of white women are only some

  11. A parsimonious characterization of change in global age-specific and total fertility rates. (United States)

    Pantazis, Athena; Clark, Samuel J


    This study aims to understand trends in global fertility from 1950-2010 though the analysis of age-specific fertility rates. This approach incorporates both the overall level, as when the total fertility rate is modeled, and different patterns of age-specific fertility to examine the relationship between changes in age-specific fertility and fertility decline. Singular value decomposition is used to capture the variation in age-specific fertility curves while reducing the number of dimensions, allowing curves to be described nearly fully with three parameters. Regional patterns and trends over time are evident in parameter values, suggesting this method provides a useful tool for considering fertility decline globally. The second and third parameters were analyzed using model-based clustering to examine patterns of age-specific fertility over time and place; four clusters were obtained. A country's demographic transition can be traced through time by membership in the different clusters, and regional patterns in the trajectories through time and with fertility decline are identified.

  12. Optical crop sensor for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in corn: II - indices of fertilizer efficiency and corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardes Bragagnolo


    Full Text Available Generally, in tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the efficiency of nitrogen (N fertilization is low, inducing a temporal variability of crop yield, economic losses, and environmental impacts. Variable-rate N fertilization (VRF, based on optical spectrometry crop sensors, could increase the N use efficiency (NUE. The objective of this study was to evaluate the corn grain yield and N fertilization efficiency under VRF determined by an optical sensor in comparison to the traditional single-application N fertilization (TSF. With this purpose, three experiments with no-tillage corn were carried out in the 2008/09 and 2010/11 growing seasons on a Hapludox in South Brazil, in a completely randomized design, at three different sites that were analyzed separately. The following crop properties were evaluated: aboveground dry matter production and quantity of N uptake at corn flowering, grain yield, and vegetation index determined by an N-Sensor® ALS optical sensor. Across the sites, the corn N fertilizer had a positive effect on corn N uptake, resulting in increased corn dry matter and grain yield. However, N fertilization induced lower increases of corn grain yield at site 2, where there was a severe drought during the growing period. The VRF defined by the optical crop sensor increased the apparent N recovery (NRE and agronomic efficiency of N (NAE compared to the traditional fertilizer strategy. In the average of sites 1 and 3, which were not affected by drought, VRF promoted an increase of 28.0 and 41.3 % in NAE and NRE, respectively. Despite these results, no increases in corn grain yield were observed by the use of VRF compared to TSF.

  13. Method of Euthanasia Influences the Oocyte Fertilization Rate with Fresh Mouse Sperm (United States)

    Hazzard, Karen C; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E; Garrett, Lisa J


    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to produce mouse embryos for a variety of reasons. We evaluated the effect of the method of euthanasia on the fertilization rate in 2 different IVF protocols. Oocytes collected from C57BL/6J female mice euthanized by CO2 inhalation or cervical dislocation were used in IVF with fresh sperm from either wild-type or genetically engineered C57BL/6J. Compared with CO2 inhalation, cervical dislocation improved the resulting rate of fertilization by 18% in an IVF method using Cook media and by 13% in an IVF method using methyl-B cyclodextrin and reduced glutathione. The lower fertilization rate due to euthanasia by CO2 inhalation was accompanied by changes in blood pH and body temperature despite efforts to minimize temperature drops. In our hands, euthanasia by cervical dislocation improved fertilization rates and consequently reduced the number of egg-donor mice required. PMID:25650969

  14. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed FIROUZI


    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain

  15. Yield And Rate Of Returns From Soil Fertility Management Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean number of bunches per palm and number of nuts produced per hectare were not significantly increased by fertilizer treatment. However, there were increases due to crop combination, with combinations that include cowpea giving higher yields(2875 nuts) than those without (2118 nuts). Food crop yields were ...

  16. Evaluation of phosphorus fertilizer rates for maize and sources for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 14, 2010 ... single super phosphate (SSP) were the sub treatments. The treat- ments were replicated four times and arranged in completely randomised design. ..... McKenzie et al. (2003) reported that soil types affected P fertilizer response by different crops in Canada. Sanchez and Uehara (1980) stated that the.

  17. Changes in fungal community composition in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization varies with soil horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn F Weber


    Full Text Available Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 and rates of nitrogen (N-deposition to forest ecosystems are predicted to alter the structure and function of soil fungal communities, but the spatially heterogeneous distribution of soil fungi has hampered investigations aimed at understanding such impacts. We hypothesized that soil physical and chemical properties and fungal community composition would be differentially impacted by elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2 and N-fertilization in spatially separated field samples, in the forest floor, 0-2 cm, 2-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth intervals in a loblolly pine Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE experiment. In all soils, quantitative PCR-based estimates of fungal biomass were highest in the forest floor. Fungal richness, based on pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal large subunit gene, increased in response to N-fertilization in 0-2 cm and forest floor intervals. Composition shifted in forest floor, 0-2 cm and 2-5 cm intervals in response to N-fertilization, but the shift was most distinct in the 0-2 cm interval, in which the largest number of statistically significant changes in soil chemical parameters (i.e phosphorus, organic matter, calcium, pH was also observed. In the 0-2 cm interval, increased recovery of sequences from the Thelephoraceae, Tricholomataceae, Hypocreaceae, Clavicipitaceae, and Herpotrichiellaceae families and decreased recovery of sequences from the Amanitaceae correlated with N-fertilization. In this same depth interval, Amanitaceae, Tricholomataceae and Herpotriciellaceae sequences were recovered less frequently from soils exposed to eCO2 relative to ambient conditions. These results demonstrated that vertical stratification should be taken into consideration in future efforts to elucidate environmental impacts on fungal communities and their feedbacks on ecosystem processes.

  18. A Stata module for computing fertility rates and TFRs from birth histories: tfr2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Schoumaker


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the 1970s, birth history data have become widely available, thanks to the World Fertility survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys programs. Despite their wide availability, these data remain under-exploited. Computation, even of simple indicators (fertility rates, total fertility rates, mean age at childbearing and their standard errors, is not direct with such data, and other types of analysis (fertility differentials, reconstruction of fertility trends et cetera may also involve reorganization of data sets and statistical modeling that present a barrier to the use of birth history data. OBJECTIVE This paper presents a Stata software module (tfr2 that was prepared to analyze birth history data in a user-friendly and flexible way. It is designed to be used primarily with DHS data, but can also be used easily with birth histories from other sources. Three types of analysis are performed by tfr2: (1 the computation of age-specific fertility rates and TFRs, as well as their standard errors, (2 the reconstruction of fertility trends, and (3 the estimation of fertility differentials (rate ratios. METHODS The tfr2 module is composed of two parts: (1 a Stata command to transform birth history data into a table of births and exposure (tabexp, and (2 a Poisson regression model to compute fertility rates, fertility trends and fertility differentials from a table of births and exposure (produced by tabexp. COMMENTS One can obtain tfr2 free of charge. It will work with Stata 10 and more recent versions of Stata.

  19. Low fertilization rates in a pelagic copepod caused by sexual selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceballos, Sara; Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Heuschele, Jan


    We studied female fertilization status in North Sea summer populations and laboratory cultures of the marine copepod Temora longicornis and found fractions of fertilized females in both field and laboratory populations that were much smaller (... random mating. Such low fertilization rates are normally related to environmental factors such as poor food or low densities, which we could not confirm in our experiment. Male density was negatively related to fertilization rate, and a large fraction of males did not mate in laboratory incubations. We...... therefore suggest that sexual selection, through mate choice or male–male competition could account for low fertilization rates of females in populations of pelagic copepods during some periods of the year...

  20. Nursery response of Acacia koa seedlings to container size, irrigation method, and fertilization rate (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis; Douglass F. Jacobs


    Planting koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) in Hawai'i, USA aids in restoration of disturbed sites essential to conservation of endemic species. Survival and growth of planted seedlings under vegetative competition typically increases with initial plant size. Increasing container size and fertilizer rate may produce larger seedlings, but high fertilization can lead to...

  1. Dropout rates in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization and intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, Alexandra J.; Tjon-Kon-Fat, Raissa; Verhoeve, Harold; Koks, Carolien; Hompes, Peter; Hoek, Annemieke; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Cohlen, Ben; Hoozemans, Diederik; Broekmans, Frank; van Bomme, Peter; Smeenk, Jesper; Mol, Ben W. J.; van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon


    Objective: To compare dropout rates in couples undergoing conventional in vitro fertilization with single embryo transfer (IVF-SET), in vitro fertilization in a modified natural cycle (IVF-MNC) or intrauterine insemination with ovarian stimulation (IUI-OS). Study design: Secondary analysis of a

  2. Dropout rates in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization and intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, Alexandra J.; Tjon-Kon-Fat, Raissa; Verhoeve, Harold; Koks, Carolien; Hompes, Peter; Hoek, Annemieke; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Cohlen, Ben; Hoozemans, Diederik; Broekmans, Frank; van Bomme, Peter; Smeenk, Jesper; Mol, Ben W J; van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon


    Objective To compare dropout rates in couples undergoing conventional in vitro fertilization with single embryo transfer (IVF-SET), in vitro fertilization in a modified natural cycle (IVF-MNC) or intrauterine insemination with ovarian stimulation (IUI-OS). Study design Secondary analysis of a

  3. The Effects of Different Amounts of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Root Growth and the Filling Rate in Winter Wheat


    Meng Li; Jingtian Yang; Liyuan Yan; Yan Shi


    In order to increase the fertilizer use efficiency and yield in winter wheat, the effects of controlled release fertilizer on the root growth and the filling rate in winter wheat by applying different amounts of controlled release fertilizer had been studied in open field. The results indicated that conventional complex fertilizer and controlled release fertilizer could cause corresponding changes of the wheat root activity, dry root weight, root-shoot ratio and filling rate, but the fertiliz...

  4. Effect of leukocytospermia on fertilization and pregnancy rates of artificial reproductive technologies. (United States)

    Lackner, Jakob E; Märk, Isabel; Sator, Katharina; Huber, Johannes; Sator, Michael


    The aim of this study was to investigate the fertilization and pregnancy rates of artificial reproductive technologies using semen samples without ( or =1 x 10(6)/mL) leukocytospermia. The overall fertilization rate was 63.4% (range, 44.4-87.5%) in nonleukocytospermic couples and 64.3% (range, 45.3-100.0%) in leukocytospermic couples, whereas the corresponding pregnancy rates were 34.5% and 50%, respectively. These results show that leukocytospermia may not necessarily have a negative effect on outcome after either in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  5. Comparison of Mental Health Ratings of Fertile and Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mazaheri


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of current study was to compare the mental health of fertile and infertile couples.Materials and Method: A sample of four groups (infertile couples who gave birth child after treatment, infertile couples who brought adopted child, fertile couples who gave birth normally and infertile couples who have no children have been selected using available sampling method and were asked to complete the mental health questionnaire (GHQ-28. A descriptive design has been used as the research method.Results: Infertile couples who had no children compared to other studied groups showed more risk for different psychological problems.Conclusion: Having no children seemed to make an important influence on psychological health

  6. Comparing N2O emissions at varying N rates from irrigated and rainfed corn in the US Midwest (United States)

    Millar, N.; Kahmark, K.; Basso, B.; Robertson, G. P.


    Global N2O emissions from agriculture are estimated to be ~2.8 Pg CO2e yr-1 accounting for 60% of total anthropogenic emissions. N2O is the largest contributor to the GHG burden of cropping systems in the US, with annual estimated emissions of ~0.5 Tg primarily due to N fertilizer inputs and other soil management activities. Currently 23 million acres of corn, soybean and wheat are irrigated annually in the US with increased N2O emissions due to the practice likely under-reported in GHG inventories. Here we compare N2O emissions and yield from irrigated and rainfed corn at varying N rates between 0 and 246 kg N ha-1 from the Kellogg Biological Station in SW Michigan. Initial results show that N2O emissions increase with increasing N rate and are significantly higher from irrigated corn compared to rainfed corn at the same N rate. At increasing N rates daily emissions following an irrigation event were between 2.4 - 77.5 g N2O-N ha-1 from irrigated corn and 1.6 - 13.0 g N2O-N ha-1 from rainfed corn. Emissions data from automated and static chambers will be presented and trade-offs between N2O emissions, N fertilizer rate, crop yield and irrigation practice will be evaluated from an environmental and economic standpoint.

  7. [Relationships among human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction, sperm morphology and in vitro fertilization rates]. (United States)

    Li, Jian-ping; Zhong, Ying; Wu, Dong; Ai, Ling; Wang, Sheng; Tan, Chao; Zeng, Wei-qian; Liu, Jing; Ma, Guang-ping


    To assess the relationships among human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction, sperm morphology and in vitro fertilization rates. The relationships among human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction, sperm morphology and in vitro fertilization rates were investigated by Spearman rank correlation in 79 infertile couples. And the sperm morphology analysis was performed by crystal violet staining and based on strict criteria. A significant positive correlation was found between the percentage of human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction and that of normal sperm morphology (n = 49, r = 0.3763, P reaction and in vitro fertilization rates or between that of normal sperm morphology and in vitro fertilization rates (n = 21, r = 0.2666, P > 0.05 and n = 50, r = 0.0018, P > 0.05, respectively). There is a significant positive correlation between the percentage of human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction and that of normal sperm morphology, but no such correlation either between the percentage of human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction and in vitro fertilization rates or between that of normal sperm morphology and in vitro fertilization rates.

  8. Correlation of sperm penetration assay score with polyspermy rate in in-vitro fertilization. (United States)

    Aoki, Vincent W; Peterson, C Matthew; Parker-Jones, Kirtly; Hatasaka, Harry H; Gibson, Mark; Huang, Ivan; Carrell, Douglas T


    BACKGROUND: The sperm penetration assay (SPA) is used to predict the fertilizing capacity of sperm. Thus, some programs rely on SPA scores to formulate insemination plans in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a relationship exists between SPA scores and polyspermy rates during conventional IVF cycles. METHODS: A total of 1350 consecutive IVF patients using conventional IVF insemination were evaluated in the study. Oocytes were inseminated three hours post-retrieval by the addition of 150,000 to 300,000 progressively motile sperm. Approximately 18 hours after insemination, the oocytes were evaluated for fertilization by the visualization of pronuclei. The presence of three or more pronuclei was indicative of polyspermy. Polyspermy rates, fertilization success, embryo quality, and pregnancy rates were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate their relationship with SPA score, count, motility, number of progressively motile sperm inseminated, oocyte pre-insemination incubation time, patient age, and diagnosis. RESULTS: A significant positive relationship was observed between SPA score and polyspermy rate (rs = 0.10, p polyspermy rates than those with abnormal SPA scores (6.3% +/- 1.5% vs. 2.0% +/- 0.7%, p polyspermy rates and IVF fertilization percentage. Additionally, there is a slight increase in clinical pregnancy rates, and embryo implantation rates with increased SPA. Furthermore, there is a slight decrease in spontaneous abortions rates related to increased SPA.

  9. Young Men With Cancer Experience Low Referral Rates for Fertility Counseling and Sperm Banking. (United States)

    Grover, Natalie S; Deal, Allison M; Wood, William A; Mersereau, Jennifer E


    With improved cancer survival rates and the current trend of delaying parenthood, fertility is a growing issue among cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of fertility counseling and sperm banking in reproductive-age male cancer patients and to assess factors that influence counseling and banking. Male patients ages 13 to 50 years who received a new cancer diagnosis from January 1, 2013, to May 1, 2015, and planned to initiate curative chemotherapy at our center were identified. Documentation of fertility counseling and sperm cryopreservation was abstracted from the medical record. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to examine variables associated with fertility counseling and sperm banking. Of 201 patients who fit the study criteria, 59 (29%) received fertility counseling and 23 (11%) attempted sperm banking. All patients who banked sperm had documentation of fertility counseling. Younger patients were significantly more likely to be counseled, with mean ages of 27.4 and 40.4 years for counseled and noncounseled patients, respectively (P bank sperm. In a multivariable logistic regression model, older age (5-year odds ratio, 0.61; P banking in young men with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Further work is needed to develop interventions to improve fertility counseling rates and opportunities for sperm banking. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  10. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants (United States)

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.


    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly ( P fertility rates of the highest decile of mean (62 %), maximum (62 %), and minimum (52 %) temperature, RH (52 %), THI (53 %), and rainfall (45 %) were significantly higher ( P fertility rates among ewes in the lowest decile (46, 45, 45, 45, 46, and 43 %, respectively). In conclusion, weather was related to fertility in small ruminants after AI in spring. It remains to be determined whether scheduling the dates of insemination based on forecasted temperatures can improve the success of AI in goats and sheep.

  11. In vitro fertilization and polyspermy in the pig: factors affecting fertilization rates and cytoskeletal reorganization of the oocyte. (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yosuke; Kagawa, Noriko; Yang, Xiangzhong


    Polyspermy is a common phenomenon in the pig. Extensive information has become available from in vitro studies on not only the quality of oocytes but also the quality of spermatozoa. However, little information is available on the relative penetration rates of fresh and frozen spermatozoa from the same ejaculate from boars of different breeds. The present results, based on a total of 15 boars of three different breeds, revealed that the inter-breed variation in fertilization and polyspermic rates is larger than intra-breed variation. It was also shown that the incidence of polyspermy as well as penetration rate was greatly decreased by freezing and thawing, even if a higher number of sperm was coincubated with cumulus-free oocytes for a longer period compared to fresh sperm of the same ejaculate. This study focuses on the cytoskeletal organization of the oocyte with respect to the status of cumulus investment, and monospermic and polyspermic fertilization. The status of cumulus cells correlated with the density of transzonal cumulus-cell processes and with the maturation rate of oocytes and, to some degrees, the incidence of polyspermy. Polyspermic zygotes formed multiple microtubule domains in association with individual male pronuclei (PN), but in a high degree of polyspermy (more than trispermy), the pronuclear apposition did not proceed. The effect of multiple PN of paternal and maternal origin on the cytoskeletal reorganization is also discussed. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The Effect of Varying Speed Release of Nutrients from Fertilizers on Growth-production Process of Turf


    Peter Hric; Ján Jančovič; Peter Kovár; Ľuboš Vozár


    The aim of this experiment was to compare the influence of fertilizers with different speed of nutrients release on growth–production indicators of turf under non–irrigated conditions. The experiment was carried in warm and dry conditions in area Nitra (Slovak Republic). In the experiment were followed 5 treatments (1. without fertilization, 2. Nitre with dolomite, Superphosphate, Potassium salt, 3. Turf fertilizer Travcerit®, 4. Slow release fertilizer SRF NPK 14–5–14 (+ 4CaO + 4MgO + 7S), 5...

  13. Fertility of Czech Females Could Be Lower than Expected: Trends in Future Development of Age-Specific Fertility Rates up to the Year 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šimpach


    Full Text Available Fertility is an essential aspect of reproduction or population replacement of each country. The challenge for demographers is to model fertility and also to estimate its potential future level for the purposes of population projections. In the case of the Czech Republic we have the population projections provided by the Czech Statistical Office (CZSO with overlooking of the total fertility rate in low, medium and high variant. These estimates despite being based on expert judgments, seem to be too positive compared to the past development of the time series of age-specific fertility rates. The aim of this paper is to assess the situation of fertility in the Czech Republic, to analyse the past development of the time series of age-specific fertility rates using one-dimensional Box-Jenkins models and multidimensional stochastic Lee-Carter approach. Together with found trend in time series and principal components estimated by Lee-Carter’s model a forecasts of age-specific fertility rates up to the year 2050 is constructed. Th ese rates are lower than those provided by CZSO in its three variants of the Czech Republic’s population projection, and therefore we discuss the causes at the end of the paper. We would like to point out that the potential future development of Czech females fertility could be lower than which are currently expected.

  14. Potential Application of Silica Mineral from Dieng Mountain in Agriculture Sector to Control the Release Rate of Fertilizer Elements (United States)

    Solihin; Mursito, Anggoro Tri; Dida, Eki N.; Erlangga, Bagus D.; Widodo


    Silica mineral, which comes along with geothermal fluid in Dieng, is a product of erosion, decomposition and dissolution of silicon oxide based mineral, which is followed by precipitation to form silica mineral. This silica cell structure is non crystalline, and it contains 85,60 % silicon oxide, 6.49 volatile elements, and also other oxide elements. Among the direct potential application of this silica is as raw material in slow release fertilizer. Silica in compacted slow release fertilizer is able control the release rate of fertilizer elements. Two type of slow release fertilizer has been made by using silica as the matrix in these slow release fertilizer. The first type is the mixing of ordinary solid fertilizer with Dieng silica, whereas the second one is the mixing of disposal leach water with Dieng silica. The release test shows that both of these modified fertilizers have slow release fertilizer characteristic. The release rate of fertilizer elements (magnesium, potassium, ammonium, and phosphate) can be significantly reduced. The addition of kaolin in the first type of slow release fertilizer makes the release rate of fertilizer elements can be more slowed down. Meanwhile in the second type of slow release fertilizer, the release rate is determined by ratio of silica/hydrogel. The lowest release rate is achieved by sample that has highest ratio of silica/hydrogel.

  15. Validation of a heterologous fertilization assay and comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization, perivitelline, and intracytoplasmic sperm injections. (United States)

    Sessions-Bresnahan, D R; Graham, J K; Carnevale, E M


    IVF in horses is rarely successful. One reason for this could be the failure of sperm to fully capacitate or exhibit hyperactive motility. We hypothesized that the zona pellucida (ZP) of equine oocytes prevents fertilization in vitro, and bypassing the ZP would increase fertilization rates. Limited availability of equine oocytes for research has necessitated the use of heterologous oocyte binding assays using bovine oocytes. We sought to validate an assay using bovine oocytes and equine sperm and then to demonstrate that bypassing the ZP using perivitelline sperm injections (PVIs) with equine sperm capacitated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine would result in higher fertilization rates than standard IVF in bovine and equine oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine oocytes were used for (1) IVF with bovine sperm, (2) IVF with equine sperm, and (3) intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSIs) with equine sperm. Presumptive zygotes were either stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole from 18 to 26 hours at 2-hour intervals or evaluated for cleavage at 56 hours after addition of sperm. Equine sperm fertilized bovine oocytes; however, pronuclei formation was delayed compared with bovine sperm after IVF. The delayed pronuclear formation was not seen after ICSI. In experiment 2, bovine oocytes were assigned to the following five groups: (1) cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) coincubated with bovine sperm; (2) COC exposed to sucrose then coincubated with bovine sperm; (3) COC coincubated with equine sperm; (4) COC exposed to sucrose, and coincubated with equine sperm; and (5) oocytes exposed to sucrose, and 10 to 15 equine sperm injected into the perivitelline (PV) space. Equine sperm tended (P = 0.08) to fertilize more bovine oocytes when injected into the PV space than after IVF. In experiment 3, oocytes were assigned to the following four groups: (1) IVF, equine, and bovine COC coincubated with equine sperm; (2) PVI of equine and bovine oocytes; (3) PVI with equine oocytes

  16. The Effect of Varying Speed Release of Nutrients from Fertilizers on Growth-production Process of Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hric


    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to compare the influence of fertilizers with different speed of nutrients release on growth–production indicators of turf under non–irrigated conditions. The experiment was carried in warm and dry conditions in area Nitra (Slovak Republic. In the experiment were followed 5 treatments (1. without fertilization, 2. Nitre with dolomite, Superphosphate, Potassium salt, 3. Turf fertilizer Travcerit®, 4. Slow release fertilizer SRF NPK 14–5–14 (+ 4CaO + 4MgO + 7S, 5. Controlled release fertilizer Duslocote® NPK (S 13–9–18 (+6S. The highest gain of height reached variant fertilized by fertilizer SRF NPK 14–5–14 (+ 4CaO + 4MgO + 7S. Comparison of the individual treatments for the whole period showed significantly lower average daily gains of height on control treatment compared to fertilizing treatments Nitre with dolomite, Superphosphate, Potassium salt, SRF NPK 14–5–14 (+ 4CaO + 4MgO + 7S and Duslocote® NPK (S 13–9–18 (+6S. During the reported period the highest gain of weight reached treatment by application fertilizer Duslocote® NPK (S 13– 9–18 (+ 6S. Comparison of the individual treatments for the whole period, were found significantly lower average daily production of phytomass on control treatment in comparison with fertilization turfs by Travcerit® and Duslocote® NPK (S 13–9–18 (+6S.

  17. Corn nitrogen fertilization rate tools compared over eight Midwest states (United States)

    Publicly-available nitrogen (N) rate recommendation tools are utilized to help maximize yield in corn production. These tools often fail when N is over-applied and results in excess N being lost to the environment, or when N is under-applied and results in decreased yield and economic returns. Perfo...

  18. Poor semen quality may contribute to recent decline in fertility rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Jørgensen, Niels


    to changing social structures alone or is a reduced fecundity in the population also a factor? To address this we have focused on trends in teenage pregnancies (which to a large extent are unplanned). During the period in question fertility rates among 15-19 year old Danish women have been falling...... may not be attributable to social factors, changes in conception practices or diminished sexual activity alone. It seems reasonable also to consider widespread poor semen quality among men as a potential contributing factor to low fertility rates among teenagers. Due to the concern caused by the low...

  19. The Influence of Seed Rate and Fertilizer Type on Growth of Tridax procumbens in Subhumid Nigeria


    Onifade, OS.; Omokanye, AT.; Amodu, JT.


    Forage production of Tridax procumbens was examined from three seed rates (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha), four types of fertilizer [(unfertilized control, single superphosphate (SSP, 18 % P), NPK (20 : 10 : 10), and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, 25 % N)] and four harvest stages (6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post sowing, WPS). Fertilizer rates used were 20 kg/ha P for (SSP) and 50 kg/ha N for each of NPK and CAN. Plant height (cm), density (plants/m2) and spread (cm) were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. ...

  20. Vitrification by Cryotop and the Maturation, Fertilization, and Developmental Rates of Mouse Oocytes (United States)

    Abedpour, Neda; Rajaei, Farzad


    Background: Oocyte cryopreservation is an important part of modern fertility treatment. The effect of vitrification on the fertilization and developmental rates of embryo is still a matter of debate. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitrification on the success of mouse oocyte maturation, fertilization, and preimplantation development in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 200 germinal vesicle (GV) and 200 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were obtained from ovaries and fallopian tubes of NMRI mice, respectively and divided into two control and experimental (vitrified) groups. Oocytes in the experimental group were vitrified by Cryotop using vitrification medium (Origio, Denmark) and kept in liquid nitrogen for one month. Then, they were cultured in maturation medium for 24 hours. In vitro maturated metaphase 2 (IVM-MII) and ovulated metaphase 2 (OV-MII) oocytes were inseminated and the fertilized embryos assessed until the hatching blastocyst stage. Outcomes were assessed for statistical significance by Chi-square test using SPSS software. Results: Vitrification caused a significant reduction in the maturation rate of oocytes. Of those that matured, the fertilization rate of vitrified IVM-MII (44.1%) and OV-MII oocytes (50%) was not significantly different from each other but both were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in developmental rates of both vitrified groups and the control group. Conclusions: The present study showed that vitrification using Cryotop and freezing medium can damage oocytes by reducing the maturation and fertilization rates in both developmental stages. PMID:26568845

  1. Assessing the Spectral Separability of Flue Cured Tobacco Varieties Established on Different Planting Dates and under Varying Fertilizer Management Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekia Svotwa


    Full Text Available The NDVI was used to discriminate tobacco variety, assess fertilizer levels, and determine the impact of planting date on separating crops. A split plot design with four planting dates, September, October, November, and December, as main plots, variety as subplot, and fertilizer treatments as sub-subplots was used. Radiometric measurements were taken from 5 m × 5 m sampling plots, using a multispectral radiometer. The September, October, and November crops had significant variety x fertilizer treatment differences (F0.05 NDVI values and these were greater (F0.05 and both were greater (F0.05, which were lower (P<0.05 than the September and October planting dates. The results showed that planting dates, varieties, and fertilizer levels could be distinguished using spectral data. Weeks 10-11 and 15 after the start of the experiment were optimal for separating the planting date effect.

  2. The benefit of artificial oocyte activation is dependent on the fertilization rate in a previous treatment cycle. (United States)

    Montag, Markus; Köster, Maria; van der Ven, Katrin; Bohlen, Ulrike; van der Ven, Hans


    Following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), some patients present low or zero fertilization rates. Artificial oocyte activation has been proposed as a suitable means to overcome this problem. This study applied artificial oocyte activation in patient cohorts with a history of no fertilization (0%, group 1), fertilization between 1 and 29% (group 2) or fertilization between 30 and 50% (group 3) in initial ICSI cycles. In the following treatment cycles, oocytes were activated after ICSI using calcium ionophore. Fertilization, pregnancy and take-home baby rates were compared with the previous cycle without activation. In group 1, fertilization rate was 41.6%, embryos for transfer were available in 82.1% of cycles, giving a clinical pregnancy rate of 18.8% and take-home baby rate of 12.8%. In group 2, despite a lower transfer rate (87.9% versus 100%, Pfertilization and clinical pregnancy rates (44.4% versus 19.3% and 31.4% versus 12.8%, respectively, Pfertilization rates differed (56.1% versus 36.8%; PArtificial oocyte activation has great potential especially in patients showing compromised fertilization rates below 30% after standard ICSI. Following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), some patients present very low or even zero fertilization rates after ICSI. Artificial oocyte activation has been proposed as a suitable means to overcome this problem. We applied artificial oocyte activation in patients which presented a history either no fertilization, fertilization between 0 and 30% or fertilization between 30 and 50% in initial ICSI cycles. In the following treatment cycles, oocytes were activated after ICSI using a calcium ionophore. Fertilization, pregnancy and take-home baby rates were compared to the previous cycle without activation. For the groups with previously 0% or 1-29% fertilization, we noted higher fertilization rates and clinical pregnancy rates per embryo transfer. For the group with moderate fertilization, only fertilization rates

  3. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve


    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating...

  4. A comparative study on the rate of bone decalcification at varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the rate of bone decalcification at varying temperatures, decalcification fluid and fluid concentrations. A decalcification methodology was adopted using modern household microwave oven to accelerate the decalcification rate of rabbit compact bone sample. Bone biopsy was obtained from a rabbit limb ...

  5. Desain dan Pengujian Metering Device untuk Alat Penjatah Pupuk Granular Laju Variabel (Variable Rate Granular Fertilizer Applicatior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Azis S.


    Full Text Available Uniform Rate of fertilizer Application (URA practice is disregarding the productive potential of the various areas within the field. Thus, some area is less fertilized and other is over fertilized. It is also an important issue recently that nitrogen from fertilizers may be subjected to lost into atmosphere or enters streams through surface or subsurface drainage (leaching. The place with over-fertilization will be a potential source of pollution in the form of ammonia (NH3, nitrite (NO2 and nitrate (NO3 which may hazard people health. Variable rate of fertilizer applicator is a solution to overcame the negative impact of URA. It can control the appropriate of fertilizer dosage and location of application in the field. The objective of this research is to design a metering device for variable rate granular fertilizer applicator. The result of variable rate fertilizer testing with single metering device with single rotor indicated that the rate of urea, SP-36 and NPK are 0.84, 0.96 and 1.2 g/rotation respectively. The testing with double rotor indicated that the rate of urea, SP-36 and NPK are 1.14, 2.22 and 2.1 g/rotation respectively. The all of the testing result indicated that metering device which designed can be applied with urea, SP-36 and NPK fertilizer.

  6. A new relational method for smoothing and projecting age specific fertility rates: TOPALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, J.A.A.


    Age-specific fertility rates can be smoothed using parametric models or splines. Alternatively a relational model can be used which relates the age profile to be fitted or projected to a standard age schedule. This paper introduces TOPALS (tool for projecting age patterns using linear splines), a

  7. Fertility rate oF epileptic women at Kenyatta national Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 7, 2008 ... study in Iceland reported no difference in fertility rate between patients and controls. A study in Finland by Javala and Sillanpaa(12) found out that persons with epilepsy were less likely to marry and to have offsprings. One limitation of a study of this nature is recall bias. To minimise this, medical records ( ...

  8. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; p<0.001, have an infant with low birthweight (OR:1.1; CI:1.10-1.15; p<0.001 and low Apgar score at 5 minutes (OR:1.4; CI:1.34-1.45; p<0.001 than mothers ≥20 years, with the odds for adverse outcomes greater for those aged 10-14 years. Conclusion: this study provides evidence of fertility rates among adolescents remaining higher in regions of social and economic deprivation. Adolescent mothers and their infants more likely to experience adverse perinatal outcomes. Nurses, public health practitioners, health and social care professionals and educators need to work collaboratively to better target strategies for adolescents at greater risk; to help reduce fertility rates and improve outcomes.

  9. Effects of fertilizers and rates of application on growth and yields of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted at Dagwom farm, National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. The objective of the research was to compare the effects of three fertilizers (urea, NPK and poultry manure) and four rates of application (coded 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th to represent either 0, 150, ...

  10. Effect of NPK fertilizer rates on the yield and yield components of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out from March – December 2004 and repeated in 2005 at the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Technology Owerri to evaluate the effect of NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer rates on the yield and yield components including the cost benefit of bitter leaf in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria.

  11. to different npk 15:15:15 fertilizer rates in nrcri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr A. O. Akinpelu

    ABSTRACT. The study examined the response of Hausa potato (Solesnostemon rotundifolius Poir) to different rates of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer. The work was carried out during 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications. Plant spacing of 100cm x 50cm was used.

  12. Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of pinapple propagules (Ananas comosus) in the acid sands of cross river. W Ubi, M W Ubi, VE Osedeke. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 1-4. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  13. Productivity of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown after various predecessors and nitrogen fertilization rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerdzhikova


    Full Text Available Abstract. During the period 2008-2011 the influence of the predecessors wintering peas, spring peas, sunflower and common wheat and different levels of nitrogen fertilization: 0 (N , 40 (N , 80 (N , 120 (N kg/ha after legumes and 0 (N , 60 (N , 120 (N , 180 (N kg/ha after the other predecessors on the 0 40 80 120 0 60 120 180 productivity of common wheat was studied on the experimental field of the Department of Plant Growing, Trakia University. It was found that with cultivation of common wheat without fertilization after legume predecessors higher yields by 9.4 % were obtained compared to the other predecessors. The highest yields were obtained at fertilization with the highest nitrogen rates: after legume predecessors 4069.8 kg/ha grain; after sunflower and wheat 3853.2 kg/ha of grain. The strongest influence on the productivity of common wheat had nitrogen fertilization as a factor with 79.80 %. The yield of wheat grain correlates very well with the level of nitrogen fertilization and can be determined approximately by regression equations based on the quantity of nitrogen as an independent variable.

  14. N{sub 2}O emissions from spring barley production as influenced by fertilizer nitrogen rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarth, B.J. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Potato Research Centre; Rochette, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Soils and Crops Research and Development Centre; Burton, D.L. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada)


    Agricultural crop systems are responsible for a large portion of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions in Canada. N{sub 2}O emissions in agricultural soils are primarily associated with nitrification and denitrification processes. This study investigated the effect of fertilizer nitrogen (N) rates applied to spring barley on N{sub 2}O emissions in a maritime climate with humid soil moisture regimes. The study was part of a national program conducted to measure N{sub 2}O emissions under a variety of different cropping systems and management practices in Canada. Trials were conducted at a site in New Brunswick and consisted of a randomized complete block design with 6 different N fertility treatments replicated 4 times. N{sub 2}O flux measurements were made using a non-flow through, non-steady-state vented chamber on a weekly basis from early spring until late fall. Soil and air samples were collected on the same days. Statistical analyses were performed using a general linear model. Linear interpolation was used to derive cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions. Results showed that N{sub 2}O emissions increased with fertilizer N applications in each year of the study period. Elevated N{sub 2}O emissions occurred in the 6-week period following fertilizer application when soil N concentrations were high. It was concluded that excessive fertilization increases overall N{sub 2}O emissions. 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Prediction of pregnancy success rate through in vitro fertilization based on maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegiharto Soebijanto


    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the correlation between the success of pregnancy through in vitro fertilization and maternal age. Methods Assessment of pregnancy was performed in eight in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia: Harapan Kita Pediatric and Obstetric Hospital from 1997 to 2001, and seven in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia. Follicular induction was performed through the long protocol, short protocol and natural cycle. Insemination was performed through ICSI (intra cytoplasmic sperm injection on petri dish. Spermatozoa were obtained through masturbation, testicular biopsy and epididimical biopsy. A successful pregnancy was indicated chemically, with the presence of fetal heart beat and the birth of a baby (take home baby. Results There was a 34% pregnancy rate for the age group below 30 years, 33.75% for those between 31 and 35 years olds, and 26% for the age group 36 to 40 years old, and 8% for the age group above 40 years. Conclusion The higher the maternal age, the lower pregnancy rate. In other words, the higher the maternal age, the higher the rate of miscarriage. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 244-8Keywords: pregnancy, in vitro fertilization

  16. Successful pregnancy after SrCl2 oocyte activation in couples with repeated low fertilization rates following calcium ionophore treatment. (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sang-Don; Yang, Seong-Ho; Yoon, San-Hyun; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Jin-Ho


    This report describes a successful pregnancy and delivery following oocyte activation with strontium chloride (SrCl2) in couples with repeated complete fertilization failure or low fertilization rates even after calcium ionophore treatment. Eight infertile couples who showed complete fertilization failure or low fertilization rates after conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and calcium ionophore treatment. When the results of fertilization were not satisfactory in the cycles, the oocytes were artificially activated by SrCl2 for the next attempts. Oocyte activation with SrCl2 significantly increased the fertilization rates, when compared with conventional ICSI or calcium ionophore treatment (61.7% vs. 20.0% or 25.3%, respectively). There was significant increase in the proportions of good-quality cleaved embryos (50.0% vs. 0% or 12.5%, respectively). The rate of surplus embryos that developed to blastocyst stage increased in SrCl2-treated oocytes, when compared with that in ICSI with or without calcium ionophore treatment (25.7% vs. 0% or 9.1%, respectively). Five successful pregnancies were attained after oocyte activation with SrCl2, of which eight healthy children were born. Physical and mental development of the children were normal from birth to 60 months. These results suggest that SrCl2 in treatment should be considered as an effective method for artificial oocyte activation (AOA) to improve fertilization rates and embryo quality in cases with complete fertilization failure or low fertilization rates after calcium ionophore treatment.

  17. Parental attitudes toward fertility preservation in boys with cancer: context of different risk levels of infertility and success rates of fertility restoration. (United States)

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Vossough, Parvaneh; Maleki, Haleh; Sedighnejad, Shirin; Kamali, Koorosh; Ghorbani, Behzad; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd


    To measure the parental attitudes toward fertility preservation in boys with cancer. Retrospective cohort study. Questionnaire survey via regular mail. A total of 465 families whose sons were already treated for cancer. The questionnaire was designed for two groups based on child's age at the time of cancer diagnosis: fertility preservation options in the context of different risk levels of infertility and success rates of fertility restoration. The response rate was 78%. Sixty-four percent of parents of boys ≥12 years old would agree to store sperm obtained by masturbation and/or electroejaculation, and 54% of parents of boys fertility restoration were ≤20%, more than one-fourth of parents would still opt for fertility preservation. All parents should be counseled about the risks of infertility due to cancer treatment, because many parents want to preserve their son's fertility even if the risk of becoming infertile or the chances on fertility restoration are low. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The control of self-propelled microjets inside a microchannel with time-varying flow rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver S.; Misra, Sarthak

    We demonstrate the closed-loop motion control of self-propelled microjets inside a fluidic microchannel. The motion control of the microjets is achieved in hydrogen peroxide solution with time-varying flow rates, under the influence of the controlled magnetic fields and the self-propulsion force.

  19. Effect of varying rates of Palm Bunch Ash on maize yield in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of varying rates of palm bunch ash on the grain yield of maize (Zea mays). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments replicated three times. The treatments were 0, 100, 200 and 300kg Palm bunch ash/ha.

  20. Seed Yield of Long Fiber Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Plants Depending on Rates of Sawing of Seed and Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Ф. Рибак


    Full Text Available Impact of rates of sawing of seed and fertilization on seed productivity of Kameniar and Irma Long Fiber Flax in the conditions of Ukrainian Woodlands are highlighted. A trustworthy proportion is established of factors influence, in particular, of the sawing and fertilization rates, on Long Fiber Flax yield formation.

  1. Male smokers have a decreased success rate for in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (United States)

    Zitzmann, Michael; Rolf, Claus; Nordhoff, Verena; Schräder, Guido; Rickert-Föhring, Melanie; Gassner, Paul; Behre, Hermann M; Greb, Robert R; Kiesel, Ludwig; Nieschlag, Eberhard


    Smoking by one or both partners can adversely affect IVF outcome. We investigated whether smoking may also play a role in the success rate of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in which initial steps of fertilization are bypassed. Three hundred one couples (ICSI: 153, IVF: 148) participated in 415 treatment cycles (ICSI: 202, IVF: 213). One hundred thirty-nine men were habitual smokers (ICSI: 71, IVF: 68). Seventy-seven women were smokers (ICSI: 41, IVF: 36). Multiple nominal regression analyses of various steps of assisted reproduction included smoking status, age, semen parameters, and number of embryos transferred. Reproductive and andrology unit of the university. Three hundred one couples seeking fertility treatment. Assisted reproduction by in vitro fertilization (IVF) or ICSI. Clinical pregnancy. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection success (clinical pregnancy) in women with smoking male partners was 22% and was 38% with nonsmoking partners. Similar results were seen for IVF, with 18% vs. 32%. Multinominal logistic regression analysis revealed smoking in men to be a significant predictor of ICSI outcome, along with female age and the number of embryos transferred, whereas clinical pregnancies after IVF were dependent on smoking in men, number of embryos transferred, sperm motility, and female age. Female smoking influenced the number of oocytes retrieved and the fertilization rate of oocytes in IVF but not in ICSI. The odds ratio for failure of ICSI for male smokers in comparison to male nonsmokers was 2.95 (IVF: 2.65). Smoking by males decreases the success rates of assisted reproduction procedures, not only in IVF, but also in ICSI. Apart from putative adverse effects during fertilization, altered DNA in spermatozoa might hamper development of the embryo.

  2. Operational nitrogen fertilizer management in dairy farming systems: identification of criteria and derivation of fertilizer application rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, T.V.; Andre, G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Oenema, O.


    Fertilizer-nitrogen (N) management is a decisive factor in grass-based, intensive dairy farming, as it strongly influences economic and environmental performance but little attention has been paid to providing guidance on N-fertilizer management at an operational level to meet these criteria of

  3. Electroejaculation in combination with intracytoplasmic sperm injection in patients with psychogenic anejaculation results in lower fertilization rates. (United States)

    Hovav, Y; Kafka, I; Dan-Goor, M; Yaffe, H; Almagor, M


    To evaluate the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with sperm obtained by electroejaculation in men with psychogenic anejaculation. Retrospective clinical study. In Vitro Fertilization Unit, Bikur Cholim Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel. Seven men with psychogenic anejaculation who underwent 16 sessions of electroejaculation in combination with ICSI. Electroejaculation, ICSI. Semen analysis, ICSI, fertilization rates. All patients had poor sperm motility. One hundred forty-seven oocytes were injected, with a fertilization rate of 27% (39/142). One ongoing pregnancy was achieved. Sperm obtained by electroejaculation have low motility and reduced fertilization potential. Nevertheless, ICSI should be offered to improve the possibility of successful pregnancy.

  4. Effect of Different Silicon Sources on Yield and Silicon Uptake of Rice Grown under Varying Phosphorus Rates

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    Flavia B. Agostinho


    Full Text Available A series of pot experiments were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effects of different Si sources (soil- and foliar-applied on grain yield and Si accumulation of rice supplied with varying P rates, and (2 evaluate Si absorption of rice using foliar- and soil-applied Si fertilizers. Three P rates, (0, 112, and 224 kg ha−1 combined with five Si treatments (wollastonite and slag applied at 4.5 ton ha−1 and one foliar Si solution applied at 20, 40 and 80 mg Si L−1 and a check were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The presence of P and Si in the soil created a synergistic effect on soil Al, Mn, and As (P < 0.01, but not on rice growth and P uptake. Wollastonite and slag application were most effective in raising rice Si content than foliar applied Si (P < 0.001. While there was an improvement in biomass (42% and tiller production (25% for rice receiving foliar Si, no supporting evidence was obtained in these experiments to verify leaf surface Si absorption. The application of Si-rich materials to soil still remains the most effective method for enhancing Si uptake by plants.

  5. Energy productivity, fertilization rate and profitability of wheat production after various predecessors II.Profitability of wheat production

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    Z. Uhr


    Full Text Available Abstract. In the course of our study on the adaptation of modern genotypes common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum to the requirements of sustainable agriculture data were received concerning the influence of the predecessor and nitrogen fertilizer rate on energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization and profitability of productivity.We share these data with the scientific community, as they are up-to-date and informative in both theoretical and practical aspects. The analyses are based on data from field experiments fertilizer derived after predecessor cereals – regular crop of sorghum, millet, maize and legumes after predecessor - separate sowing of chickpeas. Energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization was calculated as the ratio between the energy supplied in the additional grain yield and energy input in the form of fertilizers. Refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization is the additional amount of nitrogen accumulated in the grain, with respect to the applied nitrogen fertilization. Economic profitability of production is evaluated by coefficient R = P/Ra (ratio of benefits/costs. The results show that energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization are on average five times higher after cereal than after legumes predecessor, and decreased with increasing the fertilizer rate, the decrease was statistically significant only for the first item (exponent. Profitability ratio of production after the introduction of legumes predecessor in crop rotation increases by an average of 42% and retains maximum values of fertilization levels 0.06, 0.12 and 0.18 t/ha nitrogen. Profitability of wheat production using pre-legumes crop is not determined by the parameters nitrogen fertilizer rate and energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization and refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization.

  6. Accumulation of N and P in the Legume Lespedeza davurica in Controlled Mixtures with the Grass Bothriochloa ischaemum under Varying Water and Fertilization Conditions

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    Bingcheng Xu


    Full Text Available Water and fertilizers affect the nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P acquisition and allocation among organs in dominant species in natural vegetation on the semiarid Loess Plateau. This study aimed to clarify the N and P accumulation and N:P ratio at organ and plant level of a local legume species mixed with a grass species under varying water and fertilizer supplies, and thus to fully understand the requirements and balance of nutrient elements in response to growth conditions change of native species. The N and P concentration in the organ (leaf, stem, and root and plant level of Lespedeza davurica (C3 legume, were examined when intercropped with Bothriochloa ischaemum (C4 grass. The two species were grown outdoors in pots under 80, 60, and 40% of soil water field capacity (FC, -NP, +N, +P, and +NP supply and the grass:legume mixture ratios of 2:10, 4:8, 6:6, 8:4, 10:2, and 12:0. The three set of treatments were under a randomized complete block design. Intercropping with B. ischaemum did not affect N concentrations in leaf, stem and root of L. davurica, but reduced P concentration in each organ under P fertilization. Only leaf N concentration in L. davurica showed decreasing trend as soil water content decreased under all fertilization and mixture proportion treatments. Stems had the lowest, while roots had the highest N and P concentration. As the mixture proportion of L. davurica decreased under P fertilization, P concentration in leaf and root also decreased. The N concentration in L. davurica at the whole plant level was 11.1–17.2%. P fertilization improved P concentration, while decreased N:P ratio in L. davurica. The N:P ratios were less than 14.0 under +P and +NP treatments. Our results implied that exogenous N and P fertilizer application may change the N:P stoichiometry and influence the balance between nutrients and organs of native dominant species in natural grassland, and P element should be paid more attention when considering

  7. Modeling the time--varying subjective quality of HTTP video streams with rate adaptations. (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C


    Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.

  8. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study. (United States)

    Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José


    analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; ppobreza social y económica. Madres adolesce

  9. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) desensitization increases sea urchin spermatozoa fertilization rate. (United States)

    Torrezan-Nitao, Elis; Boni, Raianna; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando


    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a protein complex whose opening promotes an abrupt increase in mitochondrial inner membrane permeability. Calcium signaling pathways are described in gametes and are involved in the fertilization process. Although mitochondria may act as Ca(2+) store and have a fast calcium-releasing mechanism through MPTP, its contribution to fertilization remains unclear. The work aimed to investigate the MPTP phenomenon in sea urchin spermatozoa and its role on the fertilization. Several pharmacological tools were used to evaluate the MPTP's physiology. Our results demonstrated that MPTP occurs in male gametes in a Ca(2+) - and voltage-dependent manner and it is sensitive to cyclosporine A. Additionally, our data show that MPTP opening does not alter ROS generation in sperm cells. Inhibition of MPTP in spermatozoa strongly improved the fertilization rate, which may involve mechanisms that increase the spermatozoa lifespan. The present work is the first report of the presence of a voltage- and Ca(2+) -dependent MPTP in gametes of invertebrates and indicates MPTP opening as another evolutionary feature shared by sea urchins and mammals. Studies about MPTP in sea urchin male gametes may contribute to the elucidation of several mechanisms involved in sperm infertility. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  10. In vitro fertilization rate of mouse eggs with sperm after X-irradiation at various spermatogenetic stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Yamada, T. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))


    The frequency of in vitro fertilization of mouse eggs using sperm obtained weekly (for 1-9 weeks) from epididymis after testicular X-irradiation (200 rad) was observed. The sperm concentrations for insemination were 100, 200 and 300/mm/sup 3/. The number of fertilized eggs seemed to remain constant almost at control level (90-98%) until the 4th week after X-irradiation. Thereafter, the number declined to reach a minimum level (about 30-50%) in the 6th week; they then recovered completely in the 8th week. This tendency was found at all sperm concentrations used. This result indicates that the most sensitive stage for the fertilization capacity of sperm to X-rays was the early spermatocytes or the late spermatogonia. The high radiosensitivity of the fertilization capacity of sperm irradiated during the early-spermatocyte to late-spermatogonial stage, corresponded well with the rate of induction of sperm abnormalities and spermatogenetic cell killing. The in vitro fertilization rate was not restored by an increase in sperm concentration at insemination; it is, therefore, likely that the in vitro fertilization frequency depends on the proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology and abnormal fertilization ability, and sperm number seems to have hardly any influence on the fertilization rate, as far as the in vitro fertilization experiment is concerned.

  11. A cross-over in Mexican and Mexican-American fertility rates: Evidence and explanations for an emerging paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Heuveline


    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of two new developments in the fertility behavior of the Mexican- Origin population in the U.S., the present discussion will update contemporary Mexican-Origin fertility patterns and address several theoretical weaknesses in the current approach to minority group fertility. Data come from six national surveys (three from Mexico and three from the U.S. that cover a twenty-five year period (1975-2000. The findings demonstrate dramatic decreases in the fertility rates in Mexico at the same time that continuous increases have been documented in the fertility rates of third-or-later generation Mexican-Americans in the U.S., particularly at younger ages. These changes necessitate a reexamination of the ubiquitous theory that Mexican pronatalist values are responsible for the high fertility rates found within the Mexican-Origin population in the U.S. Instead, they point to the increasing relevance of framing the fertility behavior of the Mexican-Origin population within a racial stratification perspective that stresses the influence of U.S. social context on fertility behavior. As a step in this direction, the analysis examines fertility patterns within the Mexican-Origin population in the U.S. Special attention is given to the role of nativity/generational status in contributing to within group differences.

  12. [Association between the decline in global fertility rate and the incorporation of women to the workforce]. (United States)

    Stefanelli, María de Los Ángeles; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Cárcamo, Marcela; Urquidi, Cinthya; Cavada, Gabriel; San Martín P, Pamela


    The global fertility rate (GFR) is defined as the mean number of children that a woman could have in a hypothetical cohort, not exposed to death during the fertile period. GFR has fallen from 3.4 to 1.9 children per women in the period 1970-2010. To explore the relationship between the fall in GFR and the incorporation of women to work in the period 1960-2011. Data from the National Statistics Institute was used. GRF was calculated using specific fertility rates for each year considering women aged 15 to 49 years. Work rates were obtained from yearly vital statistics reports. Between 1960 and 2011, GRF decreased from 5.5 to 1.9 in Chile. The first inflection occurred in 1970. In the same period, female workforce increased from 22.4 to 40.2%. To motivate the participation of female work-force without decrease the GRF allowing population replacement, it is suggested the need to create new public policies with benefits and support from the state.

  13. Structure/property relations of aluminum under varying rates and stress states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Horstemeyer, Mark F [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV; Whittington, Wilburn R [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV; Solanki, Kiran N [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV.


    In this work we analyze the plasticity, damage, and fracture characteristics of three different processed aluminum alloys (rolled 5083-H13, cast A356-T6, and extruded 6061-T6) under varying stress states (tension, compression, and torsion) and strain rates (0.001/, 1/s., and 1000/s). The stress state difference had more of a flow stress effect than the applied strain rates for those given in this study (0.001/sec up to 1000/sec). The stress state and strain rate also had a profound effect on the damage evolution of each aluminum alloy. Tension and torsional straining gave much greater damage nucleation rates than compression. Although the damage of all three alloys was found to be void nucleation dominated, the A356-T6 and 5083-H131 aluminum alloys incurred void damage via micron scale particles where the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy incurred void damage from two scales, micron-scale particles and nanoscale precipitates. Having two length scales of particles that participated in the damage evolution made the 6061-T6 incur a strain rate sensitive damage rate that was different than the other two aluminum alloys. Under tension, as the strain rate increased, the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy's void nucleation rate decreased, but the A356-T6 and 5083-H131 aluminum alloys void nucleation rate increased.

  14. Rate of solidification of aluminium casting in varying wall thickness of cylindrical metallic moulds

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    Katsina Christopher BALA


    Full Text Available The quality of final casting mainly depends on the rate of solidification as rapid solidification produces fine grains structures with better mechanical properties. The analysis of heat transfer during the casting and solidification of aluminium alloy as well as the experimental investigation of the rate of solidification in varying thicknesses of cylindrical metallic mould was carried out. The temperature variation with time of the casting was recorded from which cooling curves were obtained for the determination of solidification time of the cast. The results showed that as the cylindrical mould thickness increases the solidification time decreases due to the chilling effect of the mould.

  15. Seminal plasma protein concentrations vary with feed efficiency and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls. (United States)

    Montanholi, Y R; Fontoura, A B P; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P


    Fertility-associated proteins (FAP) found in seminal plasma indicate sexual maturity, which appears to be influenced by feed efficiency in cattle. This study characterized FAP via proteomics and verified associations of these proteins with feed efficiency, body composition and fertility-related measures in yearling beef bulls. Assessments including testicular ultrasonography, infrared thermography, seminal quality, seminal plasma proteomics, carcass composition, and reproductive organ biometry were obtained. From a population of 31 bulls, the seven most and least feed efficient (efficient, inefficient) bulls were used for categorical comparisons. Correlations between FAP, productive performance and fertility-related measures were determined. These traits were also correlated with orthogonal factors summarized from the FAP. Efficient bulls had increased epididymal sperm-binding protein-1 and decreased concentration of protein-C inhibitor compared to inefficient bulls. Correlations between FAP with age, body size, body composition, reproductive organ biometry, scrotal temperature, and seminiferous tubule maturity are reported. Acrosin and cathepsin D increased with development of the testes and osteopontin increased with greater numbers of mature seminiferous tubules. Phosphoglycerate kinase-2 was higher in animals with a higher scrotum temperature and a higher prevalence of sperm morphology defects. The principal factor indicated that FAP variability concentrations were positively correlated with age, reproductive organ biometry, body size and composition. Our results indicate that FAP changes with body size and sexual development, and demonstrates differences in the proteomics of bulls with diverging feed efficiency. This is related to the delay in the sexual maturity of efficient young bulls. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier

  16. A coherent digital demodulator for multiple signal formats and widely varying data rates (United States)

    Mcguffin, Bruce F.


    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) uses four ground station demodulators for K-band signals with data rates from 1 kb/s to 300 Mb/s. The author discusses the feasibility of replacing these demodulators with a single digital demodulator that may be reconfigured by altering stored parameters to accommodate all signal formats and data rates. This implementation will reduce total ground station cost and facilitate automation of ground station operation. Analysis of system performance concentrates on the carrier tracking loop. Analytic and simulation results relate system performance to parameter values and signal format as data rate and power vary independently on the In-phase and quadrature channels. It is demonstrated that a single digital demodulator can support TDRSS-compatible signals at data rates conservatively extending from 1K symbols/s to 10M symbols/s, using off-the-shelf hardware with 6 or more bits of accuracy.

  17. Ectopic pregnancy rates after in vitro fertilization: a look at the donor egg population. (United States)

    Rosman, Elana R; Keegan, Debbra A; Krey, Lewis; Liu, Mengling; Licciardi, Frederick; Grifo, Jamie A


    In an 8-year review of ectopic pregnancy (EP) rates in donor egg recipients and standard patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) at a large university-based program, we report an EP rate of 0.6% in donor egg recipients and 0.9% in standard IVF patients, a difference that is not statistically significant. Donor egg recipients were found to have a significantly lower incidence of tubal disease compared with standard IVF patients; however, tubal disease was not found to be an independent risk factor for EP in our practice, perhaps owing to aggressive management of tubal disease.

  18. Purging deleterious mutations under self fertilization: paradoxical recovery in fitness with increasing mutation rate in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Levi T Morran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of deleterious mutations can drastically reduce population mean fitness. Self-fertilization is thought to be an effective means of purging deleterious mutations. However, widespread linkage disequilibrium generated and maintained by self-fertilization is predicted to reduce the efficacy of purging when mutations are present at multiple loci. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the ability of self-fertilizing populations to purge deleterious mutations at multiple loci by exposing obligately self-fertilizing populations of Caenorhabditis elegans to a range of elevated mutation rates and found that mutations accumulated, as evidenced by a reduction in mean fitness, in each population. Therefore, purging in obligate selfing populations is overwhelmed by an increase in mutation rate. Surprisingly, we also found that obligate and predominantly self-fertilizing populations exposed to very high mutation rates exhibited consistently greater fitness than those subject to lesser increases in mutation rate, which contradicts the assumption that increases in mutation rate are negatively correlated with fitness. The high levels of genetic linkage inherent in self-fertilization could drive this fitness increase. CONCLUSIONS: Compensatory mutations can be more frequent under high mutation rates and may alleviate a portion of the fitness lost due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations through epistatic interactions with deleterious mutations. The prolonged maintenance of tightly linked compensatory and deleterious mutations facilitated by self-fertilization may be responsible for the fitness increase as linkage disequilibrium between the compensatory and deleterious mutations preserves their epistatic interaction.

  19. Global transcriptional expression in ovarian follicles from Tsaiya ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) with a high-fertilization rate. (United States)

    Wu, Shyh-Jong; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Liu, Hsiao-Lung; Wang, Hsing-He; Huang, Hsiu-Lin


    Novel candidates for biomarkers of a high-fertilization rate were identified here through global transcriptional profiling of ovarian follicles. Some other differentially expressed candidate genes were first noted to influence animal reproduction in our previous cDNA microarray analysis and are now recognized as markers for marker-assisted selection. In the present study, we compared gene expression in ovarian follicles from animals with high- and low-fertilization rates using an oligonucleotide array. On the basis of a fold change of greater than 1.2 and less than -1.2, a difference of >100 Affymetrix arbitrary units between the two groups, and a P value of less than 0.05, 47 genes were found to be associated with fertilization rate. GOEAST and MetaCore software were further used to identify the functional categories of genes that were differentially expressed. Then, we focused on three interesting genes associated with a high-fertilization rate: one of these genes was discovered to participate in signaling pathways of fertilization, and two genes take roles in lipid metabolism. An oligonucleotide array showed that the levels of orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) gene expression were 1.62-fold and 1.95-fold higher in the high-fertilization rate group than in the low-fertilization rate group, respectively (P fertilization rate group, with a difference of 2.31-fold (P fertilization rates in ovarian follicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Can calcium ionophore "use" in patients with diminished ovarian reserve increase fertilization and pregnancy rates? A randomized, controlled study. (United States)

    Caglar Aytac, Pinar; Kilicdag, Esra Bulgan; Haydardedeoglu, Bulent; Simsek, Erhan; Cok, Tayfun; Parlakgumus, Huriye Ayse


    To determine whether calcium ionophore solution can improve the fertilization rate in patients with diminished ovarian reserve whose partners have normal sperm parameters. Between January 2014 and August 2014, patients with diminished ovarian reserve were randomized to make artificial oocyte activation with calcium ionophore solution. University hospital. A total of 296 patients who had diminished ovarian reserve and partners with normal sperm parameters were included in the study. Metaphase 2 oocytes were treated with calcium ionophore solution (GM508 Cult-Active) for 15 minutes just after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertilization rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate. Fertilization, implantation, pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates for the calcium ionophore and control groups were 60.7% and 55.4%, 12.8% and 10.7%, 21% and 12.8%, and 10.9% and 6.1%, respectively. This is the first prospective, randomized, controlled study to analyze the effect of calcium ionophore solution on fertilization rate in patients with diminished ovarian reserve. We did not observe any differences in fertilization, clinical pregnancy, or ongoing pregnancy rates between the groups. We propose that fertilization ratios could not be increased by artificial oocyte activation via application of calcium ionophore solution in patients with diminished ovarian reserve. NCT02045914. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal fertilizer nitrogen rates and yield-scaled global warming potential in drill seeded rice. (United States)

    Adviento-Borbe, Maria Arlene; Pittelkow, Cameron M; Anders, Merle; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; McClung, Anna M; Six, Johan; Linquist, Bruce A


    Drill seeded rice ( L.) is the dominant rice cultivation practice in the United States. Although drill seeded systems can lead to significant CH and NO emissions due to anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions, the relationship between high-yielding management practices, particularly fertilizer N management, and total global warming potential (GWP) remains unclear. We conducted three field experiments in California and Arkansas to test the hypothesis that by optimizing grain yield through N management, the lowest yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP = GWP Mg grain) is achieved. Each growing season, urea was applied at rates ranging from 0 to 224 kg N ha before the permanent flood. Emissions of CH and NO were measured daily to weekly during growing seasons and fallow periods. Annual CH emissions ranged from 9.3 to 193 kg CH-C ha yr across sites, and annual NO emissions averaged 1.3 kg NO-N ha yr. Relative to NO emissions, CH dominated growing season (82%) and annual (68%) GWP. The impacts of fertilizer N rates on GHG fluxes were confined to the growing season, with increasing N rate having little effect on CH emissions but contributing to greater NO emissions during nonflooded periods. The fallow period contributed between 7 and 39% of annual GWP across sites years. This finding illustrates the need to include fallow period measurements in annual emissions estimates. Growing season GWP ranged from 130 to 686 kg CO eq Mg season across sites and years. Fertilizer N rate had no significant effect on GWP; therefore, achieving the highest productivity is not at the cost of higher GWP. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Fatty acid composition of human follicular fluid phospholipids and fertilization rate in assisted reproductive techniques. (United States)

    Shaaker, Maghsod; Rahimipour, Ali; Nouri, Mohammad; Khanaki, Korosh; Darabi, Masoud; Farzadi, Laya; Shahnazi, Vahideh; Mehdizadeh, Amir


    Fatty acids are known to be critically important in multiple biological functions. Phospholipid fatty acids of follicular fluid, an important microenvironment for the development of oocytes, may contribute to the women's fertility and the efficacy of assisted reproduction techniques. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition of follicular fluid phospholipids on women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques. Follicular fluid samples were obtained from 100 patients, referred to Tabriz Alzahra Hospital. Seventy-nine subjects underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and the remaining 21 underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Total lipid of follicular fluid was extracted and fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA, P = 0.002) and the ratio of SFA to polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.001) were correlated negatively with a number of mature oocytes after age adjustment. Linoleic acid (P = 0.006) was positively correlated, while the level of arachidonic acid was negatively correlated with fertility percentage after adjustment for body mass index, sperm count, sperm motility. Since phospholipids are one of the major components of lipid metabolism, the results of this study highlight the importance of this component in follicular fluid lipid metabolism. Consequently, it is proposed as an index in determination of the rate of success in assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF/ICSI.

  3. Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates* # (United States)

    Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi


    Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased α-, γ-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of γ-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and α-/γ-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

  4. Dynamic linear models to explore time-varying suspended sediment-discharge rating curves (United States)

    Ahn, Kuk-Hyun; Yellen, Brian; Steinschneider, Scott


    This study presents a new method to examine long-term dynamics in sediment yield using time-varying sediment-discharge rating curves. Dynamic linear models (DLMs) are introduced as a time series filter that can assess how the relationship between streamflow and sediment concentration or load changes over time in response to a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic watershed disturbances or long-term changes. The filter operates by updating parameter values using a recursive Bayesian design that responds to 1 day-ahead forecast errors while also accounting for observational noise. The estimated time series of rating curve parameters can then be used to diagnose multiscale (daily-decadal) variability in sediment yield after accounting for fluctuations in streamflow. The technique is applied in a case study examining changes in turbidity load, a proxy for sediment load, in the Esopus Creek watershed, part of the New York City drinking water supply system. The results show that turbidity load exhibits a complex array of variability across time scales. The DLM highlights flood event-driven positive hysteresis, where turbidity load remained elevated for months after large flood events, as a major component of dynamic behavior in the rating curve relationship. The DLM also produces more accurate 1 day-ahead loading forecasts compared to other static and time-varying rating curve methods. The results suggest that DLMs provide a useful tool for diagnosing changes in sediment-discharge relationships over time and may help identify variability in sediment concentrations and loads that can be used to inform dynamic water quality management.

  5. Effects of Different Fertility Rates on Chick Quality and Hatching Parameters in Hatching Eggs


    İsmail Durmuş; Serdar Kamanlı; Yeliz Kaşko Arıcı; Mehmet Akif Özcan


    This study was conducted to investigate the hatching parameters differences between the hatching eggs which were controlled or not for fertility at 18th day of embryo development in the hatchery unit. Hatching was conducted with hatching eggs of Atak-S commercial layers parent stocks. Four treatment groups were constituted; 1) 95% fertility, fertility control at 18th day, 2) 95% fertility, no fertility control at 18th day, 3) 75% fertility, no fertility control at 18th day and 4) 50% fertilit...

  6. Complication rates of ostomy surgery are high and vary significantly between hospitals. (United States)

    Sheetz, Kyle H; Waits, Seth A; Krell, Robert W; Morris, Arden M; Englesbe, Michael J; Mullard, Andrew; Campbell, Darrell A; Hendren, Samantha


    Ostomy surgery is common and has traditionally been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, suggesting an important target for quality improvement. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the variation in outcomes after ostomy creation surgery within Michigan to identify targets for quality improvement. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study took place within the 34-hospital Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative. Patients included were those undergoing ostomy creation surgery between 2006 and 2011. We evaluated hospital morbidity and mortality rates after risk adjustment (age, comorbidities, emergency vs elective, and procedure type). A total of 4250 patients underwent ostomy creation surgery; 3866 procedures (91.0%) were open and 384 (9.0%) were laparoscopic. Unadjusted morbidity and mortality rates were 43.9% and 10.7%. Unadjusted morbidity rates for specific procedures ranged from 32.7% for ostomy-creation-only procedures to 47.8% for Hartmann procedures. Risk-adjusted morbidity rates varied significantly between hospitals, ranging from 31.2% (95% CI, 18.4-43.9) to 60.8% (95% CI, 48.9-72.6). There were 5 statistically significant high-outlier hospitals and 3 statistically significant low-outlier hospitals for risk-adjusted morbidity. The pattern of complication types was similar between high- and low-outlier hospitals. Case volume, operative duration, and use of laparoscopic surgery did not explain the variation in morbidity rates across hospitals. This work was limited by its retrospective study design, by unmeasured variation in case severity, and by our inability to differentiate between colostomies and ileostomies because of the use of Current Procedural Terminology codes. Morbidity and mortality rates for modern ostomy surgery are high. Although this type of surgery has received little attention in healthcare policy, these data reveal that it is both common and uncommonly morbid. Variation in hospital performance provides an

  7. Complication Rates of Ostomy Surgery Are High and Vary Significantly Between Hospitals (United States)

    Sheetz, Kyle H.; Waits, Seth A.; Krell, Robert W.; Morris, Arden M.; Englesbe, Michael J.; Mullard, Andrew; Campbell, Darrell A.; Hendren, Samantha


    Structured Abstract Background Ostomy surgery is common and has traditionally been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, suggesting an important target for quality improvement. Objective To evaluate the variation in outcomes after ostomy creation surgery within Michigan in order to identify targets for quality improvement. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting The 34-hospital Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (MSQC). Patients Patients undergoing ostomy creation surgery between 2006-2011. Main outcome measures We evaluated hospitals' morbidity and mortality rates after risk-adjustment (age, comorbidities, emergency v. elective, procedure type). Results 4,250 patients underwent ostomy creation surgery; 3,866 (91.0%) procedures were open and 384 (9.0%) were laparoscopic. Unadjusted morbidity and mortality rates were 43.9% and 10.7%, respectively. Unadjusted morbidity rates for specific procedures ranged from 32.7% for ostomy-creation-only procedures to 47.8% for Hartmann's procedures. Risk-adjusted morbidity rates varied significantly between hospitals, ranging from 31.2% (95%CI 18.4-43.9) to 60.8% (95%CI 48.9-72.6). There were five statistically-significant high-outlier hospitals and three statistically-significant low-outlier hospitals for risk-adjusted morbidity. The pattern of complication types was similar between high- and low-outlier hospitals. Case volume, operative duration, and use of laparoscopic surgery did not explain the variation in morbidity rates across hospitals. Conclusions Morbidity and mortality rates for modern ostomy surgery are high. While this type of surgery has received little attention in healthcare policy, these data reveal that it is both common and uncommonly morbid. Variation in hospital performance provides an opportunity to identify quality improvement practices that could be disseminated among hospitals. PMID:24819104

  8. Efficacy of Standardized Nursing Fertility Counseling on Sperm Banking Rates in Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Rotker, Katherine; Vigneswaran, Hari; Omil-Lima, Danly; Sigman, Mark; Hwang, Kathleen


    To examine the effect of brief nurse counseling on sperm banking rates among patients prior to initiating chemotherapy. A retrospective chart review was performed for men aged 18-50 with newly diagnosed cancer, from 1998 to 2003, prior to initiation of chemotherapy. A standardized nursing education session including brief fertility counseling was implemented at one institution in 2008 (Institution A). Rates of sperm banking among patients who received counseling were compared to those without counseling at institution A and to those at institution B where a counseling program was never initiated. A total of 766 male patients, 402 treated at institution A and 364 at institution B, were included. At institution A, sperm banking rates prior to 2008 were 6.4% and 8.3% after 2008 for those who did not receive counseling. The rate of sperm banking for those patients who did receive counseling was significantly higher at 17.6% (P = .002). The odds of banking increased 2.9 times for those who received counseling compared to those who did not (P = .003). At institution B, where counseling was never initiated, rates of banking remained low before and after 2008. Additional analysis revealed that younger patients and those patients who did not have children were more likely to perform sperm banking. The rates of sperm banking among cancer patients increased with the receipt of a brief, formalized nurse counseling session prior to initiation of chemotherapy. These findings may validate the use of a formalized fertility counseling prior to initiation of chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of chromosomal polymorphisms of different genders on fertilization rate of fresh IVF-ICSI embryo transfer cycles. (United States)

    Liang, Ji; Zhang, Yongsheng; Yu, Yang; Sun, Wentao; Jing, Jili; Liu, Ruizhi


    To explore whether chromosomal polymorphisms of different genders affect outcomes of fresh IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) embryo transfer cycles differently, 37 couples with chromosomal polymorphisms were identified out of 614 infertile couples undergoing IVF-ICSI treatments. Group 1 included 20 couples in which only the male carried chromosomal polymorphisms; group 2 included 17 couples with female carriers only; group 3 included 19 infertile couples with normal karyotypes randomly selected as controls. A significantly lower fertilization rate was found in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3 (56.68% in Group 1, 78.02% in group 2 and 71.74% in group 3; group 1 versus group 2, P < 0.001; group 1 versus group 3, P = 0.001; respectively). When stratified according to fertilization method, the fertilization rate in IVF cycles of group 1 was significantly lower than group 3 (50.00% in Group 1, 73.89% in Group 3, P < 0.001). Fertilization rates in ICSI cycles between groups 1 and 3 were not significantly different. This study suggests that male chromosomal polymorphisms adversely influence fertilization rates of IVF cycles. The use of ICSI may improve the success of infertility treatment by increasing the fertilization rate for men with chromosomal polymorphisms. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Robust and Optimal Control of Magnetic Microparticles inside Fluidic Channels with Time-Varying Flow Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam S.M. Khalil


    Full Text Available Targeted therapy using magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles has the potential to mitigate the negative side-effects associated with conventional medical treatment. Major technological challenges still need to be addressed in order to translate these particles into in vivo applications. For example, magnetic particles need to be navigated controllably in vessels against flowing streams of body fluid. This paper describes the motion control of paramagnetic microparticles in the flowing streams of fluidic channels with time-varying flow rates (maximum flow is 35−1. This control is designed using a magnetic-based proportional-derivative (PD control system to compensate for the time-varying flow inside the channels (with width and depth of 2 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. First, we achieve point-to-point motion control against and along flow rates of 4−1, 6−1, 17−1, and 35−1. The average speeds of single microparticle (with average diameter of 100 μm against flow rates of 6−1 and 30−1 are calculated to be 45 μm.s−1 and 15 μm.s−1, respectively. Second, we implement PD control with disturbance estimation and compensation. This control decreases the steady-state error by 50%, 70%, 73%, and 78% at flow rates of 4−1, 6−1, 17−1, and 35−1, respectively. Finally, we consider the problem of finding the optimal path (minimal kinetic energy between two points using calculus of variation, against the mentioned flow rates. Not only do we find that an optimal path between two collinear points with the direction of maximum flow (middle of the fluidic channel decreases the rise time of the microparticles, but we also decrease the input current that is supplied to the electromagnetic coils by minimizing the kinetic energy of the microparticles, compared to a PD control with disturbance compensation.

  11. Recombinant fetuin-B protein maintains high fertilization rate in cumulus cell-free mouse oocytes. (United States)

    Dietzel, E; Floehr, J; Van de Leur, E; Weiskirchen, R; Jahnen-Dechent, W


    Does fetuin-B inhibit premature zona pellucida (ZP) hardening in mouse oocytes in vitro and thus increase IVF rate? Supplementation of oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) media with recombinant mouse fetuin-B (rmFetuB) increased fertilization rate without affecting mouse embryo development into blastocysts. Mice deficient in fetuin-B are infertile owing to premature ZP hardening. Premature ZP hardening also occurs during oocyte IVM leading to decreased fertilization rate. We fertilized batches of 20-30 mouse metaphase II (Mll) stage oocytes from C57BL/6 mice with fresh sperm, and studied early embryo development until blastocyst hatching. Oocytes were maintained with or without rmFetuB during IVM and IVF. Exogenous rmFetuB was added to media prior to oocyte isolation. ZP hardening was quantified by chymotrypsin digestion timing and by counting attached sperm. In the absence of cumulus cells, rmFetuB dose-dependently inhibited ZP hardening and increased IVF rate (P = 0.039). Fetuin-B at ≥0.03 mg/ml also inhibited physiological, fertilization-triggered ZP hardening (indicated by increased sperm binding, P = 0.0002), without increasing embryo death. Exogenous rmFetuB increased IVF rate for up to 5 hours of IVM (P = 0.02 at 1 hour, P = 0.01 at 5 hours of IVM). Mll stage oocytes in this study were isolated from the ampullae of fetuin-B expressing mice. Thus, oocytes were protected against premature ZP hardening by endogenous fetuin-B. In humans and livestock, oocytes are usually isolated by follicle puncture before ovulation. In this situation, the deprivation of endogenous fetuin-B would occur earlier and the effect of exogenous fetuin-B in the IVF medium may be even more pronounced. Fertilization-triggered ZP hardening is essential for embryo development but in this study the effect of fetuin-B supplementation was only studied to blastocyst stage. Any influence of added fetuin-B on later embryo development after transplantation remains to be determined. The astacin

  12. Spatially varying predictors of teenage birth rates among counties in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Shoff


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Limited information is available about teenage pregnancy and childbearing in rural areas, even though approximately 20 percent of the nation's youth live in rural areas. Identifying whether there are differences in the teenage birth rate (TBR across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important because these differences may reflect modifiable ecological-level influences such as education, employment, laws, healthcare infrastructure, and policies that could potentially reduce the TBR. OBJECTIVE The goals of this study are to investigate whether there are spatially varying relationships between the TBR and the independent variables, and if so, whether these associations differ between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. METHODS We explore the heterogeneity within metropolitan/nonmetropolitan county groups separately using geographically weighted regression (GWR, and investigate the difference between metropolitan/nonmetropolitan counties using spatial regime models with spatial errors. These analyses were applied to county-level data from the National Center for Health Statistics and the US Census Bureau. RESULTS GWR results suggested that non-stationarity exists in the associations between TBR and determinants within metropolitan/nonmetropolitan groups. The spatial regime analysis indicated that the effect of socioeconomic disadvantage on TBR significantly varied by the metropolitan status of counties. CONCLUSIONS While the spatially varying relationships between the TBR and independent variables were found within each metropolitan status of counties, only the magnitude of the impact of the socioeconomic disadvantage index is significantly stronger among metropolitan counties than nonmetropolitan counties. Our findings suggested that place-specific policies for the disadvantaged groups in a county could be implemented to reduce TBR in the US.

  13. Performance of the experimental resins and dental nanocomposites at varying deformation rates. (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Shortall, Adrian


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bi-axial flexural strength of experimental unfilled resins and resin-based composites at varying deformation rates following 1-week dry, 1-week wet, and 13-week wet storage regimes. A total of 270 disc-shaped specimens (12 mm diameter, 1 mm thickness) of either unfilled resins or experimental resin-based composites comprising of three groups (n = 90) were fabricated. Three groups of each unfilled resin and resin-based composites (n = 90) were stored for 1 week under dry conditions, and at 1 and 13 weeks under wet conditions (37 ± 1°C) before testing. The bi-axial flexural strength of each unfilled resin and resin-based composites group was determined at a 0.1, 1, and 10 mm/min deformation rate (n = 30). The unfilled resins revealed a deformation rate dependence following all storage regimes; however, the addition of fillers in the unfilled resins modified such reliance following the 1-week dry and 13-week wet storage regimes. In contrast, a lower bi-axial flexural strength of the 1-week wet resin-based composites specimens at a 0.1 mm/min deformation rate was identified. A lower bi-axial flexural strength of the 1-week wet resin-based composites specimens at a low deformation rate suggests that premature failure of resin-based composites restorations might occur in patients with parafunctional habits, such as bruxism. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Higher abnormal fertilization, higher cleavage rate, and higher arrested embryos rate were found in conventional IVF than in intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (United States)

    Ming, Li; Yuan, Chen; Ping, Liu; Jie, Qiao


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether performing different fertilization technologies (intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI] and in vitro fertilization [IVF]) may affect the result of fertilization in the normal fertilization cycles. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 164 cycles using sibling oocytes in combined IVF/ICSI with achieved a normal fertilization ( ≥ 25%) both conventional IVF and ICSI in this infertility centre. It was found that there were no differences in 2PN rate (70.25% vs 70.60%), but higher cleavage rate in ICSI than IVF insemination (98.99% vs 96.81%), higher arrested embryos rate in IVF than ICSI in 2PN group (20.00% vs 13.95%), and higher abnormal fertilization IPN (3.87% vs 1.92%) and 3PN (3.63 vs 0.854%) in IVF than ICSI. There were some differences fertilization outcomes between ICSI and IVF, which may be related to different procedures between two techniques.

  15. Threshold-Based Bit Error Rate for Stopping Iterative Turbo Decoding in a Varying SNR Environment (United States)

    Mohamad, Roslina; Harun, Harlisya; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah; Adnan, Wan Azizun Wan; Dimyati, Kaharudin


    Online bit error rate (BER) estimation (OBE) has been used as a stopping iterative turbo decoding criterion. However, the stopping criteria only work at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and fail to have early termination at low SNRs, which contributes to an additional iteration number and an increase in computational complexity. The failure of the stopping criteria is caused by the unsuitable BER threshold, which is obtained by estimating the expected BER performance at high SNRs, and this threshold does not indicate the correct termination according to convergence and non-convergence outputs (CNCO). Hence, in this paper, the threshold computation based on the BER of CNCO is proposed for an OBE stopping criterion (OBEsc). From the results, OBEsc is capable of terminating early in a varying SNR environment. The optimum number of iterations achieved by the OBEsc allows huge savings in decoding iteration number and decreasing the delay of turbo iterative decoding.

  16. An analytical comparison of fertility rate among women in Beijing with different social and economic characteristics. (United States)

    Hao, H; Gaoling; Shen, Q


    In Beijing, the total fertility rate (TFR) fluctuated between 1.3 and 1.8 in the 1980s, and in 1989 it was 1.3. A preliminary survey of 10% of the city's population involved 1,086,000 people, including 299,700 women aged 15-50. Samples of these women were used in group-specific comparisons of fertility rates in 1989. Women in agricultural residence made up 43.2% of the total, whose TFR was 1.822, vs. 0.925 for women in nonagricultural residence. The average childbearing age for agricultural women was 16 years, and their fertility was declining gradually after the age of 28 as opposed to the precipitous after 28 among nonagricultural women. 54% of the agricultural group had 1 child, 48% had 2 children, and 6% had 3 or more children. In contrast, 98% of nonagricultural women had 1 child. Among employed women, 30.7% were in production and transport, 2.6% were farmers, forest workers, and fishers and 20.5% were professional and technical personnel, with the rest being employed in services, post and telecommunications, civil service, and business. The TFR of unemployed women (mostly housewives with a TFR of 3.42) was 2.367, vs. 1.224 for agricultural women. More than 90% of these housewives were agricultural women. A multivariate analysis with the dependent variable of live births to individual women found that, except for age and housewife (or not) status, all variables were negative. In contrast to illiterates, farmers, forest workers, and fisher women, women with higher educational levels and in other occupations had few children. The average number of children born to women with elementary school education was 0.5 less than among illiterates, and 1 less among university graduates than among illiterates. Elementary and junior high school education had the highest marginal impact. The family planning program has been successful in Beijing in lowering fertility, with further declines expected. However, rural women still had more than 1 child at an early age; this

  17. Identifying the Macro-Level Drivers of Adolescent Fertility Rate in Latin America: The Role of School-Based Sexuality Education (United States)

    Avellaneda, Claudia N.; Dávalos, Eleonora


    This study seeks to explain macrolevel drivers of adolescent fertility rate using a panel data set derived from 17 Latin American countries over a period of 16 years (1997-2012). While many studies of adolescent fertility have focused on individual-level explanations, this study explores whether adolescent fertility rate is correlated to…

  18. Phosphorus Fertilizer Rate, Soil P Availability, and Long-Term Growth Response in a Loblolly Pine Plantation on a Weathered Ultisol (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Christine M. Bliss


    Phosphorus is widely deficient throughout the southern pine region of the United States. Growth responses to P fertilization are generally long-lasting in a wide range of soil types, but little is known about fertilization rates and long-term P cycling and availability. In 1982, exceptionally high P fertilization rates (0, 81, 162, and 324 kg P ha-1...

  19. Investigate of Rates and Time of Applying Micronutrients Fertilizer on Traits Quality and Quantity of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

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    heshmat omidi


    Full Text Available Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is one of the oilseed crops adaption on a wide range circumstance of Iran edaphic, which deficiency of micronutrients cause in its quality and quantity yield. To assign the effect of amount and utility period of micronutrients fertilizer on grain yield, yield components and characters of oil quality of safflower var Mexi141 an experiment by factorial base Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with three replications was carried out. The factors were including foliar spraying of micronutrients fertilizer at four levels (1-Without consuming of micronutrients fertilizer or Control (F1, apply 2.5 (F2, apply 3 (F3 and 4.5 (F4 Kg.ha-1, and time of utilization (T1= 3, T2=4 and T3=5 weeks fertilizer after silique formation arranged to plots. Results showed that the traits of start and end flowering, flowering period, the height of first reproductive branch (silique, number of lateral branch, number of grain per siliqe, siliqe diameter, grain yield, oil content and unsaturated fatty acids profile of oil were affected under rates and time of foliar spraying micronutrients fertilizer and its interaction. With rising consume of rates micronutrients fertilizer, the grain yield increased and the uppermost of its (1792.1 kg ha-1 achieved in foliar spraying of 3 kg ha-1 micronutrients fertilizer during four weeks after siliqe formation. Rate of fertilizer on unsaturated fatty acids content of oil had effect, in which the greatest amount of mono band fatty acid of oleic acid (18:1 (15.92 % were gets without using of micronutrients or foliar spraying of at least of micronutrients fertilizer., also the highest amount (75.97 % of diband fatty acid of linoleic acid (18:2 with using 4.5 kg.ha-1 of micronutrients, and the most of multiple band fatty acid (0.29 % of linolenic acid (18:3 was obtained with consuming 3 kg.ha-1 of micronutrients fertilizer. Interaction effect of micronutrients fertilizer and time application of

  20. Garlic essential oil increases rates of eggs fertilization and hatching of Rhamdia quelen larvae in an artificial incubation system

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    Nilton Garcia Marengoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of garlic (Allium sativum essential oil on the rates of eggs fertilization and hatching and on the normal development of larvae of artificially incubated silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of introducing garlic essential oil into the incubators, which used a closed system of water recirculation, at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, and 5mg L-1. Rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching were determined at 10 and 24h after the beginning of eggs hydration. Morphology of larvae was assessed with the aid of a stereo microscope to determine the rate of normal development. The concentration of 5mg L-1 promoted better rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching. Concentrations of garlic essential oil had a linear effect on eggs fertilization rates and larval hatching. Garlic oil did not influence the morphology of the larvae (P>0.05. It is recommended to use 5mg L-1 of garlic essential oil to promote better rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching of artificially incubated silver catfish.

  1. Effect of source, rate and method of nitrogen fertilizer application on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nitrogen fertilizers (Granulated urea, Regular urea and Calcium Ammonium Nitrate) tested were at 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha. The methods of fertilizer application used were banded covered and banded uncovered. Results showed that, there were no significant differences in yields obtained from the fertilizers applied.

  2. Maize dry matter production and macronutrient extraction model as a new approach for fertilizer rate estimation

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    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution. A uniform maize crop was grown to observe dry matter accumulation and nutrient content in the plant. The dry matter accumulation followed a sigmoidal model and the macronutrient content a power model. The maximum nutrient absorption occurred at the R4 growth stage, for which the sap concentration was successfully calculated. It is hoped that this new approach of evaluating nutrient sap concentration will help to develop more rational ways to estimate crop fertilizer needs. This new approach has great potential for on-the-go crop sensor-based nutrient application methods and its sensitivity to soil tillage and management systems need to be examined in following studies. If mathematical model reflects management impact adequately, resources for experiments can be saved.

  3. Effect of N-Fertilizer Rates and Timing on Grain Yield andComponents of Sunflower

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    M. Sedaghat


    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of time and rate of nitrogen fertilizer (urea application on yield and yield components and quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv.Euroflor. A field experiment was carried out at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University during Summer 2009. The experimental design was a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Five nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kilograms N per hectare and four split application of nitrogen fertilizer (T1 “1/3 before planting, 1/3 V4 , 1/3 R1” , “T2 1/3 before planting, 1/3 V4 , 1/3R5.8” , T3 “1/3 before planting, 1/3R2 , 1/3 R5.8 ”, T4 “1/3 V4 , 1/3 R1 , 1/3 R8 ” were used. Chlorophyll content, head diameter, plant height, number of grains per head, thousand grain weight, dry matter yield, harvest index and grain yield were determined after harvesting. There was a significant difference within various rate of nitrogen application. Significantly highest plant length, leaf area index, total dry weight, chlorophyll content, head diameter, number of grains per head, thousand grain weights, grain yield and dry matter yield were recorded at 200 kilogram N per hectare followed by 150 kilogram N per hectare. However, there was no significant difference between 150 and 200 kg/ha N. Split application of nitrogen had no significant effect on plant characteristics except on grain yield, the highest grain yield was obtained from T1 (1/3 before planting, 1/3 V4, 1/3 R1 treatment.

  4. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) mortality and recovery rates vary by wing molt status at time of banding (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Halstead, Brian J.; Kohl, Jeffrey D.; Yarris, Gregory S.


    Recovery (i.e., shot, retrieved, and reported) rates and daily mortality risk of 52,330 adult Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) leg-banded during pre-molt, in-molt, or post-molt during 1985–2011 were evaluated to better understand mortality during wing molt in dynamics of the Mallard population in California, USA. Recovery rates and non-hunting mortality risk varied by molt status at time of banding and California region where banded. Mallards banded during post-molt were 1.22 (95% credible interval = 1.10–1.32) times more likely to be recovered than Mallards banded pre-molt; recovery probability was similar for pre-molt and in-molt Mallards. Mallards banded post-molt had 0.43 (0.17–0.98) and in-molt 0.87 (0.51–1.49) times the daily risk of non-hunting mortality as Mallards banded pre-molt. Mallards were 0.92 (0.86–0.98) times as likely to be recovered, and daily risk of non-hunting mortality was 2.93 (1.79–4.94) times greater, if banded in Northeastern California than in California's Central Valley. Results indicate that high mortality during the molt period, especially in Northeastern California where most Mallards that breed in California molt, might be negatively affecting recovery (and potentially annual survival) of Mallards in California. Thus, conservation programs that reduce mortality during molt could help attain the desired population size for Mallards nesting in California.

  5. Soil Fertility and Electrical Conductivity Affected by Organic Waste Rates and Nutrient Inputs

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    Davi Lopes do Carmo


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The composition of organic waste (OW and its effect on soil processes may change soil fertility and electrical conductivity (EC. The side effects of waste use in crop fertilization are poorly understood for Brazilian soils. This study examined the effect of the addition of 15 different organic wastes to Oxisols and a Neosol on pH, base saturation, EC, cation exchange capacity (CEC at pH 7, and the availability of Al, macro (P, K, Ca2+, Mg2+ and S and micronutrients (B, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. Soil samples (150 g were treated with chicken, pig, horse, cattle, and quail manures, sewage sludge 1 and 2, eucalyptus sawdust, plant substrate, coconut fiber, pine bark, coffee husk, peat, limed compost, and biochar. Wastes were added considering a fixed amount of C (2 g kg-1, which resulted in waste rates ranging from 2.5 to 25.6 Mg ha-1. The soil-waste mixtures were incubated for 330 days in laboratory conditions. The waste liming or acidification values were soil-dependent. The use of some manures and compost increased the pH to levels above of those considered adequate for plant growth. The soil EC was slightly increased in the Neosol and in the medium textured Oxisol, but it was sharply changed (from 195 to 394 µS cm-1 by the addition of organic wastes in the clayey Oxisol, although the EC values were below the range considered safe for plant growth. Changes in the soil availability of P, K+, Ca2+ and Zn2+ were highly related to the inputs of these nutrients by the wastes, and other factors in soil changed due to waste use. Organic waste use simultaneously affects different soil fertility attributes; thus, in addition to the target nutrient added to the soil, the soil acidity buffering capacity and the waste liming and agronomic value must be taken into account in the waste rate definition.

  6. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and IVF success rate among non-obese women attempting fertility. (United States)

    Karayiannis, Dimitrios; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Mendorou, Christina; Mastrominas, Minas; Yiannakouris, Nikos


    Is adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) associated with better IVF performance in women attempting fertility? Greater adherence to the MedDiet, defined using the validated Mediterranean diet score (MedDietScore), was associated with a higher likelihood of achieving clinical pregnancy and live birth among non-obese women IVF treatment in an Assisted Conception Unit in Athens, Greece, between November 2013 and September 2016. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of habitual dietary intake and lifestyle on fertility outcomes. Diet was assessed before the IVF treatment via a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the MedDiet was assessed through the MedDietScore (range: 0-55), with higher scores indicating greater adherence. Intermediate outcomes (oocyte yield, fertilization rate and embryo quality measures) and clinical endpoints (implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth) were abstracted from electronic medical records. Associations between MedDietScore and IVF outcomes were analysed using generalized linear models adjusting for age, ovarian stimulation protocol, BMI, physical activity, anxiety levels, infertility diagnosis, caloric intake and supplements use. No association of MedDietScore with any of the intermediate outcomes or with implantation was found. However, compared with women in the highest tertile of the MedDietScore (≥36, n = 86), women in the lowest tertile (≤30, n = 79) had significantly lower rates of clinical pregnancy (29.1 vs 50.0%, P = 0.01) and live birth (26.6 vs 48.8%, P = 0.01). The multivariable-adjusted relative risk (95% CI) for clinical pregnancy comparing women in the lowest with women in the highest tertile of the MedDietScore was 0.35 (0.16-0.78; P-trend=0.01), and for live birth it was 0.32 (0.14-0.71; P-trend = 0.01). These associations were significantly modified by women's age (P-interaction IVF treatment. This work was partially supported by a grand from Harokopio University (KE321

  7. Fertilizer trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, R.


    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  8. Live-Birth Rate Associated With Repeat In Vitro Fertilization Treatment Cycles. (United States)

    Smith, Andrew D A C; Tilling, Kate; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    The likelihood of achieving a live birth with repeat in vitro fertilization (IVF) is unclear, yet treatment is commonly limited to 3 or 4 embryo transfers. To determine the live-birth rate per initiated ovarian stimulation IVF cycle and with repeated cycles. Prospective study of 156,947 UK women who received 257,398 IVF ovarian stimulation cycles between 2003 and 2010 and were followed up until June 2012. In vitro fertilization, with a cycle defined as an episode of ovarian stimulation and all subsequent separate fresh and frozen embryo transfers. Live-birth rate per IVF cycle and the cumulative live-birth rates across all cycles in all women and by age and treatment type. Optimal, prognosis-adjusted, and conservative cumulative live-birth rates were estimated, reflecting 0%, 30%, and 100%, respectively, of women who discontinued due to poor prognosis and having a live-birth rate of 0 had they continued. Among the 156,947 women, the median age at start of treatment was 35 years (interquartile range, 32-38; range, 18-55), and the median duration of infertility for all 257,398 cycles was 4 years (interquartile range, 2-6; range, live-birth rate for the first cycle was 29.5% (95% CI, 29.3%-29.7%). This remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. The cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate across all cycles continued to increase up to the ninth cycle, with 65.3% (95% CI, 64.8%-65.8%) of women achieving a live birth by the sixth cycle. In women younger than 40 years using their own oocytes, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 32.3% (95% CI, 32.0%-32.5%) and remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. Six cycles achieved a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 68.4% (95% CI, 67.8%-68.9%). For women aged 40 to 42 years, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 12.3% (95% CI, 11.8%-12.8%), with 6 cycles achieving a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 31.5% (95% CI, 29.7%-33.3%). For women older than 42

  9. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

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    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski


    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  10. Indirect estimates of total fertility rate using child woman/ratio: a comparison with the Bogue-Palmore method. (United States)

    Hauer, Matt; Baker, Jack; Brown, Warren


    Indirect estimation methodologies of the total fertility rate (TFR) have a long history within demography and have provided important techniques applied demographers can use when data is sparse or lacking. However new methodologies for approximating the total fertility rate have not been proposed in nearly 30 years. This study presents a novel method for indirectly approximating the total fertility rate using an algebraic rearrangement of the general fertility rate (GFR) through the known relationship between GFR and TFR. It then compares the proposed method to the well-known Bogue-Palmore method. These methods are compared in 196 countries and include overall errors as well as characteristics of the countries that contribute to fertility behavior. Additionally, these methods were compared geographically to find any geographical patterns. We find this novel method is not only simpler than the Bogue-Palmore method, requiring fewer data inputs, but also has reduced algebraic and absolute errors when compared with the Bogue-Palmore method and specifically outperforms the Bogue-Palmore method in developing countries. We find that our novel method may be useful estimation procedure for demographers.

  11. Long term sugarcane crop residue retention offers limited potential to reduce nitrogen fertilizer rates in Australian wet tropical environments

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    Elizabeth Anne Meier


    Full Text Available The warming of world climate systems is driving interest in the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In the agricultural sector, practices that mitigate GHG emissions include those that (1 reduce emissions (e.g. those that reduce nitrous oxide (N2O emissions by avoiding excess nitrogen (N fertilizer application, and (2 increase soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (e.g. by retaining instead of burning crop residues. Sugarcane is a globally important crop that can have substantial inputs of N fertilizer and which produces large amounts of crop residues (‘trash’. Management of N fertilizer and trash affects soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, and hence GHG emissions. Trash has historically been burned at harvest, but increasingly is being retained on the soil surface as a ‘trash blanket’ in many countries. The potential for trash retention to alter N fertilizer requirements and sequester SOC was investigated in this study. The APSIM model was calibrated with data from field and laboratory studies of trash decomposition in the wet tropics of northern Australia. APSIM was then validated against four independent data sets, before simulating location  soil  fertilizer  trash management scenarios. Soil carbon increased in trash blanketed soils relative to SOC in soils with burnt trash. However, further increases in SOC for the study region may be limited because the SOC in trash blanketed soils could be approaching equilibrium; future GHG mitigation efforts in this region should therefore focus on N fertilizer management. Simulated N fertilizer rates were able to be reduced from conventional rates regardless of trash management, because of low yield potential in the wet tropics. For crops subjected to continuous trash blanketing, there was substantial immobilization of N in decomposing trash so conventional N fertilizer rates were required for up to 24 yr after trash blanketing commenced. After this period, there was potential to

  12. Soil water erosion under different cultivation systems and different fertilization rates and forms over 10 years

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    Ildegardis Bertol


    Full Text Available The action of rain and surface runoff together are the active agents of water erosion, and further influences are the soil type, terrain, soil cover, soil management, and conservation practices. Soil water erosion is low in the no-tillage management system, being influenced by the amount and form of lime and fertilizer application to the soil, among other factors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of the form of liming, the quantity and management of fertilizer application on the soil and water losses by erosion under natural rainfall. The study was carried out between 2003 and 2013 on a Humic Dystrupept soil, with the following treatments: T1 - cultivation with liming and corrective fertilizer incorporated into the soil in the first year, and with 100 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T2 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over five years, and with 75 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T3 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over three years, and with 50 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T4 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over two years, and with 25 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T5 - fallow soil, without liming or fertilization. In the rotation the crops black oat (Avena strigosa , soybean (Glycine max , common vetch (Vicia sativa , maize (Zea mays , fodder radish (Raphanus sativus , and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris . The split application of lime and mineral fertilizer to the soil surface in a no-tillage system over three and five years, results in better control of soil losses than when split in two years. The increase in the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage cultivation increases phytomass production and reduces soil loss by water erosion. Water losses in treatments under no-tillage cultivation were low in all crop cycles, with a similar behavior as soil losses.

  13. Effectiveness of psychiatric and counseling interventions On fertility rate in infertile couples

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    Ramezanzadeh F.


    Full Text Available Background: Considering the psycho-social model of diseases, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychiatric intervention on the pregnancy rate of infertile couples.Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 638 infertile patients referred to a university infertility clinic were evaluated. Among them, 140 couples with different levels of depression in at least one of the spouses were included in this substudy. These couples were divided randomly into two groups. The patients in the case group received 6-8 sessions of psychotherapy before starting infertility treatment and were given fluoxetine 20-60 mg per day during the same period. The control group did not receive any intervention. Three questionnaires including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Holmes-Rahe stress scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire were applied for all patients. The clinical pregnancy rates of the two groups, based on sonographic detection of the gestational sac six weeks after LMP, were compared. The data were analyzed by paired-T test, T-test, χ2 and the logistic regression method. Results: The pregnancy rate was 47.1% in the case group and 7.1% in the control group. The pregnancy rate was significantly related to the duration and cause of infertility and the level of stress in both groups (p< 0.001. The pregnancy rate was shown to be higher in couples in which the male has a secondary level of education (p< 0.001.Conclusions: Psychiatric interventions greatly improve pregnancy rates, and it is therefore crucial to mandate psychiatric counseling in all fertility centers in order to diagnose and treat infertile patients with psychiatric disorders and help couples deal with stress.

  14. Establishment of Alleycropped Hybrid Aspen “Crandon” in Central Iowa, USA: Effects of Topographic Position and Fertilizer Rate on Aboveground Biomass Production and Allocation

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    Richard B. Hall


    Full Text Available Hybrid poplars have demonstrated high productivity as short rotation woody crops (SRWC in the Midwest USA, and the hybrid aspen “Crandon” (Populus alba L. × P. grandidenta Michx. has exhibited particularly promising yields on marginal lands. However, a key obstacle for wider deployment is the lack of economic returns early in the rotation. Alleycropping has the potential to address this issue, especially when paired with crops such as winter triticale which complete their growth cycle early in the summer and therefore are expected to exert minimal competition on establishing trees. In addition, well-placed fertilizer in low rates at planting has the potential to improve tree establishment and shorten the rotation, which is also economically desirable. To test the potential productivity of “Crandon” alleycropped with winter triticale, plots were established on five topographic positions with four different rates of fertilizer placed in the planting hole. Trees were then harvested from the plots after each of the first three growing seasons. Fertilization resulted in significant increases in branch, stem, and total aboveground biomass across all years, whereas the effects of topographic position varied by year. Allocation between branches and stems was found to be primarily a function of total aboveground biomass.

  15. In vitro fertilization of in vitro-matured equine oocytes: effect of maturation medium, duration of maturation, and sperm calcium ionophore treatment, and comparison with rates of fertilization in vivo after oviductal transfer. (United States)

    Hinrichs, K; Love, C C; Brinsko, S P; Choi, Y H; Varner, D D


    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of oocyte and sperm treatments on rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the horse and to determine the capacity of in vitro-matured horse oocytes to be fertilized in vivo. There was no effect of duration of oocyte maturation (24 vs. 42 h) or calcium ionophore concentration during sperm capacitation (3 microM vs. 7.14 microM) on in vitro fertilization rates. Oocytes matured in 100% follicular fluid had significantly higher fertilization (13% to 24%) than did oocytes matured in maturation medium or in 20% follicular fluid (0% to 12%; P fertilization rate among 3 sperm treatments utilizing 7.14 microM calcium ionophore (12% to 21%). Of in vitro-matured oocytes recovered 40-44 h after transfer to the oviducts of inseminated mares, 77% showed normal fertilization (2 pronuclei to normal cleavage). Cleavage to 2 or more cells was seen in 22% of oocytes matured in follicular fluid and 63% of oocytes matured in maturation medium; this difference was significant (P horse oocytes are capable of being fertilized at high rates in the appropriate environment and that in vitro maturation of oocytes in follicular fluid increases fertilization rate in vitro but reduces embryo development after fertilization in vivo. Further work is needed to determine the optimum environment for sperm capacitation and IVF in the horse.

  16. Modeling fertility curves in Africa

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    Ezra Gayawan


    Full Text Available The modeling of fertility patterns is an essential method researchers use to understand world-wide population patterns. Various types of fertility models have been reported in the literature to capture the patterns specific to developed countries. While much effort has been put into reducing fertility rates in Africa, models which describe the fertility patterns have not been adequately described. This article presents a flexible parametric model that can adequately capture the varying patterns of the age-specific fertility curves of African countries. The model has parameters that are interpretable in terms of demographic indices. The performance of this model was compared with other commonly used models and Akaike's Information Criterion was used for selecting the model with best fit. The presented model was able to reproduce the empirical fertility data of 11 out of 15 countries better than the other models considered.

  17. Effect of endometrial cavity fluid on pregnancy rate of fresh versus frozen In Vitro fertilization cycle

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    Nitika Gupta


    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to study the difference in etiology and outcome in terms of implantation rate and abortion rate in fresh (self-stimulated versus frozen (oocyte donation cycle in vitro fertilization (IVF and in transient versus persistent fluid. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Reproductive Medicine of tertiary care center from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were collected retrospectively from the departmental files. Twenty-four patients from fresh IVF-stimulated cycles and 24 from frozen oocyte donation cycle with their endometrium prepared by hormone replacement treatment were included in the study. All patients selected in the study had grade-A embryo transfer of day 3–4 with maximum three embryo transferred. Pregnancy was defined by rising serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels performed after 14 days of embryo transfer and further confirmed by ultrasonographic visualization of gestational sac at 6 weeks. All biochemical pregnancies were included in implantation failure. All pregnant patients were followed till the termination of pregnancy and further noted as live birth or abortion. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate was seen more in self-stimulated cycle (62.5% with live birth rate of 50% than hormone replacement treatment cycle, in which clinical pregnancy rate was 45.83% with live birth rate of 33.33%. Clinical pregnancy rate was highest in group with very less fluid in cavity (1–2 mm 63% and with live birth of 52.63%. Clinical pregnancy was seen only in two patients of group B with anterior and posterior (AP diameter of fluid in cavity of 2–3 mm with live birth of only one, whereas in group C, with AP diameter of 3–5 mm, none of the patient conceived. This difference was statistically significant. Clinical pregnancy rate was 65.62% in transient fluid accumulation with live birth rate of 53.25%, which was significantly higher than persistent fluid accumulation

  18. Effect of nitrogen fertilization rate and regrowth interval of grass herbage on methane emission of zero-grazing lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Warner, D; Podesta, S C; Hatew, B; Klop, G; van Laar, H; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J


    Dairy cattle farming in temperate regions often relies on grass herbage (GH)-based diets but the effect of several grass management options on enteric CH4 emission has not been fully investigated yet. We investigated the combined effect of N fertilization rate and length of regrowth period of GH (predominantly ryegrass) on CH4 emission from lactating dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 28 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received a basal diet of GH and compound feed [85:15; dry matter (DM) basis]. Treatments consisted of GH cut after 3 or 5 weeks of regrowth, after receiving either a low (20kg of N/ha) or a high (90kg of N/ha) fertilization rate after initial cut. Feed intake, digestibility, milk production and composition, N and energy balance, and CH4 emission were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after an adaptation to the diet for 12d. Cows were restricted-fed during measurements and mean DM intake was 15.0±0.16kg/d. Herbage crude protein content varied between 76 and 161g/kg of DM, and sugar content between 186 and 303g/kg of DM. Fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and feed digestibility increased with increased N fertilization rates and a shorter regrowth interval. Increasing the N fertilization rate increased daily CH4 emission per cow (+10%) and per unit of DM intake (+9%), tended to increase the fraction of gross energy intake emitted as CH4 (+7%), and (partly because of the low crude protein content for the low fertilized GH) only numerically reduced CH4 per unit of FPCM. The longer regrowth interval increased CH4 emission per unit of FPCM (+14%) compared with the shorter regrowth interval, but did not affect CH4 emission expressed in any other unit. With increasing N fertilization CH4 emission decreased per unit of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (-13%) but not per unit of digestible organic matter intake. There was no interaction of the effect of N fertilization rate and regrowth interval on CH4

  19. Seamless Data-Rate Change Using Punctured Convolutional Codes for Time-Varying Signal-to-Noise Ratio (United States)

    Feria, Ying


    In a time-varying signal-to-noise (SNR) environment, symbol rate is often changed to maximize ata return. However, the symbol-rate change has some undesirable effects such as changing the ransmission bandwidth and perhaps causing the receiver symbol loop to lose lock temporarily, thus osing some data. In this article, we are proposing an alternate way of varying the data rate without hanging the symbol rate and therefore the transmission bandwidth. The data rate change is achieved n a seamless fashion by puncturing the convolutionally encoded symbol stream to adapt to the hanging SNR environment. We have also derived an exact expression to enumerate the number of nique puncturing patterns. To demonstrate this seamless rate-change capability, we searched for good uncturing patterns for the Galileo (14, 1/4) convolutional code and changed the data rates by using the unctured codes to match the Galileo SNR profile of November 9, 1997.

  20. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on fertility quality of life and pregnancy rates among women subjected to first in vitro fertilization treatment. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Long, Ling; Liu, Yu; He, Wei; Li, Min


    Generally, undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is an emotional and physical burden for the infertile woman, which may negatively influence the treatment outcome. We conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) among women subjected to first IVF treatment at a fertility medical center in China. Among infertile women registered for their first IVF treatment, 58 completed the intervention, and 50 were assigned to a control group using a non-randomized controlled study. Standardized measures of mindfulness, self-compassion, emotion regulation difficulties, infertility-related coping strategies and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) were endorsed pre- and post-MBI, and measure of pregnancy rates at the sixth months after the intervention. Both groups were shown to be equivalent at baseline. By the end of the intervention, women who attended the intervention revealed a significant increase in mindfulness, self-compassion, meaning-based coping strategies and all FertiQoL domains. Inversely, they presented a significant decrease in emotion regulation difficulties, active- and passive-avoidance coping strategies. Women in the control group did not present significant changes in any of the psychological measures. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between participants in the pregnancy rates, the experiment group higher than the control group. Being fully aware of the present moment without the lens of judgment, seems to help women relate to their infertility and IVF treatment in new ways. This is beneficial for promoting their self-compassion, adaptive emotion regulation and infertility-related coping strategies, which, in turn, may influence the FertiQoL and pregnancy rates. The brief and nonpharmaceutical nature of this intervention makes it a promising candidate for women' use during first IVF treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of fertilization rate for maximizing periphyton production on artificial substrates and the implications for periphyton-based aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Milstein, A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.


    The effects of four rates of application of fertilizer, with cow manure (3000 kg ha1), urea (100 (kg ha1) and triple super phosphate (TSP) (100 kg ha1) (treatment F)), treatment F 0.5 (treatment 0.5F), treatment F 1.5 (treatment 1.5F) and treatment F 2 (treatment 2F), on periphyton, plankton and

  2. The effect of different nitrogen fertilization rates on yield and quality of marigold (Calendula officinalis L. 'Tokaj' raw material

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    Beata Król


    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is an annual ornamental plant which is also grown for herbal raw material (flower heads used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. A field experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in the Experimental Farm of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The study was conducted on loess soil with the granulometric composition of silt loam. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of different nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 kg N × ha-1 on some morphological features of flower heads as well as on yield and quality of pot marigold raw material. Flowering of pot marigold was shortest in the control treatment (32 days and longest (43 days in the plot where nitrogen fertilization had been applied at the highest rate (160 kg N × ha-1. Nitrogen fertilization had a significant influence on the number of flower heads per plant, but no significant difference was found in diameter as well as in ligulate flowers and tubular flowers in the flower head. It was found to increase significantly raw material yield after the application of 80 kg N × ha-1, compared to the control treatment. Yield of flower heads did not differ markedly for fertilization rates from 80 to 160 kg N × ha-1. Nitrogen fertilization modified slightly essential oil content (this content increased with increasing nitrogen rates, but at the same time it decreased the percentage of flavonoid compounds.

  3. Recruitment bias in studies of semen and other factors affecting pregnancy rates in fertile men. (United States)

    Stewart, T M; Liu, D Y; Garrett, C; Brown, E H; Baker, H W G


    Recruitment bias is possible in population studies of semen quality because few men volunteer. We examine differences between Australian couples with natural conceptions who agreed or declined to participate in such a study. Women pregnant between 16 and 32 weeks gestation participating in a retrospective time to pregnancy (TTP) study were each requested to recruit their eligible (on the basis of age, place of his birth and of his mother's birth) male partner to complete additional questionnaires, have a physical examination and provide blood and two semen samples. From 2061 women who completed the TTP questionnaire (response rate, 98%) there were 928 eligible male partners of whom 225 (24%) were responders. There were significant socio-demographic and self-reported exposure differences between responders and non-responders in particular, female professional occupation, knowledge of the fertile phase, pelvic inflammatory disease, non-smoker at time of conception and wine consumption per week were more frequent in the responders. There was no evidence of a bias for the subfertile being more likely to volunteer for the study. Mean TTP for planned pregnancies for responders and non-responders were 3.3 and 3.8 cycles (P = 0.319), respectively, and the cycle specific pregnancy rates were not significantly different after covariate adjustment by Cox regression. The present study confirms that participation rates are low in studies of semen quality. Although the expected higher participation of subfertile couples was not confirmed, there remains considerable potential for bias and other problems that could invalidate this type of study.

  4. Seamless Data-Rate Change Using Punctured Convolutional Codes for a Time-Varying Signal-to-Noise Ratio (United States)

    Feria, Ying; Cheung, Kar-Ming


    In a time-varying signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) environment, symbol rate is changed to maximize data return. However, the symbol-rate changes may cause the receiver symbol loop to lose lock, thus losing real-time data. We propose an alternate way of varying the data rate in a seamless fashion by puncturing the convolutionally encoded symbol stream and transmitting the punctured encoded symbols with a constant symbol rate. We systematically searched for good puncturing patterns for the Galileo (14,1/4) convolutional code and changed the data rates by using the punctured codes to match the Galileo SNR profile of November 9, 1997. We concluded that this scheme reduces the symbol-rate changes from 9 to 2 and provides a larger data return and a higher symbol SNR during most of the day.

  5. The perceived clarity of children's speech varies as a function of their default articulation rate. (United States)

    Redford, Melissa A


    The current study investigated whether variation in children's default articulation rate might reflect individual differences in the development of articulatory timing control, which predicts a positive correlation between rate and perceived clarity (motor skills hypothesis), or whether such variation is better attributed to speech external factors, which predicts that faster rates result in poorer target attainment (undershoot hypothesis). Two different speech samples were obtained from 54 typically developing children (5;2 - 7;11). Six utterances were extracted from each sample and measured for articulation rate and segmental duration. Fourteen adult listeners rated the utterances for clarity (enunciation). Acoustic correlates of perceived clarity, pitch, and vowel quality were also measured. The findings were that age-dependent and individual differences in children's default articulation rates were due to segmental articulation and not to suprasegmental changes. The rating data indicated that utterances produced at faster rates were perceived as more clearly articulated than those produced at slower rates, regardless of a child's age. Vowel quality measures predicted perceived clarity independently of articulation rate. Overall, the results support the motor skills hypothesis: Faster default articulation rates emerge from better articulatory timing control.

  6. The paradox of declining fertility but increasing twinning rates with advancing maternal age. (United States)

    Beemsterboer, S N; Homburg, R; Gorter, N A; Schats, R; Hompes, P G A; Lambalk, C B


    Advancing female age is associated with declining fertility potential due to decreasing numbers and quality of oocytes but also with a distinct increase in dizygotic twinning rates, a phenomenon that has never been explained. An analysis of follicle development was made in 959 spontaneous ovulatory cycles of 507 women. Multiple ovarian follicular development (>1 follicle >14 mm) and, by implication, multiple rather than single ovulations occurred in 105 women whose mean age (36.1 versus 34.6 years) and mean basal FSH concentrations (10.3 versus 7.7 IU/l) were significantly greater than those with monofollicular development (P twinning must be associated with the development of >1 large follicle, which we found to be a significantly more frequent occurrence in older women. It is hypothesized that the response of pituitary release of FSH to the decreased negative feedback induced by impending ovarian failure often 'overshoots', causing multiple follicular development. In the presence of two good-quality oocytes, a twin pregnancy may result.

  7. [Birth rate and fertility: knowledge and expectations analysis of 3585 university students]. (United States)

    Machado, Maria do Céu; Alves, Maria Isabel; Couceiro, Luísa; Silva, Francisco Goiana da; Morais de Almeida, Miguel; Alves, Isa


    Nowadays, Portuguese birth rate is insufficient to ensure renewal of generations. Women high education levels and labor market integration and increased economic difficulties are some of multiple factors leading to a delay in average parenting age and an increase of infertility; also subject to others such as obesity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Transversal epidemiological study, analytical, uncontrolled, from self-filled online questionnaires, promoted by students' university unions. A sample of 3585 university students was considered and a global and by gender statistic analysis was done through SPSS, Excel was used to build graphics and tables and ArcMap to represent maps. Mainly students from the Health Sciences (40.6%), Universidade de Lisboa (59.4%), female (76.9%), median age of 22; intention to marry/ union 71.0%, parenthood 85.7%. A total of 18.4% smoke, 22.3% consume alcohol and obesity 15.4%; employment (47.4%) and the partner's will (39.9%) were important determinants for parenthood decision as well as having financial stability to provide a good education (33.6%) and healthcare (38.6%); A total of 53.6% have considered the hypothesis of infertility and highlight above 35 year old maternal age (18.7%), obesity (18%) and female smoking (19.0) as factors. Higher and more significant values for smoking (p = 0.001) and alcohol consumption (p = 0.000) in males were found. The sample seems representative, well distributed among different areas of study, with more female respondents than the university portuguese ratio. There are more students with parenting projects than marriage/cohabitation, in accordance with Portuguese data. Nevertheless, the same students identify the family as a priority in comparison with employment and career. Parenting decisions are tied by social-economic situation but an important factor is the low fertility due to the maternal age delay of the first pregnancy. University student unions are an excellent instrument to access

  8. Energy assessment of nitrogen variable rate fertilization on wheat; Analise energetica da aplicacao de nitrogenio em taxa variavel em trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, A.F.; Karam, E.H.; Romanelli, T.L.; Molin, J.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Biossistemas], Email:; Povh, F.P. [Fundacao ABC Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Agropecuario, Castro, PR (Brazil)


    Precision Agriculture (PA) is a technique that can reduce the inputs utilization in agriculture production, including the nitrogen fertilizer consume. Great importance is given to this fertilizer, due to its contribution on energy input in agriculture. Methodologies based on the calculation of energy flow of agriculture systems are capable to identify management practices that use energy more efficiently. So, this study's objective is to evaluate the variable-rate nitrogen fertilization on wheat, using energy assessment. This study was carried on in two wheat fields, in which the fertilization was done adopting strips alternated by conventional method (single nitrogen dose) and by nitrogen variable-rate technology. Thus, the input and output energy in the system, energy balance, energy return on investment (EROI) and incorporated energy were determined for each geo-referenced point within the fields. Results showed that less energy was demanded when using variable-rate technology, due to the nitrogen saving, providing greater energy balance, EROI and lower incorporated energy on the areas managed using PA. The energy assessment showed to be an important tool to evaluate systems that use PA, because it is capable of monitoring crops energy potential. (author)

  9. Trends in teenage fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates in Iceland compared with other Nordic countries, 1976-99. (United States)

    Bender, Sóley; Geirsson, Reynir T; Kosunen, Elise


    Iceland is often considered very similar to the other Nordic countries. The purpose of this study was to explore trends in teenage fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates in Iceland, compare these trends with corresponding rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during the period 1976-99, and to evaluate similarities and dissimilarities. The study is based on data about fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates obtained from the Icelandic and Nordic national population and abortion registers for the age group 15-19 years years. Teenage fertility and pregnancy rates in the five Nordic countries declined over the study period by 57-67% and 31-50%, respectively, and in Iceland they remained significantly higher than in the Nordic countries. In 1999 almost every other teenage pregnancy in Iceland (45.9/1000) resulted in a childbirth (24.4/1000). Regional fertility rates were highest in the countryside. While the abortion rate has been declining in the four Nordic countries by 20-41%, they have concurrently been rising in Iceland by 133% (9.4/1000 in 1976-80, 21.9/1000 in 1996-99) and are presently higher than in the other Nordic countries. Regionally, abortion rates in Iceland were highest in the Capital area. The teenage pregnancy rate is higher in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. This may be explained by cultural norms in Iceland's society regarding childbearing, early initiation of sexual intercourse, more limited sex education, and less effective delivery and use of contraceptive methods. There is a need to promote sexual and reproductive health to young people in Iceland by combining diverse preventive approaches.

  10. Impact of The Endometrioma on Ovarian Response and Pregnancy Rate in In Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi


    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on ovarian stimulation outcomes in in vitro fertilization cycles (IVF. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed 103 patients who underwent intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI procedures over a 24-months period. The study group consisted of 47 infertile women with either unilateral or bilateral ovarian endometrial cysts of less than 3 cm. The control group consisting of 57 patients with mild male factor infertility was candidate for ICSI treatment during the same time period as the study groups. Both groups were compared for number of oocytes retrieved, grades of oocytes, as well as embryo quantity and quality. Results: Our results showed similar follicle numbers, good embryo grades (A or B and pregnancy rates in the compared groups. However, patients with endometrioma had higher gonadotropin consumption than the control group. The mean number of retrieved oocytes in patients with endometrioma was significantly lower than control group (6.6 ± 3.74 vs. 10.4 ± 5.25 (p<0.001. In addition, patients with endometrioma had significantly lower numbers of metaphase II (MII oocytes (5 ± 3.21 than controls (8.2 ± 5.4 (p<0.001. In patients with unilateral endometrioma, there were no significant differences in main outcome measures between normal and involved ovaries in the patients with endometrioma. Conclusion: Patients with ovarian endometrioma had poor outcome. They showed poor ovarian response with lower total numbers of retrieved oocytes and lower MII oocytes during the stimulation phase; however, it does not affect the total number of embryos transferred per patient, quality of embryos, and pregnancy rate per patient.

  11. Fine root decay rates vary widely among lowland tropical tree species. (United States)

    Raich, James W; Russell, Ann E; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar


    Prolific fine root growth coupled with small accumulations of dead fine roots indicate rapid rates of fine root production, mortality and decay in young tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica. However, published studies indicate that fine roots decay relatively slowly in tropical forests. To resolve this discrepancy, we used the intact-core technique to quantify first-year decay rates of fine roots in four single-species plantations of native tree species. We tested three hypotheses: first, that fine roots from different tree species would decay at different rates; second, that species having rapid fine root growth rates would also have rapid rates of fine root decay; and third, that differences in fine root decay among species could be explained by fine root chemistry variables previously identified as influencing decay rates. Fine roots in Virola koschnyi plantations decayed very slowly (k = 0.29 +/- 0.15 year(-1)); those of Vochysia guatemalensis decayed seven times faster (k = 2.00 +/- 0.13 year(-1)). Decay rates of the remaining two species, Hieronyma alchorneoides and Pentaclethra macroloba, were 1.36 and 1.28 year(-1), respectively. We found a positive, marginally significant correlation between fine root decay rates and the relative growth rates of live fine roots (R = 0.93, n = 4, P = 0.072). There was a highly significant negative correlation between fine root decay and fine root lignin:N (R = 0.99, P = 0.01), which supports the use of lignin:N as a decay-controlling factor within terrestrial ecosystem models. The decay rates that we observed in this single study location encompassed the entire range of fine root decay rates previously observed in moist tropical forests, and thus suggest great potential for individual tree species to alter belowground organic matter and nutrient dynamics within a biotically rich rainforest environment.

  12. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping, E-mail:; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi


    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg N/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH{sub 4} mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO{sub 2} flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH{sub 4} flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N{sub 2}O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225 kg N/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO{sub 2}-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89 t/ha in paddy fields. - Highlights: • Exploiting co-benefits of rice yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. • Global warming potential and rice yield increased with nitrogen fertilizer rate up. • Emission peaks of CH{sub 4,} CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O appeared at vegetative and reproductive phase. • 225 kg N/ha rate benefits both rice yields and GWP reduction.

  13. Training native English speakers to identify Japanese vowel length contrast with sentences at varied speaking rates. (United States)

    Hirata, Yukari; Whitehurst, Elizabeth; Cullings, Emily


    Native English speakers were trained to identify Japanese vowel length in three types of training differing in sentential speaking rate: slow-only, fast-only, and slow-fast. Following Pisoni and Lively's high phonetic variability hypothesis [Pisoni, D. B., and Lively, S. E., Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience, 433-459 (1995)], higher stimulus variability by means of training with two rates was hypothesized to aid learners in adapting to speech rate variation more effectively than training with only one rate. Trained participants identified the length of the second vowel of disyllables, short or long, embedded in a sentence of the respective rate, and received immediate feedback. The three trained groups' abilities before and after training were examined with tests containing sentences of slow, normal, and fast rates, and were compared with those of a control that was not trained. A robust effect of slow-fast training, a marginal effect of slow-only training, but no significant effect of fast-only training were found in the overall test scores. Slow-fast and slow-only training showed small advantages over fast-only training on the fast-rate test scores, while effects for all three training types were found on the slow- and normal-rate test scores. The degree to which the results support the high phonetic variability hypothesis is discussed.

  14. Effects of Cultivars and Rates of NPK (15-15-15) Fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of maize (zea mays L.) cultivars and levels of NPK (15–15–15) fertilizer application was studied for two years at the Experimental Farm of the University of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State in the rainforest zone of South Western Nigeria. Commercial NPK (15–15–15) fertilizer was applied at 0, 250, 500 and 750kg/ha to ...

  15. Mechanical behaviour of glass fibre reinforced composite at varying strain rates (United States)

    Acharya, Saikat; Mondal, D. K.; Ghosh, K. S.; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.


    Here we report the results of compressive split Hopkinson pressure bar experiments (SHPB) conducted on unidirectional glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) in the strain rate regime 5  ×  102-1.3  ×  103 s-1. The maximum compressive strength of GFRP was found to increase by as much as 55% with increase in strain rate. However, the corresponding relative strain to failure response was measured to increase only marginally with increase in strain rates. Based on the experimental results and photomicrographs obtained from FE-SEM based post mortem examinations, the failure phenomena are suggested to be associated with increase in absorption of energy from low to high strain rates. Attempts have been made to explain these observations in terms of changes in deformation mechanisms primarily as a function of strain rates.

  16. Fertility and Population Policy


    Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Tosun, Mehmet S.; Yang, Jingjing


    There have been significant changes in both the fertility rates and fertility perception since 1970s. In this paper, we examine the relationship between government policies towards fertility and the fertility trends. Total fertility rate, defined as the number of children per woman, is used as the main fertility trend variable. We use panel data from the United Nations World Population Policies database, and the World Bank World Development Indicators for the period 1976 through 2013. We find...

  17. Biopsy rates vary with patient profile across different physicians in an academic dermatology practice. (United States)

    Li, Cicy; Fischer, Ryan; Wick, Jo; Rajpara, Anand; Liu, Deede; Aires, Daniel


    Current healthcare trends promote data-driven "benchmarking" to decrease cost and increase quality. Dermatologists perform 79% of skin biopsies and biopsy rate is an easily measured benchmark. To reduce the risk of a misguided "one size fits all" benchmark for biopsies, it will help to document the factors driving divergent biopsy rates.This letter compares biopsy rates and high-risk patient ratios for 1000 sequential patients from two academic dermatologists. Elevated biopsy rates (0.55 vs 0.42, p < 0.001) were associated with elevated ratios of high-risk patients (.52 versus .30, p< 0.001). Although limited by small sample size, this research takes a first step toward future efforts to improve accuracy of biopsy benchmarking.

  18. Artificial nest predation rates vary depending on visibility in the eastern Brazilian Amazon


    Michalski,Fernanda; Norris,Darren


    Observational and experimental studies have shown that increased concealment of bird nests reduces nest predation rates. The objective of the present study was to evaluate differences in predation rates between two experimental manipulations of artificial ground nests (i.e., clearing an area around the artificial nest or leaving it as natural as possible), and test whether environmental variables also affected nest predation in an undisturbed area of Amazonian forest in eastern Brazil. A gene...

  19. Frame rate vs resolution: A subjective evaluation of spatiotemporal perceived quality under varying computational budgets


    Debattista, K.; Bugeja, K.; Spina, S.; Bashford-Rogers, T.; V. Hulusic


    Maximising performance for rendered content requires making compromises on quality parameters depending on the computational resources available. Yet, it is currently unclear which parameters best maximise perceived quality. This work investigates perceived quality across computational budgets for the primary spatio-temporal parameters of resolution and frame rate. Three experiments are conducted. Experiment 1 (n = 26) shows that participants prefer fixed frame rates of 60 frames per second (...

  20. Frame rate vs resolution : a subjective evaluation of spatiotemporal perceived quality under varying computational budgets


    Debattista, Kurt; Bugeja, Keith; Spina, Sandro; Bashford-Rogers, Thomas; Hulusić, Vedad


    Maximizing performance for rendered content requires making compromises on quality parameters depending on the computational resources available . Yet, it is currently unclear which parameters best maximize perceived quality. This work investigates perceived quality across computational budgets for the primary spatiotemporal parameters of resolution and frame rate. Three experiments are conducted. Experiment 1 (n = 26) shows that participants prefer fixed frame rates of 60 frames per second (...

  1. [Values of the sperm deformity index, acrosome abnormity rate, and sperm DNA fragmentation index of optimized sperm in predicting IVF fertilization failure]. (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-jie; Jin, Fan; Zhou, Li-ming


    To investigate the values of the sperm deformity index (SDI), acrosome abnormity rate (AAR), and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) of optimized sperm in the prediction of fertilization failure (fertilization rate fertilization (IVF). We selected 695 cycles of conventional IVF for pure oviductal infertility in this study, including 603 cycles of normal fertilization and 92 cycles of fertilization failure. On the day of oocyte retrieval, we examined sperm morphology, acrosome morphology, and DNA fragmentation using the Diff-Quik, PSA-FITC and SCD methods. We established the joint predictor (JP) by logistic equation and analyzed the values of different parameters in predicting fertilization failure with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The fertilization rate was negatively correlated with SDI (r = - 0.07; P = 0.03), AAR (r = -0.49; P fertilization group were 1.24 ± 0.20, (7.75 ± 2.28)%, and (7.87 ± 3.15)%, and those in the fertilization failure group were 1.42 ± 0.15, (12.02 ± 3.06)%, and (13.32 ± 4.13)%, respectively, all with statistically significant differences between the two groups (P fertilization failure ( OR = 2.68, 14.11, and 3.85; P = 0.01, fertilization failure were approximately 1.45, 10%, and 12%. The SDI, AAR and DFI of optimized sperm are closely associated with the fertilization rate, and all have the value for predicting fertilization failure in IVF. The AAR is more valuable than the other single predictors, but JP is more effective than the AAR.

  2. Controllable deterioration rate for time-dependent demand and time-varying holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Vinod Kumar


    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under the consideration of the facts: deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT during deteriorating period, and holding cost and demand rate both are linear function of time, which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory models. So in this paper, we developed a deterministic inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items in which both demand rate and holding cost are a linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. The model is solved analytically by minimizing the total cost of the inventory system. The model can be applied to optimizing the total inventory cost of non-instantaneous deteriorating items inventory for the business enterprises, where the preservation technology is used to control the deterioration rate, and demand & holding cost both are a linear function of time.

  3. Botanical and agronomic growth of two Panicum maximum cultivars, Mombasa and Tanzania, at varying sowing rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare


    Full Text Available A field trial in northeast Thailand during 2011–2013 compared the establishment and growth of 2 Panicum maximum cultivars, Mombasa and Tanzania, sown at seeding rates of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 kg/ha. In the first 3 months of establishment, higher sowing rates produced significantly more DM than sowing at 2 kg/ha, but thereafter there were no significant differences in total DM production between sowing rates of 2–12 kg/ha. Lower sowing rates produced fewer tillers/m2 than higher sowing rates but these fewer tillers were significantly heavier than the more numerous smaller tillers produced by higher sowing rates. Mombasa produced 23% more DM than Tanzania in successive wet seasons (7,060 vs. 5,712 kg DM/ha from 16 June to 1 November 2011; and 16,433 vs. 13,350 kg DM/ha from 25 April to 24 October 2012. Both cultivars produced similar DM yields in the dry seasons (November–April, averaging 2,000 kg DM/ha in the first dry season and 1,750 kg DM/ha in the second dry season. Mombasa produced taller tillers (104 vs. 82 cm, longer leaves (60 vs. 47 cm, wider leaves (2 vs. 1.8 cm and heavier tillers (1 vs. 0.7 g than Tanzania but fewer tillers/m2 (260 vs. 304. If farmers improve soil preparation and place more emphasis on sowing techniques, there is potential to dramatically reduce seed costs.Keywords: Guinea grass, tillering, forage production, seeding rates, Thailand.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2246-253

  4. Changes in China's fertility rate in the 1980s and an analysis of the related social and economic factors. (United States)

    Feng, L


    In the 1980s, the government reform policy exerted a profound impact on Chinese society and the economy, including the fertility rate. A sample survey of two thousandths of the total population was conducted in mid-1988. Social and economic factors were investigated primarily using the total fertility rate (TFR). The new Marriage Act was adopted in 1988 setting marriage age at 20; previously, early marriage and childbearing before age 18 had occurred often. Early marriage had declined from 47.89% in 1970 to 12.53% in 1979. In rural areas more than half of marriages were early marriages, dropping to 16.90% by 1979 and increasing to 25% in 1987. Consequently, the cumulative fertility rate in the 15-20 age group rose 88% from 1980 to 1988. Mature-age marriage, at age 23 or older, became more common both in urban and rural areas, with a 80.0% and 42.26% rate, respectively, in 1979. However, by 1987 it declined to 66.84% and 20.71%, respectively. The age at first childbearing had grown to 24.45 in 1980 (23.89 in rural areas); however, it was reversed to 23.04 in 1987 (22.56 in rural areas). The cumulative fertility in the 15-24 age group shot up between 1980 and 1987. THe cumulative fertility rate in terms of TFR in this group grew from 35.21% in 1980 to 47.74% in 1987. Single-child cumulative fertility rates in the age groups of 15-19 and 20-24 had declined to below 1 in the late 1970s and 1980, but these were merely postponed childbearing. In 1987 many rural women began to have their second child. Multiple births in rural areas declined from 59.80% in 1970 to 20.86% in 1987, while total number of births increased 41.78% in 1987. In urban areas the TFR was 1.98 after 1974 and declined to 1.24 in 1980 and then rose to 1.36, a little below the planned TFR of 1.25. In rural areas, low per capita income and its irrational distribution favor less educated people, while transformation into the household-based economy requires child labor, factors which have impeded the

  5. Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates of Cryotop-Vitrified Oocyte and Embryo Using Low Concentrated Cryoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roozbehi


    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The preserving embryos, the risk of multiple pregnancies, the existence of factors in stimulated uterine cycle, are important forces in perfecting embryo cryopreservation. The aim of current study was to assess Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates (SRs, FRs, DRs of the mouse oocytes and embryos using cryotop and low concentrated cryoprotectants solutions. Methods: Mouse C57BL/6 oocytes and embryos were collected. Oocytes SRs, FRs, DRs were recorded after cryotop-vitrification/ warming. As well as comparing fresh oocytes and embryos, the data obtained from experimental groups (exp. applying 1.25, 1.0, and 0.75 Molar (M CPAs were analyzed in comparison to those of exp. adopting 1.5 M CPAs (largely-used concentration of EthylenGlycol (EG and Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO. Results: The data of oocytes exposed to 1.25 M CPAs were in consistency with those exposed to 1.5 M and control group in terms of SR, FR and DR. As fewer concentrations were applied, the more decreased SRs, FRs and DRs were obtained from other experimental groups. The results of embryos were exposed to 1.25 M and 1.0 M was close to those vitrified with 1.5 M and fresh embryos. The results of 0.75 M concentrated CPAs solutions were significantly lower than those of control, 1.5 M and 1.0 M treated groups. Conclusion: CPAs limited reduction to 1.25 M and 1.0 M instead of using 1.5 M, for oocyte and embryo cryotop-vitrification procedure may be a slight adjustment.

  6. Microscale consolidation analysis of relaxation behavior of single living chondrocytes subjected to varying strain-rates. (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Oloyede, Adekunle; Singh, Sanjleena; Gu, YuanTong


    Besides the elastic stiffness, the relaxation behavior of single living cells is also of interest of various researchers when studying cell mechanics. It is hypothesized that the relaxation response of the cells is governed by both intrinsic viscoelasticity of the solid phase and fluid-solid interactions mechanisms. There are a number of mechanical models have been developed to investigate the relaxation behavior of single cells. However, there is lack of model enable to accurately capture both of the mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the porohyperelastic (PHE) model, which is an extension of the consolidation theory, combined with inverse Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique was used at the first time to investigate the relaxation response of living chondrocytes. This model was also utilized to study the dependence of relaxation behavior of the cells on strain-rates. The stress-relaxation experiments under the various strain-rates were conducted with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results have demonstrated that the PHE model could effectively capture the stress-relaxation behavior of the living chondrocytes, especially at intermediate to high strain-rates. Although this model gave some errors at lower strain-rates, its performance was acceptable. Therefore, the PHE model is properly a promising model for single cell mechanics studies. Moreover, it has been found that the hydraulic permeability of living chondrocytes reduced with decreasing of strain-rates. It might be due to the intracellular fluid volume fraction and the fluid pore pressure gradients of chondrocytes were higher when higher strain-rates applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal harvesting of fish stocks under a time-varying discount rate. (United States)

    Duncan, Stephen; Hepburn, Cameron; Papachristodoulou, Antonis


    Optimal control theory has been extensively used to determine the optimal harvesting policy for renewable resources such as fish stocks. In such optimisations, it is common to maximise the discounted utility of harvesting over time, employing a constant time discount rate. However, evidence from human and animal behaviour suggests that we have evolved to employ discount rates which fall over time, often referred to as "hyperbolic discounting". This increases the weight on benefits in the distant future, which may appear to provide greater protection of resources for future generations, but also creates challenges of time-inconsistent plans. This paper examines harvesting plans when the discount rate declines over time. With a declining discount rate, the planner reduces stock levels in the early stages (when the discount rate is high) and intends to compensate by allowing the stock level to recover later (when the discount rate will be lower). Such a plan may be feasible and optimal, provided that the planner remains committed throughout. However, in practice there is a danger that such plans will be re-optimized and adjusted in the future. It is shown that repeatedly restarting the optimization can drive the stock level down to the point where the optimal policy is to harvest the stock to extinction. In short, a key contribution of this paper is to identify the surprising severity of the consequences flowing from incorporating a rather trivial, and widely prevalent, "non-rational" aspect of human behaviour into renewable resource management models. These ideas are related to the collapse of the Peruvian anchovy fishery in the 1970's. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of varying teacher presentation rates on responding during discrete trial training for two children with autism. (United States)

    Roxburgh, Carole A; Carbone, Vincent J


    Recent research has emphasized the importance of manipulating antecedent variables to reduce interfering behaviors when teaching persons with autism. Few studies have focused on the effects of the rate of teacher-presented instructional demands as an independent variable. In this study, an alternating treatment design was used to evaluate the effects of varied rates of teacher-presented demands (1 s, 5 s, 10 s) on the occurrence of problem behavior, opportunities to respond, responses emitted, accuracy of responding, and magnitude and rate of reinforcement for two children with autism. Results indicated that fast presentation rate (1 s) resulted in lower rates of problem behavior, higher frequencies of instructional demands, higher frequencies of participant responding, and greater magnitudes and rates of reinforcement. Differential effects on accuracy of responding across conditions were not observed. Implications for manipulating the rate of teacher-presented instructional demands as an antecedent variable to reduce problem behavior are discussed.

  9. Relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to health centers in Mashhad in 2013. (United States)

    Golmakani, Nahid; Fazeli, Elham; Taghipour, Ali; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi


    Fertility rate apparently is a non-interventional behavior, but in practice, it is influenced by social values and norms in which culture and traditional beliefs play a significant role. In this regard, some studies have shown that gender roles can be associated with reproductive behaviors. With regard to the importance of annual reduction of population growth rate and its outcomes, the present study was performed to determine the relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to Mashhad health centers in 2013. The present study is an analytical cross-sectional and multistage sampling study performed on 712 women. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of two sections: Personal information and gender role attitude questionnaire that contained two dimensions, i.e. gender stereotypes and gender egalitarianism. Its validity was determined by content validity and its reliability by internal consistency (r = 0.77). Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Initial analysis of the data indicated that there was a significant relationship between acceptance of gender stereotypes (P = 0.008) and gender egalitarianism (P women's attitude is very important for successful planning in the improvement of fertility rate and population policy.

  10. Increased Denitrification Rates Associated with Shifts in Prokaryotic Community Composition Caused by Varying Hydrologic Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Tomasek


    Full Text Available While modern developments in agriculture have allowed for increases in crop yields and rapid human population growth, they have also drastically altered biogeochemical cycles, including the biotransformation of nitrogen. Denitrification is a critical process performed by bacteria and fungi that removes nitrate in surface waters, thereby serving as a potential natural remediation strategy. We previously reported that constant inundation resulted in a coupling of denitrification gene abundances with denitrification rates in sediments, but these relationships were not maintained in periodically-inundated or non-inundated environments. In this study, we utilized Illumina next-generation sequencing to further evaluate how the microbial community responds to these hydrologic regimes and how this community is related to denitrification rates at three sites along a creek in an agricultural watershed over 2 years. The hydrologic connectivity of the sampling location had a significantly greater influence on the denitrification rate (P = 0.010, denitrification gene abundances (P < 0.001, and the prokaryotic community (P < 0.001, than did other spatiotemporal factors (e.g., creek sample site or sample month within the same year. However, annual variability among denitrification rates was also observed (P < 0.001. Furthermore, the denitrification rate was significantly positively correlated with water nitrate concentration (Spearman's ρ = 0.56, P < 0.0001, denitrification gene abundances (ρ = 0.23–0.47, P ≤ 0.006, and the abundances of members of the families Burkholderiaceae, Anaerolinaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Acidimicrobineae incertae sedis, Cytophagaceae, and Hyphomicrobiaceae (ρ = 0.17–0.25, P ≤ 0.041. Prokaryotic community composition accounted for the least amount of variation in denitrification rates (22%, while the collective influence of spatiotemporal factors and gene abundances accounted for 37%, with 40% of the variation related to

  11. Kinetic Rate Determination via Electrophoresis along a Varying Cross-Section Microchannel


    Kapil, MA; Pan, Y.; Duncombe, TA; Herr, AE


    © 2016 American Chemical Society. High throughput, efficient, and readily adoptable analytical tools for the validation and selection of reliable antibody reagents would impact the life sciences, clinical chemistry, and clinical medicine. To directly quantify antibody-antigen association and dissociation rate constants, k on and k off , in a single experiment, we introduce a microfluidic free-standing kinetic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (fsKPAGE) assay. Here, an antibody is immobilize...

  12. Michigan oncology practices showed varying adherence rates to practice guidelines, but quality interventions improved care. (United States)

    Blayney, Douglas W; Severson, Jane; Martin, C Jane; Kadlubek, Pamela; Ruane, Thomas; Harrison, Kimberley


    Despite improvements in care for patients with cancer, and in their survival rates, it is not clear that best practices are uniformly delivered to patients. We measured the quality of outpatient cancer care, using validated quality measures, in a consortium of thirty-six outpatient oncology practices in Michigan. We discovered that throughout the measurement period, for breast and colorectal cancer care, there was a more than 85 percent rate of adherence to quality care processes. For end-of-life care processes, the adherence rate was 73 percent, and for symptom and toxicity management care processes, adherence was 56 percent. In particular, we found variations in care around the fundamental oncologic task of management of cancer pain. To address quality gaps, we developed interventions to improve adherence to treatment guidelines, improve pain management, and incorporate palliative care into oncology practice. We concluded that statewide consortia that assume much of the cost burden of quality improvement activities can bring together oncology providers and payers to measure quality and design interventions to improve care.

  13. Participants' ratings of male physicians who vary in race and communication style. (United States)

    Aruguete, Mara S; Roberts, Carlos A


    Research has shown minorities receive lower quality health care than White persons even with socioeconomic conditions controlled. This difference may partially be related to racially biased attitudes and impaired communication in interracial relationships between physicians and patients. This study investigated the effect of physicians' race and nonverbal communication style on participants' evaluations. Patients at a local health clinic were participants (N = 116: 84% Black, 16% White). Each participant viewed one of four videotapes showing varied race of a physician (Black or White) and the physician's nonverbal behavior (expressing concern or distance), and then completed a questionnaire evaluating the depicted physician. Overall, participants did not give significantly different preferences for physicians of the same race. However, participants' evaluations were significantly associated with physicians' nonverbal style. Nonverbal concern was associated with highest satisfaction, trust, self-disclosure, recall of information, likelihood of recommending the physician, and intent to comply with the physician's recommendations. When male and female participants were compared, preference for a physician of the same race was found only among male participants who viewed verbally distant physicians. Results suggest that social skills are more important than race in shaping patients' perceptions of physicians.

  14. Production rates of bacterial tetraether lipids and fatty acids in peatland under varying oxygen concentrations (United States)

    Huguet, Arnaud; Meador, Travis B.; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Könneke, Martin; Wu, Weichao; Derenne, Sylvie; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe


    Interpretations of the abundance and distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) lipids have been increasingly applied to infer changes in paleoenvironment and to estimate terrigenous organic matter inputs into estuarine and marine sediments. However, only preliminary information is known regarding the ecology and physiology of the source organisms of these biomarkers. We assessed the production rates of brGDGTs under different redox conditions in peat, where these lipids are found in high concentrations, particularly at greater depths below the fluctuating water table. The incorporation of hydrogen relative to carbon into lipids observed in our dual stable isotope probing assay indicates that brGDGTs were produced by heterotrophic bacteria. Unexpectedly, incubations with stable isotope tracers of the surface horizon (5-20 cm) initiated under oxic conditions before turning suboxic and eventually anoxic exhibited up to one order of magnitude higher rates of brGDGT production (16-87 ng cm-3 y-1) relative to the deeper, anoxic zone (20-35 cm; ca. 7 ng cm-3 y-1), and anoxic incubations of the surface horizon (organisms are likely facultative aerobic heterotrophs that are particularly active in the peat acrotelm. Production rates of bacterial fatty acids (ca. 2 μg cm-3 y-1) were roughly two orders of magnitude higher than those of brGDGTs, suggesting that brGDGT producers are a minor constituent of the microbial community or that brGDGTs are a small component of the microbial cell membrane in comparison to fatty acids, despite the typically high brGDGT concentrations observed in peat. Multivariate analysis identified two branched fatty acids that shared a similar production pattern as brGDGTs among the experimental treatments and may be associated with brGDGT biosynthesis.

  15. Live birth rates following in vitro fertilization in women with thyroid autoimmunity and/or subclinical hypothyroidism. (United States)

    Chai, Joyce; Yeung, Wing-Yee T; Lee, Chi-Yan V; Li, Hang-Wun R; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Hung-Yu E


    To investigate whether the live birth rate following in vitro fertilization (IVF) is affected by thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and/or subclinical hypothyroidism in subfertile women. Retrospective study in a university infertility clinic. A total of 627 women without past or current history of thyroid disorder undergoing their first IVF cycle. Pre-IVF archived blood serum samples were tested for TAI and thyroid function tests. Live birth rate. The clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate and miscarriage rate were similar among women with or without TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism using a TSH threshold 4·5 mIU/l. Thyroid autoantibody level did not affect these IVF outcomes. The live birth rate and miscarriage rate of women with TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism following IVF were not impaired. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. to different npk 15:15:15 fertilizer rates in nrcri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr A. O. Akinpelu

    country, is an agrarian economy in which agriculture and agro-allied enterprises are the most popular income-generating activities ... Agricultural production economics involves analysis of production relationships and ... Such a system could be achieved through the application of fertilizer. The addition of nutrient input from ...

  17. Occurrence and fertility rates of hydatid cysts in sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia very limited studies were conducted in small ruminant hydatidosis compared to cattle. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Modjo Luna Export Slaughter House from December 2009 to February 2010 to determine the prevalence and fertility of hydatid cysts. A total of 325 sheep and 440 goats were examined ...

  18. Effects of insemination-ovulation interval on fertilization rates and embryo characteristics in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.B.; Graat, E.A.M.; Mullaart, E.; Soede, N.M.; Voskamp-Harkema, W.; Kemp, B.


    The objective of this study was to examine effects of the interval between insemination and ovulation on fertilization and embryo characteristics (quality scored as good, fair, poor and degenerate; morphology; number of cell cycles and accessory sperm number) in dairy cattle. Time of ovulation was

  19. Fertility rates among lead workers and professional bus drivers: a comparative study. (United States)

    Lin, S; Hwang, S A; Marshall, E G; Stone, R; Chen, J


    We examined the relationship between lead exposure and fertility among men in a retrospective cohort study. Fertility (1981-1992) of lead-exposed workers was determined from birth certificate information and was compared with that of nonexposed workers. The exposed group consisted of 4256 reproductive-age male workers reported to the New York State Heavy Metals Registry. The comparison group consisted of a random sample of male bus drivers licensed in the state of New York; these men were frequency-matched by age and residence to the men who were exposed to lead. The actual number of births among lead workers was lower than the expected number of births for that group (standardized fertility ratio [SFR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81-0.95), especially among those who had elevated blood lead levels for longer than 5 years (SFR = 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: = 0.31, 0.59). Even after adjusting for age, race, education, and residence, workers with > 5 years of exposure had reduced likelihood of fathering a child than those with a shorter period of exposure (relative risk, 0.38; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.61). Our study indicates that men with a long duration of lead exposure might have reduced fertility.

  20. Influence of soil type and fertilizer rate on the yield and yield stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study to determine the effects of soil type and fertilizer application on maize performance and yiel d stability under rain-fed conditions, split-split-plot design was carried out using three selected locations (Nsukka, Awgu and Abakaliki) as the main plots, two cultivars of maize (Oba Super . 2 and local variety) as the ...

  1. Tillage Frequency, Soil Compaction and N-Fertilizer Rate Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, teff is grown for its grain and straw. There is a dearth of information with respect to plowing, compaction and fertilization on vertisols in central zone of Tigray. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of plowing frequency, soil compaction and N on teff yields. The experimental design was a ...

  2. Tillage Frequency, Soil Compaction and N-Fertilizer Rate Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. In Ethiopia, teff is grown for its grain and straw. There is a dearth of information with respect to plowing, compaction and fertilization on vertisols in central zone of Tigray. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of plowing frequency, soil compaction and N on teff yields. The experimental ...

  3. Influence of N fertilization rates, rainfall, and temperature on nitrate leaching from a rainfed winter wheat field in Taihu watershed (United States)

    Liang, Xin-Qiang; Xu, Lei; Li, Hua; He, Miao-Miao; Qian, Yi-Chao; Liu, Jin; Nie, Ze-Yu; Ye, Yu-Shi; Chen, Yingxu

    Cropland derived nitrate leaching was a major reason for groundwater pollution. The objective of this study was to on-farm investigate the behavior of nitrate leaching affected by N fertilization rates, rainfall, and temperature in a rainfed winter wheat field in Taihu watershed. The experiment had five urea-N rates (0-360 kg N ha -1 in 90-kg increments), and nitrate-N in leachate was daily collected by wedge-shaped fiberglass wick lysimeters during four stages (seeding stage, SS; tillering stage, TS; booting stage, BS; harvesting stage, HS). Results showed that: (1) higher potential of leachate would be engendered when the rainfall intensity was over 5.9 mm d -1; (2) variations of nitrate concentrations in leachate were well responsed to three split fertilizations, which increased with the increase of urea-N applied rates. A similar variation pattern of nitrate concentrations was observed in -0.3 m and -0.6 m soil leachate. Besides, the nitrate concentrations in leachate could be raised with the sharply increase of air temperature, especially in the SS and TS stages; (3) the fluxes of nitrate leaching were significantly affected by N rates ( P HS > BS > SS. The N application rate of 180 kg N ha -1 optimized wheat production, but N application over that rate greatly increased nitrate leaching potential. Therefore, options other than lowering the N application rate need to be considered to reduce environmental impacts while maintain winter wheat production.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen and potassium fertilization and assessment of adequate nutritional status are essential for increasing fruit production of passion fruit. However, studies related to characterization of the leaf nutrient concentration and content in passion fruit with different production capacities are scarce in the literature in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate macronutrient leaf concentration and content in different parts of the reproductive shoot of yellow passion fruit subjected to different ratios of N and K fertilization. The study was conducted in a randomized block design, with three replications, following a 4 x 6 factorial arrangement consisting of four cultivars of yellow passion fruit (BRS Gigante Amarelo, IAC 275, BRS Ouro Vermelho, and BRS Sol do Cerrado and six application rates of N-K2O fertilizer (0-0, 50-125, 100-250, 150-375, 200-500, and 250-625 kg ha-1 year-1. Two leaf sampling methods were adopted (leaf located at a position adjacent to the fruit, and leaf located at the end of the reproductive branch for nutritional assessment. The leaf located at the adjacent position had lower N, P, K, Mg, and S concentration and higher Ca concentration than the concentrations observed in the standard leaf. However, the higher leaf dry matter in adjacent leaves resulted in increased macronutrient concentration/content. The increase in N-K fertilizations inhibited Ca and Mg content in the leaves adjacent to the fruit of the Gigante Amarelo, IAC, and Ouro Vermelho passion fruit cultivars, but did not affect Ca and Mg content in the standard leaf. The passion fruit cultivars showed different leaf nutrient contents after N-K fertilization, indicating variable nutritional demands and the need for specific diagnostic methods for each cultivar.

  5. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

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    Naoko Isomura

    Full Text Available Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  6. Current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychiatric disorders: Fertility rates, parent-child relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders across the lifespan. (United States)

    Jacobson, Nicholas C


    This study sought to evaluate the current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychopathology by examining whether these disorders impact the quantity of offspring or the quality of the parent-child relationship across the life span. Using the National Comorbidity Survey, this study examined whether DSM-III-R anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depressive, bipolar, substance use, antisocial, and psychosis disorders predicted later fertility and the quality of parent-child relationships across the life span in a national sample (N = 8,098). Using latent variable and varying coefficient models, the results suggested that anxiety in males and bipolar pathology in males and females were associated with increased fertility at younger ages. The results suggested almost all other psychopathology was associated with decreased fertility in middle to late adulthood. The results further suggested that all types of psychopathology had negative impacts on the parent-child relationship quality (except for antisocial pathology in males). Nevertheless, for all disorders, the impact of psychopathology on both fertility and the parent-child relationship quality was affected by the age of the participant. The results also showed that anxiety pathology is associated with a high-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy followed by a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy. Further, the results suggest that bipolar pathology is associated with an early high-quantity and a continued low-quality parenting strategy. Posttraumatic stress, depression, substance use, antisocial personality, and psychosis pathology are each associated with a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy, particularly in mid to late adulthood. These findings suggest that the evolutionary impact of psychopathology depends on the developmental context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A comparison of biochemical pregnancy rates between women who underwent IVF and fertile controls who conceived spontaneously†. (United States)

    Zeadna, Atif; Son, Weon Young; Moon, Jeong Hee; Dahan, Michael H


    Does IVF affect the biochemical pregnancy rate? The likelihood of an early pregnancy loss may be lower and is certainly not higher in IVF cycles when compared with published rates of biochemical pregnancy in fertile women ≤42 years old. The use of gonadotrophins to stimulate multi-folliculogenesis alters endometrial expression of genes and proteins, compared with unstimulated cycles. Exogenous estrogen and progesterone taken for endometrial preparation in frozen embryo transfer cycles, also cause changes in endometrial gene and protein expression .These endometrial alterations may compromise the ability of embryos to develop once implanted, possibly increasing the biochemical pregnancy rate. This is a retrospective study, involving 1636 fresh and 188 frozen, single embryo transfer (SET) IVF cycles performed between August 2008 and December 2012. The biochemical pregnancy rate of the 1824 combined IVF and frozen cycles were compared with fertile controls, derived from the three prospective studies in the medical literature that evaluate this rate. Subjects ≤42-years old, who underwent a SET, as part of a fresh or thawed IVF cycle were considered for inclusion. Each subject is represented only once. The biochemical pregnancy rates were compared with those of historical standard, fertile populations with spontaneous conceptions. The pregnancy rates per transfer for fresh and frozen IVF cycles were similar at 39 and 40%, respectively. There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of pregnancy outcomes (clinical, biochemical and ectopic pregnancy) between fresh IVF and frozen cycles (85.4 versus 85.6%, 13.8 versus 14.8%, 0.5 versus 0%, P = 0.82). However, pregnancy rates decreased in older patients when compared with younger ones P IVF cycles combined was 13.8% of all pregnancies. IVF and frozen cycles were combined as the IVF group treated with hormones for further comparison with the fertile control group. The biochemical pregnancy rate (14%) in the

  8. Nitrogen Isotopes as an Indicator of Long-Term N Cycling in a Grazed Temperate Pasture Receiving Different Rates of Superphosphate Fertilizer and Irrigation for ~50 Years (United States)

    Mudge, P. L.; Schipper, L. A.; Ghani, A.; Baisden, W. T.; Dodd, M.


    Pastoral agriculture is the dominant land use in New Zealand and intensification (as a result of fertilizer inputs and in some areas irrigation) has led to increased nitrogen (N) losses to the wider environment. An indicator that could identify soils which are vulnerable to N loss would be useful for the development of management practices and regulations aimed at reducing unwanted N losses. The natural abundance of 15N relative to 14N (δ15N) in soils is one potential indicator. Most N cycle processes associated with N losses (e.g. nitrification, denitrification, and volatilisation) discriminate against 15N and therefore soil δ15N could provide an indication of cumulative N losses. In this study we measured δ15N in archived soils from two long-term field trials receiving different rates of superphosphate fertilizer and irrigation. Both trials were in mid-Canterbury, New Zealand and were grazed by sheep. The fertilizer trial began in 1952, and treatments used were the control (nilP), 376 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 (376PA) and a treatment where 376 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 was applied between 1952 and 1957, no fertilizer from 1958 to 1979 and then 250 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 from 1980 to 2009 (376-0-250PA). The irrigation trial was initiated in 1949 and ceased in 2002. The dryland treatment and treatments irrigated when soil moisture was 10% and 20% were used in this study. From 1958, soil samples (0-75 mm depth) were taken annually from each trial, air dried and archived. Soil samples at four year intervals were analysed for this study. Pasture production varied considerably between treatments, with higher rates of fertilizer and irrigation promoting greater pasture growth and therefore higher grazing intensities. Initially δ15N was about the same (3.3‰) in all treatments of both trials. δ15N in the 376PA treatment of the fertilizer trial increased gradually with time and by 2009 was 4.5‰. In the 376-0-250PA treatment, δ15N stayed constant until about

  9. Micro-Viscometer for Measuring Shear-Varying Blood Viscosity over a Wide-Ranging Shear Rate (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Seung Yeob; Jee, Solkeun; Atajanov, Arslan; Yang, Sung


    In this study, a micro-viscometer is developed for measuring shear-varying blood viscosity over a wide-ranging shear rate. The micro-viscometer consists of 10 microfluidic channel arrays, each of which has a different micro-channel width. The proposed design enables the retrieval of 10 different shear rates from a single flow rate, thereby enabling the measurement of shear-varying blood viscosity with a fixed flow rate condition. For this purpose, an optimal design that guarantees accurate viscosity measurement is selected from a parametric study. The functionality of the micro-viscometer is verified by both numerical and experimental studies. The proposed micro-viscometer shows 6.8% (numerical) and 5.3% (experimental) in relative error when compared to the result from a standard rotational viscometer. Moreover, a reliability test is performed by repeated measurement (N = 7), and the result shows 2.69 ± 2.19% for the mean relative error. Accurate viscosity measurements are performed on blood samples with variations in the hematocrit (35%, 45%, and 55%), which significantly influences blood viscosity. Since the blood viscosity correlated with various physical parameters of the blood, the micro-viscometer is anticipated to be a significant advancement for realization of blood on a chip. PMID:28632151

  10. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates on Morphological Traits, Yield and Yield Components of Three Cultivars of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gh Moosavi


    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of N fertilizer rates on morphological traits, yield and yield components of rice cultivars, a study was carried out in Rice Research Institute of Rasht, Iran during 2009. It was a two-variable factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was nitrogen fertilization at four rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N ha-1 and the second factor was rice cultivar at three levels of Hashemi, Ali-Kazemi and Khazar. The results of analysis of variance showed that N fertilizer rates did not significantly affect on panicle length, grain number per panicle, 1000- grain weight and harvest index but significantly affected plant height, tiller number per m2, panicle number per m2, grain yield and biological yield. Means comparison showed that as N rate was increased from 0 to 90 kg ha-1, plant height, tiller number per m2, panicle number per m2, grain yield and biological yield increased by 12.7, 27.6, 32.6, 84.5 and 61.6%, respectively. The cultivar significantly affected morphological traits, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and biological yield. The results indicated that cultivar of Khazar had the highest potential of grain yield (3424.5 kg ha-1. In total, application of 90 kg N ha-1 and cultivar of Khazar treatment was better for having the maximum production under the conditions of the current study.

  11. Influence of biochar, mycorrhizal inoculation, and fertilizer rate on growth and flowering of Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale L.) plants


    Giulia eConversa; Anna eBonasia; Corrado eLazzizera; Antonio eElia


    Peat is the most common substrate used in nurseries despite being a very expensive and a non-renewable material. Peat replacement with biochar could be a sound environmental practice, as it is produced from waste biomass, but evaluation of biochar as a potting substrate is needed. Ratios of peat:biochar of 100:0, 70:30, 30:70 (BC0, BC30, and BC70, respectively), two fertilizer rates (FERT1, FERT2), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation were tested on potted Pelargonium plants. Pl...

  12. [Dynamics simulation on plant growth, N accumulation and utilization of processing tomato at different N fertilization rates]. (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ma, Fu-Yu; Diao, Ming; Fan, Huam; Cui, Jing; Jia, Biao; He, Hai-Bing; Liu, Qi


    Three field experiments were conducted to simulate the dynamics of aboveground biomass, N accumulation and utilization of drip-irrigated processing tomatoes at different N fertilization rates (0, 75, 150, 300, 450, or 600 kg x hm(-2)). The results showed that Logistic models best described the changes in aboveground biomass, N accumulation, and utilization of accumulated N efficiency with the physiological development time (PDT). Rapid accumulation of N began about 4-6 d (PDT) earlier than the rapid accumulation of aboveground biomass. The momentary utilization rate of N (NMUR) increased after emergence, reached a single peak, and then decreased. The N accumulation, aboveground biomass and yield were highest in the 300 kg x hm(-2) treatment. The quadratic model indicated that application rate of 349 to 382 kg N x hm(-2) was optimum for drip-irrigated processing tomatoes in northern Xinjiang.

  13. Experimental study of the influence of varying ceiling height on the heat release rate of a pool fire (United States)

    Liu, Jiahao; Wang, Jian; Richard, Yuen


    To investigate the influence of ceiling height on the combustion process of a pool fire whose flame impinges the ceiling, a sequence of pool fires with varying ceiling heights was performed using a scaled-down cone calorimeter. N-heptane and jet-A were employed as fuels to conducted the tests. Experimental findings reveal that with the decreasing ceiling height, the maximum and average heat release rates will initially increase due to the enhanced heat feedback, and then decrease as a result of the restriction of air entrainment caused by the extremely small ceiling height. In addition, the dimensionless ceiling height is found to have a linear relationship with the logarithm value of the dimensionless averaged heat release rate for the two given fuels with the similar slope of -2/3.

  14. A DECODER NMR study of backbone orientation in Nephila clavipes dragline silk under varying strain and draw rate. (United States)

    Eles, Philip T; Michal, Carl A


    Using DECODER (direction exchange with correlation for orientation distribution evaluation and reconstruction) NMR, we probe the orientations of carbonyl carbons in [1-(13)C]glycine-labeled dragline silk under conditions of varying strain and fiber draw rate. A model-specific reconstruction of the molecular orientation distribution incorporating beta sheets and polyglycine II helices indicates that the structures' alignment along the fiber can be described by a pair of Gaussian distributions with full width at half-maxima of 20 and 68 degrees and approximately 45 and approximately 55% relative contributions to the signal intensity. The alignment along the fiber was found to change appreciably when the drawing tension on the fiber was relaxed in a sample drawn at 4 cm/s while little change was observed in a sample drawn at 2 cm/s. The degree of alignment along the fiber was found to increase with fiber draw rate.

  15. In vitro fertilization pregnancy rates in levothyroxine-treated women with hypothyroidism compared to women without thyroid dysfunction disorders. (United States)

    Scoccia, Bert; Demir, Habibe; Kang, Yuna; Fierro, Michelle A; Winston, Nicola J


    Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to ovulatory dysfunction resulting in oligo-amenorrhea. Treatment with levothyroxine can reverse such dysfunction and thus should improve fertility. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess whether in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy rates differ in levothyroxine-treated women with hypothyroidism compared to women without thyroid dysfunction/disorders. Treated hypothyroid and euthyroid women undergoing IVF at an academic IVF center were studied after Institutional Review Board approval. Women with hypothyroidism were treated with levothyroxine 0.025-0.15 mg/day for at least 3 months to maintain baseline thyrotropin (TSH) levels of 0.35-4.0 μU/mL prior to commencing IVF treatment (HYPO-Rx group). Causes of infertility were similar in both groups with the exception of male factor, which was more common in the HYPO-Rx group. The main outcomes studied were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, clinical miscarriage rate, and live birth rate. We reviewed the first IVF retrieval cycle performed on 240 women aged 37 years or less during the period January 2003 to December 2007. Women with treated hypothyroidism (n=21) had significantly less implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates than euthyroid women (n=219). We conclude that, despite levothyroxine treatment, women with hypothyroidism have a significantly decreased chance of achieving a pregnancy following IVF compared to euthyroid patients. A larger prospective study is necessary to assess confounding variables, confirm these findings, and determine the optimal level of TSH prior to and during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF.

  16. In Vitro Fertilization Pregnancy Rates in Levothyroxine-Treated Women With Hypothyroidism Compared to Women Without Thyroid Dysfunction Disorders (United States)

    Demir, Habibe; Kang, Yuna; Fierro, Michelle A.; Winston, Nicola J.


    Background Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to ovulatory dysfunction resulting in oligo-amenorrhea. Treatment with levothyroxine can reverse such dysfunction and thus should improve fertility. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess whether in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy rates differ in levothyroxine-treated women with hypothyroidism compared to women without thyroid dysfunction/disorders. Methods Treated hypothyroid and euthyroid women undergoing IVF at an academic IVF center were studied after Institutional Review Board approval. Women with hypothyroidism were treated with levothyroxine 0.025–0.15 mg/day for at least 3 months to maintain baseline thyrotropin (TSH) levels of 0.35–4.0 μU/mL prior to commencing IVF treatment (HYPO-Rx group). Causes of infertility were similar in both groups with the exception of male factor, which was more common in the HYPO-Rx group. The main outcomes studied were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, clinical miscarriage rate, and live birth rate. Results We reviewed the first IVF retrieval cycle performed on 240 women aged 37 years or less during the period January 2003 to December 2007. Women with treated hypothyroidism (n=21) had significantly less implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates than euthyroid women (n=219). Conclusions We conclude that, despite levothyroxine treatment, women with hypothyroidism have a significantly decreased chance of achieving a pregnancy following IVF compared to euthyroid patients. A larger prospective study is necessary to assess confounding variables, confirm these findings, and determine the optimal level of TSH prior to and during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF. PMID:22540326

  17. Application of a ready-to-use calcium ionophore increases rates of fertilization and pregnancy in severe male factor infertility. (United States)

    Ebner, Thomas; Köster, Maria; Shebl, Omar; Moser, Marianne; Van der Ven, Hans; Tews, Gernot; Montag, Markus


    To analyze whether a ready-to-use calcium ionophore improves outcomes, from fertilization to live birth, in patients with severe male factor infertility. Artificial oocyte activation offered to applicable patients over a 20-month period. Specialized in vitro fertilization (IVF) centers in Austria and Germany. Twenty-nine azoospermic and 37 cryptozoospermic men. Mature oocytes treated with a ready-to-use Ca(2+)-ionophore (GM508 Cult-Active) immediately after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Rates of fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth. Patients had had 88 previous cycles without artificial activation that resulted in a fertilization rate of 34.7%, 79 transfers (89.8%), and 5 pregnancies, which all spontaneously aborted except one. After artificial oocyte activation, the fertilization rate was 56.9%. In terms of fertilization rate, both azoospermic (64.4%) and cryptozoospermic (48.4%) men statistically significantly benefited from use of the ionophore. In 73 transfer cycles, positive β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were observed in 34 cases (46.6%) and 29 cycles (39.7%) that ended with a clinical pregnancy. The corresponding implantation rate was 33.3%. Four spontaneous abortions occurred (11.8%), and 32 healthy children were born. This is the first prospective multicenter study on artificial oocyte activation in severe male factor infertility. Present data indicate that a ready-to-use calcium ionophore can yield high fertilization and pregnancy rates for this particular subgroup. In addition to fertilization failure after ICSI, severe male factor infertility is an additional area for application of artificial oocyte activation. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen fertilization rates on maize plant yield and silage quality

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    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation and different nitrogen (N rates applied as topdressing on the productivity of a maize crop and the nutritional value of maize silage. Two experiments were conducted in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 harvests. Treatments were distributed in a randomized block design in a factorial arrangement, which consisted of two maize hybrids (AS 1572 and Defender coupled with nitrogen rates (0, 60, 120, 240, and 480 kg ha-1, inoculated or uninoculated with A. brasilense. Inoculated seeds were treated with the A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6. Inoculation with A. brasilense showed interaction with the hybrids, agricultural years, and nitrogen rates for the maize plant yield. In the 2012/2013 agricultural year, inoculation increased the AS 1572 hybrid silage yield by 6.16% and, in the 2013/2014 harvest, A. brasilense inoculation produced an increase of 16.15% for the Defender hybrid. Nitrogen fertilization applied at 0, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 N benefited the plants inoculated with A. brasilense. The statistical equations revealed that N rates between 0 and 184 kg ha-1 in A. brasilense inoculated plants raised the plant productivity for silage when compared with the control plants. Regarding the nutritional value of the silage, inoculation with A. brasilense increased the ether extract levels and total digestible nutrients and reduced the amount of acid detergent fiber. For all this, positive results with inoculation for silage yield are dependent on nitrogen fertilization rate. Inoculation with A. brasilense can promote changes in the maize silage quality, but with obtained results it is not possible to definitely conclude upon nutritive value of maize silage.

  19. Evaluating the Role of First Polar Body Morphology on Rates of Fertilization and Embryo Development in ICSI Cycles

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    Iman Halvaei


    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that morphology of the first polar body (1st PBis related to oocyte viability, which can be used as a prognostic tool to predict oocyte performanceand pregnancy outcomes in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI program. According to somestudies, there is a correlation between oocyte performance and 1st PB morphology, while others havenot reported any correlation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of 1st PB morphologyon rates of fertilization and embryo development in ICSI cases.Materials and Methods: In this prospective study morphological characteristics of 470 metaphaseII (MII oocytes were assessed in 80 ICSI cycles. The women were ages 21-42 years (mean 32.6 ±0.2. Their oocytes were retrieved after a hyperstimulation protocol. After denudation, all oocyteswere evaluated for 1st PB morphology. The oocytes were divided into two groups of A (normal 1stPB and B (abnormal fragmented 1st PB. In addition, other abnormalities, such as refractile bodies(RF, wide previtelline space (wPVS, central and general granulation, bull’s eye, vacuole, smoothendoplasmic reticulum cluster (SERc, debris in PVS, shape and dark oocyte were checked. Forverifying of fertilization, about 18-19 hours post-ICSI, oocytes were checked for two-pronuclear.Assessments of embryo quality, development and embryo transfer were done at day two. Chisquare,Fisher’s exact and independent sample t tests were chosen for statistical analysis.Results: Twenty-seven percent of oocytes had fragmented 1st PB, while the remainder was associatedwith other morphological abnormalities. A total of 46.1% and 26.9% of oocytes showed double andmultiple defects, respectively. RF was the most common abnormality observed in group B. Nosignificant differences in women’s’ ages between groups A and B were noted (p=0.3. A total of 179and 107 oocytes (61.5% vs. 59.8% were fertilized in groups A and B, respectively (p=0.7. Therates of

  20. Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate and Crop Management Effects on Nitrate Leaching from an Agricultural Field in Central Pennsylvania

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    Richard H. Fox


    Full Text Available Eighteen pan lysimeters were installed at a depth of 1.2 m in a Hagerstown silt loam soil in a corn field in central Pennsylvania in 1988. In 1995, wick lysimeters were also installed at 1.2 m depth in the same access pits. Treatments have included N fertilizer rates, use of manure, crop rotation (continuous corn, corn-soybean, alfalfa-corn, and tillage (chisel plow-disk, no-till. The leachate data were used to evaluate a number of nitrate leaching models. Some of the highlights of the 11 years of results include the following: 1 growing corn without organic N inputs at the economic optimum N rate (EON resulted in NO3–-N concentrations of 15 to 20 mg l-1 in leachate; 2 use of manure or previous alfalfa crop as partial source of N also resulted in 15 to 20 mg l-1 of NO3–-N in leachate below corn at EON; 3 NO3–-N concentration in leachate below alfalfa was approximately 4 mg l-1; 4 NO3–-N concentration in leachate below soybeans following corn was influenced by fertilizer N rate applied to corn; 5 the mass of NO3–-N leached below corn at the EON rate averaged 90 kg N ha-1 (approx. 40% of fertilizer N applied at EON; 6 wick lysimeters collected approximately 100% of leachate vs. 40–50% collected by pan lysimeters. Coefficients of variation of the collected leachate volumes for both lysimeter types were similar; 7 tillage did not markedly affect nitrate leaching losses; 8 tested leaching models could accurately predict leachate volumes and could be calibrated to match nitrate leaching losses in calibration years, but only one model (SOILN accurately predicted nitrate leaching losses in the majority of validation treatment years. Apparent problems with tested models: there was difficulty estimating sizes of organic N pools and their transformation rates, and the models either did not include a macropore flow component or did not handle macropore flow well.

  1. Maize response to elevated plant density combined with lowered N-fertilizer rate is genotype-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Medhat M. Al-Naggar 


    Full Text Available Increasing plant density and improving N fertilizer rate along with the use of high density-tolerant genotypes would lead to maximizing maize (Zea mays L. grain productivity per unit land area. The objective of this investigation was to match the functions of optimum plant density and adequate nitrogen fertilizer application to produce the highest possible yields per unit area with the greatest maize genotype efficiency. Six maize inbred lines differing in tolerance to low N and high density (D [three tolerant (T; L-17, L-18, L-53, and three sensitive (S; L-29, L-54, L-55] were chosen for diallel crosses. Parents and crosses were evaluated in the 2012 and 2013 seasons under three plant densities: low (47,600, medium (71,400, and high (95,200 plants ha− 1 and three N fertilization rates: low (no N addition, medium (285 kg N ha− 1 and high (570 kg N ha− 1. The T × T crosses were superior to the S × S and T × S crosses under the low N–high D environment in most studied traits across seasons. The relationships between the nine environments and grain yield per hectare (GYPH showed near-linear regression functions for inbreds L54, L29, and L55 and hybrids L18 × L53 and L18 × L55 with the highest GYPH at a density of 47,600 plants ha− 1 and N rate of 570 kg N ha− 1 and a curvilinear relationship for inbreds L17, L18, and L53 and the rest of the hybrids with the highest GYPH at a density of 95,200 plants ha− 1 combined with an N rate of 570 kg N ha− 1. Cross L17 × L54 gave the highest grain yield in this study under both high N–high-D (19.9 t ha− 1 and medium N–high-D environments (17.6 t ha− 1.

  2. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi


    Full Text Available Introduction Integrated nutrient management involving crop residue/green manures and chemical fertilizer is potential alternative to provide a balanced supply of nutrients, enhance soil quality and thereby sustain higher productivity. The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different crop residue management practices and NPK levels on yield components and yield of wheat. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 at department of agronomy, Chamran University. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block designs in split plot arrangement. With three replications. Crop residues were assigned to main plot consistent CR1: wheat residue; CR2: rape residue; CR3: barley residue; CR4: barley residue + vetch; CR5: wheat straw + mungbean; CR6: vetch residue; CR7: mungbean residue; CR8: No residue incorporation as main plot and three NPK fertilizer rates: F1: (180N-120P-100K kg.ha-1; F2: (140N-90P-80K kg.ha-1; F3: (90N-60P-40K kg.ha-1 as sub plots. Twelve hills were collected at physiological maturity for measuring yield components from surrounding area of grain yield harvest area. Yield components, viz. number of spike per m2, seed per spike, 1000- grain weight, plant height were measured. Grain and straw yields were recorded from the central 5 m2 grain yield harvest area of each treatment and harvest index was calculated. Data were subjected to analysis by SAS and mean companions were performed using the Duncan multiple range test producer. Also, graphs were drawn in Excel software. Results and discussion The result of analysis variance showed significant difference between crop residues for evaluated traits. The result indicated that the highest biological and grain yield was obtained when wheat treated with CR5: wheat straw + mungbean (green manure and CR4: barley straw + vetch (green manure. Biological and grain yield increased 31 and 26% respectively by CR5 comparing with control. The highest

  3. The secretions of oviduct epithelial cells increase the equine in vitro fertilization rate: are osteopontin, atrial natriuretic peptide A and oviductin involved?


    Mugnier, Sylvie; Kervella, Morgane; Douet, C?cile; Canepa, Sylvie; Pascal, G?raldine; Deleuze, Stefan; Duchamp, Guy; Monget, Philippe; Goudet, Ghyl?ne


    Abstract Background Oviduct epithelial cells (OEC) co-culture promotes in vitro fertilization (IVF) in human, bovine and porcine species, but no data are available from equine species. Yet, despite numerous attempts, equine IVF rates remain low. Our first aim was to verify a beneficial effect of the OEC on equine IVF. In mammals, oviductal proteins have been shown to interact with gametes and play a role in fertilization. Thus, our second aim was to identify the proteins involved in fertiliza...

  4. Time-varying correlations between delta EEG power and heart rate variability in midlife women: the SWAN Sleep Study. (United States)

    Rothenberger, Scott D; Krafty, Robert T; Taylor, Briana J; Cribbet, Matthew R; Thayer, Julian F; Buysse, Daniel J; Kravitz, Howard M; Buysse, Evan D; Hall, Martica H


    No studies have evaluated the dynamic, time-varying relationship between delta electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep and high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) in women. Delta EEG and HF-HRV were measured during sleep in 197 midlife women (M(age)  = 52.1, SD = 2.2). Delta EEG-HF-HRV correlations in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep were modeled as whole-night averages and as continuous functions of time. The whole-night delta EEG-HF-HRV correlation was positive. The strongest correlations were observed during the first NREM sleep period preceding and following peak delta power. Time-varying correlations between delta EEG-HF-HRV were stronger in participants with sleep-disordered breathing and self-reported insomnia compared to healthy controls. The dynamic interplay between sleep and autonomic activity can be modeled across the night to examine within- and between-participant differences including individuals with and without sleep disorders. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Effect of Different Application Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer Under Straw Return on Maize Yield and Inorganic Nitrogen Accumulation

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    ZHANG Xin


    Full Text Available We investigated the influences of different nitrogen fertilizer rate on maize production, nitrogen use efficiency and soil nitrate nitrogen at straw return farmland for two years. The results showed that maize production increased with the increment of nitrogen fertilizer. The maize production was the highest at 216 kg·hm -2(N216of nitrogen use and began to decrease when the amount of nitrogen use was beyond 216 kg· hm -2. There were significant interannual differences on maize production in the same treatment. The maize production in 2010 increased 0.69%~4.75% compared with that in 2009. Nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen agronomic efficiency and nitrogen harvest index improved with the year of straw return. The highest nitrate nitrogen accumulation was found in the treatment of 240 kg· hm -2(N240in 0~100 cm soil layer. Soil nitrate content increased with the depth of soil. This may potentially increased the risk of nitrate pollution on shallow groundwater. Compared with N240, the nitrate nitrogen accumulation of N168(168 kg·hm -2 , N192(192 kg·hm -2 and N216(216 kg·hm -2 were equally reduced by respectively 39.87%, 35.84% and 29.38% in 0~100 cm soil layer. Considering the maize production, nitrogen use efficiency and ecological environmental benefits, the optimum amount of nitrogen use should be 200 kg·hm -2.

  6. Comparison of Technical and Economical Effect of Different Planters using Varied Seed Rates on Canola Yield in Moghan Region

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    J Taghinazhad


    Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important agricultural crops is rape seed oil as its special features can play an important role in the agricultural region. Due to the presence of more than 40% oil and 25% protein in the grain can play an important role in the supply of edible oil. After determining of various factors such as uniformity of planting depth, evenness between shrub, plant height and grain yield concluded that Nordsten drill along the seeding density of 75 cm for mechanized planting is acceptable yield. Afzali nia et al. (1999 in one study aimed to assess the performance of common grain drills in Iran in Zarghan area in Fars Province showed that differences between treatments in terms of seed distribution uniformity factor, plant population per unit area and yield product is not significant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and select the most suitable types of canola planter and variable seed rate planting density and aims to increase the canola cultivated area by the highest yield. Materials and Methods Moghan Plain, located in the north areas of Ardebil province, is considered as an important areas of canola planting in Iran. This study was performed in the agricultural research center of Ardabil Province (Moghan (39°39´N; 48°88´E; 78 m a.s.l. in Northwest of Iran. To evaluate different planters with varied seed rates on canola yield. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block design with strip splits (varied seed rates 6, 8 and10 kg per hectare and different drills consist of B1: Barzagar Hamadani drill (conventional method B2: Amazon drill pals teeth harrow, B3: Gaspardo drill pals teeth harrow and B4: Agromaster drill and four replications. To investigatethe different treatments in the experiment, various parameters such as percent germination, seeding uniformity of width and depth intervals, plant establishment, effective field capacity, fuel consumption rate andgrain yield were measured

  7. Impacts of low dose rate irradiation on the fertility, fecundity and hatchling survival of Japanese rice fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Coughlin, D.P.; Marsh, L.C.; Yi, Yi; Winn, R. [Georgia Univ., Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E, Aiken, SC (United States)


    A renewed international interest in the effects on biota from low dose rate irradiation has recently occurred. Much of that interest is centered on the relevance of previously accepted dose rate guidelines (e.g. 10 mGy d{sup -1} for aquatic biota) suggested by the ICRP and IAEA. All parties concerned seem to agree that additional data are needed on population level impacts from chronic low-level exposures to radionuclides. Using a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LoDIF), we conducted an experiment on the fecundity, fertility and hatchling survival of Japanese Rice Fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes). Fish were exposed externally to {sup 137}Cs from juvenile through adulthood at mean dose rates of 3.5, 35 and 350 mGy d{sup -1}. Fish were bred at maturity and the following endpoints were examined: 1) the number of eggs produced; 2) the percent of eggs that hatched; and 3) the survival of hatchlings 20-days post hatch. The influence of gender was examined by breeding irradiated males with control females; control males with irradiated females; irradiated males with irradiated females; and control males with control females. The data contribute to our understanding the impacts of low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  8. Parental attitudes toward fertility preservation in boys with cancer: context of different risk levels of infertility and success rates of fertility restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Vossough, Parvaneh; Maleki, Haleh; Sedighnejad, Shirin; Kamali, Koorosh; Ghorbani, Behzad; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd


    To measure the parental attitudes toward fertility preservation in boys with cancer. Retrospective cohort study. Questionnaire survey via regular mail. A total of 465 families whose sons were already treated for cancer. The questionnaire was designed for two groups based on child's age at the time

  9. Accuracy and utility of an epigenetic biomarker for smoking in populations with varying rates of false self-report. (United States)

    Andersen, Allan M; Philibert, Robert A; Gibbons, Fredrick X; Simons, Ronald L; Long, Jeffrey


    Better biomarkers to detect smoking are needed given the tremendous public health burden caused by smoking. Current biomarkers to detect smoking have significant limitations, notably a short half-life for detection and lack of sensitivity for light smokers. These limitations may be particularly problematic in populations with less accurate self-reporting. Prior epigenome-wide association studies indicate that methylation status at cg05575921, a CpG residue located in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene, may be a robust indicator of smoking status in individuals with as little as half of a pack-year of smoking. In this study, we show that a novel droplet digital PCR assay for measuring methylation at cg05575921 can reliably detect smoking status, as confirmed by serum cotinine, in populations with different demographic characteristics, smoking histories, and rates of false-negative self-report of smoking behavior. Using logistic regression models, we show that obtaining maximum accuracy in predicting smoking status depends on appropriately weighting self-report and cg05575921 methylation according to the characteristics of the sample being tested. Furthermore, models using only cg05575921 methylation to predict smoking perform nearly as well as those also including self-report across populations. In conclusion, cg05575921 has significant potential as a clinical biomarker to detect smoking in populations with varying rates of accuracy in self-report of smoking behavior. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Decreased rates of terpene emissions in Ornithopus compressus L. and Trifolium striatum L. by ozone exposure and nitrogen fertilization. (United States)

    Llusia, Joan; Bermejo-Bermejo, Victoria; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; Peñuelas, Josep


    Increasing tropospheric ozone (O3) and nitrogen soil availability (N) are two of the main drivers of global change. They both may affect gas exchange, including plant emission of volatiles such as terpenes. We conducted an experiment using open-top chambers to analyze these possible effects on two leguminous species of Mediterranean pastures that are known to have different O3 sensitivity, Ornithopus compressus and Trifolium striatum. O3 exposure and N fertilization did not affect the photosynthetic rates of O. compressus and T. striatum, although O3 tended to induce an increase in the stomatal conductance of both species, especially T. striatum, the most sensitive species. O3 and N soil availability reduced the emission of terpenes in O. compressus and T. striatum. If these responses are confirmed as a general pattern, O3 could affect the competitiveness of these species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of cryoprotectants and cooling rates on fertility potential of sperm in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man). (United States)

    Valentina Claudet, P; Narasimman, Selvakumar; Natesan, Munuswamy


    This study evaluates freezing protocol with suitable cryoprotectants and their effects on the fertility potential of sperm in the cryopreserved spermatophores of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Spermatophores, collected using electroejaculation, were suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), methanol, glycerol and ethylene glycol (EG) at different concentrations (10, 15 & 20% v/v), prepared in sterile-filtered pond water. Based on the cryoprotectant toxicity assay, DMSO and PG were used individually as well as in combination with three freezing protocols (i.e. -1.5, -3 and -5°C/min and to final temperature of -39°C) and plunged into liquid nitrogen at -196°C. After 90 days of storage (-196°C) thawing was done at 35°C in a water bath for 1min. Results showed that fresh and cryopreserved spermatophores held for 90 days registered sperm viability of 91.4±2.9% and 50.4±1.9% respectively. Further, fertility potential of sperm was assessed based on acrosome reactivity using calcium ionophore (A23187). Observations indicated that cryopreserved sperm registered 28.3±2.2% of acrosome reactivity compared to freshly collected spermatophores (85.3±2.5%). Thus, one-step slow cooling rate of -1.5°C/min between 27°C and -39°C stored in liquid nitrogen at -196°C with DMSO (10%)+PG (10%) seems to be amenable for cryopreservation of spermatophores, compared to other cooling rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The CFTR Met 470 allele is associated with lower birth rates in fertile men from a population isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülüm Kosova


    Full Text Available Although little is known about the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR gene in reproductive physiology, numerous variants in this gene have been implicated in etiology of male infertility due to congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD. Here, we studied the fertility effects of three CBAVD-associated CFTR polymorphisms, the (TGm and polyT repeat polymorphisms in intron 8 and Met470Val in exon 10, in healthy men of European descent. Homozygosity for the Met470 allele was associated with lower birth rates, defined as the number of births per year of marriage (P = 0.0029. The Met470Val locus explained 4.36% of the phenotypic variance in birth rate, and men homozygous for the Met470 allele had 0.56 fewer children on average compared to Val470 carrier men. The derived Val470 allele occurs at high frequencies in non-African populations (allele frequency = 0.51 in HapMap CEU, whereas it is very rare in African population (Fst = 0.43 between HapMap CEU and YRI. In addition, haplotypes bearing Val470 show a lack of genetic diversity and are thus longer than haplotypes bearing Met470 (measured by an integrated haplotype score [iHS] of -1.93 in HapMap CEU. The fraction of SNPs in the HapMap Phase2 data set with more extreme Fst and iHS measures is 0.003, consistent with a selective sweep outside of Africa. The fertility advantage conferred by Val470 relative to Met470 may provide a selective mechanism for these population genetic observations.

  13. Longevity, Fertility and Fecundity of Adult Blow Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Held at Varying Densities: Implications for Use in Bioconversion of Waste. (United States)

    Parry, Nina Jennifer; Pieterse, Elsje; Weldon, Christopher William


    Large numbers of flies are needed to produce the quantity of larvae required for insect bioconversion of waste. However, this 'mass-rearing' may negatively affect adult survival and reproductive output. This study assessed the suitability for mass-rearing of four blow fly species, Chrysomya chloropyga, Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen). Flies were kept at densities of 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 flies per 30 × 30 × 30 cm cage with an even sex ratio. Time to 50% mortality (LT50) was recorded, and the effects of density, species, and sex on LT50, fecundity, and fertility were determined. Females survived longer than males across all species. There was evidence for a trade-off between survival and high fecundity in L. sericata and C. chloropyga at density 250. C. megacephala had low fecundity across all densities. At high densities, C. putoria had the lowest mortality and highest fecundity, making it the most suitable for mass-rearing. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  14. Growth and physiology of aspen supplied with different fertilizer addition rates (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; Richard E. Dickson; J.G. Isebrands


    Variable internal plant nutrient content may confound plant response to environmental stress. Plant nutrient content may be controlled with relative addition rate techniques in solution culture. However, because raising large numbers of plants in flowing solution culture is difficult. we investieated the feasibility of raisine plants in soil mix using relative...

  15. Impact of the Z potential technique on reducing the sperm DNA fragmentation index, fertilization rate and embryo development. (United States)

    Duarte, Carlos; Núñez, Víctor; Wong, Yat; Vivar, Carlos; Benites, Elder; Rodriguez, Urso; Vergara, Carlos; Ponce, Jorge


    In assisted reproduction procedures, we need to develop and enhance new protocols to optimize sperm selection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the Z potential technique to select sperm with intact DNA in non-normospermic patients and evaluate the impact of this selection on embryonic development. We analyzed a total of 174 human seminal samples with at least one altered parameter. We measured basal, post density gradients, and post density gradients + Z potential DNA fragmentation index. To evaluate the impact of this technique on embryo development, 54 cases were selected. The embryo development parameters evaluated were fertilization rate, cleavage rate, top quality embryos at the third day and blastocysts rate. We found significant differences in the study groups when we compared the sperm fragmentation index by adding the Z potential technique to density gradient selection vs. density gradients alone. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the embryo development parameters between the low sperm fragmentation index group vs. the moderate and high sperm fragmentation index groups, when selecting sperms with this new technique. The Z potential technique is a very useful tool for sperm selection; it significantly reduces the DNA fragmentation index and improves the parameters of embryo development. This technique could be considered routine for its simplicity and low cost.

  16. Photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content and initial development of physic nut without micronutrient fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Ferreira dos Santos


    Full Text Available Few studies in Brazil have addressed the need for micronutrients of physic nut focusing on physiological responses, especially in terms of photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of omission of boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn on Jatropha curcas L.. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. The treatments were complete solution (control and solution without B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. We evaluated the chlorophyll content (SPAD units, photosynthetic rate, dry matter production and accumulation of micronutrients in plants, resulting from different treatments. The first signs of deficiency were observed for Fe and B, followed by Mn and Zn, while no symptoms were observed for Cu deficiency. The micronutrient omission reduced the dry matter yield, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of the plants differently for each omitted nutrient. It was, however, the omission of Fe that most affected the development of this species in all parameters evaluated. The treatments negatively affected the chlorophyll content, evaluated in SPAD units, and the photosynthetic rate, except for the omission of B. However this result was probably due to the concentration effect, since there was a significant reduction in the dry matter production of B-deficient plants.

  17. Interactions between observer and stimuli fertility status: Endocrine and perceptual responses to intrasexual vocal fertility cues. (United States)

    Ostrander, Grant M; Nathan Pipitone, R; Shoup-Knox, Melanie L


    Both men and women find female voices more attractive at higher fertility times in the menstrual cycle, suggesting the voice is a cue to fertility and/or hormonal status. Preference for fertile females' voices provides males with an obvious reproduction advantage, however the advantage for female listeners is less clear. One possibility is that attention to the fertility status of potential rivals may enable women to enhance their own reproductive strategies through intrasexual competition. If so, the response to having high fertility voices should include hormonal changes that promote competitive behavior. Furthermore, attention and response to such cues should vary as a function of the observer's own fertility, which influences her ability to compete for mates. The current study monitored variation in cortisol and testosterone levels in response to evaluating the attractiveness of voices of other women. All 33 participants completed this task once during ovulation then again during the luteal phase. The voice stimuli were recorded from naturally cycling women at both high and low fertility, and from women using hormonal birth control. We found that listeners rated high fertility voices as more attractive compared to low fertility, with the effect being stronger when listeners were ovulating. Testosterone was elevated following voice ratings suggesting threat detection or the anticipation of competition, but no stress response was found. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Dry matter and primary macroelements on the foliar biomass of sugarcane with different fertilizer rates of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Villazón Gómez


    Full Text Available The research consisted of determining the quantities of dry matter and primary macroelements on the foliar biomass that contributes to the soil the sugarcane fertilized with different fertilizer rates of potassium in an experiment with a design in complete blocks at random (8 treatments x 6 repetitions on a Chromic Vertisol. Five plants were cut in the furrows 2 and 3 of the plots of the 3rd repetition before the harvest of each one of the four ratoons. To the sugarcane top of the samples were determined the percentages of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; was carried out a count of sugarcane stalk in each plot to express the percentages in magnitudes of mass. An analysis of variance of simple classification was executed and means were compared by Duncan test at 95 % of confidence. The treatment V was the one of bigger dry matter content, with 11.04 t ha-1. The 2nd ratoon showed the bigger dry matter content in the sugarcane tops, with 11.13 t ha-1. In the interactions the bigger influence of the sugarcane stubble phase on the dry matter can be appreciated. The treatment V was the one of bigger nutrient content, with 83, 16 and 197 kg of NPK, respectively. In the case of nitrogen the best interaction was the treatment V in the 3rd ratoon, in the phosphorus also the treatment V in the 2nd and 3rd ratoons and the treatment IV in the 4th ratoon, in potassium the interaction of the treatment V in the 2nd ratoon.

  19. How Do Algebra I Course Repetition Rates Vary among English Learner Students by Length of Time to Reclassification as English Proficient? REL 2017-222 (United States)

    Jaquet, Karina; Fong, Anthony B.


    Research has found high repetition rates for students in Algebra I, with one study finding a repetition rate of 44 percent for students in a large urban high school district. Less is known about how math performance and Algebra I course repetition rates vary among students with different levels of English proficiency. This report examines Algebra…

  20. Improving fertilization rate in ICSI cycles by adding myoinositol to the semen preparation procedures: a prospective, bicentric, randomized trial on sibling oocytes. (United States)

    Rubino, Patrizia; Palini, Simone; Chigioni, Sara; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Quagliariello, Antonella; De Stefani, Silvia; Baglioni, Andrea; Bulletti, Carlo


    To evaluate whether the in vitro incubation of spermatozoa with myoinositol may improve the fertilization rate in ICSI cycles. This is a prospective, bicentric, randomized study on 500 MII sibling oocytes injected in 78 ICSI cycles performed between March and October 2013. Randomization of the oocytes into two groups was performed at the time of the denudation. Fertilization rates (per oocyte injected with spermatozoa treated with myoinositol versus per oocyte injected with spermatozoa treated with placebo) were measured as primary outcome and embryo morphology as secondary outcome. Clinical outcomes were also documented. Fertilization rate (78.9 ± 28.6% vs 63.2 ± 36.7, P = 0.002) and percentage of grade A embryos on day 3 (59.8 ± 35.6% vs 43.5 ± 41.5, P = 0.019) were significantly higher when spermatozoa were treated in vitro with myoinositol versus placebo. No differences were found for the expanded blastocyst formation rate. In vitro treatment of spermatozoa with myoinositol may optimize ICSI outcomes by improving the fertilization rate and embryo quality on day 3. The improvement of the number and the quality of embryos available in an ICSI cycle may have clinical utility if these findings can be confirmed.

  1. Tailoring the degradation rates of thermally responsive hydrogels designed for soft tissue injection by varying the autocatalytic potential (United States)

    Zhu, Yang; Jiang, Hongbin; Ye, Sang-Ho; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Wagner, William R.


    The ability to modulate the degradation properties of biomaterials such as thermally responsive hydrogels is desirable when exploring new therapeutic strategies that rely on the temporary presence of a placed scaffold or gel. Here we report a method of manipulating the absorption rate of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) ((poly(NIPAAm)) based hydrogel across a wide range (from 1 d to 5 mo) by small alterations in the composition. Relying upon the autocatalytic effect, the degradation of poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-co-MAPLA), (HEMA=2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate; MAPLA=methacrylate-polylactide) was greatly accelerated by adding a fourth monomer methacrylic acid (MAA) at no more than 2 mol% to obtain poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-co-MAPLA-co-MAA) (pNHMMj) where j reflects the MAA molar % in the reactant mixture. MAA residue introduction decreased the pH inside the hydrogels and in surrounding buffered solutions. Accelerated degradation positively correlated with MAA content in pNHMMj polymers, putatively by the accelerated cleavage of MAPLA residues to raise the transition temperature of the polymer above body temperature. Physical properties including thermal transition behavior and initial mechanical strength did not vary significantly with MAA content. A rat hindlimb injection model generally reflected the in vitro observation that higher MAA content resulted in more rapid degradation and cellular infiltration. The strategy of tuning the degradation of thermally responsive hydrogels where degradation or solubilization is determined by their polyester components might be applied to other tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications where designed biomaterial degradation behavior is needed. PMID:25890745

  2. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer rate and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain on field pea (Pisum sativum subsp. arvense (L. Asch. growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram SALEHI


    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Rezvanshahr, Guilan province, Iran, to evaluate the effects of phosphorus fertilizer rate and Pseudomonas fluorescens strains on growth and yield of field pea (Pisum sativum L.. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a factorial arrangement with three replicates. Factors were phosphorus fertilizer rates (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 as triple superphosphate, and seed inoculation with P. florescens strains [control (non-inoculated, inoculated with strain R41, and strain R187. Analysis of variance showed that plant height, seed yield, pod number per m2, 100-seed weight, biological yield, harvest index, and leaf P concentration were significantly influenced by phosphorus fertilizer rate and P. florescens strain. At the same time, phosphorus fertilizer rate × P. fluorescens strain interaction was significant only for 100-seed weight. On the other hand, seed number per pod was significantly affected neither by phosphorus fertilizer rate nor by pseudomonas strains. Result showed that seed yield was significantly increased from 1099 ± 67 to 1898 ± 118 kg ha-1 as P2O5 application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, and thereafter relatively remained constant. There was no significant difference in seed yield between plants raised from inoculated seeds with P. fluorescens, strain R187 (1664 ± 97 kg ha-1 and those raised from inoculated seeds with P. fluorescens, strain R41 (1669 ± 104 kg ha-1. At the same time, plants raised from inoculated seeds with P. fluorescens (both strains produced greater grain yield compared to those raised from uninoculated seeds (1370 ± 80 kg ha-1. Based on the results of this study, P2O5 application at the rate of 75 kg ha-1 and inoculation with pseudomonas bacteria are recommended for obtaining the greatest seed yield in field pea.

  3. Randomized controlled trial: effects of acupuncture on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. (United States)

    Moy, Irene; Milad, Magdy P; Barnes, Randall; Confino, Edmond; Kazer, Ralph R; Zhang, Xingqi


    To evaluate the influence of "true" versus "sham" acupuncture on pregnancy rates (PRs) in women undergoing IVF. Randomized controlled trial, double-blinded with independent observer. Academic infertility clinic. One hundred sixty patients acupuncture 25 minutes before and after ET. Subjects completed a McGill Pain Questionnaire regarding their clinical symptoms during ET. Clinical PR and clinical symptoms during ET. While the overall clinical PR was 51.25%, there was no significant difference between the arms of the study (true = 45.3% vs. sham = 52.7%); 33.1% of the patients had ultrasound-documented singleton pregnancy, and 15% of patients had twin gestations, while one patient in the true arm had a triplet gestation. There were significant differences in the subjective, affective, and total pain experience between both arms. The subjects in the true arm described their acupuncture session as being more "tiring" and "fearful" and experienced more "achiness" compared with their sham counterparts. There was no statistically significant difference in the clinical or chemical PRs between both groups. Patients undergoing true acupuncture had differing sensory experiences compared with patients in the sham arm. There were no significant adverse effects observed during the study, suggesting that acupuncture is safe for women undergoing ET. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. WholeTree Substrate and Fertilizer Rate in Production of Greenhouse Grown Petunia (Petunia*hybrida Vilm) and marigold (Tagetes patula L.) (United States)

    A substrate component (WholeTree) made from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated along with starter fertilizer rate in the production of greenhouse-grown petunia (Petunia 'hybrida Vilm. ‘Dreams Purple’) and marigold (Tagetes patula L. ‘Hero Spry’). Loblolly pine from a 12 year old plantation...

  5. Prospective Randomized Study on the Influence of Myoinositol in PCOS Women Undergoing IVF in the Improvement of Oocyte Quality, Fertilization Rate, and Embryo Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Lesoine


    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is one of the pathological factors involved in the failure of in vitro fertilization (IvF. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the combination of myoinositol + folic acid was able to improve the oocyte quality, the ratio between follicles and retrieved oocytes, the fertilization rate, and the embryo quality in PCOS patients undergoing IvF treatments. 29 patients with PCOS underwent IvF protocols for infertility treatment and were randomized prospectively into two groups. Group A (placebo with 15 patients and group B (4000 mg myoinositol + 400 μg folic acid per day with 14 patients. The patients of group B used for two months myoinositol + folic acid before starting the IvF protocol and data were obtained concerning number of follicles, number of oocytes, quality of oocytes, fertilization rates, and embryo quality in both groups. The ratio follicle/retrieved oocyte was better in the myoinositol group (= group B. Out of the 233 oocytes collected in the myoinositol group 136 were fertilized, whereas only 128 out of 300 oocytes in the placebo group were fertilized. More metaphase II and I oocytes were retrieved in relation to the total amount of oocytes in the myoinositol. More embryos of grade I quality were obtained in the myoinositol. The duration of stimulation was 9,7 days (±3,3 in the myoinositol group and 11,2 (±1,8 days in the placebo group and the number of used FSH units was lower in the myoinositol group: 1750 FSH units (mean versus 1850 units (mean. Our evidence suggests that myoinositol therapy in women with PCOS results in better fertilization rates and a clear trend to a better embryo quality. As the number of retrieved oocytes was smaller in the myoinositol group, the risk of hyper stimulation syndrome can be reduced in these patients.

  6. Prospective Randomized Study on the Influence of Myoinositol in PCOS Women Undergoing IVF in the Improvement of Oocyte Quality, Fertilization Rate, and Embryo Quality. (United States)

    Lesoine, Bernd; Regidor, Pedro-Antonio


    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the pathological factors involved in the failure of in vitro fertilization (IvF). The aim of the present study was to investigate if the combination of myoinositol + folic acid was able to improve the oocyte quality, the ratio between follicles and retrieved oocytes, the fertilization rate, and the embryo quality in PCOS patients undergoing IvF treatments. 29 patients with PCOS underwent IvF protocols for infertility treatment and were randomized prospectively into two groups. Group A (placebo) with 15 patients and group B (4000 mg myoinositol + 400 μg folic acid per day) with 14 patients. The patients of group B used for two months myoinositol + folic acid before starting the IvF protocol and data were obtained concerning number of follicles, number of oocytes, quality of oocytes, fertilization rates, and embryo quality in both groups. The ratio follicle/retrieved oocyte was better in the myoinositol group (= group B). Out of the 233 oocytes collected in the myoinositol group 136 were fertilized, whereas only 128 out of 300 oocytes in the placebo group were fertilized. More metaphase II and I oocytes were retrieved in relation to the total amount of oocytes in the myoinositol. More embryos of grade I quality were obtained in the myoinositol. The duration of stimulation was 9,7 days (±3,3) in the myoinositol group and 11,2 (±1,8) days in the placebo group and the number of used FSH units was lower in the myoinositol group: 1750 FSH units (mean) versus 1850 units (mean). Our evidence suggests that myoinositol therapy in women with PCOS results in better fertilization rates and a clear trend to a better embryo quality. As the number of retrieved oocytes was smaller in the myoinositol group, the risk of hyper stimulation syndrome can be reduced in these patients.

  7. Seroepidemiology of Rubella in Mozambique, 2006-2014: Implications for Rubella Immunization in Settings With High Fertility Rates. (United States)

    Amade, Nádia Alves; Sultane, Thebora; Augusto, Orvalho; Ali, Sádia; Jani, Ilesh V; Gudo, Eduardo Samo


    Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome are highly underreported and neglected in most sub-Saharan countries and vaccination has not yet been incorporated into their national immunization schedules. In this study, we investigated the frequency of immunoglobulin M antibodies against rubella and examined correlations with fertility rates during the period from 2006 to 2014 in Mozambique. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected through the routine case-based surveillance system for measles in Mozambique. A total of 7312 serum samples from suspected cases of measles were tested between 2006 and 2014. The median age was 4 years (interquartile range: 1-8 years). Of these, 1331 (18.2%) were positive for immunoglobulin M anti-rubella. The highest frequency of rubella was observed within the 5-9-year-old age group (32.6%). The frequency in the age groups rubella is frequent among women of childbearing age in Mozambique. Considering that early pregnancy is common in Mozambique, this suggests that, in settings such as ours, the introduction of routine rubella vaccination in children should be accompanied by repeated vaccination campaigns targeting older children and adolescents.

  8. [Milk yield and environmental factors: Multiple regression analysis of the association between milk yield and udder health, fertility data and replacement rate]. (United States)

    Fölsche, C; Staufenbiel, R


    The relationship between milk yield and both fertility and general animal health in dairy herds is discussed from opposing viewpoints. The hypothesis (1) that raising the herd milk yield would decrease fertility results, the number of milk cells as an indicator for udder health and the replacement rate as a global indicator for animal health as well as increasing the occurrence of specific diseases as a herd problem was compared to the opposing hypotheses that there is no relationship (2) or that there is a differentiated and changing relationship (3). A total of 743 herd examinations, considered independent, were performed in 489 herds between 1995 and 2010. The milk yield, fertility rate, milk cell count, replacement rate, categorized herd problems and management information were recorded. The relationship between the milk yield and both the fertility data and animal health was evaluated using simple and multiple regression analyses. The period between calving and the first service displayed no significant relationship to the herd milk yield. Simple regression analysis showed that the period between calving and gestation, the calving interval and the insemination number were significantly positively associated with the herd milk yield. This positive correlation was lost in multiple regression analysis. The milk cell count and replacement rate using both the simple and multiple regression analyses displayed a significant negative relationship to the milk yield. The alternative hypothesis (3) was confirmed. A higher milk yield has no negative influence on the milk cell count and the replacement rate in terms of the udder and general health. When parameterizing the fertility, the herd milk yield should be considered. Extending the resting time may increase the milk yield while preventing a decline in the insemination index.

  9. Latent time-varying factors in longitudinal analysis: a linear mixed hidden Markov model for heart rates. (United States)

    Lagona, Francesco; Jdanov, Dmitri; Shkolnikova, Maria


    Longitudinal data are often segmented by unobserved time-varying factors, which introduce latent heterogeneity at the observation level, in addition to heterogeneity across subjects. We account for this latent structure by a linear mixed hidden Markov model. It integrates subject-specific random effects and Markovian sequences of time-varying effects in the linear predictor. We propose an expectationŰ-maximization algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation, based on data augmentation. It reduces to the iterative maximization of the expected value of a complete likelihood function, derived from an augmented dataset with case weights, alternated with weights updating. In a case study of the Survey on Stress Aging and Health in Russia, the model is exploited to estimate the influence of the observed covariates under unobserved time-varying factors, which affect the cardiovascular activity of each subject during the observation period. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The effects of varying injection rates in Osage County, Oklahoma, on the 2016 Mw5.8 Pawnee earthquake (United States)

    Barbour, Andrew J.; Norbeck, Jack H.; Rubinstein, Justin L.


    The 2016 Mw 5.8 Pawnee earthquake occurred in a region with active wastewater injection into a basal formation group. Prior to the earthquake, fluid injection rates at most wells were relatively steady, but newly collected data show significant increases in injection rate in the years leading up to earthquake. For the same time period, the total volumes of injected wastewater were roughly equivalent between variable‐rate and constant‐rate wells. To understand the possible influence of these changes in injection, we simulate the variable‐rate injection history and its constant‐rate equivalent in a layered poroelastic half‐space to explore the interplay between pore‐pressure effects and poroelastic effects on the fault leading up to the mainshock. In both cases, poroelastic stresses contribute a significant proportion of Coulomb failure stresses on the fault compared to pore‐pressure increases alone, but the resulting changes in seismicity rate, calculated using a rate‐and‐state frictional model, are many times larger when poroelastic effects are included, owing to enhanced stressing rates. In particular, the variable‐rate simulation predicts more than an order of magnitude increase in seismicity rate above background rates compared to the constant‐rate simulation with equivalent volume. The observed cumulative density of earthquakes prior to the mainshock within 10 km of the injection source exhibits remarkable agreement with seismicity predicted by the variable‐rate injection case.

  11. Swimming metabolic rates vary by sex and development stage, but not by species, in three species of Australian otariid seals. (United States)

    Ladds, Monique A; Slip, David J; Harcourt, Robert G


    Physiology may limit the ability for marine mammals to adapt to changing environments. Depth and duration of foraging dives are a function of total available oxygen stores, which theoretically increase as animals grow, and metabolic costs. To evaluate how physiology may influence the travelling costs for seals to foraging patches in the wild, we measured metabolic rates of a cross-section of New Zealand fur seals, Australian fur seals and Australian sea lions representing different foraging strategies, development stages, sexes and sizes. We report values for standard metabolic rate, active metabolic rate (obtained from submerged swimming), along with estimates of cost of transport (COT), measured via respirometry. We found a decline in mass-specific metabolic rate with increased duration of submerged swimming. For most seals mass-specific metabolic rate increased with speed and for all seals mass-specific COT decreased with speed. Mass-specific metabolic rate was higher for subadult than adult fur seals and sea lions, corresponding to an overall higher minimum COT. Some sex differences were also apparent, such that female Australian fur seals and Australian sea lions had higher mass-specific metabolic rates than males. There were no species differences in standard or active metabolic rates for adult males or females. The seals in our study appear to operate at their physiological optimum during submerged swimming. However, the higher metabolic rates of young and female fur seals and sea lions may limit their scope for increasing foraging effort during times of resource limitation.

  12. Influence of biochar, mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilizer rate on growth and flowering of pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eConversa


    Full Text Available Peat is the most common substrate used in nurseries despite being a very expensive and a non-renewable material. Peat replacement with biochar could be a sound environmental practice, as it is produced from waste biomass, but evaluation of biochar as a potting substrate is needed. Ratios of peat:biochar of 100:0, 70:30, 30:70 (BC0, BC30, and BC70, respectively, two fertilizer rates (FERT1, FERT2 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation were tested on potted pelargonium plants. Plant growth, flowering, bio-physiological and nutritional responses, and root mycorrhization were evaluated. The BC30 mixture did not affect plant growth compared with pure peat. However, BC30 in combination with FERT2 treatment was more effective in enhancing nitrogen (N and chlorophyll leaf concentrations, and leaf and flower numbers. The BC70 mixture depressed plant growth, flowering traits and root mycorrhization. Leaf N concentration was below the sufficiency range reported for pelargonium growth. Leaf concentration of phosphorous (P was adequate in pure peat and in BC30 but it dropped close to sub-optimal values in BC70. The pH value of the mixtures lowered P availability, though in BC30 the mycorrhizal activity could have allowed adequate P plant uptake. In BC70 plants, the deficiency of both N and P might be a reason for the observed growth reduction. The inoculation of the substrate with selected AMF improved plant growth (higher dry biomass, greater floral clusters, larger and more abundant leaves and quality resulting in unstressed (lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content values and greener leaves (low L* and C*, high chlorophyll content and in more intensely colored flowers. We conclude that biochar can be applied in nursery/potted plant production provided that the proportion in the peat mixture does not exceed 30%. Furthermore, AMF inoculation contributed to achieving the best plant performance in 30% biochar amended medium.

  13. Influence of biochar, mycorrhizal inoculation, and fertilizer rate on growth and flowering of Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale L.) plants. (United States)

    Conversa, Giulia; Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio


    Peat is the most common substrate used in nurseries despite being a very expensive and a non-renewable material. Peat replacement with biochar could be a sound environmental practice, as it is produced from waste biomass, but evaluation of biochar as a potting substrate is needed. Ratios of peat:biochar of 100:0, 70:30, 30:70 (BC0, BC30, and BC70, respectively), two fertilizer rates (FERT1, FERT2), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation were tested on potted Pelargonium plants. Plant growth, flowering, bio-physiological and nutritional responses, and root mycorrhization were evaluated. The BC30 mixture did not affect plant growth compared with pure peat. However, BC30 in combination with FERT2 treatment was more effective in enhancing nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll (CHL) leaf concentrations, and leaf and flower numbers. The BC70 mixture depressed plant growth, flowering traits, and root mycorrhization. Leaf N concentration was below the sufficiency range reported for Pelargonium growth. Leaf concentration of phosphorous (P) was adequate in pure peat and in BC30 but it dropped close to sub-optimal values in BC70. The pH value of the mixtures lowered P availability, though in BC30 the mycorrhizal activity could have allowed adequate P plant uptake. In BC70 plants, the deficiency of both N and P might be a reason for the observed growth reduction. The inoculation of the substrate with selected AMF improved plant growth (higher dry biomass, greater floral clusters, larger and more abundant leaves) and quality resulting in unstressed (lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content values) and greener leaves (low L(∗) and C(∗), high CHL content) and in more intensely colored flowers. We conclude that biochar can be applied in nursery/potted plant production provided that the proportion in the peat mixture does not exceed 30%. Furthermore, AMF inoculation contributed to achieving the best plant performance in 30% biochar amended medium.

  14. Influence of biochar, mycorrhizal inoculation, and fertilizer rate on growth and flowering of Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale L.) plants (United States)

    Conversa, Giulia; Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio


    Peat is the most common substrate used in nurseries despite being a very expensive and a non-renewable material. Peat replacement with biochar could be a sound environmental practice, as it is produced from waste biomass, but evaluation of biochar as a potting substrate is needed. Ratios of peat:biochar of 100:0, 70:30, 30:70 (BC0, BC30, and BC70, respectively), two fertilizer rates (FERT1, FERT2), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation were tested on potted Pelargonium plants. Plant growth, flowering, bio-physiological and nutritional responses, and root mycorrhization were evaluated. The BC30 mixture did not affect plant growth compared with pure peat. However, BC30 in combination with FERT2 treatment was more effective in enhancing nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll (CHL) leaf concentrations, and leaf and flower numbers. The BC70 mixture depressed plant growth, flowering traits, and root mycorrhization. Leaf N concentration was below the sufficiency range reported for Pelargonium growth. Leaf concentration of phosphorous (P) was adequate in pure peat and in BC30 but it dropped close to sub-optimal values in BC70. The pH value of the mixtures lowered P availability, though in BC30 the mycorrhizal activity could have allowed adequate P plant uptake. In BC70 plants, the deficiency of both N and P might be a reason for the observed growth reduction. The inoculation of the substrate with selected AMF improved plant growth (higher dry biomass, greater floral clusters, larger and more abundant leaves) and quality resulting in unstressed (lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content values) and greener leaves (low L∗ and C∗, high CHL content) and in more intensely colored flowers. We conclude that biochar can be applied in nursery/potted plant production provided that the proportion in the peat mixture does not exceed 30%. Furthermore, AMF inoculation contributed to achieving the best plant performance in 30% biochar amended medium. PMID

  15. Decrease in fertilization and cleavage rates, but not in clinical outcomes for infertile men with AZF microdeletion of the Y chromosome. (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-Chang; Wu, Tong-Hua; Li, Guan-Gui; Yin, Biao; Liu, Hong-Jie; Song, Cheng; Mo, Mei-Lan; Zeng, Yong


    This study aimed to explore whether the presence of a Y chromosome azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletion confers any adverse effect on embryonic development and clinical outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Fifty-seven patients with AZF microdeletion were included in the present study and 114 oligozoospermia and azoospermia patients without AZF microdeletion were recruited as controls. Both AZF and control groups were further divided into subgroups based upon the methods of semen collection: the AZF-testicular sperm extraction subgroup (AZF-TESE, n = 14), the AZF-ejaculation subgroup (AZF-EJA, n = 43), the control-TESE subgroup (n = 28) and the control-EJA subgroup (n = 86). Clinical data were analyzed in the two groups and four subgroups respectively. A retrospective case-control study was performed. A significantly lower fertilization rate (69.27 versus 75.70%, P = 0.000) and cleavage rate (89.55 versus 94.39%, P = 0.000) was found in AZF group compared with the control group. Furthermore, in AZF-TESE subgroup, the fertilization rate (67.54 versus 74.25%, P = 0.037) and cleavage rate (88.96 versus 94.79%, P = 0.022) were significantly lower than in the control-TESE subgroup; similarly, the fertilization rate (69.85 versus 75.85%, P = 0.004) and cleavage rate (89.36 versus 94.26%, P = 0.002) in AZF-EJA subgroup were significantly lower than in the control-EJA subgroup; however, the fertilization rate and cleavage rate in AZF-TESE (control-TESE) subgroup was similar to that in the AZF-EJA (control-EJA) subgroup. The other clinical outcomes were comparable between four subgroups (P > 0.05). Therefore, sperm from patients with AZF microdeletion, obtained either by ejaculation or TESE, may have lower fertilization and cleavage rates, but seem to have comparable clinical outcomes to those from patients without AZF microdeletion.

  16. trategies for durum wheat fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Plescuta


    Full Text Available Abstract. Durum wheat (Tr. durum Desf. ranks second in the world cereal production after common wheat. It differs from the other species with its high grain protein content, especially with gluten quality, which makes it suitable for producing spaghetti, macaroni, semolina flour and other products for the food industry. The purpose of this review was to summarize the results obtained in Bulgaria and in the world on the impact of mineral fertilization on yield and quality of durum wheat. All authors confirm that a significant increase of the grain yield in the last decades was achieved by both using new varieties and through optimal fertilization. Nitrogen as a nutrient is of great importance for wheat productivity. Nitrogen fertilization leads to stronger increase of leaf area, dry matter accumulation, content of protein and gluten. Accumulated nitrogen and phosphorus depend mainly on the formed dry matter. At low nitrogen rates yield increased at higher phosphorus level. Suppressant effect of high nitrogen and phosphorus rates on growth and development is emphasized in richer soil. A number of authors have found genotypic specificity regarding grain yield in dependence on the level of fertilization. Problems of genetically determined and improved grain quality under different durum wheat varieties are the subject of extensive research. The opinions of all authors are one-way for the positive influence of fertilization and in particular nitrogen on the technological quality parameters – protein content, wet and dry gluten, vitreoussness, carotenoids pigment, although the values vary significantly. The influence of fertilization is insignificant on the test weight.

  17. Fertility and reproductive rate of Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, in native and exotic honeybee, Apis mellifera L., colonies under Saudi Arabia conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehya Alattal


    Full Text Available Varroa mite is the most destructive pest to bee colonies worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, preliminary data indicated high infestation levels in the exotic honeybee colonies; such as Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera ligustica, compared to native honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera jemenitica, which may imply higher tolerance to Varroasis. In this study, fertility and reproductive rate of Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, in capped brood cells of the native honeybee subspecies were investigated and compared with an exotic honeybee subspecies, A. m. carnica. Mite fertility was almost alike (87.5% and 89.4% in the native and craniolan colonies respectively. Similarly, results did not show significant differences in reproduction rate between both subspecies (F = 0.66, Pr > F = 0.42. Number of adult Varroa daughters per fertile mother mite was 2.0 and 2.1 for native and craniolan honeybee subspecies respectively. This may indicate that mechanisms of keeping low infestation rates in the native honeybee colonies are not associated with Varroa reproduction. Therefore, potential factors of keeping lower Varroa infestation rates in native honey bee subspecies should be further investigated.

  18. Fertilization 2: Polyspermic Fertilization. (United States)

    Mizushima, Shusei


    During fertilization in animals, a haploid egg nucleus fuses with a haploid sperm nucleus to restore the diploid genome. In most animals including mammals, echinoderms, and teleostei, the penetration of only one sperm into an egg is ensured at fertilization because the entry of two or more sperm is prevented by polyspermy block systems in these eggs. On the other hand, several animals such as birds, reptiles, and most urodele amphibians exhibit physiological polyspermy, in which the entry of several sperm into one egg is permitted. However, in these polyspermic eggs, only one sperm nucleus is involved in zygotic formation with a female nucleus, thereby avoiding syngamy with multiple sperm nuclei. In the chicken, 20-60 sperm are generally found within the egg cytoplasm at fertilization and this number is markedly higher than that of other polyspermic species; however, avian-specific events such as the degeneration and mitosis of supernumerary sperm nuclei during early embryo development allow a polyspermic egg to develop normally. This chapter describes current knowledge on polyspermy-related events in avian eggs during fertilization, and is characterized by a comparison to the fertilization modes of other vertebrates. The close relationship between sperm numbers and egg sizes, and the movement of supernumerary sperm nuclei towards the periphery of the egg cytoplasm and their degeneration are summarized. The molecular mechanisms by which polyspermy initiates egg activation to start embryo development are also discussed.

  19. Divorce laws and fertility decisions


    Bellido, Héctor; Marcén, Miriam


    This paper explores the effect of divorce law reforms on fertility. By modifying the value of marriage, the introduction of divorce law reforms may impact fertility decisions. To identify the effects of those reforms on fertility, we use a quasi-experiment exploiting the legislative history of divorce liberalization across Europe. Results suggest that divorce law reforms have a negative and permanent effect on fertility. Divorce reforms decreased the Total Fertility Rate by about 0.2. The mag...

  20. A Simulation of the Effects of Varying Repetition Rate and Pulse Width of Nanosecond Discharges on Premixed Lean Methane-Air Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Soo Bak


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional kinetic simulation has been carried out to investigate the effects of repetition rate and pulse width of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges on stabilizing premixed lean methane-air combustion. The repetition rate and pulse width are varied from 10 kHz to 50 kHz and from 9 ns to 2 ns while the total power is kept constant. The lower repetition rates provide larger amounts of radicals such as O, H, and OH. However, the effect on stabilization is found to be the same for all of the tested repetition rates. The shorter pulse width is found to favor the production of species in higher electronic states, but the varying effects on stabilization are also found to be small. Our results indicate that the total deposited power is the critical element that determines the extent of stabilization over this range of discharge properties studied.

  1. Mycelial growth rate and toxin production in the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda: Resource trade-offs and temporally varying selection (United States)

    S. E. Meyer; M. Masi; S. Clement; T. L. Davis; J. Beckstead


    Pyrenophora semeniperda, an important pathogen in Bromus tectorum seed banks in semi-arid western North America, exhibits >4-fold variation in mycelial growth rate. Host seeds exhibit seasonal changes in dormancy that affect the risk of pathogen-caused mortality. The hypothesis tested is that contrasting seed dormancy phenotypes select for contrasting strategies...

  2. Sediment accretion rates and sediment composition in Prairie Pothole wetlands under varying land use practices, Montana, United States (United States)

    Preston, T.M.; Sojda, R.S.; Gleason, R.A.


    Increased sedimentation and nutrient cycle changes in Prairie Pothole Region wetlands associated with agriculture threaten the permanence and ecological functionality of these important resources. To determine the effects of land use on sedimentation and nutrient cycling, soil cores were analyzed for cesium-137 (137Cs), lead-210 (210Pb), and potassium-40 (40K) activities; textural composition; organic and inorganic carbon (C); and total nitrogen (N) from twelve wetlands surrounded by cropland, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands, or native prairie uplands. Separate soil cores from nine of these wetlands were also analyzed for phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO3), and ammonium (NH4) concentrations. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had significantly greater linear sediment accretion rates than wetlands surrounded by CRP or native prairie. Linear sediment accretion rates from wetlands surrounded by cropland were 2.7 and 6 times greater than wetlands surrounded by native prairie when calculated from the initial and peak occurrence of 137Cs, respectively, and 0.15 cm y−1 (0.06 in yr−1) greater when calculated from 210Pb. Relative to wetlands surrounded by CRP, linear sediment accretion rates for wetlands surrounded by cropland were 4.4 times greater when calculated from the peak occurrence of 137Cs. No significant differences existed between the linear sediment accretion rates between wetlands surrounded by native prairie or CRP uplands. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had increased clay, P, NO3, and NH4, and decreased total C and N concentrations compared to wetlands surrounded by native prairie. Wetlands surrounded by CRP had the lowest P and NO3 concentrations and had clay, NH4, C, and N concentrations between those of cropland and native prairie wetlands. We documented increased linear sediment accretion rates and changes in the textural and chemical properties of sediments in wetlands with cultivated uplands relative to wetlands with native prairie uplands. These

  3. Vitamin E Supplementation to Sows and Effects on Fertility Rate and Subsequent Body Development of their Weanling Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Umesiobi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E to sows on sow fertility and serum α-tocopherol, growth and physiological state of their weanling pigs. A total of 60 Large White gilts were randomly allotted to three groups (20 gilts per group from coitus to lactation phases over a two-parity period to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E on fecundity rates and litter size of sows. Each of the three dietary vitamin E treatment combinations involved 0, 40 or 70 IU/kg of dl- α-tocopheryl acetate/kg of diet, and parity 1 and 2. Sow serum α-tocopherol and Selenium (Se were collected at 30 day post coitum, 99 day of gestation and 21 day lactation. Serum α-tocopherol and Se were collected from piglets at 1 day post natum and on day 21 (weaning age. Data relating to sow fecundity and litter size were also recorded. Results indicate that body weights and body weight gains of sows and their litters increased significantly (P < 0.01 by parity, increasing more from parities 1 to 2, mostly when dietary vitamin E was increased from 40 to 70 IU/kg diet. The highest number of total piglets and number of piglets born alive (12 ± 8.9 vs. 11 ± 0.1 were obtained at parity 2 when dietary vitamin E was increased to 70 IU/kg diet. There was an increase in weights of the piglets when dietary vitamin E was increased in sow’s diet. There was a dramatic increase in serum α-tocopherol and Se concentrations following 40 and 70 IU/kg of vitamin E supplementation during the 30 and 99 day gestation and 21 day lactation periods as parity increased. Se concentrations were about 3 fold higher in the 70 IU/kg vitamin E supplemented group in parity 2 compared to the other groups. In both parities, female piglets had higher serum α-tocopherol and Se concentrations at both 2 day post natum and on day 21 (weaning compared to the male piglets. Results from this study suggest that supplementing 70 IU/kg α-tocopheryl acetate in

  4. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai


    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes—partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)—on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg–1 soil...... (denoted Ca0, Ca1, and Ca2, respectively). The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and treated with PRD and DI during early flowering to the fruit maturity stage. The results showed that, in comparison with DI treatment, PRD significantly reduced BER incidence. A greater...... xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Martens


    Full Text Available This publication considers effects of education and fertility on women’s employment in Poland and in selected countries of the European Union. Econometric models of trend and autoregression are built. It is shown that in Poland - higher education and fertility rates have little effect on the presence of women on the labor market. In the European Union both education and fertility have a significant impact on increasing job opportuni-ties. In Germany an important determinant is education and in France - fertility.

  6. The stability of mRNA for eucaryotic elongation factor Tu in Friend erythroleukemia cells varies with growth rate. (United States)

    Rao, T R; Slobin, L I


    The decay rates of eucaryotic elongation factor Tu (eEF-Tu) mRNA and eucaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF-4A) mRNA in Friend erythroleukemia (FEL) cells were determined under several different growth conditions. In FEL cells which were no longer actively dividing (stationary phase), eEF-Tu mRNA was found to be rather stable, with a t1/2 of about 24 h. In rapidly growing FEL cells eEF-Tu mRNA was considerably less stable, with a t1/2 of about 9 h. In both cases a single rate of mRNA decay was observed. However, when stationary-phase cells resumed growth after treatment with fresh medium, we observed that eEF-Tu mRNA decay followed a biphasic process. The faster of the two decay rates involved approximately 50% of the eEF-Tu mRNA and had a t1/2 of about 1 h. The decay rates for eIF-4A (t1/2 = 2 h) and total poly(A)+ RNA (t1/2 = 3 h) were unaffected by changes in growth conditions. The t1/2 for polysomal eEF-Tu mRNA was found to be about 8 h when stationary FEL cells were treated with fresh medium. Previous work in this laboratory has shown (T. R. Rao and L. I. Slobin, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:687-697, 1987) that when FEL cells are allowed to grow to stationary phase, approximately 60% of the mRNA for eEF-Tu is found in a nontranslating postpolysomal messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. eEF-Tu mRNP was rapidly cleared from stationary cells after treatment with fresh medium. The data presented in this report indicate that the stability of eEF-Tu mRNP is rapidly altered and the particle is targeted for degradation when stationary FEL cells resume growth.

  7. Enhancing rock phosphate integration rate for fast bio-transformation of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures to organic fertilizer. (United States)

    Unuofin, F O; Siswana, M; Cishe, E N


    Rock phosphate (RP) addition in cow-dung waste-paper mixtures at rates above 2% P has been reported to increase the rate of bio-transformation and humification of organic waste mixtures during vermicomposting to produce organic fertilizer for organic farming. However, the optimization of RP for vermicomposting was not established. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal amount of RP integration rates for effective bio-transformation of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures. Arrays of RP integration degrees (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4% P as RP) were thoroughly mixed with cow- dung waste-paper mixtures to achieve an optimized C:N ratio of 30 and allowed to vermidegrade following the introduction of earthworms at a stocking mass of 12.5 g-worms kg-1. The bio-transformation of the waste mixtures was examined by measuring C:N ratios and humification index (HI) and per cent ash and volatile solids. Application of 1% P as RP resulted in fast bio-transformation and maturation of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological properties of the different vermicomposts affected by rates of RP showing the degree of degradation of initial compacted aggregates of cellulose and protein fibres in the mixtures at maturity. A germination test was used to further determine phytotoxicity of the final composts and microbial biomass assessment. The final vermicompost (organic fertilizer) had a C:N ratio of 7, MBC of 900 mg kg-1 and HI of 27.1%. The RP incorporation rate of 1% P of RP investigated is therefore, recommended for efficient vermidegradation and humification of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures. However, higher rates of RP incorporation should be considered where greater P enrichment of the final vermicompost (organic fertilizer) is desired.

  8. Affective resonance in response to others' emotional faces varies with affective ratings and psychopathic traits in amygdala and anterior insula. (United States)

    Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Sebastian, Catherine L; Viding, Essi; Roiser, Jonathan P


    Despite extensive research on the neural basis of empathic responses for pain and disgust, there is limited data about the brain regions that underpin affective response to other people's emotional facial expressions. Here, we addressed this question using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses to emotional faces, combined with online ratings of subjective state. When instructed to rate their own affective response to others' faces, participants recruited anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus, and amygdala, regions consistently implicated in studies investigating empathy for disgust and pain, as well as emotional saliency. Importantly, responses in anterior insula and amygdala were modulated by trial-by-trial variations in subjective affective responses to the emotional facial stimuli. Furthermore, overall task-elicited activations in these regions were negatively associated with psychopathic personality traits, which are characterized by low affective empathy. Our findings suggest that anterior insula and amygdala play important roles in the generation of affective internal states in response to others' emotional cues and that attenuated function in these regions may underlie reduced empathy in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits.

  9. Potential of VIS-NIR-SWIR Spectroscopy from the Chinese Soil Spectral Library for Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilization Rates in the Paddy-Rice Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Li


    Full Text Available To meet growing food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, soil testing and formulated fertilization methods have been widely adopted around the world. However, conventional technology for investigating nitrogen fertilization rates (NFR is time consuming and expensive. Here, we evaluated the use of visible near-infrared shortwave-infrared (VIS-NIR-SWIR: 400–2500 nm spectroscopy for the assessment of NFR to provide necessary information for fast, cost-effective and precise fertilization rating. Over 2000 samples were collected from paddy-rice fields in 10 Chinese provinces; samples were added to the Chinese Soil Spectral Library (CSSL. Two kinds of modeling strategies for NFR, quantitative estimation of soil N prior to classification and qualitative by classification, were employed using partial least squares regression (PLSR, locally weighted regression (LWR, and support vector machine discriminant analogy (SVMDA. Overall, both LWR and SVMDA had moderate accuracies with Cohen’s kappa coefficients of 0.47 and 0.48, respectively, while PLSR had fair accuracy (0.37. We conclude that VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy coupled with the CSSL appears to be a viable, rapid means for the assessment of NFR in paddy-rice soil. Based on qualitative classification of soil spectral data only, it is recommended that the SVMDA be adopted for rapid implementation.

  10. High ratings of satisfaction with fertility treatment are common: findings from the Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) Research Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J


    /delivery and the report of marital benefits resulting from the infertility experience. Lower social class was a significant predictor for satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Both men and women in fertility treatment had high ratings on medical and patient-centred care. It seemed that satisfaction with the psychosocial services......BACKGROUND: The aims were: (i). to identify gender differences in evaluation of medical and patient-centred (psychosocial) care in fertility clinics and (ii). to identify predictors of satisfaction. METHODS: An epidemiological prospective study based on questionnaire responses among all new couples......-centred (psychosocial) services. There were no sex differences in the evaluation of treatment except that women were more satisfied than men with how the staff had performed their medical examinations. Satisfaction with medical and patient-centred services was positively associated with a treatment-related pregnancy...

  11. An analysis of the mechanism of a reactivated basaltic landslide site under varying rate of displacement in Mauritius, Offshore Africa (United States)

    Dabycharun, Bhoopendra; Kuwano, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kensuke; Fukuoka, Hiroshi


    dry condition, the residual friction angle (φ) and the cohesion (c) were found to be 18.8o and 8.0 kPa respectively whereas, under the fully saturated condition, the residual friction angle (φ) and the cohesion (c) were found to be 12.0o and 5.0 kPa respectively. Ring shear test was conducted under increasing shear speed from 0.01mm/min to 0.3 mm/min to determine the mechanism of the accelerating movement of the soil. The rate effect test concluded that the soils showed positive rate effect as the stress ratio under faster shear rate was higher than the one under slower rate. Thus, under a high degree of saturation, the landslide will continue to accelerate with the generation of excess pore water pressure while shear resistance will be recovered at high speeds. Intermittent movement will be repeated with this type of mechanism.

  12. Decoupling of soil C and N mineralization by labile C inputs explain high C sequestration rates in response to N fertilization (United States)

    Bengtson, Per; Ehtesham, Emad


    During the last decade there have been an ongoing controversy regarding the extent to which N fertilization can increase C sequestration in forest ecosystems by stimulating primary production. There is also evidence that N fertilization commonly results in reduced soil respiration rates that cannot be fully explained by lower root respiration. Several hypotheses aimed at explaining the phenomenon have been proposed, but the mechanism remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine if decreased decomposition and respiration of soil organic matter (SOM) in response to N fertilization can be explained by diminishing priming effects, and to determine to which extent priming of SOM decomposition is manifested as C or N mineralization under different loadings of labile C and N. We also aimed at determining if any changes that occur in response to N fertilization are long-term effects dependent on a shift in e.g. microbial community composition, or an immediate effect caused by increased N availability and decreased N mining. To achieve these aims we designed an experiment where the potential priming of microbial C and N mineralization was studied in a Norway spruce forest. SOM derived respiration, gross N mineralization and 13C-incorporation into microbial biomarker lipids (PLFA's) were measured 4 and 24 hours after addition of 13C-enriched glucose. Field treatments included control, N fertilization, and two levels of tree density. We also included a treatment where the control soil received inorganic N, at the same level as in the field N fertilization treatment, in addition to glucose. Glucose additions in most cases caused a significant reduction in microbial respiration of SOM, resulting in what is commonly referred to as "negative priming". In contrast, gross N mineralization rates generally increased in response to the glucose additions. Glucose additions, therefore, appeared to result in a decoupling of microbial respiration of SOM and gross N mineralization

  13. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier


    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  14. Current Evolutionary Adaptiveness of Psychiatric Disorders: Fertility Rates, Parent-Child Relationship Quality, and Psychiatric Disorders across the Lifespan


    Jacobson, Nicholas C.


    This study sought to evaluate the current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychopathology by examining whether these disorders impact the quantity of offspring or the quality of the parent-child relationship across the lifespan. Using the National Comorbidity Survey, this study examined whether DSM-III-R anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depressive, bipolar, substance use, antisocial, and psychosis disorders predicted later fertility and the quality of parent-child relationships across the lifespan...

  15. The relationship between growth performance and metabolic rate flexibility varies with food availability in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis). (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Qing; Wang, Lei; Wang, Guan-Nan; Zeng, Yue; Fu, Shi-Jian


    Phenotypic flexibility in traits can allow organisms to cope with environmental challenges. However, the ecological consequences (e.g., growth) of SMR flexibility in fish are poorly understood. Juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis) were reared individually with two levels of food resources (satiation or limited) with either continuous feeding (CF) or starvation-refeeding (SR). In the CF experiment, SMR increased when individuals were fed either the satiation or limited diets, but no difference was found in average specific growth rate somatic growth (SGR) between the two food availabilities. The relationship between flexibility in SMR and SGR, feeding efficiency (FE) and food intake (FI) was positive in the satiation group but not in the limited food group. In the SR experiment, the initial SMR of individuals was negatively correlated with the SGR during starvation. During refeeding, the starved individuals increased both body mass and SMR under both food availabilities. Individuals with a greater increase in SMR were fed more and also had greater SGR and FE under the satiation diet, but these results were not observed under the limited diet. The average FE under the limited diet was greater than that under the satiation diet, causing there to be no significant difference in final body mass between the diet treatments at the end of refeeding. Our study suggested that SMR flexibility can allow individuals to maximize their potential growth performance in an environment with changing food availability, and the benefits from greater flexibility in SMR could be offset by their maintenance metabolism under environmental stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The secretions of oviduct epithelial cells increase the equine in vitro fertilization rate: are osteopontin, atrial natriuretic peptide A and oviductin involved? (United States)

    Mugnier, Sylvie; Kervella, Morgane; Douet, Cécile; Canepa, Sylvie; Pascal, Géraldine; Deleuze, Stefan; Duchamp, Guy; Monget, Philippe; Goudet, Ghylène


    Oviduct epithelial cells (OEC) co-culture promotes in vitro fertilization (IVF) in human, bovine and porcine species, but no data are available from equine species. Yet, despite numerous attempts, equine IVF rates remain low. Our first aim was to verify a beneficial effect of the OEC on equine IVF. In mammals, oviductal proteins have been shown to interact with gametes and play a role in fertilization. Thus, our second aim was to identify the proteins involved in fertilization in the horse. In the first experiment, we co-incubated fresh equine spermatozoa treated with calcium ionophore and in vitro matured equine oocytes with or without porcine OEC. We showed that the presence of OEC increases the IVF rates. In the subsequent experiments, we co-incubated equine gametes with OEC and we showed that the IVF rates were not significantly different between 1) gametes co-incubated with equine vs porcine OEC, 2) intact cumulus-oocyte complexes vs denuded oocytes, 3) OEC previously stimulated with human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Luteinizing Hormone and/or oestradiol vs non stimulated OEC, 4) in vivo vs in vitro matured oocytes. In order to identify the proteins responsible for the positive effect of OEC, we first searched for the presence of the genes encoding oviductin, osteopontin and atrial natriuretic peptide A (ANP A) in the equine genome. We showed that the genes coding for osteopontin and ANP A are present. But the one for oviductin either has become a pseudogene during evolution of horse genome or has been not well annotated in horse genome sequence. We then showed that osteopontin and ANP A proteins are present in the equine oviduct using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor, and we analyzed their expression during oestrus cycle by Western blot. Finally, we co-incubated equine gametes with or without purified osteopontin or synthesized ANP A. No significant effect of osteopontin or ANP A was observed, though osteopontin slightly increased the IVF rates. Our study

  17. The Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Irrigation on Nitrogen Uptake of Silage Corn and Residual Soil Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Khodshenas


    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing irrigation demand for corn production, along side with draws of ground water from stressed water sources, should be limited due to scarce resources and environmental protection aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer applied at rates higher than the optimum requirement for crop production may cause an increase in nitrate accumulation below the root zone and pose a risk of nitrate leaching. Improving nitrogen management for corn production has a close relation with soil water content. In this study, we investigated the effects of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation on silage corn production and nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake and residual soil nitrate in two depths. Materials and Methods: This experiment carried out as split spli- plot in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD with three replications, in Arak station (Agricultural research center of markazi province, 34.12 N, 49.7 E; 1715 m above mean sea level during three years. The soil on the site was classified as a Calcaric Regosols (loamy skeletal over fragmental, carbonatic, thermic, calcixerollic xerochrepts. Main plots were irrigation treatments based on 70, 100 and 130 mm cumulative evaporation from A class Pan. Sub plots were two kinds of nitrogen fertilizers (Urea and Ammonium nitrate and sub sub-plots were five levels of nitrogen rates (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kgN.ha-1. Nitrogen fertilizer rates were split into three applications: 1/3 was applied at planting, 1/3 at 7-9 leaf stage and 1/3 remainder was applied before tasseling as a banding method. Phosphorus was applied at a rate of 150 kg.ha-1in each season and potassium at a rate of 30kg.ha-1 (only in first growth season based on soil testing as triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate, respectively. The corn variety of single cross 704 was planted at 20 m2 plots. The plants were sampled at dough stage from the two rows and weighted in each plot. Plant samples were dried in a forced air

  18. The secretions of oviduct epithelial cells increase the equine in vitro fertilization rate: are osteopontin, atrial natriuretic peptide A and oviductin involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canepa Sylvie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oviduct epithelial cells (OEC co-culture promotes in vitro fertilization (IVF in human, bovine and porcine species, but no data are available from equine species. Yet, despite numerous attempts, equine IVF rates remain low. Our first aim was to verify a beneficial effect of the OEC on equine IVF. In mammals, oviductal proteins have been shown to interact with gametes and play a role in fertilization. Thus, our second aim was to identify the proteins involved in fertilization in the horse. Methods & results In the first experiment, we co-incubated fresh equine spermatozoa treated with calcium ionophore and in vitro matured equine oocytes with or without porcine OEC. We showed that the presence of OEC increases the IVF rates. In the subsequent experiments, we co-incubated equine gametes with OEC and we showed that the IVF rates were not significantly different between 1 gametes co-incubated with equine vs porcine OEC, 2 intact cumulus-oocyte complexes vs denuded oocytes, 3 OEC previously stimulated with human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Luteinizing Hormone and/or oestradiol vs non stimulated OEC, 4 in vivo vs in vitro matured oocytes. In order to identify the proteins responsible for the positive effect of OEC, we first searched for the presence of the genes encoding oviductin, osteopontin and atrial natriuretic peptide A (ANP A in the equine genome. We showed that the genes coding for osteopontin and ANP A are present. But the one for oviductin either has become a pseudogene during evolution of horse genome or has been not well annotated in horse genome sequence. We then showed that osteopontin and ANP A proteins are present in the equine oviduct using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor, and we analyzed their expression during oestrus cycle by Western blot. Finally, we co-incubated equine gametes with or without purified osteopontin or synthesized ANP A. No significant effect of osteopontin or ANP A was observed, though

  19. Estimation of the potential fertility based upon non-return rates of bulls: using polyacrylamide gel instead of cervical mucus in the sperm penetration test. (United States)

    Taş, M; Bacinoglu, S; Cirit, U; Ozgümüş, S; Kaşgöz, H; Pabuccuoğlu, S


    In the present study, we aimed to develop a polyacrylamide gel that could be used instead of bovine cervical mucus in the cervical mucus penetration test (CMPT) to obtain coherent and replicable results in bulls. The frozen semen samples of six Holstein bulls, which were divided into two fertility groups as low and high according to their non-return rate (NRR), were used. In this study, the modified CMPT (mCMPT) was carried out within 0.25 mL transparent plastic straws with an inner diameter 1.7 mm. The penetration ability of spermatozoa to bovine cervical mucus and to polyacrylamide gels swollen with two different solutions [NaCl (G1) and PBS (G2)] was compared. For the penetration test, the straws filled with cervical mucus and both gels were dipped into thawed semen samples and incubated at 37 degrees C for 15 min. After the incubation, straws were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour and stored at -20 degrees C. On the evaluation day, the frozen straws were cut at 1.5-1.75 cm (penetration distance range=PDR1), 3.25-3.5 cm (PDR2) and 5.0-5.25 cm (PDR3), beginning from open-end of the straws. The separated frozen parts were then immediately transferred onto special counting slides by pushing with a mandrel and left to thaw. Thawed samples were covered with cover glass and penetrated spermatozoa in these parts were counted. The relation between the results and fertility of bulls was determined. In the tests performed using mucus, the number of spermatozoa determined in the high fertility group was found to be higher at PDR3 (p<0.0001) compared to the low fertility group, while in G1 spermatozoa number was significantly higher at PDR1 and PDR3 (p<0.0001). However, in G2 medium, no significant difference was observed between either of the fertility groups with respect to spermatozoa number determined at all distance ranges. In the study, we have determined that the gel swollen with NaCl produces better results and this gel can be used instead of bovine cervical mucus

  20. Factors Influencing the Profitability of Fertilizer Use on Maize in Zambia


    Xu, Z.; Guan, Z; Jayne, T.S.; Black, R


    Major Findings: The additional maize produced from a given amount of fertilizer applied varied widely across households even after largely controlling for soil and rainfall conditions. The median estimated response rate was 15.9kgs of maize per kg nitrogen applied; Under the range of conditions and smallholder management practices, average maize fertilizer response rates declined as the application rate increased beyond 2 bags of urea and 2 bags of D compound; Factors raising the response rat...

  1. The effect of postponement of first motherhood on permanent involuntary childlessness and total fertility rate in six European countries since the 1970s. (United States)

    te Velde, Egbert; Habbema, Dik; Leridon, Henri; Eijkemans, Marinus


    Postponement of childbearing since the 1970s has led to an increase in permanent involuntarily childlessness. We will address the magnitude of this trend, the effect of IVF/ICSI and the effect on total fertility rate (TFR an often used demographic measure for the level of fertility) in six EU countries. Using a fertility micro-simulation model, we estimate the effect of postponement of first motherhood on permanent involuntary childlessness in six representative European countries since 1970/1985: Sweden, Austria, Czech Republic, The Netherlands, West Germany and Spain. To estimate the effect of IVF/ICSI on this trend, we use data on the results of all IVF/ICSI cycles performed in The Netherlands in 2003 and 2004. Permanent involuntary childlessness approximately doubled since 1970s and rose to ~4% in the Czech Republic and to ~7% in Spain with the other countries in between. If all couples entitled to have IVF/ICSI were to be treated, the effect of postponement would almost have been neutralized. However, only a limited proportion of eligible couple are being treated. Without postponement, TFRs would have been between 0.03 and 0.05 higher. The effect of postponement on permanent involuntary childlessness is considerable. So far IVF/ICSI only had a slight effect on this trend. The impact of postponement on TFRs is small compared with other demographic trends.

  2. Teenage fertility in the European Union. (United States)

    Chenet, L


    A large proportion of pregnancies which occur among women during their teenage years are unwanted. As such, the abortion rate is high among teenage pregnant women. Teenage women who choose to carry their fetuses to term run an excess risk of delivering premature and low birthweight babies. Teenage mothers often have not finished their studies and will find it difficult to remain in the educational system. There is a high rate of school dropout among teenage mothers. Moreover, they have limited job opportunities, especially in countries like the UK where child care facilities are scarce. Teenage fertility varies widely among the countries of the European Union (EU). In the UK, there are 32 live births per 1000 women aged 15-19, the highest rate in the EU. In the Netherlands, the rate of teenage fertility is only 4 live births per 1000 women aged 15-19 years. In the context of general delayed childbearing throughout the EU, the rate of teenage fertility in the UK has increased in recent years. A more holistic approach to family planning services, improved communication with teenagers, and more appropriate sex education programs are needed if the British government is to succeed in reducing by 50% the conception rate among women younger than age 16 years by the year 2000. An active policy to fight socioeconomic deprivation at the local level should also positively affect teenage fertility.

  3. Organic matter components, aggregate stability and biological activity in a horticultural soil fertilized with different rates of two sewage sludges during ten years. (United States)

    Albiach, R; Canet, R; Pomares, F; Ingelmo, F


    The effects of the application as fertilizer during ten years of two sewage sludges (aerobically and anaerobically digested, at rates of 400, 800, and 1200 kg of N/ha yr), on the aggregate stability and contents of related organic matter components, microbial biomass and levels of five enzymatic activities (alkaline phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, urease, arylsulphatase and dehydrogenase) were investigated. The application of both sludges at mid and high rates gave rise to significant increases of organic matter, humified substances and humic acids, but no effects on carbohydrates, microbial gums and aggregate stability were observed. As for biological activity in soils, the high variability of data led to a general absence of statistical significance despite the large differences between treatments observed. Significant increases of phosphodiesterase activity were nevertheless produced by the high rate of aerobic sludge and the mid and high rates of the anaerobic sludge.

  4. Effect of Different Straw Volumes and Thawing Rates on Post-Thaw Quality and Fertilization Ability of Cryopreserved Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker YAVAŞ


    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of sperm cells is an essential process applied for long-term conservation of aquatic genetic resources. The goal of this research was to determine effect different of straws volumes and thawing rates on the post-thaw quality and fertilization ability of cryopreserved common carp (Cyprinus carpio sperm. In this study, semen was cryopreserved according to conventional slow freezing protocol. For this aim, the cryosolution contained 75 mM NaCl, 70 mM KCl, 2 mM CaCl2, 1 mM MgSO4 and 20 mM Tris (pH: 8 supplemented with 10% MeOH. Following equilibration at +4°C for 10 min, semen was packed into 0.25, 0.5 and 1.5 mL straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour (for 10 min at -120ºC and finally stored in liquid nitrogen (-196ºC tank. Thawing of cryopreserved semen process was performed at 30ºC for 10, 20 and 30 seconds in a water bath. Fertilization was performed using ratio of 1x105 spermatozoa/egg. The highest fertility (68.4±2.5% was determined with cryopreserved sperm packed in 1.5 mL straws that thawed at 30ºC for 30 s. According to the results of this research, sperm cryopreserved with ionic extender containing 10% methanol and packed in 1.5 mL straws are suitable to achieve high fertilization of common carp eggs.

  5. Modeling the effects of different N fertilizer rates on N2O emissions and nitrate leaching from arable soils in Korea (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Berger, S.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Gebauer, G.; Kiese, R.


    Process-based biogeochemical models can be used to predict the impact of various agricultural management practices on plant nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen losses to the environment such as greenhouse gas emissions and nitrate leaching by analyzing the interactions between management practices, primary drivers such as climate, soil properties, crop types, etc., and biogeochemical reactions. In this study we applied the Landscape-DNDC model, which combines and uniforms functions of the agricultural-DNDC and the Forest-DNDC for simulation of C and N turnover, GHG emissions, nitrate leaching, and plant growth for a Korean arable field cultivated with radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The annual average temperature is app. 8.5°C and the annual precipitation is app. 1,500 mm. According to farmers practice the study field received a basal fertilizer application of app. 200 kg N ha-1 before setting up four fertilizer treatments i.e. additionally 50, 150, 250 and 350 kg N ha-1. All N treatment plots were tilled a week after application of specific N fertilizer in order to make row and interrow. Just before radish seeding rows were covered with black plastic mulch which was removed after harvest. In spite the widespread usage of black mulch in Korea or even Asia; so far biogeochemical models do not consider impacts of mulch on soil environmental conditions and soil biogeochemistry. Based on field measurements we adjusted input information and used only half of the annual precipitation and the maximum temperature for simulation of row conditions, whereas the actual weather data were used for the interrow simulations. Simulated N2O emissions agreed well with measurements; however peak emissions after fertilization were slightly underestimated in row and interrow. Annual N2O emissions of the fertilizer treatments increased with increasing fertilization rates from around 1.5 to 3 kg N ha-1 in the row and lower emissions of app. 1.5 kg N ha-1 (for all N treatments) in the

  6. Depolarization of sperm membrane potential is a common feature of men with subfertility and is associated with low fertilization rate at IVF. (United States)

    Brown, Sean G; Publicover, Stephen J; Mansell, Steven A; Lishko, Polina V; Williams, Hannah L; Ramalingam, Mythili; Wilson, Stuart M; Barratt, Christopher L R; Sutton, Keith A; Da Silva, Sarah Martins


    Are significant abnormalities in outward (K(+)) conductance and resting membrane potential (Vm) present in the spermatozoa of patients undertaking IVF and ICSI and if so, what is their functional effect on fertilization success? Negligible outward conductance (≈5% of patients) or an enhanced inward conductance (≈4% of patients), both of which caused depolarization of Vm, were associated with a low rate of fertilization following IVF. Sperm-specific potassium channel knockout mice are infertile with defects in sperm function, suggesting that these channels are essential for fertility. These observations suggest that malfunction of K(+) channels in human spermatozoa might contribute significantly to the occurrence of subfertility in men. However, remarkably little is known of the nature of K(+) channels in human spermatozoa or the incidence and functional consequences of K(+) channel defects. Spermatozoa were obtained from healthy volunteer research donors and subfertile IVF and ICSI patients attending a hospital assisted reproductive techniques clinic between May 2013 and December 2015. In total, 40 IVF patients, 41 ICSI patients and 26 normozoospermic donors took part in the study. Samples were examined using electrophysiology (whole-cell patch clamping). Where abnormal electrophysiological characteristics were identified, spermatozoa were further examined for Ca(2+) influx induced by progesterone and penetration into viscous media if sufficient sample was available. Full exome sequencing was performed to specifically evaluate potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M α 1 (KCNMA1), potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily U member 1 (KCNU1) and leucine-rich repeat containing 52 (LRRC52) genes and others associated with K(+) signalling. In IVF patients, comparison with fertilization rates was done to assess the functional significance of the electrophysiological abnormalities. Patch clamp electrophysiology was used to assess outward (K

  7. [Fertility preservation in oncology]. (United States)

    Chaput, Laure; Grémeau, Anne-Sophie; Vorilhon, Solène; Pons, Hanae; Chabrot, Cécile; Grèze, Victoria; Pouly, Jean-Luc; Brugnon, Florence


    Since the improvement of cancer diagnosis and treatment, survival rates of these patients increase. Gonadal damages are frequent consequences of cancer treatments with different evidence of impaired fertility. In this context, fertility preservation should be proposed to patients exposed to potentially gonadotoxic treatments. Different preservation approaches may be proposed depending on patient age, sex, cancer type and type of treatment. The indications of fertility preservation depend on sexual maturity. In young girls, ovarian cortex cryopreservation is the only technique feasible in order to preserve their reproductive potential. Vitrification of oocytes which needs ovarian stimulation or oocytes in vitro maturation is becoming more commonly performed for pubertal women to preserve their fertility. Ovarian cortex freezing could be offered to emergency fertility preservation of adult female cancer patients. In prepubertal boys, testicular tissue cryopreservation is the only line treatment for fertility preservation. For future use, various approaches are being evaluated such as spermatogonial stem cell injection or in vitro maturation. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa is, today, an established and successful technique for male adults. When there are no spermatozoa in ejaculate, sperm can be retrieved after treatment of testicular biopsy. The French bioethics law clearly indicates that fertility preservation should be proposed to patients exposed to potentially gonadotoxic treatment. Today, many approaches are possible. Fertility preservation indications are based on multidisciplinary consultations within platforms for the fertility preservation in order to optimize the patient care. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rate of women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer: A randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Aba, Yilda Arzu; Avci, Dilek; Guzel, Yilmaz; Ozcelik, Semanur Kumral; Gurtekin, Basak


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rates of women who underwent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted with 186 infertile women who presented to the In Vitro Fertilization Unit at the American Hospital in Turkey between April 2015 and April 2016. The infertile women who met the inclusion criteria were assigned to the music therapy group or the standard therapy group through block randomization. The study data were collected using the Personal Information Form, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Early treatment success was determined by serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin levels seven or ten days after the luteal day zero. For the analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent sample t-test were used. After the embryo transfer, the mean state anxiety scores decreased in both groups, and the mean trait anxiety score decreased in the music therapy group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Clinical pregnancy rates did not differ between the music (48.3%) and standard (46.4%) therapy groups. After the two sessions of music therapy, state and trait anxiety levels decreased and pregnancy rates increased, but the difference was not significant. Therefore, larger sample sizes and more sessions are needed to evaluate whether music therapy has an effect on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fertility Awareness (United States)

    ... in the Holiday Spirit Cold-Weather Sports Fertility Awareness KidsHealth > For Teens > Fertility Awareness Print A A A What's in this article? ... español Monitoreo de fertilidad What Is It? Fertility awareness is a way to prevent pregnancy by not ...

  10. The combined application of impinger system and permeation tube for the generation of volatile organic compound standard gas mixtures at varying diluent flow rates. (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Susaya, Janice; Cho, Jinwoo; Parker, David


    Commercial standard gas generators are often complex and expensive devices. The objective of this research was to assess the performance of a simplified glass impinger system for standard gas generation from a permeation tube (PT) device. The performance of the impinger standard gas generation system was assessed for four aromatic VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene; BTEX) at varying flow rates (FR) of 50 to 800 mL·min(-1). Because actual permeation rate (APR) values deviated from those computed by the manufacturer's formula (MPR), new empirical relationships were developed to derive the predicted PR (PPR) of the target components. Experimental results corrected by such a formula indicate that the compatibility between the APR and MPR generally increased with low FR, while the reproducibility was generally reduced with decreasing flow rate. Although compatibility between different PRs is at a relatively small and narrow FR range, the use of correction formula is recommendable for the accurate use of PT.

  11. Nitrogen balance dynamics during 2000-2010 in the Yangtze River Basin croplands, with special reference to the relative contributions of cropland area and synthetic fertilizer N application rate changes. (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zheng, Hua; Zhao, He; Robinson, Brian E


    With the increases of cropland area and fertilizer nitrogen (N) application rate, general N balance characteristics in regional agroecosystems have been widely documented. However, few studies have quantitatively analyzed the drivers of spatial changes in the N budget. We constructed a mass balance model of the N budget at the soil surface using a database of county-level agricultural statistics to analyze N input, output, and proportional contribution of various factors to the overall N input changes in croplands during 2000-2010 in the Yangtze River Basin, the largest basin and the main agricultural production region in China. Over the period investigated, N input increased by 9%. Of this 87% was from fertilizer N input. In the upper and middle reaches of the basin, the increased synthetic fertilizer N application rate accounted for 84% and 76% of the N input increase, respectively, mainly due to increased N input in the cropland that previously had low synthetic fertilizer N application rate. In lower reaches of the basin, mainly due to urbanization, the decrease in cropland area and synthetic fertilizer N application rate nearly equally contributed to decreases in N input. Quantifying spatial N inputs can provide critical managerial information needed to optimize synthetic fertilizer N application rate and monitor the impacts of urbanization on agricultural production, helping to decrease agricultural environment risk and maintain sustainable agricultural production in different areas.

  12. Components of Particle Emissions from Light-Duty Spark-Ignition Vehicles with Varying Aromatic Content and Octane Rating in Gasoline. (United States)

    Short, Daniel Z; Vu, Diep; Durbin, Thomas D; Karavalakis, Georgios; Asa-Awuku, Akua


    Typical gasoline consists of varying concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and octane ratings. However, their impacts on particulate matter (PM) such as black carbon (BC) and water-soluble and insoluble particle compositions are not well-defined. This study tests seven 2012 model year vehicles, which include one port fuel injection (PFI) configured hybrid vehicle, one PFI vehicle, and six gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles. Each vehicle was driven on the Unified transient testing cycle (UC) using four different fuels. Three fuels had a constant octane rating of 87 with varied aromatic concentrations at 15%, 25%, and 35%. A fourth fuel with higher octane rating, 91, contained 35% aromatics. BC, PM mass, surface tension, and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) fractions were measured. The water-insoluble mass (WIM) fraction of the vehicle emissions was estimated. Increasing fuel aromatic content increases BC emission factors (EFs) of transient cycles. BC concentrations were higher for the GDI vehicles than the PFI and hybrid vehicles, suggesting a potential climate impact for increased GDI vehicle production. Vehicle steady-state testing showed that the hygroscopicity of PM emissions at high speeds (70 mph; κ > 1) are much larger than emissions at low speeds (30 mph; κ < 0.1). Iso-paraffin content in the fuels was correlated to the decrease in WSOM emissions. Both aromatic content and vehicle speed increase the amount of hygroscopic material found in particle emissions.

  13. Effect of N-fertilization on N2 and N2O flux rates in relation to the structure of the denitrifying bacterial community in fen soil (United States)

    Augustin, J.; Behrendt, U.; Ulrich, A.


    Drained fen peatlands of north-east Europe managed by different agricultural regimes constitute an important source for emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere. The strength of N2O fluxes showed a high variability in time and space influenced by complex interactions of formation and transfer processes with environmental parameters which makes prediction of emissions uncertain. This applies particularly to the denitrification. This is one of the microbial processes with special interest for N2O production in the context of frequently varying soil-moisture content of fen soils that favouring anaerobic conditions. Moreover, denitrification may result in the production of both N2O and N2 in varying proportions. However, not only the knowledge about the effect of soil chemical and physical properties, climate, vegetation, and management on the actual N2O and N2 fluxes is very incomplete at fen soils. There are also no information about the role of structure and activity of denitrifying microbial communities in this context either. The experiments presented in this study aim at addressing this subject matter. Relatively undisturbed soil columns (250 cm3) from a long-term N-fertilization experiment on a fen grassland (over a period of 45 years) were used for measurement of the current N2 and N2O fluxes followed by processing the soil sample for microbiological analysis immediately to investigate the influence of N-fertilization on these parameters. The direct measurement of N2 and N2O fluxes was performed by a helium atmosphere incubation technique in the lab. Results showed a strong influence of N-fertilization and soil moisture on the emission of N2 and N2O. Shifts in the total microbial community were estimated by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, a fingerprint focused on active organisms. Results showed that seasonal effects interfered the influence of N-fertilization on shifts of the total microbial community composition. To characterise the denitrifying

  14. [Percentage of births and fertility rates in adolescents in Mexico (2008-2012): stratification and priorization of municipalities with high risk]. (United States)

    Reyes-Pablo, Adelmo Eloy; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; Canún-Serrano, Sonia; Valdés-Hernández, Javier


    Mexico in 2008 was designed as the first place of adolescent pregnancy at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, with specific fertility rate (SFR) for 15-1 9years of age of 64.2/1,000 woman at the same age. Estimate of percentage births and SFR in adolescent population at national, state and municipal level in Mexico in 2008-2012 at the total group of adolescents 10 to 1 9 years old and by subgroups of 10-14 and 15 tol 9 years old, identifying the priority municipalities with adolescence pregnancies. Data bases of certificates of live birth and fetal death with gestational age of 22-45 weeks were joined in 2008-2012. A data base of 1 0'585,032 births in 2008-2012 was obtained, 98.9% were live births and 1.1% was stillbirths. The SFR nationwide for the period 2008-2012 were of the order of 3.l for the group of 10-1 4years, 75.3 for 15-19, 39.6 for the total group of 10-19 years and 66.1 for 20 to 49 years per 1000 women for the same age. In the last decade it has increased teen pregnancy as well as the percentage of births and the fertility rate in this age group, worrying situation for the high risk of biological, psychological and social damage that pregnancy early.

  15. Effect of Plant Density, Rate and Split Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Quality Characteristics and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Safflower under Weed Competition

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    M Fuladvand


    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of plant density, rate and method of nitrogen fertilizer split application on quality characteristics and nitrogen use efficiency of safflower (Sofeh variety under weed competition a field experiment was carried out in field research Yasouj University in 2013. This experiment was a factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. First factor was a two levels plant density (20 and 40 plants m-2 and second factor was nitrogen rate application on nine levels. That included; non nitrogen application and 75 and 150 kgN ha-1 nitrogen application that both used with four split method. Split methods were included; S1 (%50 in pre planting stage - %50 in stem elongation stage, S2 (%25 in pre planting stage - %75 in stem elongation stage, S3 (%25 in pre planting stage - %50 in stem elongation stage -%25 in flowering stage and S4 (%25 in pre planting stage - %25 in stem elongation stage - %25 in flowering stage. Also in this experiment, weed did not control. Results showed that whit increasing crop density, oil yield and protein grain yield increased by 20 percent and nitrogen utilization efficiency increased by 10 percent. The highest oil yield (50.25 g m-2 was obtained from 75 kg ha-1 nitrogen with three-stage split application (S4. Finally, results showed that increasing nitrogen fertilizer application decreased nitrogen utilization efficiency but three-stage split method application increased this trait.

  16. Estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo utilizando sensor óptico ativo para adubação nitrogenada em taxa variável Wheat yield potential estimation using active optical sensor for site-specific nitrogen fertilization

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    Christian Bredemeier


    Full Text Available A adubação nitrogenada em trigo é baseada no potencial produtivo da cultura, teor de matéria orgânica do solo e cultura antecessora. A definição do potencial produtivo é complexa, pois este varia com as condições meteorológicas de cada ano específico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI, medido por sensor óptico ativo e o rendimento de grãos em quatro cultivares de trigo, visando a desenvolver procedimentos para a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura em taxa variável. O experimento foi realizado em campo em 2009. Foram avaliados o NDVI em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento e o rendimento de grãos. As leituras do NDVI ao longo do ciclo ativo foram eficientes em identificar variações de produtividade do trigo. Assim, o potencial de produtividade pode ser estimado através de medições desse índice durante a ontogenia da planta. Pode-se adotar um modelo único para descrever a relação entre NDVI e potencial produtivo para as cultivares testadas neste trabalho.Nitrogen fertilization in spring wheat is based on yield potential, soil organic matter content and previous crop. Yield potential definition is difficult, since it is affected by weather conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI measured by an active sensor and grain yield of four wheat cultivars. The experiment was carried out at field conditions in 2009. NDVI in different growth stages and grain yield were evaluated. NDVI measured was efficient to detect growth variability generated by N availability and correlated well with grain yield for all cultivars tested, indicating that yield potential can be estimated by NDVI evaluations during crop ontogeny. One single model for the relationship between NDVI and yield potential can be used considering cultivars used in this research.

  17. Natural fertility in the Philippines. (United States)

    Aquino, E G


    The hypothesis that modernization trends in the Philippines led to an increase in fecundity and natural fertility between 1953-1972 was tested, using data from the 1973 National Demographic Survey. More specifically, it was hypothesized that increases in education, income levels, urbanization, female labor force participation, and other factors exerted a positive influence on the population's health and nutritional status and increased the risk of pregnancy by diminishing the strength of sexual taboos and by decreasing the incidence of breastfeeding. These changes, in turn, had a positive impact on natural fertility. Natural fertility was defined as marital fertility in the absence of specific efforts to control fertility. The use of natural fertility instead of fecundity allowed for the influence of behavioral patterns, such as breastfeeding and sexual taboos, on fertility. Period analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for each 5 year period between 1953-72 and cohort analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for the birth cohorts, aged 55-59, 50-54, 45-49, 40-44, and 35-39 in 1973 were undertaken. The effect of fertility control was determined by using an index derived from an equation provided by Coale and Trussell. Findings of both the period and cohort analysis supported the hypothesis. Period analysis revealed that natural fertility increased between 1953-57 and 1969-72 by 10% and that the greatest increase occurred during the 1950s when Philippine society experienced major modernization changes. The increases in natural fertility were accompanied by corresponding increases in fertility regulation in each time period. These trends tended to cancel each other out and resulted in a relatively stable total marital fertility rate throughout the time period. Cohort analysis revealed that only the total marital fertility rate of the youngest cohort was influenced by fertility regulation. The level of natural fertility for all cohorts as a group

  18. Incubation of boar spermatozoa in viscous media by addition of methylcellulose improves sperm quality and penetration rates during in vitro fertilization. (United States)

    González-Abreu, David; García-Martínez, Soledad; Fernández-Espín, Vanesa; Romar, Raquel; Gadea, Joaquín


    This work was designed to study whether viscous media can improve the in vitro sperm functionality in pigs by using methylcellulose as a thickener. Viscosity of porcine oviductal fluid (POF) was compared with culture medium (Tyrode's) supplemented with methylcellulose (MET 0, 0.5 and 1% w/v). Spermatozoa were incubated in the different media (0, 1 and 2 h) and sperm motion parameters, lipid membrane disorder, plasma membrane integrity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation were assessed. Fertilization results were assessed i) preincubating spermatozoa in the viscous media followed by gamete coculture in a non-viscous medium; and ii) gamete coculture in the viscous media. Viscosity of POF from early luteal phase was higher than late follicular phase. Medium without methylcellulose presented constant viscosity with increased shear rate, while viscosity of the POF and media with methylcellulose was reduced by increased shear rates. Methylcellulose improved sperm linearity, straightness and the proportion of fast-linear spermatozoa. Moreover, methylcellulose increased the rate of viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome and low lipid disorder, reducing the ROS generation. Preincubation in viscous media increased the penetration rate and the mean number of spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida (both with 0.5 and 1% MET) and reduced monospermy with 1% MET. On the other hand fertilization in the viscous media reduced penetration rate and increased monospermy. The efficiency of the IVF system was not improved with the use of viscous media. The results show the relevance of increasing viscosity thus making the in vitro media more comparable to physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinetic behaviour in supercritical fluid chromatography with modified mobile phase for 5 μm particle size and varied flow rates. (United States)

    Lesellier, E; Fougere, L; Poe, Donald P


    After much development of stationary phase chemistry, in recent years the focus of many studies in HPLC has shifted to increase the efficiency and analysis speed. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using sub-2 μm particles, and high temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC), using temperatures above 100°C have received much attention. These new approaches allow the use of flow rates higher than those classically used in HPLC, reducing the analysis duration. Due to the low viscosity of supercritical fluids, high velocities, i.e. high flow rates, can be achieved with classical pumping systems typically used in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The effects of the flow rate increase with CO(2)/methanol mobile phase was studied on the inlet pressure, t(0), the retention factor of the compounds, and on the efficiency. Simple comparisons of efficiencies obtained at varied temperature between SFC and HPLC, with a packed column containing 5 μm particles, show the greater kinetic performances achieved with the CO(2)/methanol fluid, and underline specific behaviours of SFC, occurring for high flow rates and sub-ambient temperature. Some values (N/t(0)) are also compared to UHPLC data, showing that good performance can be achieved in SFC without applying drastic analytical conditions. Finally, simple kinetic plots (t(0) vs N) at constant column length are used to select combinations of temperature and flow rate necessary to achieve a required theoretical plate number. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling strategic interventions in a population with a total fertility rate of 8.3: a cross-sectional study of Idjwi Island, DRC

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    Thomson Dana R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idjwi, an island of approximately 220,000 people, is located in eastern DRC and functions semi-autonomously under the governance of two kings (mwamis. At more than 8 live births per woman, Idjwi has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFRs in the world. Rapid population growth has led to widespread environmental degradation and food insecurity. Meanwhile family planning services are largely unavailable. Methods At the invitation of local leaders, we conducted a representative survey of 2,078 households in accordance with MEASURE DHS protocols, and performed ethnographic interviews and focus groups with key informants and vulnerable subpopulations. Modelling proximate determinates of fertility, we evaluated how the introduction of contraceptives and/or extended periods of breastfeeding could reduce the TFR. Results Over half of all women reported an unmet need for spacing or limiting births, and nearly 70% named a specific modern method of contraception they would prefer to use; pills (25.4% and injectables (26.5% were most desired. We predicted that an increased length of breastfeeding (from 10 to 21 months or an increase in contraceptive prevalence (from 1% to 30%, or a combination of both could reduce TFR on Idjwi to 6, the average desired number of children. Increasing contraceptive prevalence to 15% could reduce unmet need for contraception by 8%. Conclusions To meet women’s need and desire for fertility control, we recommend adding family planning services at health centers with NGO support, pursuing a community health worker program, promoting extended breastfeeding, and implementing programs to end sexual- and gender-based violence toward women.

  1. The Role of Antioxidant Enzymes in Adaptive Responses to Sheath Blight Infestation under Different Fertilization Rates and Hill Densities

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    Wei Wu


    Full Text Available Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, and catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde content (MDA responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development.

  2. Female married illiteracy as the most important continual determinant of total fertility rate among districts of Empowered Action Group States of India: Evidence from Annual Health Survey 2011–12

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    Rajesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Objective: Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Material and Methods: Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12 was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models were built and evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. For further understanding, recursive partitioning was used to prepare a regression tree. Results: Female married illiteracy positively associated with total fertility rate and explained more than half (53% of variance. Under multiple linear regression model, married illiteracy, infant mortality rate, Ante natal care registration, household size, median age of live birth and sex ratio explained 70% of total variance in total fertility rate. In regression tree, female married illiteracy was the root node and splits at 42% determined TFR = 2.7. The next left side branch was again married illiteracy with splits at 23% to determine TFR = 2.1. Conclusion: We conclude that female married illiteracy is one of the most important determinants explaining total fertility rate among the districts of an Empowered Action Group states. Focus on female literacy is required to stabilize the population growth in long run.

  3. A multi-group path analysis of the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-rated stress: how does it vary across racial/ethnic groups? (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Chen, Danhong


    The objective of this study was to answer three questions: (1) Is perceived discrimination adversely related to self-rated stress via the social capital and health care system distrust pathways? (2) Does the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress vary across race/ethnicity groups? and (3) Do the two pathways differ by one's race/ethnicity background? Using the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Survey, we classified 9831 respondents into 4 race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic White (n = 6621), non-Hispanic Black (n = 2359), Hispanic (n = 505), and non-Hispanic other races (n = 346). Structural equation modeling was employed to simultaneously estimate five sets of equations, including the confirmatory factor analysis for both social capital and health care distrust and both direct and indirect effects from perceived discrimination to self-rated stress. The key findings drawn from the analysis include the following: (1) in general, people who experienced racial discrimination have higher distrust and weaker social capital than those without perceived discrimination and both distrust and social capital are ultimately related to self-rated stress. (2) The direct relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress is found for all race/ethnicity groups (except non-Hispanic other races) and it does not vary across groups. (3) The two pathways can be applied to non-Hispanic White and Black, but for Hispanic and non-Hispanic other races, we found little evidence for the social capital pathway. For non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic, perceived discrimination is negatively related to self-rated stress. This finding highlights the importance of reducing interpersonal discriminatory behavior even for non-Hispanic White. The health care system distrust pathway can be used to address the racial health disparity in stress as it holds true for all four race

  4. Influence of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I on Maturation and Fertilization Rate of Immature Oocyte and Embryo Development in NMRI Mouse with TCM199 and α-MEM Medium. (United States)

    Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar; Mosavi, Esmaeil; Nikseresht, Mohsen; Barmak, Mehrzad Jafari; Mahmoudi, Reza


    In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes and subsequent, in vitro fertilization (IVF) for the generation of embryos in the laboratory has important values. Growth factors are a component of a complex system of autocrine and paracrine factors that have a regulatory role in ovarian function and affect oocyte maturation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of IGF-I on IVM and IVF of mice oocytes during culture with α-MEM and TCM199 medium. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and denuded oocyte were obtained from 4-6 week old NMRI mice and underwent in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization in presence or absence of IGF-I with α-MEM and TCM199. Maturation rate (79.6%), fertilization rate (87.2%), two cells development rate (79.5%) and blastocyst rate(43.2%) was higher in COCs cultured in α-MEM with IGF-I, while lower maturation rate (50.6%) fertilization rate (61%), two cells development rate (48.8%) and blastocyst rate(14.6%) were seen in cultured denuded oocytes (DOs) in TCM199 without growth factor. As well as, maturation fertilization, two cells development and blastocyst rates in COCs were higher than DOs. Our findings have shown that IGF-I is involved in the oocyte biology and improve the oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development to blastocyst competence in vitro. In addition, it has also shown that cumulus cells are vital for oocyte development when IGF-1 added to the mediums.

  5. Serum progesterone elevation adversely affects cumulative live birth rate in different ovarian responders during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: a large retrospective study. (United States)

    Bu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Feifei; Wang, Keyan; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Zhai, Jun; Sun, Yingpu


    In order to explore the relationship between serum progesterone (P) level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration and cumulative live birth rate in patients with different ovarian response during in vitro fertilization (IVF), we carried out this retrospective cohort study including a total of 4,651 patients undergoing their first IVF cycles from January 2011 to December 2012. All patients with a final live birth outcome (4,332 patients) were divided into three groups according to ovarian response: poor ovarian responder (≤5 oocytes, 785 patients), intermediate ovarian responder (6-19 oocytes, 3065 patients) and high ovarian responder (≥20 oocytes, 482 patients). The thresholds for serum P elevation were 1.60 ng/ml, 2.24 ng/ml, and 2.50 ng/ml for poor, intermediate, and high ovarian responders, respectively. Cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle was calculated in each group. The relationship between serum P level and cumulative live birth rate was evaluated by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle was inversely associated with serum P level in patients with different ovarian response. For all responders, patients with elevated P level had significantly higher number of oocytes retrieved, but lower high quality embryo rate, and lower cumulative live birth rate compared with patients with normal serum P level. In addition, serum P level adversely affected cumulative live birth rate by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent of ovarian response. Serum P elevation on the day of HCG administration adversely affects cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle in patients with different ovarian response.

  6. Prediction of bull fertility. (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D


    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Decreased Sperm Motility Retarded ICSI Fertilization Rate in Severe Oligozoospermia but Good-Quality Embryo Transfer Had Achieved the Prospective Clinical Outcomes. (United States)

    Zheng, Jufeng; Lu, Yongning; Qu, Xianqin; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Luiwen; Gao, Minzhi; Shi, Huijuan; Jin, Xingliang

    Spermatozoa motility is the critical parameter to affect the treatment outcomes during assisted reproductive technologies (ART), but its reproductive capability remains a little informed in condition of severe male factor infertility. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the effects of reduced sperm motility on the embryological and clinical outcomes in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment of severe oligozoospermia. 966 cycles (812 couples) of severe oligozoospermia diagnosed by spermatozoa count ≤ 5 × 106/mL and motile spermatozoa ≤ 2 × 106/mL were divided into four groups in according to the number of motile spermatozoa in one ejaculate on the day of oocyte retrieval (Group B-E). The control (Group A) was 188 cycles of moderate oligozoospermia with spermatozoa count > 5 × 106/mL and motile spermatozoa > 2 × 106/mL. All female partners were younger than 35 years of age. Logistic regression analyzed embryological outcomes (the rates of fertilization, cleavage and good-quality embryo) and clinical outcomes (the rates of pregnancy, implantation, early miscarriage and live birth). Quality of embryo transfer (ET) was divided into three classes as continuous factor to test the effects of embryo quality on clinical outcomes. The reduction in the number of motile sperm in four groups of severe oligozoospermia gave rise to comparable inability of the fertilization (p good-quality embryo at Day 3 (p good-quality embryo. Obtaining and transfer of good-quality embryos was the good prognostic to achieve prospective clinical outcomes regardless of the severity of oligozoospermia.

  8. Survival rate, load to fracture, and finite element analysis of incisors and canines restored with ceramic veneers having varied preparation design. (United States)

    Bergoli, C D; Meira, J B C; Valandro, L F; Bottino, M A


    To evaluate the survival rate, success rate, load to fracture, and finite element analysis (FEA) of maxillary central incisors and canines restored using ceramic veneers and varying preparation designs. Thirty human maxillary central incisors and 30 canines were allocated to the following four groups (n=15) based on the preparation design and type of tooth: Gr1 = central incisor with a conservative preparation; Gr2 = central incisor with a conventional preparation with palatal chamfer; Gr3 = canine with a conservative preparation; Gr4 = canine with a conventional preparation with palatal chamfer. Ceramic veneers (lithium disilicate) were fabricated and adhesively cemented (Variolink Veneer). The specimens were subjected to 4 × 10(6) mechanical cycles and evaluated at every 500,000 cycles to detect failures. Specimens that survived were subjected to a load to fracture test. Bidimensional models were modeled (Rhinoceros 4.0) and evaluated (MSC.Patrans 2005r2 and MSC.Marc 2005r2) on the basis of their maximum principal stress (MPS) values. Survival rate values were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier test (α = 0.05) and load to fracture values were analyzed using the Student t-test (α = 0.05). All groups showed 100% survival rates. The Student t-test did not show any difference between the groups for load to fracture. FEA showed higher MPS values in the specimens restored using veneers with conventional preparation design with palatal chamfer. Preparation design did not affect the fracture load of canines and central incisors, but the veneers with conventional preparation design with palatal chamfer exhibited a tendency to generate higher MPS values.

  9. Associations between Individual and Combined Polymorphisms of the TNF and VEGF Genes and the Embryo Implantation Rate in Patients Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization (IVF Programs.

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    Radia Boudjenah

    Full Text Available A multiple pregnancy is now considered to be the most common adverse outcome associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF. As a consequence, the identification of women with the best chances of embryo implantation is a challenge in IVF program, in which the objective is to offer elective single-embryo transfer (eSET without decreasing the pregnancy rate. To date, a range of hormonal and clinical parameters have been used to optimize eSET but none have significant predictive value. This variability could be due to genetic predispositions related to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Here, we assessed the individual and combined impacts of thirteen SNPs that reportedly influence the outcome of in vitro fertilisation (IVF on the embryo implantation rate for patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection program (ICSI.A 13 gene polymorphisms: FSHR(Asn680Ser, p53(Arg72Pro, AMH(Ile49Ser, ESR2(+1730G>A, ESR1(-397T>C, BMP15(-9C>G, MTHFR1(677C>T, MTHFR2(1298A>C, HLA-G(-725C>G, VEGF(+405G>C, TNFα(-308A>G, AMHR(-482A>G, PAI-1(4G/5G, multiplex PCR assay was designed to genotype women undergoing ICSI program. We analyzed the total patients population (n = 428 and a subgroup with homogeneous characteristics (n = 112.Only the VEGF(+405G>C and TNFα(-308A>G polymorphisms impacted fertilization, embryo implantation and pregnancy rates. Moreover, the combined VEGF+405.GG and TNFα-308.AG or AA genotype occurred significantly more frequently in women with high implantation potential. In contrast, the VEGF+405.CC and TNFα-308.GG combination was associated with a low implantation rate.We identified associations between VEGF(+405G>C and TNFα(-308A>G polymorphisms (when considered singly or as combinations and the embryo implantation rate. These associations may be predictive of embryo implantation and could help to define populations in which elective single-embryo transfer should be recommended (or, conversely, ruled out. However, the mechanism

  10. Malaria ecology, child mortality & fertility. (United States)

    McCord, Gordon C; Conley, Dalton; Sachs, Jeffrey D


    The broad determinants of fertility are thought to be reasonably well identified by demographers, though the detailed quantitative drivers of fertility levels and changes are less well understood. This paper uses a novel ecological index of malaria transmission to study the effect of child mortality on fertility. We find that temporal variation in the ecology of the disease is well-correlated to mortality, and pernicious malaria conditions lead to higher fertility rates. We then argue that most of this effect occurs through child mortality, and estimate the effect of child mortality changes on fertility. Our findings add to the literature on disease and fertility, and contribute to the suggestive evidence that child mortality reductions have a causal effect on fertility changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of oral ritodrine on implantation rate in in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycles

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    Maryam Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy rate with IVF cycle is almost 22%. Many investigations perform to increase this rate in IVF. Various factors affect the result of IVF cycles. One of these factors could be uterine contractions that expel transferred embryo. Ritodrine is a beta mimetic agent that can block and decrease uterine contractions.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine ritodrine effectiveness for increasing the implantation rate in IVF cycles, and its probable mechanisms in decreasing uterine contractions as well.Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients of IVF-ET cycles were divided randomly in two groups in a university hospital, Hamadan, Iran. The case group were prescribed ritodrine 10 mg / bid orally after oocyte retrieval until 10 days. The control group didn’t received ridotrine.Results: In ritodrine group 14% of patients and in control group 16% had positive β-hCG test (p-value>0.5.Conclusion: Ritodrine did not improve the implantation rate in IVF-ET cycles

  12. Low body mass index compromises live birth rate in fresh transfer in vitro fertilization cycles: a retrospective study in a Chinese population. (United States)

    Cai, Jiali; Liu, Lanlan; Zhang, Junwen; Qiu, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaoming; Li, Ping; Sha, Aiguo; Ren, Jianzhi


    To evaluate the effects of low body mass index (BMI) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in fresh transfer cycles. Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated hospital. A total of 4,798 cycles with conventional stimulation and fresh transfer in a single IVF center during the period 2013-2014. Low BMI (Live birth rate per fresh embryo transfer. Low BMI was associated with reduced live birth rates and increased miscarriage rates compared with normal weight, controlling for important covariates known to influence IVF outcomes. Patient age was the most potent confounder, causing a 10.5% reduction in the odds ratio (OR) for live birth between the groups compared. When an interaction term (age × BMI) was introduced, the OR for live birth was reduced in cycles of those aged ≥35 years compared with cycles of those aged 28-34 years, whereas the change in OR between cycles in those aged <28 and cycles in those aged 28-34 years was insignificant. Low BMI is associated with negative outcomes in fresh transfer cycles, especially for women of advanced age. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aneuploidy screening by array comparative genomic hybridization improves success rates of in vitro fertilization: A multicenter Indian study

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    Aditi Kotdawala


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, multicenter study including 235 PGS cycles following intracytoplasmic sperm injection performed at six different infertility centers from September 2013 to June 2015. Patients were divided as per maternal age in several groups (40 years and as per indication for undergoing PGS. Indications for performing PGS were recurrent miscarriage, repetitive implantation failure, severe male factor, previous trisomic pregnancy, and advanced maternal age (≥35. Day 3 embryo biopsy was performed and analyzed by aCGH followed by day 5 embryo transfer in the same cycle or the following cycle. Outcomes such as pregnancy rates (PRs/transfer, implantation rates, miscarriage rates, percentage of abnormal embryos, and number of embryos with more than one aneuploidy and chaotic patterns were recorded for all the treated subjects based on different age and indication groups. Results: aCGH helped in identifying aneuploid embryos, thus leading to consistent implantation (range: 33.3%-42.9% and PRs per transfer (range: 31.8%-54.9% that were obtained for all the indications in all the age groups, after performing PGS. Conclusion: Aneuploidy is one of the major factors which affect embryo implantation. aCGH can be successfully employed for screening of aneuploid embryos. When euploid embryos are transferred, an increase in PRs can be achieved irrespective of the age or the indication.

  14. Spatially and temporally varying Quaternary uplift rates of the Gerecse Hills, Northern Pannonian Basin, using dated geomorphological horizons in the Danube valley (United States)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Fodor, László; Csillag, Gábor; Braucher, Régis; Kele, Sándor; Novothny, Ágnes; Thamó-Bozsó, Edit; Virág, Attila; Molnár, Gábor; Madarász, Balázs; Aster Team


    The assessment of Quaternary vertical deformation rates of uplifted, low altitude hilly regions is based mainly on the dating of paleo-surfaces that can be related to reference levels through several stages of landscape evolution. Regarding the Gerecse Hills (NE part of the Transdanubian Range, Hungary), situated to the south of the incised Danube River the all-time base-level of the river provides a suitable reference level, because the intracontinental setting of the study area makes it insensitive of the global sea level changes. The terrace sequences of the Hungarian part of the Danube valley preserve a record of varying tectonic uplift rates along the river course and throughout several climate stages. The Gerecse Hills consists mainly of Triassic carbonatic rocks and a thin Paleogene and Neogene siliciclastic cover. The Danube is escorted by a set of Quaternary river terraces and higher planation surfaces, which may be of Pliocene age. The terraces are covered by alluvial sediments frequently capped by travertine and/or loess. To establish the chronology of these terraces, we rely on U-series data of travertines and on new in situ produced cosmogenic nuclides data combined with luminescence (OSL and postIR-IRSL) ages from the lower terraces. In situ produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations were measured in samples distributed along vertical depth profiles to enable the determination of both the exposure duration and the denudation rate at each studied locality. We used Monte Carlo approach to model the denudation rate-corrected exposure ages. Burial age determinations were performed using cosmogenic 26Al/10Be nuclide ratios. Post-IR IRSL measurements were carried out on K-feldspar and OSL measurements on quartz grains to determine the ages of sediment deposition. The highest dated horizon (˜115 m above the river) provided a preliminary burial age of ˜2.7 Ma, which is in accordance with the possible time span of sedimentation deduced from the occurrence of

  15. Exploratory randomized trial on the effect of a brief psychological intervention on emotions, quality of life, discontinuation, and pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization patients. (United States)

    Domar, Alice D; Gross, Jill; Rooney, Kristin; Boivin, Jacky


    To determine whether a brief self-administered cognitive coping and relaxation intervention (CCRI) would lead to decreased treatment termination in in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients compared with routine care (RC). Randomized, controlled, prospective study. Private academically affiliated infertility center. One hundred sixty-six women about to begin their first IVF cycle. Randomization to the self-administered CCRI or RC control group and then observation for 12 months. Treatment discontinuation within 12 months (primary outcome), clinical pregnancy rate and psychological well-being (secondary outcomes). The 12-month pregnancy rate was similar for the RC and CCRI groups (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% CI, 0.53-1.98). Of the patients who were not pregnant on the first cycle, 15 of 46 (15.2%) patients assigned to RC discontinued compared with 5 of 55 (5.5%) patients assigned to the CCRI (OR 3.11; 95% CI, 0.756-12.80). The CCRI group engaged in statistically significantly more positive reappraisal coping (OR 0.275; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.39) than the RC control group (OR 0.097; 95% CI, -0.03, .23). The CCRI group had an improved Fertility Quality of Life (FertiQoL CORE: OR 4.07; 95% CI, 2.07, 6.06; FertiQoL Emotional: OR 5.95; 95% CI, 2.89, 9.00) compared with the control group (Core OR: 0.67; 95% CI, -1.55, 2.89; Emotional: OR -0.02, 95% CI, -3.36, 3.32). The CCRI group reported less global anxiety (OR 0.275; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.39) than the control group (OR 0.471; 95% CI, -2.40, 3.34). The CCRI reported positive evaluations for the intervention (e.g., ease of use, helpfulness, perceived stress reduction). Use of the CCRI tool led to improved psychological status but not statistically significantly more treatment cycles or a higher pregnancy rate. NCT01318291. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Asociación entre la tasa de autofecundación y la frecuencia de larvas malformadas en poblaciones cultivadas del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 Association between self-fertilization rates and the frequency of malformed larvae in farmed populations of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819

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    Christopher Concha


    Full Text Available El incremento de la frecuencia de malformaciones y la reducción de la viabilidad y fecundidad suelen ser las primeras manifestaciones de la depresión por consanguinidad en animales. El ostión del norte, Argopectenpurpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, es una especie hermnafrodita funcional con autofecundación parcial y durante la reproducción artificial puede presentar altos grados de autofecundación. En este trabajo se analizó la asociación de la tasa de autofecundación con la frecuencia de larvas malformadas y la supervivencia larval. Se desovaron adultos maduros y se recogieron separadamente los gametos femeninos del 5° pulso de liberación en adelante y los masculinos. Los ovocitos fueron fecundados con espermatozoides de otro individuo, formando familias de hermanos completos. La tasa de autofecundación se verificó por la proporción de ovocitos que entra en división en una muestra de ellos sin fecundar. La tasa de autofecundación varió entre familias de 0 a 100%, con distribución de frecuencias normal. La proporción de larvas malformadas se distribuyó al azar entre las familias analizadas, pero se correlacionó negativamente, en forma moderada pero significativa, con la tasa de autofecundación y la temperatura media del cultivo. Los datos sugieren que la autofecundación en las familias de ostiones puede favorecer una mayor homeostasis del desarrollo larval.Increased frequencies of malformations and the reduction of viability and fecundity are some of the first manifestations of inbreeding depression in animals. The northern scallop, Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, is a functional hermaphrodite species with partial self-fertilization. During artificial reproduction, this species may present high degrees of self-fertilization. In this work, the association between the selfing rate and the frequency of larval malformations and survival were analyzed. Mature adults were spawned, and female and male gametes were collected

  17. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia


    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.


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    Lucija Kuder


    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to determine whether endometrial features such as thickness, type and subendometrial movements observed by ultrasound on the day of embryo transfer in in vitro fertilisation (IVF in natural cycles, can predict implantation outcome.Methods. One hundred and eight natural IVF cycles in which the embryo transfer was performed were included in a prospective study. One hour prior to embryo transfer vaginal ultrasound examination was done to measure endometrial thickness, asses endometrial pattern and movements. The thickness and the type of endometrium were estimated in sagital plane of the uterus. Estimations of the direction of movements, amplitude and the amount of waves regarding the length of uterine cavity were performed. Women were divided into two groups: the first group consisted of those who conceived and the second of those who did not.Results. The average age of women was 32.8 ± 4.07 years. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, estradiol level and average follicle diameter on the day of hCG application. Pregnancy rate on embryo transfer being 22.2% (24/108, and 84 women (77.8% did not conceived. The thickness, type and endometrial movements were similar in both groups, therefore, not statistically significant (p > 0.05. Duration of menstrual cycles prior to hCG application in no concived group was shorter, statistically significant (p = 0.002.Conclusions. On the basis owing to ultrasound characteristics such as subendometrial movements, thickness and pattern on the day of embryo transfer in the natural IVF/ICSI cycle have no predictive value of embryo implantation.

  19. Chinese culture and fertility decline. (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S


    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  20. The effect of caffeine consumption on the success rate of pregnancy as well various performance parameters of in-vitro fertilization treatment. (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; El-Doush, Inaam; Grisellhi, Bellido; Coskun, Serdar


    This study evaluated the effect of caffeine consumption on the success rate of pregnancy and various in vitro fertilization (IVF) performance parameters. Serum and follicular fluid samples were collected from 619 women undergoing IVF treatment (2002-2003). Caffeine assessment was based on measuring the levels of caffeine in serum and follicular fluid and on the number of coffee or tea or caffeinated drinks consumed per day. A total of 97.3% of participants reported the consumption of caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea and soft drinks. Their average caffeine consumption was 455.82 mg/day (range: 3.71-3561 mg/day). Coffee was the primary source of caffeine intake. The average caffeine levels in serum (0.913 µg/ml) were significantly higher than in follicular fluid (0.701 µg/ml). After controlling for various potential confounding variables, no association was found between coffee or tea consumption and the success rate of pregnancy. Looking at the effect of caffeine consumption on the IVF performance parameters, we found that the number of eggs decreased as the caffeine serum levels increased (P=0.011). An increase in coffee consumption was positively associated with the number of aborted pregnancy (P=0.007), while the number of good embryo decreased with high tea consumption (P=0.015). Though no association was seen between coffee or tea consumption and pregnancy rate, this study is the first to report that caffeine can reach the follicular fluid and there is a suggestive evidence of its possible harmful role on the consequences of reproductive process. This clearly warrants further investigation.

  1. Effect on field fertility of addition of gelatine, different dilution rates and storage times of cooled ram semen after vaginal insemination. (United States)

    Paulenz, H; Adnøy, T; Fossen, O H; Söderquist, L


    In a field trial, 633 ewes from 24 farms were inseminated vaginally using liquid semen (150 x 10(6) per dose) collected from 15 rams. The semen was either diluted with a milk-based extender (M), filled in 0.2 ml straws and stored for 12 or 24 h (M12, M24) or diluted with M but with the addition of gelatine, filled in 0.5 ml straws and stored for 12 or 24 h (G12, G24). The hypothesis was that a larger volume and the addition of gelatine would prolong the survival of the spermatozoa. The ewes, aged between 6 months and 5.5 years, were allocated into four groups and inseminated after natural oestrus by the farmers themselves with a dose of 150 x 10(6) spermatozoa. Inseminations in the groups (M12, M24, G12, G24) resulted in lambing rates of 69.6%, 63.6%, 69.4% and 58.3% (overall 65.2%), respectively. Farmer (p gelatine/storage time had not. A pair-wise comparison of the lambing rates between the four groups showed that significant lower results were only achieved for G24 compared with M12. None of the other comparisons showed significant differences. In conclusion, a higher dilution rate of the AI-dose together with the addition of gelatine to the semen extender did not lead to improved fertility results after storage for 24 h when compared with standard AI-doses used in Norway.

  2. Maize Response to Fertilizer Dosing at Three Sites in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

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    Getachew Sime


    Full Text Available This study examines the agronomic response, efficiency and profitability of fertilizer microdosing in maize. An experiment with the following treatments was conducted: control without fertilizer, microdosing treatments, with the rate of 27 + 27, 53 + 53 and 80 + 80 kg ha−1, and banding of fertilizer with 100 + 100 kg ha−1 of di ammonium phosphate (DAP + urea, applied at planting and jointing, respectively. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The experiment was conducted during the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 cropping seasons at Ziway, Melkassa and Hawassa in the semiarid central rift valley region of Ethiopia. Compared to the control, the fertilizer treatments had higher yield and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE profitably. The 27 + 27 kg ha−1 fertilizer rate increased the grain yield by 19, 45 and 46% at Hawassa, Ziway and Melkassa, respectively, and it was equivalent to the higher rates. The value cost ratio (VCR was highest with the lowest fertilizer rate, varying between seven and 11 in the treatment with 27 + 27 kg ha−1, but two and three in the banding treatment. Similarly, FUE was highest with the lowest fertilizer rate, varying between 23 and 34 kg kg−1 but 7 and 8 kg kg−1 in the banding treatment. The improved yield, FUE, VCR and gross margin in maize with microdosing at the 27 + 27 kg ha−1 of DAP + urea rate makes it low cost, low risk, high yielding and profitable. Therefore, application of this particular rate in maize may be an option for the marginal farmers in the region with similar socioeconomic and agroecological conditions.

  3. Improvement in in vitro fertilization rate, decrease in reactive oxygen species and spermatozoa death incidence in rams by dietary fish oil. (United States)

    Matini Behzad, A; Ebrahimi, B; Alizadeh, A R; Esmaeili, V; Dalman, A; Rashki, L; Shahverdi, A H


    Our aim was to evaluate the effects of fish oil feeding on sperm classical parameters, level of reactive oxygen spices (ROS), spermatozoa death incidence and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate in rams. We randomly assigned nine rams, into two experimental groups (isoenergetic and isonitrogenous rations with constant level of vitamin E supplement): control (CTR; n = 5) and fish oil (FO; n = 4, 35 g/day/ram). Diets were fed for 70 days during the physiological breeding season. After a 21-day dietary adaptation period, semen was collected weekly from each ram by an artificial vagina. Sperm classical parameters were determined by the computer-assisted sperm analyzer system (CASA), and it was prepared for IVF process by swim-up technique. These evaluations were performed during the first and last weeks of sampling. Intracellular ROS level and spermatozoa death incidence were detected by flow cytometry on a weekly basis after adaptation. Data were analysed with SPSS 15. The volume, concentration (3.6 and 2.7 × 10(9) /ml) and sperm progressive motility (60 and 48%) were significantly improved in the FO group compared with the CTR (p oil to the ram diet not only improved sperm quality and IVF results, it also could reduce oxygen-free radicals and the incidence of spermatozoa death. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Detection of early cleavage embryos improves pregnancy and delivery rates of Day 3 embryo transfer during in vitro fertilization. (United States)

    Lee, Chun-I; Lee, Tsung-Hsien; Huang, Chun-Chia; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Liu, Chung-Hsien; Lee, Maw-Sheng


    This study established a simple criterion for improving the pregnancy and delivery rates of Day 3 embryo transfer for in vitro fertilization (IVF) by assessing the early cleavage of two-cell stage embryos. In total, 258 cycle patients undergoing an IVF and Day 3 embryo transfer program were recruited. All cycles were divided into four groups containing viable Day 3 embryos and those (A) with distinct early cleavage (equal-sized blastomeres and ≤10% fragmentation: ECA grade); (B) with indistinct early cleavage (equal sized blastomeres, >2 blastomeres, or >10% fragmentation: ECB grade); (C) without early cleavage [no early cleavage (NEC grade)]; or (D) without early cleavage being assessed (control) at 25-27 after insemination. The percentage of viable Day 3 embryos from ECA grade (75.1%, 507/675) was significantly higher than that from ECB grade (19.2%, 151/403) or NEC grade (27.1%, 127/469) embryos (p ECA group [65.7% (65/990) and 48.5% (48/990), respectively] were significantly higher than those in the ECB group [30.8% (4/13) and 7.7% (1/13), respectively] or NEC group [36.8% (14/38) and 23.7% (9/38), respectively; all p ECA group (32.3%, 129/400) was higher than those in the ECB (6.8%, 4/59) and NEC (13.0%, 18/136) groups (p < 0.01). Simple selection using the early cleavage morphology may improve the pregnancy and delivery rates of Day 3 embryo transfer programs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Development of the knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation scale

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    McNees P


    Full Text Available Angela Jukkala1, Karen Meneses1, Andres Azuero1, June Cho1, Patrick McNees1,21School of Nursing, 2School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAObjective: Infertility is a severe and often underestimated consequence of successful treatment for breast cancer. Ensuring young breast cancer survivors receive patient-centered health information on the impact of treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options in a timely manner is a critical component of high quality nursing care. The objective of this manuscript is to report the process used to develop and examine the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure a breast cancer survivor’s self-assessed knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation.Design: A scale development and descriptive study.Setting: Online and global.Participants: Ninety-two young breast cancer survivors (ages 25–45 years.Methods: Participants completed the Knowledge of Fertility and Fertility Preservation (KF Scale as part of their participation in a larger study, the Fertility Cancer Project (FCP.Results: An exploratory factor analysis revealed five domains: normal reproductive function; general information about fertility; cancer treatment factors affecting fertility; infertility information; and alternative parenting options. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of the construct with a demonstrated good fit between the factor structure of the new scale and the observed data. Many participants self-assessed their overall knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation as “a little” and the majority rated their knowledge of infertility information as “a little”.Conclusion: The KF Scale can be used to provide useful information to support health care professionals in the development of patient-centered education that is responsive to the unique needs of each young breast cancer survivor. The initial testing of the KF Scale indicates

  6. Therapeutic analysis of high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer using a cylindrical target volume model and varied cancer cell distributions

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    Zhang, Hualin, E-mail:; Donnelly, Eric D.; Strauss, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60611 (United States); Qi, Yujin [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)


    Purpose: To evaluate high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) in the treatment of endometrial cancer in a cylindrical target volume with either a varied or a constant cancer cell distributions using the linear quadratic (LQ) model. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) technique was used to calculate the 3D dose distribution of HDR VCBT over a variety of cylinder diameters and treatment lengths. A treatment planning system (TPS) was used to make plans for the various cylinder diameters, treatment lengths, and prescriptions using the clinical protocol. The dwell times obtained from the TPS were fed into MC. The LQ model was used to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of two brachytherapy regimens prescribed either at 0.5 cm depth (5.5 Gy × 4 fractions) or at the vaginal mucosal surface (8.8 Gy × 4 fractions) for the treatment of endometrial cancer. An experimentally determined endometrial cancer cell distribution, which showed a varied and resembled a half-Gaussian distribution, was used in radiobiology modeling. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to cancer cells was calculated for each treatment scenario. The therapeutic ratio (TR) was defined by comparing VCBT with a uniform dose radiotherapy plan in term of normal cell survival at the same level of cancer cell killing. Calculations of clinical impact were run twice assuming two different types of cancer cell density distributions in the cylindrical target volume: (1) a half-Gaussian or (2) a uniform distribution. Results: EUDs were weakly dependent on cylinder size, treatment length, and the prescription depth, but strongly dependent on the cancer cell distribution. TRs were strongly dependent on the cylinder size, treatment length, types of the cancer cell distributions, and the sensitivity of normal tissue. With a half-Gaussian distribution of cancer cells which populated at the vaginal mucosa the most, the EUDs were between 6.9 Gy × 4 and 7.8 Gy × 4, the TRs were in the range from (5.0){sup 4} to (13

  7. Modelling and simulations of controlled release fertilizer (United States)

    Irfan, Sayed Ameenuddin; Razali, Radzuan; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku; Mansor, Nurlidia


    The recent advancement in controlled release fertilizer has provided an alternative solution to the conventional urea, controlled release fertilizer has a good plant nutrient uptake they are environment friendly. To have an optimum plant intake of nutrients from controlled release fertilizer it is very essential to understand the release characteristics. A mathematical model is developed to predict the release characteristics from polymer coated granule. Numerical simulations are performed by varying the parameters radius of granule, soil water content and soil porosity to study their effect on fertilizer release. Understanding these parameters helps in the better design and improve the efficiency of controlled release fertilizer.

  8. Uncertain lifetime, fertility and social security


    Akira Yakita


    Investigating the effects of population aging on fertility and economic growth, we show that an increase in life expectancy lowers the fertility rate and raises life-cycle savings, and that a pay-as-you-go social security does not reverse the effect on fertility.

  9. Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applied at corn sowing in contrasting growing seasons in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado


    Full Text Available In order to select soil management practices that increase the nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE in agro-ecosystems, the different indices of agronomic fertilizer efficiency must be evaluated under varied weather conditions. This study assessed the NUE indices in no-till corn in southern Paraguay. Nitrogen fertilizer rates from 0 to 180 kg ha-1 were applied in a single application at corn sowing and the crop response investigated in two growing seasons (2010 and 2011. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replications. Based on the data of grain yield, dry matter, and N uptake, the following fertilizer indices were assessed: agronomic N-use efficiency (ANE, apparent N recovery efficiency (NRE, N physiological efficiency (NPE, partial factor productivity (PFP, and partial nutrient balance (PNB. The weather conditions varied largely during the experimental period; the rainfall distribution was favorable for crop growth in the first season and unfavorable in the second. The PFP and ANE indices, as expected, decreased with increasing N fertilizer rates. A general analysis of the N fertilizer indices in the first season showed that the maximum rate (180 kg ha-1 obtained the highest corn yield and also optimized the efficiency of NPE, NRE and ANE. In the second season, under water stress, the most efficient N fertilizer rate (60 kg ha-1 was three times lower than in the first season, indicating a strong influence of weather conditions on NUE. Considering that weather instability is typical for southern Paraguay, anticipated full N fertilization at corn sowing is not recommended due the temporal variability of the optimum N fertilizer rate needed to achieve high ANE.

  10. Antral follicle responsiveness to FSH, assessed by the follicular output rate (FORT), is altered in Hodgkin's lymphoma when compared with breast cancer candidates for fertility preservation. (United States)

    Sonigo, Charlotte; Comtet, Marjorie; Duros, Solene; Sifer, Christophe; Sermondade, Nathalie; Grynberg, Michaël


    Oocyte and/or embryo cryopreservation after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) represents the most established method for female fertility preservation (FP) before cancer treatment. Whether patients suffering from malignancies, candidates for FP, have a normal ovarian capacity to respond to stimulation is controversial. Reduced responsiveness of antral follicle to exogenous FSH might be at play. The percentage of antral follicles that successfully respond to FSH administration may be estimated by the follicular output rate (FORT), which presumably reflects the health of granulosa cells. The present study aims at investigating whether the FORT differs between Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and breast cancer (BC) patients. Forty-nine BC and 33 HL patient candidates for FP using oocyte vitrification following COH were prospectively studied. FORT was calculated by the ratio between the pre-ovulatory follicle count (16-22 mm) on the day of oocyte triggering × 100/antral follicle count before initiation of the stimulation. Overall, women in the HL group were younger in comparison with BC patients (26.4 ± 3.9 vs 33.6 ± 3.3 years, p < 0.0001, respectively). The FORT was significantly decreased in patients with HL when compared with BC group (27.0 ± 18.8 vs 39.8 ± 18.9%, p = 0.004, respectively), further leading to a comparable number of oocytes vitrified (10.8 ± 5.9 vs 10.2 ± 7.7 oocytes, p = 0.7, respectively). The present findings indicate that the percentage of antral follicles that successfully respond to FSH administration is reduced in HL when compared to BC patients, supporting the hypothesis of a detrimental effect of hemopathy on follicular health. In vitro experimentations might provide additional data to confirm this hypothesis.

  11. The Cost of Raising Fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurjanska, Malgorzata; Lyngsie, Jacob

    In recent years, Europe has entered a crisis of fertility. One policy solution that countries can, and some have moved to adopt to deal with low fertility rates, is to increase labor benefits granted to new parents, with a particular focus on extending maternity, not paternity, leave. We explore...... supporting an increase in Europe’s fertility rate, increasing maternity leave may also exacerbate gender inequalities tied to childrearing. Relying on alternative measures of in-home gender inequalities (e.g. gender conservatism), initial results provide compelling evidence that maternity benefits do affect...

  12. The response of soil carbon cycling in managed loblolly pine forests to fertilization and the planting of families with differing growth rates (United States)

    Vogel, J. G.; Schuur, E. A.; Gill, C.; Bracho, R.; Jokela, E.


    Forest management practices in the southern United States have made the pine forests of the region some of the most productive in the world. This remarkable productivity makes the region attractive for offsetting anthropogenic emissions of CO2 through increased biomass capture, or through the biomass-to-fuel approach. In other agricultural systems, however, increased plant productivity from management has often corresponded to a decrease in soil carbon. Over half of a forest ecosystem’s carbon is found in the soil; therefore a decrease in soil carbon could counteract a considerable amount of the reduction in atmospheric CO2 that results from enhanced tree growth. We have examined two forestry practices, fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus and the genetic control of planted seedlings, in terms of how these practices affect key controls on soil carbon cycling. Root biomass dynamics, soil CO2 efflux, and microbial respiration were contrasted for a “fast” and a “slow” growing family of loblolly pine receiving two different levels of fertilization at two sites in north central Florida. Our overarching hypothesis was that greater aboveground growth would correspond to increased inputs of carbon to the soil as root biomass, and a greater efflux of CO2 from roots and soil microbes. At both sites, the faster growing families supported significantly (pfamilies. However under higher levels of fertilization, the fast and the slow growing families had similar levels of fine root biomass and soil CO2 efflux. Results from this study suggest that greater aboveground growth due to genetic selection only related to greater inputs of carbon to the soil when fertilization levels were low. Radiocarbon measurements of microbial respiration indicated no differences in soil organic matter turnover among families or fertilization treatments. These results suggest that the response to management of soil carbon will be more sensitive to how fertilization or genetic selection

  13. The Missing Children: Mortality and Fertility in a Southeast Asian Refugee Population. (United States)

    Gordon, Linda W.


    Presents the age-sex structures of refugee populations arriving in the United States from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam from 1975 through 1986. Differences in the composition of these young populations reflect varying flight and resettlement experiences and changing factors influencing migration. High fertility rates predict a generation of rapid…

  14. Women's education and fertility behaviour. (United States)


    The education of women results in changes in women's health status, family well being, and fertility decline. The aim of human rights and social justice is also served by increasing women's educational levels. A review of the trends in developing countries has shown that there is a strong correlation between advanced female education (10 or more years) and lower fertility. Data for 26 countries was presented in table form for total fertility rates by years of education. There were many differences in the patterns of fertility by educational level based on country level of development. The data appeared to show stronger correlations between fertility and education in more prosperous societies; culture and social structure also influenced fertility. Partial primary education has been shown in some countries to be related to increased fertility. A UN study found a curvilinear relationship between fertility and education in 14 out of 38 countries with World Fertility Surveys. There were only 3 countries with Demographic and Health Surveys which showed the curvilinear pattern. The UN study confirmed that maternal education was related to shorter durations of postpartum abstinence and short durations of lactation. Caution was urged in interpreting that an increase in a few years of schooling in a dominant rural, illiterate population would facilitate rapid fertility decline. A critical threshold effect for educational attainment was found in mainly the least developed countries. Female education has direct and indirect effects on fertility. Education may affect breast feeding patterns, contraceptive use, social norms about small families, later age at marriage, and later age at first birth. The suggestion was that education provided for reproductive choice and reduces the gap between actual and desired family size. At the country and individual level of analysis, contraceptive use was linked with education. Effective contraceptive use was still however impeded by

  15. [Fertility in Colombia]. (United States)

    Ojeda, G


    Demography, which should be the basis for planning of any program or project, has traditionally been ignored by Colombian governments. No population statistics are available for the pre-Conquest period in Colombia. Statistics during the Colonial era were based on population counts for division of lands, taxation, and similar considerations. The first census was undertaken around 1770. Colombia's most recent census was in 1993, and another is being prepared for 2000. The censuses have been useful for development purposes despite their significant limitations of completeness and accuracy. Colombia's population in 1997 was estimated at 40,300,000, making it the third most populous country of Latin America after Brazil and Mexico. Fertility has declined considerably since 1965. Colombia's crude birth rate is believed to have exceeded 50/1000 in the 18th and 19th centuries and was estimated at 45/1000 by the Latin American Demographic Center for the first half of the 20th century. The crude birth rate was 41.3/1000 in 1968, 33.1/1000 in 1973, 30/1000 in 1980, and around 26/1000 in 1990 and 1995. The total fertility rate was estimated at 7.0 in 1960-65, 6.7 in 1969, 4.5 in 1973, 3.2 in 1985, and 2.9 in 1995. Fertility declined most appreciably before 1975, but rates continue to drop in rural as well as urban areas and in all geographic zones. For Colombia as a whole the total fertility rate is 4.8 for women with less than 5 years of schooling and 2.4 for those with 8 or more years. It is 2.7 in urban and 4.4 in rural areas.

  16. Long-term effects of varying intensities and formats of physical activity on participation rates, fitness, and lipoproteins in men and women aged 50 to 65 years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, A C; Haskell, W L; Young, D R; Oka, R K; Stefanick, M L


    ... their longer-term effects. The study objective was to determine the 2-year effects of differing intensities and formats of endurance exercise on exercise participation rates, fitness, and plasma HDL cholesterol levels among healthy older adults...

  17. Education Differences in Intended and Unintended Fertility (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; England, Paula; Edgington, Sarah; Kangas, Nicole


    Using a hazards framework and panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2004), we analyze the fertility patterns of a recent cohort of white and black women in the United States. We examine how completed fertility varies by women's education, differentiating between intended and unintended births. We find that the education…

  18. Do referral rates vary widely between practices and does supply of services affect demand? A study in Milton Keynes and the Oxford region. (United States)

    Noone, A; Goldacre, M; Coulter, A; Seagroatt, V


    Two commonly held beliefs about referral rates were investigated in this study: first that demand for services is determined by supply and secondly that there is wide variation between general practices in their referral rates. All referrals to specialist outpatient clinics were recorded during two 11-week periods by general practitioners in eight practices in the new town of Milton Keynes and in 17 practices elsewhere in the Oxford region. During the first period, only a limited outpatient service was available in the new town; for many specialist services, people had to be referred to hospitals outside the district. Referral rates from Milton Keynes were very similar to those from the rest of the region. By the second period the range of specialist facilities available locally had expanded considerably with the opening of the new district general hospital and during this period there was a statistically significant but rather small increase in referral rates from Milton Keynes. Variation in referral rates between general practices within each geographical group was greater than that between the two groups. Overall, there was about a three-fold variation between general practices in outpatient referral rates which is considerably less than that commonly thought to exist.

  19. More of the same? In situ leaf and root decomposition rates do not vary between 80 native and nonnative deciduous forest species. (United States)

    Jo, Insu; Fridley, Jason D; Frank, Douglas A


    Invaders often have greater rates of production and produce more labile litter than natives. The increased litter quantity and quality of invaders should increase nutrient cycling through faster litter decomposition. However, the limited number of invasive species that have been included in decomposition studies has hindered the ability to generalize their impacts on decomposition rates. Further, previous decomposition studies have neglected roots. We measured litter traits and decomposition rates of leaves for 42 native and 36 nonnative woody species, and those of fine roots for 23 native and 25 nonnative species that occur in temperate deciduous forests throughout the Eastern USA. Among the leaf and root traits that differed between native and invasive species, only leaf nitrogen was significantly associated with decomposition rate. However, native and nonnative species did not differ systematically in leaf and root decomposition rates. We found that among the parameters measured, litter decomposer activity was driven by litter chemical quality rather than tissue density and structure. Our results indicate that litter decomposition rate per se is not a pathway by which forest woody invasive species affect North American temperate forest soil carbon and nutrient processes. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. A simple and fast method for assessment of the nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium rating of fertilizers using high-resolution continuum source atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechlin, Marcos André; Fortunato, Felipe Manfroi; Moutinho da Silva, Ricardo; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta, E-mail:


    The determination of N, P, and K in fertilizers by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry is proposed. Under optimized conditions, measurements of the diatomic molecules NO and PO at 215.360 and 247.620 nm, respectively, and K using the wing of the alternative line at 404.722 nm allowed calibration curves to be constructed in the ranges 500–5000 mg L{sup −1} N (r = 0.9994), 100–2000 mg L{sup −1} P (r = 0.9946), and 100–2500 mg L{sup −1} K (r = 0.9995). Commercial fertilizers were analyzed by the proposed method and the concentrations of N, P, and K were found to be in agreement with those obtained by Kjeldahl, spectrophotometric, and flame atomic emission spectrometry methods, respectively, at a 95% confidence level (paired t-test). A phosphate rock certified reference material (CRM) was analyzed and the results for P and K were in agreement with the reference values. Recoveries from spiked CRM were in the ranges 97–105% (NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N), 95–103% (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N), 93–103% (urea-N), 99–108% (P), and 99–102% (K). The relative standard deviations (n = 12) for N, P, and K were 6, 4, and 2%, respectively. - Highlights: • A single technique is proposed to analyze NPK fertilizer. • HR-CS FAAS is proposed for the first time for N, P and K determination in fertilizers. • The method employs the same sample preparation and dilution for the three analytes. • Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} allows analysis of fertilizers with different nitrogen species. • Proposal provides advantages over traditional methods in terms of cost and time.

  1. Mitigation of Water Stress on Apple Trees under Rotational Irrigation Conditions by Increasing the Application Rate of Organic Fertilizers to Sandy Soils (United States)

    Hamed, Lamy Mamdoh Mohamed; Ramadan Eid, Abdelraouf; Mohsmed Rabie Abdellatif Abdelaziz, Adel; Fathy Abdelsalam Essa, El-Sayed


    Egypt, as part of Mediterranean regions, is characterized by irregular and low rainfall amount which varies between (30-150 mm.year-1), and characterized also by high temperature which increase the rate of evapotranspiration from the cultivated soil. On the other hand, New reclaimed soils are mostly occupies around 84 % of total area of Egypt, which is mainly sandy soils. These soils generally characterized by low water capacity holding, soil organic matter, and weak in nutrients retention. Under these conditions which have a great influence on crop production, there is a great needing to increase the crop water use efficiency and increasing of nutrient retention in sandy soils. In this context, two field experiments were carried out on sand soil located in north Cairo-Egypt at the experimental farm of National Research Center, El-NUBARIA, (latitude 30° 30' N, and longitude 30° 19' E). The effect of compost rates on soil hydraulic characteristics, fruit yields, quality traits, and water use efficiency and productivity of apple tree (Apple Anna Cultivar), was studied under deficit irrigation conditions. Four rates of compost [I1: control, I2: 12 ton.ha-1., I3: 24 ton.ha-1., I4: 36 ton.ha-1. and I5:48 ton.ha-1.] were applied under irrigation frequencies of (IF1 :once per week; IF2 :twice per week, IF3 :three times per week). The obtained results indicated that by increasing the application rate of compost, the available water capacity and saturated water content of sandy soil have been enhanced. In the same time, the fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity were increased by increasing the application rate of compost. It is worthy to mention that the I5IF3 treatment gave the highest values of fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity, whereas I1IF1 treatment gave the lowest values of all the above mentioned variables. As result, for apple cultivation in El-NUBARIA region, the recommended rate of compost is 48 ton.ha-1 and irrigation frequency

  2. Model-supported estimation of mortality rates in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L. larvae: the varying impact of 'critical periods'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichsen Hans-Harald


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the survival-rate during the larval phase may strongly influence the recruitment level in marine fish species. During the larval phase different 'critical periods' are discussed, e.g. the hatching period and the first-feeding period. No such information was available for the Baltic cod stock, a commercially important stock showing reproduction failure during the last years. We calculated field-based mortality rates for larval Baltic cod during these phases using basin-wide abundance estimates from two consecutive surveys. Survey information was corrected by three dimensional hydrodynamic model runs. Results The corrections applied for transport were of variable impact, depending on the prevailing circulation patterns. Especially at high wind forcing scenarios, abundance estimates have the potential to be biased without accounting for transport processes. In May 1988 mortality between hatch and first feeding amounted to approximately 20% per day. Mortality rates during the onset of feeding were considerably lower with only 7% per day. In August 1991 the situation was vice versa: Extremely low mortality rates of 0.08% per day were calculated between hatch and first feeding, while the period between the onset of feeding to the state of an established feeder was more critical with mortality rates of 22% per day. Conclusions Mortality rates during the different proposed 'critical periods' were found to be highly variable. Survival rates of Baltic cod are not only influenced by a single 'critical period', but can be limited at different points during the larval phase, depending on several biotic and abiotic factors.

  3. Varying cognitive targets and response rates to enhance the question-behaviour effect: An 8-arm Randomized Controlled Trial on influenza vaccination uptake. (United States)

    Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Nekitsing, Chandani; Hutter, Russell; Wood, Chantelle; Jackson, Cath; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal


    The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that survey questions about a behaviour can change that behaviour. However, little research has tested how the QBE can be maximized in behavioural medicine settings. The present research tested manipulations of cognitive targets (questions about anticipated regret or beneficence) and survey return rates (presence vs. absence of a sticky note requesting completion of the questionnaire) on the magnitude of the QBE for influenza vaccination in older adults. Participants (N = 13,803) were recruited from general practice and randomly allocated to one of eight conditions: control 1 (no questionnaire); control 2 (demographics questionnaire); intention and attitude questionnaire (with or without a sticky note); intention and attitude plus anticipated regret questionnaire (with or without a sticky note); intention and attitude plus beneficence questionnaire (with or without a sticky note). Objective records of subsequent influenza vaccination from general practice records formed the dependent variable. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated that receiving an influenza vaccination questionnaire significantly increased vaccination rates compared to the no questionnaire, OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.36 and combined control conditions, OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.25. Including the sticky note significantly increased questionnaire return rates, OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.50. However, there were no differences in vaccination rates between questionnaires containing different cognitive targets, a sticky note or not, and no interactions. There were no significant differences in the per-protocol analyses, i.e. among respondents who completed and returned the questionnaires. The QBE is a simple, low-cost intervention to increase influenza vaccination rates. Increasing questionnaire return rates or asking anticipated regret or beneficence questions in addition to intention and attitude questions did not enhance the

  4. Fertilizer effects on attaining vegetation requirements. (United States)


    This project was developed to evaluate the effects of varying the substrate and fertilization regimes on the success of complex warm-season grass and forb seedings on recent roadside construction sites. Re-vegetating construction projects is required...

  5. Variation in the Slope Coefficient of the Fama Regression for Testing Uncovered Interest Rate Parity: Evidence from Fixed and Time-varying Coefficient Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Koning (Camiel); S. Straetmans


    textabstractWe investigate the potential presence of time variation in the coefficients of the ''Fama regression'' for Uncovered Interest Rate Parity. We implement coefficient constancy tests, rolling regression techniques, and stochastic coefficient models based on state space modelling. Among six

  6. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  7. Variáveis biométricas da cana-de-açúcar fertilizada com resíduos orgânico e industrial e irrigada com água servida e potável Biometric variable of sugar cane fertilized with organic and industrial residues irrigated with potable and wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio O. de Nobile


    Full Text Available O uso agrícola de resíduos orgânicos e industriais é uma alternativa de aproveitamento como fertilizante e fonte de matéria orgânica ao solo. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso do composto de lixo e biofertilizante como fonte de nutrientes, e o resíduo do processamento da bauxita como corretivo da acidez do solo, para a cultura da cana-de-açúcar (cana-planta, irrigada com água potável e servida. Para tanto foi conduzido experimento em vaso, utilizando-se de solo Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, cultivado com a variedade RB855536. Foram avaliadas variáveis biométricas da planta, tais como: altura de plantas, diâmetro do colmo, perfilhamento, número de folhas, matéria seca de raiz e parte aérea. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que a qualidade da água de irrigação, potável ou servida, não influenciou as variáveis avaliadas. A aplicação de composto de lixo e de biofertilizante constituiu-se numa fonte eficiente de nutrientes para as plantas de cana-de-açúcar, mas é necessária a aplicação adicional de fertilizantes para a obtenção de produção de colmos, similar ao do tratamento com adubação mineral convencional. Já o resíduo do processamento da bauxita mostrou-se eficiente na correção da acidez, apresentando as variáveis físicas semelhantes ao tratamento com adubação mineral, com exceção da matéria seca de raiz.The agricultural use of organic and industrial residues is an alternative of exploitation with fertilization and source of organic matter to the soil. In this direction, the objective of this research was to evaluate the use of the urban solid waste and biofertilizer as nutrient source, and residue of the bauxite processing as agricultural liming materials of the soil for sugar cane (cane plant and culture yields, irrigated with potable water and wastewater. For in such an experiment in vase was lead, under Alfisol soil, cultivated with the variety RB855536. It had

  8. Patient Comfort During Contrast Media Injection in Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography Using Varying Contrast Media Concentrations and Flow Rates: Results From the EICAR Trial. (United States)

    Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Hendriks, Babs M F; Altintas, Sibel; Eijsvoogel, Nienke G; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco


    Pain sensation and extravasation are potential drawbacks of contrast media (CM) injection during computed tomographic angiography. The purpose was to evaluate safety and patient comfort of higher flow rates in different CM protocols during coronary computed tomographic angiography. Two hundred consecutive patients of a double-blind randomized controlled trial (NCT02462044) were analyzed. Patients were randomized to receive 94 mL of prewarmed iopromide 240 mg I/mL at 8.3 mL/s (group I), 75 mL of 300 mg I/mL at 6.7 mL/s (group II), or 61 mL of 370 mg I/mL at 5.4 mL/s (group III), respectively. Iodine delivery rate (2.0 g I/s) and total iodine load (22.5 g I) were kept identical. Outcome was defined as intravascular enhancement, patient comfort during injection, and injection safety, expressed as the occurrence of extravasation. Patients completed a questionnaire for comfort, pain, and stress during CM injection. Comfort was graded using a 5-point scale, 1 representing "very bad" and 5 "very well." Pain was graded using a 10-point scale, 0 representing "no pain" and 10 "severe pain." Stress was graded using a 5-point scale, 1 representing "no stress" and 5 "unsustainable stress." Mean enhancement levels within the coronary arteries were as follows: 437 ± 104 Hounsfield units (HU) (group I), 448 ± 111 HU (group II), and 447 ± 106 HU (group III), with P ≥ 0.18. Extravasation occurred in none of the patients. Median (interquartile range) for comfort, pain, and stress was, respectively, 4 (4-5), 0 (0-0), and 1 (1-2), with P ≥ 0.68. High flow rates of prewarmed CM were safely injected without discomfort, pain, or stress. Therefore, the use of high flow rates should not be considered a drawback for CM administration in clinical practice.

  9. Optimization of Ligninolytic Enzyme Activity and Production Rate with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Application in Bioremediation by Varying Submerged Media Composition and Growth Immobilization Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Babič


    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (central composite design of experiments was employed to simultaneously optimize enzyme production and productivities of two ligninolytic enzymes produced by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Concentrations of glucose, ammonium tartrate and Polysorbate 80 were varied to establish the optimal composition of liquid media (OLM, where the highest experimentally obtained activities and productivities were 41 U L−1 and 16 U L−1 day−1 for laccase (Lac, and 193 U L−1 and 80 U L−1 day−1 for manganese peroxidase (MnP. Considering culture growth in OLM on various types of immobilization support, the best results were obtained with 1 cm beech wood cubes (BWCM. Enzyme activities in culture filtrate were 152 U L−1 for Lac and 58 U L−1 for MnP, since the chemical composition of this immobilization material induced higher Lac activity. Lower enzyme activities were obtained with polyurethane foam. Culture filtrates of OLM and BWCM were applied for dye decolorization. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR was decolorized faster and more efficiently than Copper(IIphthalocyanine (CuP with BWCM (80% and 60%, since Lac played a crucial role. Decolorization of CuP was initially faster than that of RBBR, due to higher MnP activities in OLM. The extent of decolorization after 14 h was 60% for both dyes.

  10. Determinants of fertility in Ethiopia. (United States)

    Ayele, Dawit Getnet


    The most important elements to determine the rate of population growth is fertility. Fertility is the main element to affect the welfare of mother. The survival of a child can be affected by high fertility and shorter birth intervals. For this study, the linear mixed model was used to determine factors affecting fertility status of women in Ethiopia. The 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data was used for this study. From the result, materials used for roof, wall and floor were found to have a significant relation to fertility level of women in the last five years. Moreover, family size and births in the last five years were found to have a significant relationship. Significant variation in fertility level was observed among rural and urban residents of Ethiopia. To reduce the gap of fertility between rural and urban population, it is important to modernize different factors. These factors could be access to education, media, and providing employment opportunities in the modern economic sector. Besides this, it is important to develop and maintain the access of family planning services.

  11. Mutation rate in Velvet tobacco mottle virus varies between genomic region and virus variant but is not influenced by obligatory mirid transmission. (United States)

    Arthur, K; Collins, N C; Randles, J W


    Genomic mutation in plant viruses of cultivated plants is known to be influenced by virus, host and vector, but the factors influencing mutation in viruses of native plants in natural ecosystems are rarely studied. We have tested the effect of mode of transmission on mutation in Velvet tobacco mottle virus (VTMoV), a mirid-vectored sobemovirus associated with Nicotiana velutina, an Australian native xerophyte growing in a region isolated from anthropogenic influences. Two variants of VTMoV (K1 and R17) were passaged monthly in the alternative experimental plant host, N. clevelandii, for 2 years, either by mechanical inoculation or by transmission with the mirid Cyrtopeltis nicotianae. Sequence variations were scored after 24 passages in regions of the genome containing the open reading frames (ORFs) for the P1 and coat protein (CP). The mean mutation rate was 6.83 × 10(-4) nt/site year, but a higher overall rate was observed for the K1 (satellite -) than the R17 (satellite +) variant. The P1 ORF showed a higher frequency of non-synonymous mutations than the CP. No clear association was found between either mutation site or mutation rate and the mode of transmission, indicating that obligatory mirid transmission had not exerted a specific bottle-neck effect on sequence variation during the experimental time frame. Failure to detect any sequence motifs linked to vector transmission suggests that a specific capsid-stylet interaction is not required for transmission by mirids.

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation of l-tryptophan on thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption rate in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings under varied stocking density. (United States)

    Tejpal, C S; Sumitha, E B; Pal, A K; Shivananda Murthy, H; Sahu, N P; Siddaiah, G M


    A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary l-tryptophan on thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption rate of freshwater fish, mrigala, Cirrhinus mrigala reared under ambient temperature at low and high stocking density. Four hundred eighty fingerlings were distributed into eight experimental groups. Four groups each of low density group (10 fishes/75L water) and higher density group (30 fishes/75L water) were fed a diet containing 0, 0.68, 1.36 or 2.72% l-tryptophan in the diet, thus forming eight experimental groups namely, Low density control (LC) (basal feed +0% l-tryptophan); LT1 (basal feed+0.68% l-tryptophan); LT2 (basal feed+1.36% l-tryptophan); LT3 (basal feed+2.72% l-tryptophan); high density control (HC) (basal feed+0% l-tryptophan); HT1 (basal feed+0.68% l-tryptophan); HT2 (basal feed+1.36% l-tryptophan); and HT3 (basal feed+2.72% l-tryptophan) were fed at 3% of the body weight. The test diets having crude protein 34.33±0.23 to 35.81±0.18% and lipid 423.49±1.76 to 425.85±0.31KCal/100g were prepared using purified ingredients. The possible role of dietary l-tryptophan on thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption rate was assessed in terms of critical thermal maxima (CTMax), critical thermal minima (CTMin), lethal thermal maxima (LTMax) and lethal thermal minima (LTMin). The CTMax, CTMin, LTMax and LTMin values were found to be significantly higher (ptryptophan in the diet significantly reduced the oxygen consumption rate in both the low density group (Y=-26.74x+222.4, r²=0.915) and the high density group (Y=-32.96x+296.5, r²=0.8923). Dietary supplementation of l-tryptophan at a level of 1.36% improved the thermal tolerance level and reduced the oxygen consumption rate in C. mrigala fingerlings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. What Is Fertility Preservation? (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What is fertility preservation? Fertility preservation is the process of saving or protecting ... children in the future. Who can benefit from fertility preservation? People with certain diseases, disorders, and life ...

  14. Hispanic Assimilation and Fertility in New Destinations. (United States)

    Lichter, Daniel T; Johnson, Kenneth M; Turner, Richard N; Churilla, Allison


    This paper evaluates comparative patterns of fertility in new Hispanic destinations and established gateways using pooled cross-sectional data from the 2005-2009 microdata files of the American Community Survey. Changing Hispanic fertility provides a useful indicator of cultural incorporation. Analyses show that high fertility among Hispanics has been driven in part by the Mexican-origin and other new immigrant populations (e.g., noncitizens, those with poor English language skills, etc.). However, high fertility rates among Hispanics - and Mexican-origin Hispanics in particular - cannot be explained entirely by socio-demographic characteristics that place them at higher risk of fertility. For 2005-2009, Hispanic fertility rates were 48 percent higher than fertility among whites; they were roughly 25 percent higher after accounting for differences in key social characteristics, such as age, nativity, county of origin, and education. Contrary to most previous findings of spatial assimilation among in-migrants, fertility rates among Hispanics in new destinations exceeded fertility in established gateways by 18 percent. In the multivariate analyses, Hispanics in new destinations were roughly 10 percent more likely to have had a child in the past year than those living in established gateways. Results are consistent with sub-cultural explanations of Hispanic fertility and raise new questions about the spatial patterning of assimilation and the formation of ethnic enclaves outside traditional settlement areas.

  15. Fertility Herbs: Do They Enhance Fertility? (United States)

    ... get pregnant. I've seen many ads for fertility herbs and supplements. Do they work? Answers from ... for infertility. Unfortunately, the research on so-called fertility herbs and supplements is inconclusive and based on ...

  16. A cohort model of fertility postponement. (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua R; Cassidy, Thomas


    We introduce a new formal model in which demographic behavior such as fertility is postponed by differing amounts depending only on cohort membership. The cohort-based model shows the effects of cohort shifts on period fertility measures and provides an accompanying tempo adjustment to determine the period fertility that would have occurred without postponement. Cohort-based postponement spans multiple periods and produces "fertility momentum," with implications for future fertility rates. We illustrate several methods for model estimation and apply the model to fertility in several countries. We also compare the fit of period-based and cohort-based shift models to the recent Dutch fertility surface, showing how cohort- and period-based postponement can occur simultaneously.

  17. Associação entre morfologia do ovócito e taxa de fertilização após ICSI Relationship between oocyte morphology and fertilization rate after ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Aggelis


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a possibilidade de selecionar ovócitos que resultariam em maior taxa de fertilização. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo que analisou a taxa de fertilização após ICSI de 957 ovócitos em metáfase II segundo três parâmetros da morfologia ovocitária: granulações citoplasmáticas, espaço perivitelino e fragmentação do primeiro corpúsculo polar. Os ovócitos foram obtidos de 115 ciclos realizados em 107 mulheres atendidas no CRHC, entre abril e dezembro de 2004. Para a análise estatística das diferenças na taxa de fertilização entre ovócitos "normais" e os que apresentavam cada alteração, utilizou-se o teste de chi2, com nível de confiança de 5 e 10%. RESULTADOS: não se observou diferença significativa na taxa de fertilização segundo as características do corpúsculo polar ou espessura do espaço perivitelino. A taxa de fertilização dos ovócitos com espaço perivitelino apresentando debris foi quase 14 pontos percentuais inferior ao dos ovócitos com espaço "ausente" (p=0,055 e a dos ovócitos com citoplasma granular foi sete pontos percentuais inferior à obtida pelos ovócitos com citoplasma de aspecto normal (p0,05. CONCLUSÕES: os parâmetros da morfologia do ovócito atualmente utilizados não permitem distinguir claramente aqueles que serão fertilizados dos que não serão.PURPOSE: to verify the possibility of identifying oocytes that would result in a higher fertilization rate. METHODS: retrospective analysis of the fertilization rate after ICSI of 957 oocytes in metaphase II according to three morphology parameters: cytoplasm inclusions, thickness of the perivitelline space, and fragmentation of the first polar body. Oocytes were obtained from 115 cycles performed among 107 women attended at the "Centro de Reprodução Humana de Campinas", from April to December of 2004. For the statistical analysis of differences in the fertilization rate between 'normal' oocytes and those presenting each

  18. Fertility-related pensions and fertility disincentives


    Luca Gori; Luciano Fanti


    Since recent studies have argued that a pro-natalist effect could be obtained by introducing fertility-related pension systems for contrasting, especially in European countries, the plague of below-replacement fertility and the resulting problem of financing the widespread pay-as-you-go (PAYG) pension benefits, we built up an overlapping generations (OLG) general equilibrium model with endogenous fertility, to investigate whether and how a fertility-related pension reform increases population...

  19. Calendar month improves fertility estimate in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Chowdhury Akma


    Problems involving misreporting of the time period during which births occur are examined for rural Bangladesh. The author suggests methods for minimizing these errors by collecting data on births according to the Bengali calendar month. Fertility rates estimated using the proposed method in a rural area of Comilla district are compared with indirect estimates of fertility for the same area and with fertility rates based on vital registration data for nearby Matlab. The results indicate the value of the proposed method in estimating fertility more accurately.

  20. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  1. Evaluation of the CROPGRO-Peanut model in simulating appropriate sowing date and phosphorus fertilizer application rate for peanut in a subtropical region of eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Halder


    Full Text Available Projected changes in weather parameters, mainly temperature and rainfall, have already started to show their effect on agricultural production. To cope with the changing scenarios, adoption of appropriate management strategies is of paramount importance. A study was undertaken to evaluate the most appropriate combination of sowing date and phosphorus fertilization level for peanut crops grown in sandy loam soil in a subhumid region of eastern India. Field experiments were conducted during the summer seasons of 2012 and 2013 on peanut crops at the farm of the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. The DSSAT v4.5 CROPGRO-Peanut model was used to predict the phenology, growth, and yield of peanut crop under combinations of four sowing dates and four phosphorus fertilization levels. The model was calibrated with a 2012 dataset of growth, phenology, and yield parameters for estimating the genetic coefficients of cultivar TMV-2 and was validated with a 2013 dataset of the same parameters. Simulations of pod yield and other yield parameters using the calibrated model were found to be quite accurate. The model was able to reasonably simulate pod yield and final biomass with low normalized root mean square error (RMSEn, low absolute root mean square error (RMSEa and high coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.7 over a wide range of sowing dates and different phosphorus fertilization levels sensitivity analysis indicated that sowing from the second week of January to the end of February with 30–50 kg P2O5 ha−1 would give the highest pod yield.

  2. The Effect of Different Rates of Municipal Compost and N Fertilizer on the Essential Oil and some Vegetative Characteristics of Summer Savoury (Satureja hortensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Zare


    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and municipal compost on the essential yeild of savory pot experiment in 2009 was carried out in the Darab region. Different doses of compost was in four levels, including: zero C0:, 10C1:, 20C2: and 30C3: tons per hectare and nitrogen fertilizer include: zero N0:, 30N1:, 60 N2: and 90N3: kg of pure nitrogen from urea per hectare. Analysis of variance showed that the consumption of different amounts of nitrogen, compost and interaction between them on dry matter yield and height, percentage and yield of essential oil of savory, is statistically significant. Comparison of mean showed that treatment 90 kg N/ha along with 30 tons of municipal compost consumption per hectare (N3C3 with an average 50/8 g dry weight in pot greatest and treatments without N and compost (N0C0 and non-N with 10 and 20 tons of compost ha (N0C1 and N0C2 were mean 23/69, 23/42 and 24/63 g dry weight, the lowest plant dry weight were allocated to pot. N fertilizer and compost on the number of lateral branches per plant and nitrogen application on mean stem diameter was significant. N3 with an average 24/75 lateral branches and C3 with a mean 22/19 lateral branches, were the highest number of lateral branches per plant. N2C3 with mean of 2/13 percent of most essential oil produced. The most essential yield of the combination treatment N3C3, respectively. Generally produce more essential oil percent and to have more dry matter level N2C3 be seems appropriate.

  3. Background factors and scoring systems in relation to pregnancy outcome after fertility surgery. (United States)

    Strandell, A; Bryman, I; Janson, P O; Thorburn, J


    A study was initiated to identify background factors, clinical features and pre-operative scoring systems of importance for future selection of patients suitable for fertility surgery. Surgical procedures, background factors and scoring systems for tubal lesions and adnexal adhesions and risk factors for ectopic pregnancy were analyzed with respect to possible correlation to subsequent fertility in a retrospective study of 246 patients undergoing fertility surgery (adhesiolysis, salpingostomy, tubal anastomoses, implantation and myomectomy) between 1986 and 1990. Follow-up periods varied between one to six years. In 94% of cases a second look laparoscopy was performed. Adhesiolysis was done in 62%. The conception rate was 41.1%, the ectopic pregnancy rate was 14.6% and the delivery rate was 22.0%. Myomectomy procedures were most successful, with a delivery rate of 44.0% and no ectopic pregnancy. Previous ectopic pregnancy indicated a higher risk for recurrence, as did a high risk score for ectopic pregnancy. The extent of tubal damage was most relevant to subsequent fertility. Salpingostomies in women with mild or moderate tubal damage resulted in a delivery rate of 25.4% compared with those with severe damage (5.6%). No deliveries were seen after lysis of extensive adnexal adhesions. Adhesion formation is not negligible and a second look laparoscopy is recommended. Women with fibroids should always be considered for fertility surgery, not only because of high success rates, but also as an adjuvant to subsequent in vitro fertilization. Patients with previous ectopic pregnancy, extensive adhesions and unfavorable tubal scores should not be considered for surgery but referred for in vitro fertilization.

  4. Fertile changes. (United States)

    Cherkaoui, M


    In Morocco, fertility levels have dropped in the past 30 years, and women have found that freedom from perpetual child-bearing has allowed them to make various contributions to society. One of the first Moroccan women elected to parliament noted that family planning best succeeds when it is the result of informed, personal choice enabled by education. A woman who is a prominent journalist noted that the availability of oral contraceptives has contributed to the emancipation of Moroccan women. A female television personality decried currently available television health messages, yet found cause for optimism in the receptiveness of Moroccan society to properly presented television messages. A woman who is a singer as well as a clinical psychologist found that birth control has made women more fulfilled, more independent, and has freed them of the aging which occurs with continual child-bearing. Another female journalist found that the Moroccan women who have been able to overcome social pressure to view themselves primarily as child-bearers attribute the advent of birth control to their liberation. Not only can they pursue careers, they can expend more energy on each of their children and assume equal position with the men in their lives. Finally, a female film maker asserted that birth control has enhanced life for women, who now have choices; children, who benefit from being wanted; and men, who are relieved of the burden of providing for large families.

  5. A simple and fast method for assessment of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium rating of fertilizers using high-resolution continuum source atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry (United States)

    Bechlin, Marcos André; Fortunato, Felipe Manfroi; da Silva, Ricardo Moutinho; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta


    The determination of N, P, and K in fertilizers by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry is proposed. Under optimized conditions, measurements of the diatomic molecules NO and PO at 215.360 and 247.620 nm, respectively, and K using the wing of the alternative line at 404.722 nm allowed calibration curves to be constructed in the ranges 500-5000 mg L- 1 N (r = 0.9994), 100-2000 mg L- 1 P (r = 0.9946), and 100-2500 mg L- 1 K (r = 0.9995). Commercial fertilizers were analyzed by the proposed method and the concentrations of N, P, and K were found to be in agreement with those obtained by Kjeldahl, spectrophotometric, and flame atomic emission spectrometry methods, respectively, at a 95% confidence level (paired t-test). A phosphate rock certified reference material (CRM) was analyzed and the results for P and K were in agreement with the reference values. Recoveries from spiked CRM were in the ranges 97-105% (NO3--N), 95-103% (NH4+-N), 93-103% (urea-N), 99-108% (P), and 99-102% (K). The relative standard deviations (n = 12) for N, P, and K were 6, 4, and 2%, respectively.

  6. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S


    PURPOSE: We evaluated whether adult fertility potential was better when unilateral orchiopexy was done at ages 2 to 6 years or later, and we identified those at risk for infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unilateral orchiopexy was performed simultaneously with testicular biopsy in 11 patients 2...... similar fertility potentials were found in adulthood. Five of the 65 patients (7.7%, 95% confidence limits 2.5 to 17%) may experience infertility, representing 33% of both groups with less than 1% of the age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular transverse section (approximately no germ cells......) in the biopsy specimen at orchiopexy. CONCLUSIONS: Between ages 2 and 12 years the timing of unilateral orchiopexy may vary without an effect on subsequent fertility potential. When biopsy at surgery lacks germ cells, there is an approximately 33% age independent risk of subsequent infertility. Otherwise...

  7. Nitrous oxide emission as affected by tillage practices and fertilizer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, X.; Chang, C.; Travis, G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)


    Farmland emission of nitrous oxide is a concern to both environmental and agricultural production, and field experiments were carried out in order to investigate N(2)O loss as affected by rates and times of fertilizer application and straw/tillage practices under irrigated fields in southern Alberta. With the maximum occurring in March-April, the nitrous oxide flux varied greatly during the year, and there was a significant flux of nitrous oxide in the winter months, associated with freeze-thaw events. Nitrous oxide emission, in general, increases with excess fertilization and the emission is greater with fall than with spring application. Nitrous oxide emission was reduced because of straw removal when there was no fertilizer, but it increased emission when 100 kg N/ha fertilizer was used. Fall ploughing increased nitrous ozide emission, and to minimize the emission of the gas, farmers should apply N fertilizer in the spring, at no more than the recommended rate, keep the straw on the field, and plough the field only in the spring. Estimating the amount of nitrous oxide emission produced based on the amount of N fertilizer used may be a very inaccurate means. (Abstract only)

  8. Relationships of chemical composition, quantity of milt to fertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemical composition of milt and the effect of its varying quantity on fertility and hatchability of Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) eggs were investigated. The study aimed at determining the right quantity of milt that can be used to fertilize certain quantity of eggs. The study further examined the effect of varying ...

  9. Fertility determinants in Puerto Rico. (United States)

    Warren, C W


    This paper examines the proximate determinants of fertility in Puerto Rico using data from a 1982 island-wide study. Contraceptive use was found to be the primary direct determinant of fertility in Puerto Rico, both for the total population and for each level of education studied. Female sterilization is the most prevalent method of contraception used in Puerto Rico at each educational level. Marriage is also important in Puerto Rico and is the only proximate determinant that varies across education groups. Late age at first marriage, in addition to high contraceptive use, accounts for the below-replacement fertility of women who have more than a high school education. In contrast, women who have not completed high school tend to marry early and not practice contraception for birth-spacing purposes. This study shows the advantages of analyzing fertility determinants at the population subgroup level (i.e., women of various educational attainment levels) so that the fertility of the total population can be better understood.

  10. Comparing the performance of 11 crop simulation models in predicting yield response to nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, T J; Palosuo, T; Kersebaum, K C


    Eleven widely used crop simulation models (APSIM, CERES, CROPSYST, COUP, DAISY, EPIC, FASSET, HERMES, MONICA, STICS and WOFOST) were tested using spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) data set under varying nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates from three experimental years in the boreal climate of Jokioinen...... ranged from 170 to 870 kg/ha. During the test year 2009, most models failed to accurately reproduce the observed low yield without N fertilizer as well as the steep yield response to N applications. The multi-model predictions were closer to observations than most single-model predictions, but multi...

  11. On the fertility transition in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis

    A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent with the predicti......A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent...... with the predictions of the unified growth theory and sheds important insights in explaining the sustained income growth Africa has experienced since 1995. The paper also shows that the effects of income per capita and child mortality on fertility rates are non-robust and inconsistent with the predictions...

  12. Fertility trends in Singapore. (United States)

    Singh, K; Viegas, O; Ratnam, S S


    In 1966, the Singapore National Family Planning and Population Program established the goal of reaching replacement fertility by 1990 and zero population growth by the year 2030. To achieve this goal, the government relied on a series of incentives and disincentives to discourage births above the 3rd birth order, including tax relief for the 1st 3 children only, paid medical leave for women undergoing sterilization after the 3rd or subsequent birth, monetary stipends in some cases where the mother is sterilized after the 1st or 2nd birth, and increasing accouchement charges for increasing birth orders. Also important to demographic planning were liberalization of Singapore's abortion legislation and more aggressive promotion of contraception. As a result of these efforts, Singapore's crude birth rate has declined from 29.5/1000 population in 1965 to 16.6/1000 in 1985. Also observed have been dramatic declines in infant mortality in this same period, from 26.2/1000 live births to 9.3/1000, and in maternal mortality, from 52/100,000 live births to 10/100,000. In 1985, 42% of total births were to women in the 25-29-year age group. The numbers of 4th and later births fell by 90% between 1966 and 1985. The total fertility rate has declined from 4.6/woman in 1965 to 3.1 in 1970 to 1.6 in 1986. Below replacement level fertility was achieved in 1975, in part because of government policy but also as a result of cultural and socioeconomic factors such as increasing female labor force participation rates, a break-up of the extended family system, a rise in the age at 1st marriage, and rises in educational attainment. The drop in fertility was contributed mainly by the higher socioeconomic class, more affluent, and educated Singaporeans. Thus, in 1981, the government introduced certain pronatalist policies and incentives to encourage better educated women to produce more children, e.g., tax relief and the elimination of monetary incentives to sterilization acceptors above a

  13. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H


    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (11o38'N and 10o31'E) both in Bauchi state, during the rainy seasons of. 2011 and 2012 to determine the influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The treatments consist of two legumes (cowpea and soybean), nitrogen fertilizer applied at the rate ...

  15. Socio-economic determinants of fertility in some countries of Asia. (United States)

    Pathak, K B; Murty, P K


    An attempt is made in this analysis to determine the individual contribution of 6 factors--health variables, educational variables, variables showing status of women, economic variables, modernization variables, and family planning program performance variables--in determining the level of fertility on the basis of available data for 13 Asian countries. Path analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used. The pattern of the interrelationship between different categories of the variables which are affecting fertility and family planning performance are schematically represented in a chart. The model assumes that socioeconomic development of a country is a precondition for further mortality and fertility decline. The application of the model to any empirical situation calls for the determination of the indicators of the output variable (fertility) and other explanatory factors such as socioeconomic development, modernization, and health variables. For this study only 13 developing countries with 11 variables that are highly correlated with the fertility variables for the year 1975 were selected. 2 measures of fertility, i.e., total fertility rate (TFR) and crude birthrate (CBR) were taken for the purpose of the analysis and are denoted by Xo. The important background variables linked to fertility decline were literacy, urbanization, gross national product (GNP) per capita, and economically active female population in that order. Infant mortality and family planning were the most proximate variables to fertility. One of the reasons that fertility levels varied among the countries was that most of the countries have not as yet crossed the lower limits of the threshold zones with respect to most of the indicators. Except for 3 or 4 of the countries, none of the countries had entered the threshold zone for all the indicators. Particularly countries like Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan were far below the lower limit of threshold zone in respect to all of the

  16. Potential effects of incorporating fertility control into typical culling regimes in wild pig populations (United States)

    Davis, Amy J.; Cunningham, Fred L.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Eckery, Doug C.


    Effective management of widespread invasive species such as wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is limited by resources available to devote to the effort. Better insight of the effectiveness of different management strategies on population dynamics is important for guiding decisions of resource allocation over space and time. Using a dynamic population model, we quantified effects of culling intensities and time between culling events on population dynamics of wild pigs in the USA using empirical culling patterns and data-based demographic parameters. In simulated populations closed to immigration, substantial population declines (50–100%) occurred within 4 years when 20–60% of the population was culled annually, but when immigration from surrounding areas occurred, there was a maximum of 50% reduction, even with the maximum culling intensity of 60%. Incorporating hypothetical levels of fertility control with realistic culling intensities was most effective in reducing populations when they were closed to immigration and when intrinsic population growth rate was too high (> = 1.78) to be controlled by culling alone. However, substantial benefits from fertility control used in conjunction with culling may only occur over a narrow range of net population growth rates (i.e., where net is the result of intrinsic growth rates and culling) that varies depending on intrinsic population growth rate. The management implications are that the decision to use fertility control in conjunction with culling should rely on concurrent consideration of achievable culling intensity, underlying demographic parameters, and costs of culling and fertility control. The addition of fertility control reduced abundance substantially more than culling alone, however the effects of fertility control were weaker than in populations without immigration. Because these populations were not being reduced substantially by culling alone, fertility control could be an especially helpful enhancement to culling

  17. Potential effects of incorporating fertility control into typical culling regimes in wild pig populations. (United States)

    Pepin, Kim M; Davis, Amy J; Cunningham, Fred L; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Eckery, Doug C


    Effective management of widespread invasive species such as wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is limited by resources available to devote to the effort. Better insight of the effectiveness of different management strategies on population dynamics is important for guiding decisions of resource allocation over space and time. Using a dynamic population model, we quantified effects of culling intensities and time between culling events on population dynamics of wild pigs in the USA using empirical culling patterns and data-based demographic parameters. In simulated populations closed to immigration, substantial population declines (50-100%) occurred within 4 years when 20-60% of the population was culled annually, but when immigration from surrounding areas occurred, there was a maximum of 50% reduction, even with the maximum culling intensity of 60%. Incorporating hypothetical levels of fertility control with realistic culling intensities was most effective in reducing populations when they were closed to immigration and when intrinsic population growth rate was too high (> = 1.78) to be controlled by culling alone. However, substantial benefits from fertility control used in conjunction with culling may only occur over a narrow range of net population growth rates (i.e., where net is the result of intrinsic growth rates and culling) that varies depending on intrinsic population growth rate. The management implications are that the decision to use fertility control in conjunction with culling should rely on concurrent consideration of achievable culling intensity, underlying demographic parameters, and costs of culling and fertility control. The addition of fertility control reduced abundance substantially more than culling alone, however the effects of fertility control were weaker than in populations without immigration. Because these populations were not being reduced substantially by culling alone, fertility control could be an especially helpful enhancement to culling for

  18. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.


    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife

  19. TENORM: Fertilizer and Fertilizer Production Wastes (United States)

    Phosphate rock is used in the production of phosphate fertilizers. Due to its chemical properties, phosphate rock may contain significant quantities of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM).

  20. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  1. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  2. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayadhar Barik


    Conclusions: We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient′s treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi ghly significantly (P500001) différent in seed set rates but between-clone effects were higher than Within-clone effects. Number of seeds was signii'icantly negatively correlated with style length, ovary length and diameter of the style base. Path analysis indicated a high residual, ... The edible bananas have 22, 33, or 44.

  4. Effect of biochar compound fertilizers on crop yield and fertilizer N use efficiency (United States)

    Li, Lianqing; Fu, Xiangfeng; Xie, Qiu; Qiu, Liangzhu; Lu, Zexian; Pan, Genxing


    In order to meet the increasing demand for food in China, chemical fertilizers (NPK fertilizers) application continue to rise in agricultural production. Overuse of nitrogen fertilizer has occurred widely, and causes great challenges in environmental sustainability. To meet the need for reducing chemical fertilizer use and enhancing fertilizer N use efficiency, biochar compound fertilizers (BCF) are currently produced. Biochar are produced from crop straw with a maximum temperature of 500-600oC. Biochar compound fertilizer produced by rotary granulator. The nutrients proportion are 15:15:10 ( N:P2O5:K2O). Field experiments were conducted in 8 sites across the major crop production areas from Heilongjiang in north east to Hubei in central China, from Yili, Xinjiang in the west to Suqian, Jiangsu in the east. The results showed that rice and maize yield increased by 6-10% and 5-12%, respectively, compared with chemical fertilizer. N use efficiency increased by 9.4-45.46% for rice, and 12.39-52.93% for maize. The rate of fertilizer application decreased by 8-12%, and a cost saving by 8-10% compared with chemical fertilizer. Protein content of grain increased by 3-10%. It indicates that biochar had the potential to form a more effective fertilizer that improved crop yield and the quality.

  5. Assisted oocyte activation following ICSI fertilization failure. (United States)

    Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; Nikiforaki, Dimitra; Heindryckx, Björn; De Sutter, Petra


    The capacity of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to permit almost any type of spermatozoa to fertilize oocytes has made it the most successful treatment for male factor infertility. Despite its high success rates, fertilization failure following ICSI still occurs in 1-3% of couples. Assisted oocyte activation (AOA) is being increasingly applied in human assisted reproduction to restore fertilization and pregnancy rates in couples with a history of ICSI fertilization failure. However, controversy still exists mainly because the artificial activating agents do not mimic precisely the initial physiological processes of mammalian oocyte activation, which has led to safety concerns. This review addresses the mechanism of human oocyte activation and the relatively rare phenomenon of fertilization failure after ICSI. Next, it describes the current diagnostic approaches and focuses on the application, efficiency and safety of AOA in human assisted reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cancer and fertility : strategies to preserve fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Devroey, P.

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented

  7. Intra-specific variation in relative growth rate : Impact on competitive ability and performance of Lychnis flos-cuculi in habitats differing in soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biere, Arjen


    Plant species from unproductive or adverse habitats are often characterized by a low potential relative growth rate (RGR). Although it is generally assumed that this is the result of selection for specific trait combinations that are associated with a low rate of net biomass accumulation, few

  8. Intra-specific variation in relative growth rate: impact on competitive ability and performance of Lychnis flos-cuculi in habitats differing in soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biere, A.


    Plant species from unproductive or adverse habitats are often characterized by a low potential relative growth rate (RGR). Although it is generally assumed that this is the result of selection for specific trait combinations that are associated with a low rate of net biomass accumulation, few

  9. Preservation of Fertility in Female Cancer Patients Desiring Future Child Bearing; What is Available and What can be Offered (United States)

    Husseinzadeh, Nader; Husseinzadeh, Holleh D.


    The aim of this review is to present an overview of available methods for preservation of ovarian function and fertility in female cancer patients who desire to maintain their child-bearing capacity for future pregnancies. A Medline search was conducted. Published articles from American and European studies from 1976 to present were reviewed. The effect of cancer treatment on the ovary, as well as different methods of fertility preservation and their reproductive outcomes are presented. Pregnancy rates vary according to the type of primary malignancy, stage of disease, method of fertility preservation (for example, hormonal therapy, cryopreservation, fertility-sparing surgery), and other confounding factors such as the patient’s age, reproductive capacity, status of partnership, and genetic disposition. The highest rates of successful pregnancy were observed with embryo cryopreservation. Today, higher cure rates and longer survival are a result of earlier cancer diagnosis and treatment. In conjunction with the advances in assisted reproduction, the preservation of ovarian function and fertility is a major part of multidisciplinary care that should be offered to any young female patient with cancer. Fertility preservation in young cancer patients raises a number of ethical issues particularly regarding standard versus experimental therapies, and long-term financial cost. PMID:29147324

  10. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome. (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel


    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sperm dosage and site of insemination in relation to fertility in bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kumar Mohanty


    Full Text Available Low sperm numbers in artificial insemination (AI-doses are being used widely to make the best use of high genetic value bulls as well as sex-sorted semen. Sperm concentration needed for AI to obtain reasonable fertility, taking genetic value of bull and numerous others components into consideration is one of the essential constituents for successful AI breeding program. However, low sperm concentrations in AI-doses lead to reducing post-thaw viability. The reduction in viability of low sperm doses may be affected by fresh semen volume, sperm number and seminal plasma level at final dilution. Reduction in quality and fertility of low sperm doses is one of the limitations for their use in successful AI programme. Sperm number per AI required to achieve optimum fertility is one of the main crucial things to AI industry, and numerous efforts have been made in this regard. Due to great variability among bulls, sperm number per AI could be a limiting factor in achieving acceptable fertility values. Fertility of low sperm doses may vary among bulls, and non-return rates (NRRs with low sperm doses may be determined by fertility level of bull. On the basis of individual bulls, sperm numbers in AI doses needed to be adjusted to reduce the variations in NRRs among bulls. Utilizing high fertile bulls for low sperm doses with acceptable non-return rates (NRRs may be a way to cover a large number of bovines under AI in countries like India. Deposition site within the uterine horn may alter non return rates following inseminations with low sperm doses. Following deep-uterine inseminations, acceptable pregnancies may be achieved with low sperm doses and even if ovulation side is unknown.

  12. Plant fertilizer poisoning (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  13. Male Fertility Issues (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  14. Fertility Treatments for Females (United States)

    ... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...

  15. Infertility and Fertility (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Infertility and Fertility "Infertility" is a term that describes when a ... infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss: A committee opinion. Fertility and Sterility, 99 (1), 63. [top] American Society ...

  16. TCRC Fertility Page (United States)

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center The TCRC Fertility Page Testicular Cancer and fertility are interrelated in numerous ways. TC usually affects young men still in the process of having a family. ...

  17. Protect Your Fertility (United States)

    ... brochure briefly explains how such behaviors put your fertility at risk. Decisions and choices that you make ... your teens and early twenties can affect your fertility for years to come. This prevention guide was ...

  18. Fertilization of black spruce or poor site peatland in Minnesota. (United States)

    David H. Alban; Richard F. Watt


    Fertilization of poor site black spruce on organic soil with various rates of nitrogen and phosphorus increased height and diameter growth from 2 to 4 times. The growth response declined with time but was still apparent 16 years after fertilization. Shrub biomass and coverage, and nutrient levels of spruce foliage were strongly affected by fertilization.

  19. Effect of fertilizer treatment on the chemical and functional properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different levels of fertilizer treatment on some chemical and functional properties of high quality cassava flour (HQCF) was investigated. Cassava cultivar (TMS/98/0505) was intercropped with maize (TZSR-Y) and fertilized with urea at 4 weeks after planting. The fertilizer was applied at the -1 rates of 0 (control), ...

  20. Determinants of fertility in Ethiopia | Ayele | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The most important elements to determine the rate of population growth is fertility. Fertility is the main element to affect the welfare of mother. The survival of a child can be affected by high fertility and shorter birth intervals. Methods: For this study, the linear mixed model was used to determine factors affecting ...

  1. Factors affecting fertility decisions of married men and women living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In a setting with high HIV prevalence and high fertility rates, addressing fertility issues of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is crucial. However, understanding of the factors associated with fertility decisions of PLWHA in Ethiopia is remarkably low. Objective: The study was conducted to assess factors ...

  2. Profiling of sperm proteins and association of sperm PDC-109 with bull fertility. (United States)

    Somashekar, Lakshminarayana; Selvaraju, Sellappan; Parthipan, Sivashanmugam; Ravindra, Janivara Parameswaraiah


    The composition of sperm proteins influences the fertilizing ability of sperm and hence the present study was conducted (i) to profile sperm proteins expression patterns in bulls of differing fertility index and (ii) to identify and relate the abundant sperm proteins with bull fertility. The semen samples were collected from Holstein-Friesian bulls (n = 12) varying in conception rate (CR) (high/low). The frozen semen straws (three ejaculates, from each bull) were used to study (a) sperm kinetic parameters, (b) plasmalemma integrity, (c) mitochondrial membrane potential, and (d) chromatin distribution. Three bulls were randomly selected from each group (n = 3) and the neat sperm pellets were subjected to percoll purification, followed by protein isolation using 0.1% Triton X100. The sperm kinetic parameters, plasmalemma integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the chromatin distribution did not differ significantly between groups. The number of acidic (pI; 3.1-5.6, 37%) and basic (pI; 7.9-10.0, 27%) proteins and their pattern of expression varied significantly (p sperm protein spots in 2D-gel electrophoresis (2DE) were identified as seminal plasma protein PDC-109 (i.e., protein with N-terminus aspartic acid, D and carboxy terminus cystine, having 109 amino acids) and its isoform and spermadhesin-1 (SPADH1). The western blot analysis confirmed the presence of PDC-109 isoform proteins at 15.4 kDa (pI 5.3 and 5.5). The seminal plasma protein PDC-109 was abundant in the low fertile when compared to the high fertile group (p sperm proteins may influence sperm fertility and sperm PDC-109 levels above a certain threshold affects bull fertility.

  3. Fertilizer micro-dosing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    millet, sorghum) under micro-dosing and water harvesting. • Farmers' access to fertilizer has been improved by an innovative 'warrantage' credit scheme, that has enabled over 1,000 farmers (30% women), to purchase and use more fertilizer on food crops. Fertilizer micro-dosing: a profitable innovation for. Sahelian women.

  4. Who fertilizes the forest? (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith


    Tree fertilization is a common service provided by commercial arborists and landscapers. Customers and clients are familiar with fertilization from the care of house or garden plants. Any hardware or garden supply store has attractive packages of colored crystals or liquid solutions that promise rapid growth and abundant blossoms. This familiarity with fertilization of...

  5. Fertility preservation in young cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Revel


    Full Text Available As a result of advances in treatment, almost 80% of children and adolescents who receive a diagnosis of cancer become long-term survivors. The increased survival rate of children and adolescents with cancer has resulted in a major interest in the long-term effects of cancer treatment on the possibility for future fertility. Currently established methods for the preservation of fertility are available only for pubertal males and females. Pubertal male cancer patients should be encouraged to freeze numerous sperm samples even when sperm count and motility are poor. In these cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a powerful technique compared with intrauterine insemination since thawed sperm samples with poor parameters can produce relatively high fertilization rates resulting in normal pregnancies and deliveries. Married pubertal women should be proposed ovulation induction, follicular aspiration, and fertilization with husband sperm. Single women could benefit from vitrification of oocytes. This requires a delay of about 3 weeks in the commencement of chemotherapy to enable follicular growth. Fertility preservation for prepubertal patients is more of a problem. Young girls could be offered cryopreservation of gametes in the gonadal tissue. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue was suggested for fertility preservation for young boys, but this method is totally experimental and not currently offered. Discussing future fertility is part of the consultation of young female and male patients facing potentially gonadotoxic cancer therapy. It is the role of reproductive specialists to create various options in their laboratory to preserve fertility potential of cancer patients.

  6. Methodological issues in analyzing time trends in biologic fertility: protection bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Key, Jane; Best, Nicky; Joffe, Michael


    One method of assessing biologic fertility is to measure time to pregnancy (TTP). Accidental pregnancies do not generate a valid TTP value and lead to nonrandom missing data if couples experiencing accidental pregnancies are more fertile than the general population. If factors affecting the rate...... of accidental pregnancies, such as availability of effective contraception and induced abortion, vary over time, then the result may be protection bias in the estimates of fertility time trends. Six European data sets were analyzed to investigate whether evidence of protection bias exists in TTP studies...... in simulated data. Where protection bias is suspected, the authors demonstrate use of 2 multiple imputation methods to generate realizations for the missing TTP values for accidental pregnancies. Simulation studies show that both methods successfully reduce or eliminate protection bias. The authors also...

  7. The Effect of Rates and Times of Nitrogen Fertilizer on N Accumulation and Remobilization Efficiency at Flag Leaf in Two Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum.durum) Cultivars (United States)

    Bahrani, A.; Sarvestani, Z. Tahmasebi; Bagheri, A. R.; Abad, H. Heidari Sharif


    Understanding the physiological basis of absorption and transportation of nitrogen by plants has specific importance. In this experiment, a bread cultivar and durum wheat cultivar, were treated with different rates and times of nitrogen application, by using split factorial with on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications at Shiraz region during 2004-2005. Main plots were consisted of two levels of cultivars (Falat and Yavaros) and sub plots included nitrogen rates (40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1) and times of nitrogen application (T1 = all N fertilizer at planting, T2 = 1/2 at planting+1/2 during booting stage and T3 = 1/3 at planting+1/3 during booting stage+1/3 at heading stage). The results showed that there were significant differences between cultivars in flag leaf nitrogen content in maturity stage, N remobilization and its efficiency from flag leaf to grains and also grain protein percentage. Durum wheat was more efficient in nitrogen remobilization and therefore, had a higher grain protein percentage. Increasing in rates and times of nitrogen application had significant effect on most of the measured traits. There were significant interactions between cultivars, rates and times of N application, indicating that durum wheat was more efficient in N remobilization from flag leaf to the grain. It appeared that, N remobilization efficiency was the main factor affecting the grain protein percentage, under the conditions of low N absorption and drought after flowering, in this experiment.

  8. Assortative fertilization in Drosophila. (United States)

    Markow, T A


    The concept of gametic isolation has its origins in the 1937 edition of T. Dobzhansky's Genetics and the Origin of Species. Involving either positive assortative fertilization (as opposed to self-incompatibility) or negative assortative fertilization, it occurs after mating but prior to fertilization. Gametic isolation is generally subsumed under either prezygotic or postmating isolation and thus has not been the subject of extensive investigation. Examples of assortative fertilization in Drosophila are reviewed and compared with those of other organisms. Potential mechanisms leading to assortative fertilization are discussed, as are their evolutionary implications.

  9. Utilization and success rates of unstimulated in vitro fertilization in the United States: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database. (United States)

    Gordon, John David; DiMattina, Michael; Reh, Andrea; Botes, Awie; Celia, Gerard; Payson, Mark


    To examine the utilization and outcomes of natural cycle (unstimulated) IVF as reported to the Society of Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) in 2006 and 2007. Retrospective analysis. Dataset analysis from the SART Clinical Outcome Reporting System national database. All patients undergoing IVF as reported to SART in 2006 and 2007. None. Utilization of unstimulated IVF; description of patient demographics; and comparison of implantation and pregnancy rates between unstimulated and stimulated IVF cycles. During 2006 and 2007 a total of 795 unstimulated IVF cycles were initiated. Success rates were age dependent, with patients Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Societal foundations for explaining fertility: Gender equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gender equity theory in relation to fertility argues that very low fertility is the result of incoherence in the levels of gender equity in individually-oriented social institutions and family-oriented social institutions. The salience of gender to the fertility transition is strong in theory but not as strong in specification of testable hypotheses as has been pointed out in the literature. OBJECTIVE The paper aims to clarify the specification of gender equity theory through a discussion of the difference between equity and equality and to suggest methods that might be applied to test the theory. METHODS The theory is restated and further developed using literature from different disciplines. The method is described using a decomposition of fertility for women by human capital levels. RESULTS The clarification of the theory includes a reminder that the theory relates to differences in fertility between countries and not to differences in fertility between women in the same country. In comparisons between countries, higher gender equity leads to higher fertility. In comparisons of fertility across women in the same country, higher gender equity does not necessarily imply higher fertility. In relation to measurement, a specification is suggested that effectively compares women across countries controlling for their level of human capital. Simple graphics are used to indicate ways in which fertility between countries may vary. CONCLUSIONS The paper concludes that it is likely the gender equity theory can be tested more readily by examining the behaviour across countries of women with higher levels of human capital.

  11. [Quadratic Orthogonal Rotation Combination Design on Alisma orientalis of Fertilization]. (United States)

    Li, Yao; Chen, Xing-fu; Peng, Shi-ming; Liang, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Chun


    To study the effects of combined N, P, K and micronutrient fertilizers on the yield of Alisma orientalis tuber, and to optimize the fertilizer application rate. Four factors five levels quadratic orthogonal rotation combination design was used. A function was established on nitrogen, phosphor, potassium and microelement fertilizer application rate with the yield of Alisma orientalis tuber. The established mathematical model was of high reliability for prediction with quadratic regression equation of R2 = 0. 8980. The order of increasing Alisma orientalis tuber yield was nitrogen > micronutrient fertilizer > potassium > phosphor. The results of the frequency analysis showed that for the target yield over 8 250 kg/hm2 and the confidence interval of 95%, the optimal fertilizer application rates were as follows :nitrogen of 241. 45 - 283. 55 kg/hm2, phosphor of 81. 14 - 208. 44 kg/hm2, potassium of 95. 57 - 239. 42 kg/hm2, and zinc fertilizer of 14. 32 - 16. 18 kg/hm2, boron fertilizer of 18. 84 - 19. 86 kg/hm2, and molybdenum fertilizer of 0. 151 -0. 159 kg/hm2 in micronutrient fertilizer. Nitrogen is related to the growth of Alisma orientalis, potassium promotes tuber bulking, micronutrient fertilizer consisted of zinc, boron and molybdenum fertilizer promotes Alisma orientalis growth and the absorption of nitrogen, phosphor and potassium. Moderate application of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, boron and molybdenum fertilizer can promote Alisma orientalis tuber yield. The nitrogen has the best effect.

  12. Diffusion Performance of Fertilizer Nutrient through Polymer Latex Film. (United States)

    An, Di; Yang, Ling; Liu, Boyang; Wang, Ting-Jie; Kan, Chengyou


    Matching the nutrient release rate of coated fertilizer with the nutrient uptake rate of the crop is the best way to increase the utilization efficiency of nutrients and reduce environmental pollution from the fertilizer. The diffusion property and mechanism of nutrients through the film are the theoretical basis for the product pattern design of coated fertilizers. For the coated fertilizer with a single-component nutrient, an extended solution-diffusion model was used to describe the difference of nutrient release rate, and the release rate is proportional to the permeation coefficient and the solubility of the nutrient. For the double- and triple-component fertilizer of N-K, N-P, and N-P-K, because of the interaction among nutrient molecules and ions, the release rates of different nutrients were significantly affected by the components in the composite fertilizer. Coating the single-component fertilizer (i.e., nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, and potash fertilizer) first and subsequently bulk blending is expected to be a promising way to adjust flexibly the nutrient release rate to meet the nutrient uptake rate of the crop.

  13. Preferences of subfertile women regarding elective single embryo transfer : additional in vitro fertilization cycles are acceptable, lower pregnancy rates are not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.


    With identical pregnancy rates after elective single embryo transfer (ET) and double ET strategies consisting of three cycles of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) plus transfers of thawed/frozen embryos if available, 46% of the women undergoing IVF/ICSI favor elective single ET. If

  14. The effects of acupuncture on rates of clinical pregnancy among women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a systematic review and meta-analysis (United States)

    Manheimer, Eric; van der Windt, Daniëlle; Cheng, Ke; Stafford, Kristen; Liu, Jianping; Tierney, Jayne; Lao, Lixing; Berman, Brian M.; Langenberg, Patricia; Bouter, Lex M.


    BACKGROUND Recent systematic reviews of adjuvant acupuncture for IVF have pooled heterogeneous trials, without examining variables that might explain the heterogeneity. The aims of our meta-analysis were to quantify the overall pooled effects of adjuvant acupuncture on IVF clinical pregnancy success rates, and evaluate whether study design-, treatment- and population-related factors influence effect estimates. METHODS We included randomized controlled trials that compared needle acupuncture administered within 1 day of embryo transfer, versus sham acupuncture or no adjuvant treatment. Our primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rates. We obtained from all investigators additional methodological details and outcome data not included in their original publications. We analysed sham-controlled and no adjuvant treatment-controlled trials separately, but since there were no large or significant differences between these two subsets, we pooled all trials for subgroup analyses. We prespecified 11 subgroup variables (5 clinical and 6 methodological) to investigate sources of heterogeneity, using single covariate meta-regressions. RESULTS Sixteen trials (4021 participants) were included in the meta-analyses. There was no statistically significant difference between acupuncture and controls when combining all trials [risk ratio (RR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–1.31; I2 = 68%; 16 trials; 4021 participants], or when restricting to sham-controlled (RR 1.02, 0.83–1.26; I2 = 66%; 7 trials; 2044 participants) or no adjuvant treatment-controlled trials (RR 1.22, 0.97–1.52; I2 = 67%; 9 trials; 1977 participants). The type of control used did not significantly explain the statistical heterogeneity (interaction P = 0.27). Baseline pregnancy rate, measured as the observed rate of clinical pregnancy in the control group of each trial, was a statistically significant effect modifier (interaction P acupuncture across all trials (adjusted R2 = 93%; I2 residual = 9

  15. Partial budget analysis of variable-rate nitrogen application on dryland spring wheat (United States)

    Agricultural producers can use variable-rate application technology to vary nitrogen (N) fertilizer within fields. This study was conducted to estimate changes in net returns from implementation of variable-rate N management (VNM) on hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Net return from un...

  16. Is Wildlife Fertility Control Always Humane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan O. Hampton


    Full Text Available Investigation of fertility control techniques to reduce reproductive rates in wildlife populations has been the source of much research. Techniques targeting wildlife fertility have been diverse. Most research into fertility control methods has focused upon efficacy, with few studies rigorously assessing animal welfare beyond opportunistic anecdote. However, fertility control techniques represent several very different mechanisms of action (modalities, each with their own different animal welfare risks. We provide a review of the mechanisms of action for fertility control methods, and consider the role of manipulation of reproductive hormones (“endocrine suppression” for the long-term ability of animals to behave normally. We consider the potential welfare costs of animal manipulation techniques that are required to administer fertility treatments, including capture, restraint, surgery and drug delivery, and the requirement for repeated administration within the lifetime of an animal. We challenge the assumption that fertility control modalities generate similar and desirable animal welfare outcomes, and we argue that knowledge of reproductive physiology and behaviour should be more adeptly applied to wild animal management decisions. We encourage wildlife managers to carefully assess long-term behavioural risks, associated animal handling techniques, and the importance of positive welfare states when selecting fertility control methods as a means of population control.

  17. Low fertility awareness in United States reproductive-aged women and medical trainees: creation and validation of the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS). (United States)

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Chernyak, Elizabeth; McAvey, Beth


    To create, validate, and use a fertility awareness survey based on current U.S. Cross-sectional study. Not applicable. Phase 1 included U.S. women ages 18-45; phase 2 included female medical students and obstetrics and gynecology trainees at two urban academic programs. Survey including demographics, the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS) instrument, and General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire. Knowledge of natural fertility and infertility treatments. The FIT-KS was validated through detailed item and validity analyses. In phase 1, 127 women participated; their median age was 31 years, and 43.7% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 16.2 ± 3.5 (55.9% correct). In phase 2, 118 medical trainees participated; their median age was 25 years, and 12.4% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 18.8 ± 2.1 (64.9% correct), with year of training correlating to a higher score (r=0.40). Participant awareness regarding lifestyle factors varied, but it was particularly low regarding the effects of lubricants. The majority underestimated the spontaneous miscarriage rate and overestimated the fecundability of 40-year-old women. There was general overestimation of success rates for assisted reproductive technologies, particularly among medical trainees. The FIT-KS is validated to current U.S. data for use in both general and medical populations as a quick assessment of fertility knowledge. The knowledge gaps demonstrated in this study correlate with national trends in delayed childbearing and time to initiate treatment. For medical trainees, these results raise concerns about the quality of fertility counseling they may be able to offer patients. Greater educational outreach must be undertaken to enhance fertility awareness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most soils in the humid tropical zones present a particular problem. Due to leaching, the fertilizer provided by the process of nutrient cycling in tropical rainforest is confined to the top few inches of the soil. Varying quantities of manure and NPK fertilizers were applied to assess their effects on the growth of Ricinodendron ...

  19. Optimum size in grid soil sampling for variable rate application in site-specific management Tamanho ideal em grades de amostragem de solos para aplicação em taxa variável em manejo localizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rafael Nanni


    Full Text Available The importance of understanding spatial variability of soils is connected to crop management planning. This understanding makes it possible to treat soil not as a uniform, but a variable entity, and it enables site-specific management to increase production efficiency, which is the target of precision agriculture. Questions remain as the optimum soil sampling interval needed to make site-specific fertilizer recommendations in Brazil. The objectives of this study were: i to evaluate the spatial variability of the main attributes that influence fertilization recommendations, using georeferenced soil samples arranged in grid patterns of different resolutions; ii to compare the spatial maps generated with those obtained with the standard sampling of 1 sample ha-1, in order to verify the appropriateness of the spatial resolution. The attributes evaluated were phosphorus (P, potassium (K, organic matter (OM, base saturation (V% and clay. Soil samples were collected in a 100 × 100 m georeferenced grid. Thinning was performed in order to create a grid with one sample every 2.07, 2.88, 3.75 and 7.20 ha. Geostatistical techniques, such as semivariogram and interpolation using kriging, were used to analyze the attributes at the different grid resolutions. This analysis was performed with the Vesper software package. The maps created by this method were compared using the kappa statistics. Additionally, correlation graphs were drawn by plotting the observed values against the estimated values using cross-validation. P, K and V%, a finer sampling resolution than the one using 1 sample ha-1 is required, while for OM and clay coarser resolutions of one sample every two and three hectares, respectively, may be acceptable.A importância de compreender a variabilidade espacial do solo está conectada ao planejamento do manejo das culturas. Este entendimento faz com que seja possível tratar o solo não como uma entidade uniforme, mas variável, e permite o

  20. Spatial Divisions and Fertility in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan Pillai


    Full Text Available The Indian subcontinent can be divided into four geographical divisions. In this paper, we characterize three of the four divisions; the Northern Plains, the Deccan Plateau, and the Northern Mountains or the Himalayan as regions with dissimilar climatic and physical resources. It is argued that human adaptations to these variations would be varied by differences in social organization of production and consumption resulting in differences in fertility differences across the three divisions. We found significant differences in the median age at motherhood as well as in the total family size. The effects of the three selected fertility determinants, age at marriage, years of woman's education, and level of child loss on family size also varied significantly across the three divisions. There is considerable homogeneity with respect to fertility levels within the zones considered in this study.

  1. Disruptive Events and Demographic Behaviour : Explaining the Shifts in Fertility in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutayisire, P.C.


    The fertility transition of Rwanda stagnated between 1992 and 2005 at a total fertility rate (TFR) of 6 children per woman. After 2005 the fertility decline resumed its course and the TFR dropped remarkably fast till 4.6. The period of the fertility stall coincided with a very disruptive period in

  2. The Role of Contemporary Childbearing Postponement and Recuperation in Shaping Period Fertility Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Frejka


    3. These TPFR increases were predominantly the consequence of changes in cohort childbearing age patterns, i.e. changes in the timing of fertility. They were not generated by fertility quantum increases. During this period in almost all the low-fertility countries TPFRs were rising while corresponding total cohort fertility rates were declining.

  3. Fertility and Modernity


    Enrico Spolaore; Romain Wacziarg


    We investigate the historical dynamics of the decline in fertility in Europe and its relation to measures of cultural and ancestral distance. We test the hypothesis that the decline of fertility was associated with the diffusion of social and behavioral changes from France, in contrast with the spread of the Industrial Revolution, where England played a leading role. We argue that the diffusion of the fertility decline and the spread of industrialization followed different patterns because so...

  4. [Fertility trends in Bulgaria (1960-1990)]. (United States)

    Filipov, D


    "This paper reports an analysis of fertility in Bulgaria during the period 1960-1990. Alternative demographic indicators are used, such as period and cohort total fertility rates...[and] mean age [at] childbearing, marriage, and divorce. The analysis includes distribution by order of births. Two age patterns of fertility behaviour are distinguished, one for females aged below 22, and the other for females above that age. The report notes the different impact of pronatal policy actions undertaken in 1968 and in 1973...." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) excerpt

  5. Fertility of rabbit sperm exposed in vitro to cadmium and lead. (United States)

    Foote, R H


    The heavy metals Cd2+ and Pb2+ have been associated with male reproductive toxicology, including possible inhibition of sperm undergoing hyperactivated motility, indicative of capacitation. The objective of the present study was to test fertility of rabbit sperm exposed to Cd2+ or Pb2+ in vitro, followed by insemination of superovulated does. Semen was washed to remove seminal plasma and minimize possible binding of the heavy metals by proteins. Only 400,000 treated or control sperm were inseminated as a sensitive test of treatment, and the time sperm resided in the female before possible fertilization was varied by inseminating from 0 to 12 h after ovulating the does. Only 6 of 22 males tested showed appreciable spontaneous hyperactivation and neither Cd2+ nor Pb2+ affected hyperactivation, or presumably associated capacitation. Sperm from four of these six males were used to inseminate 66 rabbits, and 1483 oocytes and embryos were collected about 27 h later. No effect of 0.1 mM Cd2+ on fertilizing ability of sperm was found (75% fertilization with control sperm and 78% with treated sperm). With 0.025 mM Pb2+ the fertilization rate in pregnant does only was 82% for controls and lower (68%) with treated sperm. These tested concentrations of Cd2+ and Pb2+ are much higher than reported concentrations in semen of exposed workers.

  6. Female age, serum antimüllerian hormone level, and number of oocytes affect the rate and number of euploid blastocysts in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Greco, Pierfrancesco; Argento, Cindy; Grisendi, Valentina; Fiorentino, Francesco; Greco, Ermanno


    To study the relative role of female age and ovarian reserve, measured through serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) in determining the rate and number of euploid blastocysts in in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Retrospective analysis of cycles performed in 2014-2015. Tertiary referral IVF center. A total of 578 infertile couples undergoing IVF/ICSI and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) analysis. All embryos were cultured and biopsied at the blastocyst stage. The method involved whole-genome amplification followed by array comparative genome hybridization. Serum AMH was measured by means of the modified Beckman Coulter AMH Gen II assay. The rate and number of euploid blastocysts and their correlation with ovarian reserve and response to stimulation. The mean (±SD) age of patients was 37.6 ± 4.1 years, and the mean number of blastocysts per patient was 3.1 ± 2. The total number of blastocysts available to the analysis was 1,814, and 36% of them were euploid after PGS. Age and serum AMH were significantly and independently related to the rate of euploid blastocysts available for patients. As an effect of the cohort size, the number of mature oocytes positively affected the total number of euploid blastocysts per patient. A strong positive age-independent relationship between AMH level and the rate of euploid blastocysts was found. This confirms that the measurement of ovarian reserve by means of AMH has high relevance when counseling infertile patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of Dissolved Loads Partitioned Between Surface and Ground Waters in the Chemical Weathering Rates of Tropical Islands Under Varied Climates: A Preliminary Assessment from Oahu, Hawaii, USA (United States)

    Lemaistre, M. J.; Nelson, S.; Tingey, D. G.


    The island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA is an ideal natural laboratory for understanding the role of climate, surface waters, and ground waters in the erosion and ultimate disappearance of ocean islands. This island is in a post-constructional phase, is composed entirely (or nearly so) of a single rock type (tholeiitic basalt), and rainfall totals vary by about an order of magnitude. On portions of the windward Koolau Range, rain exceeds 7 m annually, whereas portions of the southern island receive less than 0.8 m per year. There is considerable variability in the geochemical facies and total dissolve solid (TDS) content of surface and groundwaters, even among samples from similar climatic settings. Most waters tend to be of the Na-Mg-Cl type. However, ground waters tend to have higher TDS loads than surface waters, indicative of longer contact times with rock. 3H contents of wells average 0.6 TU, streams 1.2 TU, and rain 1.7 TU. Thus, the mean residence of groundwater may be on the order of 15-20 yr. Portions of Oahu such as the north central agricultural region have extremely well-developed soils, and TDS contents are very low on average (600 mg/L derived from water-rock interaction. Oahu has been subdivided into 5 major hydrographic regions and existing water budgets for Oahu can be coupled with mean solute loads for ground and surface water to estimate denudation rates via dissolved loads. Weathering products removed by surface waters are not considered here. Windward and south central Oahu are eroding at rates ˜0.20 m/ka, and the large majority of the solute flux is in ground rather than surface water. Arid western and southeastern parts of the island combined with north central Oahu appear to be eroding at rates more than an order of magnitude lower than this. In summary, high chemical weathering rates on windward Oahu are likely to be due to thin soils on steep slopes and chemically aggressive waters. During July of 1998 we measured soil CO2 concentrations of 5

  8. Fertilization in echinoderms. (United States)

    Santella, Luigia; Vasilev, Filip; Chun, Jong T


    For more than 150 years, echinoderm eggs have served as overly favored experimental model systems in which to study fertilization. Sea urchin and starfish belong to the same phylum and thus share many similarities in their fertilization patterns. However, several subtle but fundamental differences do exist in the fertilization of sea urchin and starfish, reflecting their phylogenetic bifurcation approximately 500 million years ago. In this article we review some of the seminal and recent findings that feature similarities and differences in sea urchin and starfish at fertilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Green manuring and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNAAB), Nigeria to screen three green manure crops in the 1997 cropping season for biomass production. The most promising legume was selected, grown and incorporated insitu along with varying levels of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer.

  10. Effects of racing on equine fertility. (United States)

    Sairanen, J; Katila, T; Virtala, A-M; Ojala, M


    Racing and fertility are connected with each other in many ways. Stress and increased body temperature induced by racing may have negative effects on fertility, but on the other hand, high quality nutrition and management of racing horses may have positive effects. Fertility may also be genetically associated with racing performance. The analysed data consisted of Finnish mating records of Standardbreds (n=33,679) and Finnhorses (n=32,731), from 1991 to 2005, and the harness racing records of both mares and stallions. Fertility was measured by foaling outcome, and racing performance was measured by best time and number of races. We used racing results from the mating year and from the entire career, to study both short-term and long-term effects of racing on fertility. The analyses were conducted with a linear mixed model, where racing was fitted as a fixed factor. In a separate bivariate analysis we measured the genetic correlation of racing and fertility, applying a threshold model for the fertility trait. For mares, racing after the first mating or more than 10 times during the mating year diminished the foaling outcome. However, racing only before the first mating or 1-5 times during the mating year had positive effects on mare fertility. Stallion fertility did not suffer from racing during the mating year. The mares with the best career racing records had the highest foaling rates, but this was probably due to preferential treatment. The genetic correlation between best racing record and fertility was favourable but weak in the Finnhorse (-0.24±0.08), and negligible in the Standardbred (-0.15±0.11). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Child allowances, fertility, and chaotic dynamics (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Li, Ming-Chia


    This paper analyzes the dynamics in an overlapping generations model with the provision of child allowances. Fertility is an increasing function of child allowances and there exists a threshold effect of the marginal effect of child allowances on fertility. We show that if the effectiveness of child allowances is sufficiently high, an intermediate-sized tax rate will be enough to generate chaotic dynamics. Besides, a decrease in the inter-temporal elasticity of substitution will prevent the occurrence of irregular cycles.

  12. Is Wildlife Fertility Control Always Humane?


    Hampton, Jordan O.; Timothy H. Hyndman; Anne Barnes; Teresa Collins


    Simple Summary There are various fertility control methods (modalities) currently available that aim to reduce the abundance of problematic free-ranging mammalian wildlife. Here, we propose that dissimilarities in the mechanism of action indicate these methods produce great variation in animal welfare outcomes. We present a framework to assist managers in minimising animal welfare risks. Abstract Investigation of fertility control techniques to reduce reproductive rates in wildlife population...

  13. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality. (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  14. Evaluation of fertility in relation to milk production and productivity of Murrah buffaloes. (United States)

    Jamuna, V; Chakravarty, A K


    Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits has lead to deterioration in their performances. The study was initiated to assess the relationship between milk production and productivity with fertility in Murrah buffaloes. In the present study, fertility was defined in terms of pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes. Pregnancy rate measures the percentage of non-pregnant animals that become pregnant during each oestrous cycle. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 22 years from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed in the study. It was observed that pregnancy rate is negatively associated with 305days or less milk yield (-0.08±0.04) and wet average (-0.12±0.02) and positively associated with life time (0.15±0.03) in Murrah buffaloes. Wet average is defined as average daily milk yield per lactation of Murrah buffaloes. To achieve around 2000kg 305days or less milk yield and 7.5kg wet average, the level of pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes should vary between 30 and 50%. The per unit change in pregnancy rate with respect to milk yield in Murrah buffaloes, were studied using regression analysis. The results suggest that increasing hundred kilogram in 305days or one kilogram milk yield per day in 305days, pregnancy rate reduced by 0.9% in overall lactations of Murrah buffaloes. By increasing hundred kilogram life time 305days or less milk yield and one kilogram life time wet average, pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes reduced by about 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively. The study quantifies the decline of pregnancy rate with increase of lactation milk yield and wet average in Murrah buffaloes and emphasis the importance of fertility i.e. pregnancy rate in the evaluation and breeding programmes of Murrah buffaloes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A long-term nitrogen fertilizer gradient has little effect on soil organic matter in a high-intensity maize production system. (United States)

    Brown, Kimberly H; Bach, Elizabeth M; Drijber, Rhae A; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Jeske, Elizabeth S; Sawyer, John E; Castellano, Michael J


    Global maize production alters an enormous soil organic C (SOC) stock, ultimately affecting greenhouse gas concentrations and the capacity of agroecosystems to buffer climate variability. Inorganic N fertilizer is perhaps the most important factor affecting SOC within maize-based systems due to its effects on crop residue production and SOC mineralization. Using a continuous maize cropping system with a 13 year N fertilizer gradient (0-269 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) that created a large range in crop residue inputs (3.60-9.94 Mg dry matter ha(-1) yr(-1)), we provide the first agronomic assessment of long-term N fertilizer effects on SOC with direct reference to N rates that are empirically determined to be insufficient, optimum, and excessive. Across the N fertilizer gradient, SOC in physico-chemically protected pools was not affected by N fertilizer rate or residue inputs. However, unprotected particulate organic matter (POM) fractions increased with residue inputs. Although N fertilizer was negatively linearly correlated with POM C/N ratios, the slope of this relationship decreased from the least decomposed POM pools (coarse POM) to the most decomposed POM pools (fine intra-aggregate POM). Moreover, C/N ratios of protected pools did not vary across N rates, suggesting little effect of N fertilizer on soil organic matter (SOM) after decomposition of POM. Comparing a N rate within 4% of agronomic optimum (208 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) and an excessive N rate (269 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)), there were no differences between SOC amount, SOM C/N ratios, or microbial biomass and composition. These data suggest that excessive N fertilizer had little effect on SOM and they complement agronomic assessments of environmental N losses, that demonstrate N2 O and NO3 emissions exponentially increase when agronomic optimum N is surpassed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fertilizers and soil improvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.


    In greenhouse industry fertilizers as well as soil improvers are widely used. Fertilizers are mainly applied to optimize the physical-chemical conditions of the root environment and are used for growing in soils in situ as well as for growing in substrates. Soil improvers are materials solely added

  17. Economic development and fertility. (United States)

    Heer, D M


    Two schools of theorists have been concerned with the effect of economic development on fertility. One school has contended that economic development has an inhibiting effect on fertility. The demographic transition which has occurred among the non-developed countries confirms their viewpoint. Another school of thought, including in its members Thomas Malthus, has believed that economic development promoted fertility. Much empirical evidence may also be brought to bear to support this viewpoint.The present paper attempts to reconcile these viewpoints. It is hypothesized that the direct effect of economic development is to increase fertility. However, various factors which usually accompany the process of economic development serve to reduce fertility. These include an increase in the level of education and a reduction in infant and childhood mortality. Making use of data for 41 nations pertaining to the decade of the 1950's, it is found that fertility is directly associated with per capita net national product when controls for other relevant variables are in8tituted. On the other hand, per capita newspaper circulation is inversely related to fertility, and infant mortality is directly related.If the hypothesis advanced in this paper is correct, relatively large governmental expenditures on health and education will enhance the reduction in fertility obtainable from an increase in national economic level alone.

  18. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In reality all pre-fertilization events involved in screening and selection of the partners, so ... In reality, flowering plants also perform all essential pre-fertilization events to screen and ..... adequate in the habitat. It increases pollination efficiency since the pollinator and the plant species have evolved to optimize pollen transfer.

  19. IQ and Fertility: A Cross-National Study (United States)

    Shatz, Steven M.


    Many studies have found a small to moderate negative correlation between IQ and fertility rates. However, these studies have been limited to the United States and some European countries. The present study was a between-nation study using national IQ scores and national fertility rates. There were strong negative correlations found between…

  20. The effects of mineral and liquid organic fertilizers on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economical effect of liquid organic fertilizer on agriculture may be a factor in the extension of its practice in larger areas. The rates of compost required to supply sufficient N requirements might be economically challenging for farmers. Therefore, the organic liquid fertilizers might help in reducing the need of high rates of ...

  1. [Fertilizer Effect on Yield and Quality of Gentiana crassicaulis]. (United States)

    Wu, Chun; Chen, Xing-fu; Yang, Wen-yu; Meng, Jie; Zeng, Yu; Cheng, Taho


    To find the best fertilizer formula of yield-quality-fertilizer effect, and to establish a new comprehensive evaluation-fertilizer effect method. Grey related degree analysis and DTOPSIS method were combined to comprehensive evaluate the 11 indexes of 14 fertilizer formulas of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, in order to explore the best dosage and ratio. The fertilizer requirements of the factors which contribute to the yield and quality of Gentiana crassicaulis were different and the most appropriate rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer were 21.49~42.03 kg/667 m2, 49.53~65.75 kg/667 m2 and 26.34~ 42.97 kg/667 m2, respectively. The fertilizer formula in this study can be widely used in the standardized plantation of Gentiana crassicaulis.

  2. Índices agronômicos do meloeiro associados à dose adequada de nitrogênio, em ambiente protegido e no campo Muskmelon plant agronomical indice values associated with adequadenitrogen fertilizer rate, in unheated greenhouse and field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evando Luiz Coelho


    conditions. Two experiments, in unheated greenhouse and field conditions, were carried out with similar procedures. Each experiment consisted of four randomized blocks containing five treatments or five nitrogen rates (0, 75, 150, 300, and 450 kg ha-1 of N, applied as urea. Part of the fertilizer was placed in furrows (30%, before seedling transplantation, and the remaining 70% were trickle-applied through part of the plant cycle. Initially, 14 days after transplantation, plant chlorosis intensity was evaluated by scores from 0 (no chlorosis to 5 (leaves completely chlorotics. At 25 and 53 days after transplantation, at first and second fruit setting, FLA and FLW were determined. At both experiments, chlorosis intensity decreased, FLA and FLW increased with increasing N rates. Chlorosis intensity values associated with MFY were 0.22 and 1.11 at greenhouse and field, respectively. In the greenhouse, at first and second sampling dates, FLA values associated with MFY were 107 and 72 cm² and FLW values were 0.36 and 0.26 g, respectively. In the field, the corresponding values were 89 and 69 cm² and 0.39 and 0.30 g, respectively. These are proposed melon plant index values indicators of the added N fertilizer rate adequacy.

  3. Uterine clinical findings, fertility rate, leucocyte migration, and COX-2 protein levels in the endometrial tissue of susceptible mares treated with platelet-rich plasma before and after AI. (United States)

    Segabinazzi, Lorenzo G; Friso, Aime M; Correal, Sebastian B; Crespilho, André M; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio; Miró, Jordi; Papa, Frederico O; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio


    Persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) results in decreased fertility in horses, thereby causing a significant impact in the horse market. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a modulator of the inflammatory response, has been largely used in veterinary medicine. Here, we investigated the effects of PRP on uterine inflammation, conception rate, endometrial polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration, and COX-2 protein levels in the endometrial tissue. Thirteen PMIE-susceptible mares were used for artificial insemination (AI). The mares were inseminated with fresh semen in three consecutive cycles in a cross-over study design. The following cycle classifications were used: control cycle, no pharmacological interference; pre-AI, 20 mL of PRP was infused 24 h before AI; and post-AI, 20 mL of PRP was infused four h after AI. Follicular dynamics were monitored daily by transrectal ultrasound. When a follicle larger than 35 mm was detected, ovulation was induced with deslorelin acetate (1 mg, im). AI was performed 24 h after ovulation induction. Intrauterine fluid (FLU) was evaluated by ultrasonography before and 24 h after AI. PMNs in uterine cytology (CYT) and biopsy (HIS) were also observed before and 24 h after AI. Pregnancy was determined within 14 days after ovulation. Number of COX-2 positive cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Both PRP treatments resulted in a decrease of PMNs in the CYT after breeding when compared to controls. FLU did not differ between cycles; however, the conception rates were significantly higher in the PRP mares. Mares positive for endometritis decreased in both treatment groups, and a more intense positive COX-2 labeling was observed in the control group when compared to the two treatment groups. In conclusion, PRP beneficially reduces inflammatory response in PMIE mares independent of when treatments were administered, thus increasing chances of successful pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Migration, urbanization, and fertility in the Philippines. (United States)

    Hiday, V A


    3 groups of women are compared in this study of the effect of migration on fertility in a less developed country: 1) rural sedentary; 2) rural to rural migrants; and 3) rural to urban migrants. The data are from a 1970 household interview study conducted by the Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado in Magsayay and Matanao, Davao Province, Mindanao, the Philippines. Social, economic, and mortality data were gathered from the household head and/or spouse for each household member and each child living elsewhere. Reproductive histories were obtained only from women for all women 15 years of age and older living in the 2 rural communities and living elsewhere. Age specific fertility rates and child woman ratios showed a declining gradient of fertility with social distance from the rural home communities. Age at marriage and education were positively associated with distance from the home communities and negatively associated with fertility. The data provide support for the hypothesis that recent migration is innovative, engaged in by more modernized persons who are motivated by aspiration to new goals, thus migration has a negative effect on fertility. Urbanization had its major impact after peak fertility years, 20-29, influencing urban migrants to bring their fertility under voluntary control. No such curtailment appeared in the late reproductive behavior of rural sedentary or migrant women. Urbanization seems to have a negative effect on fertility independent of migration. Young migrant women, in their teens, particularly those migrating to urban areas, did not fit the social mobility model; they tended to complete fewer years of school and married at an earlier age. These young urban migrants also had higher fertility than both rural sedentary and rural migrant females while in their teen years.

  5. Parental Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Childhood Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura O.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.


    BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment......, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013). Information on time to pregnancy and fertility treatment....... RESULTS: A total of 60 440 pregnancies were included, and 0.8% of the children developed epilepsy.The primary analyses showed no association between parental infertility or fertility treatment, and the overall risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard rate ratios (HRs); 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.08 (0...

  6. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hall


    interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to belowreplacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens’ “pure relationship” concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are more likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.

  7. Education as policy: the impact of education on marriage, contraception, and fertility in Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia. (United States)

    Heaton, T B; Forste, R


    Using data from the World Fertility and Demographic and Health Surveys of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia, we model the effects of education on three demographic outcomes: the timing of first sexual union, contraceptive use, and fertility. These effects are examined over time and across geographic areas using a multivariate framework. We find substantial improvements in female educational attainment over the last fifty years and a strong relationship between education and the demographic outcomes. Each successive increment in education is associated with declines in the marriage rate, increased contraceptive use, and lower fertility. Education accounts for some of the changes over time in the demographic outcomes, but the pattern varies by outcome, time period, and geographic area. In support of the social diffusion hypothesis, our results indicate that educational differences in reproductive behavior are reduced as the level of development increases and societies pass through their demographic transition.

  8. Men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility. (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Collins, Veronica; Holden, Carol; Young, Kate; McLachlan, Robert


    The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel. However, evidence suggests that the lack of a partner or a partner willing to commit to parenthood is the main reason for later childbearing. To better understand men's contributions to childbearing decisions and outcomes, the literature pertaining to men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was reviewed. The electronic databases of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to identify investigations of men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility, infertility, reproductive health or childbearing using relevant fertility keyword search terms. Studies were included if they had investigated factors associated with men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, had been conducted in a high-income country and were published in an English language peer-reviewed journal between January 2005 and August 2016. The search yielded 1349 citations. Of these, 47 papers representing 43 unique studies were included in the review. Where response rate was reported, it ranged between 13 and 94%. Studies varied in terms of research design; inclusion and exclusion criteria; recruitment strategies; adequacy of sample size; recruitment and retention rates and data collection tools. However, findings were consistent and indicate that men almost universally value parenthood, want and expect to become fathers, and aspire to have at least two children. Yet

  9. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from commercial fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987–2006 (United States)

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Spahr, Norman E.


    The U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment program requires nutrient input for analysis of the national and regional assessment of water quality. Detailed information on nutrient inputs to the environment are needed to understand and address the many serious problems that arise from excess nutrients in the streams and groundwater of the Nation. This report updates estimated county-level farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input from commercial fertilizer sales for the conterminous United States for 1987 through 2006. Estimates were calculated from the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials fertilizer sales data, Census of Agriculture fertilizer expenditures, and U.S. Census Bureau county population. A previous national approach for deriving farm and nonfarm fertilizer nutrient estimates was evaluated, and a revised method for selecting representative states to calculate national farm and nonfarm proportions was developed. A national approach was used to estimate farm and nonfarm fertilizer inputs because not all states distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, and the quality of fertilizer reporting varies from year to year. For states that distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, the spatial distribution of the ratios of nonfarm-to-total fertilizer estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus calculated using the national-based farm and nonfarm proportions were similar to the spatial distribution of the ratios generated using state-based farm and nonfarm proportions. In addition, the relative highs and lows in the temporal distribution of farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input at the state level were maintained—the periods of high and low usage coincide between national- and state-based values. With a few exceptions, nonfarm nitrogen estimates were found to be reasonable when compared to the amounts that would result if the lawn application rates recommended by state and university agricultural agencies were used. Also

  10. Effects of Different Fertilizing Formulae on Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    Full Text Available Trials conducted on potato fertilization at different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have shown that the elements able to influence the marketable tuber yield are nitrogen and phosphorus. The potato dry matter, which reflects other quality aspects such as the specific gravity and the starch content, increases with nitrogen fertilization till 150-200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen; beyond those rates values remain nearly unchanged. Dry matter increases also with the application of phosphorus and at low potassium rates. The objective of the research was to test the effect of different rates of N P K fertilizer on yield and some quality traits of potato. The test was conducted at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty, Bari University, Italy. It involved the comparison of 6 fertilizing formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of three nitrogen levels (N = 100-200-300 kg ha-1 and two phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 against an unfertilized control N0P0K0. The dose of potassium was constant for all fertilizing formulae (K2O = 300 kg ha-1. The highest total and marketable yields of tubers per plant have been observed at the two highest fertilizing levels (N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, which are not statistically different so that the best treatments is shown to be N3 P1 K1; the trend was similar for the mean weight of tubers. With the various treatments, no difference was observed in terms of yield of tubers belonging to the two first size classes (< 35mm and 35-55mm; what has increased with the fertilizing levels is the yield of tubers greater than 55 mm. Tuber specific gravity show, as expected, a positive correlation with the dry matter percentage. Both parameters increased shifting from the control to the N2 P2 K1 and decreased at the highest N level, without any difference being observed with the change in the P rate. The highest starch percentage (20.5% was also observed in the

  11. In Situ Nitrogen Mineralization, Nitrification, and Ammonia Volatilization in Maize Field Fertilized with Urea in Huanghuaihai Region of Northern China (United States)

    Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Qun; Xu, Jun; Gilliam, Frank S.; Tremblay, Nicolas; Li, Chaohai


    Nitrogen (N) fertilization potentially affects soil N mineralization and leaching, and can enhance NH3 volatilization, thus impacting crop production. A fertilizer experiment with five levels of N addition (0, 79, 147, 215 and 375 kg N ha-1) was performed in 2009 and 2010 in a maize field in Huanghuaihai region, China, where > 300 kg N ha-1 has been routinely applied to soil during maize growth period of 120 days. Responses of net N mineralization, inorganic N flux (0–10cm), NH3 volatilization, and maize yield to N fertilization were measured. During the growth period, net N mineralization and nitrification varied seasonally, with higher rates occurring in August and coinciding with the R1 stage of maize growth. Soil NO3−-N contributed to more than 60% of inorganic N flux during maize growth. Cumulative NH3 volatilization increased with N additions, with total NH3 volatilization during maize growth accounting for about 4% of added N. Relative to the control, mean maize yield in the fertilizer treatments increased by 17% and 20% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. However, grain yield, aboveground biomass, and plant N accumulation did not increase with added N at levels > 215 kg N ha-1. These results suggest that the current N rate of 300 kg N ha-1 is not only excessive, but also reduces fertilizer efficacy and may contribute to environmental problems such as global warming and eutrophication of ground water and streams. PMID:25635864

  12. Female Employment Reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal (United States)


    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. PMID:25816301

  13. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  14. Socio-economic status and fertility decline: Insights from historical transitions in Europe and North America. (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain; Gauvreau, Danielle; Hanson, Heidi A; Maloney, Thomas N; Mazzoni, Stanislao; Molitoris, Joseph; Pozzi, Lucia; Smith, Ken R; Vézina, Hélène


    The timings of historical fertility transitions in different regions are well understood by demographers, but much less is known regarding their specific features and causes. In the study reported in this paper, we used longitudinal micro-level data for five local populations in Europe and North America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories on fertility behaviour. Our results do not provide support for the hypothesis of universally high fertility among the upper classes in pre-transitional society, but do support the idea that the upper classes acted as forerunners by reducing their fertility before other groups. Farmers and unskilled workers were the latest to start limiting their fertility. Apart from these similarities, patterns of class differences in fertility varied significantly between populations.

  15. Fertility after breast cancer treatment. (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H


    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  16. A New Proposal for Measuring Marital Fertility in Historical Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús J. Sánchez-Barricarte


    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical analysis is made of some of the indices used in numerous historical studies on the decline of fertility. More concretely, it is demonstrated how the Total Marital Fertility Rate (TMFR and the Ig and I’g indices of marital fertility designed by Coale (1986 not only are not good indicators of a population’s level of marital fertility, but also in some cases (for example, when there is an important delay in female mean age at marriage can even indicate an increase in marital fertility when in reality it is decreasing. Likewise, a new index for measuring marital fertility (known as the Navarre Index is presented which takes into account women’s average age at marriage as well as their mortality rate during their reproductive period.

  17. Patient attitudes toward fertility preservation. (United States)

    Schover, Leslie R


    The increased survival rates for pediatric cancer patients and for some malignancies that are common in young adults, such as testicular cancer and Hodgkin disease have led to an increased focus on preserving fertility. Research on the psychosocial aspects of cancer-related infertility is a recent development, but we know that both young men and women value parenthood after cancer. At least 75% of survivors who were childless at diagnosis would like future offspring. For those who do not become parents, long-term distress is common. Younger teens may have difficulty assessing whether parenthood will be important to them in the future, and informed consent protocols need to respect their desires rather than deferring too much to parents. We do not know whether parenting a non-biological child (adopted, conceived through third-party reproduction, or a stepchild) reduces distress as much as being able to have one's own genetic offspring. Survivors often have exaggerated concerns about their children's health risks, but still prefer to have biological children if possible. More research is needed on whether participating in fertility preservation reduces long-term distress about cancer-related fertility. Better evidence-based programs to educate families and reduce decisional conflict are needed. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten


    Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...... fertilization regimens, environmental constraints and possibilities in northern forests on mineral soils. Further on we discuss the implications of both extensive and more intensive fertilization in relation to the developing bioeconomy, which encompasses the production and conversion of renewable biological...

  19. Optimizing Natural Fertility (United States)

    ... heavy alcohol consumption (> 2 drinks per day), heavy caffeine consumption, and the use of recreational drugs such as marijuana have all been associated with reduced fertility. Therefore, women (and ... alcohol and caffeine use, and avoid smoking and all recreational drugs ...

  20. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  1. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend


    of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...... pregnancies during fertility treatment, 39.6 versus 60.4% (p=0.002). Increasing age was of negative importance for expected time to pregnancy, especially among asthmatic women (interaction between age and asthma on time to pregnancy, p=0.001). Female asthmatics had a longer time to pregnancy and less often...

  2. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C


    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... cryopreservation and embryo/oocyte cryopreservation are standard strategies for fertility preservations in male and female patients, respectively; other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the gonads and gonadal tissue cryopreservation) are considered experimental techniques. However, since then, new...

  3. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.


    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  4. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  5. Understanding variation in human fertility: what can we learn from evolutionary demography? (United States)

    Sear, Rebecca; Lawson, David W; Kaplan, Hillard; Shenk, Mary K


    Decades of research on human fertility has presented a clear picture of how fertility varies, including its dramatic decline over the last two centuries in most parts of the world. Why fertility varies, both between and within populations, is not nearly so well understood. Fertility is a complex phenomenon, partly physiologically and partly behaviourally determined, thus an interdisciplinary approach is required to understand it. Evolutionary demographers have focused on human fertility since the 1980s. The first wave of evolutionary demographic research made major theoretical and empirical advances, investigating variation in fertility primarily in terms of fitness maximization. Research focused particularly on variation within high-fertility populations and small-scale subsistence societies and also yielded a number of hypotheses for why fitness maximization seems to break down as fertility declines during the demographic transition. A second wave of evolutionary demography research on fertility is now underway, paying much more attention to the cultural and psychological mechanisms underpinning fertility. It is also engaging with the complex, multi-causal nature of fertility variation, and with understanding fertility in complex modern and transitioning societies. Here, we summarize the history of evolutionary demographic work on human fertility, describe the current state of the field, and suggest future directions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Effect of fertility and infertility on longevity. (United States)

    Ehrlich, Shelley


    Changing demographic trends and projections of the survival and fertility rates of each generation have been a topic of great interest to not only demographers and epidemiologists but also to evolutionary biologists and reproductive endocrinologists. Compelling evolutionary theories suggest that there is an inverse association between fertility and longevity. Multiple historic, demographic, and current studies have since been conducted to test this theory, but the results have been inconclusive. The average number of children born to each woman has been declining progressively in developed countries during recent decades. This is in part due to changes in the behavior of couples but also to environmental factors. While improved accessibility to assisted reproductive technology can relieve some of the burden of infertility on these couples and lessen the problem of low total fertility rates in many developed countries, it is not enough to overcome the overall decrease in total fertility rates that we have witnessed in recent decades. This article critically reviews some important studies and provides an overview of this ongoing debate, while highlighting the relevance of trying to understand the possible mechanisms that may link fertility and infertility to longevity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application (United States)

    Gu, Chuanhui; Maggi, F.; Riley, W. J.; Hornberger, G. M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N. L.; Venterea, R. T.; Steefel, C.


    In recent years, concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO3-) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH3) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N2O emissions after fertilization and irrigation and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N2O emissions from NH4+-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO3--N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly nonlinear N2O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N2O and N2 depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

  8. Looking for a J-shaped development-fertility relationship: Do advances in development really reverse fertility declines?


    Fumitaka Furuoka


    In their article published in the “Nature†journal, Myrskylä et al. (2009) claimed that in highly developed countries development-fertility relationship becomes J-shaped. This means that further advances in economic and social development can reverse declining fertility rates. The present paper employs threshold regression analysis (Hansen 2000) to examine the existence of the proposed J-shaped fertility-development curve. The findings indicate that the threshold value of human development...

  9. Effects of Long-term Fertilization on Potassium Fixation Capacity in Brown Soil (United States)

    Li, Na; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Yue; Gao, Tianyi; Yang, Jinfeng; Han, Xiaori


    This study concentrated on the research of features of fixation. The objective of this study was to provide theoretical foundation of rational application of potassium fertilizer along with improving fertilizer availability ratio. A 32 years long-term experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on potassium changes and the factors affecting K fixation on brown soil by simulation in laboratory. When the concentration of exogenous potassium was in range of 400∼4000 mg·kg-1, potassium fixation capacity increased along with the rise of concentration of exogenous potassium, whereas K fixation rate reduced; Compared with no-potassium fertilizer, application of potassium fertilizer and organic fertilizer reduced soil potassium fixation capacity. Potassium rate and fixation-release of potassium character in soil should be taken into comprehensive consideration for rational fertilization to maintain or improve soil fertility for increasing potassium fertilizers efficiency in agriculture.

  10. [High-fertility groups in Colombia, 1990]. (United States)

    Florez, C E


    Data from the 1990 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), the 1985 census, and PROFAMILIA and Ministry of Health service statistics were used to analyze persistence of high fertility in different subregions and socioeconomic groups of Colombia. The 1990 DHS sample design divided the country into 13 subregions, allowing greater than usual disaggregation of data. The analytic strategy had three parts: identification of regions exhibiting high fertility during 1987-90; characterization of the regions according to macro level indicators and fertility level; and analysis of the importance of the effects of the contextual and individual variables on recent fertility by means of a multilevel multivariate model. The characterization of the regions and the multivariate analysis tested the hypothesis that contextual conditions influence fertility directly and not just as instruments of the individual characteristics of local populations. Based on demographic transition theory and available information, several contextual indicators were studied: women's status, economic role of children, infant mortality, access to modern family planning methods, and urbanization. The analysis demonstrated the existence of high fertility in 3 of the 13 geographic subregions: northeast, northwest, and Tolima Grande. The characterization of the subregions indicated that those where women had lower status, and where there was less emphasis on children's school attendance, high infant mortality, low access to family planning, and low level of urbanization were not necessarily the areas with the highest total fertility rates, suggesting that a cultural effect might also be present. The northeast and northwest subregions have cultural values and family structures different from those of the rest of Colombia and similar to other Caribbean countries: prevalence of consensual unions, early marriage, and high value of children in the household. The results of the multivariate analysis also indicated the

  11. Smoothly Varying Bright Blazars (United States)

    Van Alfen, Nicholas; Hindman, Lauren; Moody, Joseph Ward; Biancardi, Rochelle; Whipple, Parkes; Gaunt, Caleb


    It is becoming increasingly apparent that blazar light can vary sinusoidally with periods of hundreds of days to tens of years. Such behavior is expected of, among other things, jets coming from binary black holes. To look for general variability in lesser-known blazars and AGN, in 2015-2016 we monitored 182 objects with Johnson V-band magnitudes reported as being < 16. In all, this campaign generated 22,000 frames from 2,000 unique pointings. We find that approximately one dozen of these objects show evidence of smooth variability consistent with sinusoidal periods. We report on the entire survey sample, highlighting those that show sinusoidal variations.

  12. Tunisia: high fertility stalls development. (United States)

    Barberis, M


    Despite government policy enacted in 1964 to reduce fertility in order to hasten socioeconomic progress, population pressures continue to impair development in Tunisia. The birth rate fell 20% over the last 2 decades, but this accomplishment has been outweighed by a 50% decline in mortality rates. As a result, the rate of natural population increase has remained relatively constant at 2.5%/year. The initial decline in fertility that followed introduction of the national family planning program appears to have reached a plateau, explained in part by the resurgence of conservatism and religious fundamentalism and the consequent emphasis on women's childbearing roles. Unemployment in rural areas has led to widespread migration and unemployment is as high as 20% in the nonagricultural sector. Many young Tunisians lack adequate educational preparation to enter the labor force; in 1982, 27% of new job entrants could not read or write. The government's plan to decentralize development to stabilize population and achieve equilibrium between regions has been thwarted by the pace of population growth and limited resources. The rural regions where population is increasing the fastest are also the most difficult to reach with family planning programs. On the other hand, there have been some successes in this area when services have been adapted to the lifestyle and traditions of those in these isolated rural villages.

  13. Addition of Urease Inhibitor Has No Effect on Ammonia Volatilization Following Soil Application of Poultry Litter or Organomineral Fertilizer, Unlike Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késia Silva Lourenço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quantification of ammonia volatilization after addition of animal residues and nitrogen (N mineral fertilizers to the soil is important for N management in fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a urease inhibitor to N fertilizers to minimize ammonia losses following soil application. The experiment was carried out in a laboratory with samples of a Brazilian Oxisol containing 790 g kg-1 clay and 23 g kg-1 organic matter. Treatments consisted of addition of poultry litter (PL, organic mineral fertilizer (OMF and urea to the soil, with and without the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT, plus a control with no fertilizer. We applied the fertilizers over the soil surface, with no soil incorporation, at a rate of 200 mg kg-1 N. Experimental units consisted of PVC tubes with a diameter of 0.15 m, containing 1.0 kg of soil (dry basis. Ammonia volatilization was measured for 56 days following fertilizer application to the soil using sponge discs impregnated with phosphoric acid and glycerin, which were fitted inside the tubes 0.15 m above the soil surface. Ammonia volatilization peaks varied according to the fertilizer, and most of them occurred in the first 15 days following application to the soil. Total ammonia volatilized from the soil treated with PL or OMF had no influence on the urease inhibitor, probably because the losses were small, attaining a maximum of 2.5 and 9 % of the total N applied, respectively. In the treatment that received urea, NBPT delayed the peak of volatilization by three weeks and decreased the loss of ammonia from 22 to 9 % of the N applied. Use of urease inhibitor does not always decrease ammonia volatilization, especially when mixed with fertilizers in which urea is not the only source of N.

  14. Increased venous thrombosis incidence in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anette Tarp; Kesmodel, U S; Juul, S


    STUDY QUESTION Is venous thrombosis risk increased in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization? SUMMARY ANSWER The venous thrombosis incidence was significantly increased in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization; especially in the first trimester and in the first 6 weeks post-partum. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY In vitro fertilization without pregnancy is not associated with increased venous thrombosis incidence. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This national register-based cohort study covered the period from 1995 to 2005. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All Danish pregnancies conceived...... by in vitro fertilization (n = 18 787) were included. Venous thrombosis incidence rates in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization were compared with venous thrombosis incidence rates in reference pregnancies, by calculating incidence rate ratios. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In total, 48 cases were...

  15. Agronomic performance of green cane fertilized with ammonium sulfate in a coastal tableland soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pessim Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recent approach of eliminating the usage of fire for sugarcane harvesting resulted in managing the crop on a trashblanketed soil, to which a proper recommendation of N fertilization is lacking, a problem that remains in the coastal tablelands of the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of increasing N rates on stalk and sugar yields and the N use efficiency by the crop. The experimental area planted with sugarcane, at the first ratoon, is located in Linhares, Espírito Santo State. The treatments consisted of N rates varying from 80 to 160 kg N∙ha−1 as ammonium sulphate, and a control without N, in a completely randomized blocks experimental design. Stalk yield increased with the N rate, and fitting the results to a quadratic function suggests no response to fertilizer rates above 130 kg N∙ha−1. The highest margin of agricultural contribution was obtained at the rate of 100 kg N∙ha−1. The N use efficiency decreased from almost 49 to 38%, when the N rate increased from 100 to 160 kg N∙ha−1. There was no effect of increasing N rates on the sugar concentration, although the sugar yield response was positive and strongly influenced by the stalk production. Results showed the importance of reassessing the adequate N rate for maximizing yield in green cane production systems.

  16. Falling Fertility and increase in use of uontraception in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Saharan Africa. This article is trying to fill this gap by analysing the ZDHS data. The total fertility rate of Zimbabwe was close to 7 births during independence in 1980. However, it has declined to 3.8 in 2006. This does not only show that fertility ...

  17. effect of water harvesting methods, nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Phosphorus fertilizer rate and variety on leaf tissue N, and P, and soil moisture content of date palm plants over a period ... Key words: Water harvesting method, Nitrogen-Phosphorus fertilizer, Date palm variety, Leaf. Tissue N and P, and Soil .... 1997; Robert et al., 2004). Leaf tissue P: P was determined color metrically by.

  18. Effects of liming and fertilization on zooplankton production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5kg) and organic fertilizer (poultry droppings) (0.5, 1.5, 2.5 kg) were used in the ponds to assess their effects on zooplankton production, pond productivity and C. gariepinus fry maturation. The fry ... The present research recommends an application of lime and fertilizers at the above rates for effective production of fish foods.

  19. Using organic fertilizers in forest and native plant nurseries (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese


    Since World War II, synthetic fertilizers have been used almost exclusively to grow forest and native plant nursery crops because they are quickly soluble and readily taken up by crops, producing the rapid growth rates that are necessary in nursery culture. In recent years, however, a wide variety of new organic fertilizers have become available. We divided these...

  20. Are Difficulties Balancing Work and Family Associated with Subsequent Fertility? (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Hynes, Kathryn


    Despite considerable interest in the causes and consequences of work-family conflict, and the frequent suggestion in fertility research that difficulty in balancing work and family is one of the factors leading to low fertility rates in several developed countries, little research uses longitudinal data to examine whether women who report…

  1. Level and differentials of fertility in Awassa town, Southern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional, descriptive study with internal comparison was conducted among 1376 women of reproductive age with the objective of assessing the level and determinants of fertility in Awassa town, Ethiopia. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) was 3.4 and the mean Child Ever Born (CEB) was 1.72 and 3.02 among all women ...

  2. Changes in morpho-physiological traits of mustard under the influence of different fertilizers and plant growth regulator cycocel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Banerjee


    Full Text Available Rate of dry matter accumulation varies across the life cycle of a crop and dry matter and leaf area are sampled at intervals ranging from days to weeks to quantify effects of environmental influences or to analyze genotypic differences between crop cultivars. To study the impact of reduced dose of chemical fertilizer and its combination with biofertilizer, compost and growth retardant on morpho-physiological traits of mustard field experiments were conducted during winter season of 2006, 2007 and 2008 with mustard (Brassica campestris cv. B9 at Burdwan, West Bengal, India. In 2006, seven available varieties of mustard were cultivated using a recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (N:P:K – 100:50:50. In the second and third years, influence of six different combined doses of chemical and biofertilizers; growth regulator cycocel (CCC and compost on morpho-physiological traits viz., leaf area index (LAI, leaf area duration (LAD, leaf area ratio (LAR, crop growth rate (CGR, net assimilation rate (NAR and harvest index (HI of mustard and the field data were analyzed statistically by using PROC GLM of SAS (SAS Institute, 1997. Differential varietal response was reflected for the studied traits during varietal trial. The combined treatment of biofertilizer, chemical fertilizer and compost significantly (P < 0.05 increased the LAI, LAD, CGR and NAR and reduced LAR during crop maturity. The HI index value showed significant variation among the varieties as well as between the treatments of biofertilizer, chemical fertilizer and compost. Growth regulator application significantly (P < 0.05 reduced LAI, LAR, NAR and increased LAD, CGR at crop maturity and it can be concluded from our findings that reduced dose of chemical fertilizer and its combination with biofertilizer + compost + growth regulator have pronounced effect on crop morpho-physiological attributes under less environmental pollution with lesser use of nitrogenous and phosphatic

  3. Choice of mineral fertilizer substitution principle strongly influences LCA environmental benefits of nutrient cycling in the agri-food system. (United States)

    Hanserud, Ola Stedje; Cherubini, Francesco; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Müller, Daniel B; Brattebø, Helge


    Increased nutrient cycling in the agri-food system is a way to achieve a healthier nutrient stewardship and more sustainable food production. In life cycle assessment (LCA) studies, use of recycled fertilizer products is often credited by the substitution method, which subtracts the environmental burdens associated with avoided production of mineral fertilizer from the system under study. The environmental benefits from avoided fertilizer production can make an important contribution to the results, but different calculation principles and often implicit assumptions are used to estimate the amount of avoided mineral fertilizer. This may hinder comparisons between studies. The present study therefore examines how the choice of substitution principles influences LCA results. Three different substitution principles, called one-to-one, maintenance, and adjusted maintenance, are identified, and we test the importance of these in a case study on cattle slurry management. We show that the inventory of avoided mineral fertilizer varies greatly when the different principles are applied, with strong influences on two-thirds of LCA impact categories. With the one-to-one principle, there is a risk of systematically over-estimating the environmental benefits from nutrient cycling. In a sensitivity analysis we show that the difference between the principles is closely related to the application rate and levels of residual nutrients in the soil. We recommend that LCA practitioners first and foremost state and justify the substitution method they use, in order to increase transparency and comparability with other studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Social networks and fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bernardi


    Full Text Available Background: The fields of demography, sociology, and socio-psychology have been increasingly drawing on social network theories, which posit that individual fertility decision-making depends in part on the fertility behavior of other members of the population, and on the structure of the interactions between individuals. After reviewing this literature, we highlight the benefits of taking a social network perspective on fertility and family research. Objective: We review the literature that addresses the extent to which social mechanisms, such as social learning, social pressure, social contagion, and social support, influence childbearing decisions. Methods: We review the most recent contributions of the social networks approach for the explanation of fertility dynamics in contemporary post-industrial societies. Conclusions: We find that all of the social mechanisms reviewed influence the beliefs and norms individuals hold regarding childbearing, their perceptions of having children, and the context of opportunities and constraints in which childbearing choices are made. The actual impact of these mechanisms on fertility tempo and quantum strongly depends on the structure of social interaction.

  5. Investigating the Effect of Soil Texture and Fertility on Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficient of Maize Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorbanian Kerdabadi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Crop coefficient varies in different environmental conditions, such as deficit irrigation, salinity and intercropping. The effect of soil fertility and texture of crop coefficient and evapotranspiration of maize was investigated in this study. Low soil fertility and food shortages as a stressful environment for plants that makes it different evapotranspiration rates of evapotranspiration calculation is based on the FAO publication 56. Razzaghi et al. (2012 investigate the effect of soil type and soil-drying during the seed-filling phase on N-uptake, yield and water use, a Danish-bred cultivar (CV. Titicaca was grown in field lysimeters with sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam soil. Zhang et al (2014 were investigated the Effect of adding different amounts of nitrogen during three years (from 2010 to 2012 on water use efficiency and crop evapotranspiration two varieties of winter wheat. The results of their study showed. The results indicated the following: (1 in this dry land farming system, increased N fertilization could raise wheat yield, and the drought-tolerant Changhan No. 58 showed a yield advantage in drought environments with high N fertilizer rates; (2 N application affected water consumption in different soil layers, and promoted wheat absorbing deeper soil water and so increased utilization of soil water; and (3 comprehensive consideration of yield and WUE of wheat indicated that the N rate of 270 kg/ha for Changhan No. 58 was better to avoid the risk of reduced production reduction due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, the N rate of 180 kg/ha was more economic. Materials and Methods: The study was a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three soil texture treatment, including silty clay loam, loam and sandy-loam soil and three fertility treatment, including without fertilizer, one and two percent fertilizer( It was conducted at the experimental farm in

  6. Failure of fertility therapy and subsequent adverse cardiovascular events (United States)

    Udell, Jacob A.; Lu, Hong; Redelmeier, Donald A.


    BACKGROUND: Infertility may indicate an underlying predisposition toward premature cardiovascular disease, yet little is known about potential long-term cardiovascular events following fertility therapy. We investigated whether failure of fertility therapy is associated with subsequent adverse cardiovascular events. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort analysis of women who received gonadotropin-based fertility therapy between Apr. 1, 1993, and Mar. 31, 2011, distinguishing those who subsequently gave birth and those who did not. Using multivariable Poisson regression models, we estimated the relative rate ratio of adverse cardiovascular events associated with fertility therapy failure, accounting for age, year, baseline risk factors, health care history and number of fertility cycles. The primary outcome was subsequent treatment for nonfatal coronary ischemia, stroke, transient ischemic attack, heart failure or thromboembolism. RESULTS: Of 28 442 women who received fertility therapy, 9349 (32.9%) subsequently gave birth and 19 093 (67.1%) did not. The median number of fertility treatments was 3 (interquartile range 1–5). We identified 2686 cardiovascular events over a median 8.4 years of follow-up. The annual rate of cardiovascular events was 19% higher among women who did not give birth after fertility therapy than among those who did (1.08 v. 0.91 per 100 patient-years, p treatment cycles. INTERPRETATION: Fertility therapy failure was associated with an increased risk of long-term adverse cardiovascular events. These women merit surveillance for subsequent cardiovascular events. PMID:28385819

  7. Fate of phosphorus in Everglades agricultural soils after fertilizer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Alan L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); McCray, J. Mabry [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    Land use changes, agricultural drainage and conventional cultivation of winter vegetables and sugarcane cropping in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) may alter soil conditions and organic matter decomposition and ultimately influence the fate of phosphorus (P). Theses agricultural practices promote soil subsidence, reduce the soil depth to bedrock limestone and increase the potential for incorporation of limestone into the root zone of crops. The incorporation of limestone into surface soil has significantly increased soil pH which in turns causes greater fixation of P fertilizer into unavailable forms for plant growth. Additional P fertilization is thus required to satisfy crop nutrient requirements in plant-available P form. It is important to determine how the mixing of bedrock limestone into soils influences the behavior of P fertilizers after their application. To accomplish this task, P fertilizers were applied to (1) typical cultivated soils and to (2) soils that have never been fertilized or extensively tilled. The changes in P concentrations over time were then compared between the two land uses, with differences being attributable to the impacts of cultivation practices. The P distribution in soil varied between land uses, with sugarcane having more P in inorganic pools while the uncultivated soil had more in organic pools. Water-soluble P concentrations in soil increased with increasing fertilizer application rates for all sampling times and both land uses. However, concentrations in uncultivated soil increased proportionally to P-fertilized soil due to organic P mineralization. At all sampling times, plant-available P concentrations remained higher for uncultivated than sugarcane soil. Lower P concentrations for sugarcane were related to adsorption by mineral components (e.g. limestone). Cultivated soils have higher calcium concentrations resulting from incorporation of bedrock limestone into soil by tillage, which increased pH and fostered

  8. How does female education affect fertility? A structural model for the Cote d'Ivoire. (United States)

    Appleton, S


    This research study provides some insights into methodological issues in modeling fertility and its proximate determinants. The aim is to examine the links between female schooling and fertility in the Ivory Coast. The article first presents a brief literature review on the effect of education on fertility, describes the data and choice of econometric models, and indicates in a reduced form model the estimates of the impact of education and other socioeconomic factors on age at cohabitation and duration of breast feeding. Data are obtained from the 1986 Cote d'Ivoire Living Standards Survey among women aged 16 years or older. A probit model is used to estimate the probability of a woman having given birth at least once. The Kaplan-Meier hazard rate (Meyer's method) is used to explain women's age at cohabitation as a function of her education, personal characteristics, and local factors such as wage rates an social service infrastructure. Duration of breast feeding is explained by household characteristics as well as cohabitation explanatory variables among a subsample of women with at least one birth. Findings from the age at cohabitation models indicate that results varied with choice of the hazard models. Controls for unobserved heterogeneity were important for estimating the effects of secondary education. Econometric techniques that captured the heaping in duration of breast feeding data did not improve the fit. Both breast feeding and education were endogenous to fertility. This means that women with more children tended to marry later and breast feed longer. Findings indicate that primary schooling had a weak impact on fertility and proximate determinants. Secondary schooling had a strong impact. Women with secondary schooling cohabited 4 years later and breast fed 8 months less than non-schooled women.

  9. Song trait similarity in great tits varies with social structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysanne Snijders

    Full Text Available For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called "dear enemy" relations. Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping

  10. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline: Insights from historical transitions in Europe and North America (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain; Gauvreau, Danielle; Hanson, Heidi A.; Maloney, Thomas N.; Mazzoni, Stanislao; Molitoris, Joseph; Pozzi, Lucia; Smith, Ken R.; Vézina, Hélène


    We have good knowledge of the timing of the historical fertility transitions in different regions, but we know much less regarding specific features and causes. In this study, we used longitudinal micro-level data for five local populations in Europe and North America to study the relationship between socioeconomic status and fertility during the transition. Using the same analytical model and identical class scheme, we examined the development of socioeconomic differences in marital fertility and related it to common theories on fertility behaviour. Our results do not provide support for the hypothesis of universally high fertility among the upper classes in pre-transitional society but support the idea that they acted as forerunners in the transition by reducing their fertility before other groups. Farmers and unskilled workers were latest to start to limit their fertility. Apart from this regularity, the patterns of class differences in fertility varied significantly among populations. PMID:27884093

  11. Reducing ammonia volatilization from compound fertilizers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonia volatilization is a direct loss of available nitrogen in agriculture. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of amending NPK fertilizer with different rates of clinoptilolite zeolite on ammonia volatilization, soil exchangeable ammonium, and available nitrate. Seven treatments evaluated were: 250 g soil ...

  12. Do Marital Prospects Dissuade Unmarried Fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    , in conjunction with US survey data, to explore the impact of marital prospects on the fertility decisions of unmarried women. We find that the decline, from the 1970s to 1995, in marriage rates of unmar