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Sample records for varying dietary energy

  1. Effects of varying dietary zinc levels on energy and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters determined were dry matter intake (DMI), energy utilization and nitrogen utilization. The mean±SE of Panicum maximum, Andropogon gayanus, Pennisetum purpureum, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium, contained 31.2±5.0; 29.1± 3.0;34.6± 6.0; 45.0± 5.0 and 47.1± 4.0mg Zn/kg DM respectively.

  2. Relationship of Sodium Intake and Blood Pressure Varies With Energy Intake: Secondary Analysis of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-Sodium Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Beasley, Jeannette M; Appel, Lawrence J; Guenther, Patricia M; McFadden, Molly; Greene, Tom; Tooze, Janet A

    2018-05-01

    Dietary Na recommendations are expressed as absolute amounts (mg/d) rather than as Na density (mg/kcal). Our objective was to determine whether the strength of the relationship of Na intake with blood pressure (BP) varied with energy intake. The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-Sodium trial was a randomized feeding trial comparing 2 diets (DASH and control) and 3 levels of Na density. Participants with pre- or stage 1 hypertension consumed diets for 30 days in random order; energy intake was controlled to maintain body weight. This secondary analysis of 379 non-Hispanic black and white participants used mixed-effects models to assess the association of Na and energy intakes with BP. The relationships between absolute Na and both systolic and diastolic BP varied with energy intake. BP rose more steeply with increasing Na at lower energy intake than at higher energy intake ( P interaction<0.001). On the control diet with 2300 mg Na, both systolic and diastolic BP were higher (3.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-5.8; and 2.7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.5, respectively) among those with lower energy intake (higher Na density) than among those with higher energy intake (lower Na density). The association of Na with systolic BP was stronger at lower levels of energy intake in both blacks and whites ( P <0.001). The association of Na and diastolic BP varied with energy intake only among blacks ( P =0.001). Sodium density should be considered as a metric for expressing dietary Na recommendations. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Effect of varying concentrations of dietary crude protein and metabolizable energy on laying performance of Pearl Grey guinea fowl hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahashon, S N; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate optimum dietary concentrations of ME and CP for egg production performance of the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens. In a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, 360 Pearl Gray guinea fowl replacement pullets (22 wk of age) were randomly assigned to experimental diets with 2,800 and 2,900 kcal of ME/kg of diet, each containing 14, 16, and 18% CP, respectively. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times, and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Experimental birds were raised in laying cages and received 16 h of light throughout the study period. The birds were observed for feed consumption, hen-day egg production (HDEP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed conversion ratio, internal egg quality, shell thickness (ST), and BW at the end of each 28-d lay period at 26 to 50 wk of age and at 62 to 86 wk of age. Mortality was recorded as it occurred. Mean HDEP, EW, EM, and ST were higher (P treatments. Differences in feed consumption, EW, internal egg quality, BW, and mortality among dietary ME and CP concentrations were not significant (P > 0.05). Overall, diets composed of 2,800 kcal of ME/kg of diet and 14% CP were utilized more efficiently by the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens at 26 to 50 and 62 to 86 wk of age.

  4. Compliance with Dietary Guidelines Varies by Weight Status: A Cross-Sectional Study of Australian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Population surveys have rarely identified dietary patterns associated with excess energy intake in relation to risk of obesity. This study uses self-reported food intake data from the validated Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO Healthy Diet Score survey to examine whether apparent compliance with dietary guidelines varies by weight status. The sample of 185,951 Australian adults were majority female (71.8%, with 30.2%, 35.3% and 31.0% aged between 18–30, 31–50 and 51–70 years respectively. Using multinomial regression, in the adjusted model controlling for gender and age, individuals in the lowest quintile of diet quality were almost three times more likely to be obese than those in the highest quintile (OR 2.99, CI: 2.88:3.11; p < 0.001. The differential components of diet quality between normal and obese adults were fruit (difference in compliance score 12.9 points out of a possible 100, CI: 12.3:13.5; p < 0.001, discretionary foods (8.7 points, CI: 8.1:9.2; p < 0.001, and healthy fats (7.7 points, CI: 7.2:8.1; p < 0.001. Discretionary foods was the lowest scoring component across all gender and weight status groups, and are an important intervention target to improve diet quality. This study contributes to the evidence that diet quality is associated with health outcomes, including weight status, and will be useful in framing recommendations for obesity prevention and management.

  5. Effect of test meals of varying dietary fiber content on plasma insulin and glucose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J G; Coffman, K P; Reid, R L; Krall, J M; Albrink, M J

    1981-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary fiber on glucose tolerance four different meals of varying fiber content but identical protein fat and carbohydrate content were fed to eight healthy men aged 22 to 45. Each meal provided 75 g of carbohydrate as liquid glucose formula, as brown rice, pinto beans, or All Bran. The mean plasma glucose and insulin responses were highest following the formula, and least for All Bran and pinto beans. Rice produced nearly as great a rise in insulin and glucose as did the formula. The rank of each meal by content of neutral detergent fiber was nearly the inverse of the rank by magnitude of the insulin response evoked, fiber content being greatest in All Bran (18 g) and pinto beans (16.2 g), low in rice (2.8 g) and absent from the formula. It was concluded that dietary fiber dampened the insulin response to a high carbohydrate meal.

  6. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  7. the effect of dietary energy on the intake and production of breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theodore Olivier

    Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy level on the production of breeding ostriches. Six diets varying in ME content (7.5, 8.0, 8.5, 9.0, 9.5 and 10.0 MJ ME/kg feed) were provided to both males and females at an average rate of 3.4 kg/bird/day. Dietary protein and lysine levels were held ...

  8. Time-Varying Value of Energy Efficiency in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie; Eckman, Tom; Schwartz, Lisa C.

    2018-04-02

    Quantifying the time-varying value of energy efficiency is necessary to properly account for all of its benefits and costs and to identify and implement efficiency resources that contribute to a low-cost, reliable electric system. Historically, most quantification of the benefits of efficiency has focused largely on the economic value of annual energy reduction. Due to the lack of statistically representative metered end-use load shape data in Michigan (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings), the ability to confidently characterize the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings in the state, especially for weather-sensitive measures such as central air conditioning, is limited. Still, electric utilities in Michigan can take advantage of opportunities to incorporate the time-varying value of efficiency into their planning. For example, end-use load research and hourly valuation of efficiency savings can be used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service (KEMA 2012). In addition, accurately calculating the time-varying value of efficiency may help energy efficiency program administrators prioritize existing offerings, set incentive or rebate levels that reflect the full value of efficiency, and design new programs.

  9. Time-varying value of electric energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie A.; Eckman, Tom; Goldman, Charles

    2017-06-30

    Electric energy efficiency resources save energy and may reduce peak demand. Historically, quantification of energy efficiency benefits has largely focused on the economic value of energy savings during the first year and lifetime of the installed measures. Due in part to the lack of publicly available research on end-use load shapes (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings) and energy savings shapes, consideration of the impact of energy efficiency on peak demand reduction (i.e., capacity savings) has been more limited. End-use load research and the hourly valuation of efficiency savings are used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity and demand response planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service. This study reviews existing literature on the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings, provides examples in four geographically diverse locations of how consideration of the time-varying value of efficiency savings impacts the calculation of power system benefits, and identifies future research needs to enhance the consideration of the time-varying value of energy efficiency in cost-effectiveness screening analysis. Findings from this study include: -The time-varying value of individual energy efficiency measures varies across the locations studied because of the physical and operational characteristics of the individual utility system (e.g., summer or winter peaking, load factor, reserve margin) as well as the time periods during which savings from measures occur. -Across the four locations studied, some of the largest capacity benefits from energy efficiency are derived from the deferral of transmission and distribution system infrastructure upgrades. However, the deferred cost of such upgrades also exhibited the greatest range

  10. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda chicks indicated as EVS1, ...

  11. Copper absorption and copper balance during consecutive periods for rats fed varying levels of dietary copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.A.; Johnson, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Copper (Cu) balance and absorption were studied to determine the extent to which absorption is dependent on dietary Cu. Over 12 consecutive 5-d metabolic periods, Cu balance was determined for four groups of young growing rats (n = 8) fed modified AIN-76 diets having different levels of added Cu (2.5, 5.0, 10 or 20 micrograms/g). Among groups, mean body weights did not differ over time (P greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups for liver, heart or plasma Cu. Rats in all groups were in positive Cu balance throughout the study. After consuming the experimental diets for 10 d, rats eating 10 or 20 micrograms Cu/g diet showed a more positive Cu balance than did rats in the other groups. This trend continued until d 60. For rats eating 20 micrograms Cu/g diet, balance varied significantly over time. Three test meals labeled with stable 65Cu were fed at d 10, 40 and 50, respectively. Apparent Cu absorption, as determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu, did not change appreciably over time for rats eating 2.5 or 5.0 micrograms Cu/g diet. A test meal labeled with radioactive 67Cu was fed at d 40. For rats eating 2.5 micrograms Cu/g diet, apparent absorption was higher (31%) than that for all other groups (5.0, 23%; 10, 19%; 20, 16%; P less than 0.05). Absorption values determined by whole-body retention of 67Cu were similar to those determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu

  12. Time-varying risk aversion. An application to energy hedging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, John [Centre for Financial Markets, School of Business, University College Dublin, Blackrock, Co. Dublin (Ireland); Hanly, Jim [School of Accounting and Finance, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    Risk aversion is a key element of utility maximizing hedge strategies; however, it has typically been assigned an arbitrary value in the literature. This paper instead applies a GARCH-in-Mean (GARCH-M) model to estimate a time-varying measure of risk aversion that is based on the observed risk preferences of energy hedging market participants. The resulting estimates are applied to derive explicit risk aversion based optimal hedge strategies for both short and long hedgers. Out-of-sample results are also presented based on a unique approach that allows us to forecast risk aversion, thereby estimating hedge strategies that address the potential future needs of energy hedgers. We find that the risk aversion based hedges differ significantly from simpler OLS hedges. When implemented in-sample, risk aversion hedges for short hedgers outperform the OLS hedge ratio in a utility based comparison. (author)

  13. Time-varying risk aversion. An application to energy hedging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, John; Hanly, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Risk aversion is a key element of utility maximizing hedge strategies; however, it has typically been assigned an arbitrary value in the literature. This paper instead applies a GARCH-in-Mean (GARCH-M) model to estimate a time-varying measure of risk aversion that is based on the observed risk preferences of energy hedging market participants. The resulting estimates are applied to derive explicit risk aversion based optimal hedge strategies for both short and long hedgers. Out-of-sample results are also presented based on a unique approach that allows us to forecast risk aversion, thereby estimating hedge strategies that address the potential future needs of energy hedgers. We find that the risk aversion based hedges differ significantly from simpler OLS hedges. When implemented in-sample, risk aversion hedges for short hedgers outperform the OLS hedge ratio in a utility based comparison. (author)

  14. Effects of varying the amounts of dietary calcium on selenium metabolism in dairy calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, E.; Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Crowe, C.T.; Fielding, A.S.; Etheridge, R.E.; Pugh, D.G.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Influence of dietary Ca on Se metabolism was studied with 16 intact male Holstein calves averaging 86 kg. Calves were assigned randomly and fed one of four diets containing .17, .67, 1.31, and 2.35% Ca at 3% of their body weight for 4 wk. The diets contained .062 ppm Se and .34% P. Four days prior to the end of the experiment, calves were dosed orally with radioactive 75 Se. Dietary Ca had no significant effect on 75 Se absorption. There was a slight curvilinear relationship between apparent 75 Se absorption and dietary Ca intakes. Urinary excretion of 75 Se and stable Se tended to decrease with increasing dietary Ca, but differences were not significant. No significant differences were found in concentration of 75 Se in several tissues. Kidney and liver had the highest concentration with that in kidney being about four times that of liver. Apparent 75 Se absorption was decreased 10 to 6%, respectively, in calves fed extremely low and high amounts of Ca, compared with those receiving the requirement (.67% Ca). These small reductions along with a small R 2 suggest that dietary Ca probably is of little practical importance relative to Se metabolism in calves

  15. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... optimum weights at dietary energy levels of 13.81, 13.23, 13.43 and ... Tadelle & Ogle (2000) reported that energy requirement of ..... The authors would like to acknowledge the National Research Foundation (NRF) and VLIR ...

  16. Observational constraints on holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin [Institute of Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Setare, M.R., E-mail: lvjianbo819@163.com, E-mail: msaridak@phys.uoa.gr, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: lxxu@dlut.edu.cn [Department of Science of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    We use observational data from Type Ia Supernovae (SN), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and observational Hubble data (OHD), and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, to constrain the cosmological scenario of holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant. We consider both flat and non-flat background geometry, and we present the corresponding constraints and contour-plots of the model parameters. We conclude that the scenario is compatible with observations. In 1σ we find Ω{sub Λ0} = 0.72{sup +0.03}{sub −0.03}, Ω{sub k0} = −0.0013{sup +0.0130}{sub −0.0040}, c = 0.80{sup +0.19}{sub −0.14} and Δ{sub G}≡G'/G = −0.0025{sup +0.0080}{sub −0.0050}, while for the present value of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter we obtain w{sub 0} = −1.04{sup +0.15}{sub −0.20}.

  17. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Baird, Danielle; Ridoutt, Brad; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Noakes, Manny

    2016-10-31

    Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input-output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) of Australians' dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO₂e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 ( p nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one's energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  18. Atmospheric Energy Deposition Modeling and Inference for Varied Meteoroid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan; Stokan, Edward; Brown, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Asteroids populations are highly diverse, ranging from coherent monoliths to loosely-bound rubble piles with a broad range of material and compositional properties. These different structures and properties could significantly affect how an asteroid breaks up and deposits energy in the atmosphere, and how much ground damage may occur from resulting blast waves. We have previously developed a fragment-cloud model (FCM) for assessing the atmospheric breakup and energy deposition of asteroids striking Earth. The approach represents ranges of breakup characteristics by combining progressive fragmentation with releases of variable fractions of debris and larger discrete fragments. In this work, we have extended the FCM to also represent asteroids with varied initial structures, such as rubble piles or fractured bodies. We have used the extended FCM to model the Chelyabinsk, Benesov, Kosice, and Tagish Lake meteors, and have obtained excellent matches to energy deposition profiles derived from their light curves. These matches provide validation for the FCM approach, help guide further model refinements, and enable inferences about pre-entry structure and breakup behavior. Results highlight differences in the amount of small debris vs. discrete fragments in matching the various flare characteristics of each meteor. The Chelyabinsk flares were best represented using relatively high debris fractions, while Kosice and Benesov cases were more notably driven by their discrete fragmentation characteristics, perhaps indicating more cohesive initial structures. Tagish Lake exhibited a combination of these characteristics, with lower-debris fragmentation at high altitudes followed by sudden disintegration into small debris in the lower flares. Results from all cases also suggest that lower ablation coefficients and debris spread rates may be more appropriate for the way in which debris clouds are represented in FCM, offering an avenue for future model refinement.

  19. Effect of varying dietary concentrations of lysine on growth performance of the Pearl Grey guinea fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogoju, S; Nahashon, S N; Donkor, J; Kimathi, B; Johnson, D; Khwatenge, C; Bowden-Taylor, T

    2017-05-01

    Lysine is the second limiting essential amino acid in poultry nutrition after methionine. Understanding the lysine requirement of poultry is necessary in guiding formulation of least cost diets that effectively meet the nutritional needs of individual birds. The lysine requirement of the Pearl Grey guinea fowl (PGGF) is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the appropriate lysine levels required for optimal growth attributes of the PGGF. In a 12-week study, 512 one-day-old Pearl Grey guinea keets were weighed individually and randomly assigned to electrically heated battery brooders. Each battery contained 12 compartments housing 15 birds each. Eight diets fed to the experimental birds consisted of corn-soybean meal and contained 0.80 to 1.22 digestible lysine in 0.06% increments. Feed and water were provided at free choice and the diets were replicated twice. Experimental diets contained 3,100 Kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg diet and 23% crude protein (CP), 3,150 ME Kcal ME/kg diet and 21% CP, and 3,100 ME/kg and 17% CP, at zero to 4, 5 to 10, and 11 to 12 weeks of age (WOA), respectively. Birds were provided water ad libitum and a 23:1 and 8:16-hr (light:dark) regimen at zero to 8 and 9 to 12 WOA, respectively. Birds were weighed weekly, and body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversions were determined. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS (2002) with dietary lysine as treatment effect. Females responded better to diets containing 1.04 and 0.8% lysine from hatch to 4 and 5 to 12 WOA, respectively. Males responded better to diets containing 1.10 and 0.8% lysine at hatch to 4 WOA and 5 to 12 WOA, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that PGGF females and males be fed diets containing 1.04 and 1.10%, respectively, at hatch to 4 WOA and 0.80% lysine at 5 to 12 WOA. The diets should be supplied in phases. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Serum carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations vary by dietary pattern among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intake and biochemical status of antioxidants like carotenoids and tocopherols are associated with chronic diseases. Our objectives were to describe the dietary patterns of a subset of the JHS participants using data from a region-specific FFQ and to investigate the associations between these patter...

  1. Effects of varying dietary carbohydrate levels on growth performance, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer fingerlings (Tor tambroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Sairatul Dahlianis; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Ramezani-Fard, Ehsan; Saad, Che Roos; Yusof, Yus Aniza

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of four iso-nitrogenous (40% crude protein) and iso-caloric (17.6 kJ g(-1)) diets with different dietary carbohydrate levels (15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings in a 10-week feeding trial. Fish (initial weight of 0.8?0.1 g; initial total length 4.2?0.1 cm) were fed twice daily at 4% body mass. Dietary carbohydrate level had significant effects (P<0.05) on weight gain, SGR (specific growth rate), FCR (feed conversion rate), PER (protein efficiency rate), survival percentage and all nutrient retention values (PRV, LRV, CRV, ERV). Protein, carbohydrate and gross energy composition of the fish body were also significantly differed (P<0.05) among treatments. Liver histology showed mild hepatic steatosis and hypertrophy for fishes receiving a higher dietary carbohydrate inclusion. In general, treatments with 20% and 25% dietary carbohydrate levels produced better growth results compared to the rest of the treatments. Using a second-order polynomial regression analysis model, the optimal dietary carbohydrate level of 23.4% was estimated for mahseer fingerlings. ?

  2. Effect of dietary dilution of energy and nutrients during different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A completely randomized design was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary dilution of energy and nutrients during different growing periods on compensatory growth of Ross broilers. Four replicant pens were assigned per seven treatments. Chicks in each treatment received concentrated and diluted diets in different ...

  3. Effects of reducing dietary crude protein and metabolic energy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of a pure reduction in the dietary crude protein (CP) and metabolic energy (ME) contents on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, faecal microflora and odour gas emission in weaned pigs. A total of 80 weaned piglets ((Landrace × Yorkshire) ...

  4. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures.

  5. THE TNFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND ENERGY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat content was related to lhe energy inrake of the diet. being lo$ er jn birds on low eneaty ol hith ..... nitrogen will diminish and then approximate zero. The low correlation ... appraisal of the variate to be limited at point-of-lay is necessary.

  6. Dietary energy density: Applying behavioural science to weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J

    2017-09-01

    Studies conducted by behavioural scientists show that energy density (kcal/g) provides effective guidance for healthy food choices to control intake and promote satiety. Energy density depends upon a number of dietary components, especially water (0 kcal/g) and fat (9 kcal/g). Increasing the proportion of water or water-rich ingredients, such as vegetables or fruit, lowers a food's energy density. A number of studies show that when the energy density of the diet is reduced, both adults and children spontaneously decrease their ad libitum energy intake. Other studies show that consuming a large volume of a low-energy-dense food such as soup, salad, or fruit as a first course preload can enhance satiety and reduce overall energy intake at a meal. Current evidence suggests that energy density influences intake through a complex interplay of cognitive, sensory, gastrointestinal, hormonal and neural influences. Other studies that focus on practical applications show how the strategic incorporation of foods lower in energy density into the diet allows people to eat satisfying portions while improving dietary patterns. This review discusses studies that have led to greater understanding of the importance of energy density for food intake regulation and weight management.

  7. Fast-food menu offerings vary in dietary quality, but are consistently poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Reedy, Jill; Kahle, Lisa L; Harris, Jennifer L; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate five popular fast-food chains' menus in relation to dietary guidance. Menus posted on chains' websites were coded using the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies and MyPyramid Equivalents Database to enable Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores to be assigned. Dollar or value and kids' menus and sets of items promoted as healthy or nutritious were also assessed. Five popular fast-food chains in the USA. Not applicable. Full menus scored lower than 50 out of 100 possible points on the HEI-2005. Scores for Total Fruit, Whole Grains and Sodium were particularly dismal. Compared with full menus, scores on dollar or value menus were 3 points higher on average, whereas kids' menus scored 10 points higher on average. Three chains marketed subsets of items as healthy or nutritious; these scored 17 points higher on average compared with the full menus. No menu or subset of menu items received a score higher than 72 out of 100 points. The poor quality of fast-food menus is a concern in light of increasing away-from-home eating, aggressive marketing to children and minorities, and the tendency for fast-food restaurants to be located in low-income and minority areas. The addition of fruits, vegetables and legumes; replacement of refined with whole grains; and reformulation of offerings high in sodium, solid fats and added sugars are potential strategies to improve fast-food offerings. The HEI may be a useful metric for ongoing monitoring of fast-food menus.

  8. Bone densitometry as an indicator of percentage tibia ash in broiler chicks fed varying dietary calcium and phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, E M; Hester, P Y; Stroshine, R; Adeola, O

    2003-11-01

    The relative sensitivity of tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), percentage ash (ash), and shear force as indicators for dietary Ca and P was compared in 3-wk-old broiler chicks. One hundred eight 7-d-old chicks were grouped by weight into 6 blocks of 3 cages each with 6 birds per cage. Three corn-soybean meal-based diets were randomly assigned to cages within each block. The diets were low P, medium P, and adequate P and were formulated to contain 4.0, 5.1, and 7.8 g of total P/kg feed, respectively; and 5.1, 6.7, and 10.0 g of Ca/kg feed, respectively. The chicks were fed the experimental diets for 14 d. On d 22, chicks were killed, and tibiae were removed from 3 birds/cage. Weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, BMC, BMD, shear force, and ash were determined. The BMC and BMD were determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Correlations among the various bone status variables and dietary Ca and P were determined. Growth performance criteria and ash increased linearly, and BMC and BMD increased linearly and quadratically as dietary concentrations of Ca and P increased. The correlation coefficient between dietary Ca and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.89, 0.91, 0.50, or 0.89, respectively; and between dietary P and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.88, 0.91, 0.48, or 0.89, respectively. The correlation coefficient between ash and BMC, BMD, or shear force was 0.92, 0.93, or 0.67, respectively. The correlation coefficients for linear regression between shear force and BMC or BMD was 0.56. The regression model for predicting percentage ash using BMD was as follows: percentage ash = 24 + (240 x BMD) with an r2 of 86%. It is concluded that in broiler chicks, tibia ash, BMC, and BMD may be more sensitive than shear force as indicators of dietary Ca and P concentrations and that BMD as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used to predict percentage of tibia ash.

  9. Phytase supplementation improved growth performance and bone characteristics in broilers fed varying levels of dietary calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of phytase. A total of 288 male Ross × Ross 708 broilers with initial and final BW of 37 and 705 g, respectively, were used in brooder batteries from 0 to 21 d posthatch. Each treatment had 8 replications with 6 broilers/replicate pen. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.26% total Lys. The treatments were positive control with 0.45% nonphytate P and 1% Ca and a negative control with 0.20% nonphytate P with 0.67, 1.00, or 1.33% Ca fed with or without 500 phytase units of Optiphos (Escherichia coli-derived phytase; JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN). Increasing Ca from 0.67 to 1.33% linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.003) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, tibia ash weight, and percentage tibia ash; however, quadratic effects were found for ADFI, G:F, percentage tibia ash, and mortality (P ≤ 0.09). Phytase supplementation increased (P ash weight, and percentage tibia ash and decreased (P = 0.054) mortality. The increase in ADG, ADFI, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash (P ≤ 0.026) and decrease in mortality (phytase × Ca linear; P = 0.058) from phytase supplementation was greater in broilers fed the higher levels of Ca. Calcium utilization was linearly decreased (P < 0.002) with increasing Ca. Phosphorus digestibility and utilization were increased with increasing levels of Ca (P ≤ 0.002); however, P utilization decreased at 1% Ca and increased at 1.33% (quadratic; P < 0.070). Phytase supplementation increased Ca utilization (P < 0.024), P digestibility (P < 0.001), and P utilization (P < 0.029). However, the increase in P digestibility (phytase × Ca; P < 0.021) was greater at the lower levels of Ca whereas P utilization (phytase × Ca; P < 0.001) was greater at 1.33% Ca with phytase supplementation. The results of this research indicate that dietary Ca level, within the ranges used in this experiment, does not negatively

  10. Dietary adaptation of FADS genes in Europe varied across time and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kaixiong; Gao, Feng; Wang, David; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Keinan, Alon

    2017-05-26

    Fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes encode rate-limiting enzymes for the biosynthesis of omega-6 and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). This biosynthesis is essential for individuals subsisting on LCPUFA-poor diets (for example, plant-based). Positive selection on FADS genes has been reported in multiple populations, but its cause and pattern in Europeans remain unknown. Here we demonstrate, using ancient and modern DNA, that positive selection acted on the same FADS variants both before and after the advent of farming in Europe, but on opposite (that is, alternative) alleles. Recent selection in farmers also varied geographically, with the strongest signal in southern Europe. These varying selection patterns concur with anthropological evidence of varying diets, and with the association of farming-adaptive alleles with higher FADS1 expression and thus enhanced LCPUFA biosynthesis. Genome-wide association studies reveal that farming-adaptive alleles not only increase LCPUFAs, but also affect other lipid levels and protect against several inflammatory diseases.

  11. Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, M S; Khor, G L; Mirnalini, K; Norimah, A K; Ang, M

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To

  12. Dietary Macronutrient and Energy Intake and Urinary Incontinence in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maserejian, Nancy N.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; McVary, Kevin T.; McGrother, Catherine; McKinlay, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Weight loss involving diet modification improves urinary incontinence (UI) in women, but little is known about dietary correlates of UI. The authors examined intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fats in relation to UI in a cross-sectional sample of 2,060 women in the population-based Boston Area Community Health Survey (2002–2005). Data were collected from in-person home interviews and food frequency questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% ...

  13. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input–output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe of Australians’ dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO2e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001. Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9% was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the “lower quality, higher GHGe” diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains, thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one’s energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  14. Exercise effects on lipids in persons with varying dietary patterns - Does diet matter if they exercise? Responses in STRRIDE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M.; Hawk, Victoria H.; Henes, Sarah T.; Ocampo, Christine I.; Orenduff, Melissa C.; Slentz, Cris A.; Johnson, Johanna L.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Samsa, Gregory P.; Kraus, William E.; Bales, Connie W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The standard clinical approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk due to dyslipidemia is to prescribe changes in diet and physical activity. The purpose of the current study was to determine if, across a range of dietary patterns, there were variable lipoprotein responses to an aerobic exercise training intervention. Methods Subjects were participants in the Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise (STRRIDE I), a supervised exercise program in sedentary, overweight subjects randomized to 6 months of inactivity or one of 3 aerobic exercise programs. To characterize diet patterns observed during the study, we calculated a modified z-score that included intakes of total fat, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids and fiber as compared to the 2006 AHA diet recommendations. Linear models were used to evaluate relationships between diet patterns and exercise effects on lipoproteins/lipids. Results Independent of diet, exercise had beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol particle number, LDL-cholesterol size, HDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol size, and triglycerides (Pdiet pattern that closely adhered to AHA recommendations was not related to changes in these or any other serum lipids or lipoproteins in any of the exercise groups. Conclusions We found that even in sedentary individuals whose habitual diets vary in the extent of adherence to AHA dietary recommendations, a rigorous, supervised exercise intervention can achieve significant beneficial lipid effects. PMID:22795291

  15. Spherical shock due to point explosion with varying energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. B.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1983-05-01

    The motion of a perfect gas behind a weak or strong spherical point-explosion shock wave in a nonuniform rest atmosphere is investigated analytically for the case of variable flow energy. The self-similar solutions derived are also adaptable to a uniform expanding piston. The solution is applied to the isothermal case, and the results of numerical integration are presented in graphs showing the density, velocity, and pressure distributions for different values of delta. The findings are considered significant for investigations of sonic booms, laser production of plasmas, high-altitude nuclear detonations, supernova explosions, and the sudden expansion of the solar corona, and for the laboratory production of high temperatures using shock waves.

  16. Associations of Dietary Protein and Energy Intakes With Protein-Energy Wasting Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Wei, Guo; Chen, Xiaorui; Boucher, Robert; Kiani, Rabia; Raj, Dominic; Chonchol, Michel; Greene, Tom; Murtaugh, Maureen A

    2017-09-01

    The associations of dietary protein and/or energy intakes with protein or energy wasting in patients on maintenance hemodialysis are controversial. We examined these in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. In 1487 participants in the HEMO Study, baseline dietary protein intake (grams per kilogram per day) and dietary energy intake (kilocalories per kilograms per day) were related to the presence of the protein-energy wasting (PEW) syndrome at month 12 (defined as the presence of at least 1 criteria in 2 of the 3 categories of low serum chemistry, low body mass, and low muscle mass) in logistic regression models. In additional separate models, protein intake estimated from equilibrated normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR) was also related to the PEW syndrome. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of baseline dietary protein intake was paradoxically associated with increased risk of the PEW syndrome at month 12 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79-6.05). This relationship was completely attenuated (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 0.88-2.06) with adjustment for baseline body weight, which suggested mathematical coupling. Results were similar for dietary energy intake. Compared with the lowest quartile of baseline enPCR, the highest quartile was not associated with the PEW syndrome at 12 months (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.54-1.12). These data do not support the use of dietary protein intake or dietary energy intake criteria in the definition of the PEW syndrome in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

  17. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Soede, N.M.; Schrama, J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of feeding level and major dietary energy source used during lactation on sow milk composition, piglet body composition, and energy balance of sows were determined. During a 21-d lactation, 48 primiparous sows were fed either a Fat-rich (134.9 g/kg fat; 196.8 g/kg carbohydrate) or a

  18. Influence of supplemental vitamin C on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of the longissimus thoracis of steers fed varying concentrations of dietary sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to examine the effects of supplemental vitamin C (VC) on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of cattle receiving varying concentrations of dietary sulfur (S). A longissimus muscle was collected from 120 Angus-cross steers assigned to a 3 × 2 factorial, evaluating three concentrations of dietary S (0.22, 0.34, and 0.55%) and two concentrations of supplemental VC (0 or 10 g h(-1)d(-1)). Increasing dietary S and VC supplementation (Pdegradation (P = 0.07) and protein carbonylation (Pdegradation. © 2013.

  19. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat--from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy--from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p = 0.02) and in Yakutsk (p = 0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.

  20. Predictors of Dietary Energy Density among Preschool Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilmani N.T. Fernando

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a global problem with many contributing factors including dietary energy density (DED. This paper aims to investigate potential predictors of DED among preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data for 209 mother–child pairs from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial was conducted. Data for predictors (maternal child feeding and nutrition knowledge, maternal dietary intake, home food availability, socioeconomic status were obtained through questionnaires completed by first-time mothers when children were aged 4 or 18 months. Three 24-h dietary recalls were completed when children were aged ~3.5 years. DED was calculated utilizing three methods: “food only”, “food and dairy beverages”, and “food and all beverages”. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between predictors and these three measures of children’s DED. Home availability of fruits (β: −0.82; 95% CI: −1.35, −0.29, p = 0.002 for DEDfood; β: −0.42; 95% CI: −0.82, −0.02, p = 0.041 for DEDfood+dairy beverages and non-core snacks (β: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.20, p = 0.016 for DEDfood; β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.010 for DEDfood+dairy beverages were significantly associated with two of the three DED measures. Providing fruit at home early in a child’s life may encourage the establishment of healthful eating behaviors that could promote a diet that is lower in energy density later in life. Home availability of non-core snacks is likely to increase the energy density of preschool children’s diets, supporting the proposition that non-core snack availability at home should be limited.

  1. Distribution and mobility of omega 3 fatty acids in rainbow trout fed varying levels and types of dietary lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, A J; Buckley, J T

    1980-04-01

    The availability of essential fatty acids in fish neutral lipid to tissue phospholipids was determined under conditions of adequate and inadequate essential fatty acid intake as well as during fasting. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed a semi-purified diet containing varying levels of cod liver oil, with or without supplementary olein. Fatty acid analysis indicated that in all treatments the neutral lipid pool was not turned over during feeding but was enhanced by exogenous or endogenously synthesized fatty acids. Fish that received diets devoid of essential fatty acids maintained virtually all of the docosahexenoic acid originally present in each lipid pool. Fish fed diets containing essential fatty acids deposited them in proportion to the dietary levels. After a 4-week fast, no change was noted in the relative levels of fatty acids in neutral lipid indicating that all fatty acids in neutral lipid were catabolized equally--including essential fatty acids. During fasting there was a selective retention of docosahexenoic and linoleic acids in the phospholipid pool.

  2. Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant in Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, Mubasher, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.pk [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, 46000 (Pakistan)

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant in a flat background in the context of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. We extract the exact differential equation determining the evolution of the dark energy density parameter, which includes G variation term. Also we discuss a cosmological implication of our work by evaluating the dark energy equation of state for low redshifts containing varying G corrections.

  3. Effects of dietary protein levels during rearing and dietary energy levels during lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeder females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    A study with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary protein levels (high = CPh and low = CPl) during rearing, 3 dietary energy levels (3,000, MEh1; 2,800, MEs1; and 2,600, MEl1, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the first phase of lay, and 2 dietary

  4. Energy utilization of light and heavy weaned piglets subjected to different dietary energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary metabolisable energy (ME: 3.25, 3.40, 3.55, or 3.70 Mcal kg−1 and weaning weight (WW: light 4.0±0.7 kg, and heavy: 6.3±0.6 kg on productive response and energy utilization of weaned piglets. Sixty-four male piglets were housed in 32 metabolic cages (two animals per cage during the first 14 d postweaning. At day 15, only one animal per cage was kept until day 28. Body composition, energy, and nutrient deposition rates and energy utilization efficiency were measured through a comparative slaughter procedure. Piglets with light WW had a poorer feed conversion ratio and lower weight gain and feed intake when expressed per live weight. Increased ME led to greater daily fat deposition in the empty bodies (defined as weighted mean of the carcass + organs + blood, no intestinal content, while light WW piglets had a reduced protein deposition. Light WW piglets increased heat production with increased ME, but no effect was seen for the heavy WW piglets. By contrast, heavy WW piglets increased empty body gross energy as ME increased, while no influence was observed on light WW piglets. Increasing dietary energy levels did not contribute to the subsequent growth performance of piglets that were lighter at weaning. The lack of interaction between weaning weight and dietary ME content on growth performance does not support the hypothesis that light piglets at weaning do not exhibit compensatory growth because of limitations in energy intake.

  5. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls ha...

  6. The digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy content of dietary fat sources in thirteen- and fifty-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Patience, J F

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to determine the energy concentration of a diverse array of dietary fat sources and, from these data, develop regression equations that explain differences based on chemical composition. A total of 120 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) individually housed barrows were studied for 56 d. These barrows (initial BW of 9.9 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet plus 5% either corn starch or 1 of 14 dietary fat sources. The 14 dietary fat sources (animal-vegetable blend, canola oil, choice white grease source A, choice white grease source B, coconut oil, corn oil source A, corn oil source B, fish oil, flaxseed oil, palm oil, poultry fat, soybean oil source A, soybean oil source B, and tallow) were selected to provide a diverse and robust range of unsaturated fatty acid:SFA ratios (U:S). Pigs were limit-fed experimental diets from d 0 to 10 and from d 46 to 56, providing a 7-d adaption for fecal collection on d 7 to 10 (13 kg BW) and d 53 to 56 (50 kg BW). At 13 kg BW, the average energy content of the 14 sources was 8.42 Mcal DE/kg, 8.26 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.27 Mcal NE/kg. At 50 kg BW, the average energy content was 8.45 Mcal DE/kg, 8.28 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.29 Mcal NE/kg. At 13 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 9.363 + [0.097 × (FFA, %)] - [0.016 × omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids ratio] - [1.240 × (arachidic acid, %)] - [5.054 × (insoluble impurities, %)] + [0.014 × (palmitic acid, %)] ( = 0.008, = 0.82). At 50 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 8.357 + [0.189 × U:S] - [0.195 × (FFA, %)] - [6.768 × (behenic acid, %)] + [0.024 × (PUFA, %)] ( = 0.002, = 0.81). In summary, the chemical composition of dietary fat explained a large degree of the variation observed in the energy content of dietary fat sources at both 13 and 50 kg BW.

  7. Effect of dietary protein to energy ratio on growth and nitrogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary protein to energy ratio (P:E) on the growth of dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus was investigated as a first step towards formulating a practical diet for this potential mariculture species in South Africa. The effects of dietary protein and lipid on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and nitrogenous waste ...

  8. Maternal Dietary Counseling Reduces Consumption of Energy-Dense Foods among Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: Sao Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home…

  9. Phantom dark energy with varying-mass dark matter particles: Acceleration and cosmic coincidence problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Genly; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate several varying-mass dark matter particle models in the framework of phantom cosmology. We examine whether there exist late-time cosmological solutions, corresponding to an accelerating universe and possessing dark energy and dark matter densities of the same order. Imposing exponential or power-law potentials and exponential or power-law mass dependence, we conclude that the coincidence problem cannot be solved or even alleviated. Thus, if dark energy is attributed to the phantom paradigm, varying-mass dark matter models cannot fulfill the basic requirement that led to their construction.

  10. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Melo Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index – Revised (BHEI-R, estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R. The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components (“total fruits”, “whole fruits”, “total vegetables”, “integral cereals”, “saturated fat”, “sodium”, and “energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages” were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for “integral cereals” to 147% for “whole fruits”. The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption.

  11. Nutrition transition and dietary energy availability in Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Koziel, Slawomir

    2007-12-01

    After the economic transition of the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in many countries of Eastern Europe. This article describes changing availability of dietary energy from major dietary components since the transition to free-market economic systems among Eastern European nations, using food balance data obtained at national level for the years 1990-92 and 2005 from the FAOSTAT-Nutrition database. Dietary energy available to the East European nations satellite to the former Soviet Union (henceforth, Eastern Europe) was greater than in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Among the latter, the Western nations of the former Soviet Union had greater dietary energy availability than the Eastern and Southern nations of the former Soviet Union. The higher energy availability in Eastern Europe relative to the nations of the former Soviet Union consists mostly of high-protein foods. There has been no significant change in overall dietary energy availability to any category of East European nation between 1990-1992 and 2005, indicating that, at the macro-level, increasing rates of obesity in Eastern European countries cannot be attributed to increased dietary energy availability. The most plausible macro-level explanations for the obesity patterns observed in East European nations are declines in physical activity, increased real income, and increased consumption of goods that contribute to physical activity decline: cars, televisions and computers.

  12. The Cross-Sectional Association of Energy Intake and Dietary Energy Density with Body Composition of Children in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI and dietary energy density (ED were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8–14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI (p ≤ 0.04. However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China.

  13. Varying the dietary supply of C and N to manipulate the manure composition of water buffalo heifers in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Asfoor, Husam; Schlecht, Eva; Sundrum, Albert; Schiborra, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing the composition of manure has the potential to reduce nutrient losses to the environment and to increase crop yields. In this study the effect of dietary ratios of carbon (C) to nitrogen (N) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) to soluble carbohydrates (SC) on faeces composition of water buffalo heifers was assessed. Two digestibility trials were conducted with 12 animals each, fed one control and four test diets composed to achieve (1) high C/N and high NDF/SC ratios (HH), (2) low C/...

  14. Time-varying output performances of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting under nonstationary random vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heonjun; Kim, Miso; Park, Choon-Su; Youn, Byeng D.

    2018-01-01

    Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH) has received much attention as a potential solution that could ultimately realize self-powered wireless sensor networks. Since most ambient vibrations in nature are inherently random and nonstationary, the output performances of PVEH devices also randomly change with time. However, little attention has been paid to investigating the randomly time-varying electroelastic behaviors of PVEH systems both analytically and experimentally. The objective of this study is thus to make a step forward towards a deep understanding of the time-varying performances of PVEH devices under nonstationary random vibrations. Two typical cases of nonstationary random vibration signals are considered: (1) randomly-varying amplitude (amplitude modulation; AM) and (2) randomly-varying amplitude with randomly-varying instantaneous frequency (amplitude and frequency modulation; AM-FM). In both cases, this study pursues well-balanced correlations of analytical predictions and experimental observations to deduce the relationships between the time-varying output performances of the PVEH device and two primary input parameters, such as a central frequency and an external electrical resistance. We introduce three correlation metrics to quantitatively compare analytical prediction and experimental observation, including the normalized root mean square error, the correlation coefficient, and the weighted integrated factor. Analytical predictions are in an excellent agreement with experimental observations both mechanically and electrically. This study provides insightful guidelines for designing PVEH devices to reliably generate electric power under nonstationary random vibrations.

  15. Energy drink consumption is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours among college youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-11-01

    Energy drink consumption has been associated with a variety of health risk behaviours, yet little research has explored the relationship between energy drinks and dietary behaviours of emerging adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviours among energy drink users and non-users within a sample of college youth. College freshmen (n = 585, m age = 18.7 years; 47% non-Hispanic White, 20.9% Hispanic, 25.5% Asian, 2.7% non-Hispanic Black and 4.4% other; 56% female), at a large, southwest university self-reported their energy drink consumption in the past week and a variety of dietary behaviours, including past week soda, diet soda, pre-packaged salty snacks, pre-packaged sweet snacks, fast food, restaurant food, frozen food, fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast consumption. Linear regression analyses were run to determine associations between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviour among users and non-users of energy drinks. Analyses controlled for gender, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 17.5% of students had consumed energy drinks in the past week. Energy drink users were more likely to be male, White and have a greater BMI. Students also reported low past week intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast. Past week energy drink consumption was associated with increased soda and frozen meal consumption. Given a rapidly expanding energy drink market, future dietary interventions among college youth may want to consider the implications of energy drinks, as results of this study suggest consumption of these beverages is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours and a greater BMI. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  16. Dietary Energy Density in the Australian Adult Population from National Nutrition Surveys 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Amanda Lee; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    It is hypothesized that the observed proliferation of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods globally is an important contributing factor to the development of the obesity epidemic. However, evidence that the population's dietary energy density has increased is sparse. The World Cancer Research Fund recommends that dietary energy density be density of the Australian population has changed between 1995 and 2012. A secondary analysis of two cross-sectional Australian national nutrition surveys from 1995 and 2011/2012 was conducted. Participants of the surveys included adults aged 18 years and older (1995 n=10,986 and 2011/2012 n=9,435) completing 24-hour dietary recalls, including a second recall for a subset of the population (10.4% in 1995 and 64.6% in 2011/2012). Outcome measures included the change in dietary energy density (calculated as energy/weight of food [kcal/g] for food only) between surveys. The National Cancer Institute method for "estimating ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day" was used to determine the usual distribution and the percentage of participants reporting energy density density was 1.59 (0.26) kcal/g and 1.64 (0.32) kcal/g (Pdensity recommendations. For those aged 70 years and older, the percentage with energy density density density has increased between the two surveys and few people consumed low energy-dense diets in line with recommendations. The change was largely due to increased energy density of older adult's diets, while young adults had high dietary energy density at both time points. These data suggest efforts now focus on the evaluation of the role of modifying energy density of the diet to reduce the risk of weight gain in adults. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, van den, H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Soede, N.M.; Schrama, J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of feeding level and major dietary energy source used during lactation on sow milk composition, piglet body composition, and energy balance of sows were determined. During a 21-d lactation, 48 primiparous sows were fed either a Fat-rich (134.9 g/kg fat; 196.8 g/kg carbohydrate) or a Starch-rich (33.2 g/kg fat; 380.9 g/kg carbohydrate) diet at either a High (44 MJ NE/d; 1,050 g protein/d) or a Low (33 MJ NE/d; 790 g protein/d) feeding level. Within each feeding level, the two diets...

  18. The association between dietary energy density and type 2 diabetes in Europe: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia W van den Berg

    Full Text Available Observational studies implicate higher dietary energy density (DED as a potential risk factor for weight gain and obesity. It has been hypothesized that DED may also be associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but limited evidence exists. Therefore, we investigated the association between DED and risk of T2D in a large prospective study with heterogeneity of dietary intake.A case-cohort study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC study of 340,234 participants contributing 3.99 million person years of follow-up, identifying 12,403 incident diabetes cases and a random subcohort of 16,835 individuals from 8 European countries. DED was calculated as energy (kcal from foods (except beverages divided by the weight (gram of foods estimated from dietary questionnaires. Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted by country. Risk estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis and heterogeneity was evaluated. Estimated mean (sd DED was 1.5 (0.3 kcal/g among cases and subcohort members, varying across countries (range 1.4-1.7 kcal/g. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, energy intake from beverages and misreporting of dietary intake, no association was observed between DED and T2D (HR 1.02 (95% CI: 0.93-1.13, which was consistent across countries (I(2 = 2.9%.In this large European case-cohort study no association between DED of solid and semi-solid foods and risk of T2D was observed. However, despite the fact that there currently is no conclusive evidence for an association between DED and T2DM risk, choosing low energy dense foods should be promoted as they support current WHO recommendations to prevent chronic diseases.

  19. Modeling and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Varying Cross-Sectional Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the modeling and on the experimental verification of electromechanically coupled beams with varying cross-sectional area for piezoelectric energy harvesting. The governing equations are formulated using the Rayleigh-Ritz method and Euler-Bernoulli assumptions. A load resistance is considered in the electrical domain for the estimate of the electric power output of each geometric configuration. The model is first verified against the analytical results for a rectangular bimorph with tip mass reported in the literature. The experimental verification of the model is also reported for a tapered bimorph cantilever with tip mass. The effects of varying cross-sectional area and tip mass on the electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric energy harvesters are also discussed. An issue related to the estimation of the optimal load resistance (that gives the maximum power output on beam shape optimization problems is also discussed.

  20. Frequency of consumption of products with varying energy value by patients of a sanatorium in Ciechocinek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecka, Danuta; Szczepaniak, Barbara; Flaczyk, Ewa; Kordubski, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of consumption of selected groups of foodstuffs with varying energy value by patients of the "Dom Zdrojowy" sanatorium in Ciechocinek (Poland). The survey included 100 persons, out of which 80% were obese individuals (OB), while the others were patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Products with lowered energy value, especially cottage cheese, milk, "light" yogurt, as well as tea and coffee without sugar were on average consumed rather frequently. Obese patients, from among women constituted 80%, paid attention to fat content in their daily diet.

  1. Varying the dietary supply of C and N to manipulate the manure composition of water buffalo heifers in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the composition of manure has the potential to reduce nutrient losses to the environment and to increase crop yields. In this study the effect of dietary ratios of carbon (C to nitrogen (N and neutral detergent fibre (NDF to soluble carbohydrates (SC on faeces composition of water buffalo heifers was assessed. Two digestibility trials were conducted with 12 animals each, fed one control and four test diets composed to achieve (1 high C/N and high NDF/SC ratios (HH, (2 low C/N and low NDF/SC ratios (LL, (3 high C/N and low NDF/SC ratios (HL and (4 low C/N and high NDF/SC (LH ratios. Faecal C/N ratios were generally lower than dietary C/N ratios, but the reduction was especially large for high C/N ratio diets (HH=55 %, HL=51 %. Faecal N concentration was positively correlated (r^2 = 0.6; P < 0.001 with N intake, but the increase in faecal N was more pronounced for diets that supplied low amounts of N. Faecal NDF concentration was positively related to NDF intake (r^2 = 0.42; P < 0.001, as well as the faecal C/N ratio (r^2 = 0.3; P < 0.001. Results demonstrate that C/N ratio and NDF concentration of buffalo manure were affected by diet composition. Diets with high C/N ratio and low NDF/SC ratio are preferable with regard to manure quality, but may not satisfy the nutritional requirements of producing animals, since N concentration in these diets was low and fibre concentration simultaneously high.

  2. Effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, Van Rick A.; Kwakkel, René; Krimpen, van Marinus; Hendriks, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females. A 2×3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A total of 2880 Ross 308

  3. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of

  4. Effects of dietary energy source on energy balance, metabolites and reproduction variables in dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes three recent studies by the same authors with the objective to study the effect of dietary energy source on the energy balance (EB) and risk for metabolic and reproductive disorders in dairy cows in early lactation. The first study, a literature survey, illustrated that feeding

  5. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  6. Action potential energy efficiency varies among neuron types in vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Sengupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The initiation and propagation of action potentials (APs places high demands on the energetic resources of neural tissue. Each AP forces ATP-driven ion pumps to work harder to restore the ionic concentration gradients, thus consuming more energy. Here, we ask whether the ionic currents underlying the AP can be predicted theoretically from the principle of minimum energy consumption. A long-held supposition that APs are energetically wasteful, based on theoretical analysis of the squid giant axon AP, has recently been overturned by studies that measured the currents contributing to the AP in several mammalian neurons. In the single compartment models studied here, AP energy consumption varies greatly among vertebrate and invertebrate neurons, with several mammalian neuron models using close to the capacitive minimum of energy needed. Strikingly, energy consumption can increase by more than ten-fold simply by changing the overlap of the Na(+ and K(+ currents during the AP without changing the APs shape. As a consequence, the height and width of the AP are poor predictors of energy consumption. In the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the squid axon, optimizing the kinetics or number of Na(+ and K(+ channels can whittle down the number of ATP molecules needed for each AP by a factor of four. In contrast to the squid AP, the temporal profile of the currents underlying APs of some mammalian neurons are nearly perfectly matched to the optimized properties of ionic conductances so as to minimize the ATP cost.

  7. Action Potential Energy Efficiency Varies Among Neuron Types in Vertebrates and Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Biswa; Stemmler, Martin; Laughlin, Simon B.; Niven, Jeremy E.

    2010-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of action potentials (APs) places high demands on the energetic resources of neural tissue. Each AP forces ATP-driven ion pumps to work harder to restore the ionic concentration gradients, thus consuming more energy. Here, we ask whether the ionic currents underlying the AP can be predicted theoretically from the principle of minimum energy consumption. A long-held supposition that APs are energetically wasteful, based on theoretical analysis of the squid giant axon AP, has recently been overturned by studies that measured the currents contributing to the AP in several mammalian neurons. In the single compartment models studied here, AP energy consumption varies greatly among vertebrate and invertebrate neurons, with several mammalian neuron models using close to the capacitive minimum of energy needed. Strikingly, energy consumption can increase by more than ten-fold simply by changing the overlap of the Na+ and K+ currents during the AP without changing the APs shape. As a consequence, the height and width of the AP are poor predictors of energy consumption. In the Hodgkin–Huxley model of the squid axon, optimizing the kinetics or number of Na+ and K+ channels can whittle down the number of ATP molecules needed for each AP by a factor of four. In contrast to the squid AP, the temporal profile of the currents underlying APs of some mammalian neurons are nearly perfectly matched to the optimized properties of ionic conductances so as to minimize the ATP cost. PMID:20617202

  8. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  9. Performance exploration of an energy harvester near the varying magnetic field of an operating induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, Yunus; Kurt, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper explores the piezoelectric harvester performance. • The varying magnetic field generates electricity via exciting harvester. • Generated power should be optimized via load resistance. • 0.11 mW/cm 3 Power can be generated from 500 cm 3 surrounding volume. - Abstract: This paper reports a performance exploration of a piezoelectric harvester which is positioned near an operating induction motor. The harvester includes a magnet knob in a pendulum arrangement, which ascertains mechanical vibrations under the varying magnetic field. This energy harvester transforms the ambient unused magnetic energy into the electricity due to the piezoelectric layer attached to the pendulum. It has been proven that when the motor is under operation, the varying ambient field causes a varying magnetic force at the tip of harvester, then output voltage between the terminals of piezoelectric layer is produced due to the mechanical vibrations. This output signal has some characteristics of the operating induction motor in terms of its operation frequency, number of magnetic pole and natural frequency of the harvester. Since the surrounding field of the induction motor directly depends on the current flowing through the windings and electrical parameters, both the amplitude U and the frequency ω m of the harvested voltage can be characterized after some certain parametrical explorations. It has been proven that the harvested voltage strictly depends on the electrical load, which is attached to the terminals of the harvester, after the rectifying circuit. The harvested power per surrounding volume can be increased up to 0.11 mW/cm 3 , if the entire surrounding volume of the motor is considered

  10. Characterization of Dietary Energy in Swine Feed and Feed Ingredients: A Review of Recent Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  11. Characterization of dietary energy in Swine feed and feed ingredients: a review of recent research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, D E; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  12. Cosmological effects of scalar-photon couplings: dark energy and varying-α Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avgoustidis, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Martins, C.J.A.P.; Monteiro, A.M.R.V.L.; Vielzeuf, P.E. [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Luzzi, G., E-mail: tavgoust@gmail.com, E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt, E-mail: mmonteiro@fc.up.pt, E-mail: up110370652@alunos.fc.up.pt, E-mail: gluzzi@lal.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de l' Accélérateur Linéaire, Université de Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Bâtiment 200, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-06-01

    We study cosmological models involving scalar fields coupled to radiation and discuss their effect on the redshift evolution of the cosmic microwave background temperature, focusing on links with varying fundamental constants and dynamical dark energy. We quantify how allowing for the coupling of scalar fields to photons, and its important effect on luminosity distances, weakens current and future constraints on cosmological parameters. In particular, for evolving dark energy models, joint constraints on the dark energy equation of state combining BAO radial distance and SN luminosity distance determinations, will be strongly dominated by BAO. Thus, to fully exploit future SN data one must also independently constrain photon number non-conservation arising from the possible coupling of SN photons to the dark energy scalar field. We discuss how observational determinations of the background temperature at different redshifts can, in combination with distance measures data, set tight constraints on interactions between scalar fields and photons, thus breaking this degeneracy. We also discuss prospects for future improvements, particularly in the context of Euclid and the E-ELT and show that Euclid can, even on its own, provide useful dark energy constraints while allowing for photon number non-conservation.

  13. Ideal Gas with a Varying (Negative Absolute) Temperature: an Alternative to Dark Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhajit; Mondal, Anindita; Corda, Christian

    2018-02-01

    The present work is an attempt to investigate whether the evolutionary history of the Universe from the offset of inflation can be described by assuming the cosmic fluid to be an ideal gas with a specific gas constant but a varying negative absolute temperature (NAT). The motivation of this work is to search for an alternative to the "exotic" and "supernatural" dark energy (DE). In fact, the NAT works as an "effective quintessence" and there is need to deal neither with exotic matter like DE nor with modified gravity theories. For the sake of completeness, we release some clarifications on NATs in Section 3 of the paper.

  14. Energy spectrum of two-dimensional tight-binding electrons in a spatially varying magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, G.Y.; Lee, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The electronic energy spectrum of a two-dimensional lattice in a spatially varying magnetic field is studied within the framework of the tight-binding model by using the scheme of the transfer matrix. It is found that, in comparison with the case of a uniform magnetic field, the energy spectrum exhibits more complicated behavior; band broadening (or gap closing) and band splitting (or gap opening) occur depending on characteristic parameters of the lattice. The origin of these phenomena lies in the existence of direct touching and indirect overlapping between neighboring subbands. Dependence of direct touching and indirect overlapping, and thus the electronic band structure together with the density of states, on characteristic parameters of the lattice is elucidated in detail. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Invariant operator theory for the single-photon energy in time-varying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Ryeol, Choi

    2010-01-01

    After the birth of quantum mechanics, the notion in physics that the frequency of light is the only factor that determines the energy of a single photon has played a fundamental role. However, under the assumption that the theory of Lewis–Riesenfeld invariants is applicable in quantum optics, it is shown in the present work that this widely accepted notion is valid only for light described by a time-independent Hamiltonian, i.e., for light in media satisfying the conditions, ε(i) = ε(0), μ(t) = μ(0), and σ(t) = 0 simultaneously. The use of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant operator method in quantum optics leads to a marvelous result: the energy of a single photon propagating through time-varying linear media exhibits nontrivial time dependence without a change of frequency. (general)

  16. The influence of different dietary energy concentrations on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy is essential for the continuous survival of any living organism. In ostrich diets, energy is usually derived from maize, which is often subject to fluctuations in yield as a result of drought conditions. Therefore, the optimal utilization of energy in the diets of ostriches becomes of paramount importance, but without affecting ...

  17. Dietary Energy Density and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Terryl J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Shah, Roma; Flanders, W Dana; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-10-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the associations of total dietary ED and energy-dense (high-ED) foods with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Analyses included 56,795 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of breast or other cancers and who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999. Multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% CIs) were estimated for quintiles of total dietary ED and for the consumption of high-ED foods in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 2509 invasive breast cancer cases were identified, including 1857 estrogen receptor-positive and 277 estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g (IQR: 1.3-1.7 kcal/g). After adjusting for age, race, education, reproductive characteristics, and family history, high compared with low dietary ED was associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of breast cancer (RR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.03). The association between the amount of high-ED foods consumed and breast cancer risk was not statistically significant. We observed no differences by estrogen receptor status or effect modification by BMI, age, or physical activity. These results suggest a modest positive association between total dietary ED and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Margaret C; Gordon, Nancy P; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E; Greenspan, Louise C; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R Grant; Lo, Joan C

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3-5, 44.2% were 6-11, and 41.6% were 12-17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents.

  19. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret C. Ford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise. Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9% were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%, especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents.

  20. Assessing the viability of successful reconstruction of the dynamics of dark energy using varying fundamental couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, P.P., E-mail: ppavelin@fc.up.pt [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Losano, L., E-mail: losano@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-970 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Centro de Fisica do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Menezes, R., E-mail: rmenezes@dce.ufpb.br [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58297-000 Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Oliveira, J.C.R.E., E-mail: jespain@fe.up.pt [Centro de Fisica do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Engenharia Fisica da Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-10-31

    We assess the viability of successful reconstruction of the evolution of the dark energy equation of state using varying fundamental couplings, such as the fine structure constant or the proton-to-electron mass ratio. We show that the same evolution of the dark energy equation of state parameter with cosmic time may be associated with arbitrary variations of the fundamental couplings. Various examples of models with the same (different) background evolution and different (the same) time variation of fundamental couplings are studied in the Letter. Although we demonstrate that, for a broad family of models, it is possible to redefine the scalar field in such a way that its dynamics is that of a standard quintessence scalar field, in general such redefinition leads to the breakdown of the linear relation between the scalar field and the variation of fundamental couplings. This implies that the assumption of a linear coupling is not sufficient to guarantee a successful reconstruction of the dark energy dynamics and consequently additional model dependent assumptions about the scalar field responsible for the dark energy need to be made.

  1. Effects of time-varying β in SNLS3 on constraining interacting dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuang; Wang, Yong-Zhen; Geng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that, for the Supernova Legacy Survey three-year (SNLS3) data, there is strong evidence for the redshift evolution of the color-luminosity parameter β. In this paper, adopting the w-cold-dark-matter (wCDM) model and considering its interacting extensions (with three kinds of interaction between dark sectors), we explore the evolution of β and its effects on parameter estimation. In addition to the SNLS3 data, we also use the latest Planck distance priors data, the galaxy clustering data extracted from sloan digital sky survey data release 7 and baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey, as well as the direct measurement of Hubble constant H 0 from the Hubble Space Telescope observation. We find that, for all the interacting dark energy (IDE) models, adding a parameter of β can reduce χ 2 by ∝34, indicating that a constant β is ruled out at 5.8σ confidence level. Furthermore, it is found that varying β can significantly change the fitting results of various cosmological parameters: for all the dark energy models considered in this paper, varying β yields a larger fractional CDM densities Ω c0 and a larger equation of state w; on the other side, varying β yields a smaller reduced Hubble constant h for the wCDM model, but it has no impact on h for the three IDE models. This implies that there is a degeneracy between h and coupling parameter γ. Our work shows that the evolution of β is insensitive to the interaction between dark sectors, and then highlights the importance of considering β's evolution in the cosmology fits. (orig.)

  2. Retinal response of Macaca mulatta to picosecond laser pulses of varying energy and spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, William P; Cain, Clarence P; Narayan, Drew G; Noojin, Gary D; Boppart, Stephen A; Birngruber, Reginald; Fujimoto, James G; Toth, Cynthia A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the laser beam at the retina (spot size) and the extent of retinal injury from single ultrashort laser pulses. From previous studies it is believed that the retinal effect of single 3-ps laser pulses should vary in extent and location, depending on the occurrence of laser-induced breakdown (LIB) at the site of laser delivery. Single 3-ps pulses of 580-nm laser energy are delivered over a range of spot sizes to the retina of Macaca mulatta. The retinal response is captured sequentially with optical coherence tomography (OCT). The in vivo OCT images and the extent of pathology on final microscopic sections of the laser site are compared. With delivery of a laser pulse with peak irradiance greater than that required for LIB, OCT and light micrographs demonstrate inner retinal injury with many intraretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhages. In contrast, broad outer retinal injury with minimal to no choriocapillaris effect is seen after delivery of laser pulses to a larger retinal area (60 to 300 microm diam) when peak irradiance is less than that required for LIB. The broader lesions extend into the inner retina when higher energy delivery produces intraretinal injury. Microscopic examination of stained fixed tissues provide better resolution of retinal morphology than OCT. OCT provides less resolution but could be guided over an in vivo, visible retinal lesion for repeated sampling over time during the evolution of the lesion formation. For 3-ps visible wavelength laser pulses, varying the spot size and laser energy directly affects the extent of retinal injury. This again is believed to be partly due to the onset of LIB, as seen in previous studies. Spot-size dependence should be considered when comparing studies of retinal effects or when pursuing a specific retinal effect from ultrashort laser pulses. Copyright 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  3. Palatability, digestibility, and metabolizable energy of dietary glycerol in adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G S; Pezzali, J G; Marx, F R; Kessler, A M; Trevizan, L

    2017-02-01

    Glycerol is a humectant, which reduces water activity when added to the diet. This property seems to offer dietary benefits, specifically in high-moisture diets for cats, where some humectants cannot be used. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, glycerol is generally recognized as sustenance safe (GRAS). It is suggested that cats are able to metabolize glycerol and use it as an energy source without compromising health. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the following characteristics of glycerol in the diet for cats: 1) a preference test, 2) digestibility, ME, and fecal and urinary characteristics, and 3) postprandial plasma glycemia. Twelve healthy adult female cats were randomly distributed among 4 treatments consisting of a basal diet (4,090 kcal ME/kg DM, 32% CP, 11% fat, 2.3% crude fiber, and 7.0% ash) and 3 diets with varying percentages of glycerol, made by replacing the basal diet with 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% purified glycerol (99.5%). The inclusion of glycerol proportionally reduced ( Cats did not show a preference for any diet in particular ( > 0.05). The digestibility assays showed that increasing dietary glycerol levels did not affect food intake or the apparent total tract digestibility of macronutrients and energy ( > 0.05). The inclusion of glycerol in the diets did not alter the stool moisture, fecal score, or urine volume. However, glycerol was detected in urine when it was incorporated into the diet at 10%. Glycemia increased up to 900 min following the first meal after the fasting period with no difference between treatments, even when the means were adjusted for food intake. The blood glucose area under the curve also showed no significant difference between treatments ( > 0.05). Cats accepted glycerol under the conditions of the study, and its nutritional value was determined as it has been done for other species. The ME of glycerol for adult cats was estimated to be 3,185 kcal/kg DM. Supplementing the diets of the cats

  4. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, James J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones

  5. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, J.J.; Lam, Theo J.G.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source—glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)—and energy level—standard (std) or low—on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones

  6. Indoor measurement of photovoltaic device characteristics at varying irradiance, temperature and spectrum for energy rating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M; Betts, T R; Gottschalg, R

    2010-01-01

    The first three-dimensional performance matrix for use in photovoltaic (PV) energy rating is reported utilizing a novel energy rating solar simulator based on LEDs. Device characteristics are measured indoors at varying irradiance (G), temperature (T) and spectrum (E). This opens the possibility for a more accurate measurement system for energy yield prediction of PV devices, especially for devices with high spectral dependence such as wide bandgap solar cells as they take into account spectral changes in the light. The main aspects of the LED-based solar simulator used are briefly described. A measurement method is developed and detailed in the paper, which takes into account the current imperfections in the achievable spectrum. Measurement results for a crystalline silicon solar cell are used to demonstrate the measurement approach. An uncertainty analysis of the measurement system is given, resulting in an overall absolute uncertainty of 4.3% (coverage factor k = 2) in maximum power measurements at 765 W m −2 irradiance with scope for further improvements

  7. The effects of dietary energy and protein concentrations on ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were investigated of energy and protein concentrations (with associated amino acid concentrations) in ostrich diets on leather quality of the skins of 50 ostriches. Energy concentrations were 9.0, 10.5 and 12.0 MJ ME/kg diet and protein concentrations were 130, 150 and 170 g/kg diet. The physical leather ...

  8. Dietary Energy Density, Renal Function, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Rouhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is evidence of the association between dietary energy density and chronic diseases. However, no report exists regarding the relation between DED and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Objective. To examine the association between dietary energy density (DED, renal function, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Three nephrology clinics. Subjects. Two hundred twenty-one subjects with diagnosed CKD. Main Outcome Measure. Dietary intake of patients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. DED (in kcal/g was calculated with the use of energy content and weight of solid foods and energy yielding beverages. Renal function was measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine (Cr, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Results. Patients in the first tertile of DED consumed more amounts of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, calcium, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin B2. After adjusting for confounders, we could not find any significant trend for BUN and Cr across tertiles of DED. In multivariate model, an increased risk of being in the higher stage of CKD was found among those in the last tertile of DED (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 1.30, 7.63; P=0.01. Conclusion. We observed that lower DED was associated with better nutrient intake and lower risk of CKD progression.

  9. The effect of different combinations of dietary energy and protein on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition of breeding female birds can influence egg quality and is therefore extremely important for the development of the embryo and the successful hatching of a high quality chick. We investigated the effect of combining different levels of dietary energy and protein, with accompanied amino acid levels, in the diets of ...

  10. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.; Jørgensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit...

  11. A statistical theory of cell killing by radiation of varying linear energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    A theory is presented that provides an explanation for the observed features of the survival of cultured cells after exposure to densely ionizing high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. It starts from a phenomenological postulate based on the linear-quadratic form of cell survival observed for low-LET radiation and uses principles of statistics and fluctuation theory to demonstrate that the effect of varying LET on cell survival can be attributed to random variation of dose to small volumes contained within the nucleus. A simple relation is presented for surviving fraction of cells after exposure to radiation of varying LET that depends on the α and β parameters for the same cells in the limit of low-LET radiation. This relation implies that the value of β is independent of LET. Agreement of the theory with selected observations of cell survival from the literature is demonstrated. A relation is presented that gives relative biological effectiveness (RBE) as a function of the α and β parameters for low-LET radiation. Measurements from microdosimetry are used to estimate the size of the subnuclear volume to which the fluctuation pertains. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ENERGY ON A MATHEMATICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietory energy, mothematical model, growth, bocly composition, feecl utilization, pigs). (Sfeutelwoorde: ..... by a single de- viant point. lt would seem, therefore, that perhaps some .... from zero to 16/, sawdust, with a rather sharp, approx-.

  13. The dynamics of Orimulsion in water with varying energy, salinity and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

    2004-01-01

    Orimulsion is a surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsion composed of 70 per cent bitumen and 30 per cent water. Its unique composition causes it to behave differently from conventional fuel oils when spilled at sea. Earlier studies have shown that Orimulsion is driven by buoyancy to rise in salt water and sink in fresh water. This study conducted 11 experiments at lower temperature and salinity values to obtain new information on the behaviour of Orimulsion in salt, fresh and brackish water. The applied rotational field was adjusted to vary the energy. A time-series of samples of Orimulsion in a 300 litre tank of water were taken to determine depletion rates and characteristics. Oil on the surface was quantified and the concentration of bitumen and particle size distribution was determined. The study also measured changes in bitumen concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. The data was used to develop simple equations that predict concentrations of bitumen resurfacing and remaining in the water column as a function of time. It was concluded that there is a complex interaction between salinity, time, energy and temperature. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  14. Free surface profiles in river flows: Can standard energy-based gradually-varied flow computations be pursued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Garcia-Marín, Amanda; Ayuso, José Luis; Dey, Subhasish

    2015-10-01

    Is the energy equation for gradually-varied flow the best approximation for the free surface profile computations in river flows? Determination of flood inundation in rivers and natural waterways is based on the hydraulic computation of flow profiles. This is usually done using energy-based gradually-varied flow models, like HEC-RAS, that adopts a vertical division method for discharge prediction in compound channel sections. However, this discharge prediction method is not so accurate in the context of advancements over the last three decades. This paper firstly presents a study of the impact of discharge prediction on the gradually-varied flow computations by comparing thirteen different methods for compound channels, where both energy and momentum equations are applied. The discharge, velocity distribution coefficients, specific energy, momentum and flow profiles are determined. After the study of gradually-varied flow predictions, a new theory is developed to produce higher-order energy and momentum equations for rapidly-varied flow in compound channels. These generalized equations enable to describe the flow profiles with more generality than the gradually-varied flow computations. As an outcome, results of gradually-varied flow provide realistic conclusions for computations of flow in compound channels, showing that momentum-based models are in general more accurate; whereas the new theory developed for rapidly-varied flow opens a new research direction, so far not investigated in flows through compound channels.

  15. Comparative estimation of inevitable endogenous ileal flow of amino acids in Pekin ducks under varying dietary or physiological conditions and their significance to nutritional requirements for amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinde, D O

    2017-10-01

    In 2 experiments in Pekin ducks the inevitable endogenous ileal flow (IEIF) of AA was estimated at changing intake and source of crude fiber (CF) or soybean oil (SO) level. Also the roles of dry matter intake (DMI) and BW or age as well as the proportion of IEIF in the dietary requirement for AA were studied. In experiment 1 three basal CP (20, 60, or 100 g/kg) diets were formulated containing a low CF (LCF, 30 g/kg) or high (HCF, 80 g/kg) level; achieved with cellulose supplementation. All diets were similar in every other respect including having SO content of 40 g/kg. Four floor pens of eight 85-day-old ducks were randomly allocated to each diet. Similar diets were mixed in experiment 2 but corn cob meal replaced cellulose as the fiber source. A high SO (HSO) series was also formed by increasing the SO level from 40 g/kg in the basal series to 100 g/kg. Thus the LCF series was concurrently classified as low SO (LSO) series to control SO effect. Each of the eventual 9 diets were fed to 5 floor pens of ten 65-day-old ducks. Ileal AA flow was measured after a 5 day feeding period in both experiments. Linear regression was calculated between ileal flow and dietary intake of individual AA. The IEIF interpreted as the y-intercept of each linear function responded neither to elevated ingestion of each CF type nor to SO level. Age and DMI had no effect on IEIF computed in relation to BW, but wide discrepancies resulted when related to DMI. Overall IEIF of AA varied between 14.3 to 129.8 mg/kg BW d-1. These flows were established in model computations to account for 10 to 64% of the recommended intake of limiting AA. In conclusion the ileal inevitable flow is constant within the dietary/age conditions investigated. However it is modulated by feed intake and accounts for a significant portion of total amino acid requirement. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for carcass gain (MJ ME/ g) improved with an increase in the C: R ratio. Steers fed sub-ad libitum feeding ... energie-inname vir karkastoename (MJ ME/ g) het verbeter met 'n toename in die K: R-verhouding. Doeltreffendheid van osse op die ... fic carbon sources on lipogenesis (Prior & Scott, 1980) have also been reported.

  17. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%foods, when individually considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How Third World rural households adapt to dietary energy stress

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Philip; Lipton, Michael

    1994-01-01

    People can adjust to environmental changes by calling on a wide range of physical attributes, capabilities, and behaviors. For survival, probably the most important are those that make it possible to prevent serious imbalances between food energy needs and the amount of food that can be acquired at acceptable cost. Those who formulate food and agricultural policies need to know the scope, costs, and benefits of the more common adaptive strategies used by poor people, who are normally at great...

  19. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual.

  20. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-10-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls had significantly lower intakes in calcium (P snack (594.1 ± 312.1kcal) was significantly higher for obese girls than for non-obese girls (360.1 ± 173.1kcal) (P snack and total daily energy intake (r = 0.34 P obese girls. In case of dietary behaviors, obese adolescent girls consumed significantly greater number of items for snacks and fewer foods for regular meals compared to non-obese girls (P obesity management programs for adolescents should focus on providing strategies to reduce snack through enhancing balanced regular meals.

  1. Energy utilization under different dietary regime in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, M.A.H.

    1982-01-01

    The present system of ruminant nutrition in egypt depends upon the agroindustrial by - products, crop residues and limited quantities of green fodders. Any future development will come through introducing non-traditional materials in ruminant rations and through benefiting from the recent scientific developments occurred in our understanding to the ruminal and post-ruminal digestion. Four rations, were tested throughout the present investigation, these diets consisted of molasses as low-cost, readily fermentable source of energy and as a good carrier for urea, and rice straw . On this diet the supply of amino acids may not be sufficient for moderate production levels by the animals.Hence, amino acids shortage and imbalance, in such animals has had to be expected

  2. Effects of D-a-tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of preruminant dairy calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 weeks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received mod...

  3. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  4. Conserved and differential effects of dietary energy intake on the hippocampal transcriptomes of females and males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The level of dietary energy intake influences metabolism, reproductive function, the development of age-related diseases, and even cognitive behavior. Because males and females typically play different roles in the acquisition and allocation of energy resources, we reasoned that dietary energy intake might differentially affect the brains of males and females at the molecular level. To test this hypothesis, we performed a gene array analysis of the hippocampus in male and female rats that had been maintained for 6 months on either ad libitum (control, 20% caloric restriction (CR, 40% CR, intermittent fasting (IF or high fat/high glucose (HFG diets. These diets resulted in expected changes in body weight, and circulating levels of glucose, insulin and leptin. However, the CR diets significantly increased the size of the hippocampus of females, but not males. Multiple genes were regulated coherently in response to energy restriction diets in females, but not in males. Functional physiological pathway analyses showed that the 20% CR diet down-regulated genes involved in glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP production in males, whereas these metabolic pathways were up-regulated in females. The 40% CR diet up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, protein deacetylation, PGC-1alpha and mTor pathways in both sexes. IF down-regulated many genes in males including those involved in protein degradation and apoptosis, but up-regulated many genes in females including those involved in cellular energy metabolism, cell cycle regulation and protein deacetylation. Genes involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress responses and cell death were affected by the HFG diet in both males and females. The gender-specific molecular genetic responses of hippocampal cells to variations in dietary energy intake identified in this study may mediate differential behavioral responses of males and females to differences in energy availability.

  5. Self-reported dietary energy intake of normal weight, overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne A; Woodruff, Sarah J; McCargar, Linda J; Husted, Janice; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to assess dietary energy reporting as a function of sex and weight status among Ontario and Alberta adolescents, using the ratio of energy intake (EI) to estimated BMR (BMRest). Data were collected using the FBQ, a validated web-based dietary assessment tool (including a 24 h dietary recall, FFQ, and food and physical activity behavioural questions). BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight and participants were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese. BMR was calculated using the WHO equations (based on weight). Reporting status was identified using the ratio EI:BMRest. Data were collected in public, Catholic and private schools in Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A total of 1917 (n 876 male and n 1041 female) students (n 934 grade 9 and n 984 grade 10) participated. The mean EI:BMRest ratio across all participants was 1.4 (sd 0.6), providing evidence of under-reporting for the total sample. Females under-reported more than males (t = 6.27, P < 0.001), and under-reporting increased with increasing weight status for both males (F = 33.21, P < 0.001) and females (F = 14.28, P < 0.001). After removing those who reported eating less to lose weight, the EI:BMRest was 1.56 (sd 0.6) for males and 1.4 (sd 0.6) for females. The present study highlights methodological challenges associated with self-reported dietary data. Systematic differences in under-reporting of dietary intake by gender and weight status were observed using a web-based survey, similar to observations made using paper-based 24 h recalls and dietitian interviews.

  6. Effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates on energy metabolism in group-housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M; Verstegen, M W; Heetkamp, M J; Haaksma, J; Schrama, J W

    2001-01-01

    The effect of dietary nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) content on the metabolic rate in group-housed sows was studied. Twelve groups of six nonpregnant sows were each fed one of four experimental diets similar in composition except for the starch and NSP content. Exchanging sugar beet pulp silage (SBPS) for tapioca created the difference in starch and NSP ratio in the diet. On a DM basis, diets contained 0, 10, 20, or 30% SBPS. Sows were group-housed and fed at 1.30 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per group during a 7-d experimental period, which was preceded by a 33-d adaptation period. Both digestibility and metabolizability of energy decreased with increasing dietary SBPS content (P 0.1). Based on energy retention data and apparent fecal digestibilities of crude protein, crude fat, starch, and NSP, the estimated net energy value of fermented NSP was 13.4 kJ/g. The present study shows that group-housed sows are capable of using energy from fermented NSP (i.e., NSP from SBPS) as efficiently as energy from digested starch (i.e., starch from tapioca).

  7. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (Pducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and carcass components. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  8. Effects of breaking up sitting on adolescents' postprandial glucose after consuming meals varying in energy: a cross-over randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Elly A; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A; Orellana, Liliana; Wadley, Glenn D; Bruce, Clinton; Dempsey, Paddy C; Lacy, Kathleen E; Dunstan, David W

    2018-03-01

    To explore the impact of uninterrupted sitting versus sitting with resistance-type activity breaks on adolescents' postprandial glucose responses while consuming a diet varying in energy. Cross-over randomised trial. Thirteen healthy participants (16.4±1.3years) completed a four-treatment cross-over trial: (1) uninterrupted sitting+high-energy diet; (2) sitting with breaks+high-energy diet; (3) uninterrupted sitting+standard-energy diet; and (4) sitting with breaks+standard-energy diet. For all four conditions, two identical meals were consumed; at 0h and 3h. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGM) recorded interstitial glucose concentrations every five minutes. Linear mixed models examined differences in glucose positive incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and total AUC between the sitting and diet conditions for the first meal, second meal and entire trial period. Compared to the uninterrupted sitting conditions, the breaks condition elicited a 36.0mmol/L/h (95%CI 6.6-65.5) and 35.9mmol/L/h (95%CI 6.6-65.5) lower iAUC response after the first and second meal, respectively, but not for the entire trial period or for total AUC. Compared to the standard-energy diet, the high-energy diet elicited a 55.0mmol/L/h (95%CI 25.8-84.2) and 75.7mmol/L/h (95%CI 8.6-142.7) higher iAUC response after the first meal and entire trial, respectively. Similar response to the high-energy diet were observed for total AUC. According to iAUC, interrupting sitting had a significant effect on lowering postprandial glucose for both dietary conditions, however, it was not significant when examining total AUC. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. ACTRN12615001145594. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Urban-rural difference in the determinants of dietary and energy intake patterns: A case study in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Satoko; Suda, Kazuhiro; Gunawan, Budhi; Raksanagara, Ardini; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have explored differences in the determinants of individual dietary/energy intake patterns between urban and rural areas. To examine whether the associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake patterns differ between urban and rural areas in West Java, Indonesia. A 3-day weighed food record, interviews, and anthropometric measurements were conducted in Bandung (urban area; n = 85) and Sumedang (rural area; n = 201). Total energy intake and intake from protein, fat, and carbohydrates were calculated. Food items were grouped into dietary categories based on the main ingredients to calculate their share of total energy intake. The associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake were examined by fitting regression models. Models that also included education and body mass index (BMI) were fitted to adult samples only. In Sumedang, the total energy intake and energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and grain/tubers were significantly associated with age and occupation. In Bandung, energy intake from grain/tubers and vegetables/legumes was related to sex and occupation, while other indicators showed no associations. Among adults, BMI was associated with the total energy intake and educational level was associated with energy intake from vegetables/legumes (both only in Sumedang). The relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and dietary/energy intake patterns differs in rural versus urban areas in West Java. These results suggest that different strategies are needed in rural and urban areas to identify and aid populations at risk of diet-related diseases.

  10. Effect of dietary energy and polymorphisms in BRAP and GHRL on obesity and metabolic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Takahiro; Ando, Masahiko; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Kato, Sawako; Kondo, Takaaki; Iwata, Masamitsu; Nakashima, Toru; Yasui, Hiroshi; Takamatsu, Hideki; Okajima, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yasuko; Maruyama, Shoichi

    Obesity, a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, is a major health concerns among middle-aged men. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association of dietary habits and obesity related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity and metabolic abnormalities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using annual health examination data of 5112 male workers, obtained between 2007 and 2011. Average dietary energy was estimated using electronically collected meal purchase data from cafeteria. We examined 8 SNPs related to obesity: GHRL rs696217, PPARG rs1175544, ADIPOQ rs2241766, ADIPOQ rs1501299, PPARD rs2016520, APOA5 rs662799, BRAP rs3782886, and ITGB2 rs235326. We also examined whether SNPs that were shown to associate with obesity affect other metabolic abnormalities such as blood pressure (BP), glucose, and lipid profile. Average dietary energy significantly associated with increased abdominal circumference (AC) and body mass index (BMI). The odds ratios (ORs) of overweight and obesity also increased. The major allele of rs696217 significantly increased BMI and an increased OR with obesity, while the minor allele of rs3782886 was associated with significantly decreased AC and the decreased ORs with overweight and obesity. The minor allele of rs3782886 was also associated with significantly decreased systolic BP (SBP), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and fasting blood sugar (FBS), while rs696217 was not associated with other metabolic abnormalities. Average dietary energy in lunch, rs3782886, and rs696217 were associated with obesity, and rs3782886 was associated with other metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Laura Mie; Markussen, Bo; Nielsen, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... a value of 2, implying a constant maximum daily chewing time. The intercept NEI0 in the regression of NEI on CINE may be interpreted as metabolic net energy intake capacity of the cows fed without physical constraints on intake. Based on experimental data, the maximum chewing time was estimated as 1...

  12. Relationship between the effect of dietary fat on swimming endurance and energy metabolism in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guihua; Shirai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Hiramitsu

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different dietary fats on alterations in endurance, energy metabolism, and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and minerals in mice. Male mice (aged 58 weeks) were fed diets containing 6% safflower oil, fish oil, or lard for 12 weeks. Swimming time to exhaustion, energy metabolism, and plasma IL-6 levels were subsequently determined. Mice fed safflower oil exhibited a marked increase in swimming time compared to the baseline level. Mice fed lard exhibited a significant decrease in swimming time, while mice on a fish oil diet exhibited a small decrease in swimming time. The final swimming time of mice fed safflower oil was significantly longer than that of animals fed lard. This improvement in endurance with dietary safflower oil was accompanied by decreased accumulation of lactate and less glycogen depletion during swimming. In the safflower oil group, muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity increased significantly after swimming, while the plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration decreased significantly. A trend to increased plasma IL-6 levels was observed in sedentary animals on a safflower oil diet compared to those on a lard diet. These results suggest that dietary safflower oil improves the swimming endurance of aged mice to a greater extent than lard, and that this effect appears to involve glycogen sparing through increased fatty acid utilization. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Consequences of different dietary energy sources during follicular development on subsequent fertility of cyclic gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F R C L; Machado, G S; Borges, A L C C; Rosa, B O; Fontes, D O

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (Penergy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (Penergy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.

  14. How Do Dietary Choices Influence the Energy-System Cost of Stabilizing the Climate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bryngelsson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how different global dietary scenarios affect the constraints on, and costs of, transforming the energy system to reach a global temperature stabilization limit of 2 °C above the pre-industrial level. A global food and agriculture model, World Food Supply Model (WOFSUM, is used to create three dietary scenarios and to calculate the CH4 and N2O emissions resulting from their respective food-supply chains. The diets are: (i a reference diet based on current trends; (ii a diet with high (reference-level meat consumption, but without ruminant products (i.e., no beef, lamb, or dairy, only pork and poultry; and (iii a vegan diet. The estimated CH4 and N2O emissions from food production are fed into a coupled energy and climate-system optimization model to quantify the energy system implications of the different dietary scenarios, given a 2 °C target. The results indicate that a phase-out of ruminant products substantially increases the emission space for CO2 by about 250 GtC which reduces the necessary pace of the energy system transition and cuts the net present value energy-system mitigation costs by 25%, for staying below 2 °C. Importantly, the additional cost savings with a vegan diet––beyond those achieved with a phase-out of ruminant products––are marginal (only one additional percentage point. This means that a general reduction of meat consumption is a far less effective strategy for meeting the 2 °C target than a reduction of beef and dairy consumption.

  15. Time-varying causality between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth: evidence from US states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeremes, Panayiotis

    2018-02-01

    This study is the first attempt to investigate the relationship between CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth at a state level, for the 50 US states, through a time-varying causality approach using annual data over the periods 1960-2010. The time-varying causality test facilitates the better understanding of the causal relationship between the covariates owing to the fact that it might identify causalities when the time-constant hypothesis is rejected. Our findings indicate the existence of a time-varying causality at the state level. Specifically, the results probe eight bidirectional time-varying causalities between energy consumption and CO 2 emission, six cases of two-way time-varying causalities between economic growth and energy consumption, and five bidirectional time-varying causalities between economic growth and CO 2 emission. Moreover, we examine the traditional environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for the states. Notably, our results do not endorse the validity of the EKC, albeit the majority of states support an inverted N-shaped relationship. Lastly, we can identify multiple policy implications based on the empirical results.

  16. Contextual and environmental influences on reported dietary energy intake at evening eating occasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Chelsea; Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Cox, David N

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to determine the simultaneous effect of immediate eating environment variables; portion size, plate size, proximity to food, variety of food, side serves of salad/vegetables and presence of distraction on dietary energy intake (EI), of a reported evening meal, in the participants' real world setting. A retrospective computer assisted telephone interview collected data on ten immediate eating environment variables, covariates and a 24-hour dietary recall of EI at an evening meal. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine relationships of these variables with EI. Significant (Phunger score also had a positive relationship with EI (β=0.190), explaining 17.5% of the variance. This study provides evidence that some immediate food environment variables at an evening eating occasion are associated with EI. Findings suggest there are several strategies that people could implement to assist in controlling their EI and help address over consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary energy source affecting fat deposition mechanism, muscle fiber metabolic and overall meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Hijazeen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two dietary energy sources, soy bean oil, and sucrose on regulatory mechanisms of meat preservation. Twenty one day-old Hubbard commercial broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment, and four broilers per replicate. All birds were coded for the influence of energy source: fat based diet (FD, and sugar based diet (SD. Formulated grower diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The chickens were slaughtered and then boneless, skinless ground chicken tight meat was prepared. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory panel evaluation. In addition, meat from the small muscles of the raw thigh was used to evaluate other meat quality characteristics. Proximate analyses showed no significant differences between both dietary treatments on protein, ash and moisture percentage values. Meat samples of the group that was fed FD showed higher significant values of both TBARS and total carbonyl at day 7 of storage time. However, samples of the second group (Fed SD showed lower values of both ultimate pH and water separation % using raw thigh meat. The effect of FD treatment on the meat composition appeared clearly especially on fat percentage content. In addition, meat samples obtained from chickens fed SD showed better significant values of the overall acceptability attribute. According to the current findings, sucrose could be an excellent alternative to oil in dietary broilers which improved the meat preservation bio-system, and post-mortem storage stability.

  18. Influence of Protein and Energy Level in Finishing Diets for Feedlot Hair Lambs: Growth Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Ríos-Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight Pelibuey×Katahdin male intact lambs (23.87±2.84 kg were used in an 84-d feeding trial, with six pens per treatment in a 2×2 factorial design arrangement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interaction of two dietary energy levels (3.05 and 2.83 Mcal/kg ME and two dietary protein levels (17.5% and 14.5% on growth performance, dietary energetics and carcass traits. The dietary treatments used were: i High protein-high energy (HP-HE; ii High protein-low energy (HP-LE; iii Low protein-high energy (LP-HE, and iv Low protein-low energy (LP-LE. With a high-energy level, dry matter intake (DMI values were 6.1% lower in the low-protein diets, while with low-energy, the DMI values did not differ between the dietary protein levels. Energy levels did not influence the final weight and average daily gain (ADG, but resulted in lower DMI values and higher gain efficiencies. No effects of protein level were detected on growth performance. The observed dietary net energy (NE ratio and observed DMI were closer than expected in all treatments and were not affected by the different treatments. There was an interaction (p2.80 Mcal/kg ME. Providing a level of protein above 14.5% does not improves growth-performance, dietary energetics or carcass dressing percentage.

  19. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain” study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old. A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women. The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women. The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day, followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day, adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day. Cereals or grains (27.4%, meats and derivatives (15.2%, oils and fats (12.3%, and milk and dairy products (11.8% contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%, fish and shellfish (3.6%, sugars and sweets (3.3% and alcoholic beverages (2.6% were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  20. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-06-12

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain") study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9-75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13-17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9-12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18-64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65-75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  1. Thermal dynamic simulation of wall for building energy efficiency under varied climate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejin; Zhang, Yujin; Hong, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at different kind of walls in five cities of different zoning for thermal design, using thermal instantaneous response factors method, the author develops software to calculation air conditioning cooling load temperature, thermal response factors, and periodic response factors. On the basis of the data, the author gives the net work analysis about the influence of dynamic thermal of wall on air-conditioning load and thermal environment in building of different zoning for thermal design regional, and put forward the strategy how to design thermal insulation and heat preservation wall base on dynamic thermal characteristic of wall under different zoning for thermal design regional. And then provide the theory basis and the technical references for the further study on the heat preservation with the insulation are in the service of energy saving wall design. All-year thermal dynamic load simulating and energy consumption analysis for new energy-saving building is very important in building environment. This software will provide the referable scientific foundation for all-year new thermal dynamic load simulation, energy consumption analysis, building environment systems control, carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy -saving walls building. Based on which, we will not only expediently design system of building energy, but also analyze building energy consumption and carry through scientific energy management. The study will provide the referable scientific foundation for carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy saving walls building.

  2. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Broiler Chickens Fed Varying Dietary Levels of Fermented Castor Oil Seed Meal (Ricinus communis L. and Different Methionine Sources in South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayorinde David Adeniran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the effect of varying dietary levels of fermented castor oil seed meal (FCSM and different methionine sources (DL-methionine and herbal methionine on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broilers. A total of 240 one-day-old Anak broiler chicks were used in the experiment lasted 56 days. The dietary experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 dietary levels of FCSM (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg and 2 methionine sources (DL-methionine and herbal methionine. The birds were weighed and randomly distributed into 8 treatments with 3 replicates of 10 birds each. During the starter phase of the experiment, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and eosinophil counts were higher (P

  3. Emotion regulation, emotional eating and the energy-rich dietary pattern. A population-based study in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qingyun; Tao, Fangbiao; Hou, Fangli; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Ren, Ling-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Research investigating the influence of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on emotional eating and diet among Chinese adolescents is scarce. The aim of this study was to test associations between two ER strategies (suppression/cognitive reappraisal), emotional eating, and an energy-rich dietary pattern. A total of 4316 adolescents from 10 high schools were surveyed. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Bivariate correlations were analyzed to examine associations between ER strategies, emotional eating behavior and an energy-rich dietary pattern, by gender. The mediating effect of emotional eating in the relationship between ER and energy-rich food consumption by gender was estimated using structural equation modeling. A higher level of suppression, but no lack of cognitive reappraisal, was associated with emotional eating in boys and girls. A higher level of suppression and lack of cognitive reappraisal were associated with a greater intake of energy-rich foods in girls only. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between a higher level of suppression and a greater intake of energy-rich food in girls. This study revealed significant associations between two ER strategies and an energy-rich dietary pattern in girls, and provided evidence that higher levels of suppression may put girls at risk for emotional eating, potentially affecting the energy-rich dietary pattern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary energy density and obesity: how consumption patterns differ by body weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A; Mitchell, Diane C; Rolls, Barbara J; Hartman, Terryl J

    2018-02-01

    Recent public health messages have advised consumers to lower dietary energy density (ED) for weight management, but it is not known whether the proportion of the diet from low-ED foods is related to weight status. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, we evaluated whether the proportions of dietary energy intake contributed by low- and high-ED foods are associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 9551 adults ≥18 years in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). ED (kcal/g) was calculated for each food item reported during a 24-h dietary recall; individual foods were divided into five ED categories: very low ED (4.0 kcal/g). The percentages of total energy and the food weight from each category were evaluated by BMI and WC after controlling for total energy intake and other covariates. Men classified as lean (BMI  30 kg/m 2 ); 5.2 % very low and 20.1 low  %; p-trends <0.001 very low , 0.002 low ). Similarly, women classified as lean reported intakes of very low-ED foods of 7.8 % (vs. 6.4 % for women with obesity) of total energy and low-ED foods of 24.7 % (vs. 21.5 % for women with obesity) of total energy (p-trends 0.007 very low , 0.004 low ). Men and women with obesity reported greater proportions of energy from high-ED foods (45.9 % men with obesity vs. 42.4 % lean men , 44.2 % women with obesity vs. 39.9 % lean women ) with significant statistical trends (men = 0.008, women = 0.0005). Similar patterns were observed for intakes of proportions of very low-, low-, and high-ED foods and WC. Higher proportions of energy intake and food weight contributed by very low- and low-ED foods are associated with lower BMI (and WC).

  5. Energy storage. A varying potential with respect to the envisaged case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    This article comments the content of a report on the potential of energy storage which indicates that we'll take benefit of some services brought by energy storage by 2030. This study was based on three scenarios regarding the energy mix (the RTE' Median and New scenarios, and the ADEME's scenario) which assign from 36 to 56 per cent to renewable energies in the installed power. The study discussed the impact of the share of intermittent energy on the French grid adaptation in terms of flexibility. It also studied different situations to take geographical situations and constraints into account. These situations are studied with respect to storage problematic (peak consumption smoothing, peak production, and so on). The economic benefit of storage is assessed for these different situations

  6. Optimisation of magnetic field and R.F. in a azimuthally varying field variable energy cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Divatia, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program is developed for determining magnetic field and reference frequency. Setting necessary to produce a specific ion beam with a given energy in variable energy cyclotrons. The program carries out field trimming calculations using an iterated least square process. For each of the prescribed set of energy values, the E.O. code computes the relevant properties of the equilibrium orbit and the linear oscillation about this orbit to assess the merits and defects of a given medium field. The program consists of parts for: (1) Fourier analysis of the magnetic field (2) calculation of cyclotron trim-coil currents for field optimization (3) generating data for equilibrium orbit (4) determination of the phase energy characteristic of the ion beam and (5) iteration process. (M.G.B.)

  7. Nodal approximations of varying order by energy group for solving the diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, J.T.

    1992-02-01

    The neutron flux across the nuclear reactor core is of interest to reactor designers and others. The diffusion equation, an integro-differential equation in space and energy, is commonly used to determine the flux level. However, the solution of a simplified version of this equation when automated is very time consuming. Since the flux level changes with time, in general, this calculation must be made repeatedly. Therefore solution techniques that speed the calculation while maintaining accuracy are desirable. One factor that contributes to the solution time is the spatial flux shape approximation used. It is common practice to use the same order flux shape approximation in each energy group even though this method may not be the most efficient. The one-dimensional, two-energy group diffusion equation was solved, for the node average flux and core k-effective, using two sets of spatial shape approximations for each of three reactor types. A fourth-order approximation in both energy groups forms the first set of approximations used. The second set used combines a second-order approximation with a fourth-order approximation in energy group two. Comparison of the results from the two approximation sets show that the use of a different order spatial flux shape approximation results in considerable loss in accuracy for the pressurized water reactor modeled. However, the loss in accuracy is small for the heavy water and graphite reactors modeled. The use of different order approximations in each energy group produces mixed results. Further investigation into the accuracy and computing time is required before any quantitative advantage of the use of the second-order approximation in energy group one and the fourth-order approximation in energy group two can be determined

  8. Dietary energy requirements of young adult men, determined by using the doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, S.B.; Heyman, M.B.; Evans, W.J.; Fuss, P.; Tsay, R.; Young, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    The autors examined the hypothesis that current recommendations on dietary energy requirements may underestimate the total energy needs of young adult men, by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 14 weight-maintaining healthy subjects leading unrestricted lives. TEE and body composition were measured by using 2H(2)18O, and REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry. All subjects had sedentary full-time occupations and participated in strenuous leisure activities for 34 ± 6 (SE) min/d. TEE and REE were 14.61 ± 0.76 and 7.39 ± 0.26 MJ/d, respectively, and 202 ± 2 and 122 ± 2 kJ.kg-1.d-1. There were significant relationships between TEE and both body fat-free mass (r = 0.732, P less than 0.005) and measured REE (r = 0.568, P less than 0.05). Measured TEE:REE values were significantly higher than the recommended energy requirement (1.98 ± 0.09, compared with 1.55 or 1.67, P less than 0.005). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the current recommended energy intake for young adult men may underestimate total energy needs

  9. Practical dietary management of protein energy malnutrition in young children with cow's milk protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosan; Venter, Carina; Fox, Adam T; Shah, Neil

    2012-06-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) affects between 1.9 and 4.9% of infants and young children. This food allergy requires the complete elimination of cow's milk and its derivatives, impacting on nutritional status. The risk of having protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in children with CMPA has been well documented. In 2007, the World Health Organisation published guidelines on the dietary management of PEM, which has impacted on the recommendations and composition on specialist feeds for many chronic diseases, but not on CMPA. The main change in management of the child with PEM is the protein energy ratio and energy requirements. The ideal protein energy ratio lies between 8.9 and 11.5%, which would ensure a deposition of about 70% lean and 30% fat mass. In addition, for optimal catch-up growth between 5 and 10 g/kg/day, energy requirements should be between 105 and 126 kcal/kg/day. Although most current hypoallergenic formulas fall well within the recommendation for protein, there is a problem in achieving energy requirements. As a result, modular additions are often made, disturbing the protein energy ratio or feeds are concentrated, which impacts on osmolality. We therefore aimed to review current guidelines on PEM and how these can be applied in the management of the malnourished child with CMPA. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Dietary sources of energy and nutrient intake among children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Ducharme-Smith, Kirstie; Davis, Laura; Hui, Wun Fung; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Abraham, Alison G; Betoko, Aisha

    2017-07-01

    Our purpose was to identify the main food contributors to energy and nutrient intake in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study, we estimated energy and nutrient intake and identified the primary contributing foods within this population. Completed FFQs were available for 658 children. Of those, 69.9% were boys, median age 12 (interquartile range (IQR) 8-15 years). The average daily energy intake was 1968 kcal (IQR 1523-2574 kcal). Milk was the largest contributor to total energy, protein, potassium, and phosphorus intake. Fast foods were the largest contributors to fat and sodium intake, the second largest contributors to energy intake, and the third largest contributors to potassium and phosphorus intake. Fruit contributed 12.0%, 8.7%, and 6.7% to potassium intake for children aged 2-5, 6-13, and 14-18 years old, respectively. Children with CKD consumed more sodium, protein, and calories but less potassium than recommended by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines for pediatric CKD. Energy, protein, and sodium intake is heavily driven by consumption of milk and fast foods. Limiting contribution of fast foods in patients with good appetite may be particularly important for maintaining recommended energy and sodium intake, as overconsumption can increase the risk of obesity and cardiovascular complications in that population.

  11. Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2014-04-28

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19-64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003-8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States Department of Agriculture food codes and combination food type from the dietary data. Compared with non-consumers (n 9307), soup consumers (n 1291) had a lower body weight (P = 0.002), a lower waist circumference (P = 0.001) and a trend towards a lower total energy intake (P = 0.087). Soup consumption was associated with a lower dietary ED (Psoup consumers (P = 0.008). Soup consumption was also associated with a reduced intake of total fat and an increased intake of protein, carbohydrate and dietary fibre, as well as several vitamins and minerals (P soup consumption and body weight could be due to a reduced dietary ED and an improved diet quality. Consumers need to pay attention to their Na intake and choose low-Na products for a healthier diet.

  12. Effects of Differences in Dietary Protein and Varying the Interval from Collection of Bovine Embryos to Freezing on Embryo Quality and Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Jousan, Frank Dean

    2002-01-01

    High levels of dietary protein may be detrimental to reproductive performance in cattle. The objective of Exp. 1 was to determine the effects of differences in dietary protein on the production and quality of bovine embryos collected from superovulated donors. Angus cows were randomly assigned to receive one of three experimental diets: a daily ration of 5.7 kg poultry litter, 2.0 kg hay, 3.1 kg corn, and 0.5 kg peanut hulls (LITTER; n = 15); a daily ration of 6.2 kg peanut hulls, 2.2 k...

  13. Gonadal transcriptome alterations in response to dietary energy intake: sensing the reproductive environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Martin

    Full Text Available Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess, as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF, affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF or a high fat-high glucose (HFG diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment.

  14. Numerical modeling of sandwich panel response to ballistic loading - energy balance for varying impactor geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepler, Jørgen Asbøl; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2007-01-01

    thickness but significantly smaller than panel length dimensions. Experimental data for the total loss in impactor kinetic energy and momentum and estimated damage energy are described. For a selection of impactor tip shapes, the numerical model is used to evaluate different simplified force histories...... between the impactor and the panel during penetration. The force histories are selected from a primary criterion of conservation of linear momentum in the impactor-panel system, and evaluated according to agreement with the total measured energy balance.......A sandwich panel is described by an axisymmetric lumped mass- spring model. The panel compliance is simplified, considering only core shear deformation uniformly distributed across the core thickness. Transverse penetrating impact is modeled for impactors of diameters comparable to the panel...

  15. The Emissions Impacts of Varied Energy Storage Operational Objectives Across Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Emily L.; Thayer, Brandon L.; Studarus, Karen E.; Pal, Seemita

    2017-11-15

    The emissions consequences of smart grid technologies can be significant but are not always intuitive. This is particularly true in the implementation of energy storage (ES) systems that are being increasingly adopted to integrate more intermittent renewable generation, to reduce peak demand, and to participate in energy markets. Both the location of the ES system within the grid and the way it is operated will dictate its resulting impacts. The Grid Project Impact Quantification tool can provide insight into some of the emissions implications of hypothetical ES systems for a variety of operational objectives in diverse locations within the United States.

  16. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Huber, Korinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Several biological changes occur during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation which is associated with a high susceptibility of health disorders. Nicotinic acid, as feed additive, is suggested to balance catabolic metabolism of periparturient dairy cows by attenuating lipolysis and impact production performance. This study provides information of the biological changes occurring around parturition with special emphasis on differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. Present results showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in dairy cows which were similar in body condition score. Nicotinic acid supplementation did not reveal any effect. Abstract The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values for energy, which are provided as average requirements (ARs) of specified age and sex groups. For children and adults, total energy expenditure (TEE...

  18. Dietary Energy Density in Relation to Subsequent Changes of Weight and Waist Circumference in European Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, H.; Ginder, V.; Jebb, S.A.; Forouchi, N.G.; Wareham, N.; Halkjaer, J.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Buijsse, B.; Steffen, A.; Palli, D.; Masala, G.; Saris, W.H.; Sorensen, T.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Experimental studies show that a reduction in dietary energy density (ED) is associated with reduced energy intake and body weight. However, few observational studies have investigated the role of ED on long-term weight and waist circumference change. Methods and Principal Findings -

  19. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, N.; Chen, J.; Ferrari, A.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Trevisi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation has been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress in these cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress

  20. Dietary intake of energy, nutrients and water in elderly people living at home or in nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelheart, S; Akner, G

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of detailed information on dietary intake in elderly people at an individual level, which is crucial for improvement of nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intake in elderly people in two types of living situations. Observational study, analysing prospective data. The dietary intake was studied in elderly people living at home or in nursing home, in different cities of Sweden. A total of 264 elderly people (mean age 84) participated in the observational study. Dietary intake was measured using weighed food records and food diaries, comparing females and males. The observed dietary intake was related to Recommended intake and Lower intake level. All dietary intake and patient characteristic variables showed large individual differences (ranges). We found no significant differences (p>0.05) between those living at home and nursing home residents regarding the average intake of energy, protein and water when expressed as total intake per kg of body weight. A very low daily intake of energy (<20 kcal/kg body weight/day) was observed in 16% of the participants. For vitamin D and iron, 19% and 15%, respectively, had intakes below the Lower intake level. There was no correlation between intake of energy, protein or water and resident characteristics such as age, autonomy, morbidity, nutritional state or cognition. The large individual differences (ranges) in energy, nutrients and water show that the use of mean values when analysing dietary intake data from elderly people is misleading. From a clinical perspective it is more important to consider the individual intake of energy, nutrients and water. Ageism is intrinsic in the realm of 'averageology'.

  1. Effect of constant digestible protein intake and varying digestible energy levels on energy and protein utilization in Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, M.N.; Bleeker, S.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schrama, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    In literature, the variability in the estimated optimal digestible protein to digestible energy ratio (DP/DE) is high. The present study aimed to estimate the optimal DP/DE ratio in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using different criteria (performance, energy and nitrogen balances parameters).

  2. In vitro digestion methods to characterize the physicochemical properties of diets varying in dietary fibre source and content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Pan; Theil, Peter Kappel; Wu, De

    2018-01-01

    Co-products from food and agro industries – barley hulls (BH), pectin residue (PR), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and potato pulp (PP) – were collected, dried (PR, SBP, PP) and milled to pass a 1-, 2- and 4-mm screen. A total of 48 diets originating from these sources with four intended dietary fibre (DF...

  3. Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research was to identify top dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among 2- to 18-year-olds in the United States. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study, were used to examine food sources (percentage contribution and mean intake with standard errors) of total energy (data from 2005-2006) and energy from solid fats and added sugars (data from 2003-2004). Differences were investigated by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and family income, and the consumption of empty calories-defined as the sum of energy from solid fats and added sugars-was compared with the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance. The top sources of energy for 2- to 18-year-olds were grain desserts (138 kcal/day), pizza (136 kcal/day), and soda (118 kcal/day). Sugar-sweetened beverages (soda and fruit drinks combined) provided 173 kcal/day. Major contributors varied by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income. Nearly 40% of total energy consumed (798 of 2,027 kcal/day) by 2- to 18-year-olds were in the form of empty calories (433 kcal from solid fat and 365 kcal from added sugars). Consumption of empty calories far exceeded the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance for all sex-age groups (which range from 8% to 20%). Half of empty calories came from six foods: soda, fruit drinks, dairy desserts, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk. There is an overlap between the major sources of energy and empty calories: soda, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk. The landscape of choices available to children and adolescents must change to provide fewer unhealthy foods and more healthy foods with less energy. Identifying top sources of energy and empty calories can provide targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment. However, product reformulation alone is not sufficient-the flow of empty calories into the food supply must be reduced.

  4. Effect of exercise and dietary restraint on energy intake of reduced-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, N L; Canty, D J; Barbieri, T F; Wu, M M

    1996-02-01

    Self-selected food intake of 15 reduced-obese women living in a metabolic ward was studied for 14 consecutive days to determine the effect of exercise and other metabolic and behavioral variables on energy intake. A choice of prepared food items were offered at breakfast, lunch and dinner, and a variety of additional food items were available continuously 24 h/day. Subjects performed either moderate intensity aerobic exercise (A-EX) (n = 8) expending 354 +/- 76 kcal/session or low intensity resistance weight training (R-EX)(n =7) expending 96 +/- kcal/session, 5 days/week. Mean energy intakes (kcal/day, +/- SEM) of the exercise groups were similar: 1867 +/- 275 for A-EX, 1889 +/- 294 for R-EX. Mean energy intakes of individuals ranged from 49 to 157% of the predetermined level required for weight maintenance. Resting metabolic rate per kg 0.75 and the Eating Inventory hunger score contributed significantly to the between subject variance in energy intake, whereas exercise energy expenditure did not. Regardless of exercise, eight women consistently restricted their energy intake (undereaters), and seven other consumed excess energy (overeaters). Overeaters were distinguished by higher Eating Inventory disinhibition (P = 0.023) and hunger (p = 0.004) scores. The overeaters' diet had a higher fat content 34 +/- 1% (p = 0.007). Also, overeaters took a larger percentage of their daily energy, than that of undereaters, 27 +/- 1 energy intake in the evening, 13 +/- 2%, compared to undereaters, 7 +/- 1% (p = 0.005). We conclude that the Eating Inventory is useful for identifying reduced-obese women at risk of overeating, and these individuals may benefit from dietary counseling aimed at reducing fat intake and evening snacking.

  5. Neural nets with varying topology for high energy particle recognition. Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, A.L.; Basti, G.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Picozza, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a strategy to solve the problem of parallel compuation based on a dynamic definition of the net topology showing its effectiveness for problems of particle track recognition in high-energy physics. In this way, we can maintain the linear architecture like in the geometric perceptron, but with a partial and dynamic connectivity so to overcome the intrinsic limiations of the geometric perceptron. Namely, the computation is truly parallel because of the partial connectivity but the net topology is always the optimal one because of its dynamic redefinition on the single input pattern. For these properties, we call this new architecture dynamic perceptron

  6. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  7. Evaluation of a Novel Single-administration Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Seasonally Varied Dietary Patterns among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca K; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Christian, Parul; Leclerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Wu, Lee S F; Stewart, Christine P; West, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    Novel dietary assessment methods are needed to study chronic disease risk in agrarian cultures where food availability is highly seasonal. In 16,320 rural Nepalese women, we tested a novel food frequency questionnaire, administered once, to assess past 7-day intake and usual frequency of intake throughout the year for year-round foods and when in season for seasonal foods. Spearman rank correlations between usual and past 7-day intakes were 0.12-0.85 and weighted kappa statistics, representing chance-corrected agreement, were 0.10-0.80, with better agreement for frequently consumed foods. The questionnaire performed well, but may require refinement for settings of extremely low dietary diversity.

  8. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Margaret C.; Gordon, Nancy P.; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R. Grant; Lo, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with B...

  9. Time-varying analysis of CO_2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth nexus: Statistical experience in next 11 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Mahalik, Mantu Kumar; Shah, Syed Hasanat; Sato, João Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This paper detects the direction of causality among carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth in Next 11 countries for the period 1972–2013. Changes in economic, energy, and environmental policies as well as regulatory and technological advancement over time, cause changes in the relationship among the variables. We use a novel approach i.e. time-varying Granger causality and find that economic growth is the cause of CO_2 emissions in Bangladesh and Egypt. Economic growth causes energy consumption in the Philippines, Turkey, and Vietnam but the feedback effect exists between energy consumption and economic growth in South Korea. In the cases of Indonesia and Turkey, we find the unidirectional time-varying Granger causality running from economic growth to CO_2 emissions thus validates the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis, which indicates that economic growth is achievable at the minimal cost of environment. The paper gives new insights for policy makers to attain sustainable economic growth while maintaining long-run environmental quality.

  10. Online Energy Management of City Cars with Multi-Objective Linear Parameter-Varying L2-Gain Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boe-Shong Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at online regulating transient current out of the batteries of small-sized electric cars that transport people and goods around cities. In a city with heavy traffic, transient current dominates the energy economy and propulsion capability, which are in opposition to each other. In order to manage the trade-off between energy consumption per distance and propulsion capability in transience, the authors improve on previous work on multi-objective linear parameter-varying (LPV L2-gain control. The observer embedded into this multi-objective controller no longer assumes Kalman-filtering structure, and structural conservatism is thus removed. A full-spectrum set of experiments is performed. The results reveal that the feedback design significantly improves energy-motion management.

  11. Estimating caffeine intake from energy drinks and dietary supplements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila G; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2014-10-01

    No consistent definition exists for energy products in the United States. These products have been marketed and sold as beverages (conventional foods), energy shots (dietary supplements), and in pill or tablet form. Recently, the number of available products has surged, and formulations have changed to include caffeine. To help characterize the use of caffeine-containing energy products in the United States, three sources of data were analyzed: sales data, data from federal sources, and reports from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. These data indicate that sales of caffeine-containing energy products and emergency room visits involving their consumption appear to be increasing over time. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 indicate that 2.7% [standard error (SE) 0.2%] of the US population ≥1 year of age used a caffeine-containing energy product, providing approximately 150-200 mg/day of caffeine per day in addition to caffeine from traditional sources like coffee, tea, and colas. The highest usage of these products was among males between the ages of 19 and 30 years (7.6%, SE 1.0). Although the prevalence of caffeine-containing energy product use remains low overall in the US population, certain subgroups appear to be using these products in larger amounts. Several challenges remain in determining the level of caffeine exposure from and accurate usage patterns of caffeine-containing energy products. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Exploring the impact of co-varying water availability and energy price on productivity and profitability of Alpine hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Botter, Martina; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are experiencing dramatic changes both from the point of view of hydrological conditions, e.g., water availability and frequency of extremes events, and of energy market conditions, e.g., partial or total liberalization of the market and increasing share of renewable power sources. Scientific literature has, so far, mostly focused on the analysis of climate change impacts and associated uncertainty on hydropower operation, underlooking the consequences that socio-economic changes, e.g., energy demand and/or price changes, can have on hydropower productivity and profitability. In this work, we analyse how hydropower reservoir operation is affected by changes in both water availability and energy price. We consider stochastically downscaled climate change scenarios of precipitation and temperature to simulate reservoir inflows using a physically explicit hydrological model. We consider different scenarios of energy demand and generation mix to simulate energy prices using an electricity market model, which includes different generation sources, demand sinks, and features of the transmission lines. We then use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design the operation of hydropower reservoirs for different purposes, e.g. maximization of revenue and/or energy production. The objective of the work is to assess how the tradeoffs between the multiple operating objectives evolve under different co-varying climate change and socio-economic scenarios and to assess the adaptive capacity of the system. The modeling framework is tested on the real-world case study of the Mattmark reservoir in Switzerland.

  13. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.M.; Markussen, B.; Nielsen, N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... (CINE; min/MJ of NE). Furthermore, we studied the forage-to-concentrate substitution rate in this new NEI model. To calibrate the model on a diverse set of situations, we built a database of mean intake from 14 production experiments with a total of 986 primi- and multiparous lactating dairy cows......, and disturbance, across and within experiments on independent data from 19 experiments including 812 primi- and multiparous lactating dairy cows of different breeds fed 80 different diets ad libitum. The NEI model predicted NEI with an MSPE of 8% of observed, and across the 19 experiments the error central...

  14. Dietary intake and adequacy of energy and nutrients in Mexican older adults: results from two National Health and Nutrition Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa De la; Martínez-Tapia, Brenda; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Flores-Aldana, Mario; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    To describe energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies in older Mexican adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2006 and 2012. Dietary information was obtained through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) from 526 adults 60 y and older participating in Ensanut 2012 and 3 326 in Ensanut 2006 in Mexico. Quantile and logistic regression models were used to obtain medians and marginal effects of each nutrient, adjusting by confounders and survey design. Dietary intake of energy and nutrients was similar in both surveys. Most common micronutrients at risk of dietary deficiency were, for vitamins: A, B-12, C, D and folate, and for minerals: calcium, iron and zinc, in both surveys. Excessive intake of sugar and saturated fat and low fiber intake were common. Diet in older Mexican adults is low in micronutrient essentials, and excessive in fat and sugar. Attention to the diet in this age group through targeted interventions is necessary to promote a healthy diet.

  15. Usual Dietary Energy Density Distribution Is Positively Associated with Excess Body Weight in Mexican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto, Tania C; Cantoral, Alejandra; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-07-01

    Studies suggest a positive association between dietary energy density (DED) and body weight in adults, but evidence in children is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to compare usual DED distributions of nonoverweight vs. overweight or obese (OW/O) Mexican children. The study used 24-h recall (24HR) data from 2367 children aged 5-11 y from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012). Repeated 24HR measures were obtained in a random sample (∼10%) to estimate usual intake distributions by using the Iowa State University (PC-Side) method. Implausible dietary reports were identified. Multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the relation between DED and body mass index status and to compare results with and without PC-Side adjustment and restriction to plausible reporters. A total of 35.1% of the children in the sample were OW/O. The usual DED mean was ∼175 kcal/100 g in both the complete sample and the plausible reporters subsample. Regression models adjusted by PC-Side and for potential confounders showed higher DED in OW/O relative to nonoverweight children for both plausible reporters (9.7 kcal/100 g; n = 1452, P 0.10). A positive association between usual DED and OW/O was found in Mexican children. The association was stronger when only plausible reporters were considered. This suggests that there is a need for strategies to reduce energy density in the diet of Mexican children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie L McKnight

    Full Text Available Mannoheptulose (MH, a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y. The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW, in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42. The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43-47. A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49 and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56 to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02 and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02. Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05 during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity.

  17. Time-frequency analysis of time-varying modulated signals based on improved energy separation by iterative generalized demodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chu, Fulei; Zuo, Ming J.

    2011-03-01

    Energy separation algorithm is good at tracking instantaneous changes in frequency and amplitude of modulated signals, but it is subject to the constraints of mono-component and narrow band. In most cases, time-varying modulated vibration signals of machinery consist of multiple components, and have so complicated instantaneous frequency trajectories on time-frequency plane that they overlap in frequency domain. For such signals, conventional filters fail to obtain mono-components of narrow band, and their rectangular decomposition of time-frequency plane may split instantaneous frequency trajectories thus resulting in information loss. Regarding the advantage of generalized demodulation method in decomposing multi-component signals into mono-components, an iterative generalized demodulation method is used as a preprocessing tool to separate signals into mono-components, so as to satisfy the requirements by energy separation algorithm. By this improvement, energy separation algorithm can be generalized to a broad range of signals, as long as the instantaneous frequency trajectories of signal components do not intersect on time-frequency plane. Due to the good adaptability of energy separation algorithm to instantaneous changes in signals and the mono-component decomposition nature of generalized demodulation, the derived time-frequency energy distribution has fine resolution and is free from cross term interferences. The good performance of the proposed time-frequency analysis is illustrated by analyses of a simulated signal and the on-site recorded nonstationary vibration signal of a hydroturbine rotor during a shut-down transient process, showing that it has potential to analyze time-varying modulated signals of multi-components.

  18. Characterization of hydroxyapatite coating by pulse laser deposition technique on stainless steel 316 L by varying laser energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, Himanshu; Singh, Gurbhinder; Agrawal, Khelendra; Prakash, Satya; Agarwal, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydroxyapatite coating was successfully deposited on stainless steel substrate by pulse laser deposition at different energy levels (i.e. 300 mJ and 500 mJ, respectively). ► Variation in laser energy affects the surface characteristic of hydroxyapatite coating (particle size, surface roughness, uniformity, Ca/P ratio). ► Laser energy between 300 mJ and 500 mJ is the optimal choice for obtaining ideal Ca/P ratio. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite is an attractive biomaterial mainly used in bone and tooth implants because it closely resembles human tooth and bone mineral and has proven to be biologically compatible with these tissues. In spite of this advantage of hydroxyapatite it has also certain limitation like inferior mechanical properties which do not make it suitable for long term load bearing applications; hence a lot of research is going on in the development of hydroxyapatite coating over various metallic implants. These metallic implants have good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is to deposit hydroxyapatite coating over stainless steel grade 316 L by pulse laser deposition technique by varying laser energy. To know the effect of this variation, the coatings were than characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, finite emission-scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  19. Dietary energy estimate inferred from fruit preferences of Cynopterus sphinx (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in a flight cage in tropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mukherjee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available From a conservation standpoint, inferences about dietary intake are much more robust when placed within a demographic, temporal and nutritional context. We investigated the dietary cornerstones of fruit preference and the dietary energy gained in the Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus sphinx. Feeding trials were conducted with 15 wild-caught bats kept in a large flight cage in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China, over nine weeks. The goal was to estimate the amount of food required for the sustenance of C. sphinx in captivity and calculate the food amount in terms of energy. Of the fruits (apple, banana, pear, papaya and guava offered, apple (89% and banana (93% were found to be preferred. The relative consumption of fruit species tended to be positively correlated with the energy value per gram fruit. Banana (93% was the most preferred and papaya (47% the least preferred of the offered fruits. The results suggest that the minimum recommended dietary intake is 214-267 kJ per day for an individual of C. sphinx in captivity with conditions allowing flight. From this, we can assume that the same energy requirements may represent the minimum intake for bats in the wild. Both body mass and food consumption decreased significantly when bats were kept in a small cage.

  20. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Thillart, van den G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four

  1. Effects of dietary energy levels on physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating sows over three consecutive parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S S; Jin, Y H; Jang, J C; Hong, J S; Jung, S W; Kim, Y Y

    2018-03-01

    This experiment was to evaluate the effects of the dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance during gestation over three parities in sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. The treatments contained 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg diet but feed was provided at 2.0, 2.2, and 2.4 kg/d in the first, second and third parity, respectively. The body weight and body weight gain during gestation increased as the dietary energy level increased (penergy level increased (penergy treatment diet (p = 0.08) and the body weight, body weight gain were increased by dietary energy level during gestation (penergy level increased at the first parity (penergy intake of gestating sows should be 6,400 or 6,600 kcal of ME/d, 7,040 or 7,260 kcal of ME/d, and 7,680 or 7,920 kcal of ME/d for parity 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

  2. Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johnson

    Full Text Available Dietary energy density (DED does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609 variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants.We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609 variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (beta = 0.005, p = 0.51, suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35+/-0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16+/-0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity.This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain.

  3. Feeding different dietary protein to energy ratios to Holstein heifers: effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Zhang, W B; Zhang, N F; Tu, Y; Diao, Q Y

    2017-02-01

    Eighteen Chinese Holstein heifers average age 230 ± 14 days were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) to metabolizable energy (ME) ratios to examine the effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters with 90-days experiment. Three different dietary CP:ME ratios were targeted based on the formulation of dietary CP contents of 10.85%, 12.78% and 14.63% on dry matter (DM) basis with similar ME contents (10.42 MJ/kg DM), which were categorized as low, medium and high dietary CP:ME ratios. The actual CP:ME ratios obtained in this study significantly increased from low to high CP:ME ratio groups with a value of 10.59, 11.83 and 13.38 g/MJ respectively. Elevated CP:ME ratios significantly increased CP intake (kg/day) and feed efficiency (FE) which was defined as dry matter intake as a proportion of average daily gain (ADG), whereas little difference was observed in body weight (kg), ADG (kg/day), DM intake (kg/day) and ME intake (MJ/day) among the three different CP:ME ratio groups. Increasing dietary CP to ME ratios significantly increased CP digestibility, whereas digestibility of DM and gross energy remained constant in the current experiment. Blood urea nitrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 linearly increased with increasing dietary CP:ME ratios. There was significantly dietary treatment effect on rumen fermentation parameters including acetate, propionate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids. Therefore, this study indicated that increasing dietary CP levels with similar energy content contributed to increased protein intake and its digestibility, as well as FE. Holstein heifers between 200 and 341 kg subjected to 13.38 dietary CP:ME ratio showed improved feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, some blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics for 0.90 kg/day rate of gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Dietary energy density in relation to subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Ginder, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental studies show that a reduction in dietary energy density (ED) is associated with reduced energy intake and body weight. However, few observational studies have investigated the role of ED on long-term weight and waist circumference change. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T...... not prevent weight gain but have a weak yet potentially beneficial effect on the prevention of abdominal obesity as measured by waist circumference....

  5. Effects of dietary protein levels during rearing and dietary energy levels during lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeder females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emous, R A; Kwakkel, R P; van Krimpen, M M; Hendriks, W H

    2015-05-01

    A study with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary protein levels (high = CPh and low = CPl) during rearing, 3 dietary energy levels (3,000, MEh1; 2,800, MEs1; and 2,600, MEl1, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the first phase of lay, and 2 dietary energy levels (2,800, MEs2; and 3,000, MEh2, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the second phase of lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders. No meaningful interactions for energy and protein treatments within the different phases of the study were found and, therefore, this paper focusses on the main effects. Pullets fed the CPl diet had a 12.8% higher feed intake, 14% lower breast muscle, and 97% higher abdominal fat pad portion at 22 wk age. The increased abdominal fat pad and decreased breast muscle of the CPl compared to the CPh birds increased hatchability during the first phase of lay, due to a decreased embryonic mortality between d 10 to 21 of incubation, and increased egg production during the second phase of lay. Feeding birds the MEh1 and MEl1 diets slightly decreased egg production compared to the MEs1 birds. Birds fed the MEh1 diet showed a higher mortality compared to the birds fed the MEs1 and MEl1 diets. Feeding birds the MEh2 diet did not affect egg production, increased hatchability of fertile eggs, decreased embryonic mortality between d 3 to 21 of incubation, and increased the number of first-grade chicks. It was concluded that a low-protein diet during rearing changed body composition with positive effects on incubation traits during the first phase of lay and improved egg production during the second phase of lay in broiler breeders. A high-energy or low-energy diet compared to a standard diet during the first phase of lay slightly decreased total and settable egg numbers while a high-energy diet during the second phase of lay increased hatchability and number of saleable chicks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-10-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]. In wk 1 to 7, cows were fed the same basal ration but the level of concentrate increased to 6.7 kg/d for cows fed the low energy level and to 8.5 kg/d for cows fed the standard energy level in wk 4. From wk 8 postpartum onward, cows received a G ration (mainly consisting of corn silage and grass silage) or an L ration (mainly consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp) with the same energy level contrast (low or std) as in early lactation. Cows fed the G ration had greater milk, lactose, and protein yields, lower milk fat percentage, greater dry matter and energy intakes, and greater plasma IGF-1 concentration compared with cows fed the L ration. Dietary energy source did not affect EB or lactation curve characteristics. In cows with a 0-d DP, the reduced energy level decreased energy intake, EB, and weekly body weight gain, but did not affect milk production or lactation curve characteristics. A 30-d DP resulted in a greater total predicted lactation yield, initial milk yield after calving, peak milk yield, energy intake, energy output in milk, days to conception [only when compared with 0-d DP(low)], plasma GH concentration [only when compared with 0-d DP(std)], and decreased weekly body weight gain compared with a 0-d DP. A

  7. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabalda Aegina B

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98, 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (≥ 60 to 2 (p = 0.003 for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy expenditure. Though their intakes decrease with increasing age, so do their energy expenditure, making their relative insufficiency of food intake stable with age.

  8. Dietary acid load and renal function have varying effects on blood acid-base status and exercise performance across age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietavala, Enni-Maria; Stout, Jeffrey R; Frassetto, Lynda A; Puurtinen, Risto; Pitkänen, Hannu; Selänne, Harri; Suominen, Harri; Mero, Antti A

    2017-12-01

    Diet composition influences acid-base status of the body. This may become more relevant as renal functional capacity declines with aging. We examined the effects of low (LD) versus high dietary acid load (HD) on blood acid-base status and exercise performance. Participants included 22 adolescents, 33 young adults (YA), and 33 elderly (EL), who followed a 7-day LD and HD in a randomized order. At the end of both diet periods the subjects performed a cycle ergometer test (3 × 10 min at 35%, 55%, 75%, and (except EL) until exhaustion at 100% of maximal oxygen uptake). At the beginning of and after the diet periods, blood samples were collected at rest and after all workloads. Oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate (HR) were monitored during cycling. In YA and EL, bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) and base excess (BE) decreased over the HD period, and HCO 3 - , BE, and pH were lower at rest after HD compared with LD. In YA and EL women, HCO 3 - and BE were lower at submaximal workloads after HD compared with LD. In YA women, the maximal workload was 19% shorter and maximal oxygen uptake, RER, and HR were lower after HD compared with LD. Our data uniquely suggests that better renal function is associated with higher availability of bases, which may diminish exercise-induced acidosis and improve maximal aerobic performance. Differences in glomerular filtration rate between the subject groups likely explains the larger effects of dietary acid load in the elderly compared with younger subjects and in women compared with men.

  9. Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio predicts body weight and fat loss success on 24-week diets varying in macronutrient composition and dietary fiber: results from a post-hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Blædel, Trine; Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Holm, Jacob B; Kiilerich, Pia; Roager, Henrik M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Larsen, Lesli H; Astrup, Arne

    2018-05-17

    Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low ( ≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks. Body weight, body fat, and dietary intake (by 7-day dietary records) were determined. Individuals were dichotomized according to their pre-treatment P/B ratio derived from 16S rRNA gene sequencing of collected fecal samples to test the potential modification of dietary effects using linear mixed models. Independent of the randomized diets, individuals with high P/B lost 3.8 kg (95%CI, 1.8,5.8; P ratio lost 8.3 kg (95% CI, 5.8;10.9, P ratio [Mean difference: 5.1 kg (95% CI, 1.7;8.6, P = 0.003)]. Partial correlation coefficients between fiber intake and weight change was 0.90 (P ratio and 0.25 (P = 0.29) among individuals with low P/B ratio. Individuals with high P/B lost more body weight and body fat compared to individuals with low P/B, confirming that individuals with a high P/B are more susceptible to weight loss on a diet rich in fiber.

  10. Effects of caloric restriction with varying energy density and aerobic exercise on weight change and satiety in young female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sae Won; Bae, Yoon Jung; Lee, Dae Taek

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the combined effects of caloric restriction on body composition, blood lipid, and satiety in slightly overweight women by varying food density and aerobic exercise. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for a four-week weight management program: the high-energy density diet plus exercise (HDE: n = 12, 22 ± 2 yrs, 65 ± 7 kg, 164 ± 5 cm, 35 ± 4 % fat) and low-energy density diet plus exercise (LDE: n = 11, 22 ± 1 yrs, 67 ± 7 kg, 161 ± 2 cm, 35 ± 4 % fat) groups. Subjects maintained a low-calorie diet (1,500 kcal/day) during the program. Isocaloric (483 ± 26 for HDE, 487 ± 27 kcal for LDE) but different weight (365 ± 68 for HDE, 814 ± 202 g for LDE) of lunch was provided. After lunch, they biked at 60% of maximum capacity for 40 minutes, five times per week. The hunger level was scaled (1: extremely hungry; 9: extremely full) at 17:30 each day. Before and after the program, the subjects' physical characteristics were measured, and fasting blood samples were drawn. The daily energy intake was 1,551 ± 259 for HDE and 1,404 ± 150 kcal for LDE (P > 0.05). After four weeks, the subjects' weights and % fat decreased for both LDE (-1.9 kg and -1.5%, P < 0.05) and HDE (-1.6 kg and -1.4%, respectively, P < 0.05). The hunger level was significantly higher for HDE (2.46 ± 0.28) than for LDE (3.10 ± 0.26) (P < 0.05). The results suggest that a low-energy density diet is more likely to be tolerated than a high-energy density diet for a weight management program combining a low-calorie diet and exercise, mainly because of a reduced hunger sensation.

  11. Appetitive and Dietary Effects of Consuming an Energy-Dense Food (Peanuts with or between Meals by Snackers and Nonsnackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Devitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI. This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults consuming a standard lunch. Test loads of 1255.2 kJ (300 kcal were added to the lunch or provided as snack. Loads (peanuts, snack mix, and snack mix with peanuts were energy, macronutrient, and volumetrically matched with a lunch portion as control. Participants completed meal and snack sessions of their randomly assigned load. Results. No differences were observed in daily EI or AR for meal versus snack or treatment versus control. Consumption of peanuts as a snack tended to strengthen dietary compensation compared to peanuts or other loads with a meal. Conclusions. Inclusion of an energy-dense food as a snack or meal component had comparable influence on AR and EI. Peanuts tended to elicit stronger dietary compensation when consumed as a snack versus with a meal. If substantiated, this latter observation suggests that properties other than those controlled here (energy, macronutrient content, and volume modify AR and EI.

  12. Appetitive and Dietary Effects of Consuming an Energy-Dense Food (Peanuts) with or between Meals by Snackers and Nonsnackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, A A; Kuevi, A; Coelho, S B; Lartey, A; Lokko, P; Costa, N; Bressan, J; Mattes, R D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI). This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR) and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults consuming a standard lunch. Test loads of 1255.2 kJ (300 kcal) were added to the lunch or provided as snack. Loads (peanuts, snack mix, and snack mix with peanuts) were energy, macronutrient, and volumetrically matched with a lunch portion as control. Participants completed meal and snack sessions of their randomly assigned load. Results. No differences were observed in daily EI or AR for meal versus snack or treatment versus control. Consumption of peanuts as a snack tended to strengthen dietary compensation compared to peanuts or other loads with a meal. Conclusions. Inclusion of an energy-dense food as a snack or meal component had comparable influence on AR and EI. Peanuts tended to elicit stronger dietary compensation when consumed as a snack versus with a meal. If substantiated, this latter observation suggests that properties other than those controlled here (energy, macronutrient content, and volume) modify AR and EI.

  13. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiya Ivanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs. The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce.

  14. The interplay of dietary nutrient specification and varying calcium to total phosphorus ratio on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 1. Growth performance and tibia mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

    2014-12-01

    A 14-d experiment was conducted to study the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a 6-phytase from Citrobacter braakii on broiler growth performance and tibia mineralization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values for phytase as negative or positive control (NC or PC, respectively) and with 2 Ca:total P (tP; 2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Birds and feed were weighed on d 7 and 21, and tibia bones were collected from all the birds on d 21. The main effects of nutrient matrix, Ca:tP, and phytase supplementation were significant (P phytase and matrix × phytase interactions were significant (P phytase increased weight gain (P phytase increased (P Phytase supplementation of diets with 2:1 Ca:tP increased (P phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation (1,000 FYT/kg) was in NC diets with narrow Ca:tP, whereas the best response to higher level of phytase supplementation (2,000 FYT/kg) was achieved in diets in PC diets with wide Ca:tP. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. The interplay of dietary nutrient level and varying calcium to phosphorus ratios on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 2. Ileal and total tract nutrient utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

    2014-12-01

    A 14-d broiler experiment was conducted to assess the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a bacterial 6-phytase from Citobacter braakii on nutrient and phytate P (PP) utilization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values (matrix) for phytase as negative control (NC) or positive control (PC), respectively, and with 2 Ca:total P (tP) levels (2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg of diet, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Excreta were collected on d 19 to 21 and ileal digesta on d 21. There was no 3-way interaction on digestibility of any nutrient. There was matrix × phytase (P phytase interaction (P phytase increased (P phytase supplementation in diets with 2:1 Ca:tP, whereas there was no effect of phytase supplementation on PP disappearance or Ca retention in diets with 2.5:1 Ca:tP. Total P and Ca retention were reduced (P phytase supplementation on P utilization is reduced when diets contain adequate P as exemplified in the PC diets and that the negative impact of wide Ca:tP is more pronounced in diets with phytase matrix allowance as exemplified in the NC diets. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Effects of dietary energy content on the voluntary feed intake and blood parameters of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and protein requirements of sea bass for maximum growth and fasting energy requirements were determined byusing three diets containing increasing DE levels and two fish weights.Five hundred and sixteen sea bass were divided in two body weight (BW classes (A: 67.7 ± 0.85g and B: 128.6 ± 0.88g,mean ± SD live weight and randomly distributed among 24 tanks. They were fed for 12 weeks on three isoproteic dietscharacterized by different levels of digestible energy (DE: low energy (LE, 18.6; medium energy (ME, 19.7; and highenergy (HE, 22.6 MJ kg-1 dry matter (DM. The entire trial lasted 113 d and was divided into two periods: a feeding trialof 83 d and a fasting trial of 30 d. Specific growth rates decreased in fish fed on the HE diet (P weighing 68 g. Voluntary feed intakes and feed conversion ratios were inversely related to dietary energy contents in bothweight classes. During the starvation trial, body depletion increased (Pfeeding experiment. The gross energy requirements (per day for maximum growth were 320 and 221 kJ kg-1 BW for fishweighing 68 g and 128 g, respectively. Fasting metabolisms were 60.6 and 54.1 kJ kg–0.83 BW per day for fish weighing 68gand 128g, respectively.It is concluded that growth performance of sea bass appear to be dependent on digestible dietary energy. Gross energyintake, net energy (production and maintenance requirements of fish were not influenced by dietary treatments.

  17. Effect of the amount of dietary energy on growth and body composition of Sabi lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusina, N.T.; Hale, D.H.; Chesworth, J.M.; Mutisi, C.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the amount of dietary energy on growth rate, food conversion efficiency and composition of the live body and of the carcass of 60 Sabi ram lambs were examined. The tails of the lambs were docked two days after birth. Six lambs (average 17 kg) were slaughtered at the start of the study to determine the initial body composition. The remaining (54) lambs were allocated to one of the three levels of feed (1.25, 1.50 and 2.00 times maintenance). Within each level of feeding, the animals were slaughtered at either 25, 30 or 35 kg liveweight. Carcass composition was determined by dissection of the slaughtered animals and body composition was predicted using regression equations derived from the in vivo dilution technique of tritiated water (TOH) injected into the animals. The average daily liveweight gain and feed conversion efficiency increased (p 0.05). Both total body water and total body fat were estimated more accurately when TOH space and liveweight were used jointly. TOH space alone overestimated total body water. (author). 24 refs, 1 fig., 8 tabs

  18. Effects of dietary energy sources on early postmortem muscle metabolism of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjiao; Yu, Changning; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of different dietary energy sources on early postmortem muscle metabolism of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrow (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, DLY) pigs (65.0±2.0 kg) were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets: A (44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat, and 12.6% neutral detergent fibre [NDF]), B (37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat, and 15.4% NDF) or C (30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat, and 17.8% NDF). After the duration of 28-day feeding experiment, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered and the M. longissimus lumborum (LL) samples at 45 min postmortem were collected. Compared with diet A, diet C resulted in greater adenosine triphosphate and decreased phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations, greater activity of creatine kinase and reduced percentage bound activities of hexokinase (HK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in LL muscles (p<0.05). Moreover, diet C decreased the phosphor-AKT level and increased the hydroxy-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) level, as well as decreased the bound protein expressions of HK II, PKM2, and lactate dehydrogenase A (p<0.05). Diet C with the lowest level of starch and the highest levels of fat and NDF could enhance the PCr utilization and attenuate glycolysis early postmortem in LL muscle of finishing pigs.

  19. Influences of different dietary energy level on sheep testicular development associated with AMPK/ULK1/autophagy pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jing; Li, Fengzhe; Feng, Xu; Yang, Hua; Han, Le; Fan, Yixuan; Nie, Haitao; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yanli

    2018-03-01

    Energy balance is an important feature for spermatozoa production in the testis. The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cell energy, has been implicated as a mediator between gonadal function and energy balance. Herein, we intended to determine the physiological effects of AMPK on testicular development in feed energy restricted and compensated pre-pubertal rams. Lambs had restricted feeding for 2 months and then provided compensatory feeding for another 3 months. Feed levels were 100%(control), 15% and 30% of energy restriction (ER) diets, respectively. The results showed that lambs fed the 30% ER diet had significantly lower testicular weight (P energy requirement after restriction. Taken together, dietary energy levels influence testicular development through autophagy and apoptosis interplay mediated by AMPK-ULK1 signal pathway, which also indicates the important role of the actions of AMPK in the testis homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of dietary source and intake of energy on immune competence and the response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy intake and source affect immune competence and response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by body weight within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatmen...

  1. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  2. Dietary α-ketoglutarate supplementation improves hepatic and intestinal energy status and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangshuang; Duan, Rui; Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Tan, Linglin; Cheng, Qiang; Liao, Man; Ding, Binying

    2017-11-01

    α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is an extensively used dietary supplement in human and animal nutrition. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in liver and intestinal mucosa of Cherry Valley ducks. A total of 80 1-day-old ducks were randomly assigned into four groups, in which ducks were fed basal diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% AKG, respectively. Graded doses of AKG supplementation linearly decreased the ratio of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the liver, but increased ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) in a quadratic and linear manner, respectively (P ducks. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Do energy density and dietary fiber influence subsequent 5-year weight changes in adult men and women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Sofia I; Helge, Jørn W; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    the associations between ED and subsequent changes in BW, and despite a general belief that ED is a major determinant of obesity, the present study did not generally lend support for an association. However, among certain subgroups, an energy-dense diet may be a risk factor for weight development.......OBJECTIVE: We examined whether associations between dietary components and, in particular, energy density (ED) predicted subsequent 5-year weight changes. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The present longitudinal population study was part of the Danish World Health Organization Multinational...... Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) and the 1936 cohort dietary studies. Effects of components were studied in relation to subsequent 5-year weight changes in 862 men and 900 women, 30 to 60 years old. Linear multiple regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Mean 5...

  4. Dietary intake and adequacy of energy and nutrients in Mexican older adults: results from two National Health and Nutrition Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora; Brenda Martínez-Tapia; Lucía Cuevas-Nasu; Mario Flores-Aldana; Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To describe energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies in older Mexican adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2006 and 2012. Materials and methods. Dietary information was obtained through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) from 526 adults 60 y and older participating in Ensanut 2012 and 3 326 in Ensanut 2006 in Mexico. Quantile and logistic regression models were used to obtain medians and marginal effects of each nutr...

  5. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (Pexercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART

  6. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panel on Macronutrients; Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes; Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

    Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs...

  7. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Report of the Panel on Macronutrients, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

    2005-01-01

    Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs...

  8. Exercise effects on lipids in persons with varying dietary patterns-does diet matter if they exercise? Responses in Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M; Hawk, Victoria H; Henes, Sarah T; Ocampo, Christine I; Orenduff, Melissa C; Slentz, Cris A; Johnson, Johanna L; Houmard, Joseph A; Samsa, Gregory P; Kraus, William E; Bales, Connie W

    2012-07-01

    The standard clinical approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk due to dyslipidemia is to prescribe changes in diet and physical activity. The purpose of the current study was to determine if, across a range of dietary patterns, there were variable lipoprotein responses to an aerobic exercise training intervention. Subjects were participants in the STRRIDE I, a supervised exercise program in sedentary, overweight subjects randomized to 6 months of inactivity or 1 of 3 aerobic exercise programs. To characterize diet patterns observed during the study, we calculated a modified z-score that included intakes of total fat, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids, and fiber as compared with the 2006 American Heart Association diet recommendations. Linear models were used to evaluate relationships between diet patterns and exercise effects on lipoproteins/lipids. Independent of diet, exercise had beneficial effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particle number, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol size, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol size, and triglycerides (P diet pattern that closely adhered to American Heart Association recommendations was not related to changes in these or any other serum lipids or lipoproteins in any of the exercise groups. We found that even in sedentary individuals whose habitual diets vary in the extent of adherence to AHA dietary recommendations, a rigorous, supervised exercise intervention can achieve significant beneficial lipid effects. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The absorption of lactic acid is more synchronized with the absorption of glucose than with the absorption of short-chain fatty acids - A study with sows fed diets varying in dietary fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Jørgensen, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Sows were fed one of three diets varying in level and type of dietary fibre (DF). A low DF diet (LF; 17% DF) based on wheat and barley and two generic high DF diets (HF1, high in soluble DF and HF2, high in insoluble DF; approx. 41% DF) where the cereals were substituted with co-products (sugar....../d of the three experimental diets in a repeated 3 × 3 crossover design. Blood samples were collected the last day in each period at - 120, - 60, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and then at 60-min intervals up to 600 min after feeding. Although lactic acid (LA) is formed by microbial fermentation, the absorption...

  10. Dietary intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor and nutrient-dense food sources in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rosie; Katz, Tamarah; Liu, Victoria; Quintano, Justine; Brunner, Rebecca; Tong, Chai Wei; Collins, Clare E; Ooi, Chee Y

    2018-04-30

    Prescription of a high-energy, high-fat diet is a mainstay of nutrition management in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, families may be relying on energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods rather than nutrient-dense (ND) foods to meet dietary targets. We aimed to evaluate the relative contribution of EDNP and ND foods to the usual diets of children with CF and identify sociodemographic factors associated with higher EDNP intakes. This is a cross-sectional comparison of children with CF aged 2-18 years and age- and gender-matched controls. Dietary intake was assessed using the Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey (ACAES) food frequency questionnaire. Children with CF (n = 80: 37 males; mean age 9.3 years) consumed significantly more EDNP foods than controls (mean age 9.8 years) in terms of both total energy (median [IQR]: 1301 kcal/day (843-1860) vs. 686 kcal/day (480-1032); p energy intake (median [IQR]: 44% (34-51) vs. 31% (24-43); p energy requirements (median [IQR]: 158% (124-187) vs. 112% (90-137); p energy- and fat-dense CF diet is primarily achieved by overconsumption of EDNP foods, rather than ND sources. This dietary pattern may not be optimal for the future health of children with CF, who are now expected to survive well into adulthood. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Fiber intake, not dietary energy density, is associated with subsequent change in BMI z-score among sub-groups of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Results from short-term studies demonstrate that energy density influences energy intake, but in children and adolescents the long-term effects of energy density and obesity development are sparse. We examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary energy density, fiber intake...... to collect dietary energy intake. Overweight was defined as 1.05 SD, equivalent to the 85th percentile, of age- and sex-specific BMI z-score reference values. RESULTS: An inverse association between fiber intake and subsequent excess weight gain was observed among the normal weight boys. In overweight boys......, there was a direct association with excess weight gain. A high energy intake was associated with a higher weight gain among overweight than among normal-weight boys. No significant association between dietary energy density and subsequent excess weight change was seen. The prevalence of overweight increased from 27...

  12. Dietary intake and adequacy of energy and nutrients in Mexican older adults: results from two National Health and Nutrition Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies in older Mexican adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut 2006 and 2012. Materials and methods. Dietary information was obtained through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ from 526 adults 60 y and older participating in Ensanut 2012 and 3 326 in Ensanut 2006 in Mexico. Quantile and logistic regression models were used to obtain medians and marginal effects of each nutrient, ad­justing by confounders and survey design. Results. Dietary intake of energy and nutrients was similar in both surveys. Most common micronutrients at risk of dietary deficiency were, for vitamins: A, B-12, C, D and folate, and for minerals: calcium, iron and zinc, in both surveys. Excessive intake of sugar and saturated fat and low fiber intake were common. Conclusions. Diet in older Mexican adults is low in micro­nutrient essentials, and excessive in fat and sugar. Attention to the diet in this age group through targeted interventions is necessary to promote a healthy diet.

  13. Effect of synchronizing the rate of degradation of dietary energy and nitrogen release on growth performance in Brahman cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virote Pattarajinda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of synchronizing the rate of degradation of dietary energy and nitrogen release on growth performance in Brahman beef cattle. Fifteen Brahman cattle, 1.5 years old, with an average initial body weight of 184.8±11.1 kg were assigned to one of three treatments according to a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatments contained 3 levels of synchrony index (0.39, 0.56 and 0.74 that were derived from laboratory chemical composition analysis and degradation kinetics using nylon bag technique. Diets were fed at the rate of 2.5% BW by separate concentrate and roughage. Average daily gain increased linearly (P<0.05 with increase levels of synchrony index in the diets. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly (P<0.01. The digestibility of acid detergent fiber increased linearly (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acids concentration increased linearly (P<0.05 at 6 h post feeding. Higher concentration and fluctuation of ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were observed in animals that received lower synchrony index in their diets. Rumen microbial population tended to increase with diets having higher levels of synchrony index. The results indicated that synchronized rate of dietary energy and nitrogen degradation improved ruminal fermentation and digestibility, thus this increased the growth rate in Brahman cattle fed with ricestraw- based diets.

  14. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  15. The influence of the selection of macronutrients coupled with dietary energy density on the performance of broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Y Liu

    Full Text Available A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05 when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05. However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027 and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042 than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P < 0.0001 than low energy (197 g/bird or medium energy diets (663 g/bird whilst broiler chickens were offered diets with different energy densities but high crude protein (300 g/kg or digestible lysine (17.5 g/kg concentrations. Choice fed birds had lower FCR (1.217 versus 1.327 g/g, P < 0.0001 and higher carcass yield (88.1 versus 87.3%, P = 0.012 than sequentially fed birds. This suggests that the dietary balance between protein and energy is essential for optimal feed conversion efficiency. The intake path

  16. Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Subramanian, S.; Geurden, I.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Kaushik, S.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (kgDE). Furthermore, literature data on kgDE across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient

  17. Dietary protein content alters energy expenditure and composition of the mass gain in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Laura A; Robbins, Charles T; Shipley, Lisa A

    2003-01-01

    Many fruits contain high levels of available energy but very low levels of protein and other nutrients. The discrepancy between available energy and protein creates a physiological paradox for many animals consuming high-fruit diets, as they will be protein deficient if they eat to meet their minimum energy requirement. We fed young grizzly bears both high-energy pelleted and fruit diets containing from 1.6% to 15.4% protein to examine the role of diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis in dealing with high-energy-low-protein diets. Digestible energy intake at mass maintenance increased 2.1 times, and composition of the gain changed from primarily lean mass to entirely fat when the protein content of the diet decreased from 15.4% to 1.6%. Daily fat gain was up to three times higher in bears fed low-protein diets ad lib., compared with bears consuming the higher-protein diet and gaining mass at the same rate. Thus, bears eating fruit can either consume other foods to increase dietary protein content and reduce energy expenditure, intake, and potentially foraging time or overeat high-fruit diets and use diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis to deal with their skewed energy-to-protein ratio. These are not discrete options but a continuum that creates numerous solutions for balancing energy expenditure, intake, foraging time, fat accumulation, and ultimately fitness, depending on food availability, foraging efficiency, bear size, and body condition.

  18. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  19. Validation of the effects of small differences in dietary metabolizable energy and feed restriction in first-cycle laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, G R; Persia, M E

    2013-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate energy utilization of laying hens fed diets containing 2 ME concentrations, using response criteria including performance, BW, abdominal fat pad, and energy digestibility. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum and restriction fed), and 2 dietary ME levels [2,880 kcal/kg of ME (CON); and 2,790 kcal/kg of ME (LME)]. A total of 60 Hy-Line W36 first-cycle laying hens were fed experimental diets, resulting in 15 individually caged hens for each of the 4 treatments. Hens in the restriction-fed group were fed 90 g of feed per day. The CON diet was formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (1994) recommendations with 2,880 kcal/kg, whereas the LME diet was similar with the exception of a 90 kcal/kg reduction in ME. Hens were fed experimental diets for 12 wk from hen 28 to 39 wk of age. Hen day egg production, weekly feed intake, and every 2 wk, egg weights and egg mass were recorded, whereas hen BW was measured every 4 wk. Excreta samples were collected over the last 5 d of experiment to determine AMEn. Abdominal fat pads were measured individually for all hens at the end of experiment. There were no interactions between feeding regimens and dietary ME levels throughout the experiment. Feed restriction resulted in reductions (P ≤ 0.01) in hen day egg production, BW, and abdominal fat pad, indicating reduced nutrient availability to partition toward production, maintenance, and storage functions. The reduction in energy intake between CON and LME fed birds (90 kcal/kg) did not change the energy partitioned toward production or maintenance, but reduced (P = 0.03) the energy stored (reduced fat pad) of LME-fed hens. These results suggest that energy is used following the pattern of production and maintenance before storage requirements and that fat pad (energy storage) may be the most sensitive indicator of dietary energy status over short-term in Hy-Line W36 laying hens.

  20. Correlations of dietary energy and protein intakes with renal function impairment in chronic kidney disease patients with or without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-En; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun; Hung, Chi-Chih; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Liu, Shao-Chun; Wu, Tsai-Jiin; Huang, Meng-Chuan

    2017-05-01

    Dietary energy and protein intake can affect progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD complicated with diabetes is often associated with a decline in renal function. We investigated the relative importance of dietary energy intake (DEI) and dietary protein intake (DPI) to renal function indicators in nondiabetic and diabetic CKD patients. A total of 539 Stage 3-5 CKD patients [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)Disease equation] with or without diabetes were recruited from outpatient clinics of Nephrology and Nutrition in a medical center in Taiwan. Appropriateness of DEI and DPI was used to subcategorize CKD patients into four groups:(1) kidney diet (KD) A (KD-A), the most appropriate diet, was characterized by low DPI and adequate DEI; (2) KD-B, low DPI and inadequate DEI; (3) KD-C, excess DPI and adequate DEI; and (4) KD-D, the least appropriate diet, excess DPI and inadequate DEI. Inadequate DEI was defined as a ratio of actual intake/recommended intake less than 90% and adequate DEI as over 90%. Low DPI was defined as less than 110% of recommended intake and excessive when over 110%. Outcome measured was eGFR. In both groups of CKD patients, DEI was significantly lower (ppatients were KD-C and KD-D significantly correlated with reduced eGFR compared with KD-A at increments of -5.63 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (p = 0.029) and -7.72 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (p=0.015). In conclusion, inadequate energy and excessive protein intakes appear to correlate with poorer renal function in nondiabetic CKD patients. Patients with advanced CKD are in need of counseling by dietitians to improve adherence to diets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  1. The cut-off values of dietary energy intake for determining metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients: A clinical cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuyen Van; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Hsu, Yung-Ho; Peng, Sheng-Jeng; Kuo, Ko-Lin; Wang, Chi-Sin; Tseng, I-Hsin; Feng, Yi-Wei; Chang, Tai-Yue; Su, Chien-Tien

    2018-01-01

    Dietary energy intake strongly linked to dialysis outcomes. We aimed to explore the optimal cut-off point of energy intake (EI) for identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in hemodialysis patients. The cross-sectional data of 243 hemodialysis patients from multi-dialysis centers in Taiwan was used. The dietary intake was assessed by using the three-day dietary questionnaire, and a 24-hour dietary recall, clinical and biochemical data were also evaluated. The MetS was diagnosed by the Harmonized Metabolic Syndrome criteria. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was to depict the optimal cut-off value of EI for the diagnosis of MetS. The logistic regression was also used to explore the association between inadequate EI and MetS. The optimal cut-off points of EI for identifying the MetS were 26.7 kcal/kg/day for patients aged less than 60 years, or with non-diabetes, and 26.2 kcal/kg/day for patients aged 60 years and above, or with diabetes, respectively. The likelihood of the MetS increased with lower percentiles of energy intake in hemodialysis patients. In the multivariate analysis, the inadequate dietary energy intake strongly determined 3.24 folds of the MetS. The assessment of dietary EI can help healthcare providers detecting patients who are at risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:29538427

  2. Giant Taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza) Root Meal with or without Coconut Oil Slurry as Source of Dietary Energy for Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, S.S.; Oikali, C.; Rasch, I.M.; Taro, L.; Vatigava, M.; Amosa, F.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding Alocasia macrorrhiza root meal (AMRM) with or without added coconut oil slurry (COS) on egg production and egg qualities was investigated in a 20-week experiment. A control diet based on maize and 4 other diets containing 10 and 20% AMRM with or without COS were fed each to 4 replicates of 10 birds in a completely randomized design. There were no significant dietary effects on feed intake (FI) and the intake of lysine, methionine and metabolizable energy (ME). Birds fed ...

  3. Usefulness of dietary enrichment on energy and protein intake in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition discharged to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabal, Joan; Hervas, Sonia; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2014-02-01

    Malnutrition is a cause for concern among many admitted elderly patients, being common at hospital admission and discharge. The objective of this study was to assess if diet enrichment with small servings of energy and protein dense foods, improves energy and nutrient intake in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition discharged to home. This was a retrospective case series study in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition treated with diet enrichment. There was a data review of dietary and health records of elderly patients discharged to home. Forty-one patients, mean age of 83 ± 5 years, met the inclusion criteria; 13 patients had been lost after 4 weeks of treatment and a total of 24 patients after 12 weeks. Records contained food intake data assessed at baseline, and after 4 and 12 weeks of treatment. Mini Nutritional Assessment, anthropometric measurements, routine biochemical parameters and the Barthel Index were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared to baseline, patients significantly improved their energy and protein intake after 4 weeks of treatment, fulfilling the mean nutritional requirements. The improvement in energy and protein intake was still manifest at week 12. After 12 weeks of dietary enrichment, a significant weight gain was observed (4.1%, p = 0.011), as well. No significant changes were detected in functional status. Using small servings of energy and protein dense foods to enrich meals seems a feasible nutritional treatment to increase energy and protein intake and meet nutritional goals among elderly patients discharged to home. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  5. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, Sven O.

    2016-01-01

    /eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive...

  6. Dietary Uncoupling of Gut Microbiota and Energy Harvesting from Obesity and Glucose Tolerance in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. Dalby; Alexander W. Ross; Alan W. Walker; Peter J. Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Summary Evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota composition may be involved in the development of obesity. Studies using mice made obese with refined high-fat diets have supported this; however, these have commonly used chow as a control diet, introducing confounding factors from differences in dietary composition that have a key role in shaping microbiota composition. We compared the effects of feeding a refined high-fat diet with those of feeding either a refined low-fat diet or a cho...

  7. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  8. The influence of the selection of macronutrients coupled with dietary energy density on the performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sonia Y; Chrystal, Peter V; Cowieson, Aaron J; Truong, Ha H; Moss, Amy F; Selle, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05) when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05). However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027) and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042) than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P macronutrients from 10-31 days in choice and sequential feeding groups were plotted and compared with the null path if broiler chickens selected equal amounts of the three diets in the combination. Regardless of feeding regimen, the intake paths of starch and protein are very close to the null path; however, lipid and protein intake paths in choice fed birds are father from the null path than sequentially fed birds.

  9. A medium-term intervention study on the impact of high- and low-fat snacks varying in sweetness and fat content: large shifts in daily fat intake but good compensation for daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, C L; Delargy, H J; Smith, F C; Hamilton, V; Blundell, J E

    1998-08-01

    Thirty-six normal-weight, habitual snackers (eighteen males, eighteen females) completed a medium-term intervention study designed to examine the tendency of four different types of snacks, varying in nutrient (low- (LF) or high-fat (HF) and sensory properties (sweet (SW) or non-sweet (NSW)), to influence the control of appetite and to adjust daily energy intake. Subjects were exposed to each snack category for a 3-week period and were asked to consume a minimum number of snacks each day so that at least 25% of their daily energy intake would be derived from the test snacks. Energy and macronutrient intakes from the test snacks were calculated every day and also from other eating episodes (using 3 d food diary records) during the third week of snack exposure. Subjects consumed more energy/d from the SW snacks than from the NSW snacks, with most energy being consumed from the HF/SW snacks (3213 kJ) and least energy from the LF/NSW snacks (1628 kJ). This differential snack intake remained stable across the whole snack exposure period. Total daily energy intake did not differ significantly during exposure to any of the four snack types. Furthermore, the encouragement to eat freely from the test snacks did not lead to daily overconsumption of energy when compared with pre-study intakes. Hence, the level of snack consumption was largely compensated for by the energy consumed from the rest of the eating pattern. Although daily energy intake during exposure to the HF snacks was an average of 364 kJ higher (NS) than that during exposure to the LF snacks, the clearest and most significant effect of snack consumption was on daily macronutrient intake. Appreciable consumption of the HF snacks raised the percentage of total daily energy intake consumed as fat from 37 to 41% (P snacks reduced daily fat intake to 33.5% (LF/SW, P snacks, when compared with HF snacks, is an effective strategy to reduce fat intake so that it approaches the recommendations of dietary guidelines

  10. RESEARCH INTO THE USE OF DIETARY NITROGEN BY GROWING AND FATTENING STEERS IN RELATION TO DIET FORMULATION AND ENERGY CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VOICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were done on the use of the dietary nitrogen by fattening steers between 300-450 kg using the method of in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Alfalfa and corn-based diets were used, in different forms of preservation and with different ratio of the bulk forage to the concentrate feeds; diet digestibility expressed as organic matter and protein varied between 72-76% and between 66- 75% respectively; the best performance produced by the corn silage diets were observed in diet 2 (with ammonia, while the best results produced by the alfalfa diets was noticed in diet 5 (haylage; nitrogen balance showed the highest values of the retained nitrogen in the alfalfa half-hay diet, the alfalfa hay diet having lower values.

  11. Effect of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing of insufficient nutrients limits the potential growth of pig, while feeding of excessive nutrients increases the economic loss and causes environment pollution. For these reasons, phase feeding had been introduced in swine farm for improving animal production. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 128 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc, averaging 26.62 ± 3.07 kg body weight, were assigned in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 4 pigs per pen. The first factor was two dietary energy level (3,265 kcal of ME/kg or 3,365 kcal of ME/kg, and the second factor was four different levels of dietary protein by phase feeding (1growing(G-2finishing(F phases, 2G-2F phases, 2G-3F phases and 2G-3F phases with low CP requirement. Results In feeding trial, there was no significant difference in growth performance. The BUN concentration was decreased as dietary protein level decreased in 6 week and blood creatinine was increased in 13 week when pigs were fed diets with different dietary energy level. The digestibility of crude fat was improved as dietary energy levels increased and excretion of urinary nitrogen was reduced when low protein diet was provided. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscle were not affected by dietary treatments. In backfat thickness (P2 at 13 week, pigs fed high energy diet had thicker backfat thickness (P = 0.06 and pigs fed low protein diet showed the trend of backfat thinness reduction (P = 0.09. In addition, water holding capacity was decreased (P = 0.01 and cooking loss was increased (P = 0.07 as dietary protein level reduced. When pigs were fed high energy diet with low subdivision of phase feeding, days to 120 kg market weight was reached earlier compared to

  12. the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on the composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zannel

    Keywords: Breeding ostriches, nutrition, energy, protein, amino acids, egg ... Yolk is an important nutritional component of the avian egg because .... 3 (energy) x 3 (protein) factorial design with energy and protein levels featuring as main factors. ... No significant interactions were observed between energy and protein levels.

  13. A Healthy Dietary Pattern at Midlife, Combined with a Regulated Energy Intake, Is Related to Increased Odds for Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen E; Lassale, Camille; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term impact of overall dietary patterns (DPs) on healthy aging (HA), and current findings are inconsistent. Our study's objective was to investigate the association between empirically derived DPs in midlife and HA after 13 y of follow-up. Baseline dietary data from repeated 24-h dietary records (on average, 10 records per participant) of a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX (SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants) study allowed extraction of 2 DPs with the use of principal components analysis on 37 food groups. HA was assessed in 2007-2009 among 2796 participants of the SU.VI.MAX study aged 45-60 y at baseline (1994-1995), who were initially free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health, and no function-limiting pain. The association between DPs (in tertiles) and HA was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, and a potential interaction with energy intake was investigated. A "Western" and a "healthy" DP were identified. After adjustment for a large number of potential confounders, there was no significant association between the Western DP and HA. Moreover, the healthy pattern was not associated with HA among subjects with high (i.e., greater than or equal to the median) energy intake. Among subjects with low (i.e., less than the median) energy intake, on the other hand, higher scores on the healthy DP were related to higher odds of HA (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00; P-trend = 0.01). Adherence to a healthy diet in midlife that provides micronutrients, fiber, and antioxidants while regulating energy intake may help to promote HA. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Effects of dietary fat on appetite and energy intake in health and obesity--oral and gastrointestinal sensory contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2011-09-26

    While epidemiological studies have revealed a strong positive relationship between the intake of dietary fat with total energy intake and body weight, laboratory-based studies investigating physiological effects of fat have demonstrated that the direct exposure of receptors in the oral cavity and small intestine to fat, specifically fatty acids (FAs), induces potent effects on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and gut peptide secretion that favor the suppression of appetite and energy intake. Recent studies in humans have demonstrated an association between a decreased ability to detect the presence of FAs in the oral cavity with increased energy intake and body mass index suggesting that impairment of oral fat sensing mechanisms may contribute to overeating and obesity. Furthermore, while sensing of the presence of FAs in the small intestine results in the modulation of GI motility, stimulation of GI hormone release, including cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY), and suppression of subsequent energy intake, recent data indicate that these effects of fat are attenuated in individuals with reduced oral sensitivity to fat, and following consumption of a high-fat diet. This review will focus on emerging knowledge about the physiological mechanisms that sense the presence of fat in both the oral cavity and the small intestine, and environmental factors, such as high-fat diet exposure and energy restriction, that may modulate sensitivity to nutrients, and thereby contribute to the regulation of appetite and body weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Energy-Stabilized Varied-Line-Space-Monochromator Undulator Beam Line for PEEM Illumination and Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, Tony; McKinney, Wayne; Domning, Ed; Doran, Andrew; Padmore, Howard

    2006-01-01

    A new undulator beam line has been built and commissioned at the Advanced Light Source for illumination of the PEEM3 microscope. The beam line delivers high flux beams over an energy range from C1s through the transition metals to include the M edges of the magnetic rare earth elements. We present details of the optical design, and data on the performance of the zero-order tracking of the photon energy

  16. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to ev...

  17. Giant Taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza Root Meal with or without Coconut Oil Slurry as Source of Dietary Energy for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarra, S.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of feeding Alocasia macrorrhiza root meal (AMRM with or without added coconut oil slurry (COS on egg production and egg qualities was investigated in a 20-week experiment. A control diet based on maize and 4 other diets containing 10 and 20% AMRM with or without COS were fed each to 4 replicates of 10 birds in a completely randomized design. There were no significant dietary effects on feed intake (FI and the intake of lysine, methionine and metabolizable energy (ME. Birds fed the 20% AMRM_COS added significantly less weight during the experimental period compared to the control fed group. Body weight change (BWC did not differ among the AMRM fed birds. Per cent hen-day and feed conversion ratio were depressed on 20% AMRM and egg weight on 10% AMRM but these depressing effects were overcome by COS addition. Egg shape index, Haugh unit and per cent shell were not affected by the diet. It is concluded that AMRM can replace 10% dietary maize without adverse effect on laying performance but 20% replacement negatively impacts on hen-day and egg weight. These adverse effects are however, overcome by treating AMRM with COS at the ratio of 9: 1. More research into higher levels of COS treated AMRM in the diet is warranted.

  18. The influence of the selection of macronutrients coupled with dietary energy density on the performance of broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystal, Peter V.; Cowieson, Aaron J.; Truong, Ha H.; Moss, Amy F.; Selle, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05) when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05). However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027) and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042) than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P broiler chickens were offered diets with different energy densities but high crude protein (300 g/kg) or digestible lysine (17.5 g/kg) concentrations. Choice fed birds had lower FCR (1.217 versus 1.327 g/g, P broiler chickens selected equal amounts of the three diets in the combination. Regardless of feeding regimen, the intake paths of starch and protein are very close to the null path; however, lipid and protein intake paths in choice fed birds are father from the null path than sequentially fed birds. PMID:29053729

  19. Correlations of dietary energy and protein intakes with renal function impairment in chronic kidney disease patients with or without diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-En Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy and protein intake can affect progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. CKD complicated with diabetes is often associated with a decline in renal function. We investigated the relative importance of dietary energy intake (DEI and dietary protein intake (DPI to renal function indicators in nondiabetic and diabetic CKD patients. A total of 539 Stage 3–5 CKD patients [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation] with or without diabetes were recruited from outpatient clinics of Nephrology and Nutrition in a medical center in Taiwan. Appropriateness of DEI and DPI was used to subcategorize CKD patients into four groups:(1 kidney diet (KD A (KD-A, the most appropriate diet, was characterized by low DPI and adequate DEI; (2 KD-B, low DPI and inadequate DEI; (3 KD-C, excess DPI and adequate DEI; and (4 KD-D, the least appropriate diet, excess DPI and inadequate DEI. Inadequate DEI was defined as a ratio of actual intake/recommended intake less than 90% and adequate DEI as over 90%. Low DPI was defined as less than 110% of recommended intake and excessive when over 110%. Outcome measured was eGFR. In both groups of CKD patients, DEI was significantly lower (p<0.001 and DPI higher (p=0.002 than recommended levels. However, only in the nondiabetic CKD patients were KD-C and KD-D significantly correlated with reduced eGFR compared with KD-A at increments of −5.63 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.029 and −7.72 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p=0.015. In conclusion, inadequate energy and excessive protein intakes appear to correlate with poorer renal function in nondiabetic CKD patients. Patients with advanced CKD are in need of counseling by dietitians to improve adherence to diets.

  20. Effects of increasing dietary concentrations of specific structured triacylglycerides on performance and nitrogen and energy metabolism in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, C.T.; Jørgensen, Henning; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    treatments as two series of 40 chicks: a basal diet with graded levels of STG of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/kg diet at the expense of rapeseed oil were fed to the chickens in groups of four. At 12d of age the chickens were placed pair-wise in metabolism cages. The grower period (d 13-36) was divided into four...... effect on digestibility of STG. Weight of small intestine and colon decreased with increasing inclusion of STG. 4. Utilisation of dietary protein relative to intake increased while that of retained fat tended to decrease resulting in a decreased utilisation of metabolisable energy (RE/ME) in birds...

  1. Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Micro-trigeneration System upon Varying the Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sibilio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of electric vehicles and electric heat pumps would result in radically different household electrical demand characteristics, while also possibly posing a threat to the stability of the electrical grid. In this paper, a micro-trigeneration system (composed of a 6.0 kWel cogeneration device feeding a 4.5 kWcool electric air-cooled vapor compression water chiller serving an Italian residential multi-family house was investigated by using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. The charging of an electric vehicle was considered by analyzing a set of seven electric vehicle charging profiles representing different scenarios. The simulations were performed in order to evaluate the capability of micro-cogeneration technology in: alleviating the impact on the electric infrastructure (a; saving primary energy (b; reducing the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (c and determining the operating costs in comparison to a conventional supply system based on separate energy production (d.

  2. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P energy sources modified the partition of energy between liver, adipose tissue, and muscle in a way that was partly dependent of the genetics for feed efficiency, and changed the activity levels of biochemical pathways involved in lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  3. Activation in brain energy regulation and reward centers by food cues varies with choice of visual stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, E A; Kleinhans, N M; Goldberg, J; Buchwald, D; Schwartz, M W; Maravilla, K

    2009-06-01

    To develop a non-invasive method of studying brain mechanisms involved in energy homeostasis and appetite regulation in humans by using visual food cues that are relevant to individuals attempting weight loss. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation in regions of interest between groups of food photographs. Ten healthy, non-obese women who were not dieting for weight loss. Independent raters viewed food photographs and evaluated whether the foods depicted should be eaten by individuals attempting a calorically-restricted diet. Based on their responses, we categorized photographs into 'non-fattening' and 'fattening' food groups, the latter characterized by high-caloric content and usually also high-fat or high-sugar content. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was measured by fMRI while participants viewed photographs of 'fattening' food, 'non-fattening' food, and non-food objects. Viewing photographs of fattening food compared with non-food objects resulted in significantly greater activation in the brainstem; hypothalamus; left amygdala; left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; left orbitofrontal cortex; right insular cortex; bilateral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen; bilateral thalamus; and occipital lobe. By comparison, only the occipital region had greater activation by non-fattening food than by object photographs. Combining responses to all food types resulted in attenuation of activation in the brainstem, hypothalamus, and striatum. These findings suggest that, in non-obese women, neural circuits engaged in energy homeostasis and reward processing are selectively attuned to representations of high-calorie foods that are perceived as fattening. Studies to investigate hormonal action or manipulation of energy balance may benefit from fMRI protocols that contrast energy-rich food stimuli with non-food or low-calorie food stimuli.

  4. Integrated energy markets and varying degrees of liberalisation: price links, bundled sales and CHP production exemplified by Northern European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, H.K.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets has during the last 20 years been gradually introduced in many countries. The liberalisation has led to concerns regarding the markets' state of competition and fears that market power existence can result in less efficiency gains than what is expected from liberalisation. Concerns have also been raised as to whether specific consumer groups will be affected by limited competition in markets. Much of the concern has been concentrated on the electricity markets, but the development of energy sectors with integration of activities within natural gas, electricity and the oil sector creates the need to examine market power aspects across these markets. This paper examines the concentration trends in the Northern European markets for electricity and natural gas, combined with regional district heating aspects, especially with respect to the situation in Denmark. The situation with natural gas companies supplying to both small-scale CHP and to retail heat customers is discussed, for instance, which changes of regulatory regime for domestic heating customers should be considered when the natural gas market is being liberalised? The interlinked nature of the energy markets is described and examples of impacts from one market with limited competition to other markets with seemingly well-functioning competition are given. The specific case of large CHP production facilities with output on the regulated district heating market and the competitive Nordic electricity market is examined. How much of the fluctuations in price experienced in electricity markets should be reflected in the price of heating supplies? To which degree do the heating customers have to bear the burden of low-electricity market prices? Regulation of liberalised markets is discussed focusing on the interaction between one regulated market and the related energy markets that are liberalised. Existing regulation on the markets are compared to a situation where liberalisation

  5. Integrated energy markets and varying degrees of liberalisation: Price links, bundled sales and CHP production exemplified by Northern European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Fristrup, Peter; Munksgaard, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets has during the last 20 years been gradually introduced in many countries. The liberalisation has led to concerns regarding the markets' state of competition and fears that market power existence can result in less efficiency gains than what is expected from liberalisation. Concerns have also been raised as to whether specific consumer groups will be affected by limited competition in markets. Much of the concern has been concentrated on the electricity markets, but the development of energy sectors with integration of activities within natural gas, electricity and the oil sector creates the need to examine market power aspects across these markets. This paper examines the concentration trends in the Northern European markets for electricity and natural gas, combined with regional district heating aspects, especially with respect to the situation in Denmark. The situation with natural gas companies supplying to both small-scale CHP and to retail heat customers is discussed, for instance, which changes of regulatory regime for domestic heating customers should be considered when the natural gas market is being liberalised? The interlinked nature of the energy markets is described and examples of impacts from one market with limited competition to other markets with seemingly well-functioning competition are given. The specific case of large CHP production facilities with output on the regulated district heating market and the competitive Nordic electricity market is examined. How much of the fluctuations in price experienced in electricity markets should be reflected in the price of heating supplies? To which degree do the heating customers have to bear the burden of low-electricity market prices? Regulation of liberalised markets is discussed focusing on the interaction between one regulated market and the related energy markets that are liberalised. Existing regulation on the markets are compared to a situation where liberalisation

  6. Effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z G; Rasolofomanana, T J; Tang, J; Jiang, Y; Xie, M; Yang, P L; Hou, S S

    2017-09-01

    A 2 × 6 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME) levels (2,750 and 3,050 Kcal/kg) and 6 supplemental lysine (Lys) levels (0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50%), was conducted to study the effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. A total of 576 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks was randomly allotted to 12 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured, and then 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of abdominal fat, breast meat, and leg meat. As a result, birds that were fed basal diets with no Lys supplementation showed growth depression, and significant positive effects of dietary Lys supplementation on body weight gain (P 0.05), but feed intake (P = 0.001) and feed/gain (P = 0.009) decreased significantly between the groups. Dietary Lys levels influenced the yields of breast (P ducks significantly (P = 0.004). According to the broken-line regression analysis, Lys requirements of Pekin ducks for weight gain at 2,750 and 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg were 0.94 and 0.98%, respectively. It suggested that Lys requirement was higher at 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg than at 2,750 Kcal of AME/kg. Dietary energy content determined feed intake of the ducks, and high-energy diets will require a higher amino acid concentration to compensate for a lower feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Dietary assessment of British police force employees: a description of diet record coding procedures and cross-sectional evaluation of dietary energy intake reporting (The Airwave Health Monitoring Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rachel; Eriksen, Rebeca; Lamb, Kathryn; McMeel, Yvonne; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Spear, Jeanette; Aresu, Maria; Chan, Queenie; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary

    2017-04-04

    Dietary intake is a key aspect of occupational health. To capture the characteristics of dietary behaviour that is affected by occupational environment that may affect disease risk, a collection of prospective multiday dietary records is required. The aims of this paper are to: (1) collect multiday dietary data in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, (2) describe the dietary coding procedures applied and (3) investigate the plausibility of dietary reporting in this occupational cohort. A dietary coding protocol for this large-scale study was developed to minimise coding error rate. Participants (n 4412) who completed 7-day food records were included for cross-sectional analyses. Energy intake (EI) misreporting was estimated using the Goldberg method. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to determine participant characteristics associated with EI misreporting. British police force employees enrolled (2007-2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. The mean code error rate per food diary was 3.7% (SD 3.2%). The strongest predictors of EI under-reporting were body mass index (BMI) and physical activity. Compared with participants with BMI30 kg/m 2 had increased odds of being classified as under-reporting EI (men OR 5.20 95% CI 3.92 to 6.89; women OR 2.66 95% CI 1.85 to 3.83). Men and women in the highest physical activity category compared with the lowest were also more likely to be classified as under-reporting (men OR 3.33 95% CI 2.46 to 4.50; women OR 4.34 95% CI 2.91 to 6.55). A reproducible dietary record coding procedure has been developed to minimise coding error in complex 7-day diet diaries. The prevalence of EI under-reporting is comparable with existing national UK cohorts and, in agreement with previous studies, classification of under-reporting was biased towards specific subgroups of participants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Intake of energy is best predicted by overeating tendency and consumption of fat is best predicted by dietary restraint: a 4-year follow-up of patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Laar, F.A. van de

    2008-01-01

    The present study addressed the possible mediating effects of overeating tendencies in (a) the relationship of dietary restraint with intake of energy and (b) the relationships of changes in dietary restraint and changes in intake of energy and (saturated) fat across a 4-year period. Participants

  9. Intake of energy is best predicted by overeating tendency and consumption of fat is best predicted by dietary restraint. A four-year follow up of patients with newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Laar, F.A. van de

    2008-01-01

    The present study addressed the possible mediating effects of overeating tendencies in (a) the relationship of dietary restraint with intake of energy and (b) the relationships of changes in dietary restraint and changes in intake of energy and (saturated) fat across a 4-year period. Participants

  10. Effects of feeding diets varying in energy and nutrient density to Hy-Line W-36 laying hens on production performance and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePersio, S; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Rochell, S J; O'Sullivan, N; Bregendahl, K; Arango, J; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding 5 different energy and nutrient dense diets to Hy-Line W-36 hens on long-term performance and economics. A total of 480 19 wk old Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were weighed and randomly allocated to 6 replicate groups of 16 hens each (2 adjacent cages containing 8 hens per cage, 60.9×58.4 cm) per dietary treatment in a randomized complete block design. The hens were fed 5 treatment diets formulated to contain 85, 90, 95, 100, and 105% of the energy and nutrient recommendations stated in the 2009 Hy-Line Variety W-36 Commercial Management Guide. Production performance was measured for 52 wk from 19 to 70 wk age. Over the course of the trial, a significant increasing linear response to increasing energy and nutrient density was seen for hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, and body weight (BW). Feed intake showed no significant linear level response to increasing energy and nutrient density except during the early production cycle. No consistent responses were noted for egg quality, percent yolk, and percent egg solids throughout the study. Significant linear responses due to energy and nutrient density were seen for egg income, feed cost, and income minus feed cost. In general, as energy and nutrient density increased, egg income and feed cost per hen increased, but income minus feed cost decreased. Overall, these results indicate that feeding Hy-Line W-36 hens increasing energy and nutrient-dense diets will increase egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, BW, egg income, and feed cost, but decrease egg income minus feed cost. However, these benefits do not take effect in early production and seem to be most effective in later stages of the production cycle, perhaps "priming" the birds for better egg-production persistency with age. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Udder health of dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels after a short or no dry period without use of dry cow antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Reports on the effects of length of dry period (DP) on udder health of cows that were not treated with dry cow antibiotics are scarce. Additionally, the effects of a reduced dietary energy level for cows with a 0-d DP on udder health have not yet been studied. The aims of this study were (1) to

  12. Evaluation of calculated energy and macronutrient contents of diets provided in controlled dietary intervention trials by chemical analysis of duplicate portions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, E.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Trijsburg, L.E.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Dutch food composition databases (Dutch-FCDB) are accurate enough to plan experimental diets with specified amounts of energy and macronutrients. From 2003 to 2012, 10 controlled dietary intervention trials lasting from 2 to 13 weeks were

  13. Dietary Uncoupling of Gut Microbiota and Energy Harvesting from Obesity and Glucose Tolerance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Matthew J; Ross, Alexander W; Walker, Alan W; Morgan, Peter J

    2017-11-07

    Evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota composition may be involved in the development of obesity. Studies using mice made obese with refined high-fat diets have supported this; however, these have commonly used chow as a control diet, introducing confounding factors from differences in dietary composition that have a key role in shaping microbiota composition. We compared the effects of feeding a refined high-fat diet with those of feeding either a refined low-fat diet or a chow diet on gut microbiota composition and host physiology. Feeding both refined low- or high-fat diets resulted in large alterations in the gut microbiota composition, intestinal fermentation, and gut morphology, compared to a chow diet. However, body weight, body fat, and glucose intolerance only increased in mice fed the refined high-fat diet. The choice of control diet can dissociate broad changes in microbiota composition from obesity, raising questions about the previously proposed relationship between gut microbiota and obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of dietary plane of energy during the dry period on lipoprotein parameters in the transition period in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; Behling-Kelly, E

    2016-02-01

    The high energy demands of dairy cows during the transition period from late gestation into early lactation can place them at an increased risk for the development of metabolic and infectious diseases. Modification of the dry period diet has been investigated as a preventive means to minimize the detrimental aspects of metabolic shifts during the transition period. Studies investigating the impact of dry period diet on lipid parameters during the transition period have largely focused on markers of lipolysis and ketogenesis. Total cholesterol declines during the periparturient period and increases in early lactation. The impact total energy in the dry period diet has on the ability of the cow to maintain total serum cholesterol, as well as its natural high-density lipoprotein-rich status, during this metabolically challenging window is not clear. The impact of lipoproteins on inflammation and immune function may have a clinical impact on the cow's ability to ward off production-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that the provision of adequate, but not excessive, total metabolizable energy, would better allow the cow to maintain total cholesterol and a higher relative proportion of HDL throughout the transition period. Cows were allocated to one of three dry period dietary treatment groups following a randomized block design. Total serum triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions were measured on a weekly basis from approximately 7 weeks pre-calving to 6 weeks post-calving. The cows on the high energy diet maintained total serum cholesterol as compared to the cows provided a lower energy diet, but there was no significant increase in the LDL fraction of lipoproteins between diet treatment groups. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The Effect of Varying Ultrafast Pulse Laser Energies on the Electrical Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Khaled H.; Irannejad, Mehrdad; Wales, Benjamin; Sanderson, Joseph; Musselman, Kevin P.; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    Laser treatment of graphene oxide solution among other techniques is a well-established technique for producing reduced graphene sheets. However, production of high-quality ultra-low sheet resistance reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets in solution has been a challenge due to their high degree of randomness, defect-rich medium, and lack of controlability. Recent studies lack an in-depth analytic comparison of laser treatment parameters that yield the highest quality rGO sheets with a low defect ratio. Hence, in this study, we implement a comprehensive comparison of laser treatment parameters and their effect on the yielded rGO sheets from an electronic and physical standpoint. Ultra-low sheet resistance graphene oxide sheets were fabricated using ultrafast laser irradiation with different laser pulse energies in the range of 0.25-2 mJ. Laser treatment for 10 min using a pulse energy of 1 mJ resulted in an increase in the defect spacing, accompanied by a large red shift in the optical absorption of the C=C bond, indicating significant restoration of the s p 2 carbon bonds. These enhancements resulted in a significant reduction in the electrical resistance of the rGO flakes (up to 2 orders of magnitude), raising the electron mobility of the films produced using the irradiated graphene oxide a step closer to that of pristine graphene films. From this study, we can also deduce which exposure regimes result in the fabrication of quantum dots and continuous defect-free films.

  16. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  17. Dietary change, energy balance and body weight regulation among migrating students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, S L; Henry, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine how subjects modulate their food intake and energy balance when they migrate from a low energy density food intake pattern to one of high energy density. It was hypothesised that an increase in the energy density of food consumed would result in increased body weight of the migrating subjects unless food intake and energy balance could be modulated. Food selection, food intake, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and anthropometric measurements were made on 53 female and 56 male newly arrived overseas students. All subjects were from Malaysia, but the data was collected at Oxford Brookes University where the subjects were studying. Food intake using 3-day food diaries and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). BMR and anthropometric measurements including body weight were measured on arrival in the UK and after 3 and 6 months' stay. Student's t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the data. A significant difference (P foods consumed in Malaysia and after 3 and 6 months in the UK. There was also a significant decrease (P food selection due mainly to the lack of availability of certain foods in UK supermarkets. No significant differences were found in the BMR and anthropometric measurements made at the start of the study and later assessments. It appears that Malaysian students are able to remain in energy balance and are weight stable at least during the first 6 months of residence in the UK, despite the wider choice of energy dense food available. This suggests that at least in the short term, subjects are able to modulate their food intake in response to changes in the energy densities and free choice of food.

  18. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Rok; Schriefer, JohnHenry M; Gunnels, Trint A; Harvey, Innocence C; Bloomer, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Background Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist—possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Methods Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, ca...

  19. Brain response to images of food varying in energy density is associated with body composition in 7- to 10-year-old children: Results of an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; English, Laural K; Lasschuijt, Marlou; Wilson, Stephen J; Savage, Jennifer S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2016-08-01

    Energy balance is regulated by a multifaceted system of physiological signals that influence energy intake and expenditure. Therefore, variability in the brain's response to food may be partially explained by differences in levels of metabolically active tissues throughout the body, including fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that children's body composition would be related to their brain response to food images varying in energy density (ED), a measure of energy content per weight of food. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain response to High (>1.5kcal/g) and Low (vs. Low ED) in a priori defined brain regions of interest previously implicated in energy homeostasis and reward processing. Pearson's correlations were then calculated between activation in these regions for various contrasts (High ED-Low ED, High ED-Control, Low ED-Control) and child body composition (FFM index, FM index, % body fat). Relative to Low ED foods, High ED foods elicited greater BOLD activation in the left thalamus. In the right substantia nigra, BOLD activation for the contrast of High ED-Low ED foods was positively associated with child FFM. There were no significant results for the High ED-Control or Low ED-Control contrasts. Our findings support literature on FFM as an appetitive driver, such that greater amounts of lean mass were associated with greater activation for High ED foods in an area of the brain associated with dopamine signaling and reward (substantia nigra). These results confirm our hypothesis that brain response to foods varying in energy content is related to measures of child body composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, S B; Schoeller, D A; Kushner, R F; Neil, K M; Herling-Iaffaldano, K

    1995-03-01

    To test the benefits of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate during reduced-energy feeding, 23 obese women (44 +/- 4% fat) were randomly assigned to either aerobic exercise (Ex) or no exercise (Nx), and to a low-fat (LF) or low-carbohydrate (LC) reducing diet (5.00 +/- 0.56 MJ/d) for 12 wk. Changes in body composition, postabsorptive resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of a meal (TEM), and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) were measured by respiratory gas exchange and doubly labeled water. Significant effects of Ex included a greater loss of fat mass (Ex: -8.8 +/- 2.1 vs Nx: -6.1 +/- 2.3 kg, P = 0.008) and maintenance of TDEE (Ex: +0.07 +/- 1.23 vs Nx: -1.46 +/- 1.04 MJ/d, P = 0.004), due to a difference in physical activity (Ex: +0.75 +/- 1.06 vs Nx: -0.61 +/- 1.03 MJ/d, P = 0.006), which was not attributable solely to the Ex sessions. RMR in both groups decreased comparably (-0.54 MJ/d), and TEM (% of meal) did not change. Diet composition did not significantly influence body composition or energy expenditure changes, but a greater weight loss was observed after the LC than after the LF (-10.6 +/- 2.0 vs -8.1 +/- 3.0 kg, P = 0.037) diet. The addition of aerobic exercise to a low-energy diet was beneficial in the treatment of moderate obesity because of its favorable effects on body composition, physical activity, and TDEE.

  1. Dietary energy density in relation to subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaidong Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental studies show that a reduction in dietary energy density (ED is associated with reduced energy intake and body weight. However, few observational studies have investigated the role of ED on long-term weight and waist circumference change. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This population-based prospective cohort study included 89,432 participants from five European countries with mean age 53 years (range: 20-78 years at baseline and were followed for an average of 6.5 years (range: 1.9-12.5 years. Participants were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes at baseline. ED was calculated as the energy intake (kcal from foods divided by the weight (g of foods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations of ED with annual weight and waist circumference change. Mean ED was 1.7 kcal/g and differed across study centers. After adjusting for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and energy from beverages, ED was not associated with weight change, but significantly associated with waist circumference change overall. For 1 kcal/g ED, the annual weight change was -42 g/year [95% confidence interval (CI: -112, 28] and annual waist circumference change was 0.09 cm/year [95% CI: 0.01, 0.18]. In participants with baseline BMI<25 kg/m(2, 1 kcal/g ED was associated with a waist circumference change of 0.17 cm/year [95% CI: 0.09, 0.25]. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that lower ED diets do not prevent weight gain but have a weak yet potentially beneficial effect on the prevention of abdominal obesity as measured by waist circumference.

  2. Dietary fat sources affect feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different beef cattle genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpila, C; Sommart, K; Mitsumori, M

    2018-03-20

    The mitigation of enteric methane emission in beef cattle production is important for reducing feed energy loss and increasing environmental sustainability. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different oilseeds included in fermented total mixed rations (whole soyabean seed (SBS, control), whole kapok seed (KPS) and cracked oil palm fruit (OPF)) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different cattle genotypes (Charolais crossbred v. Japanese Black crossbred). Three Charolais crossbred and three Japanese Black crossbred bulls were studied in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experimental design; genotypes were analysed in separate squares including three periods of 21 days each and three dietary oilseed treatments fed ad libitum. The cattle were placed in a metabolic cage equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system for evaluating digestibility and energy balance. As compared with Charolais crossbred individuals, Japanese Black crossbred bulls showed consistently lower dry matter intake (15.5%, P0.05) or diet (P>0.05) under the experimental conditions and ranged from 5.8% to 6.0% of gross energy intake. This value is lower than that reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (6.5%) for cattle fed with low-quality crop residues or by-products. Thus, our results imply that the Japanese Black crossbred cattle consume less feed and emits less enteric methane than the Charolais crossbred does, mainly owing to its lower ME requirement for maintenance. The OPF diet could be used to replace SBS for high beef production, although further studies are required to evaluate their application across a wide range of beef production systems.

  3. Effect of dietary energy source on energy balance, production, metabolic disorders and reproduction in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    The pathway for oxidation of energy involves a balanced oxidation of C2 and C3 compounds. During early lactation in dairy cattle this C2/C3 ratio is out of balance, due to a high availability of lipogenic (C2) products and a low availability of glycogenic (C3) products relative of the C2 and C3

  4. Heat stress and diet utilization in male turkeys : the role of dietary energy and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: turkeys, heat stress, energy, amino acids.

    The commercial turkey industry has changed during the last two or three decades from one that marketed predominantly fresh whole dressed turkeys to one that now markets a large variety of mostly further processed

  5. Dietary Energy Source in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation: Metabolites and Metabolic Hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Graat, E.A.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Jorritsma, R.; Decuypere, M.P.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    Negative energy balance-related metabolic disorders suggest that the balance between available lipogenic and glucogenic nutrients is important. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of a glucogenic or a lipogenic diet on liver triacylglycerides (TAG), metabolites, and metabolic

  6. Food characteristics and dietary intake : the role taste, eating rate and energy density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viskaal - van Dongen, M.

    2012-01-01

    The increases in obesity prevalence coincide with changes in our food environment, such as an increased consumption of processed, energy dense foods. This suggests that the foods we consume are at least partly responsible for the obesity epidemic. The aim of this thesis is therefore to

  7. Using carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and retained energy to calculate dietary ME intake by beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight cross-bred beef steers (initial BW = 241 ± 4.10 kg) were used in a 77-d feeding experiment to determine if ME intake can be determined from carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and energy retention estimates. Steers were housed in a pen equipped with individual feed bunks and animal access w...

  8. Dietary utilisation of protein and energy from fresh and ensiled coffee pulp by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Moreau

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and energy utilisation of diets containing fresh and ensiled coffee pulp were studied on 3.2 ± 0.2 g Nile tilapia for 28 days. Diets formulation and feeding were designed on the basis of daily dietary protein and energy allowance. A control diet A (100 % protein and 100 % energy allowance corresponding to 15 g CP kg-1 day-1 and 750 kJ kg-1 day-1, a low protein control diet B (80 % protein and 100 % energy allowance, two diets C and E (100 % protein and 100 % energy allowance where 20 % of protein were supplied by coffee pulp, and two diets D and F with the same amount of coffee pulp than in C and E and supplementation in non-protein energy. Inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet strongly impaired growth and feed utilisation. Silage process improved overall feed utilisation comparing to fresh coffee pulp. Results showed that fresh or ensiled coffee pulp was not a suitable feedstuff for Nile tilapia. However, better knowledge on modification occurring during silage process could allow finding the way to significantly improve nutritive value of coffee pulp by-products.Polpa de café ensilada foi utilizada na dieta calórica-protéica de Tilápia do Nilo na razão de 3.2 g ± 0,2 durante um período de 28 dias. As dietas calórico-protéica foram formuladas com base na ingestão diária permitida. Uma dieta A controle (100% de proteína e 100% da energia que corresponde a g PC/kg/dia e 750 Kj/Kg/dia, uma dieta B baixa em proteína (80% de proteína e 100% da energia, duas dietas C e E (100% de proteína e 100% da energia onde 20% da proteína foi suplementada com polpa de café e duas dietas D e F com a mesma concentração de polpa de café é prejudicial a dieta de crescimento. O processo de ensilagem melhorou sua utilização como alimento em comparação com a polpa de café fresca. Os resultados demonstraram que a polpa fresca ou ensilada não é para ser usada como alimentação de Tilápia do Nilo. Entretanto, uma melhor

  9. Interacting viscous entropy-corrected holographic scalar field models of dark energy with time-varying G in modified FRW cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adabi, Farzin; Karami, Kayoomars; Felegary, Fereshte; Azarmi, Zohre

    2012-01-01

    We study the entropy-corrected version of the holographic dark energy (HDE) model in the framework of modified Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. We consider a non-flat universe filled with an interacting viscous entropy-corrected HDE (ECHDE) with dark matter. Also included in our model is the case of the variable gravitational constant G. We obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters of the interacting viscous ECHDE. Moreover, we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the quintessence, tachyon, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models according to the evolutionary behavior of the interacting viscous ECHDE model with time-varying G. (research papers)

  10. A diet quality index for American preschoolers based on current dietary intake recommendations and an indicator of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Hartman, Terryl; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H

    2006-10-01

    Based on current dietary intake recommendations and a recommendation to limit sedentary activity in preschoolers, an overall diet quality index for preschoolers (RC-DQI) incorporating a component for energy balance to measure adequacy of nutrition for growth, development, and disease prevention was developed. The newly developed index was used in nationally representative samples of 2- to 5-year-olds in the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96 and 1998 (n=5,437). Index components included added sugar, total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total and whole grains, fruits, vegetables, excess fruit juice, dairy, iron, and an interaction term of total daily energy intake and sedentary behavior (television time). Points were allocated to reflect deficient or excessive intakes. Means and standard errors were used to describe food intakes and RC-DQI scores. Ability to differentiate diets was ascertained using mean intakes of food groups/nutrients followed by a nonparametric test of trends across ordered groups. Correlation coefficients measured dependence among RC-DQI components, nutrients, and overall energy intakes. Component scores of the highest and lowest quartile of RC-DQI were compared. Mean RC-DQI score was 64 points (range=28 to 93). Increasing RC-DQI scores were associated with improved diet quality. Children in the lowest RC-DQI quartile scored lower in all components. The RC-DQI successfully differentiated diets by level of diet quality. Increasing scores were associated with decreasing consumption of added sugar and juices, and increasing intakes of fiber, essential fatty acids, fruits, and vegetables. The RC-DQI can be used to determine diet quality in groups of preschool-age children.

  11. Dietary lactalbumin and lactoferrin interact with inulin to modulate energy balance in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Zapata, Rizaldy C; Pezeshki, Adel; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether diets enriched with the whey protein components lactalbumin and lactoferrin interact additively with inulin to improve energy balance by decreasing food intake and body weight (BW). In four experiments, diet-induced obese rats were randomized to diets containing either lactalbumin or lactoferrin at low (20% kcal) or high (40% kcal) doses, and inulin at low (7.5% w/w) or high (15% w/w) doses, alone or in combination. Energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), BW, body composition, plasma insulin, and leptin concentrations were measured. Lactalbumin and inulin at low doses were ineffective, whereas high doses additively decreased EI and RQ. Low doses of lactoferrin and inulin additively decreased EI, BW, fat and lean mass, and RQ. High doses of lactoferrin and inulin additively decreased EI, supra-additively decreased BW, fat, and lean mass, and also decreased RQ and plasma leptin concentrations. High doses of lactalbumin and inulin additively decreased EI. Importantly, lactoferrin and inulin at both low and high dose combinations, additively or supra-additively, decreased EI, BW, and adiposity. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  12. Effects of dietary energy levels using calcium salts of fatty acids on nutritive value of diets and milk quality in peripartum dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum is a critical period for dairy goats, as dry matter intake (DMI is not enough to supply the energy requirement for foetal growth and subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase dietary energy level of peripartum dairy goats and its effects on nutritive value of diets and milk quality. Twenty multiparous Saanen goats (body weight 63.5±10.3 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in four treatments at the following dietary energy levels: 2.6 Mcal of metabolisable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM - control diet; and 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 Mcal/kg DM - with added CSFA. Goats were housed in individual stalls and evaluated in the peripartum period, by measuring body weight (BW, DMI, dry matter and nutrient digestibility of diets, blood composition, and milk quality and yield. Increasing dietary energy level to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had no effect on BW and did not limit DMI. CSFA supplementation increased intake of total digestible nutrients and did not affect fibre digestion. Blood triglycerides and cholesterol concentration increased with CSFA addition. The treatments had no effect on milk yield and composition; however, CSFA supplementation changed the fatty acid concentration of milk fat, increasing levels of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. In conclusion, peripartum dairy goats supplemented with CSFA to increase dietary energy level up to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had a greater supply of total digestible nutrients and showed altered fatty acid concentration of milk fat.

  13. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase the dietary energy levels for Saanen goats and their effects on the lactation curve, dry matter intake, body weight, and economic results of the goats. Twenty multiparous goats, weighing an average of 63.5±10.3 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, each receiving one of the following dietary energy levels: a control diet consisting of 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM or a test diet supplemented with CSFA (Lactoplus® to obtain 2.7, 2.8, or 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM. Goats were housed in individual stalls and were fed and milked twice daily. The animals were evaluated until 180 days in milk by measuring dry matter intake and milk yield. These measurements were used to calculate feed efficiencies and the cost-benefit ratio of diet and lactation curves using Wood's nonlinear model. Increasing dietary energy levels showed no effect on body weight. Supplementation with CSFA did not limit dry matter intake; however, it changed the shape of the lactation curve by promoting a late peak lactation with a longer duration. Milk yields at 180 days in milk had a quadratic increase with a maximum energy level at 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Increasing the dietary energy level for Saanen goats using CSFA changes their lactation curves, with the best milk production achieved with a 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM diet; however, the greatest economic results were obtained with a 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM diet.

  14. [Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, energy intake and dietary caloric profile in university students from the region of Murcia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, Ana Belén; Herrero, Ester; de San Eustaquio, Alba; Zamora, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    University students are a part of the population potentially vulnerable in relation to their nutritional status. To evaluate energy intake, energy profile of the diet and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in university students. The study was conducted in 223 students (53% female) from the University of Murcia (Spain), mean age 21.4 ± 2.7 years. Dietary intake was estimated by a continuous 7 days dietary record, previously validated. Afterwards, total energy intake and macronutrients distribution were obtained using the software "GRUNUMUR 2.0". Physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated as [weight (kg)/height (m)(2)]. Average energy intake was lower than the recommendations. In relation with the energy profile of the diet, it was higher in protein and fat, and lower in carbohydrates compared with the recommendations in the balanced diet. The prevalence of overweight was of 9.3% in female and of 24.2% in males. However, 10.2% females and 1.1% males were underweight. Only a 35,4% of the studied collective usually practiced physical activity (3-4 hours/week). Significant correlations were found between age and percentage of energy from carbohydrate (negative) and lipids (positive), indicating that older students (young adults) had significantly higher dietary unbalances than younger (adolescents). Students from the University of Murcia have characteristics very similar to those described in other university populations of Spain and other Western countries: low energy intake, unbalances in the energy profile of the diet, and high percentages of overweight and also of underweight. Both physical inactivity and energy unbalance of the diet could be determinants of the overweight observed. Age is a factor in worsening the energy profile of the diet, which presumably will have undesirable consequences on the health of this young population group. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES

  15. Effects of d-a-Tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of pre-ruminant dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal dairy calves throughout the United States are commonly fed pasteurized whole milk as the primary dietary component during their first several weeks of life. Whole milk fails to meet the recommendations for dietary inclusion of vitamins D and E for neonatal calves put forth by the National R...

  16. The effect of protein-energy levels dietary on Kacang goats performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MuchJi Martawidjaja

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was done to evaluate the protein-energy requirement for growing Kacang goats. Twelve males and 18 female goats, seven to eight months old were used in this study and randomized into three treatment groups, with four and six animals each, and were kept in individual pens. The treatments used were: R1= Elephant grass (E.G. + concentrate C1 (21% CP; 3.9 Mcal GE/kg, R2 = E.G. + concentrate C2 (17% CP; 3.7 Mcal GE/kg, and R3 = E.G. + concentrate C3 (12% CP; 3.5 Mcal GE/kg, respectively. Fresh Elephant grass was offered in restricted, and concentrate was offered at 3% of body weight. The experiment was carried out for 12 weeks. Data were analysed by using factorial completely randomized design 2x3 (3 rations and 2 sexes. Parameters measured were: feed intake; average daily gain and feed conversion. The results indicated that among treatments there was no significant difference on dry matter (DM and gross energy (GE intake (P>0.05, but crude protein (CP intake of R1 was 23,6% higher than treatment R2; treatment R2 was 38.1% higher than R3 (P0.05, but treatment R1 was 36.9% and significantly higher than R3 (P0.05, but ration R1 was more efficient than R3 (P0.05. It was concluded that protein intake and average daily gain were increased, and feed conversion was more efficient as the crude protein-energy levels increased in the ration. Feed intake and average daily gain of male goats were higher and feed conversion was more efficient than the female goats.

  17. Dietary preference in dairy calves for feed ingredients high in energy and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2014-03-01

    In 3 experiments, we assessed preference of recently weaned dairy calves for (1) 8 high-energy feed types [barley meal, corn meal, corn gluten feed (CGF), oat meal, rice meal, sorghum meal, wheat meal, and wheat middlings meal]; (2) 6 high-protein feed types [corn gluten meal (CGM), wheat distillers dried grains, rapeseed meal, soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal, and pea meal]; and (3) 4 mixtures (50:50) of the highest- and lowest-ranked high-energy and high-protein feeds, to assess whether calves maintain preference for feed ingredients that are included in a mixture. In all experiments, pairwise preference tests were conducted between all feed types (28 different pairwise preference tests in experiment 1, 15 tests in experiment 2, and 6 tests in experiment 3). Each pairwise preference test was conducted by offering ad libitum access to both feed types for 6h. All tests were repeated with 20 Holstein calves. Before this study, calves were offered milk replacer at a rate of 4 L/d and a pelleted starter feed ad libitum. After weaning at 62 d of age, each calf was involved in a pairwise preference test at 3 and 5d postweaning. A preference ratio was calculated for each calf in each test as (intake of feed type A)/(intake of feed type A + intake of feed type B). Preference for feed types was ranked across tests in each experiment using pairwise comparison charts. In experiment 1, the highest-ranked high-energy feed type was wheat meal and the lowest ranked were rice meal and CGF. In experiment 2, the highest-ranked high-protein feed type was SBM and the lowest ranked was CGM. According to the preference rankings from experiments 1 and 2, experiment 3 evaluated (50:50) mixtures of SBM + wheat meal, SBM + CGF, CGM + wheat meal, and CGM + CGF. The mixture of SBM + wheat meal was highest ranked, CGM + CGF was lowest ranked, and the mixtures containing one high-ranked and one low-ranked feed ingredient (SBM + CGF and CGM + wheat meal) were ranked equally. The results of

  18. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab, TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03. While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05, protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  19. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  20. Performance and Parasitology of Semi-intensively Managed West African Dwarf Sheep Exposed to Gastrointestinal Helminth Infect-ed Paddocks and Varied Protein-energy Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekayode Olarinwaju SONIBARE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The performance and parasitology of semi-intensively managed West African dwarf (WAD lambs were evaluated following exposure to gastrointestinal helminth infected paddock and varied protein-energy feeds.Methods: Twenty four lambs obtained from the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics and brought to Directorate of University farm (DUFARM of Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria, where the research was carried out in 2014, were grouped into four each containing six animals based on different energy-protein feed combination thus; group 1(G1 low energy low protein, group 2 (G2 low energy high protein, group 3 (G3 high energy low protein and group 4 (G4 high energy high protein. Experimental animals were supplemented with concentrate feed after grazing on daily in a nematode infected paddock. Clinical signs of infection were monitored. Live weight, faecal egg count (FEC, worm counts, packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin concentration (Hb and red blood cell count (RBC were determined using standard methods.Results: Anorexia and intermittent diarrhea were the observed signs. Worm counts did not differ significantly (P=0.309 among the groups. The weight and FEC differed significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups, while haematological parameters increased significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups.Conclusion: Lambs in G2 followed by G4 showed improved parameters and superior performance when compared to the other groups. It is therefore recommended that feed high in protein content is capable of mitigating deleterious effect of gastrointestinal helminth parasitism.

  1. A genome-wide linkage scan for dietary energy and nutrient intakes: the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaku, Agron; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva; Leon, Arthur S; Rao, D C; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Bouchard, Claude

    2004-05-01

    A poor diet is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some cancers. Twin and family studies suggest that genetic factors potentially influence energy and nutrient intakes. We sought to identify genomic regions harboring genes affecting total energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes. We performed a genomic scan in 347 white sibling pairs and 99 black sibling pairs. Dietary energy and nutrient intakes were assessed by using Willett's food-frequency questionnaire. Single-point and multipoint Haseman-Elston regression techniques were used to test for linkage. These subjects were part of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, a multicenter project undertaken by 5 laboratories. In the whites, the strongest evidence of linkage appeared for dietary energy and nutrient intakes on chromosomes 1p21.2 (P = 0.0002) and 20q13.13 (P = 0.00007), and that for fat intake appeared on chromosome 12q14.1 (P = 0.0013). The linkage evidence on chromosomes 1 and 20 related to total energy intake rather than to the intake of specific macronutrients. In the blacks, promising linkages for macronutrient intakes occurred on chromosomes 12q23-q24.21, 1q32.1, and 7q11.1. Several potential candidate genes are encoded in and around the linkage regions on chromosomes 1p21.2, 12q14.1, and 20q13.13. These are the first reported human quantitative trait loci for dietary energy and macronutrient intakes. Further study may refine these quantitative trait loci to identify potential candidate genes for energy and specific macronutrient intakes that would be amenable to more detailed molecular studies.

  2. Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch in White Vegetables: Links to Health Outcomes12

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in ...

  3. Effects of reduced dietary energy and amino acid density on Pectoralis major myopathies in broiler chickens at 36 and 49 days of age1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloche, K J; Fancher, B I; Emmerson, D A; Bilgili, S F; Dozier, W A

    2018-05-01

    Two experiments (Exp) were conducted to determine if reductions in the incidence and severity of wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) may be obtained by reducing dietary nutrient density. In each Exp, Yield Plus × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were placed into 63 pens (22 birds/pen). All birds received an identical prestarter diet until 7 d of age, after which time each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of the following 7 dietary treatments (TRT) for the starter (8 to 14 d), grower (15 to 24 d), finisher 1 (Exp 1: 26 to 35 d; Exp 2: 26 to 42 d), and withdrawal (Exp 2: 43 to 48 d) phases: 1) 100% of primary breeder recommendations for digestible amino acid and metabolizable energy density throughout Exp; 2) 95% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 3) 95% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 4) 95% of TRT 1 throughout Exp; 5) 90% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 6) 90% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 7) 90% of TRT 1 throughout Exp. At 36 d (Exp 1) and 49 d (Exp 2), 18 birds per pen were processed and evaluated for WS and WB. In Exp 1, reduced dietary density in the starter phase (TRT 2 and TRT 5) resulted in increased (P ≤ 0.05) incidences of severe WB (32.9% and 34.7%) relative to TRT 1 (18.2%). In Exp 2, broilers assigned to TRT 7 had reduced (P 36.5%; WS: 64.5%). In both Exp, plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing scores for WB and WS. Reducing dietary nutrient density from 8 to 14 d may exacerbate fillet myopathies in broilers reared to 35 d of age. Although reducing dietary energy and amino acid density to 90% of recommendations from 1 to 48 d reduced the severity of myopathies, these reductions occurred with compromises in live performance. Altogether, these results indicated that concurrent manipulation of dietary amino acid and energy density is not a viable practical solution for breast myopathies.

  4. Contribution of foods consumed away from home to energy intake in Brazilian urban areas: the 2008-9 Nationwide Dietary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-04-14

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate the dietary contribution of away-from-home food consumption, to describe the contribution of away-from-home foods to energy intake, and to investigate the association between eating away from home and total energy intake in Brazilian urban areas. In the first Brazilian Nationwide Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-9, food records were collected from 25 753 individuals aged 10 years or older, living in urban areas of Brazil. Foods were grouped into thirty-three food groups, and the mean energy intake provided by away-from-home food consumption was estimated. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between away-from-home food consumption and total energy intake. All analyses considered the sample design effect. Of the total population, 43 % consumed at least one food item away from home. The mean energy intake from foods consumed away from home was 1408 kJ (337 kcal), averaging 18 % of total energy intake. Eating away from home was associated with increased total energy intake, except for men in the highest income level. The highest percentage of away-from-home energy sources was for food with a high content of energy, such as alcoholic beverages (59 %), baked and deep-fried snacks (54 %), pizza (42 %), soft drinks (40 %), sandwiches (40 %), and sweets and desserts (30 %). The consumption of foods away from home was related to a greater energy intake. The characterisation of away-from-home food habits is necessary in order to properly design strategies to promote healthy food consumption in the away-from-home environment.

  5. Exercise Preserves Lean Mass and Performance during Severe Energy Deficit: The Role of Exercise Volume and Dietary Protein Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. L. Calbet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss of fat-free mass (FFM caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day. Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE, followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD. During CRE, the participants ingested a VLCD and performed 45 min of one-arm cranking followed by 8 h walking each day. The VLCD consisted of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day of either whey protein (PRO, n = 8 or sucrose (SU, n = 7. FFM was reduced after CRE (P < 0.001, with the legs and the exercised arm losing proportionally less FFM than the control arm [57% (P < 0.05 and 29% (P = 0.05, respectively]. Performance during leg pedaling, as reflected by the peak oxygen uptake and power output (Wpeak, was reduced after CRE by 15 and 12%, respectively (P < 0.05, and recovered only partially after CD. The deterioration of cycling performance was more pronounced in the whey protein than sucrose group (P < 0.05. Wpeak during arm cranking was unchanged in the control arm, but improved in the contralateral arm by arm cranking. There was a linear relationship between the reduction in whole-body FFM between PRE and CRE and the changes in the cortisol/free testosterone ratio (C/FT, serum isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, valine, BCAA, and EAA (r = −0.54 to −0.71, respectively, P < 0.05. C/FT tended to be higher in the PRO than the SU group following CRE (P = 0.06. In conclusion, concomitant low-intensity exercise such as walking or arm cranking even during an extreme energy deficit results in remarkable preservation of lean mass. The intake of proteins alone may be associated with greater

  6. Role of Nutritional Supplements Complementing Nutrient-Dense Diets: General Versus Sport/Exercise-Specific Dietary Guidelines Related to Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Susan; Greenwood, Mike

    A nutrient-dense diet is a critical aspect in attaining optimal exercise training and athletic performance outcomes. Although including safe and effective nutritional supplements in the dietary design can be extremely helpful in promoting adequate caloric ingestion, they are not sufficient for promoting adequate caloric ingestion based on individualized caloric expenditure needs without the proper diet. Specifically, a strategic and scientifically based nutrient-dense dietary profile should be created by qualified professionals to meet the sport/exercise-specific energy demands of any individual involved in select training intensity protocols. Finally, ingesting the right quantity and quality of nutrient dense calories at precise windows of opportunity becomes vital in attaining desired training and/or competitive performance outcomes.

  7. Effect of moderate dietary restriction on visceral organ weight, hepatic oxygen consumption, and metabolic proteins associated with energy balance in mature pregnant beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K M; Awda, B J; Fitzsimmons, C; Miller, S P; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2013-09-01

    Twenty-two nonlactating multiparous pregnant beef cows (639 ± 68 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary restriction on the abundance of selected proteins regulating cellular energy metabolism. Cows were fed at either 85% (n = 11; LOW) or 140% (n = 11; HIGH) of total NE requirements. The diet consisted of a haylage-based total mixed ration containing 20% wheat straw. Cows were slaughtered by block (predicted date of parturition), beginning 83 d after the initiation of dietary treatments and every week thereafter for 6 wk, such that each block was slaughtered at approximately 250 d of gestation. Tissue samples from liver, kidney, sternomandibularis muscle, ruminal papilli (ventral sac), pancreas, and small intestinal muscosa were collected at slaughter and snap frozen in liquid N2. Western blots were conducted to quantify abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ATP synthase, ubiquitin, and Na/K+ ATPase for all tissues; PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α), and 5´-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the activated form phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) for liver, muscle, and rumen; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for liver and kidney; and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) for liver. Statistical analysis was conducted using Proc Mixed in SAS and included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, cow age, block, and the random effect of pen. Dietary treatments resulted in cows fed HIGH having greater (P ≤ 0.04) ADG and final BW than cows fed LOW. Abundance of ubiquitin in muscle was greater (P = 0.009) in cows fed LOW, and PCG-1 α in liver was greater (P = 0.03) in cows fed HIGH. Hepatic O2 consumption was greater in HIGH (P ≤ 0.04). Feed intake can influence the abundance of important metabolic proteins and suggest that protein degradation may increase in muscle from moderately nutrient restricted cows and that energy metabolism in liver increases in cows fed above NE requirements.

  8. Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    to trace the metabolic fate of dietary protein, 1·8% fishmeal was replaced with isotope-labelled whole protein (.98% 13C). The experiment was divided into a growth period lasting 89 d, growing fish from approximately 140 to 350 g, followed by a 3 d period feeding isotope-enriched diets. Isotope ratio MS...

  9. Influence of a direct-fed microbial and xylanase enzyme on the dietary energy uptake efficiency and performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Persia, Michael E

    2015-09-01

    Efficacy of a multi-strain direct-fed microbial product (PoultryStar(®) ME; PS) and a xylanase enzyme product on the dietary energy utilization efficiency and resulting performance in broiler chickens was evaluated. Apart from performance parameters, cecal and serum metabolites and activities of hepatic enzymes involved in energy metabolism were also determined. Ross 308 chicks were fed one of four experimental diets [control (CON), CON + PS, CON + xylanase and CON + PS + xylanase] using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement from 1-21 days of age. Cecal proportions of propionate and butyrate, as well as total short-chain fatty acid concentration were increased (P energy uptake and hepatic energy retention. The combination additively increased the FCR, suggesting involvement of synergistic modes of actions. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Comparison of ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis and ornithine decarboxylase activity in sencar and hairless SKH-1 mice fed a constant level of dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berton, T.R.; Fischer, S.M.; Conti, C.J.; Locniskar, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effect of various levels of corn oil and coconut oil on ultraviolet (UV) light‐induced skin tumorigenesis and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, Sencar and SKH‐1 mice were fed one of three 15% (weight) fat semipurified diets containing three ratios of com oil to coconut oil: 1.0%:14.0%, 7.9%:7.1%, and 15.0%:0.0% in Diets A, B, and C, respectively. Groups of 30 Sencar and SKH‐1 mice were fed one of the diets for three weeks before UV irradiation; then both strains were UV irradiated with an initial dose of 90 mJ/cm2. The dose was given three times a week and increased 25% each week. For Sencar mice (irradiated 33 wks for a total dose of 48 J/cm2), tumor incidence reached a maximum of 60%, 60%, and 53% for Diets A, B, and C, respectively, with an overall average of one to two tumors per tumor‐bearing animal. For the SKH‐1 mice (irradiated 29 wks for a total dose of 18 J/cm2), all diet groups reached 100% incidence by 29 weeks, with approximately 12 tumors per tumor‐bearing mouse. No significant effect of dietary corn oil/coconut oil was found for tumor latency, incidence, or yield in either strain. The effect of increasing com oil on epidermal ODC activity in chronically UV‐irradiated Sencar and SKH‐1 mice was assessed Three groups of mice from each strain were fed one of the experimental diets and UV irradiated for six weeks. Sencar mice showed no increase in ODC activity until six weeks of treatment, when the levels of ODC activity in the UV‐irradiated mice fed Diet A were significantly higher than those in mice fed Diet B or Diet C: 1.27, 0.55, and 0.52 nmol/mg protein/hr, respectively. In the SKH‐1 mice, ODC activity was increased by the first week of UV treatment, and by three weeks of treatment a dietary effect was observed: ODC activity was significantly higher in mice fed Diet C (0.70 nmol/mg protein/hr) than in mice fed Diet A (0.18 nmol/mg protein/hr). Although there was no significant effect of dietary corn oil

  11. A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Kaisa S; Dussort, Pierre; Erkner, Alfrun; Fiszman, Susana; Karnik, Kavita; Kristensen, Mette; Marsaux, Cyril Fm; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie; Pentikäinen, Saara P; Putz, Peter; Slavin, Joanne L; Steinert, Robert E; Mela, David J

    2017-09-01

    Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1 ) DF name and origin and 2 ) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetite-related outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for

  12. Dietary supplement for energy and reduced appetite containing the β-agonist isopropyloctopamine leads to heart problems and hospitalisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, Toine F.H.; Mol, Hans G.J.; Bienenmann-Ploum, Monique E.; Heskamp, Henri H.; Bruchem, van Gerard D.; Ginkel, van Leendert A.; Kooijman, Martin; Lasaroms, Johan J.P.; Dam, van Ruud; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 the Dutch authorities issued a warning against a dietary supplement that was linked to 11 reported adverse reactions, including heart problems and in one case even a cardiac arrest. In the UK a 20-year-old woman, said to have overdosed on this supplement, died. Since according to the

  13. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...

  14. Long-Term Dietary Supplementation with Yerba Mate Ameliorates Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in Mice by Regulating Energy Expenditure and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Sang Ryong; Kim, Do Yeon; Jung, Un Ju

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated whether long-term supplementation with dietary yerba mate has beneficial effects on adiposity and its related metabolic dysfunctions in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks as follows: (1) control group fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and (2) mate group fed with HFD plus yerba mate. Dietary yerba mate increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene mRNA expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA expression in WAT, which may be linked to observed decreases in body weight, WAT weight, epididymal adipocyte size, and plasma leptin level. Yerba mate also decreased levels of plasma lipids (free fatty acids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and liver aminotransferase enzymes, as well as the accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets and lipid content by inhibiting the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and increasing fecal lipid excretion. Moreover, yerba mate decreased the levels of plasma insulin as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance. Circulating levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and resistin were also decreased in the mate group. These findings suggest that long-term supplementation of dietary yerba mate may be beneficial for improving diet-induced adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis.

  15. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlindo Tedeschi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS. The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolizable energy (ME and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats in the SRNS are predicted based on the equations developed for CNCPS-S, modified to account for specific requirements of goats, including maintenance, lactation, and pregnancy requirements, and body reserves. Feed biological values are predicted based on carbohydrate and protein fractions and their ruminal fermentation rates, forage, concentrate and liquid passage rates, and microbial growth. The evaluation of the SRNS for sheep using published papers (19 treatment means indicated no mean bias (MB; 1.1 g/100 g and low root mean square prediction error (RMSPE; 3.6 g/100g when predicting dietary organic matter digestibility for diets not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS accurately predicted gains and losses of shrunk body weight (SBW of adult sheep (15 treatment means; MB = 5.8 g/d and RMSPE = 30 g/d when diets were not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS for sheep had MB varying from -34 to 1 g/d and RSME varying from 37 to 56 g/d when predicting average daily gain (ADG of growing lambs (42 treatment means. The evaluation of the SRNS for goats based on literature data showed accurate predictions for ADG of kids (31 treatment means; RMSEP = 32.5 g/d; r2= 0.85; concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, = 0.91, daily ME intake (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.24 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.99; CCC = 0.99, and energy balance (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.20 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.87; CCC = 0.90 of goats. In conclusion, the SRNS for sheep can accurately predict dietary organic matter digestibility, ADG of growing lambs and changes in SBW of mature sheep. The SRNS

  17. Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio predicts body weight and fat loss success on 24-week diets varying in macronutrient composition and dietary fiber: results from a post-hoc analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Blædel, Trine; Bendtsen, Line Q.

    2018-01-01

    weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. Subjects/methods: Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (â...

  18. Disruption of soil aggregates by varied amounts of ultrasonic energy in fractionation of organic matter of a clay latosol : carbon, nitrogen and 13C distribution in particle-size fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Buurman, P.; Velthorst, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Ultrasonic energy has been widely used to disrupt soil aggregates before fractionating soil physically when studying soil organic matter (SOM). Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the optimum energy desirable to disrupt the soil. We therefore aimed (i) to quantify the effect of varied

  19. Silicon supported lipid-DNA thin film structures at varying temperature studied by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and neutron reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, F; Castellano, C; Dell'Unto, F; Albinati, A; Congiu, A

    2011-11-01

    Non-viral gene transfection by means of lipid-based nanosystems, such as solid supported lipid assemblies, is often limited due to their lack of stability and the consequent loss of efficiency. Therefore not only a detailed thermo-lyotropic study of these DNA-lipid complexes is necessary to understand their interaction mechanisms, but it can also be considered as a first step in conceiving and developing new transfection biosystems. The aim of our study is a structural characterization of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC)-dimethyl-dioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB)-DNA complex at varying temperature using the energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXD) and neutron reflectivity (NR) techniques. We have shown the formation of a novel thermo-lyotropic structure of DOPC/DDAB thin film self-organized in multi-lamellar planes on (100)-oriented silicon support by spin coating, thus enlightening its ability to include DNA strands. Our NR measurements indicate that the DOPC/DDAB/DNA complex forms temperature-dependent structures. At 65°C and relative humidity of 100% DNA fragments are buried between single lamellar leaflets constituting the hydrocarbon core of the lipid bilayers. This finding supports the consistency of the hydrophobic interaction model, which implies that the coupling between lipid tails and hypo-hydrated DNA single strands could be the driving force of DNA-lipid complexation. Upon cooling to 25°C, EDXD analysis points out that full-hydrated DOPC-DDAB-DNA can switch in a different metastable complex supposed to be driven by lipid heads-DNA electrostatic interaction. Thermotropic response analysis also clarifies that DOPC has a pivotal role in promoting the formation of our observed thermophylic silicon supported lipids-DNA assembly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Rok; Schriefer, Johnhenry M; Gunnels, Trint A; Harvey, Innocence C; Bloomer, Richard J

    2013-10-21

    Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist-possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, caffeine (270 mg), and yohimbe bark extract or a placebo, on two separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, separated by 6-8 days. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol. Breath samples were collected at the same times for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) using indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data collection occurred in the morning following a 10 hour overnight fast. A condition effect was noted for both FFA (p 0.05). A condition effect was noted for heart rate (p = 0.03) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo. Ingestion of a higenamine-based dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating FFA and kilocalorie expenditure. The same supplement results in a moderate increase in heart rate (~3 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (~12 mmHg), which is consistent with previous studies evaluating moderate doses of caffeine and yohimbine, suggesting that higenamine contributes little to the increase in these hemodynamic variables. These findings are in reference to young, healthy and active men and women.

  1. Early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition and ontogenetic changes in muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout: short- and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Duval, Carine; Maunas, Patrick; Girod-David, Virginia; Médale, Françoise

    2014-09-14

    As the understanding of the nutritional regulation of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is fragmentary, the present study aimed to (1) characterise ontogenetic changes in muscle growth-related genes in parallel to changes in muscle cellularity; (2) determine whether an early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition affects the muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins; and (3) determine whether this early feeding of a high-fat (HF) diet to alevins had a long-term effect on muscle growth processes in juveniles fed a commercial diet. Developmental regulation of hyperplasia and hypertrophy was evidenced at the molecular (expression of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and myosin heavy chains (MHC)) and cellular (number and diameter of white muscle fibres) levels. An early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition stimulated the body growth of alevins but led to a fatty phenotype, with accumulation of lipids in the anterior part, and less caudal muscle when compared at similar body weights, due to a decrease in both the white muscle hyperplasia and maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibres. These HF diet-induced cellular changes were preceded by a very rapid down-regulation of the expression of fast-MHC. The present study also demonstrated that early dietary composition had a long-term effect on the subsequent muscle growth processes of juveniles fed a commercial diet for 3 months. When compared at similar body weights, initially HF diet-fed juveniles indeed had a lower mean diameter of white muscle fibres, a smaller number of large white muscle fibres, and lower expression levels of MyoD1 and myogenin. These findings demonstrated the strong effect of early feed composition on the muscle growth mechanisms of trout alevins and juveniles.

  2. Effects of varying dietary iodine supplementation levels as iodide or iodate on thyroid status as well as mRNA expression and enzyme activity of antioxidative enzymes in tissues of grower/finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qimeng; Mair, Christiane; Schedle, Karl; Hellmayr, Isabella; Windisch, Wilhelm

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of high dietary iodine supply and different iodine sources on thyroid status and oxidative stress in target tissues of the thyroid hormones in fattening pigs. Eighty castrates (body weight: 33.3 ± 0.4 kg) were randomly allotted into five different treatments: The control diet contained 150 μg I/kg as KI, the other feeding groups were supplemented with 4,000 μg I/kg (as KI and KIO(3)) and 10,000 μg I/kg (as KI and KIO(3)), respectively. The mRNA expression levels of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and key antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn SOD, CAT, GPx) were analyzed in thyroid gland, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue sampled during slaughter. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activities and the effect on lipid peroxidation (MDA) were determined in liver and muscle. In thyroid gland, a significant downregulation of NIS and Cu/Zn SOD mRNA expression was observed in high-iodine groups. In liver, a source effect on the mRNA expression of Cu/Zn SOD between KI and KIO(3) at 4,000 μg I/kg was shown. In contrast, not SOD but GPx activity was affected by iodine source with strongest downregulation in high KIO(3) group. In muscle, GPx activity was affected by both iodine source and dose, showing stronger downregulation in KI groups. In kidney and adipose tissue, oxidative stress parameters showed no or only unsystematic changes. However, variation in iodine supply had no effect on MDA concentrations. NIS expression was significantly decreased with increased iodine supplementation, which is to ensure the thyroid gland function. However, the alleviating effect of iodine supplementation observed in antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activity did not reflect on the lipid peroxide level.

  3. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  4. Effect of peripartum dietary energy supplementation on thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor-i and its binding proteins in early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary energy supplementation on hormones that are considered to be the main signals of a shift in energy balance around parturition. Sixty dry cows, 15 days before calving, were chosen and divided into two eaqual groups: control and experimental (GLY. Both groups were fed a standard ration balanced in accordance to the stage of the productivereproductive cycle. Additionally, each cow in the GLY group was given glycerol based dietary energy supplementation (250 mL daily during the dry and 300 mL daily during the lactation period, which provided additional 9.30 MJ NEL during the dry and 13.95 MJ NEL during the early lactation period. Milk production was measured on days 30 and 60 of lactation and milk production was significantly higher in GLY compared to control group at day 60 of lactation (p<0.05. Service period and insemination index were used as reproductive outcome parameters. Average service period in the control group was significantly longer than in the GLY group (p<0.05. Average insemination index in the control group was not significantly different than the index obtained for the GLY group. Blood samples were taken before the begining of the experiment (15 days before parturition, and at days 7, 30 and 60 of lactation. Concentrations of thyroid hormones, IGF-I, relative abundance of IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4, concentrations of total protein and albumin in the blood were measured. Results showed that at days 7 and 30 after parturition, T4 concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.001, respectively in GLY than in the control group, while T3 concentrations were significantly higher in GLY group only at day 7 after parturition (p<0.001. IGF-I concentrations and IGFBP-3 abundance were significantly higher in the GLY compared to the control group in all three examined postpartum periods. IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 concentrations were higher in GLY compared to the control group in all

  5. The use of a personal digital assistant for dietary self-monitoring does not improve the validity of self-reports of energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Bethany Ann; Johnson, Rachel K; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Gold, Beth Casey

    2006-08-01

    Underreporting of energy intake is a pervasive problem and resistant to improvement, especially among people with overweight and obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for dietary self-monitoring would reduce underreporting prevalence and improve the validity of self-reported energy intake. Adults with overweight and obesity (n=61, 92% women, mean age 48.2 years, mean body mass index 32.3) were provided with a PalmZire 21 (Palm, Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) loaded with Calorie King's Diet Diary software (version 3.2.2, 2002, Family Health Network, Costa Mesa, CA). Subjects participated in a 24-week in-person behavioral weight control program and were asked to self-monitor their diet and exercise habits using the PDA. Basal metabolic rate and physical activity level were estimated at baseline. Energy intake from 7-day electronic food records were collected within the first month of the weight-control program. As subjects were actively losing weight, Bandini's adjustments were used to correct self-reported energy intake for weight loss. In this group, where 41% of the subjects were categorized as low-energy reporters, the use of a PDA did not improve validity of energy reporting when compared to what is reported in the literature.

  6. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs: effects on apparent digestibility of fat and energy and fecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, A; Bjørnvad, C R

    2016-12-01

    In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs. To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility, and fecal characteristics following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium. A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14-day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet), flaxseed mucilage or flaxseed mucilage and calcium. Feces from the past 2 days of each period were collected for analysis. Owners recorded fecal score (1-7: 1=very hard/dry feces, 2-3=ideal and 7=diarrhea). Apparent digestibility of fat was lower in both flaxseed mucilage diet (94.5±0.8%), and flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet (92.9±0.9%) compared with control diet (96.9±0.2%, Pdigestibility in flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet being significantly lower than the diet supplemented with only flaxseed mucilage. Dry matter and energy digestibility was not significantly affected by diet. Fecal wet weight, dry weight and dry matter percentage was not affected by diet despite a higher fecal score for test diets (3.7±0.3) compared with control (2.8±0.2, Pdigestibility and this effect was enhanced when combined with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.

  7. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  8. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  9. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  10. Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-06-28

    Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal).

  11. Defining the role of dietary intake in determining weight change in patients with cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrah, R; Kanbalian, M; Van Der Borch, C; Swinton, N; Wing, S; Jagoe, R T

    2018-02-01

    Weight loss is a cardinal feature of cachexia and is frequently associated with reduced food intake and anorexia. It is still unclear how much reduced food intake contributes to cancer-related weight loss and how effective increasing dietary energy and protein is in combating this weight loss. The relationship between weight change and both diet and change in dietary intake, was examined in patients with advanced stage cancer referred to a multidisciplinary clinic for management of cancer cachexia. A retrospective study of data for each of the first three clinic visits for patients seen between 2009 and 2015. Data on weight change, dietary intake and change in dietary intake were compared. Regression analysis was used to determine independent explanatory factors for weight change, including the impact of appetite level and a marker of systemic inflammation. Of 405 eligible patients, 320 had data on dietary intake available. Dietary intake varied widely at baseline: 26.9% reported very poor diet and only 17% were consuming recommended levels of energy and protein. A highly significant positive correlation was found between dietary energy or protein intake and weight change, both before and after being seen in the clinic. Anorexia was also significantly correlated with weight loss at each clinic visit. However, there was no similar overall correlation between change in dietary intake and change in weight. Many patients with advanced cancer and weight loss are consuming diets that would likely be insufficient to maintain weight even in healthy individuals. Higher consumption of protein and energy correlates with greater weight gain, but it is impossible to predict the response to increased nutritional intake when patients are first assessed. There is a pressing need to improve understanding of factors that modulate metabolic responses to dietary intake in patients with cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  12. Energy and protein feed-to-food conversion efficiencies in the US and potential food security gains from dietary changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepon, A.; Eshel, G.; Noor, E.; Milo, R.

    2016-10-01

    Feeding a growing population while minimizing environmental degradation is a global challenge requiring thoroughly rethinking food production and consumption. Dietary choices control food availability and natural resource demands. In particular, reducing or avoiding consumption of low production efficiency animal-based products can spare resources that can then yield more food. In quantifying the potential food gains of specific dietary shifts, most earlier research focused on calories, with less attention to other important nutrients, notably protein. Moreover, despite the well-known environmental burdens of livestock, only a handful of national level feed-to-food conversion efficiency estimates of dairy, beef, poultry, pork, and eggs exist. Yet such high level estimates are essential for reducing diet related environmental impacts and identifying optimal food gain paths. Here we quantify caloric and protein conversion efficiencies for US livestock categories. We then use these efficiencies to calculate the food availability gains expected from replacing beef in the US diet with poultry, a more efficient meat, and a plant-based alternative. Averaged over all categories, caloric and protein efficiencies are 7%-8%. At 3% in both metrics, beef is by far the least efficient. We find that reallocating the agricultural land used for beef feed to poultry feed production can meet the caloric and protein demands of ≈120 and ≈140 million additional people consuming the mean American diet, respectively, roughly 40% of current US population.

  13. Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    ) blood biomarkers of dietary protein and GI levels during the weight-maintenance phase. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 8 weeks of low-energy diet-induced weight loss and after a 6-month dietary intervention period from female continued weight losers (n 48) and weight regainers (n 48......), evenly selected from four dietary groups that varied in protein and GI levels. The blood concentrations of twenty-nine proteins and three steroid hormones were measured. The changes in analytes during weight maintenance largely correlated negatively with the changes during weight loss, with some...

  14. Effects of dietary coarsely ground corn and litter type on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gastrointestinal tract development, apparent ileal digestibility of energy and nitrogen, and intestinal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Auttawong, S; Brake, J

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of 2 coarsely ground corn (CC) levels (0 or 50%) in diets of broilers reared on 2 litter types (new wood shavings or used litter) on live performance, litter characteristics, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy and nitrogen (N), and intestinal morphology. No interaction effects between CC level and litter type were observed on live performance. No litter effect was observed on live performance. Dietary inclusion of 50% CC increased BW at 35 d (Plitter treatment (litter N) increased absolute and relative proventriculus weight (Plitter type was observed for litter N, where the 50% CC treatment reduced litter N regardless of litter type (Plitter N was reduced by new litter only among birds fed 0% CC (Plitter pH (Plitter increased jejunum villi and ileum villi height (PLitter type affected some GIT traits and functions but did not affect live performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Effect of dietary coarsely ground corn on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract development, apparent ileal digestibility of energy and nitrogen, and digesta particle size distribution and retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Pacheco, W J; Brake, J

    2015-01-01

    Dietary structural material has been reported to improve broiler live performance and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) function. In this 50 d cage study, the effects of coarsely ground corn (CC) inclusion on broiler live performance, GIT development, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy and nitrogen (N), and digesta particle size distribution and retention time were investigated. This study included 3 CC inclusions (0, 25, and 50% fine corn [FC] replaced by CC), with 6 replicate cages of 10 birds per treatment. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 35 and 42 d was improved (P<0.01) as the dietary inclusion of CC increased without effect on feed intake. The 50% CC diet increased absolute and relative gizzard weight at 42 d of age as compared to diets with 0 and 25% CC (P<0.01). Dietary CC increased absolute proventriculus weight at 28 d of age (P<0.05). A numerically lower gizzard digesta pH (P<0.08) was observed at 28 d but not 42 d of age, and there was no difference in proventriculus, jejunum, or ileum digesta pH at 28 or 42 d of age. The 25 and 50% CC treatments increased the digesta retention time at 30 and 45 d of age (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The 25 and 50% CC treatments improved AID of energy by 7.1 and 8.2%, respectively, when compared with the 0% CC treatment, and they improved AID of N by 12.2 and 12.4%, respectively (P<0.01). The digesta particles in the jejunum exhibited a similar distribution, with a dgw (geometric mean diameter by mass) of 218, 204, and 181 μm when 0, 25, of 50% CC diets were consumed, respectively. In conclusion, birds fed pelleted and screened diets that contained 25 and 50% CC exhibited increased BW, improved FCR, and increased AID of energy and N, which was probably due to enhanced gizzard development and greater digesta retention time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  16. Dietary Whey and Casein Differentially Affect Energy Balance, Gut Hormones, Glucose Metabolism, and Taste Preference in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Adel; Fahim, Andrew; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2015-10-01

    Dietary whey and casein proteins decrease food intake and body weight and improve glycemic control; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We determined the effects of dietary whey, casein, and a combination of the 2 on energy balance, hormones, glucose metabolism, and taste preference in rats. In Expt. 1, Obesity Prone CD (OP-CD) rats were fed a high-fat control diet (33% fat energy) for 8 wk, and then randomly assigned to 4 isocaloric dietary treatments (n = 12/group): the control treatment (CO; 14% protein energy from egg white), the whey treatment (WH; 26% whey + 14% egg white), the casein treatment (CA; 26% casein + 14% egg white), or the whey plus casein treatment (WHCA; 13% whey + 13% casein + 14% egg white) for 28 d. Measurements included food intake, energy expenditure, body composition, metabolic hormones, glucose tolerance and key tissue markers of glucose and energy metabolism. In Expt. 2, naïve OP-CD rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 8/group). During an 8 d conditioning period, each group received on alternate days either the CO or WH, CO or CA, or CO or WHCA. Subsequently, preferences for the test diets were assessed on 2 consecutive days with food intake measurements at regular intervals. In Expt. 1, food intake was decreased by 17-37% for the first 14 d in the WH and CA rats, and by 18-34% only for the first 4 d in the WHCA compared with the CO rats. Fat mass decreased by 21-28% for the WH rats and 17-33% for the CA rats from day 14 onward, but by 30% only on day 28 in WHCA rats, relative to CO rats. Thus, food intake, body weight, and fat mass decreased more rapidly in WH and CA rats than in WHCA rats. Energy expenditure in WH rats decreased for the first 4 d compared with CA and WHCA rats, and for the first 7 d compared with the CO rats. Circulating leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, interleukin 6, and glucose concentrations were lower in WH, CA, and WHCA rats than in CO rats. Plasma glucagon

  17. Dietary patterns in infancy are associated with child diet and weight outcomes at 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, C M; Birch, L L; Savage, J S

    2017-05-01

    To assess whether patterns of dietary exposures at 9 months are associated with child diet and weight at 6 years. Data for this study were from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and Year 6 Follow-Up Studies. All data were self-reported monthly. Results of a previous latent class analysis revealed five dietary patterns varying in milk and solid food intake. These five infant dietary patterns were used in the current study to predict child diet and weight outcomes at 6 years, while controlling for confounding variables. Infants with dietary patterns higher in fruit and vegetable intake at 9 months had higher fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years. Similarly, infants with the dietary pattern characterized by foods high in energy density (that is, French Fries and sweet desserts) continued to have higher consumption of these foods at 6 years, and had a higher prevalence of overweight at 6 years (43%) compared with the other classes. Formula-fed infants had higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake and fewer met the dietary guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years than breastfed infants, controlling for factors such as income. Early decisions about milk-feeding, and the types of solid foods offered in infancy can foreshadow dietary patterns and obesity risk later in childhood. Infants who were offered energy-dense foods had higher intake of these foods at 6 years of age.

  18. Effect of feed forage particle size and dietary urea on excretion of phosphorus in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Lund, Peter; Sehested, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Thirty six multiparous Danish Holstein cows, 222 days from calving with a standard deviation (±) of 102 days, 627±7 kg of body weight, and 32±3 kg/d energy corrected milk were used to investigate the effect of forage particle size (FPS) and dietary urea supplementation on excretion of phosphorus (P......) in feces and urine when cows were fed P below requirement. Dietary P content was 2.5 g P/kg DM in all treatments. Treatments (CONTROL, SHORT and LOW-N) were all based on the same content of forage ingredients but varied in FPS and dietary urea content. In CONTROL and SHORT rumen degradable protein...... was optimized according to the Nordic protein evaluation system by supplementing dietary urea, whereas urea was excluded in LOW-N in order to obtain a supply of rumen degradable protein below requirements. It was hypothesized that dietary factors that reduce saliva secretion via reduced chewing activity...

  19. Technical and economic analysis of grid-connected PV/Wind energy stations in the Republic of Serbia under varying climatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bakić, Vukman V.; Pezo, Milada L.; Stojković, Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper technical and economic analysis of grid-connected PV/Wind energy systems located in the Republic of Serbia are presented. The technical and economic data, of the various grid-connected PV/Wind hybrid energy systems for three different locations: Novi Sad, Belgrade and Kopaonik, using the transient simulations software TRNSYS and HOMER were obtained. The results obtained in this paper show that locations and technical characteristics of the energy systems have an important influe...

  20. Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch in White Vegetables: Links to Health Outcomes12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets. PMID:23674804

  1. Consequences of dry period length and dietary energy source on physiological health variables in dairy cows and calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, Nova

    2017-01-01

    During the transition period, dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, while feed intake is limited. Severity of the NEB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious

  2. The validation of State subsidies to the production of carbonated and nuclear energies, or the varying winds of the EU environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambour, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    As the Court of the European Union has validated subsidies awarded by the Spanish government to some coal power plants, as the European Commission has agreed with the financial support mechanism the British government wants to implement for the renewal of its electronuclear fleet, these decisions can be perceived as an incentive support to conventional energies whereas the EU is committed in a policy of struggle against climate change and of development of renewable energies. Thus, this article first discusses the compatibility of public subsidy with the European rules for concurrence and the operation of the European inner market. The author comments the Court and Commission decisions which imply an exemption of the taking of environmental concerns into account. She also comments the apparent contradiction with the environmental policy by referring to the market reality, and explains the support to nuclear energy by a required energy supply guarantee for the British Islands

  3. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Hosseini

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets

  4. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  5. Impact of seasonal thermal stress on physiological and blood biochemical parameters in pigs under different dietary energy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, P K; Roychoudhury, R; Saharia, J; Borah, M C; Dutta, D J; Bhuyan, R; Kalita, D

    2018-06-01

    The present study was formulated to find out the status of important season related thermal stress biomarkers of pure-bred (Hampshire) and crossbred (50% Hampshire × 50% local) pigs under the agro-climatic condition of Assam State, India. The experiment was also aimed to study the role of different level of energy ration (110, 100, and 90% energy of NRC feeding standard for pig) in variation of physiological and biochemical parameters in two genetic groups of pigs in different seasons. The metabolizable energy value were 3260, 2936.5, and 3585.8 kcal/kg in grower ration and 3260.2, 2936.6, and 3587 kcal/kg in finisher ration for normal energy (NE), low energy (LE) and high energy (HE), respectively. Both the genetic group of animals were housed separately under intensive system of management. Each pen was measuring 10' × 12' along with an outer enclosure. Six weaned piglets (almost similar body weight of average 10.55 kg) of each group were kept in a separate pen. However, after attainment of 35 kg body weight, the animals of a group were divided in two pens of three animals each. The present experiment indicated that average ambient temperature during summer months (27.33-29.51 °C) was above the comfort zone for pigs (22 °C). The significantly (P energy (HE) ration during summer season. Serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) concentrations were significantly (P energy level of the ration might be helpful to minimize the effects of thermal stress during summer.

  6. Influence of A Thermogenic Dietary Supplement on Safety Markers, Body Composition, Energy Expenditure, Muscular Performance and Hormone Concentrations: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant M. Tinsley, Stacie Urbina, Jacy Mullins, Jordan Outlaw, Sara Hayward, Matt Stone, Cliffa Foster, Colin Wilborn, Lem Taylor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation is commonly employed by individuals seeking to improve body composition and exercise performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of a commercially available dietary supplement designed to promote thermogenesis and fat loss. In a randomized double-blind trial, participants were assigned to consume placebo or a multi-ingredient supplement containing caffeine, green tea extract, l-carnitine, evodiamine and other ingredients that purportedly enhance thermogenesis. The study included acute baseline testing, a 6-week progressive resistance training and supplementation intervention, and post-intervention testing. Laboratory assessments included resting energy expenditure responses to acute supplement ingestion, evaluation of body composition and muscular performance, and analysis of blood variables (metabolic panel, testosterone, estrogen and cortisol. Dependent variables were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures. No unfavorable effects of supplementation were reported, and the supplement did not adversely affect safety markers. However, the supplement did not reduce fat mass or increase lean mass relative to placebo. In the supplement group, lower body maximal strength was increased relative to placebo (+18%, d=1.1 vs. +10%, d=0.5, and cortisol concentrations were decreased relative to placebo (-16%; d=-0.4 vs. +15%, d=.75. However, no differences were observed for upper body maximal strength or muscular endurance. REE increased in response to both supplement and placebo ingestion (placebo: +5%; supplement: +11.5%, but the difference between conditions was not statistically significant. Overall, some select parameters may have been beneficially modified by supplementation, but this did not result in superior weight or fat loss over 6 weeks of supplementation and resistance training.

  7. Dietary supplement for energy and reduced appetite containing the β-agonist isopropyloctopamine leads to heart problems and hospitalisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovee, Toine F H; Mol, Hans G J; Bienenmann-Ploum, Monique E; Heskamp, Henri H; Van Bruchem, Gerard D; Van Ginkel, Leendert A; Kooijman, Martin; Lasaroms, Johan J P; Van Dam, Ruud; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2016-05-01

    In 2013 the Dutch authorities issued a warning against a dietary supplement that was linked to 11 reported adverse reactions, including heart problems and in one case even a cardiac arrest. In the UK a 20-year-old woman, said to have overdosed on this supplement, died. Since according to the label the product was a herbal mixture, initial LC-MS/MS analysis focused on the detection of plant toxins. Yohimbe alkaloids, which are not allowed to be present in herbal preparations according to Dutch legislation, were found at relatively high levels (400-900 mg kg(-1)). However, their presence did not explain the adverse health effects reported. Based on these effects the supplement was screened for the presence of a β-agonist, using three different biosensor assays, i.e. the validated competitive radioligand β2-adrenergic receptor binding assay, a validated β-agonists ELISA and a newly developed multiplex microsphere (bead)-based β-agonist assay with imaging detection (MAGPIX(®)). The high responses obtained in these three biosensors suggested strongly the presence of a β-agonist. Inspection of the label indicated the presence of N-isopropyloctopamine. A pure standard of this compound was bought and shown to have a strong activity in the three biosensor assays. Analysis by LC-full-scan high-resolution MS confirmed the presence of this 'unknown known' β3-agonist N-isopropyloctopamine, reported to lead to heart problems at high doses. A confirmatory quantitative analysis revealed that one dose of the preparation resulted in an intake of 40-60 mg, which is within the therapeutic range of this compound. The case shows the strength of combining bioassays with chemical analytical techniques for identification of illegal pharmacologically active substances in food supplements.

  8. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Almendros, Sara; Obrador, Biel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-12-30

    Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally-friendly model, adherence to which, in Spain would

  9. THE USE OF DIETARY FATS AND CONCENTRATES TO ALLEVIATE THE NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE IN CROSSBRED COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Aguilar-Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy balance (EB is defined as the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Fertility in the high-merit cow has been adversely associated with high milk production, low intake of energy and mobilisation of body reserves in early lactation, which combine in the term negative energy balance (NEB.  The timing of insemination usually coincides with peak milk yield, when dairy cows are often in NEB. Crossbred cows (Bos taurus x Bos indicus in the tropics have comparatively lower nutrient requirements and different partition of nutrients than high merit dairy cows. Thus, it would be expected that both the magnitude and length of negative energy balance were different in a crossbred cow. Because of marked differences compared with high-merit cows, crossbred cows in the tropics would be expected to show greater response to additional energy in early lactation improving their energy status and hence reproductive performance. Knowing the influence of nutrition on reproduction, many methods have been proposed for manipulating the diet to avoid or to alleviate negative energy balance. The use of fats is one alternative, which has been extensively studied in dairy and beef cows but with inconclusive results. Another alternative is to use starch-based concentrates, taking into account level of inclusion and quality and availability of pasture, in order to avoid substitution effects and to get maximum profits. Two experiments were carried out in Yucatan Mexico, in order to evaluate the use of bypass fats (calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids, CAFA or a starch-based concentrate to alleviate the NEB in grazing crossbred cows in early lactation. The NEB in early lactation was successfully avoided by the use of the starch-based concentrate but not by the use of bypass fats, this due to a reduction in the grass DM intake. It was concluded that crossbred cows in the tropics may experience a period of NEB postpartum, which can be avoided if

  10. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-26

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  11. Dietary sources of energy and nutrients in the contemporary diet of Inuit adults: results from the 2007-08 Inuit Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Tiff-Annie; Hu, Xue Feng; Kuhnlein, Harriet V; Wesche, Sonia D; Chan, Hing Man

    2018-05-01

    To characterize the major components of the contemporary Inuit diet and identify the primary sources of energy and essential nutrients. Dietary data were derived from the 24 h recall collected by the Inuit Health Survey (IHS) from 2007 to 2008. The population proportion method was used to determine the percentage contribution of each group. Unique food items/preparations (ninety-three country foods and 1591 market foods) were classified into eight country food groups and forty-one market food groups. Nutrient composition of each food item was obtained from the Canadian Nutrient File. Thirty-six communities across three Inuit regions of northern Canada. A representative sample (n 2095) of non-pregnant Inuit adults (≥18 years), selected through stratified random sampling. Despite their modest contribution to total energy intake (6·4-19·6 %, by region) country foods represented a major source of protein (23-52 %), Fe (28-54 %), niacin (24-52 %) and vitamins D (up to 73 %), B6 (18-55 %) and B12 (50-82 %). By contrast, the three most popular energy-yielding market foods (i.e. sweetened beverages, added sugar and bread) collectively contributed approximately 20 % of total energy, while contributing minimally to most micronutrients. A notable exception was the contribution of these foods to Ca (13-21 %) and vitamins E (17-35 %) and C (as much as 50 %). Solid fruits were consumed by less than 25 % of participants while vegetables were reported by 38-59 % of respondents. Country foods remain a critical dimension of the contemporary Inuit diet.

  12. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  13. Severe negative energy balance during 21 d at high altitude decreases fat-free mass regardless of dietary protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Young, Andrew J; Karl, J Philip; Kenefick, Robert W; Margolis, Lee M; Cole, Renee E; Carbone, John W; Lieberman, Harris R; Kim, Il-Young; Ferrando, Arny A; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2018-02-01

    In this 2-phase randomized controlled study, we examined whether consuming a higher-protein (HP) diet would attenuate fat-free mass (FFM) loss during energy deficit (ED) at high altitude (HA) in 17 healthy males (mean ± sd: 23 ± 6 yr; 82 ± 14 kg). During phase 1 at sea level (SL, 55 m), participants consumed a eucaloric diet providing standard protein (SP; 1.0 g protein/kg,) for 21 d. During phase 2, participants resided at HA (4300 m) for 22 d and were randomly assigned to either an SP or HP (2.0 g protein/kg) diet designed to elicit a 40% ED. Body composition, substrate oxidation, and postabsorptive whole-body protein kinetics were measured. Participants were weight stable during SL and lost 7.9 ± 1.9 kg ( P Berryman, C. E., Young, A. J., Karl, J. P., Kenefick, R. W., Margolis, L. M., Cole, R. E., Carbone, J. W., Lieberman, H. R., Kim, I.-Y., Ferrando, A. A., Pasiakos, S. M. Severe negative energy balance during 21 d at high altitude decreases fat-free mass regardless of dietary protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

  14. The influence of different dietary energy content and feeding regimes on growth and feed utilization of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Gatta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax in aquaculture underlines the need to optimize the feeding strategy for this fish species. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary energy content and feeding regime on growth performance, feed uti- lization and feeding costs for European sea bass. Seven hundreds and forthyfourfish(averageinitial forthyfourfish(averageinitial four fish ( average initial body weight 68g were randomly allocated into twelve tanks 800 l in a closed recirculation system (water temperature: 22°C; dissolved oxygen ≥90% of saturation. Three isoproteic (47% crude protein extruded diets were formulated with different lipid levels i.e. 16% (diet D16, 24% (diet D24 and 32% (diet D32 and each diet was fed at two different feeding regimes (satiation and 80% satiation accord- ing to a bifactorial experimental design. Feed intake (FI was recorded daily. After 77 days, fish were bulk weighed and growth, SGR and FCR were calculated. Feedingregimesaffectedall theanalysed Feeding regimes affected all the analysed parameters (P<0.05, whereas diet influenced only FCR, FI, protein and lipid intake and the economic efficiency ratio (EER. Fish fed the lowest energy content diet (D16 to satiation resulted in the highest feed intake, a FCR similar to that of fish fed diets D24 and D32 and in the lowest EER.

  15. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (Pfat (both P values carbohydrates were reduced (Pfat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with macronutrient recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Notificação imprecisa da ingestão energética na dieta de adolescentes Misreporting of dietary energy intake in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana C. dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Examinar a prevalência da sub e supernotificação da ingestão energética em adolescentes e seus fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 96 adolescentes na pós-puberdade (47 com peso normal e 49 obesos, com idade média de 16,6±1,3 anos. Peso e altura foram medidos e o índice de massa corporal foi calculado. A composição corporal foi avaliada através de absorciometria por raios X de dupla energia. A ingestão de alimentos foi avaliada por meio de um registro alimentar de 3 dias. Realizou-se uma avaliação bioquímica (níveis séricos de colesterol total, LDL, HDL, glicose plasmática e insulina. Os subnotificadores relataram uma ingestão energética 2,4 x TMB. RESULTADOS: Notificação imprecisa (sub ou supernotificação da ingestão energética foi identificada em 65,6% dos adolescentes (64,6 e 1% de sub e supernotificação, respectivamente. Os adolescentes obesos apresentaram 5.0 vezes mais chances de subnotificar a ingestão energética (IC95% 2,0-12,7 do que os participantes com peso normal. Os subnotificadores apresentaram taxas mais altas de ingestão insuficiente de carboidratos (19,3 versus 12,1%, p = 0,046 e de lipídios (11,3 versus 0%, p OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of under and overreporting of energy intake in adolescents and their associated factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 96 postpubertal adolescents (47 normal-weight and 49 obese, mean age of 16.6±1.3 years. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was evaluated by a 3-day dietary record. Biochemical assessment was performed (serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, plasma glucose, and insulin. Underreporters reported energy intake 2.4 x BMR. RESULTS: Energy intake misreporting (under or overreporting was identified in 65.6% of adolescents (64.6 and 1% of under and overreporting, respectively

  17. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to: i evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts, two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI, ME (MEI and NE (NEI intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively. Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001 than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001 for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d. However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49 or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13, thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377 and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113 was less (p<0.001 for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150, therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  18. Links between Dietary Protein Sources, the Gut Microbiota, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Lise; Myrmel, Lene S; Fjære, Even; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The association between the gut microbiota and obesity is well documented in both humans and in animal models. It is also demonstrated that dietary factors can change the gut microbiota composition and obesity development. However, knowledge of how diet, metabolism and gut microbiota mutually interact and modulate energy metabolism and obesity development is still limited. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between intake of certain dietary protein sources and obesity. Animal studies confirm that different protein sources vary in their ability to either prevent or induce obesity. Different sources of protein such as beans, vegetables, dairy, seafood, and meat differ in amino acid composition. Further, the type and level of other factors, such as fatty acids and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) vary between dietary protein sources. All these factors can modulate the composition of the gut microbiota and may thereby influence their obesogenic properties. This review summarizes evidence of how different protein sources affect energy efficiency, obesity development, and the gut microbiota, linking protein-dependent changes in the gut microbiota with obesity.

  19. Changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone in patients participating in a low-energy dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliett, Mary; Burke, Jeanmarie R

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone following a low-energy-density dietary intervention plus regimented supplementation program. The study design was a pre-post intervention design without a control group. Normal participants were recruited from the faculty, staff, students, and community members from a chiropractic college to participate in a 21-day weight loss program. All participants (n = 49; 36 women, 13 men; 31 ± 10.3 years of age) received freshly prepared mostly vegan meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) that included 1200 to 1400 daily calories (5020.8 to 5857.6 J) for the women and 1600 to 1800 (6694.4 to 7531.2 J) daily calories for the men. Nutritional supplements containing enzymes that were intended to facilitate digestion, reduce cholesterol levels, increase metabolic rate, and mediate inflammatory processes were consumed 30 minutes before each meal. The regimented supplementation program included once-daily supplementation with a green drink that contained alfalfa, wheatgrass, apple cider vinegar, and fulvic acid throughout the study period. A cleanse supplementation containing magnesium, chia, flaxseed, lemon, camu camu, cat's claw, bentonite clay, tumeric, pau d'arco, chanca piedra, stevia, zeolite clay, slippery elm, garlic, ginger, peppermint, aloe, citrus bioflavonoids, and fulvic acid was added before each meal during week 2. During week 3, the cleanse supplementation was replaced with probiotic and prebiotic supplementation. Multiple paired t tests detected clinically meaningful reductions in weight (- 8.7 ± 5.54 lb) (- 3.9 ± 2.5 kg), total cholesterol (- 30.0 ± 29.77 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (- 21.0 ± 25.20 mg/dL) (P < .05). There was a pre-post intervention increase in testosterone for men (111.0 ± 121.13 ng/dL, P < .05). Weight loss and improvements in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein

  20. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  1. Can a low-carbon-energy transition be sustained in post-Fukushima Japan? Assessing the varying impacts of exogenous shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Takako; Zusman, Eric; Monogan, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear crisis, Japan began contemplating energy policy reforms that drew inspiration from low-carbon research. This article focuses on a question central to advancing low-carbon research in Japan and elsewhere: namely, how does an exogenous shock affect the onset, magnitude, and permanence of changes in electricity consumption? The article employs intervention analysis with an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model to answer this question. The data analysis reveals that post-Fukushima electricity use underwent a sudden, significant, and sustained reduction across Japan. The shock not only affected the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) coverage area but the more distant Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO) coverage area. Large electricity users responded with an immediate and significant reduction in electricity consumption that rebounded to below pre-crisis levels; households responded more gradually with no rebound. Two of the more interesting results from the data analysis – the persistence in reductions in the more distant KEPCO coverage area and the rebound among large users – are then explained with a review of survey data and policy trends. Overall the quantitative and qualitative evidence suggests that an exogenous shock may give rise to a reduction in electricity consumption but cannot sustain a low-carbon transition. - Highlights: • Contributing to the literature on low carbon transitions. • Comparing post-Fukushima electricity consumption across regions and user groups. • Recommending reforms to sustain energy savings after an exogenous shock

  2. Monte Carlo simulations in CT for the study of the surface air kerma and energy imparted to phantoms of varying size and position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés Lucas, P.; Dance, D. R.; Castellano, I. A.; Vañó, E.

    2004-04-01

    A Monte Carlo computational model of CT has been developed and used to investigate the effect of various physical factors on the surface air kerma length product, the peak surface air kerma, the air kerma length product within a phantom and the energy imparted. The factors investigated were the bow-tie filter and the size, shape and position of a phantom which simulates the patient. The calculations show that the surface air kerma length product and the maximum surface air kerma are mainly dependent on phantom position and decrease along the vertical axis of the CT plane as the phantom surface moves away from the isocentre along this axis. As a result, measurements using standard body dosimetry phantoms may underestimate the skin dose for real patients. This result is specially important for CT fluoroscopic procedures: for an adult patient the peak skin dose can be 37% higher than that estimated with a standard measurement on the body AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine) phantom. The results also show that the energy imparted to a phantom is mainly influenced by phantom size and is nearly independent of phantom position (within 3%) and shape (up to 5% variation). However, variations of up to 30% were found for the air kerma to regions within the AAPM body phantom when it is moved vertically. This highlights the importance of calculating doses to organs taking into account their size and position within the gantry.

  3. Evaluation of a binary optimization approach to find the optimum locations of energy storage devices in a power grid with stochastically varying loads and wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Zamiyad

    The prices in the electricity market change every five minutes. The prices in peak demand hours can be four or five times more than the prices in normal off peak hours. Renewable energy such as wind power has zero marginal cost and a large percentage of wind energy in a power grid can reduce the price significantly. The variability of wind power prevents it from being constantly available in peak hours. The price differentials between off-peak and on-peak hours due to wind power variations provide an opportunity for a storage device owner to buy energy at a low price and sell it in high price hours. In a large and complex power grid, there are many locations for installation of a storage device. Storage device owners prefer to install their device at locations that allow them to maximize profit. Market participants do not possess much information about the system operator's dispatch, power grid, competing generators and transmission system. The publicly available data from the system operator usually consists of Locational Marginal Prices (LMP), load, reserve prices and regulation prices. In this thesis, we develop a method to find the optimum location of a storage device without using the grid, transmission or generator data. We formulate and solve an optimization problem to find the most profitable location for a storage device using only the publicly available market pricing data such as LMPs, and reserve prices. We consider constraints arising due to storage device operation limitations in our objective function. We use binary optimization and branch and bound method to optimize the operation of a storage device at a given location to earn maximum profit. We use two different versions of our method and optimize the profitability of a storage unit at each location in a 36 bus model of north eastern United States and south eastern Canada for four representative days representing four seasons in a year. Finally, we compare our results from the two versions of our

  4. Effects of dietary energy concentration, nonstarch polysaccharide concentration, and particle sizes of nonstarch polysaccharides on digesta mean retention time and gut development in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    1. From an experiment with 504 laying hens (ISA Brown strain, 18–40 weeks of age), 90 40-week old hens were used for determining digesta mean retention time (MRT) and gut weight development. This experiment comprised 6 dietary treatments according to a 2¿×¿3 factorial design. Factors were dietary

  5. Interdependencies of acquisition, detection, and reconstruction techniques on the accuracy of iodine quantification in varying patient sizes employing dual-energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Daniele; Pratts-Emanuelli, Jose J.; Mileto, Achille; Bashir, Mustafa R.; Nelson, Rendon C.; Boll, Daniel T. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Husarik, Daniela B. [University Hospital Zurich, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-03

    To assess the impact of patient habitus, acquisition parameters, detector efficiencies, and reconstruction techniques on the accuracy of iodine quantification using dual-source dual-energy CT (DECT). Two phantoms simulating small and large patients contained 20 iodine solutions mimicking vascular and parenchymal enhancement from saline isodensity to 400 HU and 30 iodine solutions simulating enhancement of the urinary collecting system from 400 to 2,000 HU. DECT acquisition (80/140 kVp and 100/140 kVp) was performed using two DECT systems equipped with standard and integrated electronics detector technologies. DECT raw datasets were reconstructed using filtered backprojection (FBP), and iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE I/V). Accuracy for iodine quantification was significantly higher for the small compared to the large phantoms (9.2 % ± 7.5 vs. 24.3 % ± 26.1, P = 0.0001), the integrated compared to the conventional detectors (14.8 % ± 20.6 vs. 18.8 % ± 20.4, respectively; P = 0.006), and SAFIRE V compared to SAFIRE I and FBP reconstructions (15.2 % ± 18.1 vs. 16.1 % ± 17.6 and 18.9 % ± 20.4, respectively; P ≤ 0.003). A significant synergism was observed when the most effective detector and reconstruction techniques were combined with habitus-adapted dual-energy pairs. In a second-generation dual-source DECT system, the accuracy of iodine quantification can be substantially improved by an optimal choice and combination of acquisition parameters, detector, and reconstruction techniques. (orig.)

  6. [Dietary prevention of protein-energy malnutrition during early postoperative period in elderly patients with gastroduodenal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiĭ, A Iu; Protopopova, O B

    2012-01-01

    The modified diet of postoperative rehabilitation program in elderly patients with gastroduodenal ulcers and prognosis of development of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is presented. It is shown that early initiated special diet in postoperative period, blocks mechanisms of malnutrition and can significantly improve the functional status of the small intestine and activate, thus, membrane digestion, which leads to normalization of all types of metabolism in elderly patients. In comparison with control group, where 72% of patients in postoperative period had malnutrition, malnutrition in the study group revealed a mild degree in only 17.3% of patients.

  7. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-05

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  8. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  9. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  10. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  11. Effects of dietary high fructose corn syrup on regulation of energy intake and leptin gene expression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe López-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in Wistar rats the effect of chronic use of high fructose corn syrup on serum lipids, body weight, energy intake regulation, and expression of associated genes. METHODS: For 11 weeks, male rats were fed a standard diet with either water (control or 15% high fructose corn syrup solution, or fed a high-fat diet. The rats' food intake and body weight were measured weekly. Expression of leptin and fatty acid synthase genes was quantified in their brain and adipose tissue upon sacrifice at age 119 days using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The intake of 15% high fructose corn syrup did not affect the rats' weight, only the rats on the high-fat diet gained significant weight. The rats in both diets had lower levels of leptin expression and high levels of fatty acid synthase in the brain, which were associated with high serum triglycerides. CONCLUSION: Fifteen percent high fructose corn syrup intake and the high-fat diet reduced leptin gene expression in the brain of Wistar rats, with differential effects on weight gain.

  12. Effect of dry period dietary energy level in dairy cattle on volume, concentrations of immunoglobulin G, insulin, and fatty acid composition of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Lock, A L; Lamb, S V; Wakshlag, J J; Nydam, D V

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the volume, concentration of IgG and insulin, as well as fatty acid composition of colostrum. Our hypothesis was that different dry period diets formulated to resemble current feeding practices on commercial dairy farms and differing in plane of energy would have an effect on IgG and insulin concentration, as well as composition of fatty acid of colostrum. Animals (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were dried off 57 d before expected parturition and fed either a diet formulated to meet, but not greatly exceed energy requirements throughout the dry period (CON), or a higher energy density diet, supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements (HI). A third group received the same diet as group CON from dry-off until 29 d before expected parturition. After this time point, from 28 d before expected parturition until calving, they received a diet formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements (I-med). Concentration of IgG and insulin in colostrum were measured by radial immunodiffusion and RIA, respectively. Composition of fatty acids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The IgG concentration was highest in colostrum of cows in group CON [96.1 (95% CI: 83.3-108.9) g/L] and lowest in group HI [72.4 (60.3-84.5) g/L], whereas insulin concentration was highest in group HI [1,105 (960-1,250) μU/mL] and lowest in group CON [853 (700-1,007) μU/mL]. Colostrum yield did not differ between treatments and was 5.9 (4.5-7.4), 7.0 (5.6-8.4), and 7.3 (5.9-8.7) kg in groups CON, I-med, and HI, respectively. A multivariable linear regression model showed the effect of dietary treatment group on IgG concentration was independent of the effect of dry matter. Cows in groups CON, I-med, and HI had an average colostral fat percentage of 5.0 (4.1-5.9), 5.6 (4.8-6.4), and 6.0 (5.2-6.8) and an average fat yield of 289 (196-380), 406 (318-495), and 384 (295-473) g, respectively

  13. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  14. Effect of different dietary energy and protein sources on antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and microstructure of salted yolks in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Hu, Y J; Fouad, A M; Lin, C X; Xu, Z P; Chen, W; Fan, Q L; Xia, W G; Wang, S; Wang, Y; Yang, L; Zheng, C T

    2018-01-08

    The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and

  15. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  16. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  17. Efeito do nível de energia metabolizável da dieta no desempenho e metabolismo energético de frangos de corte Effect of dietary metabolizable energy on energy metabolism and performance in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilva Kazue Sakomura

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, estudar o efeito dos níveis de energia metabolizável (EM da dieta sobre o desempenho e o metabolismo energético de frangos de corte machos na fase de crescimento (22 a 43 dias de idade em condições de temperatura ambiente. Foram utilizadas 288 aves distribuídas aleatoriamente por três níveis de energia da dieta (3.050, 3.200 e 3.350 kcal/kg e três níveis de alimentação (ad libitum, 75 e 50% do ad libitum, com quatro repetições de oito aves, para determinação das exigências de mantença e das eficiências energéticas. Foi utilizado o método do abate comparativo, sendo que 12 aves foram abatidas no início do ensaio experimental, para determinação da composição corporal inicial, e 144 aves foram usadas para determinação da energia metabolizável das dietas experimentais. Os níveis de energia influenciaram na ingestão de energia metabolizável (IEM e, conseqüentemente, a retenção de energia na carcaça (ER e a produção de calor (PC. As exigências de energia metabolizável de mantença (EMm determinadas foram 131,12; 140,96 e 131,78 kcal/kg0,75/dia para os níveis de energia alto, médio e baixo, respectivamente. O nível de energia mais alto (3.350 kcal/kg na dieta dos frangos de corte proporcionou melhores resultados de desempenho, enquanto o médio (3.200 kcal/kg, melhor equilíbrio na eficiência de utilização de energia para deposição de proteína e gordura, conseqüentemente, melhor qualidade da carcaça, em decorrência da menor deposição de gordura.The objective of this work was to study the effect of dietary ME levels on the performance and the energy metabolism of male broilers on growing phase, from 22 to 43 days old. Two hundred and eighty-eight broilers were ramdomly assigned to three energy levels (3,050; 3,200 and 3,350 kcal/kg and three feeding levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% ad libitum, with four replicates of eight birds, to determine the energy maintenance

  18. Sustained impact of energy-dense TV and online food advertising on children's dietary intake: a within-subject, randomised, crossover, counter-balanced trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jennifer; Kelly, Bridget; McMahon, Anne-T; Boyland, Emma; Baur, Louise A; Chapman, Kathy; King, Lesley; Hughes, Clare; Bauman, Adrian

    2018-04-12

    Policies restricting children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing have been impeded by the lack of evidence showing a direct link between food advertising exposure and children's energy intake and body weight. Food advertising exposure increases children's immediate food consumption, but whether this increased intake is compensated for at later eating occasions is not known; consequently the sustained effect on diets remains unclear. We conducted a within-subject, randomised, crossover, counterbalanced study across four, six-day holiday camps in New South Wales, Australia between April 2016 and January 2017. Children (7-12 years, n = 160) were recruited via local schools, email networks and social media. Two gender- and age-balanced groups were formed for each camp (n = 20), randomised to either a multiple- or single- media condition and exposed to food and non-food advertising in an online game and/or a television cartoon. Children's food consumption (kilojoules) was measured at a snack immediately after exposure and then at lunch later in the day. Linear mixed models were conducted to examine relationships between food advertising exposure and dietary intake, taking into account gender, age and weight status. All children in the multiple-media condition ate more at a snack after exposure to food advertising compared with non-food advertising; this was not compensated for at lunch, leading to additional daily food intake of 194 kJ (95% CI 80-308, p = 0.001, d = 0.2). Exposure to multiple-media food advertising compared with a single-media source increased the effect on snack intake by a difference of 182 kJ (95% CI 46-317, p = 0.009, d = 0.4). Food advertising had an increased effect among children with heavier weight status in both media groups. Online ('advergame') advertising combined with TV advertising exerted a stronger influence on children's food consumption than TV advertising alone. The lack of compensation at lunch for

  19. Dietary macronutrients and the aging liver sinusoidal endothelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Victoria Carroll; Mohamad, Mashani; Solon-Biet, Samantha Marie; Senior, Alistair M; Warren, Alessandra; O'Reilly, Jennifer Nicole; Tung, Bui Thanh; Svistounov, Dmitri; McMahon, Aisling Clare; Fraser, Robin; Raubenheimer, David; Holmes, Andrew J; Simpson, Stephen James; Le Couteur, David George

    2016-05-01

    Fenestrations are pores within the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) that line the sinusoids of the highly vascularized liver. Fenestrations facilitate the transfer of substrates between blood and hepatocytes. With pseudocapillarization of the hepatic sinusoid in old age, there is a loss of fenestrations. LSECs are uniquely exposed to gut-derived dietary and microbial substrates delivered by the portal circulation to the liver. Here we studied the effect of 25 diets varying in content of macronutrients and energy on LSEC fenestrations using the Geometric Framework method in a large cohort of mice aged 15 mo. Macronutrient distribution rather than total food or energy intake was associated with changes in fenestrations. Porosity and frequency were inversely associated with dietary fat intake, while fenestration diameter was inversely associated with protein or carbohydrate intake. Fenestrations were also linked to diet-induced changes in gut microbiome, with increased fenestrations associated with higher abundance of Firmicutes and reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes Diet-induced changes in levels of several fatty acids (C16:0, C19:0, and C20:4) were also significantly inversely associated with fenestrations, suggesting a link between dietary fat and modulation of lipid rafts in the LSECs. Diet influences fenestrations and these data reflect both the key role of the LSECs in clearing gut-derived molecules from the vascular circulation and the impact these molecules have on LSEC morphology. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Time-varying BRDFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.

  1. Within- and between-individual variation in energy and nutrient intake in Japanese adults: effect of age and sex differences on group size and number of records required for adequate dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Azusa; Asakura, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2013-01-01

    Information on within- and between-individual variation in energy and nutrient intake is critical for precisely estimating usual dietary intake; however, data from Japanese populations are limited. We used dietary records to examine within- and between-individual variation by age and sex in the intake of energy and 31 selected nutrients among Japanese adults. We also calculated the group size required to estimate mean intake for a group and number of days required both to rank individuals within a group and to assess an individual's usual intake, all with appropriate arbitrary precision. A group of Japanese women (younger: 30-49 years, n = 58; older: 50-69 years, n = 63) and men (younger: 30-49 years, n = 54; older: 50-76 years, n = 67) completed dietary records for 4 nonconsecutive days in each season (16 days in total). Coefficients of within-individual variation and between-individual variation were generally larger in the younger group than in the older group and in men as compared with women. The group size required to estimate a group's mean intake, and number of days required to assess an individual's usual intake, were generally larger for the younger group and for men. In general, a longer period was required to rank women and older adults. In a group of Japanese adults, coefficients of within-individual variation and between-individual variation, which were used to estimate the group size and number of records required for adequate dietary assessment, differed by age, sex, and nutrient.

  2. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J. William O.; Le Couteur, David G.; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K. M.; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance. PMID:27832138

  3. Children's very low food security is associated with increased dietary intakes in energy, fat, and added sugar among Mexican-origin children (6-11 y in Texas border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity among Mexican-origin and Hispanic households is a critical nutritional health issue of national importance. At the same time, nutrition-related health conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are increasing in Mexican-origin youth. Risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes are more common in Mexican-origin children and include increased intakes of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. This study assessed the relationship between children's experience of food insecurity and nutrient intake from food and beverages among Mexican-origin children (age 6-11 y who resided in Texas border colonias. Methods Baseline data from 50 Mexican-origin children were collected in the home by trained promotora-researchers. All survey (demographics and nine-item child food security measure and 24-hour dietary recall data were collected in Spanish. Dietary data were collected in person on three occasions using a multiple-pass approach; nutrient intakes were calculated with NDS-R software. Separate multiple regression models were individually fitted for total energy, protein, dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, sodium, Vitamin C, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugars. Results Thirty-two children (64% reported low or very low food security. Few children met the recommendations for calcium, dietary fiber, and sodium; and none for potassium or vitamin D. Weekend intake was lower than weekday for calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and vitamin C; and higher for percent of calories from fat. Three-day average dietary intakes of total calories, protein, and percent of calories from added sugars increased with declining food security status. Very low food security was associated with greater intakes of total energy, calcium, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugar. Conclusions This paper not only emphasizes the alarming rates of food insecurity for this Hispanic subgroup, but describes the

  4. Children's very low food security is associated with increased dietary intakes in energy, fat, and added sugar among Mexican-origin children (6-11 y) in Texas border Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Nalty, Courtney; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R

    2012-02-20

    Food insecurity among Mexican-origin and Hispanic households is a critical nutritional health issue of national importance. At the same time, nutrition-related health conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are increasing in Mexican-origin youth. Risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes are more common in Mexican-origin children and include increased intakes of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. This study assessed the relationship between children's experience of food insecurity and nutrient intake from food and beverages among Mexican-origin children (age 6-11 y) who resided in Texas border colonias. Baseline data from 50 Mexican-origin children were collected in the home by trained promotora-researchers. All survey (demographics and nine-item child food security measure) and 24-hour dietary recall data were collected in Spanish. Dietary data were collected in person on three occasions using a multiple-pass approach; nutrient intakes were calculated with NDS-R software. Separate multiple regression models were individually fitted for total energy, protein, dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, sodium, Vitamin C, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugars. Thirty-two children (64%) reported low or very low food security. Few children met the recommendations for calcium, dietary fiber, and sodium; and none for potassium or vitamin D. Weekend intake was lower than weekday for calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and vitamin C; and higher for percent of calories from fat. Three-day average dietary intakes of total calories, protein, and percent of calories from added sugars increased with declining food security status. Very low food security was associated with greater intakes of total energy, calcium, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugar. This paper not only emphasizes the alarming rates of food insecurity for this Hispanic subgroup, but describes the associations for food insecurity and diet among this sample of Mexican

  5. Ultra-processed foods, protein leverage and energy intake in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Steele, Euridice; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that human macronutrient regulation minimizes variation in absolute protein intake and consequently energy intake varies passively with dietary protein density ('protein leverage'). According to the 'protein leverage hypothesis' (PLH), protein leverage interacts with a reduction in dietary protein density to drive energy overconsumption and obesity. Worldwide increase in consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) has been hypothesized to be an important determinant of dietary protein dilution, and consequently an ecological driving force of energy overconsumption and the obesity pandemic. The present study examined the relationships between dietary contribution of UPF, dietary proportional protein content and the absolute intakes of protein and energy. National representative cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Participants (n 9042) aged ≥2 years with at least one day of 24 h dietary recall data. We found a strong inverse relationship between consumption of UPF and dietary protein density, with mean protein content dropping from 18·2 to 13·3 % between the lowest and highest quintiles of dietary contribution of UPF. Consistent with the PLH, increase in the dietary contribution of UPF (previously shown to be inversely associated with protein density) was also associated with a rise in total energy intake, while absolute protein intake remained relatively constant. The protein-diluting effect of UPF might be one mechanism accounting for their association with excess energy intake. Reducing UPF contribution in the US diet may be an effective way to increase its dietary protein concentration and prevent excessive energy intake.

  6. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on milk yield, energy balance, and metabolic status of dairy cows over 2 consecutive years: Effects in the second year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Remmelink, G J; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, energy balance (EB), and metabolic status in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in the second year after implementation of DP and dietary treatments. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 DP lengths (0, 30, or 60d) and 1 of 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic) for 2 consecutive years. Results of the first year were reported previously. In the second year, 19 cows in the 0-d DP group were attributed to a new group (0→67d DP) because these cows had a milk yield of cows with a 0-d or 0→67-d DP had greater body condition score (BCS) than cows with a 60-d DP. During the first 9wk, cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced 5.0 and 4.3kg less milk per day, respectively, but had similar EB compared with cows with a 60-d DP. Cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced additional milk precalving, which could compensate milk yield losses in the first 9wk postcalving. Cows with a 0-d DP did not have milk yield losses or improve EB in the second year as much as in the first year. Cows with a 0-d DP had greater plasma insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and lower liver triacylglycerol concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Cows with a 0→67-d DP had lower EB, and greater plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Feeding a glucogenic diet increased plasma glucose, IGF-I, and insulin concentrations, and decreased plasma FFA, BHB, and urea concentrations compared with a lipogenic diet, independent of DP length. In conclusion, omitting the DP or feeding a glucogenic diet improved metabolic status in early lactation of the second year after implementation of DP length and dietary treatments, although effects of omitting the DP were less pronounced in the second year than in the first year. The less pronounced improvement of EB in the second year was related

  7. Ethnicity and socioeconomic status are related to dietary patterns at age 5 in the Amsterdam born children and their development (ABCD) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Viyan; Engberink, Marielle F; van Eijsden, Manon; Nicolaou, Mary; Dekker, Louise H; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Weijs, Peter J M

    2018-01-08

    Health inequalities are already present at young age and tend to vary with ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Diet is a major determinant of overweight, and studying dietary patterns as a whole in relation to overweight rather than single nutrients or foods has been suggested. We derived dietary patterns at age 5 and determined whether ethnicity and SES were both related to these dietary patterns. We analysed 2769 validated Food Frequency Questionnaires filled in by mothers of children (5.7 ± 0.5y) in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort. Food items were reduced to 41 food groups. Energy adjusted intake per food group (g/d) was used to derive dietary patterns using Principal Component Analysis and children were given a pattern score for each dietary pattern. We defined 5 ethnic groups (Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, other ethnicities) and 3 SES groups (low, middle, high, based on maternal education). Multivariate ANOVA, with adjustment for age, gender and maternal age, was used to test potential associations between ethnicity or SES and dietary pattern scores. Post-hoc analyses with Bonferroni adjustment were used to examine differences between groups. Principal Component Analysis identified 4 dietary patterns: a snacking, full-fat, meat and healthy dietary pattern, explaining 21% of the variation in dietary intake. Ethnicity was related to the dietary pattern scores (p pattern, whereas Turkish children scored high on full-fat and Surinamese children on the meat pattern. SES was related to the snacking, full-fat and meat patterns (p pattern and low on the full-fat pattern. This study indicates that both ethnicity and SES are relevant for dietary patterns at age 5 and may enable more specific nutrition education to specific ethnic and low socioeconomic status target groups.

  8. Effective translation of current dietary guidance: understanding and communicating the concepts of minimal and optimal levels of dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Miller, Sharon L

    2015-04-29

    Dietitians and health care providers have critical roles in the translation of the dietary guidance to practice. The protein content of diets for adults can be based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.80 g/kg per day. Alternatively, the most recent Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for macronutrients reflect expanded guidance for assessing protein needs and consider the relative relation of absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and fat to total energy intake in the context of chronic disease prevention. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) reflects the interrelation between the macronutrients and affords dietitians and clinicians additional flexibility in diet planning. Accounting for the caloric value of RDAs for carbohydrate and fat, "flexible calories" emerge as an opportunity to create varied eating plans that provide for protein intakes in excess of the RDA but within the AMDR. Protein Summit 2.0 highlighted the growing body of scientific evidence documenting the benefits of higher protein intakes at amounts approximating twice the RDA, which include promotion of healthy body weight and preservation of lean body mass and functional ability with age. The essential amino acid (EAA) density of a food also emerged as a novel concept analogous to "nutrient density," which can enable the practitioner to calculate the caloric cost associated with a specific protein source to attain the daily requirement of EAAs to accomplish various health outcomes because these indispensable nutrients have a significant role in protein utilization and metabolic regulation. Tailoring recommendations unique to an individual's varying goals and needs remains a challenge. However, flexibility within the application of DRIs to include consideration of the AMDR provides a sound framework to guide practitioners in effective translation of current dietary guidance with a specific regard for the documented benefits of higher protein intakes. © 2015

  9. Dietary medium-chain saturated fatty acids induce gene expression of energy metabolism-related pathways in adipose tissue of abdominally obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matualatupauw, J.C.; Bohl, Mette; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, K.; Afman, L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dietary medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) have been shown to reduce total body fat. Previously, we showed that MC-SFAs prevent body fat accumulation, despite weight gain. Here, we aim to explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of MC-SFAs on body

  10. The role of energy, nutrients, foods and dietary patterns in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenaker, D.A.J.M.; Mishra, G.D.; Callaway, L.K.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diet may influence the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but inconsistent findings have been reported. The purpose of this study was to synthesize evidence from observational studies on the associations between dietary factors and GDM.
    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Medline

  11. Women's dietary changes before and during pregnancy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Sarah E; Olander, Ellinor K

    2017-06-01

    dietary intake before and during pregnancy has significant health outcomes for both mother and child, including a healthy gestational weight gain. To ensure effective interventions are successfully developed to improve dietary intake during pregnancy, it is important to understand what dietary changes pregnant women make without intervention. to systematically identify and review studies examining women's dietary changes before and during pregnancy and to identify characteristics of the women making these changes. a systematic search strategy was employed using three databases (Web of Science, CINAHL and PubMed) in May 2016. Search terms included those relating to preconception, pregnancy and diet. All papers were quality assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network methodology checklist for cohort studies.The search revealed 898 articles narrowed to full-text review of 23 studies. In total, 11 research articles were included in the review, describing nine different studies. The findings were narratively summarised in line with the aims of the review. the included studies showed marked heterogeneity, which impacts on the findings. However, the majority report an increase in energy intake (kcal or kJ) during pregnancy. Of the studies that reported changes through food group comparisons, a majority reported a significant increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, a decrease in egg consumption, a decrease in fried and fast food consumption and a decrease in coffee and tea consumption from before to during pregnancy. The characteristics of the women participating in these studies, suggest that age, education and pregnancy intention are associated with healthier dietary changes; however these factors were only assessed in a small number of studies. the 11 included articles show varied results in dietary intake during pregnancy as compared to before. More research is needed regarding who makes these healthy changes, this includes consistency regarding

  12. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  13. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  14. [Comparison of 24 hour dietary recalls with a food frequency questionnaire in evaluating dietary fat intakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Juan; Zhuo, Qin; He, Yu-na

    2016-05-01

    To compare the difference and correlation of dietary fat intakes measures from the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24 hour dietary recalls (24HDRs), and provide evidence for the future research of dietary fat. A total of 511 participants, selected from Zhejiang province, were asked to complete an FFQ and 24HDRs. The consumption of energy, fat, fatty acids, the percentages of energy from fat were calculated with the FFQ and 24HDRs and the results were analyzed. There was no difference between FFQ and 24HDRs in energy, fat, fatty acids and the percentages of energy from fat. Sperman's rank correlation coefficient between the two methods were 0.51 in energy, 0.58 in fat and 0. 57 in the percentages of energy from fat. The proportion of subjects who were assigned to the same or adjacent quintile groups were 80.73% for energy, 84.81% for fat and 83. 38% for the percentages of energy from fat. An effective FFQ can evaluate dietary fat consumption and rank participants well. Selecting the simple and easy FFQ method to assess the dietary fat intake would he a good choice when research the relationship between dietary fat and chronic disease in the future.

  15. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  16. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  17. Effects of dietary lipid sources on performance and apparent total tract digestibility of lipids and energy when fed to nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, S M; van Heugten, E

    2014-02-01

    Acidulated fats and oils are by-products of the fat-refining industry. They contain high levels of FFA and are 10% to 20% less expensive than refined fats and oils. Two studies were designed to measure the effects of dietary lipid sources low or high in FFA on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of lipids and GE in nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, 189 pigs at 14 d postweaning (BW of 9.32 ± 0.11 kg) were used for 21 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 3 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet without added lipids and 6 diets with 6% inclusion of lipids. Four lipid sources were combined to create the dietary treatments with 2 levels of FFA (0.40% or 54.0%) and 3 degrees of fat saturation (iodine value [IV] = 77, 100, or 123) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Lipid sources were soybean oil (0.3% FFA and IV = 129.4), soybean-cottonseed acid oil blend (70.5% FFA and IV = 112.9), choice white grease (0.6% FFA and IV = 74.8), and choice white acid grease (56.0% FFA and IV = 79.0). Addition of lipid sources decreased ADFI (810 vs. 872 g/d; P = 0.018) and improved G:F (716 vs. 646 g/kg; P source. Fat increased (P sources.

  18. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  19. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  20. Preschool Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions from the validation studies on preschool populations discussed in this chapter is difficult because of the varied study designs, the relatively small study populations, and limited number of studies on each dietary assessment method.

  1. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  2. Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product-based diets on newly received growing cattle: antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spore, Tyler J; Montgomery, Sean P; Titgemeyer, Evan C; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Vahl, Chris I; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cavalli, Kevin T; Hollenbeck, William R; Wahl, Ross A; Blasi, Dale A

    2018-04-14

    Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product-based diets on antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid newly received growing cattle were evaluated. Four dietary treatments were formulated to supply 0.99, 1.10, 1.21, and 1.32 Mcal NEg/ kg DM and were offered at 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% of ad libitum based on 0.99/100 treatment intake, respectively. Thirty-two pens were utilized with approximately 12 animals/pen. Four animals from each pen (32/dietary treatment) were randomly selected and used to serve as a subset to monitor immune function and acute phase proteins following a split-plot design. In addition, two animals were randomly and independently selected from each pen (16/dietary treatment) and used to measure fecal cortisol metabolite. Additionally, animals removed from the pen one (M1), two (M2), or three (M3) times and classified as morbid were bled in conjunction with a healthy control (H) removed at the same time and the serum analyzed for the same parameters. A quadratic response to time (P bovine viral diarrhea type 1 (BVD-I) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR; P levels by day 27. Titer levels for BVD-I and IBR were lowest on arrival, higher on day 14, and significantly higher on day 27. Titers for bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVD-II) responded linearly (P levels on arrival and highest levels on day 27. Haptoglobin was elevated in morbid animals compared to healthy pen mates (P levels for BVD-I and IBR were also higher in healthy animals compared to animals pulled for morbidity (P energy receiving diets based on fermentable fiber from by-products can be fed to newly received growing cattle without negative effects on antibody production toward vaccines, inflammation, or overall stress. In addition, haptoglobin concentrations and titer levels for BVD-I and IBR viruses are higher in healthy animals compared to sick animals.

  3. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  4. Nutrition activation and dietary intake disparities among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Massey, Philip M

    2016-12-01

    To introduce the concept 'nutrition activation' (the use of health and nutrition information when making food and diet decisions) and to assess the extent to which nutrition activation varies across racial/ethnic groups and explains dietary disparities. Cross-sectional sample representative of adults in the USA. Primary outcome measures include daily energy intake and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fast foods and sit-down restaurant foods as determined by two 24 h dietary recalls. We use bivariate statistics and multiple logistic and linear regression analyses to assess racial/ethnic disparities in nutrition activation and food behaviour outcomes. USA. Adult participants (n 7825) in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nutrition activation varies across racial/ethnic groups and is a statistically significant predictor of SSB, fast-food and restaurant-food consumption and daily energy intake. Based on the sample distribution, an increase from the 25th to 75th percentile in nutrition activation is associated with a decline of about 377 kJ (90 kcal)/d. Increased nutrition activation is associated with a larger decline in SSB consumption among whites than among blacks and foreign-born Latinos. Fast-food consumption is associated with a larger 'spike' in daily energy intake among blacks (+1582 kJ (+378 kcal)/d) than among whites (+678 kJ (+162 kcal)/d). Nutrition activation is an important but understudied determinant of energy intake and should be explicitly incorporated into obesity prevention interventions, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities.

  5. Dietary Management of Obesity: Cornerstones of Healthy Eating Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethers, Alissa D; Rolls, Barbara J

    2018-01-01

    Several dietary patterns, both macronutrient and food based, can lead to weight loss. A key strategy for weight management that can be applied across dietary patterns is to reduce energy density. Clinical trials show that reducing energy density is effective for weight loss and weight loss maintenance. A variety of practical strategies and tools can help facilitate successful weight management by reducing energy density, providing portion control, and improving diet quality. The flexibility of energy density gives patients options to tailor and personalize their dietary pattern to reduce energy intake for sustainable weight loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary Quality and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Desiree; Zlatkis, Karyn; Comenge, Beatriz; García, Zoraida; Navarro, Juan F; Lorenzo, Victor; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2016-05-01

    The multiple dietary restrictions recommended to hemodialysis patients may be difficult to achieve and, at the same time, may result in nutritional deficiencies rendering a poor dietary quality. We here assess the dietary quality and adherence to renal-specific guideline recommendations among hemodialysis patients from a single center in Canary Islands, Spain. Cross-sectional study, including 91 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clinical data and 3-day dietary records were collected. We compared patient's reported nutrients intake with guideline recommendations. We also evaluated their alignment with current American Heart Association dietary guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Seventy-seven percent and 50% of patients consumed less than the recommended daily energy and protein, respectively. Although half of the patients met the recommendations for dietary fat intake, this was accounted by an excess of saturated fat in 92% of them. Only 22% consumed sufficient fiber. A very small proportion of patients (less than 50%) met the requirements for vitamins and other micronutrients. Insufficient dietary intake was observed in most patients for all vitamins except for cobalamin. Similarly, inadequate dietary intake was observed for many minerals, by both excess (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and defect (magnesium). Most patients met the recommendations for iron and zinc in their diets. A large proportion of hemodialysis patients at our center did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The quality of the diet was considered poor and proatherogenic according to American Heart Association guidelines. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sociodemographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in Mexican schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Chávez, Claudia Gabriela; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; Monterrubio-Flores, Eric; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-03-01

    Childhood obesity has increased rapidly in Mexico, along with changes in the food environment. However, little is known about the dietary patterns (DP) of Mexican children. We aimed to characterize the DP of schoolchildren and to analyse their associations with sociodemographic factors. Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary and sociodemographic information was obtained, including a single 24 h recall, socio-economic status (SES), geographic region, area of residence and ethnicity. DP were defined with cluster analysis (using k-means). Multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for the survey design, were used to assess associations between DP and sociodemographic variables. 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2012). Schoolchildren (n 2751) aged 5-11 years who participated in ENSANUT-2012. Four DP were identified: 'Traditional', 'Industrialized', 'Varied' and 'Modern'. Reported energy intake (mean (sd)) was lowest in the 'Traditional' and highest in the 'Industrialized' DP (7037 (3707) kJ/d (1682 (886) kcal/d) v. 8427 (3753) kJ/d (2014 (897) kcal/d), respectively, P<0·05). Significant differences in fat and fibre intakes were seen across DP. Non-indigenous v. indigenous children were 22·0 times (95 % CI 5·1, 93·6) more likely to have a 'Modern' rather than 'Traditional' DP. Relative likelihood of having an 'Industrialized' rather than 'Traditional' DP was 6·2 (95 % CI 3·9, 9·9) among schoolchildren from high SES v. low SES. Among Mexican schoolchildren, DP were associated with sociodemographic variables. Non-indigenous children were significantly more likely to consume a 'Modern' than a 'Traditional' DP. Children with higher SES were more likely to have an 'Industrialized' pattern. It is necessary to consider dietary characteristics in the different sociodemographic strata when dietary interventions are designed.

  8. Subnotificação da ingestão energética na avaliação do consumo alimentar Underreporting of energy intake in dietary assessment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Informações válidas sobre o consumo de energia e nutrientes são um pré-requisito em muitas pesquisas de nutrição humana, principalmente nos estudos epidemiológicos sobre dieta e saúde. Até o advento da água duplamente marcada, não era possível validar as avaliações do consumo energético de forma externa e independente. Este marcador demonstrou a existência de significativa subnotificação da ingestão energética. Esta pesquisa objetiva discutir os principais aspectos relacionados a tal fenômeno: prevalência, determinantes, especificidade de nutrientes e formas de controle. O sub-relato parece estar associado à obesidade e a características psicossociais, como a restrição dietética e o desejo de ajuste social. Todos os métodos de avaliação do consumo possuem erros inerentes, sendo portanto suscetíveis à sub ou superestimação (menos comum. O sub-relato demonstra atingir predominantemente alimentos específicos, ricos em lipídeos e carboidratos, o que insere grande viés nas inferências baseadas em levantamentos do consumo alimentar. Este artigo também discute como controlar tal erro e recomenda que as estimativas do consumo energético sejam confrontadas com o gasto energético, a fim de detectar a subnotificação.Valid data on energy and nutrient consumption are necessary in human nutrition research, mainly in epidemiologic studies concerning diet and health. Until the advent of doubly labeled water, it was not possible to validate dietary assessment methods using an independent procedure and this marker showed an important underreporting of energy intake. This paper aims to discuss the major aspects related to this phenomenon: prevalence, determinants, nutrient specificity and attenuation. Underreporting seems to be associated with obesity and with psychological and social factors, such as dietary restraint and social desirability. Error in the dietary assessments may lead to under- or over-estimation (less

  9. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Milner, John A.; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects. PMID:25346570

  10. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Key, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. PMID:27101764

  12. Apparent and true ileal and total tract digestibility of fat in canola press-cake or canola oil and effects of increasing dietary fat on amino acid and energy digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2017-06-01

    Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal. The 4 CPC and 4 CO test diets were prepared by replacing identical portion of basal diet with 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% CPC, or 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% CO, respectively, to match the fat content of CPC diet with CO diet at each fat level. An N-free diet based on corn starch was prepared to measure basal endogenous losses of AA. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) were calculated for each diet. True ileal digestibility (TID) and true total tract (TTTD) digestibility of AEE in CPC and CO, and total endogenous losses of AEE were estimated by regressing apparent digestible AEE (g/kg of DMI) against dietary AEE intake (g/kg of DM) at the total tract and distal ileum, respectively. The mean AID and ATTD of AEE in CPC diets were 78.9% and 61.5%, which were lower ( digestible AEE content in CPC and CO diets increased linearly ( 0.05) total tract or ileal endogenous losses of AEE. The TID and TTTD of AEE in CPC were 92.3% and 94.5%, respectively, lower ( digestibility (SID) of CP, Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, and quadratically increased ( digestibility of AEE in CPC than in CO indicates that fat digestibility of CPC should be considered to predict its nutritional value accurately. Dietary inclusion of CO may increase digestibility of CP and energy originating from the balance of the diet.

  13. Dietary factors associated with obesity indicators and level of sports participation in Flemish adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delecluse Christophe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity develops when energy intake continuously exceeds energy expenditure, causing a fundamental chronic energy imbalance. Societal and behavioural changes over the last decades are held responsible for the considerable increase in sedentary lifestyles and inappropriate dietary patterns. The role of dietary fat and other dietary factors in the aetiology and maintenance of excess weight is controversial. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the dietary factors associated with body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and to analyse whether dietary intake varies between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Methods Data for this cross-sectional study, including anthropometric measurements, 3-day diet diary and physical activity questionnaire, were collected by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health (SPAH between October 2002 and April 2004. Results of 485 adult men and 362 women with plausible dietary records were analysed. Analyses of covariance were performed to determine the differences in dietary intake between normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, and between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Results Total energy intake, protein and fat intake (kcal/day were significantly higher in obese subjects compared to their lean counterparts in both genders. Percentage of energy intake from fat was significantly higher in obese men compared to men with normal weight or WC. Energy percentages from carbohydrates and fibres were negatively related to BMI and WC in men, whereas in women a higher carbohydrate and fibre intake was positively associated with obesity. Alcohol intake was positively associated with WC in men. Subjects participating in health related sports reported higher intake of carbohydrates, but lower intake of fat compared to subjects not participating in sports. Conclusion This study supports the evidence that

  14. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, L.E.; Cameron, A.J.; McNaughton, S.A.; Waterlander, W.E.; Sodergren, M.; Svastisalee, C.; Blanchard, L.; Liese, A.D.; Battersby, S.; Carter, M.A.; Sheeshka, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.I.; Sherman, S.; Cowburn, G.; Foster, C.; Crawford, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets

  15. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  16. Acculturation and dietary patterns among residents of Surinamese origin in the Netherlands: the HELIUS dietary pattern study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturkenboom, Suzanne M; Dekker, Louise H; Lamkaddem, Majda; Schaap, Laura A; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Insight into the role of acculturation in dietary patterns is important to inform the development of nutrition programmes that target ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how the adherence to dietary patterns within an ethnic minority population in the Netherlands varies by acculturation level compared with the host population. Cross-sectional study using data of the HELIUS study. Dietary patterns were assessed with an ethnic-specific FFQ. Acculturation was operationalized using unidimensional proxies (residence duration, age at migration and generation status) as well as on the basis of the bidimensional perspective, defined by four distinct acculturation strategies: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants of Dutch (n 1370) and Surinamese (n 1727) origin. Three dietary patterns were identified: (i) 'noodle/rice dishes and white meat' (traditional Surinamese pattern); (ii) 'red meat, snacks and sweets'; and (iii) 'vegetables, fruit and nuts'. Surinamese-origin respondents adhered more to the traditional Surinamese pattern than the other dietary patterns. Neither the unidimensional proxies nor the bidimensional acculturation strategies demonstrated consistent associations with dietary patterns. The lack of consistent association between acculturation and dietary patterns in the present study indicates that dietary patterns are quite robust. Understanding the continued adherence to traditional dietary patterns when developing dietary interventions in ethnic minority groups is warranted.

  17. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.

    2002-01-01

    record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages....... Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. Results: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible......-reporting increased by BMI in both sexes and by age in men. Conclusions: Energy and macronutrient intake data collected under even conditions by either a 7 day food record or a diet history interview may be collapsed and analysed independent of the underlying diet method. Both diet methods, however, appear...

  18. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    Background: Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE) and its

  19. Effects of source and level of dietary energy supplementation on in vitro digestibility and methane production from tall fescue-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of information about the effect of different sources, levels, and the mixtures of energy supplements commonly fed to cattle grazing tall fescue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different common energy sources for beef cattle grazing tall fescue using an in vitr...

  20. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance and feeding behavior of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa ...

  1. Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Food Sources in Preschool Children: Thai NHES IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Nontarak, Jiraluck; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2015-10-01

    Examine intakes of energy and macronutrients, and identify their food sources, in Thai preschool children. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV were used. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed regarding their children's 24-hour-dietary intake. Dietary data were analyzed for energy and macronutrients, and their food sources were investigated. Due to skewed data, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare energy and macronutrient intake between sexes and age groups. Among 256 preschool children, more than 90% had protein intakes higher than the recommended level. Only 12.7 to 29.0% met the recommended intake for energy. Amounts of carbohydrate and fat consumed varied from below to above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendation. Intakes of carbohydrate in boys and fat in girls were statistically different between age groups (p energy came from dairy products, grains and starchy products. The major carbohydrate contributors were grains and starchy products. Dairy products were the main source of protein. Important food sources of fat were dairy products for one- to three-year-old children and fat and oils for four- to five-year-old children. Thai preschool children have inappropriate intakes of energy and macronutrients. Dairy products and grains and/or starchy products were the main sources of energy, carbohydrate, and protein. Dietary fat sources varied by age group.

  2. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  3. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  4. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  5. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  6. Dietary practices and associated factors during pregnancy in northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Amanuel; Zema, Tona

    2018-05-25

    Pregnancy is the most crucial nutritionally demanding period of every woman's life. The high demand of nutrients to deposit energy in the form of new tissue, growth of existing maternal tissues such as breast and uterus and increased energy requirements for tissue synthesis makes pregnant women more vulnerable to malnutrition. Dietary practice is defined as an observable actions or behavior of dietary habit and can be classified as good dietary practices and poor dietary practices. The incidence of dietary inadequacies as a result of dietary habits and patterns in pregnancy is higher during pregnancy when compared to any other stage of the life cycle. Thus, this study aimed to assess dietary practices and associated factors during pregnancy in Bahir Dar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 1, 2016. A total of 616 pregnant women were participated in the study. All eligible pregnant women were identified through house-to-house visit with the help of health extension workers. Cluster sampling was used to select eligible pregnant women. The data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaire prepared in English and translated in to Amharic. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with dietary practices. This study has shown that 39.3% of the study participants had good dietary practices and the rest 60.7% of pregnant women reported poor dietary practices. Concerning dietary knowledge, 61.4% of the study participants had good dietary knowledge while 38.6% had poor dietary knowledge. Husband income, ownership of radio, history of disease and dietary knowledge were shown to have significant association (P < 0.05) with dietary practices. Dietary practices of pregnant women in the study area was suboptimal. Husband income, ownership of radio, history of disease

  7. Dietary fibre enrichment from defatted rice bran by dry fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jue; Suo, Geng; Wit, de Martin; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Defatted rice bran is excellent source of dietary fibre. The mostly used lab-scale method to extract dietary fibre is not very efficient; dry fractionation is a more energy efficient alternative at larger scale. Three separation routes were studied: two-step electrostatic separation, sieving and

  8. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  9. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  10. Predisposition of cows to mastitis in non-infected mammary glands: effects of dietary-induced negative energy balance during mid-lactation on immune-related genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2011-01-01

    Cows experiencing severe postpartal negative energy balance (NEB) are at greater risk of developing mastitis than cows in positive energy balance (PEB). Our objectives were to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles between lactating cows (n = 5/treatment) subjected to feed restriction...... to induce NEB and cows fed ad libitum to maintain PEB in order to identify genes involved in immune response and cellular metabolism that may predispose cows to an intramammary infection in non-infected mammary gland. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation...... requirements, and cows fed PEB cows were fed the same diet ad libitum. At 5 days after feed restriction, one rear mammary gland from all cows was biopsied for RNA extraction and transcript profiling using microarray and quantitative PCR. Energy balance (NEB vs. PEB) resulted in 278 differentially expressed...

  11. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  12. Multiple micronutrient supplementation and dietary energy intake in pregnant women Suplementación con micronutrimentos múltiples y consumo de eneregía en mujeres embarazadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Flores

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare dietary intake of women supplemented with multiple micronutrients (MM or iron only during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design: Randomized, double-blind, controlled community-based trial. Setting: One semi-urban community in Central Mexico. Subjects: Pregnant women identified before week 13 of pregnancy, willing to provide informed consent. Interventions: Women were randomly assigned to receive daily supplementation with MM or iron only from recruitment until delivery. Supplements were delivered to the participants' home and compliance observed daily. Dietary intake was assessed by repeat 24-hr recall. Data were analyzed using non-parametric tests and multiple regression analysis to determine the impact of MM supplementation on dietary intake of energy and select micronutrients. RESULTS: During the third trimester, women in the MM group consumed more energy and iron from dietary sources than women in the iron only group. After adjustment for differences between the groups at baseline, women in the MM group consumed 111.3 kcal/day more (pOBJETIVO: Comparar la dieta de mujeres suplementada con múltiples micronutrimentos (MM o sólo con hierro durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño: ensayo comunitario, aleatorizado, controlado, doble ciego. Lugar: una comunidad semiurbana en el México central. Participantes: mujeres embarazadas identificadas antes de la semana 13 de embarazo, dispuestas a entregar el consentimiento informado. Actividades: las mujeres fueron asignadas en forma aleatoria a recibir suplementación diaria con MM o exclusivamente hierro desde el reclutamiento hasta el parto. Los suplementos se entregaron en la casa de las participantes y se observó su cumplimiento con frecuencia diaria. El consumo dietético fue valorado por mediciones repetidas de recordatorio de alimentos de 24 h. Los datos se analizaron mediante pruebas no paramétricas y análisis de regresión múltiple, para determinar el

  13. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  14. Influence of Quaternary Benzophenantridine and Protopine Alkaloids on Growth Performance, Dietary Energy, Carcass Traits, Visceral Mass, and Rumen Health in Finishing Ewes under Conditions of Severe Temperature-humidity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Estrada-Angulo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Pelibuey×Katahdin ewes (35±2.3 kg were used to determine the effects of the consumption of standardized plant extract containing a mixture of quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids and protopine alkaloids (QBA+PA on growth performance, dietary energetics, visceral mass, and ruminal epithelial health in heat-stressed ewes fed with a high-energy corn-based diet. The basal diet (13.9% crude protein and 2.09 Mcal of net energy [NE] of maintenance/kg of dry matter contained 49.7% starch and 15.3% neutral detergent fiber. Source of QBA+PA was Sangrovit RS (SANG which contains 3 g of quaternary benzophenathridine and protopine alkaloids per kg of product. Treatments consisted of a daily consumption of 0 or 0.5 g SANG/ewe. Ewes were grouped by weight and assigned to 10 pens (5 pens/treatment, with two ewes per pen. The experimental period lasted 70 days. The mean temperature humidity index during the course of this experiment was 81.7±1.0 (severe heat stress. There were no treatment effects on water intake. Dry matter intake was not affected (p = 0.70 by treatments, but the group fed SANG had a numerically (11.2% higher gain in comparison to the control group, SANG improved gain efficiency (8.3%, p = 0.04, dietary NE (5.2%, p<0.01 and the observed-to-expected NE (5.9%, p<0.01. Supplemental SANG did not affect (p≥0.12 carcass characteristics, chemical composition of shoulder, and organ weights (g/kg empty body weight of stomach complex, intestines, and heart/lung. Supplemental SANG decreased liver weight (10.3%, p = 0.02 and increased visceral fat (16.9%, p = 0.02. Rumen epithelium of ewes fed SANG had lower scores for cellular dropsical degeneration (2.08 vs 2.34, p = 0.02, parakeratosis (1.30 vs 1.82, p = 0.03 and neutrophil infiltration (2.08 vs 2.86, p = 0.05 than controls. It is concluded that SANG supplementation helped ameliorate the negative effects of severe heat on growth performance of feedlot ewes fed high-energy corn

  15. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  16. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie; Crawford, David A

    2013-05-14

    Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively.

  17. Predictors of BMI Vary along the BMI Range of German Adults – Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kilson; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to identify predictors of BMI in German adults by considering the BMI distribution and to determine whether the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Methods The sample included 9,214 adults aged 18–80 years from the German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). Quantile regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between BMI and the following predictors: age, sports activities, socio-economic status (SES), healthy eating index-NVS II (HEI-NVS II), dietary knowledge, sleeping duration and energy intake as well as status of smoking, partner relationship and self-reported health. Results Age, SES, self-reported health status, sports activities and energy intake were the strongest predictors of BMI. The important outcome of this study is that the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Especially, energy intake, health status and SES were marginally associated with BMI in normal-weight subjects; this relationships became stronger in the range of overweight, and were strongest in the range of obesity. Conclusions Predictors of BMI and the strength of these associations vary across the BMI distribution in German adults. Consequently, to identify predictors of BMI, the entire BMI distribution should be considered. PMID:28219069

  18. Dietary management of urea cycle disorders: European practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, S; Almeida, M F; Assoun, M; Baruteau, J; Bernabei, S M; Bigot, S; Champion, H; Daly, A; Dassy, M; Dawson, S; Dixon, M; Dokoupil, K; Dubois, S; Dunlop, C; Evans, S; Eyskens, F; Faria, A; Favre, E; Ferguson, C; Goncalves, C; Gribben, J; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M; Jankowski, C; Janssen-Regelink, R; Jouault, C; Laguerre, C; Le Verge, S; Link, R; Lowry, S; Luyten, K; Macdonald, A; Maritz, C; McDowell, S; Meyer, U; Micciche, A; Robert, M; Robertson, L V; Rocha, J C; Rohde, C; Saruggia, I; Sjoqvist, E; Stafford, J; Terry, A; Thom, R; Vande Kerckhove, K; van Rijn, M; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A; Wegberg, A van; van Wyk, K; Vasconcelos, C; Vestergaard, H; Webster, D; White, F J; Wildgoose, J; Zweers, H

    2013-12-01

    There is no published data comparing dietary management of urea cycle disorders (UCD) in different countries. Cross-sectional data from 41 European Inherited Metabolic Disorder (IMD) centres (17 UK, 6 France, 5 Germany, 4 Belgium, 4 Portugal, 2 Netherlands, 1 Denmark, 1 Italy, 1 Sweden) was collected by questionnaire describing management of patients with UCD on prescribed protein restricted diets. Data for 464 patients: N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency, n=10; carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS1) deficiency, n=29; ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC) deficiency, n=214; citrullinaemia, n=108; argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), n=80; arginase deficiency, n=23 was reported. The majority of patients (70%; n=327) were aged 0-16y and 30% (n=137) >16y. Prescribed median protein intake/kg body weight decreased with age with little variation between disorders. The UK tended to give more total protein than other European countries particularly in infancy. Supplements of essential amino acids (EAA) were prescribed for 38% [n=174] of the patients overall, but were given more commonly in arginase deficiency (74%), CPS (48%) and citrullinaemia (46%). Patients in Germany (64%), Portugal (67%) and Sweden (100%) were the most frequent users of EAA. Only 18% [n=84] of patients were prescribed tube feeds, most commonly for CPS (41%); and 21% [n=97] were prescribed oral energy supplements. Dietary treatment for UCD varies significantly between different conditions, and between and within European IMD centres. Further studies examining the outcome of treatment compared with the type of dietary therapy and nutritional support received are required. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  20. Measurement of Dietary Restraint: Validity Tests of Four Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A.; Martin, Corby K.; York-Crowe, Emily; Anton, Stephen D.; Redman, Leanne M.; Han, Hongmei; Ravussin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the validity of four measures of dietary restraint: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Inventory (EI), Revised Restraint Scale (RS), and the Current Dieting Questionnaire. Dietary restraint has been implicated as a determinant of overeating and binge eating. Conflicting findings have been attributed to different methods for measuring dietary restraint. The validity of four self-report measures of dietary restraint and dieting behavior was tested using: 1) factor analysis, 2) changes in dietary restraint in a randomized controlled trial of different methods to achieve calorie restriction, and 3) correlation of changes in dietary restraint with an objective measure of energy balance, calculated from the changes in fat mass and fat-free mass over a six-month dietary intervention. Scores from all four questionnaires, measured at baseline, formed a dietary restraint factor, but the RS also loaded on a binge eating factor. Based on change scores, the EI Restraint scale was the only measure that correlated significantly with energy balance expressed as a percentage of energy require d for weight maintenance. These findings suggest that that, of the four questionnaires tested, the EI Restraint scale was the most valid measure of the intent to diet and actual caloric restriction. PMID:17101191

  1. Dietary intake in the dependent elderly: evaluation of the risk of nutritional deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barrés, S; Martín, N; Canela, T; García-Barco, M; Basora, J; Arija, V

    2016-04-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent problem in elderly dependent patients and their prognosis is adversely affected. Assessment of food consumption and adequacy of energy and nutrient intake of dependent elderly is needed to plan any selected actions for this population. The study comprised a multicentre cross-sectional study of 190 users (≥65 years) of a home care programme provided by primary care centers in Tarragona (Spain), at nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment: 17-23.5 points). Food consumption was assessed using a semiquantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Energy intake was compared with the Spanish dietary reference intake (DRI) and nutritional intakes with the DRI of the American Institute of Medicine. Mean (SD) age was 85.0 (7.2) years (67.5% female). The food items consumed were varied but lower than the recommended portions for cereals, fruits, vegetables and legumes. Energy intake was 7454.2 (1553.9 kJ day(-1)) [1781.6 (371.4) kcal day(-1)] (97.7% of recommended dietary allowance; RDA) and protein intake was 1.0 (0.4) g kg(-1) of weight (121.4% of RDA). Proteins provided 13.3%, carbohydrates provided 39.9% and fats provided 45.8% of energy intake. The intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates were less than two-thirds of the RDA and their probability of inadequate intake was >85%. Dietary intakes of elderly dependent patients at nutritional risk were well balanced. In general, energy and protein intakes meet the recommendations. The diet was high in energy density, low in complex carbohydrates, high in simple carbohydrates and excessive in fats. The dependent elderly had inadequate intake of micronutrients often related to fragility, such as calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Energetic utilization of dietary fiber in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and

  3. Dietary fat and obesity : An epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C.

    1998-01-01

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  4. Dietary fat and obesity : an epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  5. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.C.; Gross, J.J.; Dorland, van H.A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and

  6. Agreement between parent and child report on parental practices regarding dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours: the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebholz, C.E.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Stralen, M.M.; Bere, E.; Bringolf, B.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Jan, N.; Kovacs, E.; Maes, L.; Manios, Y.; Moreno, L.; Singh, A.S.; Brug, J.; te Velde, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents and their parenting practices play an important role in shaping their children's environment and energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). Measurement of parenting practices can be parent- or child-informed, however not much is known about agreement between parent and child

  7. Whole Grain Compared with Refined Wheat Decreases the Percentage of Body Fat Following a 12-Week, Energy-Restricted Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Toubro, Søren; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2012-01-01

    ) with whole-grain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RW-containing food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, 79 overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of approximately 1250 k...

  8. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  9. Dietary Habits and Cardiometabolic Health in Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gilardini, Luisa; Croci, Marina; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Caffetto, Katherine; Invitti, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors vary largely among overweight children. This study investigated the relationships between dietary habits and cardiometabolic health among obese children living in a city of Northern Italy. Methods Dietary habits were collected in 448 obese subjects aged 6-18 years, attending an obesity outpatient center in Milan. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), lipids, fasting and post-load glucose, and insulin were measured. Physical activity wa...

  10. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magarey Anthea M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1. Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2 following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability and (b Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency. Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134 occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p 0.05 for 10/12 (test-retest reliability and 3/7 (validity scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in

  12. Comparison of strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in elite female athletes' dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Susan; O'Connor, Helen; Gifford, Janelle; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to compare strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in the dietary intake of elite female athletes. Dietary intake was assessed using an adapted food-frequency questionnaire in 72 elite female athletes from a variety of sports. Nutritional adequacy was evaluated and compared using mean intake; the proportion of participants with intakes below Australian nutrient reference values (NRV), U.S. military dietary reference intakes (MDRI), and current sports nutrition recommendations; and probability estimates of nutrient inadequacy. Mean energy intake was 10,551 +/- 3,836 kJ/day with macronutrient distribution 18% protein, 31% fat, and 46% carbohydrate, consistent with Australian acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Mean protein intake (1.6 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)) was consistent with (>1.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), and carbohydrate intake (4.5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), below, current sports nutrition recommendations (>5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), with 30% and 65% of individuals not meeting these levels, respectively. Mean micronutrient intake met the relevant NRV and MDRI except for vitamin D and folate. A proportion of participants failed to meet the estimated average requirement for folate (48%), calcium (24%), magnesium (19%), and iron (4%). Probability estimates of inadequacy identified intake of folate (44%), calcium (22%), iron (19%), and magnesium (15%) as inadequate. Interpretation of dietary adequacy is complex and varies depending on whether the mean, proportion of participants below the relevant NRV, or statistical probability estimate of inadequacy is used. Further research on methods to determine dietary adequacy in athlete populations is required.

  13. Gender differences in social desirability and social approval bias in dietary self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, J R; Ma, Y; Clemow, L; Ockene, I S; Saperia, G; Stanek, E J; Merriam, P A; Ockene, J K

    1997-12-15

    Social desirability (the tendency to respond in such a way as to avoid criticism) and social approval (the tendency to seek praise) are two prominent response set biases evident in answers on structured questionnaires. These biases were tested by comparing nutrient intakes as estimated from a single 24-hour diet recall interview (24 HR) and a 7-day dietary recall (7DDR). Data were collected as part of the Worcester Area Trial for Counseling in Hyperlipidemia, a randomized, physician-delivered nutrition intervention trial for hypercholesterolemic patients conducted in Worcester, Massachusetts, from 1991 to 1995. Of the 1,278 total study subjects, 759 had complete data for analysis. Men overestimated their fat and energy intakes on the 7DDR as compared with the 24HR according to social approval: One unit increase in the social approval score was associated with an overestimate of 21.5 kcal/day in total energy intake and 1.2 g/day in total fat intake. Women, however, underestimated their dietary intakes on the 7DDR relative to the 24HR according to social desirability: One unit increase in the social desirability score was associated with an underestimate of 19.2 kcal/day in energy intake and 0.8 g/day in total fat. The results from the present study indicate that social desirability and social approval biases appear to vary by gender. Such biases may lead to misclassification of dietary exposure estimates resulting in a distortion in the perceived relation between health-related outcomes and exposure to specific foods or nutrients. Because these biases may vary according to the perceived demands of research subjects, it is important that they be assessed in a variety of potential research study populations.

  14. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  15. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  16. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  17. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL.Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium...... were performed to investigate diet-induced-thermogenesis (DIT) and appetite sensation. Compliance was tested by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion.Results: A total of 151 participants completed the WM period. The control and 3 protein supplements did not result in different mean ± SD weight regains (whey.......58 ± 1.4 kg; and control: 1.74 ± 1.4 kg; P = 0.50) during WM. Changes in blood pressure and blood biochemistry were not different between groups. Compared with the control, protein supplementation resulted in higher DIT (∼30 kJ/2.5 h) and resting energy expenditure (243 kJ/d) and an anorexigenic appetite...

  18. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  19. Performance of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus fed varying dietary L-carnitine levels at different stocking densities Desempenho de juvenis de pregado (Scophthalmus maximus em função da densidade de estocagem e de níveis dietéticos de L-carnitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Magalhães Gonçalves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial farming of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus at high stocking densities may lead to growth depression and increasing production costs. Moreover, the high levels of accumulated waste in an intensive system may cause rapid deterioration of water quality, which may undermine the production. L-carnitine is known as a growth-enhancer which shows promise as mitigator of crowding effects. The effects of stocking densities (4, 8, 11 and 14 kg m² on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition were evaluated during 75 days on turbot (75.6 ± 2.8 g fed two dietary L-carnitine levels (40 or 240 mg kg¹. At the end of the feeding trial, total ammonia excretion (TAN was measured postprandially for 24h. Specific growth rate and weight gain decreased with increasing stocking density. Fish held at 4 kg m² had higher final body weight (94-96 g than fish held at higher densities (80-87 g. Protein efficiency ratio was higher in fish held at 4 kg m² (1.33-1.36, in comparison to fish stocked at 8 kg m² (0.98 or 14 kg m² (0.45. Voluntary feed intake decreased from 0.70 to 0.56% BW with increasing stocking density. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation did not affect growth performance and body composition, except for body L-carnitine content which increased from 75 to 128 mg kg¹ BW with supplementation. Fish fed 240 mg L-carnitine supplements had lower TAN that the ones fed 40 mg L-carnitine (p A aquicultura de pregado (Scophthalmus maximus utilizando elevadas densidades pode reduzir o crescimento e aumentar os custos de produção. Elevados níveis de metabolitos gerados nestes sistemas intensivos provocam rápida deterioração da qualidade da água, podendo também comprometer a performance da produção. A L-carnitina atua como potenciadora do crescimento parecendo ser promissora por atenuar alguns desses efeitos. Os efeitos de densidades (4, 8, 11 e 14 kg m² no desempenho do crescimento, composição corporal foram avaliados em pregados

  20. Lessons from the war on dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas B; Parker, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Conventional dietary guidelines put forth by health care institutions and providers for the past 40 years have stressed the importance of reducing the amount of dietary fat consumed. Such a diet is purported to mitigate metabolic risk factors and optimize the ability to achieve or maintain a healthy body weight. However, over the past 35 years obesity rates in the United States have risen dramatically though the level of dietary fat consumed by U.S. adults has fallen. This review examines the potential reasons for this paradox. Various meta-analyses, controlled trials, and cohort studies have demonstrated that reducing dietary fat intake provides for very little weight loss unless accompanied by equal or greater reductions in total energy intake. Due to both psychological (e.g., the tendency for people to eat more of what they consider low fat) and physiological (e.g., the low satiety that accompanies carbohydrate intake) factors, reducing total caloric intake while simultaneously reducing fat intake is a difficult challenge. Further, reductions in total carbohydrate intake, increases in protein intake, and adoption of a Mediterranean diet seem to be more effective in inducing weight loss than reductions in fat intake. Traditional claims that simply reducing dietary fat will improve metabolic risk factors are also not borne out by research. There is some evidence that replacing dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fat may improve metabolic risk factors, but that research is not conclusive. • Over the past 40 years, Americans have decreased the percentage of calories they get from dietary fat while rates of overweight and obesity have risen dramatically. • It appears that a decrease in total dietary fat in ad libitum diets may induce a very small decrease in body weight. • Evidence suggests that reductions in total dietary fat intake often occur in conjunction with an increase in total caloric intake. • It seems reasonable to conclude that guiding the

  1. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  2. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  3. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  4. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  5. Effects of dietary energy allowance and decline in dry matter intake during the dry period on responses to glucose and insulin in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salin, S; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K; Taponen, J; Boston, R C; Kokkonen, T

    2017-07-01

    We assessed whether high energy intake during the early dry period [144% of metabolizable energy (ME) requirements/d] followed by a gradual restriction of energy intake in the close-up dry period (119% of ME/d; HEI) impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity compared with a controlled energy intake (100% of ME/d; CEI) throughout the 6-wk dry period. Multiparous Ayrshire dairy cows (n = 16) were blocked by body weight, body condition score, and expected date of parturition and were used in a randomized complete block design until 10 d after parturition. Cows were fed either HEI or CEI diets based on grass silage during the first 3 wk of the dry period and grass silage supplemented with a commercial concentrate (30% of ME intake) during the final 3 wk of gestation. After calving, all cows were fed grass silage ad libitum and an increasing amount of commercial concentrate (maximum 9 kg at d 10 postpartum). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and intravenous insulin challenges were performed -10 ± 5 d (n = 15) and +10 ± 1 d (n = 14) relative to parturition. Following glucose injection, we did not find any treatment effects on glucose and insulin responses. The prepartal nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) response of the HEI group was blunted, basal NEFA and the decrement of NEFA were smaller, and the area under the response curve (AUC) of NEFA was less negative in HEI cows than in CEI cows. The NEFA response reversed after parturition; the NEFA AUC of the HEI group was more negative than that of the CEI group. We did not find similar responses after insulin injection. Across the treatments, NEFA AUC correlated strongly with the basal NEFA concentration during the IVGTT pre- and postpartum. Calculated and model-based indices characterizing the overall glucose tolerance and β-cell function and the insulin sensitivity were higher after parturition than during the dry period. Consistent with the lower basal insulin, the acute insulin release after the glucose infusion

  6. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  7. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-02-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  8. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  9. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla L. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69. CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support.

  10. Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J R

    1971-12-03

    Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.

  11. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Importance of viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2011-02-01

    Dietary fibres have many functions in the diet, one of which may be to promote control of energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. This is linked to the unique physico-chemical properties of dietary fibres which aid early signalling of satiation and prolonged or enhanced sensation of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. Few papers on the satiating effect of dietary fibres include information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the dietary fibres being tested, including molecular weight and viscosity. For viscosity to serve as a proxy for soluble dietary fibres it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of a New Statistical Model for Measurement Error to the Evaluation of Dietary Self-report Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Laurence S; Midthune, Douglas; Carroll, Raymond J; Commins, John M; Arab, Lenore; Baer, David J; Moler, James E; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Neuhouser, Marian L; Prentice, Ross L; Rhodes, Donna; Spiegelman, Donna; Subar, Amy F; Tinker, Lesley F; Willett, Walter; Kipnis, Victor

    2015-11-01

    Most statistical methods that adjust analyses for dietary measurement error treat an individual's usual intake as a fixed quantity. However, usual intake, if defined as average intake over a few months, varies over time. We describe a model that accounts for such variation and for the proximity of biomarker measurements to self-reports within the framework of a meta-analysis, and apply it to the analysis of data on energy, protein, potassium, and sodium from a set of five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers as reference instruments. We show that this time-varying usual intake model fits the data better than the fixed usual intake assumption. Using this model, we estimated attenuation factors and correlations with true longer-term usual intake for single and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and compared them with those obtained under the "fixed" method. Compared with the fixed method, the estimates using the time-varying model showed slightly larger values of the attenuation factor and correlation coefficient for FFQs and smaller values for 24HRs. In some cases, the difference between the fixed method estimate and the new estimate for multiple 24HRs was substantial. With the new method, while four 24HRs had higher estimated correlations with truth than a single FFQ for absolute intakes of protein, potassium, and sodium, for densities the correlations were approximately equal. Accounting for the time element in dietary validation is potentially important, and points toward the need for longer-term validation studies.

  13. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi.

  14. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from Triton X-100 to 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol: Varying FRET efficiency with CMC of the donor (Triton X-100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Karmakar, Saswati; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    A heterocyclic compound viz., 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol (4B2YP) has been synthesized and its photophysics have been examined through steady-state absorption, emission and time resolved emission spectroscopic techniques, in brief. Then 4B2YP has been exploited as an acceptor in the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) process from photoexcited benzene aromatic nucleus of Triton X-100 (TX-100) surfactant. Dependence of the energy transfer efficiency on the donor concentration with respect to its critical micelle concentration (CMC) is clearly reflected in the study. High values of Stern–Volmer constant (K SV ) for quenching of the donor fluorescence in the presence of the acceptor suggest the operation of long-range dipole–dipole interaction in the course of energy transfer process, while the inference is aptly supported from time resolved fluorescence decay results. Experimental results show maximum FRET efficiency at the CMC of the donor (TX-100). -- Highlights: • FRET from neutral surfactant Triton X-100 to chromophore 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol. • Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. • Long-range dipole–dipole interaction responsible for FRET. • FRET efficiency as a measure of CMC of surfactant

  15. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from Triton X-100 to 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol: Varying FRET efficiency with CMC of the donor (Triton X-100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar, E-mail: bijan.paul.chem.cu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Ganguly, Aniruddha [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Karmakar, Saswati [Department of Chemistry, Sree Chaitanya College, Habra, North 24 Parganas (India); Guchhait, Nikhil, E-mail: nguchhait@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India)

    2013-11-15

    A heterocyclic compound viz., 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol (4B2YP) has been synthesized and its photophysics have been examined through steady-state absorption, emission and time resolved emission spectroscopic techniques, in brief. Then 4B2YP has been exploited as an acceptor in the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) process from photoexcited benzene aromatic nucleus of Triton X-100 (TX-100) surfactant. Dependence of the energy transfer efficiency on the donor concentration with respect to its critical micelle concentration (CMC) is clearly reflected in the study. High values of Stern–Volmer constant (K{sub SV}) for quenching of the donor fluorescence in the presence of the acceptor suggest the operation of long-range dipole–dipole interaction in the course of energy transfer process, while the inference is aptly supported from time resolved fluorescence decay results. Experimental results show maximum FRET efficiency at the CMC of the donor (TX-100). -- Highlights: • FRET from neutral surfactant Triton X-100 to chromophore 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol. • Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. • Long-range dipole–dipole interaction responsible for FRET. • FRET efficiency as a measure of CMC of surfactant.

  16. Pragmatic dietary advice for diabetes during Navratris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovely Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Navratri is one of the most common religious fasts observed among Hindus. A large number of people with diabetes follow Navratris fast irrespective of its health implications, often without proper education and medical advice. The quest for the scientific research on dietary advices for Hindu fasts including Navratris shows paucity of literature comparative to the dietary advices advocated during Ramadan. The eating and physical activity patterns during different fasts vary a lot depending up on social and cultural factors. Even eating pattern is not uniform among all persons following Navratris and is modified as per their region, local culture, and religious beliefs. Dietary advice during Navratris depends upon pattern of fasting, religious beliefs, and local sociocultural factors. In this review, efforts are made to provide pragmatic dietary advice for people with diabetes, modifications in the menus and cooking practices, and timings of the meals for successful blood glucose management during Navratris. This review will also help plan diet and physical activity advice for persons observing other fasts as well.

  17. Marketingový mix HC Enegie Karlovy Vary

    OpenAIRE

    Štrobl, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Title: Marketing mix of HC Energie Karlovy Vary Objectives: This thesis is based on a questionnaire responses obtained from HC Energie Karlovy Vary fans. Its objective is focused on evaluation of their opinions on the marketing mix, their subsequent interpretation, and finally even development of recommendations for improvement based on previous analysis. Methods: Two methods are used to analyse the marketing mix. The first method is qualitative participant observation. The second method is a...

  18. [Nutritional analysis of dietary patterns in students of primary education with normal nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Gúrpide, Beatriz; Durá-Travé, Teodoro

    2014-06-01

    To perform a nutritional assessment of the dietary model in a group of primary school students (9-12 years) with a normal nutritional status. Recording of food consumption of two consecutive school days in a sample of 353 primary school students (188 boys and 165 girls) with normal nutritional situation. The intake of energy, macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins was calculated and compared with the recommended intakes. The mean value of daily caloric intake was 2,066.9 kcal. Grains (33%), dairy products (19%) and meats (17%) represented 70% of the total caloric intake. Proteins contributed with 20.3% of the caloric intake, sugars 48.8%, lipids 30.9%, and saturated fats 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and 2/3 of the caloric intake was of animal origin. The mean intake of calcium, iodine and A, D and E vitamins were lower than de recommended dietary intakes. The dietary model of the primary school students with normal nutritional status varies from the Mediterranean prototype, with an excessive intake of meats, limited intake of grains and dairy products, and deficient intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, and fishes. This leads to an increase in the intake of proteins and fats from animals with a detriment of complex carbohydrates and a deficient intake of calcium, iodine, and vitamins A, D y E. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of dietary carbohydrate source on the development of obesity in agouti transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kristin L; Zemel, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of a qualitative change in dietary carbohydrate source on body weight and adiposity in a rodent model of diet-induced obesity. We evaluated the effects of high-fat diets (basal) varying in carbohydrate source in aP2-agouti transgenic mice. In the ad libitum study, animals were given free access to the basal diet or one of four test diets for 6 weeks. In two of the diets, dietary carbohydrate was derived from a single source: mung bean noodles (MUNG) or rolled oats (ROLL). The remaining diets were designed to mimic commercially available instant oatmeal with added sugar (IO-S) or flavored instant oatmeal (IO-F). In the energy-restricted study, animals were given ad libitum access to the basal diet for 6 weeks. Subsequently, animals were assigned to one of six treatment groups for 6 weeks. One group was continued on the basal diet ad libitum. The remaining groups were maintained with energy restriction (70% ad libitum) on either the basal, MUNG, ROLL, IO-S, or IO-F diet. Subcutaneous fat pad mass was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the energy-restricted basal and IO-S groups compared with the energy-restricted ROLL diet. Similarly, visceral fat pad mass was significantly lower with ROLL and MUNG diets (p<0.05 for both) compared with basal and IO-S diets, and the insulin:glucose ratio was reduced (by 23% to 34%, p<0.05) in these two diets compared with all others. In ad libitum-fed animals, liver fatty acid synthase expression was 43% to 62% lower (p<0.05) with ROLL and MUNG diets compared with all others. These data suggest that a qualitative change in dietary carbohydrate source modulates body weight and adiposity.

  20. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  1. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  3. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  4. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  5. Luminosity, Beamstrahlung energy loss and beam-beam deflections for e+e- and e-e- collisions at the ILC with 500 GeV and varying transverse beam sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabau Pons, M.; Bambade, P.; Faus-Golfe, A.

    2006-01-01

    At the interaction point of the International Linear Collider, beam-beam effects due to the strong electromagnetic fields that the bunches experience during collisions cause a mutual focusing, called pinch effect, which enhances the luminosity in the case of e + e - collisions. The opposite is true for e - e - collisions. In this case the luminosity is reduced by mutual defocusing, or anti-pinching. The resulting Beamstrahlung energy loss and beam-beam deflection angles as function of the vertical transverse offset are also different for both modes of operation. The dependence of these quantities with transverse beam sizes are presented for the case of e - e - collisions

  6. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise when paired with dietary energy restriction both reduce the clinical components of metabolic syndrome in previously physically inactive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Claytor, Randal P; Hulver, Mathew W; Hughes, Michael R; Carper, Michael J; Richmond, Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare resistance exercise training (RT) to aerobic exercise training (AE) on the clinical risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in physically inactive overweight males (age 27-48 years). Subjects with at least one risk factor for MetSyn performed RT (n = 13, age 35.1 ± 4.7 years, BMI 31.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) or AE (n = 9, age 37.6 ± 4.9 years, BMI, 31.2 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) for 6 months. Training frequency and exercise session duration were equal and by 3 months the subjects exercised 4 day/week for 45 min/session. Blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. A MetSyn z score was calculated for each subject from triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and MAP. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences existed between RT and AE groups at 0 month. AE showed a significant reduction in MetSyn z score from 0 (0.91 ± 3.57) to 6 months (-1.35 ± 2.95), while RT approached significance (p = 0.07) from 0 (0.09 ± 2.62) to 6 months (-1.30 ± 2.22). Triglycerides (mmol/L) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (1.93 ± 0.90) to 6 months (1.41 ± 0.70). Waist circumference (cm) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (106.8 ± 7.3) to 6 months (101.2 ± 6.5), and in RT from 0 (108.4 ± 9.0) to 6 months (105.7 ± 7.0). MAP (mmHg) decreased in RT from 0 (93.8 ± 5.8) to 6 months (87.5 ± 6.1) and in AE from 0 (97.6 ± 7.0) to 6 months (91.3 ± 6.8). With equal training frequency and exercise session duration, both RT and AE training, when paired with energy restriction improve the clinical risk factor profile for MetSyn.

  7. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  8. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  9. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  10. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  11. Dietary sodium and health: more than just blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, William B; Edwards, David G; Jurkovitz, Claudine T; Weintraub, William S

    2015-03-17

    Sodium is essential for cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Excess dietary sodium has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP). Salt sensitivity of BP varies widely, but certain subgroups tend to be more salt sensitive. The mechanisms underlying sodium-induced increases in BP are not completely understood but may involve alterations in renal function, fluid volume, fluid-regulatory hormones, the vasculature, cardiac function, and the autonomic nervous system. Recent pre-clinical and clinical data support that even in the absence of an increase in BP, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and brain. In this review, the investigators review these issues and the epidemiological research relating dietary sodium to BP and cardiovascular health outcomes, addressing recent controversies. They also provide information and strategies for reducing dietary sodium. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Luminosity, Beamstrahlung energy loss and beam-beam deflections for e{sup +}e{sup -} and e{sup -}e{sup -} collisions at the ILC with 500 GeV and varying transverse beam sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabau Pons, M. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud XI, Bat. 200, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)]|[IFIC, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Bambade, P. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud XI, Bat. 200, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Faus-Golfe, A. [IFIC, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    At the interaction point of the International Linear Collider, beam-beam effects due to the strong electromagnetic fields that the bunches experience during collisions cause a mutual focusing, called pinch effect, which enhances the luminosity in the case of e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. The opposite is true for e{sup -}e{sup -} collisions. In this case the luminosity is reduced by mutual defocusing, or anti-pinching. The resulting Beamstrahlung energy loss and beam-beam deflection angles as function of the vertical transverse offset are also different for both modes of operation. The dependence of these quantities with transverse beam sizes are presented for the case of e{sup -}e{sup -} collisions.

  13. Dietary intake in infants and young children in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammino, Victoria M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Langidrik, Justina R

    2007-09-01

    Changes in traditional foodways associated with increasing modernization have affected the feeding patterns of infants and young children. Declines in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding have been associated with poor nutritional status and increased morbidity from infectious diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in children under six in four settings in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in Micronesia. The mean duration of breastfeeding in the sample was 11 months, however only 16% of subjects were exclusively breastfed for the first six months, which is recommended by the WHO, UNICEF and other policymakers. Among non-exclusively breastfed infants, supplemental foods were introduced as early as 2 months. Mean intakes for total energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat and iron were calculated for subjects providing recalls. Intake levels for energy, protein, carbohydrates and iron varied by location. Recommendations for future research and program intervention are outlined.

  14. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  15. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  16. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  17. Estrelas variáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Sérgio Manuel de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    A observação do céu nocturno é uma prática que vem da Antiguidade. Desde então e durante muito tempo pensou-se que as estrelas mantinham o brilho constante. Assim foi até ao século XVI, quando David Fabricius observou uma estrela cujo brilho variava periodicamente. Dois séculos mais tarde, Jonh Goodricke descobriu uma segunda estrela e com o desenvolvimento de instrumentos de observação este conjunto foi muito alargado e hoje inclui o Sol.A variação do brilho das estrelas variáveis permite d...

  18. Drying of sicilian lemon residue: influence of process variables on the evaluation of the dietary fiber produced Secagem do resíduo de limão siciliano: influência das variáveis de processo na avaliação da fibra alimentar produzida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Martins Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the process variables of the air-drying of Sicilian lemon residues on some technological properties of the fibers produced was studied. The determination and modeling of desorption isotherms were used to establish the equilibrium moisture content at 60, 75, and 90 °C using the static method with 8 saturated salt solutions. The best fit was obtained with BET and GAB models. The drying process was conducted in a vertical tray dryer and delineated according to a central composite experimental design (2² using the following as factors: air velocity (0.5, 0.75 and 1 m/s and temperature (60, 75, and 90 °C, and it presented a good fit to the exponential model (R² > 99.9%. The experimental design responses evaluated were the technological properties of the fibers: water-holding, oil-holding, and swelling capacity. Since these properties were present in high levels, the lemon residues could be used to increase content of fibers in foods resulting in the addition of nutritional benefits for the consumers.Estudou-se o efeito das variáveis de processo da secagem do resíduo de limão siciliano sobre algumas propriedades tecnológicas das fibras produzidas. A determinação e modelagem das isotermas de dessorção foram utilizadas para determinar o conteúdo de umidade de equilíbrio a 60, 75 e 90 °C, através do método gravimétrico estático com 8 soluções salinas saturadas. O melhor ajuste dos dados experimentais foi encontrado com os modelos de BET e GAB. A secagem foi conduzida em um secador vertical de bandejas e delineada de acordo com um planejamento experimental (2², tendo como fatores: velocidade do ar (0,5, 0,75 e 1 m/s e temperatura (60, 75 e 90 °C, apresentando bons ajustes ao modelo exponencial (R² > 99.9%. As respostas do planejamento avaliadas foram relacionadas a algumas propriedades tecnológicas das fibras, como a capacidade de absorção em água e óleo e o volume de intumescimento. Uma vez que

  19. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four groups consisting of seven rats per group of non pregnant rats were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil ...

  20. Links between Dietary Protein Sources, the Gut Microbiota, and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lise Madsen; Lise Madsen; Lise Madsen; Lene S. Myrmel; Even Fjære; Bjørn Liaset; Karsten Kristiansen; Karsten Kristiansen

    2017-01-01

    The association between the gut microbiota and obesity is well documented in both humans and in animal models. It is also demonstrated that dietary factors can change the gut microbiota composition and obesity development. However, knowledge of how diet, metabolism and gut microbiota mutually interact and modulate energy metabolism and obesity development is still limited. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between intake of certain dietary protein sources and obesity. Animal stu...

  1. Links between dietary protein sources, the gut microbiota, and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Lise; Myrmel, Lene S.; Fjære, Even; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The association between the gut microbiota and obesity is well documented in both humans and in animal models. It is also demonstrated that dietary factors can change the gut microbiota composition and obesity development. However, knowledge of how diet, metabolism and gut microbiota mutually interact and modulate energy metabolism and obesity development is still limited. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between intake of certain dietary protein sources and obesity. Animal stu...

  2. Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuanqing; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Fleming, Thomas; Grabner, Gernot F.; Foppen, Ewout; Bernhard, Wagner; Guzm?n-Ruiz, Mara; Layritz, Clarita; Legutko, Beata; Zinser, Erwin; Garc?a-C?ceres, Cristina; Buijs, Ruud M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Seeley, Randy J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory response and the consequent impact on hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis is yet not clear. Methods: We dissected the different effects of high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diets and low-car...

  3. Optimisation modelling to assess cost of dietary improvement in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Brimblecombe

    Full Text Available The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations.We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods.A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet.Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy. Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (-90% and refined cereals (-90% and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals.This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure.

  4. Optimisation modelling to assess cost of dietary improvement in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Ferguson, Megan; Liberato, Selma C; O'Dea, Kerin; Riley, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations. We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods. A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet. Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B) met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target) and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy). Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day) and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (-90%) and refined cereals (-90%) and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals. This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure.

  5. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus; Rasmussen, Carrie Klestrup; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Serena, Anja; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-08-01

    Background : High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL. Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium or soy on WM success after WL compared with that of a control. Design: In a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial, 220 participants aged 18-60 y with body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) from 27.6 to 40.4 were included. The study was initiated with an 8-wk WL period followed by a 24-wk WM period. During WM, participants consumed the following isocaloric supplements (45-48 g/d): whey and calcium (whey+), whey, soy, or maltodextrin (control). Data were collected at baseline, before WM, and after WM (weeks 0, 8, and 32, respectively) and included body composition, blood biochemistry, and blood pressure. Meal tests were performed to investigate diet-induced-thermogenesis (DIT) and appetite sensation. Compliance was tested by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion. Results: A total of 151 participants completed the WM period. The control and 3 protein supplements did not result in different mean ± SD weight regains (whey+: 2.19 ± 4.6 kg; whey: 2.01 ± 4.6 kg; soy: 1.76 ± 4.7 kg; and control: 2.23 ± 3.8 kg; P = 0.96), fat mass regains (whey+: 0.46 ± 4.5 kg; whey: 0.11 ± 4.1 kg; soy: 0.15 ± 4.1 kg; and control: 0.54 ± 3.3 kg; P = 0.96), or improvements in lean body mass (whey+: 1.87 ± 1.7 kg; whey: 1.94 ± 1.3 kg; soy: 1.58 ± 1.4 kg; and control: 1.74 ± 1.4 kg; P = 0.50) during WM. Changes in blood pressure and blood biochemistry were not different between groups. Compared with the control, protein supplementation resulted in higher DIT (∼30 kJ/2.5 h) and resting energy expenditure (243 kJ/d) and an anorexigenic appetite-sensation profile. Conclusion: Protein supplementation does not result in improved WM success, or blood biochemistry after WL compared with the effects of

  6. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  7. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  8. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  9. Effect of a nutrient-enriched drink on dietary intake and nutritional status in institutionalised elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Blauw, Y.H.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Hoeckel-Prüst, van L.; Bindels, J.G.; Siebelink, E.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: (1) To determine whether nutritional supplementation (energy and micronutrients) in institutionalised elderly has a positive effect on dietary intake and nutritional status. (2) To investigate whether individuals tend to compensate for the energy content of the intervention product by

  10. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425 children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3% of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031 times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity.

  11. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; van Assema, P.; Kremers, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance examining energy

  12. New varying speed of light theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magueijo, Joao

    2003-01-01

    We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying-c, dispelling the myth that the constancy of c is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a colour-dependent speed of light; varying-c induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how 'doubly special' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space-time, with observational implications for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and gamma ray bursts. Some recent work on the physics of 'black' holes and other compact objects in VSL theories is also described, highlighting phenomena associated with spatial (as opposed to temporal) variations in c. Finally, we describe the observational status of the theory. The evidence is currently slim-redshift dependence in the atomic fine structure, anomalies with UHECRs, and (to a much lesser extent) the acceleration of the universe and the WMAP data. The constraints (e.g. those arising from nucleosynthesis or geological bounds) are tight but not insurmountable. We conclude with the observational predictions of the theory and the prospects for its refutation or vindication

  13. Behavior of varying-alpha cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D.; Sandvik, Haavard Bunes; Magueijo, Joao

    2002-01-01

    We determine the behavior of a time-varying fine structure 'constant' α(t) during the early and late phases of universes dominated by the kinetic energy of changing α(t), radiation, dust, curvature, and lambda, respectively. We show that after leaving an initial vacuum-dominated phase during which α increases, α remains constant in universes such as our own during the radiation era, and then increases slowly, proportional to a logarithm of cosmic time, during the dust era. If the universe becomes dominated by a negative curvature or a positive cosmological constant then α tends rapidly to a constant value. The effect of an early period of de Sitter or power-law inflation is to drive α to a constant value. Various cosmological consequences of these results are discussed with reference to recent observational studies of the value of α from quasar absorption spectra and to the existence of life in expanding universes

  14. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  15. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B. M.; Bjørnsbo, K. B.; Tetens, Inge

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study...... population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean...... associations were observed between dietary GI and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 60, SE=0 center dot 21, P=0 center dot 006), and between dietary GL and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 15, SE=0.06, P=0 center dot 009). In conclusion, dietary GI and GL were positively associated with body fatness among Danish boys...

  16. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  17. Methodological considerations and future insights for 24-hour dietary recall assessment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Dietary assessment has come under much criticism of late to the extent that it has been questioned whether self-reported methods of dietary assessment are worth doing at all. Widespread under-reporting of energy intake, limitations due to memory, changes to intake due to the burden of recording and social desirability bias all impact significantly on the accuracy of the dietary information collected. Under-reporting of energy intakes has long been recognized as a problem in dietary research with doubly labeled water measures of energy expenditure uncovering significant under-reporting of energy intakes across different populations and different dietary assessment methods. In this review we focus on dietary assessment with children with particular attention on the 24-hour dietary recall method. We look at the level of under-reporting of energy intakes and how this tends to change with age, gender and body mass index. We discuss potential alternatives to self-reported (or proxy-reported) dietary assessment methods with children, such as biomarkers, and how these do not enable the collection of information important to public health nutrition such as the cooking method, the mixture of foods eaten together or the context in which the food is consumed. We conclude that despite all of the challenges and flaws, the data collected using self-reported dietary assessment methods are extremely valuable. Research into dietary assessment methodology has resulted in significant increases in our understanding of the limitations of self-reported methods and progressive improvements in the accuracy of the data collected. Hence, future investment in dietary surveillance and in improving self-reported methods of intake can make vital contributions to our understanding of dietary intakes and are thus warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  19. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  1. Dietary glycaemic load associated with cognitive performance in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Susan E; O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; O'Toole, Paul W; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Jeffery, Ian B

    2015-06-01

    Ageing is associated with loss of cognitive function and an increased risk of dementia which is expected to place growing demands on health and long-term care providers. Among multiple causative factors, evidence suggests that cognitive impairment in older subjects may be influenced by diet. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns, dietary glycaemic load (GL) and cognition in older Irish adults. Community-dwelling subjects (n 208; 94 males and 114 females; aged 64-93 years) were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive capacity was tested using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The data were clustered to derive patterns of dietary intake. Multivariable-adjusted logistic and Poisson regression models were used to examine the relationship between dietary GL and MMSE score. Elderly subjects consuming 'prudent' dietary patterns (high in fruit, vegetables, fish, low-fat dairy and salad dressings and low in red meat and white bread) had higher MMSE scores (better cognitive function) than those consuming 'Western' dietary pattern (high in red meat and white bread and low in fruit and vegetables; P nutritional status, residential property price, cardiovascular medications and energy intake. In this community-dwelling elderly Irish cohort, consumption of a high glycaemic diet is associated with poorer cognitive performance as assessed by the MMSE.

  2. Dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, Giorgia; Edefonti, Valeria; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2010-07-01

    The association of colorectal cancer risk with select foods has been evaluated by dietary pattern analysis. This review of the literature was conducted to thoroughly examine the available evidence for the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancers and adenomas. A total of 32 articles based on worldwide epidemiological studies were identified. Pattern identification was achieved by exploratory data analyses (principal component, factor, and cluster analyses) in most articles, and only a few used a priori-defined scores. Dietary patterns named as healthy, prudent, fruit and vegetables, fat-reduced/diet foods, vegetable/fish/poultry, fruit/whole grain/dairy, and healthy eating index-2005, recommended food and Mediterranean diet scores were all associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and the risk estimates varied from 0.45 to 0.90. In contrast, diets named Western, pork-processed meat-potatoes, meat-eaters, meat and potatoes, traditional patterns, and dietary risk and life summary scores were associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer with risk estimates varying from 1.18 to 11.7. Dietary patterns for adenomas were consistent with those identified for colorectal cancer.

  3. Unique dietary patterns and chronic disease risk profiles of adult men: the Framingham nutrition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Barbara E; Quatromoni, Paula A; Pencina, Michael; Kimokoti, Ruth; Nam, Byung-H O; Cobain, Sonia; Kozak, Waldemar; Appugliese, Danielle P; Ordovas, Jose; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2005-11-01

    To identify the dietary patterns of adult men and examine their relationships with nutrient intake and chronic disease risk over long-term follow-up. Basel