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Sample records for varying carbon concentrations

  1. Effect of Photochemical Transformation on Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentration and Bioavailability from Watersheds with Varying Landcover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermilyea, A.; Sanders, A.; Vazquez, E.

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of freshwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can have important implications for water quality, aquatic ecosystem health, and our climate. DOC is an important nutrient for heterotrophic microorganisms near the base of the aquatic food chain and the extent of conversion of DOC to CO2 is a critical piece of the global carbon cycle. Photochemical pathways have the potential to transform recalcitrant DOC into more labile forms that can then be converted to smaller DOC molecules and eventually be completely mineralized to CO2. This may lead to a DOC pool with different bioavailability depending on the structural composition of the original DOC pool and the mechanistic pathways undergone during transformation. This study aimed to measure the changes in DOC concentration and bioavailability due solely to photochemical processes in three watersheds of northern Vermont, USA that have varied land cover, land use (LCLU) attributes. Our hypothesis was that photochemical transformations will lead to (1) an overall loss of DOC due to mineralization to CO2 and (2) a relative increase in the bioavailable fraction of DOC. Additionally, the influence of LCLU and base flow versus storm flow on both mineralization rates and changes in DOC bioavailability was investigated. Irradiation of filtered samples in quartz vessels under sunlight led to small changes in DOC concentration over time, but significant changes in DOC bioavailability. In general, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) showed a shift from an initially more humic-like DOC pool, to a more protein-like (bioavailable) DOC pool. Specific UV index (SUVA) along with bioavailable DOC (BDOC) incubations were also used to characterize DOC and its bioavailability. There were only small differences in the DOC transformation that took place among sites, possibly due to only small differences in the initial bioavailability and fluorescent properties between water samples. Photochemical transformation

  2. Topsoil and Deep Soil Organic Carbon Concentration and Stability Vary with Aggregate Size and Vegetation Type in Subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiang-Min; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Wan, Song-Ze; Yang, Qing-Pei; Shi, Jian-Min

    2015-01-01

    The impact of reforestation on soil organic carbon (OC), especially in deep layer, is poorly understood and deep soil OC stabilization in relation with aggregation and vegetation type in afforested area is unknown. Here, we collected topsoil (0–15 cm) and deep soil (30–45 cm) from six paired coniferous forests (CF) and broad-leaved forests (BF) reforested in the early 1990s in subtropical China. Soil aggregates were separated by size by dry sieving and OC stability was measured by closed-jar alkali-absorption in 71 incubation days. Soil OC concentration and mean weight diameter were higher in BF than CF. The cumulative carbon mineralization (Cmin, mg CO2-C kg-1 soil) varied with aggregate size in BF and CF topsoils, and in deep soil, it was higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates in BF, but not CF. The percentage of soil OC mineralized (SOCmin, % SOC) was in general higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates. Meanwhile, SOCmin was greater in CF than in BF at topsoil and deep soil aggregates. In comparison to topsoil, deep soil aggregates generally exhibited a lower Cmin, and higher SOCmin. Total nitrogen (N) and the ratio of carbon to phosphorus (C/P) were generally higher in BF than in CF in topsoil and deep soil aggregates, while the same trend of N/P was only found in deep soil aggregates. Moreover, the SOCmin negatively correlated with OC, total N, C/P and N/P. This work suggests that reforested vegetation type might play an important role in soil OC storage through internal nutrient cycling. Soil depth and aggregate size influenced OC stability, and deep soil OC stability could be altered by vegetation reforested about 20 years. PMID:26418563

  3. Modeling uranium(VI) adsorption onto montmorillonite under varying carbonate concentrations: A surface complexation model accounting for the spillover effect on surface potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournassat, C.; Tinnacher, R. M.; Grangeon, S.; Davis, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of U(VI) adsorption onto montmorillonite clay is confounded by the complexities of: (1) the montmorillonite structure in terms of adsorption sites on basal and edge surfaces, and the complex interactions between the electrical double layers at these surfaces, and (2) U(VI) solution speciation, which can include cationic, anionic and neutral species. Previous U(VI)-montmorillonite adsorption and modeling studies have typically expanded classical surface complexation modeling approaches, initially developed for simple oxides, to include both cation exchange and surface complexation reactions. However, previous models have not taken into account the unique characteristics of electrostatic surface potentials that occur at montmorillonite edge sites, where the electrostatic surface potential of basal plane cation exchange sites influences the surface potential of neighboring edge sites ('spillover' effect). A series of U(VI) - Na-montmorillonite batch adsorption experiments was conducted as a function of pH, with variable U(VI), Ca, and dissolved carbonate concentrations. Based on the experimental data, a new type of surface complexation model (SCM) was developed for montmorillonite, that specifically accounts for the spillover effect using the edge surface speciation model by Tournassat et al. (2016a). The SCM allows for a prediction of U(VI) adsorption under varying chemical conditions with a minimum number of fitting parameters, not only for our own experimental results, but also for a number of published data sets. The model agreed well with many of these datasets without introducing a second site type or including the formation of ternary U(VI)-carbonato surface complexes. The model predictions were greatly impacted by utilizing analytical measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in individual sample solutions rather than assuming solution equilibration with a specific partial pressure of CO2, even when the gas phase was

  4. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibret, B; Premaratne, M; Lewis, P M; Thomson, R; Fitzgerald, P B

    2016-01-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications. (paper)

  5. The effect of Cu (II) on the electro-olfactogram (EOG) of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) in artificial freshwater of varying inorganic carbon concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winberg, S; Bjerselius, R; Baatrup, E

    1993-01-01

    The effect of inorganic copper species was studied by recording the receptor potential, electro-olfactogram (EOG), from the olfactory epithelium of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). In a series of experiments, the olfactory organ was irrigated with aqueous copper solutions with concentrations...... of the free cupric ion (Cu2+) ranging from 0.2 to 9.7 microM. The diverse copper species were created by varying the amount of bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in artificial freshwater solutions of equal total copper concentrations. In general, these copper solutions induced a slow depolarization of the baseline followed...

  6. Bioavailability of benzo(a)pyrene and dehydroabietic acid from a few lake waters containing varying dissolved organic carbon concentrations to Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikari, A.; Kukkonen, J.

    1990-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters consists of a great variety of organic molecules. Some of these molecules have been identified but most of them cannot be identified. This unidentified group of heterogeneous organic macromolecules is considered as humic substances. The role of humic substances in water chemistry and in aquatic toxicology is receiving increasing attention. The effects of DOC on the bioavailability of organic pollutants have been demonstrated in several studies. A decreased bioavailability has been demonstrated in most cases. Both the quantity and the quality of DOC are suggested determinants of this apparent ecotoxicological buffer of inland waters worldwide. In this study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) in Daphnia magna using a wide range of naturally occurring DOC levels. Another objective was to associate the reduced bioavailability with the chemical characteristics of water and DOC

  7. Hydrophobicity studies of polymer thin films with varied CNT concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Rodzi, N. H.; M. Shahimin, M.; Poopalan, P.; Man, B.; M. Nor, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Surface functionalization studies for re-creating a `Lotus Leaf' effect (superhydrophobic) have been carried out for the past decade; looking for the material which can provide high transparency, low energy surface and high surface roughness. Fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid thin film variations on glass to produce near-superhydrophobic surfaces is presented in this paper. There are three important parameters studied in producing hydrophobic surfaces based on the hybrid thin films; concentration of PDMS, concentration of MWCNT and droplet sizes. The study is carried out by using PDMS of varied cross linker ratio (10:1, 30:1 and 50:1) with MWCNT concentration of 1mg, 10mg and 15mg for 0.5 μl, 2.0 μl, 5.0 μl and 10 μl droplet sizes. The resulting hybrid thin films show that hydrophobicity increased with increasing cross linker ratio and MWCNT percentage in the PDMS solution. A near superhydrophobic surface can be created when using 15 mg of MWCNT with 50:1 cross linker ratio PDMS thin films, measured on 10 μl droplet size. The hybrid thin films produced can be potentially tailored to the application of biosensors, MEMS and even commercial devices.

  8. Effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiologic basis of bleeding is a function of normal platelets and coagulation factors. This study is aimed at ascertaining the effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during menstruation. Forty menstruating students between the ages of 18 and 25 from ...

  9. Varying hemin concentrations affect Porphyromonas gingivalis strains differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Manabu; Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2016-05-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis requires heme to grow, however, heme availability and concentration in the periodontal pockets vary. Fluctuations in heme concentration may affect each P. gingivalis strain differently, however, this was never fully demonstrated. Here, we elucidated the effects of varying hemin concentrations in representative P. gingivalis strains. Throughout this study, representative P. gingivalis strains [FDC381 (type I), MPWIb-01 (type Ib), TDC60 (type II), ATCC49417 (type III), W83 (type IV), and HNA99 (type V)] were used and grown for 24 h in growth media under varying hemin concentrations (5 × , 1 × , 0.5 × , 0.1 × ). Samples were lysed and protein standardized. Arg-gingipain (Rgp), H2O2, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were subsequently measured. We focused our study on 24 h-grown strains which excluded MPWIb-01 and HNA99. Rgp activity among the 4 remaining strains varied with Rgp peaking at: 1 × for FDC381, 5 × for TDC60, 0.5 × for ATCC49417, 5 × and 0.5 × for W83. With regards to H2O2 and SOD amounts: FDC381 had similar H2O2 amounts in all hemin concentrations while SOD levels varied; TDC60 had the lowest H2O2 amount at 1 × while SOD levels became higher in relation to hemin concentration; ATCC49417 also had similar H2O2 amounts in all hemin concentrations while SOD levels were higher at 1 × and 0.5 × ; and W83 had statistically similar H2O2 and SOD amounts regardless of hemin concentration. Our results show that variations in hemin concentration affect each P. gingivalis strain differently. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Toluene metabolism during exposure to varying concentrations combined with exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Døssing, M; Hansen, S H

    1987-01-01

    . In Study A, four males were exposed to clean air and to constant and varying concentrations of toluene in combination with rest and with 100 W exercise in 140 min. Exercise increased end exposure excretion rate of HA and O-cr by 47 and 114%, respectively. After exposure, all excess HA was excreted within 4...... weight and smoking habits, thus influencing the metabolite concentration standardised in relation to creatinine. It is concluded that both metabolites are estimates of toluene exposure. O-cr is more specific than HA, but the individual variation in excretion of both metabolites is large, and when...

  11. Mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Torres, Nelson Velasquez; Talain, Augusto Nicolas.

    1997-01-01

    Today, there has been a growing concern on the mutagenicity potential of environmental chemical systems. These environmental chemicals such as pesticides, food additives, synthetic drugs, water and atmospheric pollutants are possible causes of mutagenic activity. Meat products and some meat flavorings, were also reported to exhibit mutagenic activity. And since these products are normal part of the daily human diet, there is a need for extensive studies regarding the possible mutagenic activity associated with these products. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentration. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. Do beef, pork and chicken broth cubes exhibit mutagenic activity? 2. Are there significant differences in the mutagenic activity among the three samples? 3. Are these significant differences in the mutagenic activity exhibited by each of the samples compared to that of Mitomycin-C (positive control)? 4. Which of the sample of each specific concentration exhibit the greatest mutagenic activity? Three specific concentrations of beef, pork and chicken broth cubes were prepared and their mutagenicity potential was evaluated by using the Micronucleus test. The formation of micro nucleated polychromatic and micro nucleated normo chromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice treated with these samples were detected using a Carl-Zeiss photo microscope. The statistical tool used to test the validity of the null hypothesis was analysis of variance using randomized complete block design and independent T- test. (author)

  12. Mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Torres, Nelson Velasquez; Talain, Augusto Nicolas

    1998-12-31

    Today, there has been a growing concern on the mutagenicity potential of environmental chemical systems. These environmental chemicals such as pesticides, food additives, synthetic drugs, water and atmospheric pollutants are possible causes of mutagenic activity. Meat products and some meat flavorings, were also reported to exhibit mutagenic activity. And since these products are normal part of the daily human diet, there is a need for extensive studies regarding the possible mutagenic activity associated with these products. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentration. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. Do beef, pork and chicken broth cubes exhibit mutagenic activity? 2. Are there significant differences in the mutagenic activity among the three samples? 3. Are these significant differences in the mutagenic activity exhibited by each of the samples compared to that of Mitomycin-C (positive control)? 4. Which of the sample of each specific concentration exhibit the greatest mutagenic activity? Three specific concentrations of beef, pork and chicken broth cubes were prepared and their mutagenicity potential was evaluated by using the Micronucleus test. The formation of micro nucleated polychromatic and micro nucleated normo chromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice treated with these samples were detected using a Carl-Zeiss photo microscope. The statistical tool used to test the validity of the null hypothesis was analysis of variance using randomized complete block design and independent T- test. (author). 28 refs., 9 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. 314 EFFECT OF VARYING CONCENTRATION OF AUXINS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... West and Central Africa countries have adopted the massive cultivation of the crop. The plant is found to incur little or no carbon debt hence it offers immediate ... These were made into cuttings of two lengths: 30 and 60cm using a meter measuring tape. The cuttings were pre-treated with two types of growth.

  14. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  15. Mercury Concentrations of Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus Vary by Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Madenjian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Patterns in relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes across many species of fish may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes, and may also be useful in developing fish consumption advisories and efficient designs for programs meant to monitor contaminant levels in fish. We determined skin-off fillet and whole-fish total mercury (Hg concentrations of 28 adult female and 26 adult male bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus from Squaw Lake, Oakland County, Michigan (MI, USA. Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the effect of growth dilution on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. On average, skin-off fillet and whole-fish Hg concentrations were 25.4% higher and 26.6% higher, respectively, in females compared with males. Thus, the relative difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes for skin-off fillets was nearly identical to that for whole fish. However, mean skin-off fillet Hg concentration (363 ng/g was 2.3 times greater than mean whole-fish Hg concentration (155 ng/g. Males grew substantially faster than females, and bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for females having 14.4% higher Hg concentrations than males. Our findings should be useful in revising fish consumption advisories.

  16. Effects of varying concentrations of Dioscorea bulbifera (Fam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tablets of paracetamol BP prepared with purified starch obtained from the bulbs of locally cultivated Dioscorea bulbifera in comparison with corn starch BP, both at concentrations, 3-10 %w/w were evaluated for their disintegration time, mechanical properties and dissolution profiles. All the batches of tablets prepared with ...

  17. Assessing toxicity of varying major ion concentrations to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, D.R.; Quast, W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent regulatory developments have required that produced waters discharged in the Gulf of Mexico be monitored for toxicity to marine organisms. While produced water may contain a variety of indigenous and introduced chemicals, virtually all have moderate to high concentrations of major ions. Although seawater is also rich in these ions, excessive salinity can cause toxicity to marine organisms. Perhaps more importantly, toxicity to marine organisms can be caused by deviations from normal ion ratios even if the total salinity is within organism tolerances. To provide a better understanding of marine organism responses to variations in major ion concentrations, the authors conducted a series of laboratory experiments to quantify the responses of mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) to modifications of normal seawater chemistry. Acute testing included both increasing and decreasing the concentrations of individual ions relative to seawater, as well as altering total salinity. Results show these organisms can be adversely affected by this altered chemistry and their sensitivity is dependent upon the individual ions that are manipulated. Results from these studies are being incorporated into an overall strategy for evaluating the influence of major ion chemistry on produced water toxicity tests

  18. Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system varying the light concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renno, C.; Petito, F.; Landi, G.; Neitzert, H.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system. • Analysis of the point-focus concentrating system performances. • Photovoltaic system parameters as function of the concentration factor. - Abstract: The concentrating photovoltaic system represents one of the most promising solar technologies because it allows a more efficient energy conversion. When a CPV system is designed, the main parameter which has to be considered is the concentration factor that affects both the system energy performances and its configuration. An experimental characterization of a CPV system previously realized at the University of Salerno, is presented in this paper considering several aspects related to the optical configuration, the concentration factor and the solar cell used. In particular, the parameters of an Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium triple-junction solar cell are investigated as function of the concentration factor determined by means of an experimental procedure that uses different optical configurations. The maximum concentration factor reached by the CPV system is 310 suns. The cell parameters dependence on the concentration is reported together with an electroluminescence analysis of the Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium cell. A monitoring of the electrical power provided by the system during its working is also presented corresponding to different direct irradiance values. A mean power of 2.95 W with an average efficiency of 32.8% is obtained referring to a mean irradiance of 930 W/m"2; lower values are obtained when the irradiance is highly fluctuating. The concentrating photovoltaic system electric energy output is estimated considering different concentration levels; the maximal obtained value is 23.5 W h on a sunny day at 310×. Finally, the temperature of the triple-junction solar cell is evaluated for different months in order to evaluate the potential annual thermal energy production

  19. Behaviors and kinetics of toluene adsorption-desorption on activated carbons with varying pore structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Shunzheng; Yang, Zhongyu; Ma, Yueqiang; Feng, Tiecheng; Cui, Xiaoxu

    2018-05-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate the behaviors and kinetics of toluene adsorption and desorption on activated carbons with varying pore structure. Five kinds of activated carbon from different raw materials were selected. Adsorption isotherms and breakthrough curves for toluene were measured. Langmuir and Freundlich equations were fitted to the equilibrium data, and the Freundlich equation was more suitable for simulating toluene adsorption. The process consisted of monolayer, multilayer and partial active site adsorption types. The effect of the pore structure of the activated carbons on toluene adsorption capacity was investigated. The quasi-first-order model was more suitable for describing the process than the quasi-second-order model. The adsorption data was also modeled by the internal particle diffusion model and it was found that the adsorption process could be divided into three stages. In the external surface adsorption process, the rate depended on the specific surface area. During the particle diffusion stage, pore structure and volume were the main factors affecting adsorption rate. In the final equilibrium stage, the rate was determined by the ratio of meso- and macro-pores to total pore volume. The rate over the whole adsorption process was dominated by the toluene concentration. The desorption behavior of toluene on activated carbons was investigated, and the process was divided into heat and mass transfer parts corresponding to emission and diffusion mechanisms, respectively. Physical adsorption played the main role during the adsorption process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Monitoring of 7Be in surface air of varying PM10 concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.H.; Liu, C.C.; Cho, I.C.; Niu, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, beryllium-7 ( 7 Be) concentrations of surface air were monitored throughout a span of 23 years (1992–2012) in the Taiwanese cities Yilan, Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung. During this period, particulate matter (PM) concentrations, in terms of PM 10 , were collected monthly from the nearest air-quality pollutant monitoring stations and compared against 7 Be concentrations. Seasonal monsoons influenced 7 Be concentrations in all cities, resulting in high winter and low summer concentrations. In addition, the meteorological conditions caused seasonal PM 10 variations, yielding distinct patterns among the cities. There was no correlation between 7 Be and PM 10 in the case cities. The average annual 7 Be concentrations varied little among the cities, ranging from 2.9 to 3.5 mBq/m 3 , while the PM 10 concentrations varied significantly from 38 μg/m 3 in Yilan to 92 μg/m 3 in Kaohsiung depending on the degree of air pollution and meteorological conditions. The correlation between the 7 Be concentration and gross-beta activities (A β ) in air implied that the 7 Be was mainly attached to crustal PM and its concentration varied little among the cities, regardless of the increase in anthropogenic PM in air-polluted areas. - Highlights: • Both 7 Be and PM 10 concentrations were monitored in four Taiwanese cities from 1992 to 2012. • Seasonal variations of 7 Be and PM 10 were explained based on on meteorological and pollution conditions. • The annual concentrations of 7 Be varied little among the four cities even in high PM environment. • 7 Be is believed to mainly attach to natural PM in the cities that exhibited varying PM 10 concentrations

  1. Carbon-concentrating mechanisms in seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkum, Anthony William D; Davey, Peter A; Kuo, John; Ralph, Peter J; Raven, John A

    2017-06-01

    Seagrasses are unique angiosperms that carry out growth and reproduction submerged in seawater. They occur in at least three families of the Alismatales. All have chloroplasts mainly in the cells of the epidermis. Living in seawater, the supply of inorganic carbon (Ci) to the chloroplasts is diffusion limited, especially under unstirred conditions. Therefore, the supply of CO2 and bicarbonate across the diffusive boundary layer on the outer side of the epidermis is often a limiting factor. Here we discuss the evidence for mechanisms that enhance the uptake of Ci into the epidermal cells. Since bicarbonate is plentiful in seawater, a bicarbonate pump might be expected; however, the evidence for such a pump is not strongly supported. There is evidence for a carbonic anhydrase outside the outer plasmalemma. This, together with evidence for an outward proton pump, suggests the possibility that local acidification leads to enhanced concentrations of CO2 adjacent to the outer tangential epidermal walls, which enhances the uptake of CO2, and this could be followed by a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in the cytoplasm and/or chloroplasts. The lines of evidence for such an epidermal CCM are discussed, including evidence for special 'transfer cells' in some but not all seagrass leaves in the tangential inner walls of the epidermal cells. It is concluded that seagrasses have a CCM but that the case for concentration of CO2 at the site of Rubisco carboxylation is not proven. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Dependence of carbon dioxide concentration on microalgal carbon dioxide fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yeoung Sang; Park, Song Moon [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Environmental Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea); Bolesky, Bohumil [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Batch cultivation of chlorella vulgaris was carried out under various CO{sub 2} concentrations in order to understand and describe mathematically the CO{sub 2} inhibition of microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation. The volumetric CO{sub 2} transfer coefficient from mixture gas to culture medium was estimated from the volumetric O{sub 2} transfer coefficient obtained experimentally. Using this transfer coefficient and aquatic equilibrium relationship between dissolved inorganic carbons, the behavior of dissolved CO{sub 2} was calculated during microalgal culture. When air containing 0.035%(v/v) CO{sub 2} was supplied into microalgal culture, the fixation rate was limited by CO{sub 2} transfer rate. However, the limitation was disappeared by supplying mixture gas containing above 2%(v/v) CO{sub 2} and the dissolved CO{sub 2} concentration was maintained at the saturated value. In the range of CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the flue gases from thermal power sations and steel-making plants, the microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation rate was inhibited. The CO{sub 2} fixation rate was successfully formulated by a new empirical equation as a function of dissolved CO{sub 2} concentration, which could be useful for modeling and simulating the performance of photobioreaction with enriched CO{sub 2}. Also, it was found that the CO{sub 2} inhibition of microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation was reversible and that microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation process could be stable against a shock of unusually high CO{sub 2} concentration. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Methane and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Fluxes in Amazon Floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; MacIntyre, S.; Forsberg, B.; Barbosa, P.; Amaral, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Field studies on the central Amazon floodplain in representative aquatic habitats (open water, flooded forests, floating macrophytes) combine measurements of methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes to the atmosphere over diel and seasonal times with deployment of meteorological sensors and high-resolution thermistors and dissolved oxygen sondes. A cavity ringdown spectrometer is used to determine gas concentrations, and floating chambers and bubble collectors are used to measure fluxes. To further understand fluxes, we measured turbulence as rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy based on microstructure profiling. These results allow calculations of vertical mixing within the water column and of air-water exchanges using surface renewal models. Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes varied as a function of season, habitat and water depth. High CO2 fluxes at high water are related to high pCO2; low pCO2 levels at low water result from increased phytoplankton uptake. CO2 fluxes are highest at turbulent open water sites, and pCO2 is highest in macrophyte beds. Fluxes and pCH4 are high in macrophyte beds.

  4. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of A 516 steel using corrosive environments with varying concentrations of sodium thiosulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, F.; Arif, M.; Reza, I.; Akram, M.; Hussain, N.; Ali, L.

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of A 516 steel was studied by potentiodynamic polarization technique. Environment used for these tests was sodium chloride (5%), acetic acid (0.5%) and sodium thiosulphate with varying concentration from 0.001 M to 1 M. Surface study was also carried out using optical microscope. The potentiodynamic polarization results revealed the formation of large number of pits in the sample, which was tested in the solution containing NaCl. Pitting corrosion study of alloy A516 G-70 was also conducted to see the effect of different concentrations of thiosulfate with or without addition of NaCl and acetic acid at room temperature. It was observed that different thiosulfate concentrations did not produce any difference in the polarization behavior of the alloys, when added in 5% NaCl and 0.5% acetic acid solution. However, in the absence of NaCl and acetic acid, thiosulfate concentration 0.001 mol/l or higher did produce general corrosion and pitting in the alloy at room temperature is shown.(Orig./A.B.)

  5. Concentration of carbon-14 in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The carbon-14 survey program initiated 1960 to gather data on current levels of carbon-14 in environments. Plants essential oil and fermented alcohol were selected as sample materials. The carbon contained in these materials is fixed from atmospheric carbon dioxide by anabolism, so they well reflect the variation of carbon-14 in biosphere. Thymol; Thymol was obtained from the essential oil of Orthodon Japonicium Benth which was cultivated and harvested every year in the experimental field of NIRS and Chiba University. The methylation was carried out to eliminate the strong quenching action of the phenolic group of thymol. Eighteen grams of thymol methyl ether was used as liquid scintillator by adding 0.4% PPO and 0.01% POPOP. Menthol; Menthol was obtained from Mentha arvensis L which was cultivated in the east part of Hokkaido and prepared by Kitami Factory of Federation of Agricultural Cooperative Society of Hokkaido. The chemical conversion of menthol to p-cymene was carried out and used as liquid scintillator as same as above sample. Lemongrass oil; Lemongrass oil was obtained from Cymbopogon citratus Stapf which was cultivated in Izu Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants, National Institute of Hygienic Science located Minami-Izu, Shizuoka Pref. The p-cymene derived from Lemongrass oil was used as liquid scintillator. Alcohol; All sample of fermented alcohol were obtained from the Alcohol Factories of Ministry of Trade and Industry. Raw materials of alcohol were sweet potatos cultivated in several prefectures in Japan ''high test'' molasses and blackstrap molasses imported from several countries of Asia, South America and South Africa, crude alcohol imported from U.S.A., Argentina and Brazil. Mixed solvent of 10 ml sample alcohol and 10 ml toluene or p-xylene containing 0.8% PPO and 0.1% dimethyl POPOP was used as liquid scintillator. (author)

  6. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  7. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  8. Carbon monoxide and COHb concentration in blood in various circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modic, J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2003-07-01

    On the basis of known medical experiments we find out the correlation between the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in inhaling air and the concentration of carboxihemoglobyne (COHb) in human blood. All internal combustion engines produce exhaust gases containing noxious compounds: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon oxides (CxHy) and smoke. In a living room is important the smoke of cigarettes, smoke of furnaces, improper ventilation. In tunnel is most dangerous the carbon monoxide if it exceeds an allowable level. In human blood the carbon monoxide causes increasing the concentration of carboxihemoglobyne and in this case the hypoxia of web. With help of mathematical model the concentrations of some dangerous substances at the end of tunnel were calculated. For this case a differential equation also was developed and it shows the correlation between concentration of carbon monoxide in the air and concentration of carboxihemoglobyne in the blood. The constructed mathematical model shows circumstances in the tunnel (velocity of air moving as effect of induction, concentration of noxious substances and criterial number). Also a corresponding computer program was developed, which makes possible a quick and simple calculation. All the results are proved by experiments. Finally the differential equation was done, which shows a temporal connection between both parameters as a function of tunnel characteristics. (author)

  9. Global land carbon sink response to temperature and precipitation varies with ENSO phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Michalak, Anna M.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Berry, Joseph A.; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Fisher, Joshua B.; Cook, Robert B.; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul; Lei, Huimin; Lu, Chaoqun; Mao, Jiafu; Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Peng, Shushi; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Tian, Hanqin; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Jia

    2017-05-01

    Climate variability associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its consequent impacts on land carbon sink interannual variability have been used as a basis for investigating carbon cycle responses to climate variability more broadly, and to inform the sensitivity of the tropical carbon budget to climate change. Past studies have presented opposing views about whether temperature or precipitation is the primary factor driving the response of the land carbon sink to ENSO. Here, we show that the dominant driver varies with ENSO phase. Whereas tropical temperature explains sink dynamics following El Niño conditions (rTG,P=0.59, p<0.01), the post La Niña sink is driven largely by tropical precipitation (rPG,T=-0.46, p=0.04). This finding points to an ENSO-phase-dependent interplay between water availability and temperature in controlling the carbon uptake response to climate variations in tropical ecosystems. We further find that none of a suite of ten contemporary terrestrial biosphere models captures these ENSO-phase-dependent responses, highlighting a key uncertainty in modeling climate impacts on the future of the global land carbon sink.

  10. Source contributions to atmospheric fine carbon particle concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Gray, H.; Cass, Glen R.

    A Lagrangian particle-in-cell air quality model has been developed that facilitates the study of source contributions to atmospheric fine elemental carbon and fine primary total carbon particle concentrations. Model performance was tested using spatially and temporally resolved emissions and air quality data gathered for this purpose in the Los Angeles area for the year 1982. It was shown that black elemental carbon (EC) particle concentrations in that city were dominated by emissions from diesel engines including both on-highway and off-highway applications. Fine primary total carbon particle concentrations (TC=EC+organic carbon) resulted from the accumulation of small increments from a great variety of emission source types including both gasoline and diesel powered highway vehicles, stationary source fuel oil and gas combustion, industrial processes, paved road dust, fireplaces, cigarettes and food cooking (e.g. charbroilers). Strategies for black elemental carbon particle concentration control will of necessity need to focus on diesel engines, while controls directed at total carbon particle concentrations will have to be diversified over a great many source types.

  11. Equilibrium and Dynamic Osmotic Behaviour of Aqueous Solutions with Varied Concentration at Constant and Variable Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, Ivan L.; Manev, Emil D.; Sazdanova, Svetla V.; Kolikov, Kiril H.

    2013-01-01

    Osmosis is essential for the living organisms. In biological systems the process usually occurs in confined volumes and may express specific features. The osmotic pressure in aqueous solutions was studied here experimentally as a function of solute concentration (0.05–0.5 M) in two different regimes: of constant and variable solution volume. Sucrose, a biologically active substance, was chosen as a reference solute for the complex tests. A custom made osmotic cell was used. A novel operative experimental approach, employing limited variation of the solution volume, was developed and applied for the purpose. The established equilibrium values of the osmotic pressure are in agreement with the theoretical expectations and do not exhibit any evident differences for both regimes. In contrast, the obtained kinetic dependences reveal striking divergence in the rates of the process at constant and varied solution volume for the respective solute concentrations. The rise of pressure is much faster at constant solution volume, while the solvent influx is many times greater in the regime of variable volume. The results obtained suggest a feasible mechanism for the way in which the living cells rapidly achieve osmotic equilibrium upon changes in the environment. PMID:24459448

  12. Carbon dioxide concentrations are very high in developing oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Fernando D; Ruckle, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2004-09-01

    A new method has been developed to rapidly determine the total inorganic carbon concentration (gaseous [CO2] + aqueous [CO(2)] + [HCO3-] + [CO3(2)-]) in developing seeds. Seeds are rapidly dissected and homogenized in 1 N HCl in gas-tight vials. The headspace gas is then analyzed by infrared gas analysis. Developing rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds were analyzed and found to have up to 40 and 12 mM total inorganic carbon, respectively. These concentrations are ca. 600-2000-fold higher than in ambient air or values reported for leaves. Carbon dioxide concentrations in rapeseed peaked during the stage of maximum oil synthesis and declined as seeds matured. The consequences for seed metabolism, physiology and carbon economy are discussed.

  13. Carbon isotopes and concentrations in mid-oceanic ridge basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, F.; Javoy, M.

    1983-01-01

    In order to estimate carbon fluxes at mid-ocean ridges and carbon isotopic compositions in the convective mantle, we have studied carbon concentrations and isotopic compositions in tholeiitic glasses from the FAMOUS zone (Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 36 0 N) and East Pacific Rise from 21 0 N (RITA zone) to 20 0 S. These samples correspond essentially to the whole spectrum of spreading rates (2-16 cm/yr). The contain: -CO 2 vesicles in various quantities (3-220 ppm C) with delta 13 C between -4 and -9per mille relative to PDB, in the range of carbonatites and diamonds. - Carbonate carbon (3-100 ppm C) with delta 13 C between -2.6 and -20.0per mille relative to PDB. - Dissolved carbon at a concentration of 170+-10 ppm under 250 bar pressure with delta 13 C from -9 to -21per mille relative to PDB. This dissolved carbon, not contained in large CO 2 vesicles, corresponds to a variety of chemical forms among which part of the above carbonates, microscopic CO 2 bubbles and graphite. The lightest portions of this dissolved carbon are extracted at low temperatures (400-600 0 C) whereas the CO 2 from the vesicles is extracted near fusion temperature. These features can be explained by outgassing processes in two steps from the source region of the magma: (1) equilibrium outgassing before the second percolation threshold, where micron size bubbles are continuously reequilibrated with the magma; (2) distillation after the second percolation threshold when larger bubbles travel faster than magma concentrations to the surface. The second step may begin at different depths apparently related to the spreading rate, shallower for fast-spreading ridges than for slow-spreading ridges. (orig./WL)

  14. Sensitivity of ring growth and carbon allocation to climatic variation vary within ponderosa pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhoulas, Lucy P; Kane, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Most dendrochronological studies focus on cores sampled from standard positions (main stem, breast height), yet vertical gradients in hydraulic constraints and priorities for carbon allocation may contribute to different growth sensitivities with position. Using cores taken from five positions (coarse roots, breast height, base of live crown, mid-crown branch and treetop), we investigated how radial growth sensitivity to climate over the period of 1895-2008 varies by position within 36 large ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) in northern Arizona. The climate parameters investigated were Palmer Drought Severity Index, water year and monsoon precipitation, maximum annual temperature, minimum annual temperature and average annual temperature. For each study tree, we generated Pearson correlation coefficients between ring width indices from each position and six climate parameters. We also investigated whether the number of missing rings differed among positions and bole heights. We found that tree density did not significantly influence climatic sensitivity to any of the climate parameters investigated at any of the sample positions. Results from three types of analyses suggest that climatic sensitivity of tree growth varied with position height: (i) correlations of radial growth and climate variables consistently increased with height; (ii) model strength based on Akaike's information criterion increased with height, where treetop growth consistently had the highest sensitivity and coarse roots the lowest sensitivity to each climatic parameter; and (iii) the correlation between bole ring width indices decreased with distance between positions. We speculate that increased sensitivity to climate at higher positions is related to hydraulic limitation because higher positions experience greater xylem tensions due to gravitational effects that render these positions more sensitive to climatic stresses. The low sensitivity of root growth to all climatic variables

  15. How low can you go? Assessing minimum concentrations of NSC in carbon limited tree saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Guenter; Hartmann, Henrik; Schwendener, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Tissue concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) are frequently used to determine the carbon balance of plants. Over the last years, an increasing number of studies have inferred carbon starvation in trees under environmental stress like drought from low tissue NSC concentrations. However, such inferences are limited by the fact that minimum concentrations of NSC required for survival are not known. So far, it was hypothesized that even under lethal carbon starvation, starch and low molecular sugar concentrations cannot be completely depleted and that minimum NSC concentrations at death vary across tissues and species. Here we present results of an experiment that aimed to determine minimum NSC concentrations in different tissues of saplings of two broad-leaved tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus and Quercus petratea) exposed to lethal carbon starvation via continuous darkening. In addition, we investigated recovery rates of NSC concentrations in saplings that had been darkened for different periods of time and were then re-exposed to light. Both species survived continuous darkening for about 12 weeks (confirmed by testing the ability to re-sprout after darkness). In all investigated tissues, starch concentrations declined close to zero within three to six weeks of darkness. Low molecular sugars also decreased strongly within the first weeks of darkness, but seemed to stabilize at low concentrations of 0.5 to 2 % dry matter (depending on tissue and species) almost until death. NSC concentrations recovered surprisingly fast in saplings that were re-exposed to light. After 3 weeks of continuous darkness, tissue NSC concentrations recovered within 6 weeks to levels of unshaded control saplings in all tissues and in both species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first experimental attempt to quantify minimum tissue NSC concentrations at lethal carbon starvation. Most importantly, our results suggest that carbon-starved tree saplings are able to

  16. Natural variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Lovenduski; M. C. Long; K. Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    We investigate variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32−]) on the basis of a long control simulation with a fully-coupled Earth System Model. The simulation is run with a prescribed, pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration for 1000 years, permitting investigation of natural [CO32−] variability on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. We find high interannual variability in surface [CO32−] in the tropical...

  17. Natural variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Lovenduski, N. S.; Long, M. C.; Lindsay, K.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32−]) on the basis of a~long control simulation with an Earth System Model. The simulation is run with a prescribed, pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration for 1000 years, permitting investigation of natural [CO32−] variability on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. We find high interannual variability in surface [CO32−] in the tropical Pacific and ...

  18. Influence of the concentration of carbon nanotubes on electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of the concentration of carbon nanotubes on electrical conductivity of magnetically aligned MWCNT–polypyrrole composites. KAVEH KAZEMIKIA1,∗, FAHIMEH BONABI2, ALI ASADPOORCHALLO3 and. MAJID SHOKRZADEH4. 1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Bonab ...

  19. Riverine dissolved carbon concentration and yield in subtropical catchments, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Hao; Shih, Yu-ting; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.

    2017-04-01

    Dissolved carbon is not highly correlated to carbon cycle, but also a critical water quality indicator and affected by interaction of terrestrial and aquatic environment at catchment scale. However, the rates and extent of the dissolved carbon export are still poorly understood and scarcely quantified especially for typhoon events. In this study, regular and events' data of riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were monitored to estimate the export. Meanwhile, the hydrological model and mixing model were used for determination of DOC and DIC flow pathways at 3 sites of Tsengwen reservoir in southern Taiwan in 2014-2015. Results showed that the mean DOC concentration was 1.5 - 2.2 mg l-1 (flow weighted) without seasonal variation. The average DOC yield was 3.1 ton-C km-2 yr-1. On the other hand, DIC concentration ranged from 15 to 25.8 mg l-1, but DIC concentration in dry season was higher than wet season. Mean annual DIC yield was 51 ton-C km-2 yr-1. The export-ratio of DOC:DIC was 1:16.5, which was extremely lower than that of worldwide large rivers (DOC:DIC=1:4.5 in average) and other mountainous rivers (DOC:DIC=1:4.6 in average). Both DOC and DIC concentration showed the dramatically discrepant change in typhoon events. The DOC concentration increased to 4-8 folds rapidly before the flood peak. However, DIC concentration was diluted to one third with discharge simultaneously and returned slowly to base concentration in more than a week. According to the hydrological model, events contributed 14.6% of the annual discharge and 21.9% and 11.1% of DOC and DIC annual flux, respectively. Furthermore, 68.9% of events' discharge derived from surface runoff which carried out 91.3% of DOC flux and 51.1% of DIC flux. It implied that increases of surface runoff transported DOC form near soil surface, but diluted DIC concentration likely implied the contribution of groundwater. Our study characterized the specialty of dissolved carbon

  20. Dynamics of soluble and inert pollutant concentrations in linear and deterministic systems with time varying parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltzer, M.

    1977-04-01

    The tracer theory in steady and non-steady systems is presented. The unsteady system was applied in the study of the concentration dynamics of the National Water Carrier in Israel. A method that uses Bromine 82 for the investigation of the transfer time distribution and of the dynamics of inert matter concentration in the system is desribed. (B.G.)

  1. High resolution carbon isotope of Crassostrea cuttakensis: A proxy for seasonally varying carbon dynamics in a tropical delta-estuary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemany, Arpita

    2017-04-01

    The exponential increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and global temperature is becoming a major threat to the existence of the mankind. It has been proposed that the ˜2 ˚ C rise in the average global temperature may lead to a point of no-return where the balance between the climate and the ecosystem collapses. Therefore, detailed understanding of the major carbon reservoirs and their mutual interactions is needed for better future climate prediction. Among all the reservoirs, ocean holds ˜90 % of the exogenic carbon and promotes long term storage in sediments. However, the majority of the sedimentary carbon is of terrestrial origin and transported through rivers, which play an important role in carbon exchange between the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, and oceans. The transportation of organic carbon through river does not follow a simple conveyer belt model. Various organic and inorganic reactions (i.e., organic carbon degradation, inorganic carbon precipitation, primary production, community respiration) modify the state of the carbon to form a major sub-reservoir in the river, i.e., Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC). So, identifying the source/s of the DIC is crucial to understand the carbon dynamics in the river. Stable carbon isotopic composition of the DIC (δ13CDIC) has long been extensively used to reveal the dominant source/s of the DIC. The majority of the large rivers, being situated in the tropical belts, show seasonal fluctuation in the DIC sources. However, seasonal sampling in the remotest reaches of these rivers hindered our thorough understanding of the seasonally varying source/s of DIC in these rivers. Many calcifying organisms precipitate their shell carbonate in equilibrium with water and hence likely to record the δ13CDICof ambient water in their shell. In this study, a living oyster (Crassostrea cuttakensis) was collected from Matla River, which is part of the Ganges Brahmaputra river delta system, and analyzed for its stable

  2. Enrichment of yttrium from rare earth concentrate by ammonium carbonate leaching and peroxide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Rocha, S.M.R. da; Pedreira, W.R.; Queiroz S, Carlos A. da; Abrao, Alcidio

    2006-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) solubility with ammonium carbonate vary progressively from element to element, the heavy rare earth elements (HRE) being more soluble than the light rare earth elements (LRE). Their solubility is function of the carbonate concentration and the kind of carbonate as sodium, potassium and ammonium. In this work, it is explored this ability of the carbonate for the dissolution of the REE and an easy separation of yttrium was achieved using the precipitation of the peroxide from complex yttrium carbonate. For this work is used a REE concentrate containing (%) Y 2 O 3 2.4, Dy 2 O 3 0.6, Gd 2 O 3 2.7, CeO 2 2.5, Nd 2 O 3 33.2, La 2 O 3 40.3, Sm 2 O 3 4.1 and Pr 6 O 11 7.5. The mentioned concentrate was produced industrially from the chemical treatment of monazite sand by NUCLEMON in Sao Paulo. The yttrium concentrate was treated with 200 g L -1 ammonium carbonate during 10 and 30 min at room temperature. The experiments indicated that a single leaching operation was sufficient to get a rich yttrium solution with about 60.3% Y 2 O 3 . In a second step, this yttrium solution was treated with an excess of hydrogen peroxide (130 volumes), cerium, praseodymium and neodymium peroxides being completely precipitated and separated from yttrium. Yttrium was recovered from the carbonate solution as the oxalate and finally as oxide. The final product is an 81% Y 2 O 3 . This separation envisages an industrial application. The work discussed the solubility of the REE using ammonium carbonate and the subsequent precipitation of the correspondent peroxides

  3. Correlation of the concentration of the carbon-associated radiation damage levels with the total carbon concentration in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenczi, G.; Londos, C.A.; Pavelka, T.; Somogyi, M.; Mertens, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant carbon-related radiation damage center in silicon was studied in detail by deep level transient spectroscopy. Samples with different carbon and oxygen content were implanted with gradually increasing proton fluence. Two energetically closely spaced levels were revealed and tentative identities were assigned. One at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.344 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 1.1 x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C+O/sub i/ complex, and that at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.370 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 8 x 10/sup -18/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C/sub s/-Si/sub i/-C/sub s/ complex. It was shown that the concentration of these defects is correlated to the total concentration of carbon in the crystal.

  4. Effect of diet of Varying Protein concentrations on the Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in protein diet have been reported to result in alterations in calcium homeostasis in the body. Ca2+Mg2+ATPase is an ubiquitous enzyme important in calcium homeostasis in the body. The effect of varying protein diet on the activities of Ca2+ pump across cell membranes is however yet to be fully elucidated.

  5. Effect of varying the amount of binder on the electrochemical characteristics of palm shell activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam Maarof, Hawaiah; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan; Kheireddine Aroua, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is among the most common binders used in the fabrication of an electrode, which is used for various electrochemical applications such as desalination, water purification, and wastewater treatment. In this study, the amount of the binder was varied at 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% of the total mass of palm shell activated carbon (PSAC). The PSAC was used as the active material and carbon black was used as the conductive agent. The effect of different amounts of binder was observed by evaluating the electrochemical characteristics of the electrode through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and potentio electrochemical spectroscopy (PEIS). The CV analysis was employed to determine the geometric area normalised electrode double layer capacitance, CE , and the electrode reaction of the prepared electrode. Meanwhile, the common redox probe, ferro/ferricyanide in 0.5 M NaCl, was employed to estimate the electron transfer resistance through PEIS. The electrochemical characterisation proved that the optimum amount of PTFE was 20 wt% for the 4:1 ratio of active material to conductive agent. On increasing the amount of the binder to 30 wt% and 40 wt%, the estimated value of CE decreased and remained almost equivalent. Adding more than 30 wt% of binder resulted in pore blockage and reduced the available active site on the PSAC electrode. In addition, the electron transfer resistance of the prepared electrode was found to be in the range of 4-5 Ω·cm2.

  6. Carbon Budgets for Caribbean Mangrove Forests of Varying Structure and with Phosphorus Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Lovelock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are few detailed carbon (C budgets of mangrove forests, yet these are important for understanding C sequestration in mangrove forests, how they support the productivity of the coast and their vulnerability to environmental change. Here, we develop C budgets for mangroves on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We consider seaward fringing forests and interior scrub forests that have been fertilized with phosphorus (P, which severely limits growth of trees in the scrub forests. We found that respiration of the aboveground biomass accounted for 60%–80% of the fixed C and that respiration of the canopy and aboveground roots were important components of respiration. Soil respiration accounted for only 7%–11% of total gross primary production (GPP while burial of C in soils was ~4% of GPP. Respiration by roots can account for the majority of soil respiration in fringing forests, while microbial processes may account 80% of respiration in scrub forests. Fertilization of scrub forests with P enhanced GPP but the proportion of C buried declined to ~2% of GPP. Net ecosystem production was 17%–27% of GPP similar to that reported for other mangrove forests. Carbon isotope signatures of adjacent seagrass suggest that dissolved C from mangroves is exported into the adjacent ecosystems. Our data indicate that C budgets can vary among mangrove forest types and with nutrient enrichment and that low productivity mangroves provide a disproportionate share of exported C.

  7. Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Carbon Assimilation under Fluctuating Light

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holišová, Petra; Zitová, Martina; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2012), s. 1931-1938 ISSN 0047-2425 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA AV ČR IAA600870701 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : carbon * light * beech * spruce * carbon assimilation * elevat e carbon * dioxide concentration * mol * photosynthetic * assimilation * carbon dioxide * dioxide * concentracion * leave * photosynthetic efficiency Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012

  8. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  9. Factors affecting ANKOM™ fiber analysis of forage and browse varying in condensed tannin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Thomas H; Wolfe, Richard M; Muir, James P

    2010-12-01

    Browse species containing condensed tannins (CTs) are an important source of nutrition for grazing/browsing livestock and wildlife in many parts of the world, but information on fiber concentration and CT-fiber interactions for these plants is lacking. Ten forage or browse species with a range of CT concentrations were oven dried and freeze dried and then analyzed for ash-corrected neutral detergent fiber (NDFom) and corrected acid detergent fiber (ADFom) using separate samples (ADFSEP) and sequential NDF-ADF analysis (ADFSEQ) with the ANKOM™ fiber analysis system. The ADFSEP and ADFSEQ residues were then analyzed for nitrogen (N) concentration. Oven drying increased (P < 0.05) fiber concentrations with some species, but not with others. For high-CT forage and browse species, ADFSEP concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) than NDFom values and approximately double the ADFSEQ values. Nitrogen concentration was greater (P < 0.05) in ADFSEP than ADFSEQ residues, likely due to precipitation with CTs. Sequential NDF-ADF analysis gave more realistic values and appeared to remove most of the fiber residue contaminants in CT forage samples. Freeze drying samples with sequential NDF-ADF analysis is recommended in the ANKOM™ fiber analysis system with CT-containing forage and browse species. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Batch and column adsorption of herbicide fluroxypyr on different types of activated carbons from water with varied degrees of hardness and alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Martínez, L M; López-Ramón, M V; Fontecha-Cámara, M A; Moreno-Castilla, C

    2010-02-01

    There has been little research into the effects of the water hardness and alkalinity of surface waters on the adsorption of herbicides on activated carbons. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of these water characteristics on fluroxypyr adsorption on different activated carbons. At low fluroxypyr surface concentrations, the amount adsorbed from distilled water was related to the surface hydrophobicity. Surface area of carbons covered by fluroxypyr molecules ranged from 60 to 65%. Variations in fluroxypyr solubility with water hardness and alkalinity showed a salting-in effect. Calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions were adsorbed to a varied extent on the activated carbons. The presence of fluroxypyr in solution decreased their adsorption due to a competition effect. K(F) from the Freundlich equation linearly increased with water hardness due to salt-screened electrostatic repulsions between charged fluroxypyr molecules. The amount adsorbed from distilled water was largest at high fluroxypyr solution concentrations, because there was no competition between inorganic ions and fluroxypyr molecules. The column breakthrough volume and the amount adsorbed at breakthrough were smaller in tap versus distilled water. Carbon consumption was lower with activated carbon cloth than with the use of granular activated carbon. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Varying Crustal Carbonate Composition on Assimilation and CO2 Degassing at Arc Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L. B.; Holmes, A. K.; Dasgupta, R.; Tumiati, S.

    2015-12-01

    Magma-crustal carbonate interaction and subsequent decarbonation can provide an additional source of CO2 release to the exogenic system superimposed on mantle-derived CO2. Carbonate assimilation at present day volcanoes is often modeled by limestone consumption experiments [1-4]. Eruptive products, however, do not clearly display the characteristic ultracalcic melt compositions produced during limestone-magma interaction [4]. Yet estimated CO2outflux [5] and composition of volcanics in many volcanic systems may allow ~3-17% limestone- or dolostone-assimilated melt contribution. Crystallization may retain ultracalcic melts in pyroxenite cumulates. To extend our completed study on limestone assimilation, here we explore the effect of varying composition from calcite to dolomite on chemical and thermal decarbonation efficiency of crustal carbonates. Piston cylinder experiments at 0.5 GPa and 900-1200 °C demonstrate that residual mineralogy during interaction with magma shifts from CaTs cpx and anorthite/scapolite in the presence of calcite to Di cpx and Fo-rich olivine with dolomite. Silica-undersaturated melts double in magnesium content, while maintaining high (>30 wt.%) CaO values. At high-T, partial thermal breakdown of dolomite into periclase and CO2 is minimal (<5%) suggesting that in the presence of magma, CO2 is primarily released due to assimilation. Assimilated melts at identical P-T conditions depict similarly high volatile contents (10-20 wt.% by EMPA deficit at 0.5 GPa, 1150 °C with hydrous basalt) with calcite or dolomite. Analysis of the coexisting fluid phase indicates the majority of water is dissolved in the melt, while CO2 released from the carbonate is preferentially partitioned into the vapor. This suggests that although assimilated melts have a higher CO2 solubility, most of the CO2can easily degas from the vapor phase at arc volcanoes, possibly more so at volcanic plumbing systems traversing dolomite [8]. [1]Conte et al 2009 EuJMin (21) 763

  12. Tolerance of Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi to varying concentrations of dissolved oxygen and organic pollution*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando G.

    1972-01-01

    Ecological investigations were made of habitats containing natural populations of the snail Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi and of habitats free from the snail in the island of Leyte, Philippines. This species of snail is a vector of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines. Snail-infested habitats had dissolved oxygen levels of 3.8-9.85 ppm but snail-free habitats had levels of only 0.08-3.6 ppm. Snail-infested habitats were less polluted by organic matter than habitats that were snail-free. Larger numbers of chlorophyll-bearing algae were present in both the water and the soil of snail-infested habitats. Other factors, including temperature, pH, hydrogen carbonate alkalinity, and relative humidity, were also investigated. PMID:4538906

  13. The geographic concentration of blue carbon in the continental US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, R. A.; Hinson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Salt water wetlands have the potential to be bought and sold as relatively rich reservoirs of carbon in the context of sequestration projects. However, little is known about the geographic distribution of this potential, and no coarse scale investigation has addressed this ecosystem service at the continental scale. Our objective was to determine blue carbon stocks and flux in coastal wetland soils in the United States and categorize the potential for projects by estuarine basin, state, and wetland type. We linked National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) through spatial analysis within a Geographic Information System (GIS). We then calculated and mapped soil organic carbon across the continental US. Results were filtered by state, estuarine basin, wetland type, and accumulation rate, and ranking lists for each categorization were produced. The results showed that belowground carbon accumulation is concentrated in specific regions, with the richest and largest reservoirs in the Gulf and Atlantic southeastern estuaries, for example mangrove zones in Florida. Salt marshes on the southern Pacific Coast were relatively low in carbon due to small areas of coverage and the presence of sandy and inorganic soil. The geomorphic position of a wetland within a given estuary, for example on an exposed barrier island versus recessed towards inflowing headwaters, accounted for a greater degree of soil carbon variation than the wetland type, for example woody mangroves versus herbaceous marshes. The potential of a blue carbon sequestration project in relation to its location could be influential in determining wetland policy, conservation, and restoration in the coming decades.

  14. Simultaneous denitrification and phosphorus removal by Agrobacterium sp. LAD9 under varying oxygen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Qian; Gui, Mengyao; Li, Can; Ni, Jinren

    2016-04-01

    Although efficient aerobic denitrification has received increasing attention, few studies have been made on simultaneous denitrification and phosphorus removal (SDPR) under aerobic condition. In this study, SDPR by an efficient aerobic denitrifier, Agrobacterium sp. LAD9, was firstly demonstrated. High nitrate and phosphorus removal rates of 7.50 and 1.02 mg L(-1) h(-1) were achieved in wide range of O2 concentration from 5.92 to 20.02 mg L(-1). The N2O production would be inhibited as O2 concentration exceeded 11.06 mg L(-1), while the phosphorus removal efficiency would be generally improved with increasing O2 concentration. (15)N mass spectrometry revealed that nitrogen removal accorded with the typical aerobic denitrification pathway, while (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P NMR) indicated the fate of phosphorus to cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and polyphosphate (poly-P) of the denitrifier. EPS acted as a reservoir of phosphorus and the transformation of poly-P was dynamic and depended on initial orthophosphate (ortho-P) content. The aerobic SDPR would greatly simplify the conventional wastewater treatment processes which required separated considerations of nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

  15. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Various Essential Oils at Varying Concentrations against Periopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Harpreet Singh; Deswal, Himanshu; Agarwal, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) is a notorious perio-pathogen with the ability to evade host defense mechanism and invade into the periodontal tissues. Many antimicrobial agents have been tested that curb its growth, although these agents tend to produce side effects such as antibiotic resistance and opportunistic infections. Therefore search for naturally occurring anti-microbials with lesser side effects is the need of the hour. Aim The aim of this study was to substantiate the antimicrobial activity of various essential oils; eucalyptus oil, chamomile oil, tea tree oil and turmeric oil against P. gingivalis. Materials and Methods Pure cultures of P. gingivalis were grown on selective blood agar. Antimicrobial efficacy of various concentrations of essential oils (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was assessed via disc diffusion test. Zone of inhibition were measured around disc after 48 hours in millimeters. Results Zones of inhibition were directly proportional to the concentration of essential oils tested. At 100% concentration all the tested oils possess antimicrobial activity against P.gingivalis with eucalyptus oil being most effective followed by tea tree oil, chamomile oil and turmeric oil. Conclusion All essential oils tested were effective against P.gingivalis. After testing for their clinical safety they could be developed into local agents to prevent and treat periodontitis. PMID:27790572

  16. Robust metabolic responses to varied carbon sources in natural and laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne A Van Voorhies

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that regulate the metabolism and growth of an organism is of fundamental biologic interest. This study compared the influence of two different carbon substrates, dextrose and galactose, on the metabolic and growth rates of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast metabolic and growth rates varied widely depending on the metabolic substrate supplied. The metabolic and growth rates of a yeast strain maintained under long-term laboratory conditions was compared to strain isolated from natural condition when grown on different substrates. Previous studies had determined that there are numerous genetic differences between these two strains. However, the overall metabolic and growth rates of a wild isolate of yeast was very similar to that of a strain that had been maintained under laboratory conditions for many decades. This indicates that, at in least this case, metabolism and growth appear to be well buffered against genetic differences. Metabolic rate and cell number did not co-vary in a simple linear manner. When grown in either dextrose or galactose, both strains showed a growth pattern in which the number of cells continued to increase well after the metabolic rate began a sharp decline. Previous studied have reported that O₂ consumption in S. cerevisiae grown in reduced dextrose levels were elevated compared to higher levels. Low dextrose levels have been proposed to induce caloric restriction and increase life span in yeast. However, there was no evidence that reduced levels of dextrose increased metabolic rates, measured by either O₂ consumption or CO₂ production, in the strains used in this study.

  17. Supplemental effect of varying L-cysteine concentrations on the quality of cryopreserved boar semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeoket, Kampon; Chanapiwat, Panida; Tummaruk, Padet; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2010-01-01

    Cryopreservation is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to lipid peroxidation of the sperm membrane and consequently a reduction in sperm motility and decreased fertility potential. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of L-cysteine needed for cryopreservation of boar semen. Twelve boars provided semen of proven motility and morphology for this study. The semen was divided into four portions in which the lactose-egg yolk (LEY) extender used to resuspend the centrifuged sperm pellet was supplemented with various concentrations of L-cysteine to reach 0 mmol L−1 (group I, control), 5 mmol L−1 (group II), 10 mmol L−1 (group III) and 15 mmol L−1 (group IV). Semen suspensions were loaded in straws (0.5 mL) and placed in a controlled-rate freezer. After cryopreservation, frozen semen samples were thawed and investigated for progressive motility, viability using SYBR-14/EthD-1 staining and acrosome integrity using FITC-PNA/EthD-1 staining. There was a significantly higher (P extender for improving the quality of frozen–thawed boar semen. PMID:20601963

  18. Gas Exchange Characteristics in Tectona grandis L. Clones under Varying Concentrations of CO2 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore, India functioning under the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehara Dun, has a long term systematic tree improvement program for Tectona grandis aimed to enhancing productivity and screening of clones for site specific. In the process, twenty clones of T. grandis L. were studied for the physiological parameters and water use efficiency with reference to the elevated CO2 levels. CO2 enrichment studies in special chambers help in understanding the changes at individual level, and also at physiological, biochemical and genetic level. It also provides valuable information for establishing plantations at different geographic locations. Considerable variations were observed when the selected 20 clones of T. grandis were subjected to physiological studies under elevated CO2 conditions (600 and 900 mol mol-1. Eight clones exhibited superior growth coupled with favorable physiological characteristics including high photosynthetic rate, carboxylation and water use efficiency under elevated CO2 levels. Clones with minimal variation in physiological characteristics under elevated levels of CO2 suggest their ability to overcome physiological stresses and adapt to varying climatic conditions.

  19. Marangoni-buoyancy convection in binary fluids under varying noncondensable concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaofa; Yoda, Minami

    2014-11-01

    Marangoni-buoyancy convection in binary fluids in the presence of phase change is a complex and poorly understood problem. Nevertheless, this flow is of interest in evaporative cooling because solutocapillary stresses could reduce film dryout. Convection was therefore studied in methanol-water (MeOH-H2O) layers of depth h ~ 1 - 3 mm confined in a sealed rectangular cell driven by horizontal temperature differences of ~6° C applied over ~ 5 cm. Particle-image velocimetry (PIV) was used to study how varying the fraction of noncondensables (i.e., air) ca from ~ 7 mol% to ambient conditions in the vapor space affects soluto- and thermocapillary stresses in this flow. Although solutocapillary stresses can be used to drive the flow towards hot regions, solutocapillarity appears to have the greatest effect on the flow at small ca, because noncondensables suppress phase change and hence the gradient in the liquid-phase composition at the interface. Surprisingly, convection at ca ~ 50 % leads to a very weak flow and significant condensation in the central portion of the layer i.e., away from the heated and cooled walls). Supported by ONR.

  20. Rearing Chrysomya megacephala on artificial diets composed of varying concentrations of albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Martins Mendonça

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala were reared on an artificial diet composed of five different concentrations of albumin (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% and the control group was fed on putrid bovine meat. No larvae developed in the 2 and 10% albumin concentrations. The period from newly hatched larvae to adults reared on 4, 6 and 8% albumin was 13.1, 13.1 and 13.6 days, respectively, whereas for the control group, it was 11.2 days. Concentrations of 4, 6 and 8% albumin proved viabile for larval periods of 29.3, 44.0 and 57.3%, respectively, whereas for the control group, it was 77.3%. Pupal viability was 77.3, 36.4 and 83.7%, while for the control group, it was 84.5%; the newly hatched larvae to adult viability was 21.3, 16.0 and 48.0%, respectively, and for the control group, it was 65.3%.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 (Diptera: Calliphoridae em dietas artificiais à base de albumina nas concentrações de 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% e 10% de albumina e como controle foi utilizada a carne bovina moída putrefata. Não houve desenvolvimento nas dietas de concentração 2% e 10% de albumina. A duração do período de larva a adulto foi 13,1; 13,1 e 13,6 dias, respectivamente, e a do controle foi de 11,2 dias. As dietas artificiais nas concentrações 4, 6 e 8% de albumina apresentaram viabilidades larvais de 29,3; 44,0 e 57,3%, respectivamente e o controle 77,3%; as viabilidades de pupa foram 77,3; 36,4 e 83,7% e o controle 84,5%, respectivamente; as viabilidades de larva a adulto foram 21,3; 16,0 e 48,0% e o controle foi de 65,3%, respectivamente.

  1. The carbon-nitrogen balance of the nodule and its regulation under elevated carbon dioxide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libault, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  2. Radiation-use of a forest exposed to elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLucia, E. H.; George, K.; Hamilton, J. G.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation-use efficiency of growth (defined as biomass accumulation per unit of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) of loblobby pine forest plots exposed to ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was compared. Biomass accumulation of the dominant loblobby pines was calculated from monthly measurements of tree growth and site-specific allometric measurements. Leaf area index was estimated by optical, allometric and interfall methods, depending on species. Results showed that depending on tree height, elevated carbon dioxide did not alter the above-ground biomass allocation in loblobby pine. Leaf area index estimates by the different methods were found to vary significantly, but elevated carbon dioxide had only a slight effect on leaf area index in the first three years of this study. The 27 per cent increase in radiation-use efficiency of growth in response to carbon dioxide enrichment is believed to have been caused primarily by the stimulation of biomass increment. It was concluded that long-term increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration can increase the radiation-use efficiency of growth in closed canopy forests, but the magnitude and duration of this increase in uncertain. 57 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Sensor-less control of the methanol concentration of direct methanol fuel cells at varying ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new algorithm is proposed for the sensor-less control of methanol concentration. • Two different strategies are used depending on the ambient temperatures. • Energy efficiency of the DMFC system has been improved by using the new algorithm. - Abstract: A new version of an algorithm is used to control the methanol concentration in the feed of DMFC systems without using methanol sensors under varying ambient temperatures. The methanol concentration is controlled indirectly by controlling the temperature of the DMFC stack, which correlates well with the methanol concentration. Depending on the ambient temperature relative to a preset reference temperature, two different strategies are used to control the stack temperature: either reducing the cooling rate of the methanol solution passing through an anode-side heat exchanger; or, lowering the pumping rate of the pure methanol to the depleted feed solution. The feasibility of the algorithm is evaluated using a DMFC system that consists of a 200 W stack and the balance of plant (BOP). The DMFC system includes a sensor-less methanol controller that is operated using a LabView system as the central processing unit. The algorithm is experimentally confirmed to precisely control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature at target values under an environment of varying ambient temperatures

  4. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughner, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past several years, much attention has been focused on the destruction of ozone by anthropogenic pollutants such as the nitrogen oxides and chlorofluoromethane. Little or no attention has been given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration for which a measurable growth has been observed. Increased carbon dioxide can directly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO 2 concentration is twice its ambient level which account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO 2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2--2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km. In this region the relation variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10--30 km). Ozone decreases in the lower stratosphere because of a reduction in ozone-producing solar radiation, which results in smaller downward ozone fluxes from the region at 25--30 km relative to the flux values for the ambient atmosphere. These offsetting changes occurring in the upper and lower stratosphere act to minimize the variation in total ozone

  5. Kinetics of ethanol production by immobilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, P.; Margaritis, A.

    1987-08-01

    Kinetics of ethanol fermentation at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract has been studied using Kluyveromyces marxianus cells immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads. A maximum ethanol concentration of 111 g/l was achieved at an initial sugar concentration of 260 g/l in 20 hours, when the immobilized cell concentration in the calcium alginate beads was 53.3 g dry wt./l bead volume. Ethanol yield remained almost unaffected by initial sugar concentration up to 250 g/l and was found to be about 88% of the theoretical. Maximum rate of ethanol production decreased from 22.5 g ethanol/l/h to 10.5 g ethanol/l/h while the maximum rate of total sugars utilization decreased from 74.9 g sugars/l/h to 28.5 g sugars/l/h as the initial substrate concentration was increased from 100 to 300 g/l. The concentration of free cells in the fermentation broth was low.

  6. Limestone-Concentrate-Pellet Roasting in wet Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    A roast process for treating chalcopyrite concentrate was developed. The investigation of the reaction of limestone-concentrate-pellet in a wet carbon dioxide flow was carried out by means of a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine at which temperatures the roasting reaction would take place. The thermodynamic calculations on the roast reaction were made by the use of SOLGASMIX-PV program. The TGA curves and thermodynamic calculations indicated that the conversion of chalcopyrite into bornite took place at about 975K, and the conversion of bornite into chalcocite at 1065-1123K. The thermodynamic calculations also showed that the sulfur released was fixed as calcium sulfide within roasted pellets. X-ray diffraction examination identified these phases in products.

  7. Carbon monoxide concentration in donated blood: relation to cigarette smoking and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Anna-Maja; Sojka, Birgitta Nilsson; Winsö, Ola; Abrahamsson, Pernilla; Johansson, Göran; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2009-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production of CO. CO can also be inhaled by exposure to external sources such as cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and fire. The purpose of this study was to investigate CO concentrations in blood from 410 blood donors at the blood center in Umeå, Sweden. To further evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on CO concentrations, the elimination time for CO was examined in six volunteer smokers after a smoked cigarette. Blood samples from whole blood donors were obtained during the blood center's routine operation. In connection with blood donations, demographic and behavioral data were collected from the donors. The CO concentration was determined using gas chromatography. The majority of blood donors had approximately the same CO concentration (mean, 84.5 micromol/L). In 6 percent of the samples, the concentrations were higher than 130 micromol per L. The highest CO concentration was 561 micromol per L. The main source for these high CO concentrations appeared to be cigarette smoking. In the volunteer smokers, the elimination time after a smoked cigarette varied significantly, with elimination half-lives from 4.7 to 8.4 hours. These results show that blood bank red blood cell bags may have CO concentrations above the physiologic level. The time interval between cigarette smoking and blood donation seems to be a particularly important factor for elevated CO concentrations.

  8. Estimation of local concentration from measurements of stochastic adsorption dynamics using carbon nanotube-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hong; Lee, Jay H.; Braatz, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method for estimating time varying local concentration of the target molecule proximate to the sensor from the time profile of monomolecular adsorption and desorption on the surface of the sensor at nanoscale. Recently, several carbon nanotube sensors have been developed that can selectively detect target molecules at a trace concentration level. These sensors use light intensity changes mediated by adsorption or desorption phenomena on their surfaces. The molecular events occurring at trace concentration levels are inherently stochastic, posing a challenge for optimal estimation. The stochastic behavior is modeled by the chemical master equation (CME), composed of a set of ordinary differential equations describing the time evolution of probabilities for the possible adsorption states. Given the significant stochastic nature of the underlying phenomena, rigorous stochastic estimation based on the CME should lead to an improved accuracy over than deterministic estimation formulated based on the continuum model. Motivated by this expectation, we formulate the MLE based on an analytical solution of the relevant CME, both for the constant and the time-varying local concentrations, with the objective of estimating the analyte concentration field in real time from the adsorption readings of the sensor array. The performances of the MLE and the deterministic least squares are compared using data generated by kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the stochastic process. Some future challenges are described for estimating and controlling the concentration field in a distributed domain using the sensor technology.

  9. Glutamate/glutamine concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate vary with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Nathaniel G; Wood, Kimberly H; Ference, Edward W; Reid, Meredith A; Lahti, Adrienne C; Knight, Amy J; Knight, David C

    2017-08-01

    Trauma and stress-related disorders (e.g., Acute Stress Disorder; ASD and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; PTSD) that develop following a traumatic event are characterized by cognitive-affective dysfunction. The cognitive and affective functions disrupted by stress disorder are mediated, in part, by glutamatergic neural systems. However, it remains unclear whether neural glutamate concentrations, measured acutely following trauma, vary with ASD symptoms and/or future PTSD symptom expression. Therefore, the current study utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) to investigate glutamate/glutamine (Glx) concentrations within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of recently (i.e., within one month) traumatized individuals and non-traumatized controls. Although Glx concentrations within dorsal ACC did not differ between recently traumatized and non-traumatized control groups, a positive linear relationship was observed between Glx concentrations and current stress disorder symptoms in traumatized individuals. Further, Glx concentrations showed a positive linear relationship with future stress disorder symptoms (i.e., assessed 3 months post-trauma). The present results suggest glutamate concentrations may play a role in both acute and future post-traumatic stress symptoms following a traumatic experience. The current results expand our understanding of the neurobiology of stress disorder and suggest glutamate within the dorsal ACC plays an important role in cognitive-affective dysfunction following a traumatic experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Lovenduski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32−] on the basis of a~long control simulation with an Earth System Model. The simulation is run with a prescribed, pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration for 1000 years, permitting investigation of natural [CO32−] variability on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. We find high interannual variability in surface [CO32−] in the tropical Pacific and at the boundaries between the subtropical and subpolar gyres in the Northern Hemisphere, and relatively low interannual variability in the centers of the subtropical gyres and in the Southern Ocean. Statistical analysis of modeled [CO32−] variance and autocorrelation suggests that significant anthropogenic trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωaragonite are already or nearly detectable at the sustained, open-ocean time series sites, whereas several decades of observations are required to detect anthropogenic trends in Ωaragonite in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and North Atlantic. The detection timescale for anthropogenic trends in pH is shorter than that for Ωaragonite, due to smaller noise-to-signal ratios and lower autocorrelation in pH. In the tropical Pacific, the leading mode of surface [CO32−] variability is primarily driven by variations in the vertical advection of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in association with El Niño–Southern Oscillation. In the North Pacific, surface [CO32−] variability is caused by circulation-driven variations in surface DIC and strongly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, with peak spectral power at 20–30-year periods. North Atlantic [CO32−] variability is also driven by variations in surface DIC, and exhibits weak correlations with both the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. As the scientific community seeks to detect the anthropogenic influence on ocean carbonate chemistry, these results

  11. Natural variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenduski, N. S.; Long, M. C.; Lindsay, K.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]) on the basis of a~long control simulation with an Earth System Model. The simulation is run with a prescribed, pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration for 1000 years, permitting investigation of natural [CO32-] variability on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. We find high interannual variability in surface [CO32-] in the tropical Pacific and at the boundaries between the subtropical and subpolar gyres in the Northern Hemisphere, and relatively low interannual variability in the centers of the subtropical gyres and in the Southern Ocean. Statistical analysis of modeled [CO32-] variance and autocorrelation suggests that significant anthropogenic trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωaragonite) are already or nearly detectable at the sustained, open-ocean time series sites, whereas several decades of observations are required to detect anthropogenic trends in Ωaragonite in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and North Atlantic. The detection timescale for anthropogenic trends in pH is shorter than that for Ωaragonite, due to smaller noise-to-signal ratios and lower autocorrelation in pH. In the tropical Pacific, the leading mode of surface [CO32-] variability is primarily driven by variations in the vertical advection of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in association with El Niño-Southern Oscillation. In the North Pacific, surface [CO32-] variability is caused by circulation-driven variations in surface DIC and strongly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, with peak spectral power at 20-30-year periods. North Atlantic [CO32-] variability is also driven by variations in surface DIC, and exhibits weak correlations with both the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. As the scientific community seeks to detect the anthropogenic influence on ocean carbonate chemistry, these results will aid the interpretation of trends

  12. Yttrium and lanthanum recovery from low cerium carbonate, yttrium carbonate and yttrium concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Mari Estela de

    2006-01-01

    In this work, separation, enrichment and purification of lanthanum and yttrium were performed using as raw material a commercial low cerium rare earth concentrate named LCC (low cerium carbonate), an yttrium concentrate named 'yttrium carbonate', and a third concentrated known as 'yttrium earths oxide. The first two were industrially produced by the late NUCLEMON - NUCLEBRAS de Monazita e Associados Ltda, using Brazilian monazite. The 'yttrium earths oxide' come from a process for preparation of lanthanum during the course of the experimental work for the present thesis. The following techniques were used: fractional precipitation with urea; fractional leaching of the LCC using ammonium carbonate; precipitation of rare earth peroxycarbonates starting from the rare earth complex carbonates. Once prepared the enriched rare earth fractions the same were refined using the ion exchange chromatography with strong cationic resin without the use of retention ion and elution using the ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. With the association of the above mentioned techniques were obtained pure oxides of yttrium (>97,7%), lanthanum (99,9%), gadolinium (96,6%) and samarium (99,9%). The process here developed has technical and economic viability for the installation of a large scale unity. (author)

  13. Stratification of living organisms in ballast tanks: how do organism concentrations vary as ballast water is discharged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Matthew R; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Riley, Scott C; Moser, Cameron S; Smith, George E; Tamburri, Mario N; Drake, Lisa A

    2013-05-07

    Vertical migrations of living organisms and settling of particle-attached organisms lead to uneven distributions of biota at different depths in the water column. In ballast tanks, heterogeneity could lead to different population estimates depending on the portion of the discharge sampled. For example, concentrations of organisms exceeding a discharge standard may not be detected if sampling occurs during periods of the discharge when concentrations are low. To determine the degree of stratification, water from ballast tanks was sampled at two experimental facilities as the tanks were drained after water was held for 1 or 5 days. Living organisms ≥50 μm were counted in discrete segments of the drain (e.g., the first 20 min of the drain operation, the second 20 min interval, etc.), thus representing different strata in the tank. In 1 and 5 day trials at both facilities, concentrations of organisms varied among drain segments, and the patterns of stratification varied among replicate trials. From numerical simulations, the optimal sampling strategy for stratified tanks is to collect multiple time-integrated samples spaced relatively evenly throughout the discharge event.

  14. Aboveground tree growth varies with belowground carbon allocation in a tropical rainforest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Raich; D.A. Clark; L. Schwendenmann; Tana Wood

    2014-01-01

    Young secondary forests and plantations in the moist tropics often have rapid rates of biomass accumulation and thus sequester large amounts of carbon. Here, we compare results from mature forest and nearby 15–20 year old tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica to evaluate differences in allocation of carbon to aboveground production and root systems. We found that the...

  15. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution and time course of corticosterone excretion in faeces and urine of female mice with varying systemic concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Jacobsen, Kirsten R

    2010-01-01

    distribution and time course of corticosterone excretion, after intravenous injection of varying corticosterone concentrations, was investigated in female mice. Female BALB/c mice excreted 60% of all corticosterone in the urine with an approximate delay of 5h from tail vein administration. The remaining 40......% were excreted in faeces, with an approximate delay of 9h from administration. The faecal/urinary excretion ratio, as well as time course of excretion, remained unaltered by administration of various doses of corticosterone covering the entire physiological range of serum corticosterone. Although...

  17. Adaptation of the concept of varying time of concentration within flood modelling: Theoretical and empirical investigations across the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Antoniadi, Sylvia; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Bacchi, Baldassare; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The time of concentration, tc, is a key hydrological concept and often is an essential parameter of rainfall-runoff modelling, which has been traditionally tackled as a characteristic property of the river basin. However, both theoretical proof and empirical evidence imply that tc is a hydraulic quantity that depends on flow, and thus it should be considered as variable and not as constant parameter. Using a kinematic method approach, easily implemented in GIS environment, we first illustrate that the relationship between tc and the effective rainfall produced over the catchment is well-approximated by a power-type law, the exponent of which is associated with the slope of the longest flow path of the river basin. Next, we take advantage of this relationship to adapt the concept of varying time of concentration within flood modelling, and particularly the well-known SCS-CN approach. In this context, the initial abstraction ratio is also considered varying, while the propagation of the effective rainfall is employed through a parametric unit hydrograph, the shape of which is dynamically adjusted according to the runoff produced during the flood event. The above framework is tested in a number of Mediterranean river basins in Greece, Italy and Cyprus, ensuring faithful representation of most of the observed flood events. Based on the outcomes of this extended analysis, we provide guidance for employing this methodology for flood design studies in ungauged basins.

  18. Sediment and carbon deposition vary among vegetation assemblages in a coastal salt marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Kelleway

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal salt marshes are dynamic, intertidal ecosystems that are increasingly being recognised for their contributions to ecosystem services, including carbon (C accumulation and storage. The survival of salt marshes and their capacity to store C under rising sea levels, however, is partially reliant upon sedimentation rates and influenced by a combination of physical and biological factors. In this study, we use several complementary methods to assess short-term (days deposition and medium-term (months accretion dynamics within a single marsh that contains three salt marsh vegetation types common throughout southeastern (SE Australia.We found that surface accretion varies among vegetation assemblages, with medium-term (19 months bulk accretion rates in the upper marsh rush (Juncus assemblage (1.74 ± 0.13 mm yr−1 consistently in excess of estimated local sea-level rise (1.15 mm yr−1. Accretion rates were lower and less consistent in both the succulent (Sarcocornia, 0.78 ± 0.18 mm yr−1 and grass (Sporobolus, 0.88 ± 0.22 mm yr−1 assemblages located lower in the tidal frame. Short-term (6 days experiments showed deposition within Juncus plots to be dominated by autochthonous organic inputs with C deposition rates ranging from 1.14 ± 0.41 mg C cm−2 d−1 (neap tidal period to 2.37 ± 0.44 mg C cm−2 d−1 (spring tidal period, while minerogenic inputs and lower C deposition dominated Sarcocornia (0.10 ± 0.02 to 0.62 ± 0.08 mg C cm−2 d−1 and Sporobolus (0.17 ± 0.04 to 0.40 ± 0.07 mg C cm−2 d−1 assemblages.Elemental (C : N, isotopic (δ13C, mid-infrared (MIR and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analyses revealed little difference in either the source or character of materials being deposited among neap versus spring tidal periods. Instead, these analyses point to substantial redistribution of materials within the Sarcocornia and

  19. Adsorption of SO{sub 2} on activated carbon for low gas concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P.; Wanko, H.; Ulrich, J. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Zentrum fuer Ingenieurwissenschaften, Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Adsorption experiments of SO{sub 2} on activated carbon has been carried out for low concentrations (about 100 ppm) at room temperature (15 to 33 C) with varying humidity in the air. The breakthrough curves show that at high relative humidity or relative higher SO{sub 2} concentration, the load capacity increases with respect to temperature. The humidity of the air is also of benefit to the load capacity of SO{sub 2}. When an adsorption process is interrupted and the activated carbon is kept closed for a while, the SO{sub 2} concentration at the exit of a fixed-bed adsorber is similar to that of the fresh activated carbon and begins at a very low value. It appears that the sorption potential has been refreshed after the storage period. Analysis of desorption experiments by simultaneous thermal analysis combined with mass spectrometry (MS) after loading, shows that the physisorbed SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O are desorbed at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, the MS peak of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O occur at the same time. Compared with desorption immediately after loading, after one day, the desorption peak due to the physisorbed SO{sub 2} disappears. From this, it can be concluded that the refreshment of the loading capacity of the activated carbon after storage is mainly due to a change in the nature of the SO{sub 2} from a physisorbed state to a chemisorbed form. The same mechanism leads to a continuous refreshment of the sorption potential by means of a chemical reaction during the adsorption process. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Short-term carbon partitioning fertilizer responses vary among two full-sib loblolly pine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy P. Stovall; John R. Seiler; Thomas R. Fox

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fertilizer application on the partitioning of gross primary productivity (GPP) between contrasting full-sib clones of Pinus taeda (L.). Our objective was to determine if fertilizer growth responses resulted from similar short-term changes to partitioning. A modeling approach incorporating respiratory carbon (C) fluxes,...

  1. Fungi contribute critical but spatially varying roles in nitrogen and carbon cycling in acid mine drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika C. Mosier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem roles of fungi have been extensively studied by targeting one organism and/or biological process at a time, but the full metabolic potential of fungi has rarely been captured in an environmental context. We hypothesized that fungal genome sequences could be assembled directly from the environment using metagenomics and that transcriptomics and proteomics could simultaneously reveal metabolic differentiation across habitats. We reconstructed the near-complete 27 Mbp genome of a filamentous fungus, Acidomyces richmondensis, and evaluated transcript and protein expression in floating and streamer biofilms from an acid mine drainage system. A. richmondensis transcripts involved in denitrification and in the degradation of complex carbon sources (including cellulose were up-regulated in floating biofilms, whereas central carbon metabolism and stress-related transcripts were significantly up-regulated in streamer biofilms. These findings suggest that the biofilm niches are distinguished by distinct carbon and nitrogen resource utilization, oxygen availability and environmental challenges. An isolated A. richmondensis strain from this environment was used to validate the metagenomics-derived genome and confirm nitrous oxide production at pH 1. Overall, our analyses defined mechanisms of fungal adaptation and identified a functional shift related to different roles in carbon and nitrogen turnover for the same species of fungi growing in closely located but distinct biofilm niches.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen pools in oak-hickory forests of varying productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald J. Kaczmarek; Karyn S. Rodkey; Robert T. Reber; Phillip E. Pope; Felix, Jr. Ponder

    1995-01-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage capacities are critical issues facing forest ecosystem management in the face of potential global climate change. The amount of C sequestered by forest ecosystems can be a significant sink for increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. N availability can interact with other environmental factors such as water...

  3. Soil carbon varies between different organic and conventional management schemes in arable agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Teng; Sørensen, Peter; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2018-01-01

    The effects of organic versus conventional farming systems on changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) has long been debated. The effects of such comparisons may depend considerably on the design of the respective systems and climate and soil conditions under which they are performed. Here, we compar...

  4. Parameterization using Fourier series expansion of the diffuse reflectance of human skin to vary the concentration of the melanocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, J. Freddy; Muñoz, Aarón A.; Castro, Jorge; Muñoz, Rafael A.; Villalba, Caroleny E.; Martinez, María. F.; Bravo, Kelly D.

    2013-11-01

    Human skin has been studied in numerous investigations, given the interest in knowing information about physiology, morphology and chemical composition. These parameters can be determined using non invasively optical techniques in vivo, such as the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The human skin color is determined by many factors, but primarily by the amount and distribution of the pigment melanin. The melanin is produced by the melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. This research characterize the spectral response of the human skin using the coefficients of Fourier series expansion. Simulating the radiative transfer equation for the Monte Carlo method to vary the concentration of the melanocytes (fme) in a simplified model of human skin. It fits relating the Fourier series coefficient a0 with fme. Therefore it is possible to recover the skin biophysical parameter.

  5. Carbon on Mercury's Surface — Origin, Distribution, and Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, R. L.; Blewett, D. T.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Peplowski, P. N.; Perera, V.; Vander Kaaden, K.

    2018-05-01

    Low-reflectance material on Mercury, excavated from depth, may contain up to 5wt% carbon in some areas of the planet. We interpret this as endogenic carbon associated with the earliest crust of Mercury.

  6. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations promote ant tending of aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Jenni M M; Nooten, Sabine S; Cook, James M; Ryalls, James M W; Barton, Craig V M; Johnson, Scott N

    2018-04-27

    Animal mutualisms, which involve beneficial interactions between individuals of different species, are common in nature. Insect-insect mutualism, for example, is widely regarded as a keystone ecological interaction. Some mutualisms are anticipated to be modified by climate change, but the focus has largely been on plant-microbe and plant-animal mutualisms rather than those between animals. Ant-aphid mutualisms, whereby ants tend aphids to harvest their honeydew excretions and, in return, provide protection for the aphids, are widespread. The mutualism is heavily influenced by the quality and quantity of honeydew produced by aphids, which is directly affected by host plant quality. As predicted increases in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO 2 ) are widely reported to affect plant nutritional chemistry, this may also alter honeydew quality and hence the nature of ant-aphid mutualisms. Using glasshouse chambers and field-based open-top chambers, we determined the effect of eCO 2 on the growth and nutritional quality (foliar amino acids) of lucerne (Medicago sativa). We determined how cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora) populations and honeydew production were impacted when feeding on such plants and how this affected the tending behaviour of ants (Iridomyrmex sp.). eCO 2 stimulated plant growth but decreased concentrations of foliar amino acids by 29% and 14% on aphid-infested plants and aphid-free plants, respectively. Despite the deterioration in host plant quality under eCO 2 , aphids maintained performance and populations were unchanged by eCO 2 . Aphids induced higher concentrations of amino acids (glutamine, asparagine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid) important for endosymbiont-mediated synthesis of essential amino acids. Aphids feeding under eCO 2 also produced over three times more honeydew than aphids feeding under ambient CO 2 , suggesting they were imbibing more phloem sap at eCO 2 . The frequency of ant tending of aphids more than doubled in

  7. An Alternative Explanation of the Varying Boron-to-carbon Ratio in Galactic Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, David [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Be’er-Sheba 84105 (Israel)

    2017-06-10

    It is suggested that the decline with energy of the boron-to-carbon abundance ratio in Galactic cosmic rays is due, in part, to a correlation between the maximum energy attainable by shock acceleration in a given region of the Galactic disk and the grammage traversed before escape. In this case the energy dependence of the escape rate from the Galaxy may be less than previously thought and the spectrum of antiprotons becomes easier to understand.

  8. Mechanisms of oxidation of alloy 617 in helium-carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide environment with varying carbon and oxygen potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak

    The objective of this research was to determine the mechanism of decarburization and carburization of the alloy 617 by determining the gas-metal reactions. Binary gas mixtures containing only CO and CO2 as impurities were chosen to circumvent the complications caused by impurities H2, H2O, and CH4, normally, present in helium in addition to CO and CO2; and oxidation tests were conducted between 850°C-1000°C in six environments with CO/CO2 ratio varying between 9 and 1272. A critical temperature corresponding to the equilibrium of the reaction 2Cr+3CO↔Cr2O3+3Csolut ion was identified. Below the critical temperature the alloy reacted with CO resulting in formation of a stable chromia film and carburization, whereas, above the critical temperature the decarburization of the alloy occurred via reaction between the chromia film and carbon in the alloy producing CO and Cr. In environment with CO/CO2 of 9 the critical temperature was between 900°C and 950°C, whereas, in environment with CO/CO 2 ratio higher than 150, it was greater than 1000°C. The decarburization of the alloy occurred via two reactions occurring simultaneously on the surface: 2Cr+3/2O2→Cr2 O3, Cr2O3+3Csolution→ 2Cr+3CO. At 1000°C, the rate liming step was the formation of chromia which prevented the growth of chromia film until the carbon in the sample was depleted. The time taken for this to occur was 300h. The carburization of the alloy resulted in the formation of mixed Cr 2O3 and Cr7C3 surface scale. The Cr 7C3 was a metastable phase which nucleated due to preferential adsorption of carbon on the chromia surface. The Cr7C3 precipitates coarsened at the gas/scale interface via outward diffusion of Cr cations through the chromia scale until the activity of Cr at the reaction site fell below a critical value. Decrease in activity of Cr at the carbide/chromia interface triggered a reaction between chromia and carbide: Cr2O3+Cr7C3 →9Cr+3CO. The CO so produced was transported through the

  9. Evolution of CAM and C4 carbon-concentrating mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms for concentrating carbon around the Rubisco enzyme, which drives the carbon-reducing steps in photosynthesis, are widespread in plants; in vascular plants they are known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C4 photosynthesis. CAM is common in desert succulents, tropical epiphytes, and aquatic plants and is characterized by nighttime fixation of CO2. The proximal selective factor driving the evolution of this CO2-concentrating pathway is low daytime CO2, which results from the unusual reverse stomatal behavior of terrestrial CAM species or from patterns of ambient CO2 availability for aquatic CAM species. In terrestrials the ultimate selective factor is water stress that has selected for increased water use efficiency. In aquatics the ultimate selective factor is diel fluctuations in CO2 availability for palustrine species and extreme oligotrophic conditions for lacustrine species. C4 photosynthesis is based on similar biochemistry but carboxylation steps are spatially separated in the leaf rather than temporally as in CAM. This biochemical pathway is most commonly associated with a specialized leaf anatomy known as Kranz anatomy; however, there are exceptions. The ultimate selective factor driving the evolution of this pathway is excessively high photorespiration that inhibits normal C3 photosynthesis under high light and high temperature in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. CAM is an ancient pathway that likely has been present since the Paleozoic era in aquatic species from shallow-water palustrine habitats. While atmospheric CO2 levels have undoubtedly affected the evolution of terrestrial plant carbon-concentrating mechanisms, there is reason to believe that past atmospheric changes have not played as important a selective role in the aquatic milieu since palustrine habitats today are not generally carbon sinks, and the selective factors driving aquatic CAM are autogenic. Terrestrial CAM, in contrast, is of increasing selective value under

  10. Declines in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and flux from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Burt, Tim P.; Bartlett, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been reported for many catchments across the northern hemisphere. Hypotheses to explain the increase have varied (eg. increasing air temperature or recovery from acidification) but one test of alternative hypotheses is the trend over the recent decade, with the competing hypotheses predicting: continuing increase; the rate of increase declining with time; and even decrease in concentration. In this study, records of DOC concentration in non-tidal rivers across the UK were examined for the period 2003-2012. The study found that: Of the 62 decade-long concentration trends that could be examined, 3 showed a significant increase, 17 experienced no significant change and 42 showed a significant decrease; in 28 of the 42 significant decreases, a significant step change was apparent with step changes being a decrease in concentration in every case. Of the 118 sites where annual flux and concentration records were available from 1974, 28 showed a significant step change down in flux and 52 showed a step down in concentration. The modal year of the step changes was 2000 with no step changes observed before 1982. At the UK national scale, DOC flux peaked in 2005 at 1354 ktonnes C/yr (5.55 tonnes C/km2/yr) but has declined since. The study suggests that there is a disconnection between DOC records from large catchments at their tidal limits and complementary records from headwater catchments, which means that mechanisms believed to be driving increases in DOC concentrations in headwaters will not necessarily be those controlling trends in DOC concentration further downstream. We propose that the changes identified here have been driven by changes in in-stream processing and changes brought about by the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive. Therefore, signals identified in headwater catchments may bear little relation to those observed in large rivers much further downstream and vice versa.

  11. Study of some modern carbonated marine organisms, using U234/U238 activities and its uranium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnolatto, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Several types of alive carbonated organisms of marine fluvial or mixed environment origin were analized in its concentrations of Uranium and about its activity ratio U 234 /U 238 . In the same way measurements were made from the water of these three types of environments. The results indicate that the mollusks shells show a very low concentration compared with corals. Its concentration varies from 0.04 to 0.33 ppm. Inside the limit of errors we can say that the several types of carbonated organisms show the same disequilibrium U 234 /U 238 which was found in associated waters. An analysis of a piece of wood from long time immersed in the sea water was made. The result indicates that there was a marked high in concentration of Uranium due to chelatation with organic matter. (C.D.G.) [pt

  12. Solute concentration at a well in non-Gaussian aquifers under constant and time-varying pumping schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libera, Arianna; de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Riva, Monica; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Our study is keyed to the analysis of the interplay between engineering factors (i.e., transient pumping rates versus less realistic but commonly analyzed uniform extraction rates) and the heterogeneous structure of the aquifer (as expressed by the probability distribution characterizing transmissivity) on contaminant transport. We explore the joint influence of diverse (a) groundwater pumping schedules (constant and variable in time) and (b) representations of the stochastic heterogeneous transmissivity (T) field on temporal histories of solute concentrations observed at an extraction well. The stochastic nature of T is rendered by modeling its natural logarithm, Y = ln T, through a typical Gaussian representation and the recently introduced Generalized sub-Gaussian (GSG) model. The latter has the unique property to embed scale-dependent non-Gaussian features of the main statistics of Y and its (spatial) increments, which have been documented in a variety of studies. We rely on numerical Monte Carlo simulations and compute the temporal evolution at the well of low order moments of the solute concentration (C), as well as statistics of the peak concentration (Cp), identified as the environmental performance metric of interest in this study. We show that the pumping schedule strongly affects the pattern of the temporal evolution of the first two statistical moments of C, regardless the nature (Gaussian or non-Gaussian) of the underlying Y field, whereas the latter quantitatively influences their magnitude. Our results show that uncertainty associated with C and Cp estimates is larger when operating under a transient extraction scheme than under the action of a uniform withdrawal schedule. The probability density function (PDF) of Cp displays a long positive tail in the presence of time-varying pumping schedule. All these aspects are magnified in the presence of non-Gaussian Y fields. Additionally, the PDF of Cp displays a bimodal shape for all types of pumping

  13. Varying carbon structures templated from KIT-6 for optimum electrochemical capacitance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Fujun; Laak, Nicole van der; Ting, S.-W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chan, K.-Y., E-mail: hrsccky@hku.h [Department of Chemistry, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-01

    Bicontinuous ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs), fabricated from a KIT-6 template using aluminosilicate as catalyst and furfuryl alcohol as carbon source, were successfully prepared and studied as electrodes in supercapacitors. Their structures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD) and N{sub 2} cryosorption methods. Using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the capacitive performance of the OMCs was found to be strongly dependent on the mesostructure. Specific capacitance value greater than 130 F g{sup -1} at 20 mV s{sup -1} were obtained from an OMC that featured high surface area with the existence of additional large pores to enhance the specific capacitance at high discharge rate. For the OMC with the best performance, we found that a power density as high as 4.5 kW kg{sup -1} at an energy density of 6.1 Wh kg{sup -1} can be delivered when the discharge current density is 20 A g{sup -1} and can also be continuously charged and discharged with little variation in capacitance after 2500 cycles. These results indicate that this OMC with optimized structure has potential to be used as a power component in electric vehicles.

  14. Marine ecosystem community carbon and nutrient uptake stoichiometry under varying ocean acidification during the PeECE III experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. J. Bellerby

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes to seawater inorganic carbon and nutrient concentrations in response to the deliberate CO2 perturbation of natural plankton assemblages were studied during the 2005 Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment (PeECE III experiment. Inverse analysis of the temporal inorganic carbon dioxide system and nutrient variations was used to determine the net community stoichiometric uptake characteristics of a natural pelagic ecosystem perturbed over a range of pCO2 scenarios (350, 700 and 1050 μatm. Nutrient uptake showed no sensitivity to CO2 treatment. There was enhanced carbon production relative to nutrient consumption in the higher CO2 treatments which was positively correlated with the initial CO2 concentration. There was no significant calcification response to changing CO2 in Emiliania huxleyi by the peak of the bloom and all treatments exhibited low particulate inorganic carbon production (~15 μmol kg−1. With insignificant air-sea CO2 exchange across the treatments, the enhanced carbon uptake was due to increase organic carbon production. The inferred cumulative C:N:P stoichiometry of organic production increased with CO2 treatment from 1:6.3:121 to 1:7.1:144 to 1:8.25:168 at the height of the bloom. This study discusses how ocean acidification may incur modification to the stoichiometry of pelagic production and have consequences for ocean biogeochemical cycling.

  15. The effect of varying alveolar carbon dioxide levels on free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, A H; Hurford, D P

    1990-05-01

    A recent study suggested that students who have increased minute ventilation receive poorer grades. The present study was interested in determining the role alveolar carbon dioxide (CO2) levels play with cognitive abilities. A free recall task was used to examine list learning under two conditions of alveolar CO2 level: normal and decreased. The results suggested that decreased alveolar CO2 level affect the participant's ability to rehearse and recall information. It was concluded that conditions that reduce alveolar CO2 levels, such as hyperventilation resulting from stress, nervousness, or inappropriate breathing habits, can lead to poorer learning. If these conditions produce a habitual breathing pattern, the academic performance of the individual may suffer.

  16. What’s normal? Oligosaccharide concentrations and profiles in milk produced by healthy women vary geographically12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Courtney L; McGuire, Mark A; Foster, James; Sellen, Daniel W; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W; Kamundia, Egidioh W; Mbugua, Samwel; Moore, Sophie E; Prentice, Andrew M; Kvist, Linda J; Otoo, Gloria E; Brooker, Sarah L; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Placek, Caitlyn; Lackey, Kimberly A; Robertson, Bianca; Ruíz, Lorena; Pareja, Rossina G; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a complex fluid comprised of myriad substances, with one of the most abundant substances being a group of complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). There has been some evidence that HMO profiles differ in populations, but few studies have rigorously explored this variability. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that HMO profiles differ in diverse populations of healthy women. Next, we examined relations between HMO and maternal anthropometric and reproductive indexes and indirectly examined whether differences were likely related to genetic or environmental variations. Design: In this cross-sectional, observational study, milk was collected from a total of 410 healthy, breastfeeding women in 11 international cohorts and analyzed for HMOs by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: There was an effect of the cohort (P 4 times higher in milk collected in Sweden than in milk collected in rural Gambia (mean ± SEM: 473 ± 55 compared with 103 ± 16 nmol/mL, respectively; P < 0.05), and disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) concentrations ranged from 216 ± 14 nmol/mL (in Sweden) to 870 ± 68 nmol/mL (in rural Gambia) (P < 0.05). Maternal age, time postpartum, weight, and body mass index were all correlated with several HMOs, and multiple differences in HMOs [e.g., lacto-N-neotetrose and DSLNT] were shown between ethnically similar (and likely genetically similar) populations who were living in different locations, which suggests that the environment may play a role in regulating the synthesis of HMOs. Conclusions: The results of this study support our hypothesis that normal HMO concentrations and profiles vary geographically, even in healthy women. Targeted genomic analyses are required to determine whether these differences are due at least in part to genetic variation. A careful examination of sociocultural, behavioral, and environmental factors is needed to determine their roles in this regard. This

  17. Estimating dissolved organic carbon concentration in turbid coastal waters using optical remote sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Ford, Phillip W.; Matear, Richard J.; Oubelkheir, Kadija; Clementson, Lesley A.; Suber, Ken; Steven, Andrew D. L.

    2016-10-01

    Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) is an important component in the global carbon cycle. It also plays an important role in influencing the coastal ocean biogeochemical (BGC) cycles and light environment. Studies focussing on DOC dynamics in coastal waters are data constrained due to the high costs associated with in situ water sampling campaigns. Satellite optical remote sensing has the potential to provide continuous, cost-effective DOC estimates. In this study we used a bio-optics dataset collected in turbid coastal waters of Moreton Bay (MB), Australia, during 2011 to develop a remote sensing algorithm to estimate DOC. This dataset includes data from flood and non-flood conditions. In MB, DOC concentration varied over a wide range (20-520 μM C) and had a good correlation (R2 = 0.78) with absorption due to coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and remote sensing reflectance. Using this data set we developed an empirical algorithm to derive DOC concentrations from the ratio of Rrs(412)/Rrs(488) and tested it with independent datasets. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to estimate DOC using remotely sensed optical observations in turbid coastal waters.

  18. Spatial and Seasonal Variation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in Irish streams: importance of soil and topography characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Xu, Xianli; McGoff, Nicola M; Eaton, James M; Leahy, Paul; Foley, Nelius; Kiely, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have increased in many sites in Europe and North America in recent decades. High DOC concentrations can damage the structure and functions of aquatic ecosystems by influencing water chemistry. This study investigated the spatial and seasonal variation of DOC concentrations in Irish streams across 55 sites at seven time occasions over 1 year (2006/2007). The DOC concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 25.9 mg/L with a mean value of 6.8 and a median value of 5.7 mg/L and varied significantly over the course of the year. The DOC concentrations from late winter (February: 5.2 ± 3.0 mg/L across 55 sites) and early spring (April: 4.5 ± 3.5 mg/L) had significantly lower DOC concentrations than autumn (October: mean 8.3 ± 5.6 mg/L) and early winter (December: 8.3 ± 5.1 mg/L). The DOC production sources (e.g., litterfall) or the accumulation of DOC over dry periods might be the driving factor of seasonal change in Irish stream DOC concentrations. Analysis of data using stepwise multiple linear regression techniques identified the topographic index (TI, an indication of saturation-excess runoff potential) and soil conditions (organic carbon content and soil drainage characteristics) as key factors in controlling DOC spatial variation in different seasons. The TI and soil carbon content (e.g., soil organic carbon; peat occurrence) are positively related to DOC concentrations, while well-drained soils are negatively related to DOC concentrations. The knowledge of spatial and seasonal variation of DOC concentrations in streams and their drivers are essential for optimum riverine water resources management.

  19. Estimating Terrestrial Wood Biomass from Observed Concentrations of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Peters, W.; Carvalhais, N.; van der Werf, G.; Miller, J.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate terrestrial disequilibrium state and wood biomass from observed concentrations of atmospheric CO2 using the CarbonTracker system coupled to the SiBCASA biophysical model. Starting with a priori estimates of carbon flux from the land, ocean, and fossil fuels, CarbonTracker estimates net

  20. The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

  1. Energy costs of carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms in aquatic organisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raven, John A.; Beardall, J.; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 121, 2-3 (2014), s. 111-124 ISSN 0166-8595 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : carbon dioxide * environmental change * radiation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.502, year: 2014

  2. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2) = 0.85 & T2: R(2) = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2) of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter

  3. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Xu

    Full Text Available Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L. at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system. These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2 = 0.85 & T2: R(2 = 0.89 of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2 of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter

  4. Simulated long-term effects of varying tree retention on wood production, dead wood and carbon stock changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Francesca; Djupström, Line B; Ranius, Thomas; Weslien, Jan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sonesson, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Boreal forests are an important source of timber and pulp wood, but provide also other products and services. Utilizing a simulation program and field data from a tree retention experiment in a Scots pine forest in central Sweden, we simulated the consequences during the following 100 years of various levels of retention on production of merchantable wood, dead wood input (as a proxy for biodiversity), and carbon stock changes. At the stand level, wood production decreased with increased retention levels, while dead wood input and carbon stock increased. We also compared 12 scenarios representing a land sharing/land sparing gradient. In each scenario, a constant volume of wood was harvested with a specific level of retention in a 100-ha landscape. The area not needed to reach the defined volume was set-aside during a 100-year rotation period, leading to decreasing area of set-asides with increasing level of retention across the 12 scenarios. Dead wood input was positively affected by the level of tree retention whereas the average carbon stock decreased slightly with increasing level of tree retention. The scenarios will probably vary in how they favor species preferring different substrates. Therefore, we conclude that a larger variation of landscape-level conservation strategies, also including active creation of dead wood, may be an attractive complement to the existing management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Syntheses of carbon porous materials with varied pore sizes and their performances as catalyst supports during methanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, An-Ya; Hung, Chin-Te; Yu, Ningya; Kuo, Cheng-Tzu; Liu, Shang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CPMs with varied pore sizes (1–400 nm) were replicated from various porous silicas by CVI method. ► MOR activities of Pt/CPM electrocatalysts increase with increasing pore size of CPM support. ► Microporous CPMs are favorable supports for Pt in terms of catalytic performance and CO-tolerance. -- Abstract: Carbon porous materials (CPMs) with extended ranges of pore size and morphology were replicated using various porous silicas, such as zeolites, mesoporous silicas, and photonic crystals, as templates by means of chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) method. The micro-, meso-, and macro-porous carbons so fabricated were adopted as supports for the metal (Pt) catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), and the supported Pt/CPM electrocatalysts were characterized by a variety of different spectroscopic/analytical techniques, viz. transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas physisorption/chemisorption analyses, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). That these Pt/CPMs were found to exhibit superior electrocatalytic activities compared to the commercial Pt/XC-72 with a comparable Pt loading during methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) is attributed to the presence of Pt nanoparticles (NPs; typically 1–3 nm in size) that are highly dispersed in the CPMs, facilitating an improved tolerance for CO poisoning. While the MOR activity observed for various Pt/CPMs tend to increase with increasing pore size of the carbon supports, Pt catalyst supported on carbon substrates possessing microporosities was found to have superior stability in terms of tolerance for CO poisoning than those with greater pore size or having meso- and macroporosities.

  6. Effect of oxide ion concentration on the electrochemical oxidation of carbon in molten LiCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J. W.; Choi, I. K.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    The continuous measurement of lithium oxide concentration was required in DOR (Direct Oxide Reduction) process, which converts spent nuclear fuel to metal form, for the reactivity monitor and effective control of the process. The concentration of lithium oxide was measured by the electrochemical method, which was based on the phenomenon that carbon atoms of glassy carbon electrode electrochemically react with oxygen ions of lithium oxide in molten LiCl medium. From the results of electrode polarization experiments, the trend of oxidation rate of carbon atoms was classified into two different regions, which were proportional and non-proportional ones, dependent on the amount of lithium oxide. Below about 2.5 wt % Li 2 O, as the carbon atom ionization rate was fast enough for reacting with diffusing lithium oxide to the surface of carbon electrode. In this concentration range, the oxidation rate of carbon atoms was controlled by the diffusion of lithium oxide, and the concentration of lithium oxide could be measured by electrochemical method. But, above 2.5 wt % Li 2 O, the oxidation rate of carbon atoms was controlled by the applied electrochemical potential, because the carbon atom ionization rate was suppressed by the huge amounts of diffusing Li 2 O. Above this concentration, the electrochemical method was not applicable to determine the concentration of lithium oxide

  7. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  8. Algal and aquatic plant carbon concentrating mechanisms in relation to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario; Beardall, John; Maberly, Stephen C

    2011-09-01

    Carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms (also known as inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms; both abbreviated as CCMs) presumably evolved under conditions of low CO(2) availability. However, the timing of their origin is unclear since there are no sound estimates from molecular clocks, and even if there were, there are no proxies for the functioning of CCMs. Accordingly, we cannot use previous episodes of high CO(2) (e.g. the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum) to indicate how organisms with CCMs responded. Present and predicted environmental change in terms of increased CO(2) and temperature are leading to increased CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) and decreased CO(3)(2-) and pH in surface seawater, as well as decreasing the depth of the upper mixed layer and increasing the degree of isolation of this layer with respect to nutrient flux from deeper waters. The outcome of these forcing factors is to increase the availability of inorganic carbon, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) to aquatic photolithotrophs and to decrease the supply of the nutrients (combined) nitrogen and phosphorus and of any non-aeolian iron. The influence of these variations on CCM expression has been examined to varying degrees as acclimation by extant organisms. Increased PAR increases CCM expression in terms of CO(2) affinity, whilst increased UVB has a range of effects in the organisms examined; little relevant information is available on increased temperature. Decreased combined nitrogen supply generally increases CO(2) affinity, decreased iron availability increases CO(2) affinity, and decreased phosphorus supply has varying effects on the organisms examined. There are few data sets showing interactions amongst the observed changes, and even less information on genetic (adaptation) changes in response to the forcing factors. In freshwaters, changes in phytoplankton species composition may alter with environmental change with consequences for frequency of

  9. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthi, D; Bereiter, B; Blunier, T; Siegenthaler, U; Kawamura, K; Stocker, T F [Climate and Environm. Physics, Physics Inst., Univ. Bern, CH-3012 Bern, (Switzerland); Luthi, D; Bereiter, B; Blunier, T; Siegenthaler, U; Kawamura, K; Stocker, T F [Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, Univ. Bern, CH-3012 Bern, (Switzerland); Le Floch, M; Barnola, J M; Raynaud, D [LGGE, CNRS-Univ. Grenoble 1, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, (France); Jouzel, J [Inst. Pierre Simon Laplace, LSCE, CEA-CNRS-Universite Versailles-Saint Quentin, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Fischer, H [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Maine Research, D-27568 Bremerhaven, (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Changes in past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations can be determined by measuring the composition of air trapped in ice cores from Antarctica. So far, the Antarctic Vostok and EPICA Dome C ice cores have provided a composite record of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 650,000 years. Here we present results of the lowest 200 m of the Dome C ice core, extending the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by two complete glacial cycles to 800,000 yr before present. From previously published data and the present work, we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide is strongly correlated with Antarctic temperature throughout eight glacial cycles but with significantly lower concentrations between 650,000 and 750,000 yr before present. Carbon dioxide levels are below 180 parts per million by volume (p.p.m.v.) for a period of 3,000 yr during Marine Isotope Stage 16, possibly reflecting more pronounced oceanic carbon storage. We report the lowest carbon dioxide concentration measured in an ice core, which extends the pre-industrial range of carbon dioxide concentrations during the late Quaternary by about 10 p.p.m.v. to 172-300 p.p.m.v. (authors)

  10. Effects of Elevated Soil Carbon dioxide (CO2) Concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    concentrations on spring wheat and soil chemical properties in the Sutton Bonington Campus, of the University of ... pipeline, marine tanker or road tankers to the storage site. .... Chlorophyll analysis of wheat plant was determined using the ...

  11. Silver birch and climate change: variable growth and carbon allocation responses to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, J.; Holopainen, T.; Oksanen, E.; Lindsberg, M-M.; Lappi, J.; Peltonen, P.; Vapaavuori, E.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone were studied on growth, biomass allocation and leaf area of field-grown ozone-tolerant (Clone 4) and ozone-sensitive (Clone 80) European silver birch trees. Seven-year old trees of both types were exposed for three years to outside and chamber control, (1) twice ambient ozone, (2) twice ambient carbon dioxide, and (3) twice ambient carbon dioxide and twice ambient ozone. No effect on biomass allocation was observed when results of the two clones were analyzed together. Total leaf area showed an increase, and leaf abscission appeared delayed in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Elevated ozone caused the dry mass of roots, branches and mean leaf size to decrease, and autumnal leaf abscission occurred earlier than usual in both clones. In general. the effects of elevated ozone were small, however, the interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and elevated oxygen were significant. When results from the two clones were analyzed separately, stem diameter, volume growth and total biomass of Clone 80 increased when exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide; elevated concentrations of ozone appeared to have no effect. In Clone 4 elevated ozone caused significant decrease in root and branch biomass, but the effects of elevated carbon dioxide were minimal. Responses to elevated ozone exposure were observed only under ambient carbon dioxide conditions. This response is believed to reflect the greater quantity of carbohydrates available for detoxification and repair under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Alternatively, the response may be due to decreased stomatal conductance, thus decreased ozone uptake under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. 45 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and N2 fixation of young Robinia pseudoacacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Z; Flessa, H.; Dyckmans, J.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on carbon and nitrogen uptake and nitrogen source partitioning were determined in one year-old locust trees using a dual 13 C and 15 N continuous labelling experiment. Elevated carbon dioxide increased the fraction of new carbon in total carbon, but it did not alter carbon partitioning among plant compartments. Elevated carbon dioxide also increased the fraction of new nitrogen in total nitrogen. This was coupled with a shift in nitrogen source partitioning toward nitrogen fixation. Soil nitrogen uptake was not affected, but nitrogen fixation was markedly increased by elevated carbon dioxide treatment. The increased nitrogen fixation tended to decrease the C/N ratio in the presence of elevated carbon dioxide. Total dry mass of root nodules doubled in response to elevated carbon dioxide, however, this effect was not considered significant because of the great variability in root nodule formation. Overall, it was concluded that the growth of locust trees in an elevated carbon dioxide environment will not primarily be limited by nitrogen availability, giving the R. pseudoacacia species a competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing tree species. It was also suggested that the increase in nitrogen fixation observed in response to elevated carbon dioxide treatment may play a key role in the growth response of forest ecosystems to elevated carbon dioxide by improving nitrogen availability for non-nitrogen-fixing trees. 51 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. Photosynthetic responses to understory shade and elevated carbon dioxide concentration in 4 northern hardwood tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefcik, L.T.; Zak, D.R.; Ellsworth, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    Stimulation of photosynthesis in response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) varies among tree species and species groups. In this study, seedling responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations and solar irradiance over 2 growing seasons were investigated for shade tolerant Acer saccharum Marsh.; Fagus grandifolia J.F. Ehrh; and shade-intolerant Prunus serotina. Seedlings were exposed to a combination of elevated and ambient concentrations of CO 2 and understory shade in open-top chambers placed in a forest understory. It was observed that the elevated CO 2 treatment increased mean light-saturated net photosynthetic rates by 63 per cent in the shade-tolerant species and 67 per cent in the shade-intolerant species. When measured at the elevated CO 2 , long-term enhancement of photosynthesis was 10 per cent lower than the instantaneous enhancement observed in ambient-CO 2 -grown plants. As the growth irradiance increased, proportional enhancement due to elevated CO 2 decreased from 97 per cent for plants grown in deep shade to 47 per cent for plants grown in moderate shade. Results indicated that in nitrogen (N) limited northern temperate forests, trees grown in deep shade may display greater photosynthetic gains from a CO 2 enriched atmosphere than trees growing in more moderate shade, due to greater down-regulation. It was concluded that if elevated CO 2 levels promote the survival of shade-intolerant species in dim understory light, the future composition and dynamics of successional forest communities may be altered. 70 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Trends of atmospheric black carbon concentration over the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vikas; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Sahu, Lokesh; Sokhi, Ranjeet

    2018-04-01

    The continuous observations over a period of 7 years (2009-2016) available at 7 locations show declining trend of atmospheric BC in the UK. Among all the locations, the highest decrease of 8 ± 3 percent per year was observed at the Marylebone road in London. The detailed analysis performed at 21 locations during 2009-2011 shows that average annual mean atmospheric BC concentration were 0.45 ± 0.10, 1.47 ± 0.58, 1.34 ± 0.31, 1.83 ± 0.46 and 9.72 ± 0.78 μgm-3 at rural, suburban, urban background, urban centre and kerbside sites respectively. Around 1 μgm-3 of atmospheric BC could be attributed to urban emission, whereas traffic contributed up to 8 μg m-3 of atmospheric BC near busy roads. Seasonal pattern was also observed at all locations except rural and kerbside location, with maximum concentrations (1.2-4 μgm-3) in winter. Further, minimum concentrations (0.3-1.2 μgm-3) were observed in summer and similar concentrations in spring and fall. At suburban and urban background locations, similar diurnal pattern were observed with atmospheric BC concentration peaks (≈1.8 μg m-3) in the morning (around 9 a.m.) and evening (7-9 p.m.) rush hours, whereas minimum concentrations were during late night hours (peak at 5 a.m.) and the afternoon hours (peak at 2 p.m.). The urban centre values show a similar morning pattern (peak at 9 a.m.; concentration - 2.5 μgm-3) in relation to background locations but only a slight decrease in concentration in the afternoon which remained above 2 μgm-3 till midnight. It is concluded that the higher flow of traffic at urban centre locations results in higher atmospheric BC concentrations throughout the day. Comparison of weekday and weekend daily averaged atmospheric BC showed maximum concentrations on Friday, having minimum levels on Sunday. This study will help to refine the atmospheric BC emission inventories and provide data for air pollution and climate change models evaluation, which are used to formulate air pollution

  15. Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO₂ concentrations compared to primordial values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Leilei; Lian, Bin; Hao, Jianchao; Liu, Congqiang; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-13

    It is widely recognized that carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the magnitude of the effect produced by CA on surface rock evolution changes or not. In this work, CA gene expression from Bacillus mucilaginosus and the effects of recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation under different conditions are explored. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to explore the correlation between CA gene expression and sufficiency or deficiency in calcium and CO₂ concentration. The results show that the expression of CA genes is negatively correlated with both CO₂ concentration and ease of obtaining soluble calcium. A pure form of the protein of interest (CA) is obtained by cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The results from tests of the recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation at different levels of CO₂ concentration show that the magnitudes of the effects of CA and CO₂ concentration are negatively correlated. These results suggest that the effects of microbial CA in relation to silicate weathering and carbonate formation may have increased importance at the modern atmospheric CO₂ concentration compared to 3 billion years ago.

  16. Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO2 concentrations compared to primordial values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Leilei; Lian, Bin; Hao, Jianchao; Liu, Congqiang; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the magnitude of the effect produced by CA on surface rock evolution changes or not. In this work, CA gene expression from Bacillus mucilaginosus and the effects of recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation under different conditions are explored. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to explore the correlation between CA gene expression and sufficiency or deficiency in calcium and CO2 concentration. The results show that the expression of CA genes is negatively correlated with both CO2 concentration and ease of obtaining soluble calcium. A pure form of the protein of interest (CA) is obtained by cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The results from tests of the recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation at different levels of CO2 concentration show that the magnitudes of the effects of CA and CO2 concentration are negatively correlated. These results suggest that the effects of microbial CA in relation to silicate weathering and carbonate formation may have increased importance at the modern atmospheric CO2 concentration compared to 3 billion years ago. PMID:25583135

  17. A mesocosm study using four native Hawaiian plants to assess nitrogen accumulation under varying surface water nitrogen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, C U; Bruland, G L; Hood, A; Duin, K

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of nitrogen (N) by native Hawaiian riparian plants from surface water was measured under a controlled experimental mesocosm setting. Four species, Cladium jamaicense, Cyperus javanicus, Cyperus laevigatus, and Cyperus polystachyos were tested for their ability to survive in coconut fiber coir log media with exposure to differing N concentrations. It was hypothesized that the selected species would have significantly different tissue total nitrogen (TN) concentrations, aboveground biomass, and TN accumulation rates because of habitat preference and physiological growth differences. A general linear model (GLM) analysis of variance (ANOVA) determined that species differences accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in tissue TN concentration, aboveground biomass growth, and accumulation rates, when compared with the other main effects (i.e. N concentration, time) and their interactions. A post hoc test of means demonstrated that C. jamaicense had significantly higher tissue TN concentration, aboveground biomass growth, and accumulation rates than the other species under all N concentrations. It was also hypothesized that tissue TN concentrations and biomass growth would increase in plants exposed to elevated N concentrations, however data did not support this hypothesis. Nitrogen accumulation rates by species were controlled by differences in plant biomass growth.

  18. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthi, Dieter; Le Floch, Martine; Bereiter, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Changes in past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations can be determined by measuring the composition of air trapped in ice cores from Antarctica. So far, the Antarctic Vostok and EPICA Dome C ice cores have provided a composite record of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 650......,000 years. Here we present results of the lowest 200 m of the Dome C ice core, extending the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by two complete glacial cycles to 800,000 yr before present. From previously published data and the present work, we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide...... is strongly correlated with Antarctic temperature throughout eight glacial cycles but with significantly lower concentrations between 650,000 and 750,000 yr before present. Carbon dioxide levels are below 180 parts per million by volume (p.p.m.v.) for a period of 3,000 yr during Marine Isotope Stage 16...

  19. Uranium Isotopes in Calcium Carbonate: A Possible Proxy for Paleo-pH and Carbonate Ion Concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Romaniello, S. J.; Herrmann, A. D.; Wasylenki, L. E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural variations of 238U/235U in marine carbonates are being explored as a paleoredox proxy. However, in order for this proxy to be robust, it is important to understand how pH and alkalinity affect the fractionation of 238U/235U during coprecipitation with calcite and aragonite. Recent work suggests that the U/Ca ratio of foraminiferal calcite may vary with seawater [CO32-] concentration due to changes in U speciation[1]. Here we explore analogous isotopic consequences in inorganic laboratory co-precipitation experiments. Uranium coprecipitation experiments with calcite and aragonite were performed at pH 8.5 ± 0.1 and 7.5 ± 0.1 using a constant addition method [2]. Dissolved U in the remaining solution was periodically collected throughout the experiments. Samples were purified with UTEVA resin and 238U/235U was determined using a 233U-236U double-spike and MC-ICP-MS, attaining a precision of ± 0.10 ‰ [3]. Small but resolvable U isotope fractionation was observed in aragonite experiments at pH ~8.5, preferentially enriching heavier U isotopes in the solid phase. 238U/235U of the dissolved U in these experiments can be fit by Rayleigh fractionation curves with fractionation factors of 1.00002 - 1.00009. In contrast, no resolvable U isotope fractionation was detected in an aragonite experiment at pH ~7.5 or in calcite experiments at either pH. Equilibrium isotope fractionation among dissolved U species is the most likely mechanism driving these isotope effects. Our quantitative model of this process assumes that charged U species are preferentially incorporated into CaCO3 relative to the neutral U species Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq), which we hypothesize to have a lighter equilibrium U isotope composition than the charged U species. According to this model, the magnitude of U isotope fractionation should scale with the fraction of the neutral U species in the solution, in agreement with our experimental results. These findings suggest that U isotope variations in

  20. Characterization of Black and Brown Carbon Concentrations and Sources during winter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caiqing; Liu, Yue; Hansen, Anthony D. A.; Močnik, Griša; Zheng, Mei

    2017-04-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), play important roles in air quality, human health, and climate change. A better understanding of sources of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol (including black carbon and brown carbon) is particular critical for formulating emission-based control strategies and reducing uncertainties in current aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced serious air pollution problems and high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in recent years, especially during heating seasons. During November and December of 2016, several severe haze episodes occurred in Beijing, with hourly average PM2.5 mass concentration up to 400 μg/m3. In this study, concentration levels and sources of black carbon and brown carbon were investigated based on 7-wavelength Aethalometer (AE-33) with combination of other PM2.5 chemical composition information. Contributions of traffic and non-traffic emissions (e.g., coal combustion, biomass burning) were apportioned, and brown carbon was separated from black carbon. Our preliminary results showed that (1) Concentrations of BC were around 5.3±4.2 μg/m3 during the study period, with distinct diurnal variations during haze and non-haze days. (2) Traffic emissions contributed to about 37±17% of total BC, and exhibited higher contributions during non-haze days compared to haze days. (3) Coal combustion was a major source of black carbon and brown carbon in Beijing, which was more significant compared to biomass burning. Sources and the relative contributions to black carbon and brown carbon during haze and non-haze days will be further discussed.

  1. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  2. Six-man, self-contained carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem for Space Station Prototype (SSP) application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostell, G. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Shumar, J. W.; Hallick, T. M.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    A six man, self contained, electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrating subsystem for space station prototype use was successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. A test program was successfully completed which covered shakedown testing, design verification testing, and acceptance testing.

  3. Comparison of manufactured and black carbon nanoparticle concentrations in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Nowack, B.; Wiesner, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that concentrations of manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (MCNPs) in aquatic sediments will be negligible compared to levels of black carbon nanoparticles (BCNPs). This is concluded from model calculations accounting for MCNP sedimentation fluxes, removal rates due to

  4. Vitamin concentrations in human milk vary with time within feed, circadian rhythm, and single-dose supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance: Human milk is the subject of many nutrition studies but methods for representative sample collection are not established. Our recently improved, validated methods for analyzing micronutrients in human milk now enable systematic study of factors affecting their concentration. Objective...

  5. Characterization of acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria, depending on varying acetate concentrations, in a biogas plant. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahring, B.K.

    1994-12-01

    The present report contains the results of a project concerning behaviour of acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants, collected in 1992 - 1994 period. Labelled acetates (2-C 14 -CH 3 COOH) have been used to characterize the types of methane bacteria populations in the Danish biogas plants, the optimum acetate concentration for these bacteria and acetate metabolism in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas reactors with low acetate concentrations. 2 publications are included. (EG)

  6. Volatile flavor analysis and sensory evaluation of custard desserts varying in type and concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruth, Saskia M; de Witte, Leontien; Uriarte, Amaya Rey

    2004-12-29

    The influence of type and concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on flavor and textural properties of custard desserts was examined. A synthetic strawberry flavor mixture was used to flavor the custards; it comprised 15 volatile flavor compounds. The viscosity of the custards was determined using rheometric measurements. Static headspace gas chromatography and in-nose proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry analyses were conducted to determine the custards' volatile flavor properties. Perceived odor, flavor, and textural properties were assessed in sensory analysis experiments using magnitude estimation against a fixed modulus. Both type and concentration of CMC altered the viscosity of the custards. Softer custards had higher static headspace flavor concentrations. On the contrary, firmer custards demonstrated higher in-nose flavor concentrations. In sensory analysis, firmer custards showed higher thickness and lower sweetness intensities than their low-viscosity counterparts. The thickness perception corresponded to the viscosity of the custards. Removal of sucrose from the custards affected sweetness intensity only and not the intensity of other attributes. Therefore, the influence of the viscosity of the custards on the release of sweet-tasting components is held responsible for the effect on perceived sweetness intensity. Odor intensities were generally higher for the low-viscosity custard, whereas fruity flavor intensities were higher for the firmer custards. Odor intensities correlated with static headspace concentrations and flavor intensities related reasonably well with in-nose concentrations. Opening and closing of the nasal cavity is regarded as an important factor determining the discrepancy between static and in-nose measurements.

  7. Lithium treatment of manio-depressive disorder. Two examples of treatment regimes with varying serum lithium concentration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veimer Jensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The importance of serum lithium profile in lithium maintenance treatment of manic-depressive disorder was studied by comparing pro-phylactic efficacy, side-effects and brain lithium level in patients on daily or alternate-day lithium dosing schedules. The aim of the study was to determine firstly, whether it is only necessary for the serum lithium concentration to periodically reach a certain level in order to ensure good prophylactic efficacy, and secondly, whether periodical lowering of the serum lithium level diminishes lithium-related side-effects. This was examined by extending the interval between lithium doses from 1 to 2 days, while maintaining the 12-h serum lithium concentration unchanged so as to achieve an unchanged serum lithium profile during the first 24-h period after lithium intake. The 12-h brain lithium concentration measured by 7 Li-magnetic resonance spectroscopy seemed to be independent of lithium dosing schedule, but correlated significantly with the 12-h serum lithium concentration, suggesting that at identical 12-h serum lithium concentrations, the 12-h brain lithium concentration is similar with both treatment regimens. (EG)

  8. Spatiotemporal variation of radon and carbon dioxide concentrations in an underground quarry: coupled processes of natural ventilation, barometric pumping and internal mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Radon-222 and carbon dioxide concentrations have been measured during several years at several points in the atmosphere of an underground limestone quarry located at a depth of 18 m in Vincennes, near Paris, France. Both concentrations showed a seasonal cycle. Radon concentration varied from 1200 to 2000 Bq m(-3) in summer to about 800-1400 Bq m(-3) in winter, indicating winter ventilation rates varying from 0.6 to 2.5 x 10(-6) s(-1). Carbon dioxide concentration varied from 0.9 to 1.0% in summer, to about 0.1-0.3% in winter. Radon concentration can be corrected for natural ventilation using temperature measurements. The obtained model also accounts for the measured seasonal variation of carbon dioxide. After correction, radon concentrations still exhibit significant temporal variation, mostly associated with the variation of atmospheric pressure, with coupling coefficients varying from -7 to -26 Bq m(-3) hPa(-1). This variation can be accounted for using a barometric pumping model, coupled with natural ventilation in winter, and including internal mixing as well. After correction, radon concentrations exhibit residual temporal variation, poorly correlated between different points, with standard deviations varying from 3 to 6%. This study shows that temporal variation of radon concentrations in underground cavities can be understood to a satisfactory level of detail using non-linear and time-dependent modelling. It is important to understand the temporal variation of radon concentrations and the limitations in their modelling to monitor the properties of natural or artificial underground settings, and to be able to assess the existence of new processes, for example associated with the preparatory phases of volcanic eruptions or earthquakes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatiotemporal variation of radon and carbon dioxide concentrations in an underground quarry: coupled processes of natural ventilation, barometric pumping and internal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, Frederic; Richon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Radon-222 and carbon dioxide concentrations have been measured during several years at several points in the atmosphere of an underground limestone quarry located at a depth of 18 m in Vincennes, near Paris, France. Both concentrations showed a seasonal cycle. Radon concentration varied from 1200 to 2000 Bq m -3 in summer to about 800-1400 Bq m -3 in winter, indicating winter ventilation rates varying from 0.6 to 2.5 x 10 -6 s -1 . Carbon dioxide concentration varied from 0.9 to 1.0% in summer, to about 0.1-0.3% in winter. Radon concentration can be corrected for natural ventilation using temperature measurements. The obtained model also accounts for the measured seasonal variation of carbon dioxide. After correction, radon concentrations still exhibit significant temporal variation, mostly associated with the variation of atmospheric pressure, with coupling coefficients varying from -7 to -26 Bq m -3 hPa -1 . This variation can be accounted for using a barometric pumping model, coupled with natural ventilation in winter, and including internal mixing as well. After correction, radon concentrations exhibit residual temporal variation, poorly correlated between different points, with standard deviations varying from 3 to 6%. This study shows that temporal variation of radon concentrations in underground cavities can be understood to a satisfactory level of detail using non-linear and time-dependent modelling. It is important to understand the temporal variation of radon concentrations and the limitations in their modelling to monitor the properties of natural or artificial underground settings, and to be able to assess the existence of new processes, for example associated with the preparatory phases of volcanic eruptions or earthquakes.

  10. Differential response of carbon fluxes to climate in three peatland ecosystems that vary in the presence and stability of permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Edgar, C.W.; Turetsky, M.R.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in vegetation and soil properties following permafrost degradation and thermokarst development in peatlands may cause changes in net carbon storage. To better understand these dynamics, we established three sites in Alaska that vary in permafrost regime, including a black spruce peat plateau forest with stable permafrost, an internal collapse scar bog formed as a result of thermokarst, and a rich fen without permafrost. Measurements include year-round eddy covariance estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and energy fluxes, associated environmental variables, and methane (CH4) fluxes at the collapse scar bog. The ecosystems all acted as net sinks of CO2 in 2011 and 2012, when air temperature and precipitation remained near long-term means. In 2013, under a late snowmelt and late leaf out followed by a hot, dry summer, the permafrost forest and collapse scar bog were sources of CO2. In this same year, CO2 uptake in the fen increased, largely because summer inundation from groundwater inputs suppressed ecosystem respiration. CO2 exchange in the permafrost forest and collapse scar bog was sensitive to warm air temperatures, with 0.5 g C m−2 lost each day when maximum air temperature was very warm (≥29°C). The bog lost 4981 ± 300 mg CH4 m−2 between April and September 2013, indicating that this ecosystem acted as a significant source of both CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere in 2013. These results suggest that boreal peatland responses to warming and drying, both of which are expected to occur in a changing climate, will depend on permafrost regime.

  11. Geostatistical Analyses of Soil Organic Carbon Concentrations in Aligodarz Watershed, Lorestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Davari

    2017-01-01

    distribution of SOC were carried out with the geostatistical software GS+ (version 5. 1. Maps were generated by using ILWIS (version 3.3 GIS software. Results and Discussion: The results revealed that the raw SOC data have a long tail towards higher concentrations, whereas that squareroot transformed data can be satisfactorily modelled by a normal distribution. The probability distribution of SOC appeared to be positively skewed and have a positive kurtosis. The square root transformed data showed small skewness and kurtosis, and passed the K–S normality test at a significance level of higher than 0.05. Therefore, the square root transformed data of SOC was used for analyses. The SOC concentration varied from 0.08 to 2.39%, with an arithmetic mean of 0.81% and geometric mean of 0.73%. The coefficient of variation (CV, as an index of overall variability of SOC, was 44.49%. According to the classification system presented by Nielson and Bouma (1985, a variable is moderately varying if the CV is between 10% and 100%. Therefore, the content of SOC in the Aligodarz watershed can be considered to be in moderate variability. The experimental variogram of SOC was fitted by an exponential model. The values of the range, nugget, sill, and nugget/sill ratio of the best-fitted model were 6.80 km, 0.058, 0.133, and 43.6%, respectively. The positive nugget value can be explained by sampling error, short range variability, and unexplained and inherent variability. The nugget/sill ratio of 43.6% showed a moderate spatial dependence of SOC in the study area. The parameters of the exponential smivariogram model were used for kriging method to produce a spatial distribution map of SOC in the study area. The interpolated values ranged between 0.30 and 1.40%. Southern and central parts of this study area have the highest SOC concentrations, while the northern parts have the lowest concentrations of SOC. Kriging results also showed that the major parts of the Aligodarz watershed (about 87% have

  12. A dynamic growth model of vegetative soya bean plants: model structure and behaviour under varying root temperature and nitrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. T.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.

  13. Serum concentrations of apelin-17 isoform vary in accordance to blood pressure categories in individuals with obesity class 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Martínez, Luis Javier; Coral Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Méndez, Juan Pablo; Trejo, Silvia; Pérez Razo, Juan Carlos; Canto, Patricia

    2018-04-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate if serum concentrations of apelin-36, apelin-17, apelin-13 or apelin-12 were different in obesity class 3 individuals with hypertension, when compared to those without hypertension (normal or high-normal). Twenty six individuals with obesity class 3-related hypertension and thirty three individuals without hypertension, who were divided in individuals with normal (n = 23) or with high-normal (n = 10) blood pressure (BP) were analyzed. All individuals presented obesity class 3, without diabetes mellitus. Measurements of all apelin isoforms were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Analysis of differences between groups of Apelin isoform concentrations was performed by a One-way ANOVA, with a Tukey test post hoc. The individuals of the hypertensive group presented a slightly lower serum concentration of all apelin isoforms, but these differences were not statistically significant. These results were more evident when the group of patients without hypertension were divided based in normal and high-normal BP, observing that apelin-17 isoform were higher in individuals with high-normal BP in comparison to subjects with normal BP (P = 0.018); concentrations were also higher when compared to subjects with hypertension (P = 0.004). To our knowledge, this is the first study regarding the differences of apelin-17 isoform concentrations in individuals pertaining to different categories of BP, who presented obesity class 3. The group of patients that presented hypertension showed a lower concentration of all isoforms. This observation could be due to the fact that these patients were taking antihypertensive medication.

  14. Assessing Methods for Mapping 2D Field Concentrations of CO2 Over Large Spatial Areas for Monitoring Time Varying Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccheo, T. S.; Pernini, T.; Botos, C.; Dobler, J. T.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.; Levine, Z. H.; Pintar, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a methodology for constructing 2D estimates of CO2 field concentrations from integrated open path measurements of CO2 concentrations. It provides a description of the methodology, an assessment based on simulated data and results from preliminary field trials. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE) system, currently under development by Exelis and AER, consists of a set of laser-based transceivers and a number of retro-reflectors coupled with a cloud-based compute environment to enable real-time monitoring of integrated CO2 path concentrations, and provides 2D maps of estimated concentrations over an extended area of interest. The GreenLITE transceiver-reflector pairs provide laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) measurements of differential absorption due to CO2 along intersecting chords within the field of interest. These differential absorption values for the intersecting chords of horizontal path are not only used to construct estimated values of integrated concentration, but also employed in an optimal estimation technique to derive 2D maps of underlying concentration fields. This optimal estimation technique combines these sparse data with in situ measurements of wind speed/direction and an analytic plume model to provide tomographic-like reconstruction of the field of interest. This work provides an assessment of this reconstruction method and preliminary results from the Fall 2014 testing at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, Montana. This work is funded in part under the GreenLITE program developed under a cooperative agreement between Exelis and the National Energy and Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the Department of Energy (DOE), contract # DE-FE0012574. Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. is a major partner in this development.

  15. Dynamics of Intracellular Polymers in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes under Different Organic Carbon Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR may deteriorate or fail during low organic carbon loading periods. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs in EBPR were acclimated under both high and low organic carbon conditions, and then dynamics of polymers in typical cycles, anaerobic conditions with excess organic carbons, and endogenous respiration conditions were examined. After long-term acclimation, it was found that organic loading rates did not affect the yield of PAOs and the applied low organic carbon concentrations were advantageous for the enrichment of PAOs. A low influent organic carbon concentration induced a high production of extracellular carbohydrate. During both anaerobic and aerobic endogenous respirations, when glycogen decreased to around 80 ± 10 mg C per gram of volatile suspended solids, PAOs began to utilize polyphosphate significantly. Regressed by the first-order reaction model, glycogen possessed the highest degradation rate and then was followed by polyphosphate, while biomass decay had the lowest degradation rate.

  16. Tuning the electrocaloric effect by varying Sr concentration in ferroelectric Ba1 -xSrxTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenkov, S.; Ponomareva, I.

    2018-05-01

    The electrocaloric effect is investigated systematically in Ba1 -xSrxTiO3 ferroelectrics using a semiclassical direct computational approach. The data are reported for the technologically important range of Sr concentrations of 0.0-0.6, electric fields up to 1000 kV/cm, and temperatures ranging from 5 to 600 K. A detailed comparison of computational data with experimental data from the literature reveals semiquantitative agreement and suggests the origin of discrepancies. The electrocaloric change in temperature Δ T shows strong dependence on Sr concentration which offers a way to tune electrocaloric response. In particular, the maximum electrocaloric Δ T is found to decrease with the increase in Sr concentration, whereas the location of the maximum shifts towards lower temperatures following the Curie point of the ferroelectric. Surprisingly, the width of the peak in the dependence of Δ T on the initial temperature is independent of the Sr concentration but shows a strong dependence on the applied electric field. Computational data are used to propose a compositionally graded ferroelectric Ba0.70Sr0.30TiO3/Ba0.55Sr0.45TiO3/Ba0.50Sr0.50TiO3/Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 whose Δ T shows almost no temperature dependence in the technologically important range of temperatures and electric fields. Such a desirable feature could potentially lead to the enhancement of relative cooling power.

  17. Structural, optical, Induced ferromagnetism and anti-ferromagnetism in SnO2 nanoparticles by varying cobalt concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Atif; Sarfraz, A.K.; Ali, Kashif; Mumtaz, A.

    2015-01-01

    The SnO 2 nanoparticles were prepared with different cobalt concentrations (0.0%, 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 4%) by chemical co-precipitation method. The NH 4 OH was used as precipitating agent; the pH value, reaction time and reaction temperature were optimized during synthesis. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals the formation of single phase tetragonal structure of undoped and cobalt doped SnO 2 nanoparticles which lies in the range of 19–22 nm calculated by De-Bye Scherrer's formula. The optical properties were studied by measuring the reflectance spectroscopy which shows that band gap energy decreases with increase in cobalt concentration. The magnetic characterization was performed by Quantum Design Physical property measurement system (PPMS). Interestingly magnetic measurements show that ferromagnetism in a Co doped SnO 2 becomes visible for x=0.5% and diminishes with further increasing of cobalt concentration. - Highlights: • SnO 2 nanoparticles were prepared with different cobalt concentrations (0.0 % 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 4%) by the chemical co-precipitation method. • Structure was confirmed through x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. • The optical properties were studied by measuring the reflectance spectroscopy. • The magnetic characterization was performed

  18. The measurement of dissolved and gaseous carbon dioxide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosel, J.; Oelßner, W.; Decker, M.; Gerlach, G.; Guth, U.

    2011-07-01

    In this review the basic principles of carbon dioxide sensors and their manifold applications in environmental control, biotechnology, biology, medicine and food industry are reported. Electrochemical CO2 sensors based on the Severinghaus principle and solid electrolyte sensors operating at high temperatures have been manufactured and widely applied already for a long time. Besides these, nowadays infrared, non-dispersive infrared and acoustic CO2 sensors, which use physical measuring methods, are being increasingly used in some fields of application. The advantages and drawbacks of the different sensor technologies are outlined. Electrochemical sensors for the CO2 measurement in aqueous media are pointed out in more detail because of their simple setup and the resulting low costs. A detailed knowledge of the basic detection principles and the windows for their applications is necessary to find an appropriate decision on the technology to be applied for measuring dissolved CO2. In particular the pH value and the composition of the analyte matrix exert important influence on the results of the measurements.

  19. The measurement of dissolved and gaseous carbon dioxide concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zosel, J; Oelßner, W; Decker, M; Gerlach, G; Guth, U

    2011-01-01

    In this review the basic principles of carbon dioxide sensors and their manifold applications in environmental control, biotechnology, biology, medicine and food industry are reported. Electrochemical CO 2 sensors based on the Severinghaus principle and solid electrolyte sensors operating at high temperatures have been manufactured and widely applied already for a long time. Besides these, nowadays infrared, non-dispersive infrared and acoustic CO 2 sensors, which use physical measuring methods, are being increasingly used in some fields of application. The advantages and drawbacks of the different sensor technologies are outlined. Electrochemical sensors for the CO 2 measurement in aqueous media are pointed out in more detail because of their simple setup and the resulting low costs. A detailed knowledge of the basic detection principles and the windows for their applications is necessary to find an appropriate decision on the technology to be applied for measuring dissolved CO 2 . In particular the pH value and the composition of the analyte matrix exert important influence on the results of the measurements. (topical review)

  20. Effect of ion concentrations on uranium absorption from sodium carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, D.E.; El Hazek, N.M.T.; Palmer, G.R.; Nichols, I.L.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of various ion concentrations on uranium absorption from a sodium carbonate solution by a strong-base, anion resin was investigated in order to help assure an adequate uranium supply for future needs. The studies were conducted to improve the recovery of uranium from in situ leach solutions by ion exchange. The effects of carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate ions were examined. Relatively low (less than 5 g/l) concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate were found to be detrimental to the absorption of uranium. High (greater than 10 g/l) carbonate concentrations also adversely affected the uranium absorption. In addition, the effect of initial resin form was investigated in tests of the chloride, carbonate, and bicarbonate forms; resin form was shown to have no effect on the absorption of uranium

  1. Influence of supplemental vitamin C on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of the longissimus thoracis of steers fed varying concentrations of dietary sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to examine the effects of supplemental vitamin C (VC) on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of cattle receiving varying concentrations of dietary sulfur (S). A longissimus muscle was collected from 120 Angus-cross steers assigned to a 3 × 2 factorial, evaluating three concentrations of dietary S (0.22, 0.34, and 0.55%) and two concentrations of supplemental VC (0 or 10 g h(-1)d(-1)). Increasing dietary S and VC supplementation (Pdegradation (P = 0.07) and protein carbonylation (Pdegradation. © 2013.

  2. Determining How Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Have Changed during the History of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Marcus P. S.; Pancost, Richard D.; Harrison, Timothy G.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of ancient atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is essential to understanding the history of the Earth and life. It is also an important guide to identifying the sensitivity of the Earth system to this greenhouse gas and, therefore, constraining its future impact on climate. However, determining the concentration of…

  3. Evaluation of the Impact of Varied Carvacrol Concentrations on Salmonella Recovery in Oregano and How Corn Oil Can Minimize the Effect of Carvacrol during Preenrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubrun, Junia Jean-Gilles; Addy, Nicole; Keltner, Zachary; Farris, Samantha; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Hanes, Darcy E

    2018-06-01

    Phenolic compounds, like carvacrol, in oregano interfere with the detection of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. Carvacrol concentration varies based on plant cultivars and growth region. Six oregano cultivars were used to compare the impact of carvacrol concentration on Salmonella and to evaluate the effectiveness of corn oil to help increase Salmonella survival for detection. The results of Agilent 1200 series high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that carvacrol concentration in the six oregano cultivars ranged from 64 to 11,200 ppm. Oregano samples were artificially contaminated with S. enterica and were preenriched in Trypticase soy broth with or without 2% (v/v) corn oil. After 18 to 24 h at 37°C, aliquots were transferred to selective enrichment broths. Salmonella was recovered onto xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Six Salmonella serovars were compared, and recovery varied based on carvacrol concentration and serovar. Samples with higher concentrations of carvacrol showed Salmonella recovery only when they were preenriched with corn oil. Based on metagenomic analysis, the microflora associated with the oregano also varied per cultivar. The results show that, as carvacrol levels increased, Salmonella survival decreased. However, the addition of corn oil to the preenrichment broth can minimize the antimicrobial effects of the phenolic compounds, thus allowing for increased detection of Salmonella from oregano cultivars.

  4. Altitude distribution of electron concentration in ionospheric D-region in presence of time-varying solar radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nina, A.; Čadež, V.; Srećković, V.; Šulić, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of solar flares on electron concentration in the terrestrial ionospheric D-region by analyzing the amplitude and phase time variations of very low frequency (VLF) radio waves emitted by DHO transmitter (Germany) and recorded by the AWESOME receiver in Belgrade (Serbia) in real time. The rise of photo-ionization rate in the ionospheric D-region is a typical consequence of solar flare activity as recorded by GOES-15 satellite for the event on March 24, 2011 between 12:01 UT and 12:11 UT. At altitudes around 70 km, the photo-ionization and recombination are the dominant electron gain and electron loss processes, respectively. We analyze the relative contribution of each of these two processes in the resulting electron concentration variation in perturbed ionosphere.

  5. Altitude distribution of electron concentration in ionospheric D-region in presence of time-varying solar radiation flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nina, A., E-mail: sandrast@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, Belgrade (Serbia); Cadez, V. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Sreckovic, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, Belgrade (Serbia); Sulic, D. [Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Union - Nikola Tesla University, Cara Dusana 62, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we study the influence of solar flares on electron concentration in the terrestrial ionospheric D-region by analyzing the amplitude and phase time variations of very low frequency (VLF) radio waves emitted by DHO transmitter (Germany) and recorded by the AWESOME receiver in Belgrade (Serbia) in real time. The rise of photo-ionization rate in the ionospheric D-region is a typical consequence of solar flare activity as recorded by GOES-15 satellite for the event on March 24, 2011 between 12:01 UT and 12:11 UT. At altitudes around 70 km, the photo-ionization and recombination are the dominant electron gain and electron loss processes, respectively. We analyze the relative contribution of each of these two processes in the resulting electron concentration variation in perturbed ionosphere.

  6. New Adsorption Cycles for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Ritter; Armin Ebner; Steven Reynolds Hai Du; Amal Mehrotra

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this three-year project was to study new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration at high temperature. The heavy reflux (HR) PSA concept and the use of a hydrotalcite like (HTlc) adsorbent that captures CO{sub 2} reversibly at high temperatures simply by changing the pressure were two key features of these new PSA cycles. Through the completion or initiation of nine tasks, a bench-scale experimental and theoretical program has been carried out to complement and extend the process simulation study that was carried out during Phase I (DE-FG26-03NT41799). This final report covers the entire project from August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2008. This program included the study of PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture by both rigorous numerical simulation and equilibrium theory analysis. The insight gained from these studies was invaluable toward the applicability of PSA for CO{sub 2} capture, whether done at ambient or high temperature. The rigorous numerical simulation studies showed that it is indeed possible to capture and concentrate CO{sub 2} by PSA. Over a wide range of conditions it was possible to achieve greater than 90% CO{sub 2} purity and/or greater than 90% CO{sub 2} recovery, depending on the particular heavy reflux (HR) PSA cycle under consideration. Three HR PSA cycles were identified as viable candidates for further study experimentally. The equilibrium theory analysis, which represents the upper thermodynamic limit of the performance of PSA process, further validated the use of certain HR PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration. A new graphical approach for complex PSA cycle scheduling was also developed during the course of this program. This new methodology involves a priori specifying the cycle steps, their sequence, and the number of beds, and then following a systematic procedure that requires filling in a 2-D grid based on a few simple rules, some heuristics and some experience. It has been

  7. Temperature varying photoconductivity of GeSn alloys grown by chemical vapor deposition with Sn concentrations from 4% to 11%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Adam, Thomas; Kim, Yihwan; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Reznicek, Alexander; Hazbun, Ramsey; Gupta, Jay; Kolodzey, James

    2016-03-01

    Pseudomorphic GeSn layers with Sn atomic percentages between 4.5% and 11.3% were grown by chemical vapor deposition using digermane and SnCl4 precursors on Ge virtual substrates grown on Si. The layers were characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking curves and reciprocal space maps. Photoconductive devices were fabricated, and the dark current was found to increase with Sn concentration. The responsivity of the photoconductors was measured at a wavelength of 1.55 μm using calibrated laser illumination at room temperature and a maximum value of 2.7 mA/W was measured for a 4.5% Sn device. Moreover, the responsivity for higher Sn concentration was found to increase with decreasing temperature. Spectral photoconductivity was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photoconductive absorption edge continually increased in wavelength with increasing tin percentage, out to approximately 2.4 μm for an 11.3% Sn device. The direct band gap was extracted using Tauc plots and was fit to a bandgap model accounting for layer strain and Sn concentration. This direct bandgap was attributed to absorption from the heavy-hole band to the conduction band. Higher energy absorption was also observed, which was thought to be likely from absorption in the light-hole band. The band gaps for these alloys were plotted as a function of temperature. These experiments show the promise of GeSn alloys for CMOS compatible short wave infrared detectors.

  8. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: effects of increased carbon input in a Lolium perenne soil on microorganisms and decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van J.H.; Gorissen, A.; Polci, D.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 and 700 μl l-1) on net carbon input into soil, the production of root-derived material and the subsequent microbial transformation were investigated. Perennial ryegrass plants (L. perenne L.) were labelled in a continuously labelled

  9. Effect of tooth-bleaching on the carbonate concentration in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Koudriavtsev, Tatiana; Herrera-Sancho, Óscar-Andrey

    2017-01-01

    There are not many studies evaluating the effects of surface treatments at the molecular level. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the concentration of carbonate molecules in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy after the application of in-office and home whitening agents. Sixty human teeth were randomly divided into six groups and exposed to three different home bleaching gels (Day White) and three in-office whitening agents (Zoom! Whitespeed and PolaOffice) according to the manufacturer´s instructions. The concentration of carbonate molecules in enamel was measured prior to and during the treatment by means of Raman spectroscopy. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance ( p ≤0.05) and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. At home bleaching agents depicted a decrease in the carbonate molecule. This decrease was statistically significant for the bleaching gel with the highest hydrogen peroxide concentration ( p ≤0,05). In-office whitening agents caused an increase in carbonate, which was significant for all three groups ( p ≤0,05). In-office bleaching gels seem to cause a gain in carbonate of the enamel structure, whilst at-home whitening gels caused a loss in carbonate. Key words: Bleaching, whitening, hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, Raman spectroscopy, carbonate.

  10. Temperature varying photoconductivity of GeSn alloys grown by chemical vapor deposition with Sn concentrations from 4% to 11%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, John; Hazbun, Ramsey; Gupta, Jay; Kolodzey, James [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Delaware, 140 Evans Hall, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Adam, Thomas [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kim, Yihwan; Huang, Yi-Chiau [Applied Materials, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States); Reznicek, Alexander [IBM Research at Albany Nanotech, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Pseudomorphic GeSn layers with Sn atomic percentages between 4.5% and 11.3% were grown by chemical vapor deposition using digermane and SnCl{sub 4} precursors on Ge virtual substrates grown on Si. The layers were characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking curves and reciprocal space maps. Photoconductive devices were fabricated, and the dark current was found to increase with Sn concentration. The responsivity of the photoconductors was measured at a wavelength of 1.55 μm using calibrated laser illumination at room temperature and a maximum value of 2.7 mA/W was measured for a 4.5% Sn device. Moreover, the responsivity for higher Sn concentration was found to increase with decreasing temperature. Spectral photoconductivity was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photoconductive absorption edge continually increased in wavelength with increasing tin percentage, out to approximately 2.4 μm for an 11.3% Sn device. The direct band gap was extracted using Tauc plots and was fit to a bandgap model accounting for layer strain and Sn concentration. This direct bandgap was attributed to absorption from the heavy-hole band to the conduction band. Higher energy absorption was also observed, which was thought to be likely from absorption in the light-hole band. The band gaps for these alloys were plotted as a function of temperature. These experiments show the promise of GeSn alloys for CMOS compatible short wave infrared detectors.

  11. Temperature varying photoconductivity of GeSn alloys grown by chemical vapor deposition with Sn concentrations from 4% to 11%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, John; Hazbun, Ramsey; Gupta, Jay; Kolodzey, James; Adam, Thomas; Kim, Yihwan; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Reznicek, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomorphic GeSn layers with Sn atomic percentages between 4.5% and 11.3% were grown by chemical vapor deposition using digermane and SnCl 4 precursors on Ge virtual substrates grown on Si. The layers were characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking curves and reciprocal space maps. Photoconductive devices were fabricated, and the dark current was found to increase with Sn concentration. The responsivity of the photoconductors was measured at a wavelength of 1.55 μm using calibrated laser illumination at room temperature and a maximum value of 2.7 mA/W was measured for a 4.5% Sn device. Moreover, the responsivity for higher Sn concentration was found to increase with decreasing temperature. Spectral photoconductivity was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photoconductive absorption edge continually increased in wavelength with increasing tin percentage, out to approximately 2.4 μm for an 11.3% Sn device. The direct band gap was extracted using Tauc plots and was fit to a bandgap model accounting for layer strain and Sn concentration. This direct bandgap was attributed to absorption from the heavy-hole band to the conduction band. Higher energy absorption was also observed, which was thought to be likely from absorption in the light-hole band. The band gaps for these alloys were plotted as a function of temperature. These experiments show the promise of GeSn alloys for CMOS compatible short wave infrared detectors.

  12. Dynamics of soil CO 2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO 2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohyoung Kim; Ram Oren; James S. Clark; Sari Palmroth; A. Christopher Oishi; Heather R. McCarthy; Chris A. Maier; Kurt Johnsen

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effect on soil CO2 efflux (FCO2) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO2 (eCO2) ranging 1.0–1.8 times ambient did not affect FCO2. FCO2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO2 treatment, longer...

  13. Proteomic analysis of carbon concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria Serratia sp. for sequestration of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Randhir K; Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    A chemolithotrophic bacterium enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. Carbon dioxide sequestering capacity of bacterium was detected by carbonic anhydrase enzyme and ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). The purified carbonic anhydrase showed molecular weight of 29 kDa. Molecular weight of RuBisCO was 550 kDa as determined by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), however, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed presence of two subunits whose molecular weights were 56 and 14 kDa. The Western blot analysis of the crude protein and purified sample cross reacted with RuBisCO large-subunit polypeptides antibodies showed strong band pattern at molecular weight around 56 kDa regions. Whole cell soluble proteins of Serratia sp. grown under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/MS for differential expression of proteins. In proteomic analysis of 63 protein spots, 48 spots were significantly up-regulated in the autotrophically grown cells; seven enzymes showed its utilization in autotrophic carbon fixation pathways and other metabolic activities of bacterium including lipid metabolisms indicated sequestration potency of carbon dioxide and production of biomaterials.

  14. Proteomic analysis of carbon concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria Serratia sp. for sequestration of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir K Bharti

    Full Text Available A chemolithotrophic bacterium enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. Carbon dioxide sequestering capacity of bacterium was detected by carbonic anhydrase enzyme and ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO. The purified carbonic anhydrase showed molecular weight of 29 kDa. Molecular weight of RuBisCO was 550 kDa as determined by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC, however, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed presence of two subunits whose molecular weights were 56 and 14 kDa. The Western blot analysis of the crude protein and purified sample cross reacted with RuBisCO large-subunit polypeptides antibodies showed strong band pattern at molecular weight around 56 kDa regions. Whole cell soluble proteins of Serratia sp. grown under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/MS for differential expression of proteins. In proteomic analysis of 63 protein spots, 48 spots were significantly up-regulated in the autotrophically grown cells; seven enzymes showed its utilization in autotrophic carbon fixation pathways and other metabolic activities of bacterium including lipid metabolisms indicated sequestration potency of carbon dioxide and production of biomaterials.

  15. Corrosion by concentrated sulfuric acid in carbon steel pipes and tanks: state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panossian, Zehbour; Almeida, Neusvaldo Lira de; Sousa, Raquel Maria Ferreira de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pimenta, Gutemberg de Souza [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento (CENPES); Marques, Leandro Bordalo Schmidt [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS, allied to the policy of reduction of emission of pollutants, has been adjusting the processes of the new refineries to obtain products with lower sulfur content. Thus, the sulfur dioxide, extracted from the process gases of a new refinery to be built in the Northeast, will be used to produce sulfuric acid with concentration between (94-96) %. This acid will be stored in carbon steel tanks and transported through a buried 8-km carbon steel pipe from the refinery to a pier, where it will be loaded onto ships and sent to the consumer markets. Therefore, the corrosion resistance of carbon steel by concentrated acid will become a great concern for the mentioned storage and transportation. When the carbon steel comes into contact with concentrated sulfuric acid, there is an immediate acid attack with the formation of hydrogen gas and ferrous ions which, in turn, forms a protective layer of FeSO{sub 4} on the metallic surface. The durability of the tanks and pipes made of carbon steel will depend on the preservation of this protective layer. This work presents a review of the carbon steel corrosion in concentrated sulfuric acid and discusses the preventive methods against this corrosion, including anodic protection. (author)

  16. Combined effects of copper and ultraviolet radiation on a microscopic green alga in natural soft lake waters of varying dissolved organic carbon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, L. Jeanine A.; Li, Karen; Greenberg, Bruce M.; Mierle, Greg; Smith, Ralph E.H.

    2003-01-01

    Selenastrum capricornutum was grown in two lake waters of differing dissolved organic carbon content (1.8 vs. 9.1 mg DOC l -1 ) to determine the responses of population dynamics and photosynthesis to Cu, and to assess the modifying effects of varying ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. In the absence of UVR, the mean EC 50 for Cu effect on population growth rate was 2.3-2.6 μg l -1 in the low DOC water and 17.4-26.2 μg l -1 in the high DOC water. The variable chlorophyll a fluorescence ratio, F v /F m , decreased approximately in parallel with the diminished growth rates. Exposure of the higher DOC lake water to full spectrum artificial radiation caused an increase of Cu 2+ concentration, compared to samples held in darkness or in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) only. Full spectrum exposures also resulted in a lower (although not significantly so) EC 50 for Cu effect on growth rate, consistent with response to the moderately elevated Cu 2+ concentration. Cu 2+ concentration was unaffected by radiation exposure in the low DOC water, and EC 50 s for growth were also unaffected except in the most severe UVR treatment, which was >40% inhibited even in the absence of added Cu. Using F v /F m as an end-point, there was no evidence of interactions between UVR and Cu under the relatively low PAR exposures used here. Algal growth and photosynthesis was extremely sensitive to Cu in these soft lake waters, with EC 50 s close to current water quality standards in the low DOC water

  17. Variation in plasmonic (electronic) spectral parameters of Pr (III) and Nd (III) with varied concentration of moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Shubha, E-mail: shubhamishra03@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain (M. P.) (India); Limaye, S. N., E-mail: snl222@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Dr. H.S. Gour University, A Central University, Sagar (M.P.) (India)

    2015-07-31

    It is said that the -4f shells behave as core and are least perturbed by changes around metal ion surrounding. However, there are evidences that-4f shells partially involved in direct moderator interaction. A systematic investigation on the plasmonic (electronic) spectral studies of some Rare Earths[RE(III).Mod] where, RE(III) = Pr(III),Nd(III) and Mod(moderator) = Y(III),La(III),Gd(III) and Lu(III), increased moderator concentration from 0.01 mol dm{sup −3} to 0.025 mol dm{sup −3} keeping the metal ion concentration at 0.01mol dm{sup −3} have been carried out. Variations in oscillator strengths (f), Judd-Ofelt parameters (T{sub λ}),inter-electronic repulsion Racah parameters (δE{sup k}),nephelauxetic ratio (β), radiative parameters (S{sub ED},A{sub T},β{sub R},T{sub R}). The values of oscillator strengths and Judd-Ofelt parameters have been discussed in the light of coordination number of RE(III) metal ions, denticity and basicity of the moderators. The [RE(III).Mod] bonding pattern has been studies in the light of the change in Racah parameters and nephelauxetic ratio.

  18. Effect of varying concentrations of dietary crude protein and metabolizable energy on laying performance of Pearl Grey guinea fowl hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahashon, S N; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate optimum dietary concentrations of ME and CP for egg production performance of the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens. In a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, 360 Pearl Gray guinea fowl replacement pullets (22 wk of age) were randomly assigned to experimental diets with 2,800 and 2,900 kcal of ME/kg of diet, each containing 14, 16, and 18% CP, respectively. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times, and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Experimental birds were raised in laying cages and received 16 h of light throughout the study period. The birds were observed for feed consumption, hen-day egg production (HDEP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed conversion ratio, internal egg quality, shell thickness (ST), and BW at the end of each 28-d lay period at 26 to 50 wk of age and at 62 to 86 wk of age. Mortality was recorded as it occurred. Mean HDEP, EW, EM, and ST were higher (P treatments. Differences in feed consumption, EW, internal egg quality, BW, and mortality among dietary ME and CP concentrations were not significant (P > 0.05). Overall, diets composed of 2,800 kcal of ME/kg of diet and 14% CP were utilized more efficiently by the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens at 26 to 50 and 62 to 86 wk of age.

  19. Modeling Study of the Contribution of Wildfires to Ambient Black Carbon Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S. H.; Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Lamb, B. K.; Larkin, N. K.; Strand, T.; O'Neill, S.

    2013-12-01

    Wildland fires are a major source of particulate emissions, including black carbon (BC). In combination with other emissions, these BC and particulate emissions can directly lead to air quality degradation, both locally and more regionally. BC and other particulate matter (PM) can also affect climate in various ways, including by scattering and absorbing radiation, modifying cloud formation and properties, and changing snow albedo. BC emissions reduction is a potential strategy for mitigating global warming because it is emitted in large quantities and has a relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere in comparison to long-live greenhouse gases. Due to the highly variable nature of wildland fires, both in terms of fire occurrences on the landscape and the high spatial and temporal variability of fuels, consumption, and emissions, the impact of wildfire emissions varies significantly over the period of the wildfire season as well as inter-annually. In the U.S., while anthropogenic emissions are projected to decrease, as the climate warms wildfire activity is predicted to increase along with the contribution of fire emissions. Thus, a robust analysis of the effects of BC from fire emissions on air quality and climate necessitates a comprehensive, multi-scale study of all fire-related pollutants and other emission sources spanning multiple years of fire data and weather conditions. In this study we apply the WRF-BlueSky-SMOKE-CMAQ regional air-quality modeling system for multi-year (1997-2005) summertime simulations to evaluate the contribution of fire emissions to atmospheric BC and total PM2.5 concentrations. Historical fire records from the Bureau of Land Management are used by the BlueSky framework to calculate fire emissions. Plume rise is calculated by the SMOKE emission processor, taking into account meteorology from the WRF model. These emissions are combined with anthropogenic emissions from the NEI 2002 and biogenic emissions from the MEGAN model. CMAQ is

  20. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  1. Effect of Carbon Concentration on the Sputtering of Carbon-Rich SiC Bombarded by Helium Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghao Liang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC is considered as an important material for nuclear engineering due to its excellent properties. Changing the carbon content in SiC can regulate and control its elastic and thermodynamic properties, but a simulation study of the effect of carbon content on the sputtering (caused by the helium ions of SiC is still lacking. In this work, we used the Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation methods to study the effects of carbon concentration, incidence energy, incident angle, and target temperature on the sputtering yield of SiC. The results show that the incident ions’ energy and angle have a significant effect on sputtering yield of SiC when the carbon concentration in SiC is around 62 at %, while the target temperature has a little effect on the sputtering yield of SiC. Our work might provide theoretical support for the experimental research and engineering application of carbon fiber-reinforced SiC that be used as the plasma-facing material in tokamak fusion reactors.

  2. Time-varying convergence in European electricity spot markets and their association with carbon and fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Lilian M. de; Houllier, Melanie A.; Tamvakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Long-run dynamics of electricity prices are expected to reflect fuel price developments, since fuels generally account for a large share in the cost of generation. As an integrated European market for electricity develops, wholesale electricity prices should be converging as a result of market coupling and increased interconnectivity. Electricity mixes are also changing, spurred by a drive to significantly increase the share of renewables. Consequently, the electricity wholesale price dynamics are evolving, and the fuel–electricity price nexus that has been described in the literature is likely to reflect this evolution. This study investigates associations between spot prices from the British, French and Nordpool markets with those in connected electricity markets and fuel input prices, from December 2005 to October 2013. In order to assess the time-varying dynamics of electricity spot price series, localized autocorrelation functions are used. Electricity spot prices in the three markets are found to have stationary and non-stationary periods. When a trend in spot prices is observed, it is likely to reflect the trend in fuel prices. Cointegration analysis is then used to assess co-movement between electricity spot prices and fuel inputs to generation. The results show that British electricity spot prices are associated with fuel prices and not with price developments in connected markets, while the opposite is observed in the French and Nordpool day-ahead markets. - Highlights: • Electricity market integration policies may have altered EU spot electricity prices. • LACF is used to assess the changing nature of electricity spot prices. • EU electricity spot prices show both stationary and non-stationary periods. • Carbon and fuel prices have greater impact on British spot prices. • In continental Europe, electricity prices have decoupled from fuel prices.

  3. Determination of Concentration Dependent Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon in Expanded Austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. In the present paper various experimental procedures to experimentally determine the concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of carbon in expanded austenite are evaluated. To this end thermogravimetric carburization was simulated for various experimental conditions and the evaluated...... composition dependent diffusivity of carbon derived from the simulated experiments was compared with the input data. The most promising procedure for an accurate determination is shown to be stepwise gaseous carburizing of thin foils in a gaseous atmosphere; the finer the stepsize, the more accurate...

  4. Influence of temperature and solvent concentration on the kinetics of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in carbon capture technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Deslauriers, Maria Gundersen; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2017-01-01

    In this study the effect of carbonic anhydrase addition on the absorption of CO2 was investigated in a wetted wall column apparatus. Four different solvents: the primary amine monoethanolamine (MEA), the sterically hindered primary amine 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP), the tertiary amine N......-methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA) and the carbonate salt solution K2CO3 were compared in concentrations from 5 to 50 wt% in a temperature range of 298–328 K with and without enzyme. Necessary mass transfer parameters such as liquid side mass transfer coefficient and solvent and enzyme reaction rates were determined...

  5. Thermo-mechanic and sensory properties of wheat and rye breads produced with varying concentration of the additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different concentrations of the complex additive containing emulsifiers, oxido-reductive substances and enzymes, on the rheological conditions of dough, and on the sensory properties of three groups of bread were investigated. The best initial quality and the lowest degree of protein network weakening had the dough obtained from mixed wheat and rye flours. The best expected baking properties were shown by the white wheat flour due to the least damage of its starch. The use of the additive has an effect on the absorption of water and on the majority of C-values of all sorts of flour. The amount of additive had a significant effect on the sensory properties of wheat bread crumb texture. Also, storage duration significantly affected (p <0.01 the sensory properties of integral wheat bread aroma-taste and the weighted mean score. The interaction of these two factors had no significant effect on any of sensory properties of the investigated groups of bread.

  6. Dynamics of soil CO2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyoung; Oren, Ram; Clark, James S; Palmroth, Sari; Oishi, A Christopher; McCarthy, Heather R; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the effect on soil CO 2 efflux (F CO 2 ) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO 2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) ranging 1.0-1.8 times ambient did not affect F CO 2 . F CO 2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO 2 treatment, longer than the 10 days observed for decrease of F CO 2 after experimental blocking of C flow to belowground, but shorter than the ~13 months it took for increase of F CO 2 following the initiation of eCO 2 . The reduction of F CO 2 upon termination of enrichment (~35%) cannot be explained by the reduction of leaf area (~15%) and associated carbohydrate production and allocation, suggesting a disproportionate contraction of the belowground ecosystem components; this was consistent with the reductions in base respiration and F CO 2 -temperature sensitivity. These asymmetric responses pose a tractable challenge to process-based models attempting to isolate the effect of individual processes on F CO2 . © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Recovery of gold from arsenopyrite concentrates by cyanidation-carbon adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinen, H.J.; McClelland, G.E., Lindstrom, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, investigated a cyanidation-carbon adsorption technique for extracting gold from arsenopyrite concentrates. Agitation leach experiments were conducted on 85%-minus-35-mesh gravity concentrates containing 21.8 oz gold and 6.4 oz silver per ton. Results obtained in leaching the concentrates showed that 96.9% gold and 90.7% silver extraction could be achieved in 96 hours of agitation. Gold and silver were recovered from the resulting pregnant solution by exposure to granular activated carbon in a countercurrent system. Carbon loadings of 2556 oz of gold and 502 oz of silver per ton were achieved. These loadings are significantly higher than heretofore thought practical.

  8. Carbonic anhydrase levels and internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations in aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase levels were examined in a variety of aquatic macrophytes from different habitats. In general, carbonic anhydrase levels increased across the habitat gradient such that activities were low in submersed aquatic macrophytes and high in emergent macrophytes with floating-leaved and free-floating plants exhibiting intermediate activities. Internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations were analyzed in relation to carbonic anhydrase activities. There was no correlation between these two parameters. Internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations ranged from low to high in submersed macrophytes, but were low in floating-leaved and emergent macrophytes. The observed internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations are discussed in relation to the individual morphologies of the plants and the environments in which they occurred.

  9. Adsorption of ultra-low concentration malodorous substances using coal-derived granular activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urano, K.; Maeda, T.; Yamashita, H.; Hagio, S.; Arioka, A.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental adsorption is reported of diosmin and 2-methylisoborneol using two types of coal-derived granular activated carbon and one derived from coconut husk. It was discovered that carbons with more pores below 15 angstroms in size gave a higher equilibrium adsorption of malodorous substances at mg/l concentrations. It was also found that the coal-derived materials, which contained more pores larger than 15 angstroms, gave faster adsorption. Given that the coal-derived carbons have a longer service life, it is concluded that they are suitable for use in full-scale adsorption plant where contact times are short. 3 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Spectroscopic and redox properties of curium and californium ions in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Varlashkin, P.G.; Samhoun, K.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Multimilligram quantities of trivalent curium-248 and californium-249 were investigated by absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and bulk solution electrolysis in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate solution. Actinide concentrations between 10 -4 and 10 -2 M were studied in 2 M sodium carbonate and 5.5 M potassium carbonate solutions at pH values from 8 to 14. The solution absorption spectra of Cm(III) and Cf(III) in carbonate media are presented for the first time and compared to literature spectra of these species in noncomplexing aqueous solution. It was anticipated that carbonate complexation of the actinide ions could provide a sufficient negative shift in the formal potentials of the M(IV)/M(III) couples of Cm and Cf to permit the generation and stabilization of their tetravalent states in aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate medium. No conclusive evidence was found in the present work to indicate the existence of any higher oxidation states of curium or californium in carbonate solution. Some possible reasons for our inability to generate and detect oxidized species of curium and californium in this medium are discussed

  11. Benthic iron and phosphorus release from river dominated shelf sediments under varying bottom water O2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaisas, N. A.; Maiti, K.; White, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) cycling in coastal ocean is predominantly controlled by river discharge and biogeochemistry of the sediments. In coastal Louisiana, sediment biogeochemistry is strongly influenced by seasonally fluctuating bottom water O2, which, in turn transitions the shelf sediments from being a sink to source of P. Sediment P-fluxes were 9.73 ± 0.76 mg / m2 /d and 0.67±0.16 mg/m2/d under anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively, indicating a 14 times higher P-efflux from oxygen deprived sediments. A high sedimentary oxygen consumption rate of 889 ± 33.6 mg/m2/d was due to organic matter re-mineralization and resulted in progressively decreasing the water column dissolved O2 , coincident with a P-flux of 7.2 ± 5.5 mg/m2/d from the sediment. Corresponding water column flux of Fe total was 19.7 ± 7.80 mg/m2/d and the sediment-TP decreased from 545 mg/Kg to 513 mg/Kg. A simultaneous increase in pore water Fe and P concentrations in tandem with a 34.6% loss in sedimentary Fe-bound P underscores the importance of O2 on coupled Fe- P biogeochemistry. This study suggests that from a 14,025 sq. km hypoxia area, Louisiana shelf sediments can supply 1.33x105 kg P/day into the water column compared to 0.094 x 105 kg P/day during the fully aerobic water column conditions.

  12. Effect of Hydrogen Concentration on the Growth of Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Gecko-Inspired Adhesive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs have extraordinary structural and mechanical properties, and have been considered as potential candidates for creating dry adhesives inspired by adhesive structures in nature. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition is widely used to grow VACNTs; however, the influential mechanism of VACNT preparation parameters (such as H2 concentration on its adhesion property is not clear, making accurate control over the structure of VACNTs adhesive an ongoing challenge. In this article, we use electron beam-deposited SiO2/Al2O3 as a support layer, Fe as catalyst, and C2H4/H2 gas mixtures as a feed gas to prepare VACNTs, while varying the ratio of the reducing atmosphere (H2 from 0% to 35%. VACNTs synthesized at a 15% H2 concentration (5 mm × 5 mm in size can support a maximal weight of 856 g, which indicates a macroscopic shear adhesive strength of 34 N/cm2. We propose a hydrogen-concentration-dependent model for the shear adhesive performance of VACNTs. By adjusting the amount of hydrogen present during the reaction, the morphology and quality of the prepared VACNTs can be precisely controlled, which significantly influences its shear adhesive performance. These results are advantageous for the application of carbon nanotubes as dry adhesives.

  13. Multi-Sensor Constrained Time Varying Emissions Estimation of Black Carbon: Attributing Urban and Fire Sources Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    The short lifetime and heterogeneous distribution of Black Carbon (BC) in the atmosphere leads to complex impacts on radiative forcing, climate, and health, and complicates analysis of its atmospheric processing and emissions. Two recent papers have estimated the global and regional emissions of BC using advanced statistical and computational methods. One used a Kalman Filter, including data from AERONET, NOAA, and other ground-based sources, to estimate global emissions of 17.8+/-5.6 Tg BC/year (with the increase attributable to East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe - all regions which have had rapid urban, industrial, and economic expansion). The second additionally used remotely sensed measurements from MISR and a variance maximizing technique, uniquely quantifying fire and urban sources in Southeast Asia, as well as their large year-to-year variability over the past 12 years, leading to increases from 10% to 150%. These new emissions products, when run through our state-of-the art modelling system of chemistry, physics, transport, removal, radiation, and climate, match 140 ground stations and satellites better in both an absolute and a temporal sense. New work now further includes trace species measurements from OMI, which are used with the variance maximizing technique to constrain the types of emissions sources. Furthermore, land-use change and fire estimation products from MODIS are also included, which provide other constraints on the temporal and spatial nature of the variations of intermittent sources like fires or new permanent sources like expanded urbanization. This talk will introduce a new, top-down constrained, weekly varying BC emissions dataset, show that it produces a better fit with observations, and draw conclusions about the sources and impacts from urbanization one hand, and fires on another hand. Results specific to the Southeast and East Asia will demonstrate inter- and intra-annual variations, such as the function of

  14. Characterization and Scaling of Black Carbon Aerosol Concentration with City Population Based on In-Situ Measurements and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.

    2010-12-01

    The global trend toward urbanization and the resulting increase in city population has directed attention toward air pollution in megacities. A closely related question of importance for urban planning and attainment of air quality standards is how pollutant concentrations scale with city population. In this study, we use measurements of light absorption and light scattering coefficients as proxies for primary (i.e., black carbon; BC) and total (i.e., particulate matter; PM) pollutant concentration, to start addressing the following questions: What patterns and generalizations are emerging from our expanding data sets on urban air pollution? How does the per-capita air pollution vary with economic, geographic, and meteorological conditions of an urban area? Does air pollution provide an upper limit on city size? Diurnal analysis of black carbon concentration measurements in suburban Mexico City, Mexico, Las Vegas, NV, USA, and Reno, NV, USA for similar seasons suggests that commonly emitted primary air pollutant concentrations scale approximately as the square root of the urban population N, consistent with a simple 2-d box model. The measured absorption coefficient Babs is approximately proportional to the BC concentration (primary pollution) and thus scales with the square root of population (N). Since secondary pollutants form through photochemical reactions involving primary pollutants, they scale also with square root of N. Therefore the scattering coefficient Bsca, a proxy for PM concentration is also expected to scale with square root of N. Here we present light absorption and scattering measurements and data on meteorological conditions and compare the population scaling of these pollutant measurements with predictions from the simple 2-d box model. We find that these basin cities are connected by the square root of N dependence. Data from other cities will be discussed as time permits.

  15. Ecosystem carbon storage does not vary with increasing mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Selmants; Creighton Litton; Christian P. Giardina; Greg P. Asner

    2014-01-01

    Theory and experiment agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The effect of this increased exchange on terrestrial carbon storage is less predictable, with important implications for potential feedbacks to the climate system. We quantified how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects ecosystem...

  16. Effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on the cultivation of bovine Mycoplasma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J L; Fox, L K; Enger, B D; Progar, A Adams; Gay, J M

    2018-05-01

    Recommendations for bovine mycoplasma culture CO 2 concentrations are varied and were not empirically derived. The objective of this study was to determine whether the growth measures of bovine mycoplasma isolates differed when incubated in CO 2 concentrations of 10 or 5% or in candle jars (2.7 ± 0.2% CO 2 ). Growth of Mycoplasma bovis (n = 22), Mycoplasma californicum (n = 18), and other Mycoplasma spp. (n = 10) laboratory isolates was evaluated. Isolate suspensions were standardized to approximately 10 8 cfu/mL and serially diluted in pasteurized whole milk to achieve test suspensions of 10 2 and 10 6 cfu/mL. One hundred microliters of each test dilution was spread in duplicate onto the surface of a modified Hayflick's agar plate. Colony growth was enumerated on d 3, 5, and 7 of incubation. A mixed linear model included the fixed effects of CO 2 treatment (2.7, 5, or 10%), species, day (3, 5, or 7), and their interactions, with total colony counts as the dependent variable. Carbon dioxide concentration did not significantly affect overall mycoplasma growth differences, but differences between species and day were present. Colony counts (log 10 cfu/mL) of M. bovis were 2.6- and 1.6-fold greater than M. californicum and other Mycoplasma spp., respectively. Growth at 7 d of incubation was greater than d 3 and 5 for all species. These findings were confirmed using field isolates (n = 98) from a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Binary growth responses (yes/no) of the field isolates were not different between CO 2 treatments but did differ between species and day of incubation. On average, 57% of all field isolates were detected by 3 d of incubation compared with 93% on d 7. These results suggest that the range of suitable CO 2 culture conditions and incubation times for the common mastitis-causing Mycoplasma spp. may be broader than currently recommended. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How do changes in bulk soil organic carbon content affect carbon concentrations in individual soil particle fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. M.; Drury, C. F.; Reynolds, W. D.; Yang, J. Y.

    2016-06-01

    We test the common assumption that organic carbon (OC) storage occurs on sand-sized soil particles only after the OC storage capacity on silt- and clay-sized particles is saturated. Soil samples from a Brookston clay loam in Southwestern Ontario were analysed for the OC concentrations in bulk soil, and on the clay (<2 μm), silt (2-53 μm) and sand (53-2000 μm) particle size fractions. The OC concentrations in bulk soil ranged from 4.7 to 70.8 g C kg-1 soil. The OC concentrations on all three particle size fractions were significantly related to the OC concentration of bulk soil. However, OC concentration increased slowly toward an apparent maximum on silt and clay, but this maximum was far greater than the maximum predicted by established C sequestration models. In addition, significant increases in OC associated with sand occurred when the bulk soil OC concentration exceeded 30 g C kg-1, but this increase occurred when the OC concentration on silt + clay was still far below the predicted storage capacity for silt and clay fractions. Since the OC concentrations in all fractions of Brookston clay loam soil continued to increase with increasing C (bulk soil OC content) input, we concluded that the concept of OC storage capacity requires further investigation.

  18. Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Activated Carbon Prepared from Coal Flotation Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogmus, Ramazan; Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Riza Kul, Ali; Onal, Yunus

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is firstly to investigate the floatability properties of Zilan- Van coal after microwave irradiation and secondly to produce activated carbon from flotation concentrate in order to remove Crystal Violet (CV) from waste water. The flotation experiments showed that microwave heating at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time enhanced the hydrophobicity and increased the flotation yield. The activated carbon with remarkable surface area (696 m2/g) was produced from the flotation concentrate and used to adsorb CV from aqueous solution in a batch reactor at different temperature. The adsorption properties of CV onto the activated carbon are discussed in terms of the adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and found that the experimental results best fitted by the Langmuir model.

  19. Relationship between Structural Characteristics of Activated Carbons and Their Concentrating Efficiency with Respect to Nitroorganics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboda, R.; Gun'ko, V. M.; Tomaszewski, W.; Trznadel, B. J.

    2001-07-15

    The relationships between structural properties of activated microporous, micro-mesoporous, mesoporous, and graphitized carbons determined on the basis of nitrogen adsorption at 77.4 K and the efficiency of concentrating (solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique) several nitroorganic compounds from polar solvents were investigated. Microporosity, mesoporosity, fractality, and other characteristics of adsorbents were analyzed to evaluate the dependence of the effectiveness of the SPE technique with respect to nitrate esters, cyclic nitroamines, and nitroaromatics on the origin and texture of carbons. The values of the free energy of solvation and dipole moment of nitroorganic compounds in polar liquids computed with the SM5.42/PM3 method with consideration of geometry relaxation in solution were utilized to elucidate features of their concentration of carbon adsorbents. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. Effect of Biodiesel Concentration on Corrosion of Carbon Steel by Serratia marcescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparizkita Yustina M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel come into being used as an alternative source of energy as the diminishing of petroleum reserves. This fuel is typically stored in tanks that are commonly made from carbon steel, which is easily corroded by microorganisms. Recent studies have shown that bacteria aside from SRB may also be involved in corrosion. Therefore, this research was aimed to evaluate the effect of biodiesel concentration (15%, 20% and 30% v/v mixed in diesel oil on the corrosion of carbon steel by S. marcescens that dominate biocorrosion on hydrocarbon products. In this study, the corrosion process was investigated by evaluation of biofilm morphology and composition, the rate of corrosion and the corrosion product of carbon steel which was exposed in the mixture of hydrocarbons and the presence of S. marcescens. It can be concluded that higher concentration of biodiesel in diesel oil leads to higher growth of bacteria in the biofilm and higher corrosion rate.

  1. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not

  2. To Error Problem Concerning Measuring Concentration of Carbon Oxide by Thermo-Chemical Sen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives additional errors in respect of measuring concentration of carbon oxide by thermo-chemical sensors. A number of analytical expressions for calculation of error data and corrections for environmental factor deviations from admissible ones have been obtained in the paper

  3. Black carbon content in a ponderosa pine forest of eastern Oregon with varying seasons and intervals of prescribed burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosziuk, L.; Hatten, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil carbon represents a significant component of the global carbon cycle. While fire-based disturbance of forest ecosystems acts as a carbon source, the increased temperatures can initiate molecular changes to forest biomass that convert fast cycling organic carbon into more stable forms such as black carbon (BC), a product of incomplete combustion that contains highly-condensed aromatic structures and very low hydrogen and oxygen content. Such forms of carbon can remain in the soil for hundred to thousands of years, effectively creating a long-term carbon sink. The goal of this project is to understand how specific characteristics of prescribed burns, specifically the season of burn and the interval between burns, affect the formation, structure, and retention of these slowly degrading forms of carbon in the soil. Both O-horizon (forest floor) and mineral soil (0-15 cm cores) samples were collected from a season and interval of burn study in Malheur National Forest. The study area is divided into six replicate units, each of which is sub-divided into four treatment areas and a control. Beginning in 1997, each treatment area was subjected to: i) spring burns at five-year intervals, ii) fall burns at five-year intervals, iii) spring burns at 15-year intervals, or iv) fall burns at 15-year intervals. The bulk density, pH, and C/N content of each soil were measured to assess the effect of the burn treatments on the soil. Additionally, the amount and molecular structure of BC in each sample was quantified using the distribution of specific molecular markers (benzene polycarboxylic acids or BPCAs) that are present in the soil following acid digestion.

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a new method for rapid determination of total organic and inorganic carbon and biogenic silica concentration in lake sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, Peter; Vogel, Hendrik; Cunningham, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) to make quantitative measures of total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations in sediment. FTIRS is a fast and cost-effective technique and only small sediment samples...... varied between r = 0.84-0.99 for TOC, r = 0.85-0.99 for TIC, and r = 0.68-0.94 for BSi. Because FTIR spectra contain information on a large number of both inorganic and organic components, there is great potential for FTIRS to become an important tool in paleolimnology....

  5. Personal carbon monoxide exposures of preschool children in Helsinki, Finland - comparison to ambient air concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Mukala, K.; Tittanen, P.; Jantunen, M.J. [KTL National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Health

    2001-07-01

    The associations of personal carbon monoxide (CO) exposures with ambient air CO concentrations measured at fixed monitoring sites, were studied among 194 children aged 3-6yr in four downtown and four suburban day-care centers in Helsinki, Finland. Each child carried a personal CO exposure monitor between 1 and 4 times for a time period of between 20 and 24h. CO concentrations at two fixed monitoring sites were measured simultaneously. The CO concentrations measured at the fixed monitoring sites were usually lower (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 0.9 and 2.6mgm{sup -3}) than the personal CO exposure concentrations (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 3.3mgm{sup -3}).The fixed site CO concentrations were poor predictors of the personal CO exposure concentrations. However, the correlations between the personal CO exposure and the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations increased (-0.03 -- -0.12 to 0.13-0.16) with increasing averaging times from 1 to 8h. Also, the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations explained the mean daily or weekly personal CO exposures of a group of simultaneously measured children better than individual exposure CO concentrations. This study suggests that the short-term CO personal exposure of children cannot be meaningfully assessed using fixed monitoring sites. (author)

  6. The effect of microbial activity and adsorption processes on groundwater dissolved organic carbon character and concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, K.; McDonough, L.; Oudone, P.; Rutlidge, H.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.

    2017-12-01

    Balancing the terrestrial global carbon budget has proven to be a significant challenge. Whilst the movement of carbon in the atmosphere, rivers and oceans has been extensively studied, the potential for groundwater to act as a carbon source or sink through both microbial activity and sorption to and from mineral surfaces, is poorly understood. To investigate the biodegradable component of groundwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC), groundwater samples were collected from multiple coastal and inland sites. Water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen were measured in the field. Samples were analysed and characterised for their biodegradable DOC content using spectrofluorometric and Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) techniques at set intervals within a 28 day period. Further to this, we performed laboratory sorption experiments on our groundwater samples using different minerals to examine the effect of adsorption processes on DOC character and concentration. Calcium carbonate, quartz and iron coated quartz were heated to 400ºC to remove potential carbon contamination, and then added at various known masses (0 mg to 10 g) to 50 mL of groundwater. Samples were then rotated for two hours, filtered at 0.2 μm and analysed by LC-OCD. This research forms part of an ongoing project which will assist in identifying the factors affecting the mobilisation, transport and removal of DOC in uncontaminated groundwater. By quantifying the relative importance of these processes, we can then determine whether the groundwater is a carbon source or sink. Importantly, this information will help guide policy and identify the need to include groundwater resources as part of the carbon economy.

  7. Sudden increase in atmospheric concentration reveals strong coupling between shoot carbon uptake and root nutrient uptake in young walnut trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaire, M.; Sigogne, M.; Beaujard, F.; Frak, E.; Adam, B.; Le Roux, X.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term effects of a sudden increase in carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient uptake by roots during vegetative growth was studied in young walnut trees. Rates of carbon dioxide uptake and water loss by individual trees were determined by a branch bag method from three days before and six days after carbon dioxide concentration was increased. Nutrient uptake rates were measured concurrently by a hydroponic recirculating nutrient solution system. Carbon dioxide uptake rates increased greatly with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide; nutrient uptake rates were proportional to carbon dioxide uptake rates, except for the phosphorus ion. Daily water loss rates were only slightly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Overall, it was concluded that in the presence of non-limiting supplies of water and nutrients, root nutrient uptake and shoot carbon assimilation are strongly coupled in the short term in young walnut trees despite the important carbon and nutrient storage capacities od woody species. 45 refs., 7 figs

  8. Influence of nitric acid concentration on the characteristics of active carbons obtained from a mineral coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifi, A.; Temdrara, L.; Addoun, A. [Laboratoire d' Etude Physicochimique des Materiaux et Application a l' Environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB, BP. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Almazan-Almazan, M.C.; Perez-Mendoza, M.; Domingo-Garcia, M.; Lopez-Garzon, F.J [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, 18071 Granada (Spain); Lopez-Domingo, F.J. [Departamento de CCIA, ETS de Ingenieria Informatica y Telecomunicacion, Granada, 18071 (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper deals with the effect of the concentration of nitric acid solutions on the properties of activated carbons obtained by the oxidation of a parent activated carbon. For this purpose a mineral coal from Algeria has been used as raw material to prepare the parent active carbon AC. This was further treated with nitric acid solutions. The analysis of the samples includes the chemical and textural characterization. The former was carried out by selective titrations and FTIR spectroscopy. The latter, by nitrogen and carbon dioxide adsorption at 77 and 273 K, respectively, and by adsorption of organic probes (benzene, dichloromethane, cyclohexane and 2,2-dimethyl butane) at 303 K. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms have been analysed by using the BET equation, {alpha}{sub s}-method and molecular simulation. The Dubinin-Radushkevich approach has been applied to the carbon dioxide and vapours adsorption data. The results show that the treatment with 2 N nitric acid solution is very appropriate because it introduces a large amount of oxygen containing groups with a small change of the textural characteristics of the parent AC. More concentrated nitric acid solutions change in large extent the textural properties although they also introduce large amount of chemical groups. (author)

  9. Concentrations and characteristics of organic carbon in surface water in Arizona: Influence of urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, P.; Anning, D.

    2000-01-01

    Dissolved (DOC) and total (TOC) organic carbon concentrations and compositions were studied for several river systems in Arizona, USA. DOC composition was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption and fluorescence emission (excitation wavelength of 370 nm) spectra characteristics. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC concentrations, and unregulated perennial sites had lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants (p TOC) organic carbon concentrations and compositions were studied for several river systems in Arizona, USA. DOC composition was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption and fluorescence emission (excitation wavelength of 370 nm) spectra characteristics. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC concentrations, and unregulated perennial sites had lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants (p<0.05). Reservoir outflows and wastewater-treatment plant effluent were higher in DOC concentration (p<0.05) and exhibited less variability in concentration than inflows to the reservoirs. Specific ultraviolet absorbance values at 254 nm were typically less than 2 m-1(milligram DOC per liter)-1 and lower than values found in most temperate-region rivers, but specific ultraviolet absorbance values increased during runoff events. Fluorescence measurements indicated that DOC in desert streams typically exhibit characteristics of autochthonous sources; however, DOC in unregulated upland rivers and desert streams experienced sudden shifts from autochthonous to allochthonous sources during runoff events. The urban water system (reservoir systems and wastewater-treatment plants) was found to affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition.The influence of urbanization, becoming increasingly common in arid regions, on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in surface water

  10. Effect of strontium addition and chitosan concentration variation on cytotoxicity of chitosan-alginate-carbonate apatite based bone scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkasa, Rilis Eka; Umniati, B. Sri; Sunendar, Bambang

    2017-09-01

    Bone scaffold is one of the most important component in bone tissue engineering. Basically, bone scaffold is a biocompatible structure designed to replace broken bone tissue temporarily. Unlike conventional bone replacements, an advanced bone scaffold should be bioactive (e.g: supporting bone growth) and biodegradable as new bone tissue grow, while retain its mechanical properties similarity with bone. It is also possible to add more bioactive substrates to bone scaffold to further support its performance. One of the substrate is strontium, an element that could improve the ability of the bone to repair itself. However, it must be noted that excessive consumption of strontium could lead to toxicity and diseases, such as osteomalacia and hypocalcemia. This research aimed to investigate the effect of strontium addition to the cytotoxic property of chitosan-alginate-carbonate apatite bone scaffold. The amount of strontium added to the bone scaffold was 5% molar of the carbonate apatite content. As a control, bone scaffold without stronsium (0% molar) were also made. The effect of chitosan concentration variation on the cytotoxicity were also observed, where the concentration varies on 1% and 3% w/v of chitosan solution. The results showed an optimum result on bone scaffold sample with 5% molar of strontium and 3% chitosan, where 87.67% cells in the performed MTS-Assay cytotoxicity testing survived. This showed that the use of up to 5% molar addition of strontium and 3% chitosan could enhance the survivability of the cell.

  11. Long-term Trends of Organic Carbon Concentrations in Freshwaters: Strengths and Weaknesses of Existing Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Filella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many articles published in the last few years start with the assumption that the past decades have seen an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations in the rivers and lakes of the Northern Hemisphere. This study analyses whether the existing evidence supports this claim. With this aim, we have collected published studies where long series of organic carbon concentrations (i.e., longer than 10 years were analyzed for existing trends and have carefully evaluated the 63 articles found. Information has been collated in a comprehensive and comparable way, allowing readers to easily access it. The two main aspects considered in our analysis have been the analytical methods used and the data treatment methods applied. Both are sensitive issues because, on the one hand, the difficulties associated with correctly determining organic carbon concentrations in surface waters are well known, while, on the other, dealing with real environmental data (i.e., lack of normality, censoring, missing values, etc. is an extremely intricate matter. Other issues such as data reporting and the geographical location of the systems studied are also discussed. In conclusion, it is clear that organic carbon concentrations have increased in some surface waters in the Northern Hemisphere since the 1990s. However, due to a lack of data in many parts of the world, it is not known whether this phenomenon is general and, more importantly, in the areas for which such data do exist, the reporting and methodological problems in the published studies prevent any conclusion on the existence of a general temporal behavior of organic carbon from being drawn.

  12. Carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla grown under high atmospheric CO2 concentrations: A proteomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Marques Dos; Balbuena, Tiago Santana

    2017-01-06

    Photosynthetic organisms may be drastically affected by the future climate projections of a considerable increase in CO 2 concentrations. Growth under a high concentration of CO 2 could stimulate carbon assimilation-especially in C3-type plants. We used a proteomics approach to test the hypothesis of an increase in the abundance of the enzymes involved in carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla plants grown under conditions of high atmospheric CO 2 . Our strategy allowed the profiling of all Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and associated protein species. Among the 816 isolated proteins, those involved in carbon fixation were found to be the most abundant ones. An increase in the abundance of six key enzymes out of the eleven core enzymes involved in carbon fixation was detected in plants grown at a high CO 2 concentration. Proteome changes were corroborated by the detection of a decrease in the stomatal aperture and in the vascular bundle area in Eucalyptus urophylla plantlets grown in an environment of high atmospheric CO 2 . Our proteomics approach indicates a positive metabolic response regarding carbon fixation in a CO 2 -enriched atmosphere. The slight but significant increase in the abundance of the Calvin enzymes suggests that stomatal closure did not prevent an increase in the carbon assimilation rates. The sample enrichment strategy and data analysis used here enabled the identification of all enzymes and most protein isoforms involved in the Calvin-Benson-Bessham cycle in Eucalyptus urophylla. Upon growth in CO 2 -enriched chambers, Eucalyptus urophylla plantlets responded by reducing the vascular bundle area and stomatal aperture size and by increasing the abundance of six of the eleven core enzymes involved in carbon fixation. Our proteome approach provides an estimate on how a commercially important C3-type plant would respond to an increase in CO 2 concentrations. Additionally, confirmation at the protein level of the predicted genes involved in

  13. Northern European trees show a progressively diminishing response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waterhouse, JS

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Reviews 23 (2004) 803?810 Northern European trees show a progressively diminishing response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations J.S. Waterhousea,*, V.R. Switsura,b, A.C. Barkera, A.H.C. Cartera,b,{, D.L. Hemmingc, N.J. Loaderd, I..., V.R., Waterhouse, J.S., Heaton, T.H.E., Carter, A.H.C., 1998. Climatic variation andthe stable carbon isotope composition of tree ring cellulose: an intercomparison of Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus silvestris. Tellus 50B, 25?33. J.ggi, M...

  14. Assessment of life quality in patients with bronchial asthma residing in Krakow in the areas of varying concentrations of particulate matter (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ścibor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Asthma is a chronic disease, from which more and more people in the world suffer. It is connected with many bothersome symptoms and limitations, which result in decreased quality of life for the patient. Environmental and individual aspects do not necessarily affect individuals in the same way, so it is necessary to determine which factors have predominantly impacted on an individual, in order to minimize their impact and to take better control over treatment of asthma. The aim of this research was to compare the quality of life among patients with bronchial asthma living in Krakow in the areas where they get exposed to varying concentrations of particulate matter (PM10. Material and methods. The study included 98 adults diagnosed with bronchial asthma. The research was conducted using the AQLQ poll. PM10 concentration was measured in several Malopolska Air Pollution Monitoring Stations located throughout the city. Results. Analyzing the quality of life in the view of symptoms, activity limitations and emotional well being, there was a substantial statistical difference observed in people occupying the areas with different PM10 concentrations. No significant statistical difference was observed in the frequency of asthma symptoms caused by the environmental stimuli between the 2 discussed groups. One group of patients who came to the allergy clinic for control of asthma symptoms and the second group who live in the vicinity of the monitoring stations measuring PM10 concentrations. Conclusions. For many of the cases, the quality of life was not worse for patients with asthma living in an area with slightly elevated concentrations of PM10, and sometimes paradoxically the quality of life was improved. These results show that PM10 concentrations do not correlate with quality of life of asthma patients.

  15. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root architecture and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee-Ho, E.; Walton, L.J.; Reid, D.M.; Yeung, E.C.; Kurepin, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    Plant root growth is known to be influenced by higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Roots of some species grown in hydroponics under elevated CO 2 concentrations may be more competitive sinks for photosynthetic assimilates than roots grown under lower CO 2 conditions. Root branching patterns may also be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentrations. Studies have also shown that factors such as soil compaction, salinity and the availability of nitrate, phosphorous, oxygen and water also influence root growth, and the effects of higher CO 2 on roots can be confounded by such environmental factors. This study evaluated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth, morphology, and architecture. Both ambient and elevated CO 2 levels were used along with various sucrose concentrations. The study revealed that A. thaliana plants grown on a phytagar medium in small chambers with elevated CO 2 had longer roots, more lateral root growth than plants grown in ambient CO 2 . Roots in elevated CO 2 were found to have wider root diameters, and more secondary growth. The addition of sucrose to the media closely resembled the effects of elevated CO 2 . In addition, the increase in sucrose concentration had a bigger effect on root morphology under ambient, than elevated CO 2 . Therefore, both elevated CO 2 and increased sucrose concentrations promote root growth by increasing their number, length, and diameter. The dichotomy branching index (DBI) also dropped resulting in a more dichotomous branching pattern. 34 refs., 5 figs

  16. Combined effect of glycation and sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentration on IgG binding, IgE binding and conformation of ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-juan; Gao, Jin-yan; Chen, Hong-bing

    2013-10-01

    Ovalbumin (OVA) is a major allergen in hen egg. During thermal processing, reducing sugars contained in the hen egg white might easily undergo glycation with OVA, but few studies have been conducted on its corresponding immunoreactivity changes. The aim of the present study was to assess changes of the antigenicity, potential allergenicity and conformation of OVA after glycation in a wet-thermal processing system under different concentrations of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer. IgE binding of the glycated OVA was increased after glycation, and the higher the sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentration, the higher the IgE binding capacity. The increase in IgE binding of OVA corresponded well with the disruption of the disulfide bond, which exposed the epitopes initially buried. Antigenicity of the glycated OVA was increased, and the amount of the increase varied among samples treated under different buffer concentrations. Glycation increased the allergenic potential for OVA, with the amount of increase varying with different sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentrations. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Soil carbon, after 3 years, under short-rotation woody crops grown under varying nutrient and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Mark Coleman; Charles T. Garten; Robert J. Luxmoore; John A. Stanturf; Carl Trettin; Stan D. Wullschleger

    2007-01-01

    Soil carbon contents were measured on a short-rotation woody crop study located on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site outside Aiken, SC. This study included fertilization and irrigation treatments on five tree genotypes (sweetgum, loblolly pine, sycamore and two eastern cottonwood clones). Prior to study installation, the previous pine stand was...

  18. Relationships between net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen concentrations in a loblobby pine forest ecosystem grown in elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, C. J.; Thomas, R. B.; Delucia, E. H.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on the relationship between light-saturated net photosynthesis and area-based foliar nitrogen concentration in the canopy of a loblobby pine forest at the Duke Forest FACE experiment was examined. Two overstory and four understory tree species were examined at their growth carbon dioxide concentrations during the early summer and late summer of 1999, 2001 and 2002. Light-saturated net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen relationship were compared to determine if the stimulatory effects of elevated carbon dioxide on net photosynthesis had declined. Results at all three sample times showed no difference in either the slopes, or in the y-intercepts of the net photosynthesis-foliar nitrogen relationship when measured at common carbon dioxide concentrations. Net photosynthesis was also unaffected by growth in elevated carbon dioxide, indicating that these overstory and understory trees continued to show strong stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated carbon dioxide. 46 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  19. [Carboxyhemoglobin concentration in carbon monoxide poisoning. Critical appraisal of the predictive value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köthe, L; Radke, J

    2010-06-01

    In cases of unclear depression of conciousness, arrhythmia and symptoms of cardiac insufficiency inadvertent carbon monoxide intoxication should always be taken into consideration. Rapid diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide intoxication with mostly unspecific symptoms requires an immediate supply of high dose oxygen which enables a distinct reduction of mortality and long-term morbidity. Levels of carboxyhemoglobin, however, should not be used as a parameter to decide whether to supply normobaric or the more efficient hyperbaric oxygen. There is no sufficient coherence between carboxyhemoglobin blood levels and clinical symptoms. Increased carboxyhemoglobin concentrations help to diagnose acute carbon monoxide intoxication but do not allow conclusions to be drawn about possible long-term neuropsychiatric or cardiac consequences.

  20. Equilibrium concentration of radionuclides in cement/groundwater/carbon steel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, D. K.; Cho, W. J.; Hahn, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    Equilibrium concentration of major elements in an underground repository with a capacity of 100,000 drums have been simulated using the geochemical computer code (EQMOD). The simulation has been carried out at the conditions of pH 12 to 13.5, and Eh 520 and -520 mV. Solubilities of magnesium and calcium decrease with the increase of pH. The solubility of iron increases with pH at Eh -520 mV of reducing environment, while it almost entirely exists as the precipitate of Fe(OH) 3 (s) at Eh 520 mV of oxidizing environment. All of cobalt and nickel are predicted to be dissolved in the liquid phase regardless of pH since the solubility limit is greater than the total concentration. In the case of cesium and strontium, all forms of both ions are present in the liquid phase because they have negligible sorption capacity on cement and large solubility under disposal atmosphere. And thus the total concentration determines the equilibrium concentration. Adsorbed amounts of iodide and carbonate are dependent on adsorption capacity and adsorption equilibrium constant. Especially, the calcite turns out to be a solubility-limiting phase on the carbonate system. In order to validate the model, the equilibrium concentrations measured for a number of systems which consist of iron, cement, synthetic groundwater and radionuclides are compared with those predicted by the model. The concentrations between the model and the experiment of nonadsorptive elements - cesium, strontium, cobalt, nickel and iron, are well agreed. It indicates that the assumptions and the thermodynamic data in this work are valid. Using the adsorption equilibrium constant as a free parameter, the experimental data of iodide and carbonate have been fitted to the model. The model is in a good agreement with the experimental data of the iodide system. (author)

  1. Comparison of manufactured and black carbon nanoparticle concentrations in aquatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Nowack, B.; Wiesner, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that concentrations of manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (MCNPs) in aquatic sediments will be negligible compared to levels of black carbon nanoparticles (BCNPs). This is concluded from model calculations accounting for MCNP sedimentation fluxes, removal rates due to aggregation or degradation, and MCNP burial in deeper sediment layers. The resultant steady state MCNP levels are compared with BCNP levels calculated from soot levels in sediments and weight fractions of nanosized fractions of these soot particles. MCNP/BCNP ratios range from 10 -7 to 10 -4 (w:w). This suggests that the often acclaimed effect of MCNPs on organic pollutant binding and bioavailability will likely be below the level of detection if natural BCNPs are present, even if binding to MCNP is one to two orders of magnitude stronger than to BCNPs. Furthermore, exposure and toxic effects of MCNPs in sediments and soils will be negligible compared to that of BCNPs. - Concentrations of manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles in sediments and soils will be negligible compared to levels of black carbon (soot) nanoparticles

  2. Carbon Concentration and Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio Influence Submerged-Culture Conidiation by the Potential Bioherbicide Colletotrichum truncatum NRRL 13737

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark A.; Bothast, Rodney J.

    1990-01-01

    We assessed the influence of various carbon concentrations and carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratios on Colletotrichum truncatum NRRL 13737 conidium formation in submerged cultures grown in a basal salts medium containing various amounts of glucose and Casamino Acids. Under the nutritional conditions tested, the highest conidium concentrations were produced in media with carbon concentrations of 4.0 to 15.3 g/liter. High carbon concentrations (20.4 to 40.8 g/liter) inhibited sporulation and enhanced the formation of microsclerotiumlike hyphal masses. At all the carbon concentrations tested, a culture grown in a medium with a C:N ratio of 15:1 produced more conidia than cultures grown in media with C:N ratios of 40:1 or 5:1. While glucose exhaustion was often coincident with conidium formation, cultures containing residual glucose sporulated and those with high carbon concentrations (>25 g/liter) exhausted glucose without sporulation. Nitrogen source studies showed that the levels of C. truncatum NRRL 13737 conidiation were similar for all protein hydrolysates tested. Reduced conidiation occurred when amino acid and inorganic nitrogen sources were used. Of the nine carbon sources evaluated, acetate as the sole carbon source resulted in the lowest level of sporulation. Images PMID:16348348

  3. Carbon concentration in structures of Arctostaphylos pungens HBK: An alternative CO2 sink in forests

    OpenAIRE

    Pompa-García, M; Jurado, E

    2015-01-01

    Arctostaphylos pungens HBK is a dominant species with increasing abundance and distribution in chaparral ecosystems as a result of range management and, possibly, changes in climate. The value of this species for carbon (C) sequestration is unknown, and the standard 50% C out of total tree biomass is used as an approximate value. In this study, we aim to determine the C concentration of the primary components of A. pungens. The total C expressed as a percentage of biomass was determined with ...

  4. Effect of tooth-bleaching on the carbonate concentration in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Koudriavtsev, Tatiana; Herrera-Sancho, ?scar-Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Background There are not many studies evaluating the effects of surface treatments at the molecular level. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the concentration of carbonate molecules in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy after the application of in-office and home whitening agents. Material and Methods Sixty human teeth were randomly divided into six groups and exposed to three different home bleaching gels (Day White) and three in-office whitening agents (Zoom! Whitespeed and Pol...

  5. Ni-SiO2 Catalysts for the Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane: Varying Support Properties by Flame Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. Lovell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica particles were prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP as a support for nickel catalysts. The impact of precursor feed rate (3, 5 and 7 mL/min during FSP on the silica characteristics and the ensuing effect on catalytic performance for the carbon dioxide, or dry, reforming of methane (DRM was probed. Increasing the precursor feed rate: (i progressively lowered the silica surface area from ≈340 m2/g to ≈240 m2/g; (ii altered the silanol groups on the silica surface; and (iii introduced residual carbon-based surface species to the sample at the highest feed rate. The variations in silica properties altered the (5 wt % nickel deposit characteristics which in turn impacted on the DRM reaction. As the silica surface area increased, the nickel dispersion increased which improved catalyst performance. The residual carbon-based species also appeared to improve nickel dispersion, and in turn catalyst activity, although not to the same extent as the change in silica surface area. The findings illustrate both the importance of silica support characteristics on the catalytic performance of nickel for the DRM reaction and the capacity for using FSP to control these characteristics.

  6. Concentration of enteric virus indicator from seawater using granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Jiemin; Gutierrez, Miguel; Goodridge, Lawrence; Janes, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Fecal contamination of shellfish growing seawater with enteric viruses is often associated with human outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Male specific bacteriophage MS2 is correlated with those of enteric viruses in a wide range of water environments and has been used widely as a surrogate for pathogenic waterborne viruses. Since viruses in contaminated water are usually at low levels, the development of methods to concentrate viruses from water is crucial for detection purposes. In the present study, granular activated carbon was evaluated for concentration of MS2 from artificial seawater, and different parameters of the seawater were also compared. Recovery of MS2 from warm seawater (37°C) was found to be significantly greater than from cold seawater (4 and 20°C), and even greater than from fresh water (4, 20 and 37°C); the difference between seawater and fresh water became less profound when the temperatures of both were below 37°C. Although not of statistical significance, recovery of MS2 from low salinity seawater (10 and 20 parts per thousand, ppt) was greater than from high salinity seawater (30 and 40ppt). One gram of granular activated carbon was able to extract 6-log plaque forming units (PFU) of MS2 from 500ml seawater at 37°C. This study demonstrated that granular activated carbon can concentrate an enteric virus indicator from shellfish growing seawater effectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Hydroxyl Concentration on Chemical Sensitivity of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Carbon-Black Composite Chemiresistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Robert C.; Patel, Sanjay V.; Yelton, W. Graham

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity and selectivity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) / carbon black composite films have been found to vary depending upon the hydroxylation percentage (''-OH'') of the polymer. These chemiresistors made from PVA films whose polymer backbone is 88% hydroxylated (PVA88) have a high sensitivity to water, while chemiresistors made from PVA75 have a higher sensitivity to methanol. The minor differences in polymer composition result in films with different Hildebrand volubility parameters. The relative responses of several different PVA-based chemiresistors to solvents with different volubility parameters are presented. In addition, polyvinyl acetate (PVAC) films with PVA88 are used in an array to distinguish the responses to methanol-water mixtures

  8. Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kristin A.; Halterman, Jill S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Fagnano, Maria; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increased air pollutant concentrations have been linked to several asthma-related outcomes in children, including respiratory symptoms, medication use, and hospital visits. However, few studies have examined effects of ultrafine particles in a pediatric population. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles on asthma exacerbation among urban children and determine whether consistent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids could attenuate these effects. We also explored the relationship between asthma exacerbation and ambient concentrations of accumulation mode particles, fine particles (≤ 2.5 micrograms [μm]; PM2.5), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. We hypothesized that increased 1 to 7 day concentrations of ultrafine particles and other pollutants would be associated with increases in the relative odds of an asthma exacerbation, but that this increase in risk would be attenuated among children receiving school-based corticosteroid therapy. Methods We conducted a pilot study using data from 3–10 year-old children participating in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit treated with prednisone (n=96 visits among 74 children) associated with increased pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 days. We re-ran these analyses separately for children receiving medications through the school-based intervention and children in a usual care control group. Results Interquartile range increases in ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations in the previous 7 days were associated with increases in the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit, with the largest increases observed for 4-day mean ultrafine particles (interquartile range=2088 p/cm3; OR=1.27; 95% CI=0.90–1.79) and 7-day mean carbon monoxide (interquartile range=0.17 ppm; OR=1.63; 95

  9. Effects of varying doses of β-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2015-11-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL(-1). To measure the effects of varying doses of β-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg β-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg β-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg β-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg β-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg β-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ≤0.1mg, β-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation.

  10. Effects of fumaric acid supplementation on methane production and rumen fermentation in goats fed diets varying in forage and concentrate particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongjun; Liu, Nannan; Cao, Yangchun; Jin, Chunjia; Li, Fei; Cai, Chuanjiang; Yao, Junhu

    2018-01-01

    In rumen fermentation, fumaric acid (FA) could competitively utilize hydrogen with methanogenesis to enhance propionate production and suppress methane emission, but both effects were diet-dependent. This study aimed to explore the effects of FA supplementation on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation in goats fed diets varying in forage and concentrate particle size. Four rumen-cannulated goats were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: low or high ratio of forage particle size: concentrate particle size (Fps:Cps), without or with FA supplementation (24 g/d). Fps:Cps was higher in the diet with chopped alfalfa hay plus ground corn than in that with ground alfalfa hay plus crushed corn. Both increasing dietary Fps:Cps and FA supplementation shifted ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) patterns toward more propionate and less acetate in goats. An interaction between dietary Fps:Cps and FA supplementation was observed for the ratio of acetate to propionate (A:P), which was more predominant when FA was supplemented in the low-Fps:Cps diet. Methane production was reduced by FA, and the reduction was larger in the low-Fps:Cps diet (31.72%) than in the high-Fps:Cps diet (17.91%). Fumaric acid decreased ruminal total VFA concentration and increased ruminal pH. No difference was found in ruminal DM degradation of concentrate or alfalfa hay by dietary Fps:Cps or FA. Goats presented a lower ruminal methanogen abundance with FA supplementation and a higher B. fibrisolvens abundance with high dietary Fps:Cps. Adjusting dietary Fps:Cps is an alternative dietary model for studying diet-dependent effects without changing dietary chemical composition. Fumaric acid supplementation in the low-Fps:Cps diet showed greater responses in methane mitigation and propionate increase.

  11. Investigation of Structural and Electronic Properties of CH3NH3PbI3 Stabilized by Varying Concentrations of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celline Awino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that perovskites have a high potential of outdoing silicon based solar cells in terms of solar energy conversion, but their rate of degradation is also high. This study reports on improvement on the stability of CH3NH3PbI3 by passivating it with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA. Structural and electronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 stabilized by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA were investigated by varying concentrations of PMMA in the polymer solutions. Stability tests were performed over a period of time using modulated surface photovoltage (SPV spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and photoluminescence (PL measurements. The XRD patterns confirm the tetragonal structure of the deposited CH3NH3PbI3 for every concentration of PMMA. Furthermore, CH3NH3PbI3 coated with 40 mg/mL of PMMA did not show any impurity phase even after storage in air for 43 days. The Tauc gap (ETauc determined on the basis of the in-phase SPV spectra was found in the range from 1.585 to 1.62 eV for the samples stored during initial days, but shifted towards lower energies as the storage time increased. This can be proposed to be due to different chemical reactions between CH3NH3PbI3/PMMA interfaces and air. PL intensity increased with increasing concentration of PMMA except for the perovskite coated with 40 mg/mL of PMMA. PL quenching in the perovskite coated with 40 mg/mL of PMMA can be interpreted as fast electron transfer towards the substrate in the sample. This study shows that, with an optimum concentration of PMMA coating on CH3NH3PbI3, the lifetime and hence stability on electrical and structural behavior of CH3NH3PbI3 is improved.

  12. Exposure to fine particulate, black carbon, and particle number concentration in transportation microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Betancourt, R.; Galvis, B.; Balachandran, S.; Ramos-Bonilla, J. P.; Sarmiento, O. L.; Gallo-Murcia, S. M.; Contreras, Y.

    2017-05-01

    This research determined intake dose of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), equivalent black carbon (eBC), and number of sub-micron particles (Np) for commuters in Bogotá, Colombia. Doses were estimated through measurements of exposure concentration, a surrogate of physical activity, as well as travel times and speeds. Impacts of travel mode, traffic load, and street configuration on dose and exposure were explored. Three road segments were selected because of their different traffic loads and composition, and dissimilar street configuration. The transport modes considered include active modes (walking and cycling) and motorized modes (bus, car, taxi, and motorcycle). Measurements were performed simultaneously in the available modes at each road segment. High average eBC concentrations were observed throughout the campaign, ranging from 20 to 120 μgm-3 . Commuters in motorized modes experienced significantly higher exposure concentrations than pedestrians and bicyclists. The highest average concentrations of PM2.5, eBC , and Np were measured inside the city's Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system vehicles. Pedestrians and bicycle users in an open street configuration were exposed to the lowest average concentrations of PM2.5 and eBC , six times lower than those experienced by commuters using the BRT in the same street segment. Pedestrians experienced the highest particulate matter intake dose in the road segments studied, despite being exposed to lower concentrations than commuters in motorized modes. Average potential dose of PM2.5 and eBC per unit length traveled were nearly three times higher for pedestrians in a street canyon configuration compared to commuters in public transport. Slower travel speed and elevated inhalation rates dominate PM dose for pedestrians. The presence of dedicated bike lanes on sidewalks has a significant impact on reducing the exposure concentration for bicyclists compared to those riding in mixed traffic lanes. This study proposes a simple

  13. In-vehicle carbon dioxide concentration in commuting cars in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangprasert, Maytat; Vasithamrong, Chainarin; Pongratananukul, Suphasit; Chantranuwathana, Sunhapos; Pumrin, Suree; De Silva, I P D

    2017-05-01

    It is known that in-vehicle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration tends to increase due to occupant exhalation when the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) air is in recirculation mode. Field experiments were conducted to measure CO 2 concentration during typical commute in Bangkok, Thailand. The measured concentrations agreed with the concentration predicted using first-order mass balance equation, in both recirculating and outside air modes. The long-term transient decay of the concentration when the vehicle was parked and the HVAC system was turned off was also studied. This decay was found to follow Fickian diffusion process. The paper also provides useful operational details of the automotive HVAC system and fresh air ventilation exchange between cabin interior and exterior. Drivers in tropical Asian countries typically use HVAC recirculation mode in their automobiles. This behavior leads to excessive buildup of cabin CO 2 concentration levels. The paper describes the CO 2 buildup in a typical commute in Bangkok, Thailand. Auto manufacturers can potentially take measures to alleviate such high concentration levels. The paper also discusses the diffusion of CO 2 through the vehicle envelope, an area that has never been investigated before.

  14. A new method for rapid determination of carbohydrate and total carbon concentrations using UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A

    2013-09-12

    A new UV spectrophotometry based method for determining the concentration and carbon content of carbohydrate solution was developed. This method depends on the inherent UV absorption potential of hydrolysis byproducts of carbohydrates formed by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid (furfural derivatives). The proposed method is a major improvement over the widely used Phenol-Sulfuric Acid method developed by DuBois, Gilles, Hamilton, Rebers, and Smith (1956). In the old method, furfural is allowed to develop color by reaction with phenol and its concentration is detected by visible light absorption. Here we present a method that eliminates the coloration step and avoids the health and environmental hazards associated with phenol use. In addition, avoidance of this step was shown to improve measurement accuracy while significantly reducing waiting time prior to light absorption reading. The carbohydrates for which concentrations and carbon content can be reliably estimated with this new rapid Sulfuric Acid-UV technique include: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides with very high molecular weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ambient concentrations and insights on organic and elemental carbon dynamics in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro dos Santos, Djacinto A.; Brito, Joel F.; Godoy, José Marcus; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) is a megacity with about 20 million people and about 8 million vehicles, most of which are fueled with a significant fraction of ethanol - making it a unique case worldwide. This study presents organic and elemental carbon measurements using thermal-optical analysis from quartz filters collected in four sampling sites within the SPMA. Overall Organic Carbon (OC) concentration was comparable at all sites, where Street Canyon had the highest concentration (3.37 μg m-3) and Park site the lowest (2.65 μg m-3). Elemental Carbon (EC), emitted as result of incomplete combustion, has been significantly higher at the Street Canyon site (6.11 μg m-3) in contrast to all other three sites, ranging from 2.25 μg m-3 (Downtown) to 1.50 μg m-3 (Park). For all sampling sites, the average OC:EC ratio are found on the lower bound (pollution dynamics in a megacity impacted by a unique vehicular fleet. It also shows the need of implementation of EURO VI technology and to improve mass transport systems such a metro and more bus corridors to allow better transport for 19 million people in the SPMA.

  16. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root architecture and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee-Ho, E.; Walton, L.J.; Reid, D.M.; Yeung, E.C.; Kurepin, L.V. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2007-03-15

    Plant root growth is known to be influenced by higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Roots of some species grown in hydroponics under elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations may be more competitive sinks for photosynthetic assimilates than roots grown under lower CO{sub 2} conditions. Root branching patterns may also be influenced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. Studies have also shown that factors such as soil compaction, salinity and the availability of nitrate, phosphorous, oxygen and water also influence root growth, and the effects of higher CO{sub 2} on roots can be confounded by such environmental factors. This study evaluated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth, morphology, and architecture. Both ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} levels were used along with various sucrose concentrations. The study revealed that A. thaliana plants grown on a phytagar medium in small chambers with elevated CO{sub 2} had longer roots, more lateral root growth than plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. Roots in elevated CO{sub 2} were found to have wider root diameters, and more secondary growth. The addition of sucrose to the media closely resembled the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}. In addition, the increase in sucrose concentration had a bigger effect on root morphology under ambient, than elevated CO{sub 2}. Therefore, both elevated CO{sub 2} and increased sucrose concentrations promote root growth by increasing their number, length, and diameter. The dichotomy branching index (DBI) also dropped resulting in a more dichotomous branching pattern. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Assessment of Global Carbon Dioxide Concentration Using MODIS and GOSAT Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas (GHG in the atmosphere and is the greatest contributor to global warming. CO2 concentration data are usually obtained from ground observation stations or from a small number of satellites. Because of the limited number of observations and the short time series of satellite data, it is difficult to monitor CO2 concentrations on regional or global scales for a long time. The use of the remote sensing data such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data can overcome these problems, particularly in areas with low densities of CO2 concentration watch stations. A model based on temperature (MOD11C3, vegetation cover (MOD13C2 and MOD15A2 and productivity (MOD17A2 of MODIS (which we have named the TVP model was developed in the current study to assess CO2 concentrations on a global scale. We assumed that CO2 concentration from the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO aboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT are the true values and we used these values to check the TVP model accuracy. The results indicate that the accuracy of the TVP model is different in different continents: the greatest Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R2 was 0.75 in Eurasia (RMSE = 1.16 and South America (RMSE = 1.17; the lowest R2 was 0.57 in Australia (RMSE = 0.73. Compared with the TANSO-observed CO2 concentration (XCO2, we found that the accuracy throughout the World is between −2.56~3.14 ppm. Potential sources of TVP model uncertainties were also analyzed and identified.

  18. Assessment of global carbon dioxide concentration using MODIS and GOSAT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Wang, Xiufeng; Li, Jing; Yi, Kunpeng; Zhong, Guosheng; Tani, Hiroshi

    2012-11-26

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) in the atmosphere and is the greatest contributor to global warming. CO(2) concentration data are usually obtained from ground observation stations or from a small number of satellites. Because of the limited number of observations and the short time series of satellite data, it is difficult to monitor CO(2) concentrations on regional or global scales for a long time. The use of the remote sensing data such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data can overcome these problems, particularly in areas with low densities of CO(2) concentration watch stations. A model based on temperature (MOD11C3), vegetation cover (MOD13C2 and MOD15A2) and productivity (MOD17A2) of MODIS (which we have named the TVP model) was developed in the current study to assess CO(2) concentrations on a global scale. We assumed that CO(2) concentration from the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) aboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) are the true values and we used these values to check the TVP model accuracy. The results indicate that the accuracy of the TVP model is different in different continents: the greatest Pearson's correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.75 in Eurasia (RMSE = 1.16) and South America (RMSE = 1.17); the lowest R2 was 0.57 in Australia (RMSE = 0.73). Compared with the TANSO-observed CO(2) concentration (XCO(2)), we found that the accuracy throughout the World is between -2.56~3.14 ppm. Potential sources of TVP model uncertainties were also analyzed and identified.

  19. Evaluation of factors affecting soil carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds in varying climate zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L S; Moore, T L C; Wang, J W; Osmond, D L; Al-Rubaei, A M; Smolek, A P; Blecken, G T; Viklander, M; Hunt, W F

    2017-04-01

    The carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds were investigated in four different climates: U.S., Northern Sweden, Southern Sweden, and Singapore, representing a range of annual mean temperatures, growing season lengths and rainfall depths: geographic factors that were not statistically compared, but have great effect on carbon (C) accumulation. A chronosequence was used to estimate C accumulations rates; C accumulation and decomposition rates were not directly measured. C accumulated significantly over time in vegetated shallow water areas (0-30cm) in the USA (78.4gCm -2 yr -1 ), in vegetated temporary inundation zones in Sweden (75.8gCm -2 yr -1 ), and in all ponds in Singapore (135gCm -2 yr -1 ). Vegetative production appeared to exert a stronger influence on relative C accumulation rates than decomposition. Comparing among the four climatic zones, the effects of increasing rainfall and growing season lengths (vegetative production) outweighed the effects of higher temperature on decomposition rates. Littoral vegetation was a significant source to the soil C pool relative to C sources draining from watersheds. Establishment of vegetation in the shallow water zones of retention ponds is vital to providing a C source to the soil. Thus, the width of littoral shelves containing this vegetation along the perimeter may be increased if C sequestration is a design goal. This assessment establishes that stormwater wet retention ponds can sequester C across different climate zones with generally annual rainfall and lengths of growing season being important general factors for C accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Are serum adiponectin concentrations in a population sample of 64-year-old Caucasian women with varying glucose tolerance associated with ultrasound-assessed atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behre, C J; Brohall, G; Hulthe, J; Wikstrand, J; Fagerberg, B

    2006-09-01

    To examine whether serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis assessed as intima media thickness (IMT) in the carotid arteries in Caucasian women with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. From a population-based cohort of 64-year-old Swedish women, 533 subjects with type 2 diabetes (DM2, n=177), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n=178) or normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=178) were recruited. Anthropometrics, usual cardiovascular risk factors were examined and ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries was performed. Women with low adiponectin concentrations were characterized by thick IMT, higher prevalence of DM2, history of previous myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, anti-hypertensive treatment and high body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, plasma insulin, serum triglycerides, fasting glucose, HbA1c, and low serum HDL cholesterol levels. Carotid IMT correlated with HbA1c (r=0.24, PDM2 (r=0.16, P<0.001), systolic blood pressure (r=0.16, P<0.001), blood glucose (r=0.16, P<0.001), triglycerides (r=0.15, P<0.001), and reversely to adiponectin (r=-0.11, P=0.01), HDL cholesterol (r=-0.13, P=0.004), and alcohol intake (r=-0.087, P<0.05). A more detailed analysis of underlying associations was difficult due to a high co-linearity between these variable. Low serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with increased carotid artery IMT, and several risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, mainly those constituting the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Substrate turnover at low carbon concentrations in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    concentrations of carbon allowed for a close monitoring of the kinetics of substrate turnover (less than 10 μg C/L 14C-benzoic acid was added). The mineralisation of benzoic acid was rapid and could be modelled by a no-growth Monod expression using a maximum degradation rate of 0.59 μg C/L/h and a half......-saturation constant of 2.6 μg C/L. Only 2–4% of the carbon being degraded was incorporated into the biofilm. The results from our study suggest that the cellspecific respiration of biofilm was much higher than for suspended bacteria, and that the growth rate of the bulk phase bacteria was approximately 10 times...

  2. Carbon Balance at Landscape Level inferred fromTower CO2 Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, B.; Higuchi, K.; Chan, D.; Shashkov, A.; Lin, H.; Liu, J.

    2003-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon sinks are considerable in the global carbon budget, but the accumulation of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is very small (~0.2% per year) relative to the total carbon stocks in forests. Currently, eddy-covariance instruments mounted on towers are the only reliable means to measure carbon balance of a land surface, albeit limited to small areas and not free of caveats. In our quest of understanding the collective performance of ecosystems under the changing climate, it is highly desirable to have the ability to acquire carbon cycle information for large areas (landscape) consisting of patches of different ecosystems. For this purpose we explored methodologies of inferring carbon cycle information from tower CO2 concentration measurements affected by large areas (100-10000 km2). An ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is coupled with a carbon-specific Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) in order to decipher temporal variations in CO2 for landscape-level photosynthesis and respiration information. The coupled BEPS-VDS is applied to a unique 9-year (1990-2000 with 1997-8 missing data) 5-minute CO2 record measured on a 40-m tower over boreal forests near Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada. Over the period, the mean diurnal amplitude of the measured CO2 at 40 m increased by 5.58 ppmv, or 28% in the growing season. The increase in nighttime ecosystem respiration, causing the increase in the daily maximum CO2 concentration, was responsible for 65% of the increase in the diurnal amplitude, i.e., 3.61 ppmv, corresponding to an increase in the mean daily air temperature by about 2.77 degC and precipitation by 5% over the same period. The rest (35%) is explained by the increase in ecosystem daytime photosynthesis, causing the decrease in the daily minimum CO2 concentration. As the nighttime stable boundary layer (SBL) (270-560 m) was much shallower than the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL) (1000-1600 m), the increase in

  3. Cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanisms facilitate sustained CO2 depletion in eutrophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Morales-Williams

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton blooms are increasing in frequency, intensity, and duration in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. In many eutrophic lakes, these high levels of primary productivity correspond to periods of CO2 depletion in surface waters. Cyanobacteria and other groups of phytoplankton have the ability to actively transport bicarbonate (HCO3− across their cell membrane when CO2 concentrations are limiting, possibly giving them a competitive advantage over algae not using carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs. To investigate whether CCMs can maintain phytoplankton bloom biomass under CO2 depletion, we measured the δ13C signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC and phytoplankton particulate organic carbon (δ13Cphyto in 16 mesotrophic to hypereutrophic lakes during the ice-free season of 2012. We used mass–balance relationships to determine the dominant inorganic carbon species used by phytoplankton under CO2 stress. We found a significant positive relationship between phytoplankton biomass and phytoplankton δ13C signatures as well as a significant nonlinear negative relationship between water column ρCO2 and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, indicating a shift from diffusive uptake to active uptake by phytoplankton of CO2 or HCO3− during blooms. Calculated photosynthetic fractionation factors indicated that this shift occurs specifically when surface water CO2 drops below atmospheric equilibrium. Our results indicate that active HCO3− uptake via CCMs may be an important mechanism in maintaining phytoplankton blooms when CO2 is depleted. Further increases in anthropogenic pressure, eutrophication, and cyanobacteria blooms are therefore expected to contribute to increased bicarbonate uptake to sustain primary production.

  4. Cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanisms facilitate sustained CO2 depletion in eutrophic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Williams, Ana M.; Wanamaker, Alan D., Jr.; Downing, John A.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are increasing in frequency, intensity, and duration in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. In many eutrophic lakes, these high levels of primary productivity correspond to periods of CO2 depletion in surface waters. Cyanobacteria and other groups of phytoplankton have the ability to actively transport bicarbonate (HCO3-) across their cell membrane when CO2 concentrations are limiting, possibly giving them a competitive advantage over algae not using carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). To investigate whether CCMs can maintain phytoplankton bloom biomass under CO2 depletion, we measured the δ13C signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) and phytoplankton particulate organic carbon (δ13Cphyto) in 16 mesotrophic to hypereutrophic lakes during the ice-free season of 2012. We used mass-balance relationships to determine the dominant inorganic carbon species used by phytoplankton under CO2 stress. We found a significant positive relationship between phytoplankton biomass and phytoplankton δ13C signatures as well as a significant nonlinear negative relationship between water column ρCO2 and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, indicating a shift from diffusive uptake to active uptake by phytoplankton of CO2 or HCO3- during blooms. Calculated photosynthetic fractionation factors indicated that this shift occurs specifically when surface water CO2 drops below atmospheric equilibrium. Our results indicate that active HCO3- uptake via CCMs may be an important mechanism in maintaining phytoplankton blooms when CO2 is depleted. Further increases in anthropogenic pressure, eutrophication, and cyanobacteria blooms are therefore expected to contribute to increased bicarbonate uptake to sustain primary production.

  5. Black carbon and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in New York City's subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcassim, M J Ruzmyn; Thurston, George D; Peltier, Richard E; Gordon, Terry

    2014-12-16

    The New York City (NYC) subway is the main mode of transport for over 5 million passengers on an average weekday. Therefore, airborne pollutants in the subway stations could have a significant impact on commuters and subway workers. This study looked at black carbon (BC) and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in selected subway stations in Manhattan. BC and PM2.5 levels were measured in real time using a Micro-Aethalometer and a PDR-1500 DataRAM, respectively. Simultaneous samples were also collected on quartz filters for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) analysis and on Teflon filters for gravimetric and trace element analysis. In the underground subway stations, mean real time BC concentrations ranged from 5 to 23 μg/m(3), with 1 min average peaks >100 μg/m(3), while real time PM2.5 levels ranged from 35 to 200 μg/m(3). Mean EC levels ranged from 9 to 12.5 μg/m(3). At street level on the same days, the mean BC and PM2.5 concentrations were below 3 and 10 μg/m(3), respectively. This study shows that both BC soot and PM levels in NYC's subways are considerably higher than ambient urban street levels and that further monitoring and investigation of BC and PM subway exposures are warranted.

  6. Low black carbon concentration in agricultural soils of central and northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Halla, Markku; Rimhanen, Karoliina; Muurinen, Johanna; Kaseva, Janne; Kahiluoto, Helena

    2018-08-01

    Soil carbon (C) represents the largest terrestrial carbon stock and is key for soil productivity. Major fractions of soil C consist of organic C, carbonates and black C. The turnover rate of black C is lower than that of organic C, and black C abundance decreases the vulnerablility of soil C stock to decomposition under climate change. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of soil C in different pools and impact of agricultural management on the abundance of different species. Soil C fractions were quantified in the topsoils (0-15cm) of 23 sites in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia. The sites in central Ethiopia represented paired plots of agroforestry and adjacent control plots where cereal crops were traditionally grown in clayey soils. In the sandy loam and loam soils of northern Ethiopia, the pairs represented restrained grazing with adjacent control plots with free grazing, and terracing with cereal-based cropping with adjacent control plots without terracing. Soil C contained in carbonates, organic matter and black C along with total C was determined. The total C median was 1.5% (range 0.3-3.6%). The median proportion of organic C was 85% (range 53-94%), 6% (0-41%) for carbonate C and 6% (4-21%) for black C. An increase was observed in the organic C and black C fractions attributable to agroforestry and restrained grazing. The very low concentration of the relatively stable black C fraction and the dominance of organic C in these Ethiopian soils suggest vulnerability to degradation and the necessity for cultivation practices maintaining the C stock. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Groundwater Depth Affects Phosphorus But Not Carbon and Nitrogen Concentrations of a Desert Phreatophyte in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Gao, Xiaopeng; Li, Lei; Lu, Yan; Shareef, Muhammad; Huang, Caibian; Liu, Guojun; Gui, Dongwei; Zeng, Fanjiang

    2018-01-01

    Ecological stoichiometry is an important aspect in the analysis of the changes in ecological system composition, structure, and function and understanding of plant adaptation in habitats. Leaf carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations in desert phreatophytes can be affected by different depths of groundwater through its effect on the adsorption and utilization of nutrient and plant biomass. We examined the biomass, soil organic C, available (mineral) N, and available P, and leaf C, N, and P concentrations of Alhagi sparsifolia grown at varying groundwater depths of 2.5, 4.5, and 11.0 m in 2015 and 2016 growing seasons in a desert-oasis ecotone in northwest China. The biomass of A. sparsifolia and the C, N, and P concentrations in soil and A. sparsifolia showed different responses to various groundwater depths. The leaf P concentration of A. sparsifolia was lower at 4.5 m than at 2.5 and 11.0 m likely because of a biomass dilution effect. By contrast, leaf C and N concentrations were generally unaffected by groundwater depth, thereby confirming that C and N accumulations in A. sparsifolia were predominantly determined by C fixation through the photosynthesis and biological fixation of atmospheric N 2 , respectively. Soil C, N, and P concentrations at 4.5 m were significantly lower than those at 11.0 m. Leaf P concentration was significantly and positively correlated with soil N concentration at all of the groundwater depths. The C:N and C:P mass ratios of A. sparsifolia at 4.5 m were higher than those at the other groundwater depths, suggesting a defensive life history strategy. Conversely, A. sparsifolia likely adopted a competitive strategy at 2.5 and 11.0 m as indicated by the low C:N and C:P mass ratios. To our knowledge, this study is the first to elucidate the variation in the C, N, and P stoichiometry of a desert phreatophyte at different groundwater depths in an arid ecosystem.

  8. Regulatory components of carbon concentrating mechanisms in aquatic unicellular photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Vandana; Sidhu, Gurpreet Kaur; Nogia, Panchsheela; Mehrotra, Rajesh; Mehrotra, Sandhya

    2017-11-01

    This review provides an insight into the regulation of the carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) in lower organisms like cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, and algae. CCMs evolved as a mechanism to concentrate CO 2 at the site of primary carboxylating enzyme Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco), so that the enzyme could overcome its affinity towards O 2 which leads to wasteful processes like photorespiration. A diverse set of CCMs exist in nature, i.e., carboxysomes in cyanobacteria and proteobacteria; pyrenoids in algae and diatoms, the C 4 system, and Crassulacean acid metabolism in higher plants. Prime regulators of CCM in most of the photosynthetic autotrophs belong to the LysR family of transcriptional regulators, which regulate the activity of the components of CCM depending upon the ambient CO 2 concentrations. Major targets of these regulators are carbonic anhydrase and inorganic carbon uptake systems (CO 2 and HCO 3 - transporters) whose activities are modulated either at transcriptional level or by changes in the levels of their co-regulatory metabolites. The article provides information on the localization of the CCM components as well as their function and participation in the development of an efficient CCM. Signal transduction cascades leading to activation/inactivation of inducible CCM components on perception of low/high CO 2 stimuli have also been brought into picture. A detailed study of the regulatory components can aid in identifying the unraveled aspects of these mechanisms and hence provide information on key molecules that need to be explored to further provide a clear understanding of the mechanism under study.

  9. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing ram lambs fed sweet sorghum bagasse-based complete rations varying in roughage-to-concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nagireddy Nalini; Reddy, Yerradoddi Ramana; Blummel, Michel; Nagalakshmi, Devanaboyina; Monika, Thamatam; Reddy, Belum Venkata Subba; Reddy, Chintalapani Ravinder

    2013-02-01

    Different roughage-to-concentrate ratios of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) (a by-product of the biofuel industry)-based complete diets were assessed. Twenty four growing Nellore × Deccani ram lambs aged about 3 months (average body wt., 10.62 ± 0.25 kg) were randomly allotted to four complete rations (CR) varying in roughage-to-concentrate ratios viz. 60:40 (CR-I), 50:50 (CR-II), 40:60 (CR-III) and 30:70(CR-IV) for a period of 180 days. The feed intake was comparable among the lambs fed different experimental complete diets. Average daily weight gain (in grams) was 77.31 ± 4.90, 81.76 ± 5.16, 85.83 ± 2.83 and 86.30 ± 3.25, and feed conversion ratio (in kilograms of feed per kilogram gain) averaged 11.42 ± 0.68, 10.57 ± 0.64, 10.17 ± 0.37 and 9.96 ± 0.38 in ram lambs fed CR-I, CR-II, CR-III and CR-IV rations, respectively. Statistically, differences in daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio among the lambs fed four experimental rations were not significant (P > 0.05). The cost per kilogram gain was significantly (P carcass weights, dressing percentage, wholesale cuts and edible and non-edible portions of experimental animals. Similarly, no significant variation could be seen in bone and meat yield (in per cent) and their ratios in various wholesale cuts among the dietary treatments. The roughage-to-concentrate ratio did not affect the chemical composition of meat; however, the fat content of meat was linearly increased with increase in the proportion of concentrate in the diets. The results of the experiment indicated that SSB can be included at 60 % level in the complete diet for economical mutton production from growing Nellore × Deccani ram lambs.

  10. Strength of briquettes made of Cu concentrate and carbon-bearing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, results of the research on application of residual fine-grained, carbon-bearing materials as coke substitutes in the shaft process of copper matter smelting are discussed. The addition was introduced into the charge as a component of concentrate-made briquettes, then, its effects on properties of the obtained briquettes were analysed for their compressive and drop strengths. The results of investigations confirmed the potential use of proposed alternative fuels (as briquette components in the process of copper matte smelting.

  11. Ethanol electrooxidation on novel carbon supported Pt/SnOx/C catalysts with varied Pt:Sn ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.; Colmenares, L.; Jusys, Z.; Sun, G.Q.; Behm, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Novel carbon supported Pt/SnO x /C catalysts with Pt:Sn atomic ratios of 5:5, 6:4, 7:3 and 8:2 were prepared by a modified polyol method and characterized with respect to their structural properties (X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)), chemical composition (XPS), their electrochemical properties (base voltammetry, CO ad stripping) and their electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for ethanol oxidation (ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR)). The data show that the Pt/SnO x /C catalysts are composed of Pt and tin oxide nanoparticles with an average Pt particle diameter of about 2 nm. The steady-state activity of the Pt/SnO x /C catalysts towards the EOR decreases with tin content at room temperature, but increases at 80 deg. C. On all Pt/SnO x /C catalysts, acetic acid and acetaldehyde represent dominant products, CO 2 formation contributes 1-3% for both potentiostatic and potentiodynamic reaction conditions. With increasing potential, the acetaldehyde yield decreases and the acetic acid yield increases. The apparent activation energies of the EOR increase with tin content (19-29 kJ mol -1 ), but are lower than on Pt/C (32 kJ mol -1 ). The somewhat better performance of the Pt/SnO x /C catalysts compared to alloyed PtSn x /C catalysts is attributed to the presence of both sufficiently large Pt ensembles for ethanol dehydrogenation and C-C bond splitting and of tin oxide for OH generation. Fuel cell measurements performed for comparison largely confirm the results obtained in model studies

  12. The effects of varying concentrations of growth regulators benzyladenine and naphthalene acetic acid and gamma irradiation on the gross plantlet morphology of Garcinia mangostana L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonsol, Ma. Fatima Nona M.; Lasiste, Jade Marie Edenvirg F.; Quinio, Ma. Franchesca S.

    2004-02-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is regarded as one of the best flavored fruits in the world. Though this fruit yields high income and has great potential as an export, productivity in the Philippines is still limited due to its slow and difficult conventional propagation. To increase the plants' productivity, growth regulators can be added, the seeds can be exposed to irradiation to cause genetic mutations, and micropropagation techniques can be used. This study seeks to determine the effects of these three variables on the general morphological characteristics of the plantlets grown both in vitro and in vivo. The first set of mangosteen seeds was inoculated and grown in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal culture medium with different treatment combinations of growth regulators, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA). Treatment concentrations ranged from 0 parts per million (ppm) to 6 ppm. The treatment that best induced stem, leaf and root formation, and produced plantlets with long stems and roots was MS with 6 ppm NAA combined with 6 ppm BA. A second set of seeds was then exposed to varying levels of gamma radiation and propagated in vivo and in vitro. For in vivo, it was observed that the length of stem of the plantlet decreases with increasing radiation dose; length of leaves of the mangosteen plantlets was best noted in seeds exposed to 10 Gy gamma rays. In in vitro, the two treatment concentrations that best helped seeds to develop callus, which were 0 ppm BA with 4 pmm NAA and 4 ppm BA with 6 ppm NAA, were added to MS basal medium. Seeds exposed to 5 Gy and grown in basal medium with 0 ppm BA and 4 ppm NAA were observed to have developed the most callus. (Author)

  13. Structure Manipulation of Carbon Aerogels by Managing Solution Concentration of Precursor and Its Application for CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of carbon aerogels were synthesized by polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, and their structure was adjusted by managing solution concentration of precursors. Carbon aerogels were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, N2 adsorption/desorption and scanning electron microscope (SEM technologies. It was found that the pore structure and morphology of carbon aerogels can be efficiently manipulated by managing solution concentration. The relative micropore volume of carbon aerogels, defined by Vmicro/Vtol, first increased and then decreased with the increase of solution concentration, leading to the same trend of CO2 adsorption capacity. Specifically, the CA-45 (the solution concentration of precursors is 45 wt% sample had the highest CO2 adsorption capacity (83.71 cm3/g and the highest selectivity of CO2/N2 (53 at 1 bar and 0 °C.

  14. Carbon dioxide as working fluid for medium and high-temperature concentrated solar thermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Duong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the benefits and drawbacks of using carbon dioxide in solar thermal systems at medium and high operating temperatures. For medium temperatures, application of CO2 in non-imaging-optics based compound parabolic concentrators (CPC combined with evacuated-tube collectors is studied. These collectors have been shown to obtain efficiencies higher than 40% operating at around 200℃ without the need of tracking. Validated numerical models of external compound parabolic concentrators (XCPCs are used to simulate their performance using CO2 as working fluid. For higher temperatures, a mathematical model is implemented to analyze the operating performance of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTC using CO2 at temperatures between 100℃ and 600℃.

  15. Linking CDOM spectral absorption to dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loadings in boreal estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin A.; Thomas, David N.

    2012-01-01

    concentrations across the salinity gradient and ranged from 1.67 to 33.4 m−1. The link between DOC and CDOM was studied using a range of wavelengths and algorithms. Wavelengths between 250 and 270 nm gave the best predictions with single linear regression. Total dissolved iron was found to influence......The quantity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three Finnish estuaries (Karjaanjoki, Kyrönjoki and Kiiminkijoki) was investigated, with respect to predicting DOC concentrations and loadings from spectral CDOM absorption measurements. Altogether 87...... the prediction in wavelengths above 520nm. Despite significant seasonal and spatial differences in DOC–CDOM models, a universal relationship was tested with an independent data set and found to be robust. DOC and CDOM yields (loading/catchment area) from the catchments ranged from 1.98 to 5.44gCm−2yr−1, and 1...

  16. Modelling Black Carbon concentrations in two busy street canyons in Brussels using CANSBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, O.; Declerck, P.; Heene, B.; Vanderstraeten, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on modelling Black Carbon (BC) concentrations in two busy street canyons, the Crown and Belliard Street in Brussels. The used original Operational Street Pollution Model was adapted to BC by eliminating the chemical module and is noted here as CANSBC. Model validations were performed using temporal BC data from the fixed measurement network in Brussels. Subsequently, BC emissions were adjusted so that simulated BC concentrations equalled the observed ones, averaged over the whole period of simulation. Direct validations were performed for the Crown Street, while BC model calculations for the Belliard Street were validated indirectly using the linear relationship between BC and NOx. Concerning the Crown Street, simulated and observed half-hourly BC concentrations correlated well (r = 0.74) for the period from July 1st, 2011 till June 30th, 2013. In particular, CANSBC performed very well to simulate the monthly and diurnal evolutions of averaged BC concentrations, as well as the difference between weekdays and weekends. This means that the model correctly handled the meteorological conditions as well as the variation in traffic emissions. Considering dispersion, it should however be noted that BC concentrations are better simulated under stable than under unstable conditions. Even if the correlation on half-hourly NOx concentrations was slightly lower (r = 0.60) than the one of BC, indirect validations of CANSBC for the Belliard Street yielded comparable results and conclusions as described above for the Crown Street. Based on our results, it can be stated that CANSBC is suitable to accurately simulate BC concentrations in the street canyons of Brussels, under the following conditions: (i) accurate vehicle counting data is available to correctly estimate traffic emissions, and (ii) vehicle speeds are measured in order to improve emission estimates and to take into account the impact of the turbulence generated by moving vehicles on the local

  17. Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate solution on stress corrosion cracking of annealed carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruna, Takumi; Zhu, Liehong; Murakami, Makoto; Shibata, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of annealed SM 400 B carbon steel has been investigated in bicarbonate solutions at 343 K. The surface of annealed specimen had decarburized layer of about 0. 5 mm thickness. A potentiostatic slow strain rate testing apparatus equipped with a charge coupled device camera system was employed to evaluate SCC susceptibility from the viewpoint of the crack behavior. In a constant bicarbonate concentration of 1 M, cracks were observed in the potential range from -800 to 600 mV Ag/ A gCl . and especially, the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were accelerated at -600 mV. At a constant potential of -600 mV, cracks were observed in the concentration range from 0.001 to 1 M, and the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were suppressed as the concentration decreased. Polarization curves for the decarburized surface were measured with two different scan rates. High SCC susceptibility may be expected in the potential range where the difference between the two current densities is large. It was found in this system that the potential with the maximum difference in the current density was -600 mV for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and the potential increased with a decrease in the concentration of bicarbonate. This means that an applied potential of -600 mV provides the highest SCC susceptibility for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and that the SCC susceptibility decreases as the concentration decreases. These findings support the dependence of the actual SCC behavior on the potential and the concentration of bicarbonate. (author)

  18. Deficiency of Carbonic Anhydrase II Results in a Urinary Concentrating Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devishree Krishnan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII is expressed along the nephron where it interacts with a number of transport proteins augmenting their activity. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1 interacts with CAII to increase water flux through the water channel. Both CAII and aquaporin-1 are expressed in the thin descending limb (TDL; however, the physiological role of a CAII-AQP1 interaction in this nephron segment is not known. To determine if CAII was required for urinary concentration, we studied water handling in CAII-deficient mice. CAII-deficient mice demonstrate polyuria and polydipsia as well as an alkaline urine and bicarbonaturia, consistent with a type III renal tubular acidosis. Natriuresis and hypercalciuria cause polyuria, however, CAII-deficient mice did not have increased urinary sodium nor calcium excretion. Further examination revealed dilute urine in the CAII-deficient mice. Urinary concentration remained reduced in CAII-deficient mice relative to wild-type animals even after water deprivation. The renal expression and localization by light microscopy of NKCC2 and aquaporin-2 was not altered. However, CAII-deficient mice had increased renal AQP1 expression. CAII associates with and increases water flux through aquaporin-1. Water flux through aquaporin-1 in the TDL of the loop of Henle is essential to the concentration of urine, as this is required to generate a concentrated medullary interstitium. We therefore measured cortical and medullary interstitial concentration in wild-type and CAII-deficient mice. Mice lacking CAII had equivalent cortical interstitial osmolarity to wild-type mice: however, they had reduced medullary interstitial osmolarity. We propose therefore that reduced water flux through aquaporin-1 in the TDL in the absence of CAII prevents the generation of a maximally concentrated medullary interstitium. This, in turn, limits urinary concentration in CAII deficient mice.

  19. Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen concentration and isotopic composition of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bruce K.; Deniro, Michael J.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; De Paolo, Donald J.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-09-01

    Paleodietary analysis based on variations in the trace element and stable isotopic composition of inorganic and organic phases in fossil bone depends on the assumption that measured values reflect in vivo values. To test for postmortem alteration, we measured 87Sr /86Sr , 13C /12C , 18O /16O and 15N /14N ratios and Sr concentrations in modern and prehistoric (610 to 5470 yr old) bones of animals with marine or terrestrial diets from Greenland. Bones from modern terrestrial feeders have substantially lower Sr concentrations and more radiogenic 87Sr /86Sr ratios than those from modern marine feeders. This contrast was not preserved in the prehistoric samples, which showed almost complete overlap for both Sr concentration and isotopic composition in bones from the two types of animals. Leaching experiments, X-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy indicate that alteration of the Sr concentration and isotopic composition in prehistoric bone probably results from nearly complete exchange with groundwater. Oxygen isotope ratios in fossil apatite carbonate also failed to preserve the original discrimination between modern terrestrial and marine feeders. The C isotope ratio of apatite carbonate did not discriminate between animals with marine or terrestrial diets in the modern samples. Even so, the ranges of apatite δ 13C values in prehistoric bone are more scattered than in modern samples for both groups, suggesting alteration had occurred. δ 13C and δ 15N values of collagen in modern bone are distinctly different for the two feeding types, and this distinction is preserved in most of the prehistoric samples. Our results suggest that postmortem alteration of dietary tracers in the inorganic phases of bone may be a problem at all archaeological sites and must be evaluated in each case. While collagen analyzed in this study was resistant to alteration, evaluation of the possibility of diagenetic alteration of its isotopic composition in bones from other

  20. Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman, a Semi-Urban Area of Ghana, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sam-Quarcoo Dotse; Joshua Kwame Asane; F.G. Ofosu

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter and black carbon concentration levels in Ashaiman, a semi-urban area of Ghana was assessed. Using IVL PM2.5 and PM10 particle samplers, airborne particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters for a period of three months. In addition to determination of particulate mass in the two fractions by gravimetrical method, aerosol filters were analyzed to determine Black Carbon (BC) concentration levels using the black smoke method. BC fractions in fine and coarse, together with ...

  1. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  2. Effect of cloric acid concentration on corrosion behavior of Ni/Cr coated on carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiati, Resetiana Dwi; Sugiarti, Eni; Thosin, K. A. Zaini

    2018-05-01

    Corrosion is one of the causes of metal degradation. Carbon steel (Fe) is easy to corrode in the extreme environment. Coating on carbon steel is required to improve corrosion resistance owing to protection or hindrance to extreme environmental conditions. In this present work, carbon steel was coated by electroplating techniques for nickel and pack cementation for chrome. The corrosion rate test was performed by Weight Loss method on FeNiCr, FeNi, FeCr and uncoated Fe as comparator which was dyed in 37% HCl and 25% HCl which had previously been measured dimension and mass. The immersion test result of FeNiCr and FeNi specimen were better than FeCr and uncoated Fe in terms of increasing corrosion resistance. The corrosion rate for 56 hours in 37% HCl for FeNiCr was 1.592 mm/y and FeNi was 3.208 mm/y, FeCr only lasted within 32 hours with corrosion rate was 6.494 mm/y. Surface of the sample after the corrosion test there was pitting, crevice corrosion and alloy cracking caused by chloride. The higher the concentration of HCl the faster the corrosion rate.

  3. Biological nitrogen and carbon removal in a gravity flow biomass concentrator reactor for municipal sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel; Hidaka, Taira; Campo, Pablo; Kleiner, Eric; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2013-01-01

    A novel membrane system, the Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR), was evaluated as an alternative technology for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Because the BCR is equipped with a membrane whose average poresize is 20 μm (18-28 μm), the reactor requires low-pressure differential to operate (gravity). The effectiveness of this system was evaluated for the removal of carbon and nitrogen using two identical BCRs, identified as conventional and hybrid, that were operated in parallel. The conventional reactor was operated under full aerobic conditions (i.e., organic carbon and ammonia oxidation), while the hybrid reactor incorporated an anoxic zone for nitrate reduction as well as an aerobic zone for organic carbon and ammonia oxidation. Both reactors were fed synthetic wastewater at a flow rate of 71 L d(-1), which resulted in a hydraulic retention time of 9 h. In the case of the hybrid reactor, the recycle flow from the aerobic zone to the anoxic zone was twice the feed flow rate. Reactor performance was evaluated under two solids retention times (6 and 15 d). Under these conditions, the BCRs achieved nearly 100% mixed liquor solids separation with a hydraulic head differential of less than 2.5 cm. The COD removal efficiency was over 90%. Essentially complete nitrification was achieved in both systems, and nitrogen removal in the hybrid reactor was close to the expected value (67%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Large reductions in urban black carbon concentrations in the United States between 1965 and 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Preble, Chelsea V.; Hadley, Odelle L.; Bond, Tami C.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2017-02-01

    Long-term pollutant concentration trends can be useful for evaluating air quality effects of emission controls and historical transitions in energy sources. We employed archival records of coefficient of haze (COH), a now-retired measure of light-absorbing particulate matter, to re-construct historical black carbon (BC) concentrations at urban locations in the United States (U.S.). The following relationship between COH and BC was determined by reinstating into service COH monitors beside aethalometers for two years in Vallejo and one year in San Jose, California: BC (μg m-3) = 6.7COH + 0.1, R2 = 0.9. Estimated BC concentrations in ten states stretching from the East to West Coast decreased markedly between 1965 and 1980: 5-fold in Illinois, Ohio, and Virginia, 4-fold in Missouri, and 2.5-fold in Pennsylvania. Over the period from the mid-1960s to the early 2000s, annual average BC concentrations in New Jersey and California decreased from 13 to 2 μg m-3 and 4 to 1 μg m-3, respectively, despite concurrent increases in fossil fuel consumption from 1.6 to 2.1 EJ (EJ = 1018 J) in New Jersey and 4.2 to 6.4 EJ in California. New Jersey's greater reliance on BC-producing heavy fuel oils and coal in the 1960s and early 1970s and subsequent transition to cleaner fuels explains why the decrease was larger in New Jersey than California. Patterns in seasonal and weekly BC concentrations and energy consumption trends together indicate that reducing wintertime emissions - namely substituting natural gas and electricity for heavy fuel oil in the residential sector - and decreasing emissions from diesel vehicles contributed to lower ambient BC concentrations. Over the period of study, declining concentrations of BC, a potent and short-lived climate warming pollutant, contrast increasing fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the U.S. Declining BC emissions may have had the benefit of mitigating some atmospheric warming driven by increased CO2 emissions with

  5. Concentration of carbonate admixture from opalized tuff into one separate fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogoevski, Slobodan; Boshkovski, Boshko

    2016-01-01

    White opalized tuff (from the Strmosh locality, Probishtip), as a raw silicate amorphous material, contains some quantity of admixtures. The total quantity of admixtures amounts is about 8% mass. Mine powdery ingredients are homogeneously distributed into the basic silicate mass.Carbonate material is a significant part of present admixtures, and it is possible to be separated with controlled milling. Milling parameters (type and time of milling) enables to concentrate the present CaCO 3 in granulometric fraction<0.032 μm, after 30 min. milling. Reliable evidence about afore mentioned separation is shown with simultaneous view of the results of silicate chemical analysis, DT/TG analysis (750 - 850 °C), and sieve-analysis.From the X-ray analysis it is evident that the present carbonate material exists in crypto crystal to amorphous state. The space where CaCO 3 is hidden, presents the place between basic silicate particles inside the groups, generally with dimensions about 40 to 60 μm. The concentration of CaCO 3 appears when this particle group goes to the process of disintegration. (author)

  6. Electrochemical characterization of doped diamond-coated carbon fibers at different boron concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, E.C. [INPE, CP 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12201-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: erica@las.inpe.br; Diniz, A.V. [INPE, CP 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12201-970 (Brazil); Trava-Airoldi, V.J. [INPE, CP 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12201-970 (Brazil); Ferreira, N.G. [CTA-Divisao de Materiais, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12228-904 (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    Doped diamond films have been deposited on carbon fibers (felt) obtained from polyacrylonitrile at different levels of boron doping. For a successful coating of the fibers, an ultrasonic pretreatment in a bath of diamond powder dissolved in hexane was required. Films were grown on both sample sides, simultaneously, by hot filament-assisted chemical vapour deposition technique at 750 deg. C from a 0.5% H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} mixture at a total pressure of 6.5 x 10{sup 3} Pa. Boron was obtained from H{sub 2} forced to pass through a bubbler containing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} dissolved in methanol. The doping level studied corresponds to films with acceptor concentrations in the range of 6.5 x 10{sup 18} to 1.5 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -} {sup 3}, obtained from Mott-Schottky plots. Scanning electron microscopy analyses evidenced fibers totally covered with high quality polycrystalline boron-doped diamond film, also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy spectra. Diamond electrodes grown on carbon fibers demonstrated similar electrochemical behavior obtained from films on Si substrate, for ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple as a function of boron content. The boron content influences electrochemical surface area. A lower boron concentration provides a higher growth rate that results in a higher surface area.

  7. Determinants of black carbon, particle mass and number concentrations in London transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ioar; Kumar, Prashant; Hagen-Zanker, Alex; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Slovic, Anne Dorothee; Pritchard, John P.; Geurs, Karst T.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the determinants of personal exposure concentrations of commuters' to black carbon (BC), ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC), and particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) in different travel modes. We quantified the contribution of key factors that explain the variation of the previous pollutants in four commuting routes in London, each covered by four transport modes (car, bus, walk and underground). Models were performed for each pollutant, separately to assess the effect of meteorology (wind speed) or ambient concentrations (with either high spatial or temporal resolution). Concentration variations were mainly explained by wind speed or ambient concentrations and to a lesser extent by route and period of the day. In multivariate models with wind speed, the wind speed was the common significant predictor for all the pollutants in the above-ground modes (i.e., car, bus, walk); and the only predictor variable for the PM fractions. Wind speed had the strongest effect on PM during the bus trips, with an increase in 1 m s-1 leading to a decrease in 2.25, 2.90 and 4.98 μg m-3 of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in car trips were better explained by ambient concentrations with high temporal resolution although from a single monitoring station. On the other hand, ambient concentrations with high spatial coverage but lower temporal resolution predicted better the concentrations in bus trips, due to bus routes passing through streets with a high variability of traffic intensity. In the underground models, wind speed was not significant and line and type of windows on the train explained 42% of the variation of PNC and 90% of all PM fractions. Trains in the district line with openable windows had an increase in concentrations of 1 684 cm-3 for PNC and 40.69 μg m-3 for PM2.5 compared with trains that had non-openable windows. The results from this work can be used to target efforts to reduce personal exposures of

  8. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel. PMID:25923722

  10. Vertical profiles of black carbon concentration and particle number size distribution in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, L.; Deng, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical distribution of aerosols is of great importance to our understanding in the impacts of aerosols on radiation balance and climate, as well as air quality and public health. To better understand and estimate the effects of atmospheric components including trace gases and aerosols on atmospheric environment and climate, an intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP), was carried out from late July to early August 2013 over a rural site in the polluted NCP. During the campaign, vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration and particle number size distribution were measured respectively by a micro-Aethalometer and an optical particle counter attached to a tethered balloon within 1000 m height. Meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, were measured simultaneously by a radiosonde also attached to the tethered balloon. Preliminary results showed distinct diurnal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosol total number concentration and BC concentration, following the development of the mixing layer. Generally, there was a well mixing of aerosols within the mixing layer and a sharp decrease above the mixing layer. Particularly, a small peak of BC concentrations was observed around 400-500 m height for several profiles. Further analysis would be needed to explain such phenomenon. It was also found that measured vertical profiles of BC using the filter-based method might be affected by the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  11. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris to changing carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Palomaeki, V. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Helmisaari, H.S. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this research is to study the effects of elevated ozone, carbon dioxide and their combination on ultrastructural, physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine needles and how these effects are reflected to photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nutrient allocation and finally to shoot and root growth of trees. In addition the interactions of the studied trees and mycorrhizal fungi as well as insect herbivores are studied. The exposures have been running only for two growing periods and it seems necessary to continue the experiment over the third growing season in 1996. Since the analyses are partially incomplete, only preliminary conclusions are possible at the moment. The slightly increased shoot growth and needle width and increased amount of starch in chloroplasts point to the slight stimulating effect of elevated CO{sub 2} among the chamber treatments. Altogether the growth of the seedlings was best in the chamberless treatment indicating a negative chamber effect. The elevated ozone significantly increased the chlorotic mottling and overall yellowing of second year needles as well as caused increased density of chloroplast stroma and declined photosynthesis, all these responses being often related to ozone exposures. The ozone related responses appeared at both CO{sub 2} levels indicating no clear protection due to elevated CO{sub 2}. The ozone or carbon dioxide treatments were not able to significantly change nutrient concentrations, insect herbivory or carbon allocation among the secondary compounds of needles. A tendency of increased carbon allocation to fine roots due to ozone but not so clearly to CO{sub 2} was observed

  12. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris to changing carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, T [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Palomaeki, V [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Helmisaari, H S [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); and others

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this research is to study the effects of elevated ozone, carbon dioxide and their combination on ultrastructural, physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine needles and how these effects are reflected to photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nutrient allocation and finally to shoot and root growth of trees. In addition the interactions of the studied trees and mycorrhizal fungi as well as insect herbivores are studied. The exposures have been running only for two growing periods and it seems necessary to continue the experiment over the third growing season in 1996. Since the analyses are partially incomplete, only preliminary conclusions are possible at the moment. The slightly increased shoot growth and needle width and increased amount of starch in chloroplasts point to the slight stimulating effect of elevated CO{sub 2} among the chamber treatments. Altogether the growth of the seedlings was best in the chamberless treatment indicating a negative chamber effect. The elevated ozone significantly increased the chlorotic mottling and overall yellowing of second year needles as well as caused increased density of chloroplast stroma and declined photosynthesis, all these responses being often related to ozone exposures. The ozone related responses appeared at both CO{sub 2} levels indicating no clear protection due to elevated CO{sub 2}. The ozone or carbon dioxide treatments were not able to significantly change nutrient concentrations, insect herbivory or carbon allocation among the secondary compounds of needles. A tendency of increased carbon allocation to fine roots due to ozone but not so clearly to CO{sub 2} was observed

  13. Dependence of freshwater plants on quantity of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ion concentration illustrated through experimental investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, E S

    1944-01-01

    By culture experiments with the freshwater plants Helodea canadensis and Ceratophyllum demersum, in which both the contents of carbon dioxide and pH of the water were varied, it was shown that ph within the area 4.5 to 8.2 has no appreciable influence on the growth. The supply of carbon dioxide, on the other hand, has very great influence. The fact that the two freshwater plants mentioned in Denmark are found in alkaline water only, is due to the contents of assimilable carbon dioxide decreasing with decrease of pH. While thus in alkaline water there are generally large quantities of bicarbonate, from which half of the carbon dioxide may be utilized in the assimilation, there is in acid water (pH below 4.5) no bicarbonate. Carbon dioxide in true solution and bicarbonate carbon dioxide behave differently as sources of carbon dioxide for the assimilation; this is amongst other things due to the fact that the absorption of the carbon dioxide through the bicarbonate is made actively on the part of the plant. The investigations which illustrate the influence of the quantity of carbon dioxide on the intensity of assimilation were made on submersed plants in water containing bicarbonate, and therefore give quite different results in relation to terraneous plants, where the carbon dioxide is exclusively assimilated.

  14. Carbon concentrations and carbon pool distributions in dry, moist, and cold mid-aged forests of the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham; David Adams

    2010-01-01

    Although "carbon” management may not be a primary objective in forest management, influencing the distribution, composition, growth, and development of biomass to fulfill multiple objectives is; therefore, given a changing climate, managing carbon could influence future management decisions. Also, typically, the conversion from total biomass to total carbon is 50...

  15. Linking CDOM spectral absorption to dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loadings in boreal estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin A.; Thomas, David N.

    2012-10-01

    The quantity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three Finnish estuaries (Karjaanjoki, Kyrönjoki and Kiiminkijoki) was investigated, with respect to predicting DOC concentrations and loadings from spectral CDOM absorption measurements. Altogether 87 samples were collected from three estuarine transects which were studied in three seasons, covering a salinity range between 0 and 6.8, and DOC concentrations from 1572 μmol l-1 in freshwater to 222 μmol l-1 in coastal waters. CDOM absorption coefficient, aCDOM(375) values followed the trend in DOC concentrations across the salinity gradient and ranged from 1.67 to 33.4 m-1. The link between DOC and CDOM was studied using a range of wavelengths and algorithms. Wavelengths between 250 and 270 nm gave the best predictions with single linear regression. Total dissolved iron was found to influence the prediction in wavelengths above 520 nm. Despite significant seasonal and spatial differences in DOC-CDOM models, a universal relationship was tested with an independent data set and found to be robust. DOC and CDOM yields (loading/catchment area) from the catchments ranged from 1.98 to 5.44 g C m-2 yr-1, and 1.67 to 11.5 aCDOM(375) yr-1, respectively.

  16. Using ANN and EPR models to predict carbon monoxide concentrations in urban area of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forecasting of air pollutants has become a popular topic of environmental research today. For this purpose, the artificial neural network (AAN technique is widely used as a reliable method for forecasting air pollutants in urban areas. On the other hand, the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR model has recently been used as a forecasting tool in some environmental issues. In this research, we compared the ability of these models to forecast carbon monoxide (CO concentrations in the urban area of Tabriz city. Methods: The dataset of CO concentrations measured at the fixed stations operated by the East Azerbaijan Environmental Office along with meteorological data obtained from the East Azerbaijan Meteorological Bureau from March 2007 to March 2013, were used as input for the ANN and EPR models. Results: Based on the results, the performance of ANN is more reliable in comparison with EPR. Using the ANN model, the correlation coefficient values at all monitoring stations were calculated above 0.85. Conversely, the R2 values for these stations were obtained <0.41 using the EPR model. Conclusion: The EPR model could not overcome the nonlinearities of input data. However, the ANN model displayed more accurate results compared to the EPR. Hence, the ANN models are robust tools for predicting air pollutant concentrations.

  17. Effect of nitrite concentration on pit depth in carbon steel exposed to simulated radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    The growth of pits in carbon steel exposed to dilute (0.055 M nitrate-bearing) alkaline salt solutions that simulate radioactive waste was investigated in coupon immersion tests. Most coupons were tested in the as-received condition, with the remainder having been heat treated to produce an oxide film. Nitrite, which is an established pitting inhibitor in these solutions, was present in concentrations from 0 to 0.031 M to 0.16 M; the last concentration is known to prevent pitting initiation in the test solution at the 50 degrees C test temperature. The depths of the deepest pits on coupons of particular exposure conditions were measure microscopically and were analyzed as simple, type 1 extreme value statistical distributions, to predict the deepest expected pit in a radioactive waste tank subject to the test conditions. While the growth rate of pits could not be established from these tests, the absolute value of the deepest pits predicted is of the order of 100 mils after 448 days of exposure. The data indicate that even nitrite concentrations insufficient to prevent pitting have a beneficial effect on limiting the growth of deepest pits

  18. Carbon Monoxide Emission and Concentration Models for Chiang Mai Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An emission inventory containing emissions from traffic and other sources was complied. Based on the analysis, Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions from traffic play a very important role in CO levels in Chiang Mai area. Analysis showed that CO emissions from traffic during rush hours contributed approximately 90% of total CO emissions. Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was applied to simulate wind fields and temperatures in the Chiang Mai area, and eight cases were selected to study annual variations in wind fields and temperatures. Model results can reflect major features of wind fields and diurnal variations in temperatures. For evaluating the model performance, model results were compared with observed wind speed, wind direction and temperature, which were monitored at a meteorological tower. Comparison showed that model results are in good agreement with observations, and the model captured many of the observed features. HYbrid Particle And Concentration Transport model (HYPACT) was used to simulate CO concentration in the Chiang Mai area. Model results generally agree well with observed CO concentrations at the air quality monitoring stations, and can explain observed CO diurnal variations.

  19. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  20. Additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet for sheep fed ensiled king grass as a based-diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the effect of additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet, on the performance of sheep fed ensiled king grass as a basal diet, a trial was conducted using 28 growing sheep ( average body weight 17 _+ 1 .4 kg. Based on body weight, the animals were grouped and randomized into four dietary treatments in block randomized design . Dietary treatments were (i chopped king grass + 400 g of concentrate, (ii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 0 % of calcium carbonate, (iii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 5 % calcium carbonate and (iv ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 10 % calcium carbonate . Results showed that offering 5 % of calcium carbonate into concentrate diet increased (P 0 .05 for all groups . No differences in the apparent digestibility of the nutrient components were observed, but crude protein decreased significantly (P < 0 .05 . A significant relationship ( P < 0 .01 was found between nitrogen intake (NI and nitrogen retention (NR, and the equation was NR = - 0.1848 + 0.3788 NI ( r = 0.9 . Based on data found that feeding only ensiled king grass as a single diet could not meet the maintenance requirement of energy and protein, therefore, additional energy and crude protein sources is needed .

  1. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Characteristics of Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. R. M.; Suraya, W. M. S. W.; Rafidah, H.; Amirza, A. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Hani, M. S. N. Q.; Adnan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Impregnation method is one of the crucial steps involved in producing activated carbon using chemical activation process. Chemicals employed in this step is effective at decomposing the structure of material and forming micropores that helps in adsorption of contaminants. This paper explains thorough procedures that have been involved in producing sugarcane bagasse activated carbon (SBAC) by using 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) during the impregnation step. Concentration of H3PO4 used in the process of producing SBAC was optimized through several tests including bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter and the charactesristic of optimum SBAC produced has been compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). Batch study has been carried out by using the SBAC produced from optimum condition to investigate the performance of SBAC in removal of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from textile wastewater. From characteristic study, SBAC with 30% H3PO4 has shown the optimum value of bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter of 0.3023 g cm-3, 4.35%, 974.96 mg/g and 0.21-0.41 µm, respectively. These values are comparable to the characteristics of CAC. Experimental result from the batch study has been concluded that the SBAC has a promising potential in removing turbidity and COD of 75.5% and 66.3%, respectively which was a slightly lower than CAC which were able to remove 82.8% of turbidity and 70% of COD. As a conclusion, the SBAC is comparable with CAC in terms of their characteristics and the capability of removing contaminants from textile wastewater. Therefore, it has a commercial value to be used as an alternative of low-cost material in producing CAC.

  2. Statistical analysis of inhibitor concentrations for radioactive waste in carbon steel tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    Based on a logistic regression approach, a model was developed using the explanatory variables log([NO 3 - ]), log([NO 2 - ]), and temperature to estimate the probability of pitting in a carbon steel exposed to high-level radioactive waste. Pitting susceptibility data obtained by the two techniques of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and coupon immersion were separately and jointly analyzed with the model. Similar predictive ability is seen for equations based on both electrochemical and coupon immersion data. Using the theory associated with the determination of confidence intervals for the estimated probability, a methodology was developed to provide a lower bound for the nitrite concentration which inhibits pitting, i.e., which holds the estimated probability of pitting to a reasonably low level of 0.05

  3. Comparing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with concentrating solar power (CSP): Potentials, costs, risks, and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilliestam, Johan; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Patt, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Coal power coupled with Carbon [Dioxide] Capture and Storage (CCS), and Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies are often included in the portfolio of climate change mitigation options intended to decarbonize electricity systems. Both of these technologies can provide baseload electricity, are in early stages of maturity, and have benefits, costs, and obstacles. We compare and contrast CCS applied to coal-fired power plants with CSP. At present, both technologies are more expensive than existing electricity-generating options, but costs should decrease with large-scale deployment, especially in the case of CSP. For CCS, technological challenges still remain, storage risks must be clarified, and regulatory and legal uncertainties remain. For CSP, current challenges include electricity transmission and business models for a rapid and extensive expansion of high-voltage transmission lines. The need for international cooperation may impede CSP expansion in Europe. Highlights: ► Both technologies could provide low-carbon base load power. ► Both technologies require new networks, for either CO 2 or power transmission. ► CSP is closer to being a viable technology ready for pervasive diffusion. ► The costs associated with market saturation would be lower for CSP. ► The regulatory changes required for CSP diffusion are somewhat greater than for CCS.

  4. Carbon allocation to major metabolites in illuminated leaves is not just proportional to photosynthesis when gaseous conditions (CO2 and O2 ) vary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, Cyril; Bathellier, Camille; Tcherkez, Guillaume

    2018-04-01

    In gas-exchange experiments, manipulating CO 2 and O 2 is commonly used to change the balance between carboxylation and oxygenation. Downstream metabolism (utilization of photosynthetic and photorespiratory products) may also be affected by gaseous conditions but this is not well documented. Here, we took advantage of sunflower as a model species, which accumulates chlorogenate in addition to sugars and amino acids (glutamate, alanine, glycine and serine). We performed isotopic labelling with 13 CO 2 under different CO 2 /O 2 conditions, and determined 13 C contents to compute 13 C-allocation patterns and build-up rates. The 13 C content in major metabolites was not found to be a constant proportion of net fixed carbon but, rather, changed dramatically with CO 2 and O 2 . Alanine typically accumulated at low O 2 (hypoxic response) while photorespiratory intermediates accumulated under ambient conditions and at high photorespiration, glycerate accumulation exceeding serine and glycine build-up. Chlorogenate synthesis was relatively more important under normal conditions and at high CO 2 and its synthesis was driven by phosphoenolpyruvate de novo synthesis. These findings demonstrate that carbon allocation to metabolites other than photosynthetic end products is affected by gaseous conditions and therefore the photosynthetic yield of net nitrogen assimilation varies, being minimal at high CO 2 and maximal at high O 2 . © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Use of high concentrations of carbon dioxide for stunning rabbits reared for meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dalmau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An investigation was performed to determine whether high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 at 70-98% in atmospheric air are a suitable alternative for stunning rabbits compared to conventional approaches such as electronarcosis. Aversion to the gas and efficacy in causing prolonged unconsciousness and death were studied in a total of 480 rabbits by means of behavioural parameters, physiological indicators (presence of rhythmic breathing and corneal reflex and electroencephalography (EEG, brain function. The use of any of the 4 studied concentrations of the gas caused more nasal discomfort and vocalisations than the use of atmospheric air (P<0.001. EEG activity confirmed that loss of posture is a good indicator of the onset of unconsciousness in rabbits exposed to CO2, occurring earlier (P<0.05 at 90 and 98% than at 70 and 80%. Rabbits showed signs of aversion for 15 s before the onset of unconsciousness, which occurred around 30 s after the beginning of the exposure to the gas, similar to species such as swine in which high concentrations of CO2 are also used for stunning. CO2 at 80 to 98% is suggested as a reasonable concentration range to induce a long state of unconsciousness and death in rabbits, while 70% CO2 is not recommended because it requires too long duration of exposure (more than 360 s to ensure effectiveness. Despite the advantages in terms of pre-stun handling and irreversibility, CO2 is not free of animal welfare concerns. In consequence, a debate is necessary to ascertain if CO2 can be considered a suitable alternative to stun rabbits, considering the advantages and drawbacks cited, quantified in the present study as 15 s of aversion (nasal discomfort and vocalisations before losing posture.

  6. Carbon storage potential in size–density fractions from semi-natural grassland ecosystems with different productivities over varying soil depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breulmann, Marc; Boettger, Tatjana; Buscot, François; Gruendling, Ralf; Schulz, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have increasingly recognised a profound need for more information on SOC stocks in the soil and the factors governing their stability and dynamics. Many questions still remain unanswered about the interplay between changes in plant communities and the extent to which changes in aboveground productivity affect the carbon dynamics in soils through changes in its quantity and quality. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to examine the SOC accumulation potential of semi-natural grasslands of different productivities and determine the distribution of SOM fractions over varying soil depth intervals (0–10, 10–20, 20–30 30–50 50–80 and 80 + cm). SOM fractionation was considered as a relative measure of stability to separate SOM associated with clay minerals from SOM of specific light densities less than 2 g cm"−"3 (size-density fractionation). Two clay-associated fractions (CF1, < 1 μm; and CF2, 1–2 μm) and two light fractions (LF1, < 1.8 g cm"−"3; and LF2, 1.8–2.0 g cm"−"3) were separated. The stability of these fractions was characterised by their carbon hot water extractability (C_H_W_E) and stable carbon isotope composition. In the semi-natural grasslands studied, most OC was stored in the top 30 cm, where turnover is rapid. Effects of low productivity grasslands became only significantly apparent when fractional OC contributions of total SOM was considered (CF1 and LF1). In deeper soil depths OC was largely attributed to the CF1 fraction of low productivity grasslands. We suggest that the majority of OM in deeper soil depth intervals is microbially-derived, as evidenced by decreasing C/N ratios and decreasing δ"1"3C values. The hot water extraction and natural δ"1"3C abundance, employed here allowed the characterisation of SOM stabilisation properties, however how climatic changes affect the fate of OM within different soil depth intervals is still unknown. - Highlights: • OC stocks over varying soil depths in extensively

  7. Carbon storage potential in size–density fractions from semi-natural grassland ecosystems with different productivities over varying soil depths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breulmann, Marc [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Environmental and Biotechnology Centre (UBZ), Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Boettger, Tatjana [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Isotope Hydrology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Buscot, François [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Gruendling, Ralf [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department, Department of Soil Physics, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Schulz, Elke [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have increasingly recognised a profound need for more information on SOC stocks in the soil and the factors governing their stability and dynamics. Many questions still remain unanswered about the interplay between changes in plant communities and the extent to which changes in aboveground productivity affect the carbon dynamics in soils through changes in its quantity and quality. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to examine the SOC accumulation potential of semi-natural grasslands of different productivities and determine the distribution of SOM fractions over varying soil depth intervals (0–10, 10–20, 20–30 30–50 50–80 and 80 + cm). SOM fractionation was considered as a relative measure of stability to separate SOM associated with clay minerals from SOM of specific light densities less than 2 g cm{sup −3} (size-density fractionation). Two clay-associated fractions (CF1, < 1 μm; and CF2, 1–2 μm) and two light fractions (LF1, < 1.8 g cm{sup −3}; and LF2, 1.8–2.0 g cm{sup −3}) were separated. The stability of these fractions was characterised by their carbon hot water extractability (C{sub HWE}) and stable carbon isotope composition. In the semi-natural grasslands studied, most OC was stored in the top 30 cm, where turnover is rapid. Effects of low productivity grasslands became only significantly apparent when fractional OC contributions of total SOM was considered (CF1 and LF1). In deeper soil depths OC was largely attributed to the CF1 fraction of low productivity grasslands. We suggest that the majority of OM in deeper soil depth intervals is microbially-derived, as evidenced by decreasing C/N ratios and decreasing δ{sup 13}C values. The hot water extraction and natural δ{sup 13}C abundance, employed here allowed the characterisation of SOM stabilisation properties, however how climatic changes affect the fate of OM within different soil depth intervals is still unknown. - Highlights: • OC stocks over varying

  8. A Novel Method for Analysis of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Concentration and δ13C by Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E.; Gonneea, M. E.; Boze, L. G.; Casso, M.; Pohlman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is the largest pool of carbon in the oceans and is where about half of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are being sequestered. Determining the concentration and stable carbon isotopic content (δ13C) of DIC allows us to delineate carbon sources that contribute to marine DIC. A simple and reliable method for measuring DIC concentration and δ13C can be used to apportion contributions from external sources and identify effects from biogeochemical reactions that contribute or remove DIC. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a discrete sample analysis module (DSAM) that interfaces to a Picarro G-2201i cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS, Picarro Inc.) to analyze CO2 and methane concentrations and δ13C from discrete gas samples. In this study, we adapted the USGS DSAM-CRDS analysis system to include an AutoMate prep device (Automate FX, Inc.) for analysis of DIC concentration and δ13C from aqueous samples. The Automate prep device was modified to deliver CO2 extracted from DIC to the DSAM, which conditions and transfers the gas to the CRDS. LabVIEW software (National Instruments) triggers the Automate Prep device, controls the DSAM and collects data from the CRDS. CO2 mass concentration data are obtained by numerical integration of the CO2 volumetric concentrations output by the CRDS and subsequent comparison to standard materials. CO2 carbon isotope values from the CRDS (iCO2) are converted to δ13C values using a slope and offset correction calibration procedure. The system design and operation was optimized using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) standards and a certified reference material. Surface water and pore water samples collected from Sage Lot Pond, a salt marsh in Cape Cod MA, have been analyzed for concentration by coulometry and δ13C by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and will be used to validate the DIC-DSAM-CRDS method for field applications.

  9. Does carbon isotope data help explain atmospheric CO2 concentrations during glacial periods?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverson, K.; Le Grand, P.

    2002-01-01

    An inverse ocean box modeling approach is used to address the question of what may have caused decreased atmospheric CO 2 concentration during glacial periods. The inverse procedure seeks solutions that are consistent, within prescribed uncertainties, with both available paleodata constraints and box model conservation equations while relaxing traditional assumptions such as exact steady state and precise prescription of uncertain model parameters. Decreased ventilation of Southern Ocean deep water, decreased Southern Ocean air-sea gas exchange, and enhanced high latitude biological pumping are all shown to be individually capable of explaining available paleodata constraints provided that significant calcium carbonate compensation is allowed. None of the scenarios require more than a very minor (order 1 deg. C) glacial reduction in low to mid latitude sea surface temperature although scenarios with larger changes are equally plausible. One explanation for the fairly wide range of plausible solutions is that most paleo-data directly constrain the inventory of paleo-tracers but only indirectly constrain their fluxes. Because the various scenarios that have been proposed to explain pCO 2 levels during the last glacial maximum are distinguished primarily by different fluxes, the data, including ocean 13 C concentrations, do not allow one to confidently chose between them. Oceanic 14 C data for the last glacial maximum, which can constrain water mass fluxes, present an excellent potential solution to this problem if their reliability is demonstrated in the future. (author)

  10. Relation of whole blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration to ambient carbon monoxide exposure estimated using regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Carole B; Williams, Michelle A; Sheppard, Lianne; Koenig, Jane Q; Schiff, Melissa A; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Dills, Russell

    2010-04-15

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and other ambient air pollutants is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While there are several methods of estimating CO exposure, few have been evaluated against exposure biomarkers. The authors examined the relation between estimated CO exposure and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 708 pregnant western Washington State women (1996-2004). Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in whole blood drawn around 13 weeks' gestation. CO exposure during the month of blood draw was estimated using a regression model containing predictor terms for year, month, street and population densities, and distance to the nearest major road. Year and month were the strongest predictors. Carboxyhemoglobin level was correlated with estimated CO exposure (rho = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 0.29). After adjustment for covariates, each 10% increase in estimated exposure was associated with a 1.12% increase in median carboxyhemoglobin level (95% CI: 0.54, 1.69). This association remained after exclusion of 286 women who reported smoking or being exposed to secondhand smoke (rho = 0.24). In this subgroup, the median carboxyhemoglobin concentration increased 1.29% (95% CI: 0.67, 1.91) for each 10% increase in CO exposure. Monthly estimated CO exposure was moderately correlated with an exposure biomarker. These results support the validity of this regression model for estimating ambient CO exposures in this population and geographic setting.

  11. Effect of exchangeable cation concentration on sorption and desorption of dissolved organic carbon in saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Rengasamy, Pichu; Marschner, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Sorption is a very important factor in stabilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soils and thus C sequestration. Saline soils have significant potential for C sequestration but little is known about the effect of type and concentration of cations on sorption and release of DOC in salt-affected soils. To close this knowledge gap, three batch sorption and desorption experiments were conducted using soils treated with solutions either low or high in salinity. In Experiment 1, salinity was developed with either NaCl or CaCl2 to obtain an electrical conductivity (EC) in a 1:5 soil: water extract (EC1:5) of 2 and 4 dS m(-1). In Experiments 2 and 3, NaCl and CaCl2 were added in various proportions (between 25 and 100%) to obtain an EC1:5 of 0.5 and 4 dS m(-1), respectively. At EC1:5 of 4 dS m(-1), the sorption of DOC (derived from wheat straw) was high even at a low proportion of added Ca(2+) and did not change with proportion of Ca added, but at EC1:5 of 0.5 dS m(-1) increasing proportion of Ca(2+) added increased DOC sorption. This can be explained by the differences in exchangeable Ca(2+) at the two salinity levels. At EC1:5 of 4 dS m(-1), the exchangeable Ca(2+) concentration did not increase beyond a proportion of 25% Ca(2+), whereas it increased with increasing Ca(2+) proportion in the treatments at EC1:5 of 0.5 dS m(-1). The DOC sorption was lowest with a proportion of 100% as Na(+). When Ca(2+) was added, DOC sorption was highest, but least was desorbed (with deionised water), thus sorption and desorption of added DOC were inversely related. The results of this study suggest that DOC sorption in salt-affected soils is mainly controlled by the levels of exchangeable Ca(2+) irrespective of the Ca(2+) concentration in the soil solution which has implications on carbon stabilization in salt-affected soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissolved black carbon in the global cryosphere: Concentrations and chemical signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alia L.; Wagner, Sasha; Jaffe, Rudolf; Xian, Peng; Williams, Mark; Armstrong, Richard; McKnight, Diane

    2017-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) is derived from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and can enhance glacial recession when deposited on snow and ice surfaces. Here we explore the influence of environmental conditions and the proximity to anthropogenic sources on the concentration and composition of dissolved black carbon (DBC), as measured by benzenepolycaroxylic acid (BPCA) markers, across snow, lakes, and streams from the global cryosphere. Data are presented from Antarctica, the Arctic, and high alpine regions of the Himalayas, Rockies, Andes, and Alps. DBC concentrations spanned from 0.62 μg/L to 170 μg/L. The median and (2.5, 97.5) quantiles in the pristine samples were 1.8 μg/L (0.62, 12), and nonpristine samples were 21 μg/L (1.6, 170). DBC is susceptible to photodegradation when exposed to solar radiation. This process leads to a less condensed BPCA signature. In general, DBC across the data set was composed of less polycondensed DBC. However, DBC from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GRIS) had a highly condensed BPCA molecular signature. This could be due to recent deposition of BC from Canadian wildfires. Variation in DBC appears to be driven by a combination of photochemical processing and the source combustion conditions under which the DBC was formed. Overall, DBC was found to persist across the global cryosphere in both pristine and nonpristine snow and surface waters. The high concentration of DBC measured in supraglacial melt on the GRIS suggests that DBC can be mobilized across ice surfaces. This is significant because these processes may jointly exacerbate surface albedo reduction in the cryosphere.Plain Language SummaryHere we present dissolved black carbon (DBC) results for snow and glacial melt systems in Antarctica, the Arctic, and high alpine regions of the Himalayas, Rockies, Andes, and Alps. Across the global cryosphere, DBC composition appears to be a result of photochemical processes occurring en route in the atmosphere or in situ on the

  13. Influence of low water-vapour concentrations in air and carbon dioxide on the inflammability of magnesium in these media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, Raymond; Baque, Pierre; Leclercq, Daniel

    1960-01-01

    The temperatures at which live combustion starts in magnesium and certain of its alloys have been determined systematically in air and in carbon dioxide. In carbon dioxide, the ignition temperature is reduced by 130 to 140 deg. C for very low water-vapor concentrations. Reprint of a paper published in 'Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences', tome 240, p. 1647-1649, sitting of 28 October 1959 [fr

  14. Effect of Sodium Carbonate Concentrations on the Formation and Mechanism of Regenerated Silk Fibroin Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degumming is the first process for the preparation of all silk-based products. In this paper, effect of sodium carbonate concentrations for silk degumming on the formation of electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers was investigated and the reason for the silk electrospinning process was explained for the first time by differences from the microstructure of regenerated silk fibroin. With increasing the sodium carbonate concentration, microstructure both in the aqueous solutions and in the electrospinning solutions transformed from nanofibrils to nanoparticles, leading to obvious changes on rheological property; electrospinning solutions with nanofibrils behaved like the native silk dope and owned remarkably higher viscosity than the solutions with nanoparticles showing very low viscosity. More interestingly, nanofibrils favored the formation of silk nanofibers with ease, and even nanofibers could be electrospun at concentration 2%. However, nanoparticles were completely unable to generate nanofibers at high spinning concentration 8%. Importance of sodium carbonate concentrations is heavily emphasized for impacting the microstructure types and further influencing the electrospinning performance of regenerated silk. Hence, sodium carbonate concentrations provide a controllable choice for the preparation of silk-based electrospun biomaterials with desired properties.

  15. Effect of sucralfate on total carbon dioxide concentration in horses subjected to a simulated race test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabilota, T J; Milizio, J G; Malone, S; Kenney, J D; McKeever, K H

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that sucralfate, a gastric ulcer medication, would alter plasma concentrations of total carbon dioxide (tCO2), lactate (LA), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and total protein (TP), as well as calculated plasma strong ion difference (SID) and packed cell volume (PCV) in horses subjected to a simulated race test (SRT). Six unfit Standardbred mares (approximately 520 kg, 9-18 years) were used in a randomized crossover design with the investigators blinded to the treatment given. The horses were assigned to either a control (40-50 mL apple sauce administered orally (PO)) or a sucralfate (20 mg/kg bodyweight dissolved in 40-50 mL apple sauce administered PO) group. Each horse completed a series of SRTs during which blood samples were taken via jugular venipuncture at five sampling intervals (prior to receiving treatment, prior to SRT, immediately following exercise, and at 60 and 90 min post-SRT). During the SRTs, each horse ran on a treadmill fixed on a 6% grade for 2 min at a warm-up speed (4 m/s) and then for 2 min at a velocity predetermined to produce VO2max. Each horse then walked at 4 m/s for 2 min to complete the SRT. Plasma tCO2, electrolytes, LA, and blood PCV and TP were analysed at all intervals. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between control and sucralfate for any of the measured variables. There were differences (P<0.05) in tCO2, SID, PCV, TP, LA and electrolyte concentrations relative to sampling time. However, these differences were attributable to the physiological pressures associated with acute exercise and were not an effect of the medication. It was concluded that sucralfate did not alter plasma tCO2 concentration in this study. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Identifies Calcium-Uranyl-Carbonate Complexes at Environmental Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2007-01-01

    Current research on bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater focuses on supplying indigenous metal-reducing bacteria with the appropriate metabolic requirements to induce microbiological reduction of soluble uranium(VI) to poorly soluble uranium(IV). Recent studies of uranium(VI) bioreduction in the presence of environmentally relevant levels of calcium revealed limited and slowed uranium(VI) reduction and the formation of a Ca-UO2-CO3 complex. However, the stoichiometry of the complex is poorly defined and may be complicated by the presence of a Na-UO2-CO3 complex. Such a complex might exist even at high calcium concentrations, as some UO2-CO3 complexes will still be present. The number of calcium and/or sodium atoms coordinated to a uranyl carbonate complex will determine the net charge of the complex. Such a change in aqueous speciation of uranium(VI) in calcareous groundwater may affect the fate and transport properties of uranium. In this paper, we present the results from X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements of a series of solutions containing 50 lM uranium(VI) and 30 mM sodium bicarbonate, with various calcium concentrations of 0-5 mM. Use of the data series reduces the uncertainty in the number of calcium atoms bound to the UO2-CO3 complex to approximately 0.6 and enables spectroscopic identification of the Na-UO2-CO3 complex. At nearly neutral pH values, the numbers of sodium and calcium atoms bound to the uranyl triscarbonate species are found to depend on the calcium concentration, as predicted by speciation calculations

  17. Effects of climate, CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and stand age changes on the carbon budget of China's forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Ju, W.; Zhang, F.; Mao, D.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Forests play an irreplaceable role in the Earth's terrestrial carbon budget which retard the atmospheric CO2 buildup. Understanding the factors controlling forest carbon budget is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and stand age changes on carbon budget, however, remains unclear for China's forests. In this study, we quantify individual contribution of these drivers to the trends of forest carbon budget in China from 1901 to 2012 by integrating national datasets, the updated Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Cycle (InTEC) model and factorial simulations. Results showed that the average carbon sink in China's forests from 1982 to 2012 was 186.9 Tg C yr-1 with 68% (127.6 Tg C yr-1) of the sink in living biomass because of the integrated effects of climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and stand age factors. Compared with the simulation of all factors combined, the estimated carbon sink during 1901-2012 would be reduced by 41.8 Tg C yr-1 if climate change, atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition factors were omitted, and reduced by 25.0 Tg C yr-1 if stand age factor was omitted. In most decades, these factors increased forest carbon sinks with the largest of 101.3, 62.9, and 44.0 Tg C yr-1 from 2000 to 2012 contributed by stand age, CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition, respectively. During 1901-2012, climate change, CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition and stand age contributed -13.3, 21.4, 15.4 and 25.0 Tg C yr-1 to the averaged carbon sink of China's forests, respectively. Our study also showed diverse regional patterns of forest carbon budget related to the importance of driving factors. Stand age effect was the largest in most regions, but the effects of CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition were dominant in southern China.

  18. Desorption of Reactive Red 198 from activated carbon prepared from walnut shells: effects of temperature, sodium carbonate concentration and organic solvent dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Alimohamadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of temperature, different concentrations of sodium carbonate,and the dose of organic solvent on the desorption of Reactive Red 198 dye from dye-saturated activated carbon using batch and continuous systems. The results of the batch desorption test showed 60% acetone in water as the optimum amount. However, when the concentration of sodium carbonate was raised, the dye desorption percentage increased from 26% to 42% due to economic considerations; 15 mg/L of sodium carbonate was selected to continue the processof desorption. Increasing the desorption temperature can improve the dye desorption efficiency.According to the column test results, dye desorption concentration decreased gradually with the passing of time. The column test results showed that desorption efficiency and the percentage of dye adsorbed decreased; however, it seemed to stabilize after three repeated adsorption/desorption cycles. The repeated adsorption–desorption column tests (3 cycles showed that the activated carbon which was prepared from walnut shell was a suitable and economical adsorbent for dye removal.

  19. Observations of the uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS by trees under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sandoval-Soto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change forces ecosystems to adapt to elevated atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2. We understand that carbonyl sulfide (COS, a trace gas which is involved in building up the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer, is taken up by vegetation with the same triad of the enzymes which are metabolizing CO2, i.e. ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-Co and carbonic anhydrase (CA. Therefore, we discuss a physiological/biochemical acclimation of these enzymes affecting the sink strength of vegetation for COS. We investigated the acclimation of two European tree species, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus ilex, grown inside chambers under elevated CO2, and determined the exchange characteristics and the content of CA after a 1–2 yr period of acclimation from 350 ppm to 800 ppm CO2. We demonstrate that a compensation point, by definition, does not exist. Instead, we propose to discuss a point of uptake affinity (PUA. The results indicate that such a PUA, the CA activity and the deposition velocities may change and may cause a decrease of the COS uptake by plant ecosystems, at least as long as the enzyme acclimation to CO2 is not surpassed by an increase of atmospheric COS. As a consequence, the atmospheric COS level may rise causing an increase of the radiative forcing in the troposphere. However, this increase is counterbalanced by the stronger input of this trace gas into the stratosphere causing a stronger energy reflection by the stratospheric sulfur aerosol into space (Brühl et al., 2012. These data are very preliminary but may trigger a discussion on COS uptake acclimation to foster measurements with modern analytical instruments.

  20. Effect of IX column maintenance on carbon-14 concentration in moderator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, C.L.; Tripple, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclide 14 C is produced in CANDU reactors primarily by the (n,α) reaction with 17 O. Because of high neutron fluxes in the core, the majority of the 14 C (94.5%) is produced in the moderator. In the moderator system, 14 C is present mainly as CO 2 in the cover gas in dynamic equilibrium with dissolved carbonates, bicarbonates and CO 2 in the moderator water. Emissions of 14 C from reactors occur through venting or leakage of the cover gas. By controlling the dissolved carbonates in the moderator water with an ion exchange (IX) purification system, the amount of 14 C in the cover gas is minimized and thus the emissions of 14 C can be reduced. A study was conducted to measure the 14 C concentrations in the moderator system at Gentilly 2 in order to determine the effectiveness of the purification system in removing 14 C. Moderator water samples were obtained from the inlet and outlet of the purification system from 2004 January 14 to July 12, covering the operation of two IX columns (IX-1 and IX-3). The moderator water samples contained high levels of tritium (∼2 TBq·L -1 ). As both tritium and 14 C are β-radiation emitters, direct counting of moderator water for 14 C is impossible as the signal due to tritium dominates over that of other β-emitters. Therefore, a procedure developed by Caron et al. was used in this study, which involved acidifying the sample to release the dissolved 14 CO 2 as gas and collecting the 14 CO 2 in a base (NaOH), which could then be measured by liquid scintillation counting to determine the 14 C concentration. Both of the IX columns started with 14 C removal efficiencies of about 95%. The efficiency began to decrease almost immediately with the IX-1 column dropping to 80% efficiency after ∼1115 hours. This drop in efficiency also led to an increase in the inlet concentration over time. IX-1 column was removed from service after ∼1745 hours with a 14 C removal efficiency of ∼31%. IX-3 column was then placed in service

  1. The Contribution of Black Carbon to Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations from Prescribed Burns and Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, G. P.; DeMott, P. J.; Suski, K. J.; Emerson, E. W.; Rauker, A. M.; Kodros, J.; Levin, E. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Farmer, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) has been implicated as a potential immersion-mode ice nucleating particle (INP) because of its relative abundance in the upper troposphere. Furthermore, several field and aircraft measurements have observed positive correlations between BC and INP concentrations. Despite this, the efficiency of BC to act as an immersion-mode INP is poorly constrained. Indeed, previous results from laboratory studies are in conflict, with estimates of BC's impact on INP ranging from no impact to being efficient enough to rival the well-known INP mineral dust. It is, however, becoming clear that the ice nucleation activity of BC may depend on both its fuel type and combustion conditions. For example, previous work has shown that diesel exhaust BC is an extremely poor immersion-mode INP, but laboratory burns of biomass fuels indicate that BC can contribute up to 70% of all INP for some fuel types. Given these dependencies, we propose that sampling from real-world biomass burning sources would provide the most useful new information on the contribution of BC to atmospheric INP. In this work, we will present recent results looking at the sources of INP from prescribed burns and wildfires. To determine the specific contribution of refractory black carbon (rBC) to INP concentrations, we utilized a new technique that couples the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to the Colorado State University Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC). The SP2 utilizes laser-induced incandescence to quantify rBC mass on a particle-by-particle basis; in doing so, it also selectively destroys rBC particles by heating them to their vaporization temperature. Thus, the SP2 can be used as a selective pre-filter for rBC into the CFDC. Furthermore, we have also used a filter-based technique for measuring INP, the Ice Spectrometer, which can employ pretreatments such as heating and digestion by H2O2 to determine the contribution of heat-labile and organic particles, respectively.

  2. PRE-CONCENTRATION AND DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS ON MODIFIED ACTIVATED CARBON IN REAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and simple method for the simultaneous pre-concentration of nutritionally important minerals in real samples has been reported. The method is based on the formation of metal complexes by N, N'-diacetyl-4-bromo-2, 6-di (aminomethyl phenol (DBDP loaded on activated carbon. The metals content on the complexes are then eluted using 6mL 4M HNO3, which are detected by AAS at resonance line. In this procedure, minerals such as Ni, Cu, Co, Pb Zn and Cd can be analyzed in one run by caring out the simultaneous separation and quantification of them. At optimum condition the response are linear over concentration range of for 0.03-1.1 µg mL-1 for Ni2+ , 0.03-1.0 µg mL-1 for Cu2+, 0.02-1.0 µg mL-1 for  Pb2+ , 0.02-1.0 µg mL-1 for  Co2+,0.02-1.1 µg mL-1 Zn2+ and 0.05-1.3 µg mL-1for Cd2+. The detection limits of each element are expressed as the amount of analytes in µg mL-1 giving a signal to noise ratio of 3 are equal to 2.5, 2.4, 1.6, 2.4, 1.9 and 2.1 for Ni2+ , Cu2+, Pb2+ , Co2+,Zn2+ and Cd2+. The ability of method for repeatable recovery of trace ion are 99.9, 98.7, 99.2 , 98.7, 98.5and 95.6 with R.S.D of 1.3, 1.4, 1.2, 1.4, 1.7 and 1.4 for Ni2+ , Cu2+, Pb2+ , Co2+,Zn2+ and Cd2+. The method has been successfully applied for these metals content evaluation in some real samples including natural water and vegetable.     Keywords: Heavy Metals, N, N'-diacetyl-4-bromo-2,6-di(aminomethyl phenol (DBDP, Activated Carbon

  3. The interaction of the flux errors and transport errors in modeled atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Butler, M. P.; Keller, K.; Davis, K. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Schuh, A. E.; Basu, S.; Liu, J.; Baker, D.; Crowell, S.; Zhou, Y.; Williams, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Regional estimates of biogenic carbon fluxes over North America from top-down atmospheric inversions and terrestrial biogeochemical (or bottom-up) models remain inconsistent at annual and sub-annual time scales. While top-down estimates are impacted by limited atmospheric data, uncertain prior flux estimates and errors in the atmospheric transport models, bottom-up fluxes are affected by uncertain driver data, uncertain model parameters and missing mechanisms across ecosystems. This study quantifies both flux errors and transport errors, and their interaction in the CO2 atmospheric simulation. These errors are assessed by an ensemble approach. The WRF-Chem model is set up with 17 biospheric fluxes from the Multiscale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project, CarbonTracker-Near Real Time, and the Simple Biosphere model. The spread of the flux ensemble members represents the flux uncertainty in the modeled CO2 concentrations. For the transport errors, WRF-Chem is run using three physical model configurations with three stochastic perturbations to sample the errors from both the physical parameterizations of the model and the initial conditions. Additionally, the uncertainties from boundary conditions are assessed using four CO2 global inversion models which have assimilated tower and satellite CO2 observations. The error structures are assessed in time and space. The flux ensemble members overall overestimate CO2 concentrations. They also show larger temporal variability than the observations. These results suggest that the flux ensemble is overdispersive. In contrast, the transport ensemble is underdispersive. The averaged spatial distribution of modeled CO2 shows strong positive biogenic signal in the southern US and strong negative signals along the eastern coast of Canada. We hypothesize that the former is caused by the 3-hourly downscaling algorithm from which the nighttime respiration dominates the daytime modeled CO2 signals and that the latter

  4. Effect of the Carbon Concentration, Blend Concentration, and Renewal Rate in the Growth Kinetic of Chlorella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Arruda Henrard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae cultivation can be used as alternative sources of food, in agriculture, residual water treatment, and biofuels production. Semicontinuous cultivation is little studied but is more cost-effective than the discontinuous (batch cultivation. In the semicontinuous cultivation, the microalga is maintained in better concentration of nutrients and the photoinhibition by excessive cell is reduced. Thus, biomass productivity and biocompounds of interest, such as lipid productivity, may be higher than in batch cultivation. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of blend concentration, medium renewal rate, and concentration of sodium bicarbonate on the growth of Chlorella sp. during semicontinuous cultivation. The cultivation was carried out in Raceway type bioreactors of 6 L, for 40 d at 30°C, 41.6 µmol m−2 s−1, and a 12 h light/dark photoperiod. Maximum specific growth rate (0.149 d−1 and generating biomass (2.89 g L−1 were obtained when the blend concentration was 0.80 g L−1, the medium renewal rate was 40%, and NaHCO3 was 1.60 g L−1. The average productivity (0.091 g L−1 d−1 was achieved with 0.8 g L−1 of blend concentration and NaHCO3 concentration of 1.6 g L−1, independent of the medium renewal rate.

  5. Development and field-scale optimization of a honeycomb zeolite rotor concentrator/recuperative oxidizer for the abatement of volatile organic carbons from semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Chen, Yufeng; Cao, Limei; Guo, Yuling; Jia, Jinping

    2012-01-03

    The combined concentrator/oxidizer system has been proposed as an effective physical-chemical option and proven to be a viable solution that enables Volatile Organic Carbons (VOCs) emitters to comply with the regulations. In this work, a field scale honeycomb zeolite rotor concentrator combined with a recuperative oxidizer was developed and applied for the treatment of the VOC waste gas. The research shows the following: (1) for the adsorption rotor, zeolite is a more appropriate material than Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). The designing and operation parameters of the concentrator were discussed in detail including the size and the optimal rotation speed of rotor. Also the developed rotor performance's was evaluated in the field; (2) Direct Fired Thermal Oxidizer (DFTO), Recuperative Oxidizer (RO), Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer (RTO) and Regenerative Catalytic oxidizer (RCO) are the available incinerators and the RO was selected as the oxidizer in this work; (3) The overall performance of the developed rotor/oxidizer was explored in a field scale under varying conditions; (4) The energy saving strategy was fulfilled by reducing heat loss from the oxidizer and recovering heat from the exhaust gas. Data shows that the developed rotor/oxidizer could remove over 95% VOCs with reasonable cost and this could be helpful for similar plants when considering VOC abatement.

  6. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T.

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, [3H]glutamate and [3H]glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus

  7. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T. (Meijo Univ., Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, (3H)glutamate and (3H)glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus.

  8. Modelling reaustenitisation in Fe-C steels with concentration-dependent diffusivity of carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancini, R.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A finite difference method used to model reaustenitisation from a ferrite/cementite mixture in Fe-C steels is presented in this paper. Concentration-dependent carbon diffusivity in austenite is taken into account in order to generalize our earlier numerical model. We select some parameters, such as cementite dissolution time, and compare their values as calculated by different approximations available in the literature (in particular at steady state for planar and spherical geometries. When the dependence of diffusivity on concentration or temperature is increased, the steady state approximation fails to predict correctly the above mentioned parameters and the use of numerical techniques becomes indispensable.

    En este trabajo se presenta un método numérico de diferencias finitas para modelar la reaustenización en aceros Fe-C a partir de una distribución inicial de ferrita y cementita. Se tiene en cuenta la dependencia de la difusividad en la austenita con la concentración de carbono, a fin de generalizar el propio modelo numérico previo. Se han seleccionado algunos parámetros, como el tiempo de disolución de la cementita, para comparar los valores obtenidos en este caso con los calculados con diferentes aproximaciones (en particular con la de estado estacionario para los casos de geometrías plana y esférica. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que, cuando la difusividad depende fuertemente de la concentración, la aproximación de estado estacionario no predice correctamente los parámetros calculados y se hace imprescindible la aplicación de métodos numéricos.

  9. Uncertainties in neural network model based on carbon dioxide concentration for occupancy estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Azimil Gani; Rahman, Haolia; Kim, Jung-Kyung; Han, Hwataik [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Demand control ventilation is employed to save energy by adjusting airflow rate according to the ventilation load of a building. This paper investigates a method for occupancy estimation by using a dynamic neural network model based on carbon dioxide concentration in an occupied zone. The method can be applied to most commercial and residential buildings where human effluents to be ventilated. An indoor simulation program CONTAMW is used to generate indoor CO{sub 2} data corresponding to various occupancy schedules and airflow patterns to train neural network models. Coefficients of variation are obtained depending on the complexities of the physical parameters as well as the system parameters of neural networks, such as the numbers of hidden neurons and tapped delay lines. We intend to identify the uncertainties caused by the model parameters themselves, by excluding uncertainties in input data inherent in measurement. Our results show estimation accuracy is highly influenced by the frequency of occupancy variation but not significantly influenced by fluctuation in the airflow rate. Furthermore, we discuss the applicability and validity of the present method based on passive environmental conditions for estimating occupancy in a room from the viewpoint of demand control ventilation applications.

  10. Concentrations and carbon isotope compositions of methane in the cored sediments from offshore SW Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, P.C.; Yang, T.F.; Hong, W.L. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Geosciences; Lin, S.; Chen, J.C. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Oceanography; Sun, C.H. [CPC Corp., Wen Shan, Miaoli, Taiwan (China). Exploration and Development Research Inst.; Wang, Y. [Central Geological Survey, MOEA, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates are natural occurring solids that contain natural gases, mainly methane, within a rigid lattice of water molecules. They are a type of non-stoichiometric clathrates and metastable crystal products in low temperature and high pressure conditions and are widely distributed in oceans and in permafrost regions around the world. Gas hydrates have been considered as potential energy resources for the future since methane is the major gas inside gas hydrates. Methane is also a greenhouse gas that might affect the global climates from the dissociations of gas hydrates. Bottom simulating reflections (BSRs) have been found to be widely distributed in offshore southwestern Taiwan therefore, inferring the existence of potential gas hydrates underneath the seafloor sediments. This paper presented a study that involved the systematic collection of sea waters and cored sediments as well as the analysis of the gas composition of pore-space of sediments through ten cruises from 2003 to 2006. The paper discussed the results in terms of the distribution of methane concentrations in bottom waters and cored sediments; methane fluxes in offshore southwestern Taiwan; and isotopic compositions of methane in pore spaces of cored sediments. It was concluded that the carbon isotopic compositions of methane demonstrated that biogenic gas source was dominated at shallower depth. However, some thermogenic gases might be introduced from deeper source in this region. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Weller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous black carbon (BC observations were conducted from 1999 through 2009 by an Aethalometer (AE10 and from 2006 through 2011 by a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP at Neumayer Station (NM under stringent contamination control. Considering the respective observation period, BC concentrations measured by the MAAP were somewhat higher (median ± standard deviation: 2.1 ± 2.0 ng m−3 compared to the AE10 results (1.6 ± 2.1 ng m−3. Neither for the AE10 nor for the MAAP data set a significant long-term trend could be detected. Consistently a pronounced seasonality was observed with both instruments showing a primary annual maximum between October and November and a minimum in April with a maximum/minimum ratio of 4.5/1.6 = 3.8 and 2.7/0.64 = 4.2 for the MAAP and AE10 data, respectively. Occasionally a secondary summer maximum in January/February was visible. With the aim to assess the impact of BC on optical properties of the aerosol at NM, we evaluated the BC data along with particle scattering coefficients measured by an integrating nephelometer. We found the mean single scattering albedo of ω550 = 0.992 ± 0.0090 (median: 0.994 at a wavelength of 550 nm with a range of values from 0.95 to 1.0.

  12. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in UK soils and the influence of soil, vegetation type and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Leon J L; Shotbolt, Laura; Ashmore, Mike R

    2012-06-15

    Given the lack of studies which measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) over long periods, especially in non-forest habitat, the aim of this study was to expand the existing datasets with data of mainly non-forest sites that were representative of the major soil and habitat types in the UK. A further aim was to predict DOC concentrations from a number of biotic and abiotic explanatory variables such as rainfall, temperature, vegetation type and soil type in a multivariate way. Pore water was sampled using Rhizon or Prenart samplers at two to three week intervals for 1 year. DOC, pH, organic carbon, carbon/nitrogen (C:N) ratios of soils and slope were measured and data on vegetation, soil type, temperature and precipitation were obtained. The majority of the variation in DOC concentrations between the UK sites could be explained by simple empirical models that included annual precipitation, and soil C:N ratio with precipitation being negatively related to DOC concentrations and C:N ratio being positively related to DOC concentrations. Our study adds significantly to the data reporting DOC concentrations in soils, especially in grasslands, heathlands and moorlands. Broad climatic and site factors have been identified as key factors influencing DOC concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dependence of electrical resistance in nonstoichiometric titanium carbide TiCy on carbon vacancy concentration and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatnikov, V.N.; Gusev, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Electric conductivity in nonstoichiometric titanium carbide TiC y (0.5 ≤ y ≤ 0.98) is studied depending on concentration and distribution of carbon sublattice vacancies as well as on temperature. It is established that in TiC y at y y on the one hand and by the atom-vacancy interaction on the other hand [ru

  14. Characteristic and Prediction of Carbon Monoxide Concentration using Time Series Analysis in Selected Urban Area in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid Hazrul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a poisonous, colorless, odourless and tasteless gas. The main source of carbon monoxide is from motor vehicles and carbon monoxide levels in residential areas closely reflect the traffic density. Prediction of carbon monoxide is important to give an early warning to sufferer of respiratory problems and also can help the related authorities to be more prepared to prevent and take suitable action to overcome the problem. This research was carried out using secondary data from Department of Environment Malaysia from 2013 to 2014. The main objectives of this research is to understand the characteristic of CO concentration and also to find the most suitable time series model to predict the CO concentration in Bachang, Melaka and Kuala Terengganu. Based on the lowest AIC value and several error measure, the results show that ARMA (1,1 is the most appropriate model to predict CO concentration level in Bachang, Melaka while ARMA (1,2 is the most suitable model with smallest error to predict the CO concentration level for residential area in Kuala Terengganu.

  15. Total and size-resolved particle number and black carbon concentrations in urban areas near Schiphol airport (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Moerman, M.; Zandveld, P.; Henzing, J.S.; Hoek, G.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of black carbon, and size-resolved and total particle number concentrations (PNC) were investigated in the vicinity of Schiphol airport in the Netherlands, the fourth busiest airport in Europe. Continuous measurements were conducted between March and May 2014at Adamse Bos, located 7km

  16. Comparing the desorption and biodegradation of low concentrations of phenanthrene sorbed to activated carbon, biochar and compost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E.C.; Rein, Arno

    2013-01-01

    can be degraded at all, the desorption and biodegradation of low concentrations of 14C-labelled phenanthrene (⩽5μgL−1) freshly sorbed to suspensions of the pure soil amendments activated carbon (AC), biochar (charcoal) and compost were compared. Firstly, the maximum abiotic desorption of phenanthrene...

  17. Black carbon concentrations and sources in the marine boundary layer of the tropical Atlantic Ocean using four methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion-derived aerosols in the marine boundary layer have been poorly studied, especially in remote environments such as the open Atlantic Ocean. The tropical Atlantic has the potential to contain a high concentration of aerosols, such as black carbon, due to the African emis...

  18. Collection/concentration of trace uranium for spectrophotometric detection using activated carbon and first-derivative spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.A.; Hamed, M.M.; El-Reefy, S.; Hmmad, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The need exists for preconcentration of trace and ultratrace amounts of uranium from environmental, geological and biological samples. The adsorption of uranium on various solids is important from the purification, environmental, and radioactivity waste disposal points of view. A method is described for the determination of traces of uranium using first-derivative spectrophotometry after adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon. Various parameters that influence the adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon, viz., pH, amounts of activated carbon and time of stirring and interference of metals have been studied. First-derivative spectrophotometry in conjunction with adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon is used for determining uranium at concentration levels down to 20 ppb (w/v). (orig.)

  19. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farma, R.; Awitdrus,; Taer, E.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N 2 environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO 2 activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H 2 SO 4 electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes

  20. Soil biogeochemistry properties vary between two boreal forest ecosystems in Quebec: significant differences in soil carbon, available nutrients and iron and aluminium crystallinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianelli, Carole; Ali, Adam A.; Beguin, Julien; Bergeron, Yves; Grondin, Pierre; Hély, Christelle; Paré, David

    2017-04-01

    At the northernmost extent of the managed forest in Quebec, the boreal forest is currently undergoing an ecological transition from closed-canopy black spruce-moss forests towards open-canopy lichen woodlands, which spread southward. Our study aim was to determine whether this shift could impact soil properties on top of its repercussions on forest productivity or carbon storage. We studied the soil biogeochemical composition of three pedological layers in moss forests (MF) and lichen woodlands (LW) north of the Manicouagan crater in Quebec. The humus layer (FH horizons) was significantly thicker and held more carbon, nitrogen and exchangeable Ca and Mg in MF plots than in LW plots. When considering mineral horizons, we found that the deep C horizon had a very close composition in both ecosystem plots, suggesting that the parent material was of similar geochemical nature. This was expected as all selected sites developed from glacial deposit. Multivariate analysis of surficial mineral B horizon showed however that LW B horizon displayed higher concentrations of Al and Fe oxides than MF B horizon, particularly for inorganic amorphous forms. Conversely, main exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg) were higher in B horizon of MF than that of LW. Ecosystem types explained much of the variations in the B horizon geochemical composition. We thus suggest that the differences observed in the geochemical composition of the B horizon have a biological origin rather than a mineralogical origin. We also showed that total net stocks of carbon stored in MF soils were three times higher than in LW soils (FH + B horizons, roots apart). Altogether, we suggest that variations in soil properties between MF and LW are linked to a cascade of events involving the impacts of natural disturbances such as wildfires on forest regeneration that determines the of vegetation structure (stand density) and composition (ground cover type) and their subsequent consequences on soil environmental

  1. New considerations for PM, Black Carbon and particle number concentration for air quality monitoring across different European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reche

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In many large cities of Europe standard air quality limit values of particulate matter (PM are exceeded. Emissions from road traffic and biomass burning are frequently reported to be the major causes. As a consequence of these exceedances a large number of air quality plans, most of them focusing on traffic emissions reductions, have been implemented in the last decade. In spite of this implementation, a number of cities did not record a decrease of PM levels. Thus, is the efficiency of air quality plans overestimated? Do the road traffic emissions contribute less than expected to ambient air PM levels in urban areas? Or do we need a more specific metric to evaluate the impact of the above emissions on the levels of urban aerosols?

    This study shows the results of the interpretation of the 2009 variability of levels of PM, Black Carbon (BC, aerosol number concentration (N and a number of gaseous pollutants in seven selected urban areas covering road traffic, urban background, urban-industrial, and urban-shipping environments from southern, central and northern Europe.

    The results showed that variations of PM and N levels do not always reflect the variation of the impact of road traffic emissions on urban aerosols. However, BC levels vary proportionally with those of traffic related gaseous pollutants, such as CO, NO2 and NO. Due to this high correlation, one may suppose that monitoring the levels of these gaseous pollutants would be enough to extrapolate exposure to traffic-derived BC levels. However, the BC/CO, BC/NO2 and BC/NO ratios vary widely among the cities studied, as a function of distance to traffic emissions, vehicle fleet composition and the influence of other emission sources such as biomass burning. Thus, levels of BC should be measured at air quality monitoring sites.

    During morning traffic rush hours, a narrow variation in the N/BC ratio was evidenced, but a wide variation of

  2. Study of the effect of magnesium concentration on the deposit of allotropic forms of calcium carbonate and related carbon steel interface behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Amor, Y.; Bousselmi, L.; Tribollet, B.; Triki, E.

    2010-01-01

    Different allotropic forms of calcium carbonate scales were electrochemically deposited on a carbon steel surface in artificial underground Tunisian water at -0.95 V SCE and various Mg 2+ concentrations. Because of the importance of the diffusion process, the rotating disk electrode was used. The deposition kinetics were analyzed by chronoamperometry measurements and the calcareous layers were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physical model proposed by Gabrielli was used to analyze the EIS measurements. Independent of the deposited allotropic form of calcium carbonate, the measurements showed that the oxygen reduction occurs in the pores formed between the CaCO 3 crystals and the metallic surface.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Hou, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Li, Ye [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Liu, Min, E-mail: mliu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BC{sub Cr}) and thermal oxidation (BC{sub CTO}). The concentrations of BC{sub Cr} in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32 mg g{sup −1}, while BC{sub CTO} ranged between 0.57 and 4.76 mg g{sup −1}. Spatial variations of δ{sup 13}C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from − 21.13‰ to − 24.87‰ and from − 23.53‰ to − 16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2 ng g{sup −1} in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5 ng g{sup −1} in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. - Highlights: • River runoffs were responsible for the high PAH pollution levels in the study area. • BC and PAHs derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels. • BC was associated

  4. Large variation in the Rubisco kinetics of diatoms reveals diversity among their carbon-concentrating mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jodi N.; Heureux, Ana M.C.; Sharwood, Robert E.; Rickaby, Rosalind E.M.; Morel, François M.M.; Whitney, Spencer M.

    2016-01-01

    While marine phytoplankton rival plants in their contribution to global primary productivity, our understanding of their photosynthesis remains rudimentary. In particular, the kinetic diversity of the CO2-fixing enzyme, Rubisco, in phytoplankton remains unknown. Here we quantify the maximum rates of carboxylation (k cat c), oxygenation (k cat o), Michaelis constants (K m) for CO2 (K C) and O2 (K O), and specificity for CO2 over O2 (SC/O) for Form I Rubisco from 11 diatom species. Diatom Rubisco shows greater variation in K C (23–68 µM), SC/O (57–116mol mol−1), and K O (413–2032 µM) relative to plant and algal Rubisco. The broad range of K C values mostly exceed those of C4 plant Rubisco, suggesting that the strength of the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in diatoms is more diverse, and more effective than previously predicted. The measured k cat c for each diatom Rubisco showed less variation (2.1–3.7s−1), thus averting the canonical trade-off typically observed between K C and k cat c for plant Form I Rubisco. Uniquely, a negative relationship between K C and cellular Rubisco content was found, suggesting variation among diatom species in how they allocate their limited cellular resources between Rubisco synthesis and their CCM. The activation status of Rubisco in each diatom was low, indicating a requirement for Rubisco activase. This work highlights the need to better understand the correlative natural diversity between the Rubisco kinetics and CCM of diatoms and the underpinning mechanistic differences in catalytic chemistry among the Form I Rubisco superfamily. PMID:27129950

  5. Holographic interferometry as electrochemical emission spectroscopy of carbon steel in seawater with low concentration of RA-41 corrosion inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, K.; Al-Muhana, K.; Habib, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, holographic interferometry was utilized for the first time to determine the rate change of the number of the fringe evolutions during the corrosion test of carbon steel in blank seawater and with seawater with different concentrations of a corrosion inhibitor. In other words, the anodic dissolution behaviors (corrosion) of the carbon steel were determined simultaneously by holographic interferometry, an electromagnetic method, and by the electrochemical impedance (EI) spectroscopy, an electronic method. So, the abrupt rate change of the number of the fringe evolutions during corrosion test (EI) spectroscopy, of the carbon steel is called electrochemical emission spectroscopy. The corrosion process of the steel samples was carried out in blank seawater and seawater with different concentrations, 5-20 ppm, of RA-41 corrosion inhibitor using the EI spectroscopy method, at room temperature. The electrochemical emission spectra of the carbon steel in different solutions represent a detailed picture of the rate change of the anodic dissolution of the steel throughout the corrosion processes. Furthermore, the optical interferometry data of the carbon steel were compared to the data, which were obtained from the EI spectroscopy. Consequently, holographic interferometric is found very useful for monitoring the anodic dissolution behaviors of metals, in which the number of the fringe evolutions of the steel samples can be determined in situ. (Author)

  6. International Collaboration: the Virtuous Cycle of Low Carbon Innovation and Diffusion. An Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic, Concentrating Solar Power and Carbon Capture and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominique, Katheen

    2010-01-01

    International collaboration can be leveraged to accelerate the innovation and diffusion of low carbon technologies required to realize the shift to a low carbon trajectory. A collaborative approach to innovation has the potential to capture several benefits, including: pooling risks and achieving scale; knowledge sharing that accommodates competition and cooperation; the creation of a global market; facilitation of policy learning and exchange; and the alignment of technology, finance and policy. International Collaboration: the Virtuous Cycle of Low Carbon Innovation and Diffusion An Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic, Concentrating Solar Power and Carbon Capture and Storage A range of obstacles to the diffusion of low carbon technologies provides ample opportunity for international collaboration in global market creation and capacity building, expanding beyond conventional modes of technology transfer. Current collaborative efforts for carbon capture and storage, solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies are active in all stages of innovation and diffusion and involve a wide range of actors. Yet, current efforts are not sufficient to achieve the necessary level of emission mitigation at the pace required to avoid catastrophic levels of atmospheric destabilization. This analysis sets forth recommendation to scale up current endeavors and create new ones. The analysis begins by describing the fundamental characteristics of innovation and diffusion processes that create opportunities for international collaboration. It then illustrates a broad array of on-going collaborative activities, depicting how these efforts contribute to innovation and diffusion. Finally, highlighting the gap between the current level of collaborative activities and technology targets deemed critical for emission mitigation, the report sets forth several recommendations to build on current efforts and construct new endeavors

  7. Assessment of the Carbon Footprint, Social Benefit of Carbon Reduction, and Energy Payback Time of a High-Concentration Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen H. Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depleting fossil fuel sources and worsening global warming are two of the most serious world problems. Many renewable energy technologies are continuously being developed to overcome these challenges. Among these technologies, high-concentration photovoltaics (HCPV is a promising technology that reduces the use of expensive photovoltaic materials to achieve highly efficient energy conversion. This reduction process is achieved by adopting concentrating and tracking technologies. This study intends to understand and assess the carbon footprint and energy payback time (EPBT of HCPV modules during their entire life cycles. The social benefit of carbon reduction is also evaluated as another indicator to assess the energy alternatives. An HCPV module and a tracker from the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER were applied, and SimaPro 8.0.2 was used for the assessment. The functional unit used in this study was 1 kWh, which is produced by HCPV, and inventory data was sourced from Ecoinvent 3.0 and the Taiwan carbon footprint calculation database. The carbon footprint, EPBT, and social benefit of carbon reduction were evaluated as 107.69 g CO2eq/kWh, 2.61 years, and 0.022 USD/kWh, respectively. Direct normal irradiation (DNI, life expectancy, and the degradation rate of HCPV system were subjected to sensitivity analysis. Results show that the influence of lifetime assumption under a low DNI value is greater than those under high DNI values. Degradation rate is also another important factor when assessing the carbon footprint of HCPV under a low DNI value and a long lifetime assumption. The findings of this study can provide several insights for the development of the Taiwanese solar industry.

  8. Black carbon concentration and deposition estimations in Finland by the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Hienola

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The prediction skill of the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM was assessed against the black carbon (BC concentration measurements from five locations in Finland, with focus on Hyytiälä station for the year 2005. We examined to what extent the model is able to reproduce the measurements using several statistical tools: median comparison, overlap coefficient (OVL; the common area under two probability distributions curves and Z score (a measure of standard deviation, shape and spread of the distributions. The results of the statistics showed that the model is biased low. The local and regional emissions of BC have a significant contribution, and the model tendency to flatten the observed BC is most likely dominated by the lack of domestic burning of biofuel in the emission inventories. A further examination of the precipitation data from both measurements and model showed that there is no correlation between REMO's excessive precipitation and BC underestimation. This suggests that the excessive wet removal is not the main cause of the low black carbon concentration output. In addition, a comparison of wind directions in relation with high black carbon concentrations shows that REMO-HAM is able to predict the BC source directions relatively well. Cumulative black carbon deposition fluxes over Finland were estimated, including the deposition on snow.

  9. The determination of carbon dioxide concentration using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopic dilution and errors in concentration measurements caused by dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLacy, Brendan G; Bandy, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopically labeled standard (APIMS/ILS) method has been developed for the determination of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration. Descriptions of the instrumental components, the ionization chemistry, and the statistics associated with the analytical method are provided. This method represents an alternative to the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) technique, which is currently used in the atmospheric community to determine atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. The APIMS/ILS and NDIR methods exhibit a decreased sensitivity for CO(2) in the presence of water vapor. Therefore, dryers such as a nafion dryer are used to remove water before detection. The APIMS/ILS method measures mixing ratios and demonstrates linearity and range in the presence or absence of a dryer. The NDIR technique, on the other hand, measures molar concentrations. The second half of this paper describes errors in molar concentration measurements that are caused by drying. An equation describing the errors was derived from the ideal gas law, the conservation of mass, and Dalton's Law. The purpose of this derivation was to quantify errors in the NDIR technique that are caused by drying. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the errors created solely by the dryer in CO(2) concentration measurements post-dryer. The laboratory experiments verified the theoretically predicted errors in the derived equations. There are numerous references in the literature that describe the use of a dryer in conjunction with the NDIR technique. However, these references do not address the errors that are caused by drying.

  10. Contribution of various carbon sources toward isoprene biosynthesis in poplar leaves mediated by altered atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Trowbridge

    Full Text Available Biogenically released isoprene plays important roles in both tropospheric photochemistry and plant metabolism. We performed a (13CO(2-labeling study using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS to examine the kinetics of recently assimilated photosynthate into isoprene emitted from poplar (Populus × canescens trees grown and measured at different atmospheric CO(2 concentrations. This is the first study to explicitly consider the effects of altered atmospheric CO(2 concentration on carbon partitioning to isoprene biosynthesis. We studied changes in the proportion of labeled carbon as a function of time in two mass fragments, M41(+, which represents, in part, substrate derived from pyruvate, and M69(+, which represents the whole unlabeled isoprene molecule. We observed a trend of slower (13C incorporation into isoprene carbon derived from pyruvate, consistent with the previously hypothesized origin of chloroplastic pyruvate from cytosolic phosphenolpyruvate (PEP. Trees grown under sub-ambient CO(2 (190 ppmv had rates of isoprene emission and rates of labeling of M41(+ and M69(+ that were nearly twice those observed in trees grown under elevated CO(2 (590 ppmv. However, they also demonstrated the lowest proportion of completely labeled isoprene molecules. These results suggest that under reduced atmospheric CO(2 availability, more carbon from stored/older carbon sources is involved in isoprene biosynthesis, and this carbon most likely enters the isoprene biosynthesis pathway through the pyruvate substrate. We offer direct evidence that extra-chloroplastic rather than chloroplastic carbon sources are mobilized to increase the availability of pyruvate required to up-regulate the isoprene biosynthesis pathway when trees are grown under sub-ambient CO(2.

  11. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations amplify Alternaria alternata sporulation and total antigen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Although the association between rising levels of carbon dioxide, the principle anthropogenic greenhouse gas, and pollen production has been established, few data are available regarding the function of rising carbon dioxide on quantitative or qualitative changes in allergenic fungal sp...

  12. Using tunable diode laser spectroscopy to measure carbon isotope discrimination and mesophyll conductance to CO₂ diffusion dynamically at different CO₂ concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazoe, Youshi; VON Caemmerer, Susanne; Estavillo, Gonzalo M; Evans, John R

    2011-04-01

    In C₃ leaves, the mesophyll conductance to CO₂ diffusion, g(m) , determines the drawdown in CO₂ concentration from intercellular airspace to the chloroplast stroma. Both g(m) and stomatal conductance limit photosynthetic rate and vary in response to the environment. We investigated the response of g(m) to changes in CO₂ in two Arabidopsis genotypes (including a mutant with open stomata, ost1), tobacco and wheat. We combined measurements of gas exchange with carbon isotope discrimination using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with a CO₂ calibration system specially designed for a range of CO₂ and O₂ concentrations. CO₂ was initially increased from 200 to 1000 ppm and then decreased stepwise to 200 ppm and increased stepwise back to 1000 ppm, or the sequence was reversed. In 2% O₂ a step increase from 200 to 1000 ppm significantly decreased g(m) by 26-40% in all three species, whereas following a step decrease from 1000 to 200 ppm, the 26-38% increase in g(m) was not statistically significant. The response of g(m) to CO₂ was less in 21% O₂. Comparing wild type against the ost1 revealed that mesophyll and stomatal conductance varied independently in response to CO₂. We discuss the effects of isotope fractionation factors on estimating g(m) . © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The effect of emulsifying salts on the turbidity of a diluted milk system with varying pH and protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, M D; Saricay, Y; Harte, F M

    2017-06-01

    Solutions of 10 commonly used emulsifying salts (ES) listed in the Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR133.179) for pasteurized process cheese were tested for their effect on the turbidity of a diluted milk system at different pH and protein concentrations to characterize the conditions that affect micellar structure. Emulsifying salt solutions were made by mixing the ES in a 1-in-20 dilution of water in skim milk ultrafiltrate (3 kDa molecular weight cut-off) to obtain ES concentrations from 0 to 248 mM. Skim milk was added to solutions containing nanopure water, skim milk ultrafiltrate, and a specific ES ranging in concentration from 0 to 248 mM and pH 5, 5.8, 6.8, 7.8, and 8.8. The turbidity of the samples was measured as the optical density at 400 nm immediately after mixing (time, t = 0), after 30 s (t = 30s), and after 30 min (t = 30min). Emulsifying salts were found to cause a decrease in the turbidity of the system, which was modeled using an exponential decay model, where C* represents a threshold salt concentration at which rapid dissociation occurs. At pH values 5.8 and 6.8, the ES caused the greatest decrease in turbidity of the diluted milk system. At pH 5, the ES had the least effect on the turbidity of the system. Sodium hexametaphosphate was found to have the strongest dissociative effect, with a C* value of 0.33 mM for t = 0 at pH 6.8. In contrast, the largest C* value calculated at pH 6.8 was monosodium phosphate at 278.22 mM. Increased time resulted in lower C* values. The model established for this study can be used to predict the dissociation of casein micelles in the presence of various types of ES. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of boron supplementation of layer diets varying in calcium and phosphorus concentrations on performance, egg quality, bone strength and mineral constituents of serum, bone and faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükyilmaz, K; Erkek, R; Bozkurt, M

    2014-01-01

    1. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of dietary calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and supplemental boron (B) (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg) on the performance, egg quality, bone strength, and mineral constituents in bone, serum and faeces. 2. A reduction by 18% in the dietary Ca-P concentration from the recommended levels for the hen strain reduced (P properties did not corroborate the hypothesis that B is a trace element playing an important role in mineral metabolism and bone strength through an interaction with Ca, P and Mg.

  15. Adsorption of low concentration ceftazidime from aqueous solutions using impregnated activated carbon promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiang, E-mail: huxiang@mail.buct.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Research Centre for Environmental Pollution Control and Resource Reuse Engineering of Beijing City, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Hua [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Research Centre for Environmental Pollution Control and Resource Reuse Engineering of Beijing City, Beijing 100029 (China); Sun, Zhirong, E-mail: zrsun@bjut.edu.cn [College of Environmental & Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The graphic abstract describes the research that we used modified activated carbons impregnated with iron nitrate, copper nitrate and aluminium nitrate to adsorb ceftazidime from aqueous solution. The surface functional groups of the modified activated carbons were different, and thus resulted in the big difference in the adsorption performance of the modified activated carbons. The theory and the experiments both showed the preferable adsorption of ceftazidime could be achieved on modified activated carbons. - Highlights: • Three modified activated carbons were prepared by impregnating metal nitrate. • Characteristics of the modified activated carbons were analyzed. • Adsorption capacity of ceftazidime on modified activated carbons was improved. • The adsorption behavior of ceftazidime on modified activated carbons were revealed. • The nature of ceftazidime adsorption on modified activated carbons was elucidated. - Abstract: In this paper, three impregnated activated carbon IAC (AC-Cu, AC-Fe, and AC-Al) promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum were used for adsorption of ceftazidime. Iron(III), Copper(II) and Aluminum(III) nitrate were used as an impregnant. The IACs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).The influence of factors, such as ion strength, pH, temperature, initial concentration, and concentration of natural organic matter organic matter on the adsorption process were studied. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of ceftazidime were studied for the three IACs. The results showed that the adsorption was accurately represented by pseudo-second order model. Under different temperature, the maximum adsorption quantity of ceftazidime on AC-Cu calculated by pseudo-second order kinetic model were 200.0 mg g{sup −1} (298 K), 196.1 mg g{sup −1} (303 K) and 185.2 mg g

  16. Adsorption of low concentration ceftazidime from aqueous solutions using impregnated activated carbon promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Zhirong

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The graphic abstract describes the research that we used modified activated carbons impregnated with iron nitrate, copper nitrate and aluminium nitrate to adsorb ceftazidime from aqueous solution. The surface functional groups of the modified activated carbons were different, and thus resulted in the big difference in the adsorption performance of the modified activated carbons. The theory and the experiments both showed the preferable adsorption of ceftazidime could be achieved on modified activated carbons. - Highlights: • Three modified activated carbons were prepared by impregnating metal nitrate. • Characteristics of the modified activated carbons were analyzed. • Adsorption capacity of ceftazidime on modified activated carbons was improved. • The adsorption behavior of ceftazidime on modified activated carbons were revealed. • The nature of ceftazidime adsorption on modified activated carbons was elucidated. - Abstract: In this paper, three impregnated activated carbon IAC (AC-Cu, AC-Fe, and AC-Al) promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum were used for adsorption of ceftazidime. Iron(III), Copper(II) and Aluminum(III) nitrate were used as an impregnant. The IACs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).The influence of factors, such as ion strength, pH, temperature, initial concentration, and concentration of natural organic matter organic matter on the adsorption process were studied. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of ceftazidime were studied for the three IACs. The results showed that the adsorption was accurately represented by pseudo-second order model. Under different temperature, the maximum adsorption quantity of ceftazidime on AC-Cu calculated by pseudo-second order kinetic model were 200.0 mg g"−"1 (298 K), 196.1 mg g"−"1 (303 K) and 185.2 mg g"−"1 (308 K

  17. Analysis of dissolved organic carbon concentration and 13C isotopic signature by TOC-IRMS - assessment of analytical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cerli, Chiara; Federherr, Eugen; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopes provide a powerful tool to assess carbon pools and their dynamics. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been recognized to play an important role in ecosystem functioning and carbon cycling and has therefore gained increased research interest. However, direct measurement of 13C isotopic signature of carbon in the dissolved phase is technically challenging particularly using high temperature combustion. Until recently, mainly custom-made systems existed which were modified for coupling of TOC instruments with IRMS for simultaneous assessment of C content and isotopic signature. The variety of coupled systems showed differences in their analytical performances. For analysis of DOC high temperature combustion is recognized as best performing method, owing to its high efficiency of conversion to CO2 also for highly refractory components (e.g. humic, fulvic acids) present in DOC and soil extracts. Therefore, we tested high temperature combustion TOC coupled to IRMS (developed by Elementar Group) for bulk measurements of DOC concentration and 13C signature. The instruments are coupled via an Interface to exchange the carrier gas from O2 to He and to concentrate the derived CO2 for the isotope measurement. Analytical performance of the system was assessed for a variety of organic compounds characterized by different stability and complexity, including humic acid and DOM. We tested injection volumes between 0.2-3 ml, thereby enabling measurement of broad concentration ranges. With an injection volume of 0.5 ml (n=3, preceded by 1 discarded injection), DOC and 13C signatures for concentrations between 5-150 mg C/L were analyzed with high precision (standard deviation (SD) predominantly TOC-IRMS in comparison with other systems capable of determining C concentration and isotopic signatures. We recognize the advantages of this system providing: - High sample throughput, short measurement time (15 minutes), flexible sample volume - Easy maintenance

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Howell, Nathan L.; Rifai, Hanadi S.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K oc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K ow , organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoporous Carbon Materials; The Effect of Surfactant Concentrations and Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Geranmayeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous carbon framework was synthesized using phenol and formaldehyde as carbon precursors and triblock copolymer (pluronic F127 as soft template via evaporation induced self-assembly. Hexagonal mesoporous carbon with specific surface area of 350 m2/g through optimizing the situation was obtained. The effects of different surfactant/phenol molar ratio and presence of salts on specific surface area, pore size and pore volume for all the prepared samples were studied by means of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET formalism, powder X-ray diffraction technique and FT-IR spectroscopy.

  20. Effect of Relative Humidity and CO2 Concentration on the Properties of Carbonated Reactive MgO Cement Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, Yaroslav

    Sustainability of modern concrete industry recently has become an important topic of scientific discussion, and consequently there is an effort to study the potential of the emerging new supplementary cementitious materials. This study has a purpose to investigate the effect of reactive magnesia (reactive MgO) as a replacement for general use (GU) Portland Cements and the effect of environmental factors (CO2 concentrations and relative humidity) on accelerated carbonation curing results. The findings of this study revealed that improvement of physical properties is related directly to the increase in CO2 concentrations and inversely to the increase in relative humidity and also depends much on %MgO in the mixture. The conclusions of this study helped to clarify the effect of variable environmental factors and the material replacement range on carbonation of reactive magnesia concrete materials, as well as providing an assessment of the optimal conditions for the effective usage of the material.

  1. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Liping; Yu, K.N.; Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi; Han, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy

  2. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Liping [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, Wei, E-mail: hanw@hfcas.cn [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy.

  3. Bulk Concentration Dependence of Electrolyte Resistance Within Mesopores of Carbon Electrodes in Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Kim, Daeun; Lee, Ilbok; Son, Hyungbin; Lee, Donghyun; Yoon, Songhun [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hyewon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jinwoo [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Hexagonally ordered mesoporous carbon materials were prepared and used as electrode materials in an electric double-layer capacitor. Using this electrode, the change of electrolyte resistance within the mesopores was investigated according to the bulk electrolyte concentration. Using three different electrochemical transient experiments-imaginary capacitance analysis, chronoamperometry, and hronopotentiometry-the time constant associated with electrolyte transport was determined, which was then used to obtain the electrolyte resistance within the mesopores. With decreasing electrolyte concentration, the increase in electrolyte resistance was smaller than the increase in the resistivity of the bulk electrolyte, which is indicative of a different environment for ionic transport within the mesopores. On using the confinement effect within the mesopores, the predicted higher concentration within mesopore probably results in lower electrolyte resistance, especially under low bulk concentrations.

  4. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction...... and animal experiments have shown that in rats exposed to CN intoxication, HBO can increase the concentration of CN in whole blood....

  5. Concentrations, loads and yields of organic carbon from two tropical peat swamp forest streams in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Yupi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat swamp forest (PSF stores large quantities of carbon. To estimate how much organic C is released from this type of landscape we determined organic carbon (C concentrations, loads and yields in two contrasting watercourses draining from PSF in Riau Province, Sumatra (Indonesia. Meranti Ditch (MD is an artificial watercourse whose small catchment (estimated area 4.8 km2 is in semi-intact condition, whereas Turip River (TR has a large natural catchment (estimated area 458 km2 covered with fairly intact PSF where > 75 % of the original canopy trees remain. The organic C load (Gg C yr-1 of each watercourse was calculated by combining TOC concentration with water discharge rate to give organic C yield (g C m-2 yr-1. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was the dominant (95.0–99.8 % component of total organic carbon (TOC in the water. TOC concentration was 85–94 mg C L-1 in MD and 50–58 mg C L-1 in TR. The high concentration in MD was not surprising because this catchment had been disturbed by repeated phases of logging and a dense network of ditches was excavated ten years ago. The TOC loads were 0.23 Gg C yr-1 in MD and 14.0 Gg C yr-1 in TR. TOC yields (i.e. TOC fluxes through the fluvial system were 41.6–55.5 g C m-2 yr-1 in MD and 26.2–34.9 g C m-2 yr-1 in TR.

  6. Physiology of Aspergillus niger in Oxygen-Limited Continuous Cultures: Influence of Aeration, Carbon Source Concentration and Dilution Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diano, Audrey; Peeters, J.; Dynesen, Jens Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    In industrial production of enzymes using the filamentous fungus Aspergilhis niger supply of sufficient oxygen is often a limitation, resulting in the formation of by-products such as polyols. In order to identify the mechanisms behind formation of the different by-products we studied the effect...... of low oxygen availability, at different carbon source concentrations and at different specific growth rates, on the metabolism of A. niger, using continuous cultures. The results show that there is an increase in the production of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates at low oxygen concentrations...

  7. Real-time prediction of extreme ambient carbon monoxide concentrations due to vehicular exhaust emissions using univariate linear stochastic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Khare, M.

    2000-01-01

    Historical data of the time-series of carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was analysed using Box-Jenkins modelling approach. Univariate Linear Stochastic Models (ULSMs) were developed to examine the degree of prediction possible for situations where only a limited data set, restricted only to the past record of pollutant data are available. The developed models can be used to provide short-term, real-time forecast of extreme CO concentrations for an Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), comprising a major traffic intersection in a Central Business District of Delhi City, India. (author)

  8. Thin films of single-walled carbon nanotubes promote human osteoblastic cells (Saos-2) proliferation in low serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Matsuoka, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Watari, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    One strategy used for the regeneration of bone is the development of cell culture substrates and scaffolds that can control osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. In recent investigations, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been utilized as scaffolds for osteoblastic cell cultures; however, there are only a few reports describing the proliferation of osteoblastic cells on thin CNT films; in particular, the effects of serum concentration on cell proliferation have not been studied. In the present study, we prepared culture dishes with homogeneous thin or thick films of non-modified CNTs and examined the effect of serum concentrations on human osteoblastic cells (Saos-2) proliferation in these culture dishes. We demonstrated that the ratio of cell proliferation was strongly affected by the concentration of serum. Interestingly, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin films were found to be the most effective substrate for the proliferation of Saos-2 cells in low concentrations of serum. Thus, thin SWNT films may be used as an effective biomaterial for the culture of Saos-2 cells in low serum concentrations.

  9. Implications for carbon processing beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet from dissolved CO2 and CH4 concentrations of subglacial discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, A.; Martin, J.; Martin, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Subglacial carbon processes are of increasing interest as warming induces ice melting and increases fluxes of glacial meltwater into proglacial rivers and the coastal ocean. Meltwater may serve as an atmospheric source or sink of carbon dioxide (CO2) or methane (CH4), depending on the magnitudes of subglacial organic carbon (OC) remineralization, which produces CO2 and CH4, and mineral weathering reactions, which consume CO2 but not CH4. We report wide variability in dissolved CO2 and CH4 concentrations at the beginning of the melt season (May-June 2017) between three sites draining land-terminating glaciers of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Two sites, located along the Watson River in western Greenland, drain the Isunnguata and Russell Glaciers and contained 1060 and 400 ppm CO2, respectively. In-situ CO2 flux measurements indicated that the Isunnguata was a source of atmospheric CO2, while the Russell was a sink. Both sites had elevated CH4 concentrations, at 325 and 25 ppm CH4, respectively, suggesting active anaerobic OC remineralization beneath the ice sheet. Dissolved CO2 and CH4 reached atmospheric equilibrium within 2.6 and 8.6 km downstream of Isunnguata and Russell discharge sites, respectively. These changes reflect rapid gas exchange with the atmosphere and/or CO2 consumption via instream mineral weathering. The third site, draining the Kiagtut Sermiat in southern Greenland, had about half atmospheric CO2 concentrations (250 ppm), but approximately atmospheric CH4 concentrations (2.1 ppm). Downstream CO2 flux measurements indicated ingassing of CO2 over the entire 10-km length of the proglacial river. CO2 undersaturation may be due to more readily weathered lithologies underlying the Kiagtut Sermiat compared to Watson River sites, but low CH4 concentrations also suggest limited contributions of CO2 and CH4 from OC remineralization. These results suggest that carbon processing beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet may be more variable than previously recognized

  10. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike; Jessen, Flemming; Einen, Olai; Mørkøre, Turid

    2016-03-15

    Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ). Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry, microscopy, salt content, liquid retention and colorimetric measurements. Saithe muscle was brined for 92 h in 0, 30, 60, 120 or 240 g kg(-1) NaCl or the respective solutions with added 7.5 g kg(-1) NaHCO3 . NaHCO3 inclusion improved the yield in solutions ranging from 0 to 120 g kg(-1) NaCl, with the most pronounced effect being observed at 30 g kg(-1) NaCl. The changes in yield were reflected in water mobility, with significantly shorter T2 relaxation times in all corresponding brine concentrations. Salt-dependent microstructural changes were revealed by light microscopy, where NaHCO3 supplementation resulted in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg(-1) NaCl. Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter in buses on highways in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Der-Jen; Huang, Hsiao-Lin

    2009-12-01

    Although airborne pollutants in urban buses have been studied in many cities globally, long-distance buses running mainly on highways have not been addressed in this regard. This study investigates the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and particulate matter (PM) in the long-distance buses in Taiwan. Analytical results indicate that pollutants levels in long-distance buses are generally lower than those in urban buses. This finding is attributable to the driving speed and patterns of long-distance buses, as well as the meteorological and geographical features of the highway surroundings. The levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) found in bus cabins exceed the proposed indoor VOC guidelines for aromatic compounds, and are likely attributable to the interior trim in the cabins. The overall average CO level is 2.3 ppm, with higher average level on local streets (2.9 ppm) than on highways (2.2 ppm). The average CO 2 level is 1493 ppm, which is higher than the guideline for non-industrial occupied settings. The average PM level in this study is lower than those in urban buses and IAQ guidelines set by Taiwan EPA. However, the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 is higher than the level set by WHO. Besides the probable causes mentioned above, fewer passenger movements and less particle re-suspension from bus floor might also cause the lower PM levels. Measurements of particle size distribution reveal that more than 75% of particles are in submicron and smaller sizes. These particles may come from the infiltration from the outdoor air. This study concludes that air exchange rates in long-distance buses should be increased in order to reduce CO 2 levels. Future research on long-distance buses should focus on the emission of VOCs from brand new buses, and the sources of submicron particles in bus cabins.

  12. Characterization of carbon dioxide concentrating chemolithotrophic bacterium Serratia sp. ISTD04 for production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Morya, Raj; Gnansounou, Edgard; Larroche, Christian; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-11-01

    Proteomics and metabolomics analysis has become a powerful tool for characterization of microbial ability for fixation of Carbon dioxide. Bacterial community of palaeoproterozoic metasediments was enriched in the shake flask culture in the presence of NaHCO 3 . One of the isolate showed resistance to NaHCO 3 (100mM) and was identified as Serratia sp. ISTD04 by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Carbon dioxide fixing ability of the bacterium was established by carbonic anhydrase enzyme assay along with proteomic analysis by LC-MS/MS. In proteomic analysis 96 proteins were identified out of these 6 protein involved in carbon dioxide fixation, 11 in fatty acid metabolism, indicating the carbon dioxide fixing potency of bacterium along with production of biofuel. GC-MS analysis revealed that hydrocarbons and FAMEs produced by bacteria within the range of C 13 -C 24 and C 11 -C 19 respectively. Presence of 59% saturated and 41% unsaturated organic compounds, make it a better fuel composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide concentration on structure, morphology and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of calcium hydroxide based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni; Vignesh, K.; Sreekantan, Srimala; Pung, Swee-Yong; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Othman, Radzali; Thant, Aye Aye; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Salim, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Carbonation conversions of (a) CC, (b) CH-2, (c) CH-4, (d) CH-6, (e) CH-8 precursor adsorbents for 10 cycles. - Highlights: • Ca(OH)_2 precursor was synthesized using precipitation method. • The effect of CTAB concentration on the synthesis of Ca(OH)_2 was studied. • The sorbent synthesized using 0.8 M of CTAB showed good CO_2 adsorption capacity. • The cyclic stability of Ca(OH)_2 was increased with increase of CTAB concentration. - Abstract: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)_2) has been proposed as an important material for industrial, architectural, and environmental applications. In this study, calcium acetate was used as a precursor and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a surfactant to synthesize Ca(OH)_2 based adsorbents for carbon dioxide (CO_2) capture. The effect of CTAB concentration (0.2–0.8 M) on the structure, morphology and CO_2 adsorption performance of Ca(OH)_2 was studied in detail. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), BET surfaced area and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) techniques. The phase purity, crystallite size, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and CO_2 adsorption performance of Ca(OH)_2 precursor adsorbents were significantly increased when the concentration of CTAB was increased. XRD results showed that pure Ca(OH)_2 phase was obtained at the CTAB concentration of 0.8 M. TGA results exhibited that 0.8 M of CTAB-assisted Ca(OH)_2 precursor adsorbent possessed a residual carbonation conversion of ∼56% after 10 cycles.

  14. Effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide concentration on structure, morphology and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of calcium hydroxide based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni, E-mail: nwenihlaing76@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Vignesh, K., E-mail: vignesh134@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Anano Sphere Sdn Bhd, Lorong Industri 11, Kawasan Industri Bukit Panchor, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Sreekantan, Srimala, E-mail: srimala@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Pung, Swee-Yong [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto [Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Othman, Radzali [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Malacca (Malaysia); Thant, Aye Aye [Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Salim, Chris [Department of Environmental Engineering, Surya University, Tangerang 15810, Banten (Indonesia)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Carbonation conversions of (a) CC, (b) CH-2, (c) CH-4, (d) CH-6, (e) CH-8 precursor adsorbents for 10 cycles. - Highlights: • Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor was synthesized using precipitation method. • The effect of CTAB concentration on the synthesis of Ca(OH){sub 2} was studied. • The sorbent synthesized using 0.8 M of CTAB showed good CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity. • The cyclic stability of Ca(OH){sub 2} was increased with increase of CTAB concentration. - Abstract: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) has been proposed as an important material for industrial, architectural, and environmental applications. In this study, calcium acetate was used as a precursor and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a surfactant to synthesize Ca(OH){sub 2} based adsorbents for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture. The effect of CTAB concentration (0.2–0.8 M) on the structure, morphology and CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of Ca(OH){sub 2} was studied in detail. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), BET surfaced area and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) techniques. The phase purity, crystallite size, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor adsorbents were significantly increased when the concentration of CTAB was increased. XRD results showed that pure Ca(OH){sub 2} phase was obtained at the CTAB concentration of 0.8 M. TGA results exhibited that 0.8 M of CTAB-assisted Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor adsorbent possessed a residual carbonation conversion of ∼56% after 10 cycles.

  15. Effect of silica concentration on electrical conductivity of epoxy resin-carbon black-silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Blackburn, Richard S.; Dehghani-Sanij, Abbas A.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical properties of nanocomposites are determined by the conductive paths of carbon black and influenced by a 'network' of silica. With increasing content of silica, carbon black (CB) particles are optimally dispersed, contributing to the generation of a conductive network between CB particles via direct particle contact and a tunneling effect; maximum conductivity for the epoxy resin-CB-silica nanocomposite described herein occurs at a ratio of 0.6:1.0 (SiO 2 :CB). As a non-conductive component, excessive silica will prevent electron flow, giving rise to low conductivity

  16. Facile Synthesis of Magnetic Mesoporous Hollow Carbon Microspheres for Rapid Capture of Low-Concentration Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Gong; Zhou, Ming-Da; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous and hollow carbon microspheres embedded with magnetic nanoparticles (denoted as MHM) were prepared via a facile self-sacrificial method for rapid capture of low-abundant peptides from complex biological samples. The morphology, structure, surface property, and magnetism were well-characterized. The hollow magnetic carbon microspheres have a saturation magnetization value of 130.2 emu g?1 at room temperature and a Brunauer?Emmett?Teller specific surface area of 48.8 m2 g?1 with an a...

  17. Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research Inst., Durham, NC (United States); Muto, Andrew [Southern Research Inst., Durham, NC (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Southern Research has developed a thermochemical energy storage (TCES) technology that utilizes the endothermic-exothermic reversible carbonation of calcium oxide (lime) to store thermal energy at high-temperatures, such as those achieved by next generation concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities. The major challenges addressed in the development of this system include refining a high capacity, yet durable sorbent material and designing a low thermal resistance low-cost heat exchanger reactor system to move heat between the sorbent and a heat transfer fluid under conditions relevant for CSP operation (e.g., energy density, reaction kinetics, heat flow). The proprietary stabilized sorbent was developed by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI). A factorial matrix of sorbent compositions covering the design space was tested using accelerated high throughput screening in a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Several promising formulations were selected for more thorough evaluation and one formulation with high capacity (0.38 g CO2/g sorbent) and durability (>99.7% capacity retention over 100 cycles) was chosen as a basis for further development of the energy storage reactor system. In parallel with this effort, a full range of currently available commercial and developmental heat exchange reactor systems and sorbent loading methods were examined through literature research and contacts with commercial vendors. Process models were developed to examine if a heat exchange reactor system and balance of plant can meet required TCES performance and cost targets, optimizing tradeoffs between thermal performance, exergetic efficiency, and cost. Reactor types evaluated included many forms, from microchannel reactor, to diffusion bonded heat exchanger, to shell and tube heat exchangers. The most viable design for application to a supercritical CO2 power cycle operating at 200-300 bar pressure and >700°C was determined to be a combination of a diffusion bonded heat

  18. Quantifying Carbon-14 for Biology Using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    McCartt, A. Daniel; Ognibene, Ted J.; Bench, Graham; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.

    2016-01-01

    A cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument was developed using mature, robust hardware for the measurement of carbon-14 in biological studies. The system was characterized using carbon-14 elevated glucose samples and returned a linear response up to 387 times contemporary carbon-14 concentrations. Carbon-14 free and contemporary carbon-14 samples with varying carbon-13 concentrations were used to assess the method detection limit of approximately one-third contemporary carbon-14 levels...

  19. Source Material and Concentration of Wildfire-Produced Pyrogenic Carbon Influence Post-Fire Soil Nutrient Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Michelotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon (PyC is produced by the thermal decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (O. PyC affects nutrient availability, may enhance post-fire nitrogen (N mineralization rates, and can be a significant carbon (C pool in fire-prone ecosystems. Our objectives were to characterize PyC produced by wildfires and examine the influence that contrasting types of PyC have on C and N mineralization rates. We determined C, N, O, and hydrogen (H concentrations and atomic ratios of charred bark (BK, charred pine cones (PC, and charred woody debris (WD using elemental analysis. We also incubated soil amended with BK, PC, and WD at two concentrations for 60 days to measure C and N mineralization rates. PC had greater H/C and O/C ratios than BK and WD, suggesting that PC may have a lesser aromatic component than BK and WD. C and N mineralization rates decreased with increasing PyC concentrations, and control samples produced more CO2 than soils amended with PyC. Soils with PC produced greater CO2 and had lower N mineralization rates than soils with BK or WD. These results demonstrate that PyC type and concentration have potential to impact nutrient dynamics and C flux to the atmosphere in post-fire forest soils.

  20. A 40-year record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide concentration and isotope ratios from the firn at Greenland Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, P., Jr.; Petrenko, V. V.; Vimont, I.; Buizert, C.; Lang, P. M.; Edwards, J.; Harth, C. M.; Hmiel, B.; Mak, J. E.; Novelli, P. C.; Brook, E.; Weiss, R. F.; Vaughn, B. H.; White, J. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an important atmospheric trace gas that affects the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and contributes indirectly to climate forcing by being a major sink of tropospheric OH. A good understanding of the past atmospheric CO budget is therefore important for climate models attempting to characterize recent changes in the atmosphere. Previous work at NEEM, Greenland provided the first reconstructions of Arctic atmospheric history of CO concentration and stable isotope ratios (δC18O and δ13CO) from firn air, dating to the 1950s. In this new study, firn air was sampled from eighteen depth levels through the firn column at Summit, Greenland (in May 2013), yielding a second, independent record of Arctic CO concentration and isotopic ratios. Carbon monoxide stable isotope ratios were analyzed on replicate samples and using a newly developed system with improved precision allowing for a more robust reconstruction. The new CO concentration and stable isotope results overall confirm the earlier findings from NEEM, with a CO concentration peak around the 1970s and higher δC18O and δ13CO values associated with peak CO. Modeling and interpretation of the data are in progress.

  1. A Study on Effect of Local Wall Thinning in Carbon Steel Elbow Pipe on Elastic Stress Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Seo, Jae Seok

    2009-01-01

    Feeder pipes that connect the inlet and outlet headers to the reactor core in CANDU nuclear power plants are considered as safety Class 1 piping items. Therefore, fatigue of feeder pipes should be assessed at design stage in order to verify structural integrity during design lifetime. In accordance with the fatigue assessment result, cumulative usage factors of some feeder pipes have significant values. The feeder pipes made of SA-106 Grade B or C carbon steel have some elbows and bends. An active degradation mechanism for the carbon steel outlet feeder piping is local wall thinning due to flow-accelerated corrosion. Inspection results from plants and metallurgical examinations of removed feeders indicated the presence of localized thinning in the vicinity of the welds in the lower portion of outlet feeders, such as Grayloc hub-to-bend weld, Grayloc hub-to-elbow weld, elbow-to-elbow, and elbow-to-pipe weld. This local wall thinning can cause increase of peak stress due to stress concentration by notch effect. The increase of peak stress results in increase of cumulative usage factor. However, present fatigue assessment doesn't consider the stress concentration due to local wall-thinning. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effect of local wall thinning on stress concentration. This study investigates the effect of local wall thinning geometry on stress concentration by performing finite element elastic stress analysis

  2. In situ expression of genes involved in carbon concentrating expression of genes involved in carbon concentratingmechanisms in hot spring cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sheila Ingemann; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Bhaya, Devaki

    supersaturating levels, and the intense photosynthetic activity of the cyanobacteria causes a pH >9.5 in the euphotic zone of the mat. During the night, the mat rapidly becomes anoxic, and intense respiration, reoxidation of reduced solutes and fermentation acidifies the mat to pH ~7.5. High temperature (55-70 0C......) itself imposes a constraint on the availability of Ci for photosynthesis because of the low solubility of CO2 at elevated temperatures; this is exacerbated by the relatively high O2-concentration and high pH in the mat during the day. Therefore, it is likely important for the cyanobacteria in the mat...

  3. Dispersion state and humic acids concentration-dependent sorption of pyrene to carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Kah, M.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Hofmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    Sonication and humic acids (HA) are known to disperse carbon nanotube (CNT) suspensions, but potential effects on sorption of chemicals to CNTs remain poorly understood. We applied a passive sampling method to investigate the influence of dispersion/aggregation on sorption of pyrene to CNTs.

  4. Integrated Data Fusion and Mining Techniques for Monitoring Total Organic Carbon Concentrations in a Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total organic carbon (TOC) in surface waters, markedly of seasonal variations, is a known precursor of disinfection byproducts such as Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) in drinking water treatment. Real-time knowledge of TOC distribution in source water can help treatment operation to...

  5. Trends in soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Vicca, Sara; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Jonard, Mathieu; Ciais, Philippe; Guenet, Bertrand; Gielen, Bert; Peñuelas, Josep; Sardans, Jordi; Waldner, Peter; Sawicka, Kasia

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is connected to DOC in soil solution through hydrological pathways. Therefore, it is expected that long-term dynamics of DOC in surface waters reflect DOC trends in soil solution. However, a multitude of site studies have failed so far to establish

  6. Trends in soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camino-Serrano, M.; Graf Pannatier, E.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Jonard, M.; Ciais, P.; Guenet, B.; Gielen, B.; Peñuelas, J.; Sardans, J.; Waldner, P.; Etzold, S.; Cecchini, G.; Clarke, N.; Galić, Z.; Gandois, L.; Hansen, K.; Johnson, J.; Klinck, U.; Lachmanová, Z.; Lindroos, A.J.; Meesenburg, H.; Nieminen, T.M.; Sanders, T.G.M.; Sawicka, K.; Seidling, W.; Thimonier, A.; Vanguelova, E.; Verstraeten, A.; Vesterdal, L.; Janssens, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is connected to DOC in soil solution through hydrological pathways. Therefore, it is expected that long-term dynamics of DOC in surface waters reflect DOC trends in soil solution. However, a multitude of site studies have failed so far to establish

  7. $MNO_2$ catalyzed carbon electrodes for dioxygen reduction in concentrated alkali

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, R; Shulka, AK

    1984-01-01

    A process to deposit $\\gamma-MnO_2$ catalytic oxide onto coconut-shell charcoal substrate is described. Current-potential curves for electroreduction of dioxygen with electrodes fabricated from this catalyzed substrate are obtained in 6M KOH under ambient conditions. The performance of these electrodes is competitive with platinized carbon electrodes.

  8. Pan-Arctic concentrations of mercury and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) in marine zooplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerleau, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.pomerleau@umanitoba.ca [Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Kivioq 2, Nuuk 3900, Greenland (Denmark); Stern, Gary A.; Pućko, Monika [Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Foster, Karen L. [Foster Environmental, Peterborough, ON K9J 8L2 (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2 (Canada); Fortier, Louis [Québec-Océan, Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2016-05-01

    Zooplankton play a central role in marine food webs, dictating the quantity and quality of energy available to upper trophic levels. They act as “keystone” species in transfer of mercury (Hg) up through the marine food chain. Here, we present the first Pan-Arctic overview of total and monomethylmercury concentrations (THg and MMHg) and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) in selected zooplankton species by assembling data collected between 1998 and 2012 from six arctic regions (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea, southeastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Hudson Bay and northern Baffin Bay). MMHg concentrations in Calanus spp., Themisto spp. and Paraeuchaeta spp. were found to increase with higher δ{sup 15}N and lower δ{sup 13}C. The southern Beaufort Sea exhibited both the highest THg and MMHg concentrations. Biomagnification of MMHg between Calanus spp. and two of its known predators, Themisto spp. and Paraeuchaeta spp., was greatest in the southern Beaufort Sea. Our results show large geographical variations in Hg concentrations and isotopic signatures for individual species related to regional ecosystem features, such as varying water masses and freshwater inputs, and highlight the increased exposure to Hg in the marine food chain of the southern Beaufort Sea. - Highlights: • Assessment of Pan-Arctic variability in zooplankton Hg concentrations • Increased exposure to Hg in the marine food chain of the southern Beaufort Sea • Zooplankton plays a central role in the Hg pathway within Arctic marine food webs.

  9. Origin, concentration, availability and fate of dissolved organic carbon in coastal lagoons of the Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Luiz Suhett

    Full Text Available The coastal lagoons in the northern Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil present a wide gradient of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and water color, with the highest DOC concentrations reported in the literature for aquatic ecosystems. Thus, they represent a peculiar set of ecosystems for the study of the origin, processing and fate of DOC in inland waters. We reviewed data from 2 decades of studies on the carbon cycle in these coastal lagoons and discussed the fluctuations in the concentration and quality of DOC, factors affecting DOC microbial and photochemical degradation, CO2 emission, as well as the role of humic and non-humic carbon to the energy flow through the trophic chains. We show that DOC quality, not its quantity, determines the rates of photochemical and microbial degradation both seasonally (within system and spatially (among systems, with the exception of DOC photo-oxidation among lagoons, which is partially explained by DOC concentration at regional scale. In humic lagoons, there is a fairly predictable pattern of seasonal variation in DOC concentration associated to rainfall-induced inputs of allochthonous C. However, little is known about the exact timing of these allochthonous inputs and how they relate to the seasonal variation of DOC chemical properties (i.e. its quality. Depth-integrated photo-oxidation rates were less representative in highly humic lagoons, due to strong light attenuation in the water column. Nevertheless, the potential contribution of photo-oxidation and bacterial respiration to total CO2 efflux (~11% did not differ significantly when all lagoons were pooled together. Contrary to prevailing paradigms for humic waters, microalgae seem to be the main C source in humic lagoons, sustaining pelagic food webs through zooplankton, in spite of some contribution of allochthonous C. Thus, the predominant role of the microbial loop in the DOC recovery to food webs in such systems is to be questioned.

  10. Relationship between carbon-14 concentrations in tree-ring cellulose and atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshimune; Yasuike, Kaeko; Komura, Kazuhisa

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organically-bound 14 C in the tree-ring cellulose of a Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) grown in a rural region of Kanazawa, Ishikawa prefecture, Japan (36.5degN, 136.7degE), were measured for the ring-years from 1989 to 1998 to study relationship between 14 C concentrations in tree-ring cellulose and atmospheric CO 2 in a narrow region. An interesting result in comparing our data of tree-ring cellulose with those of atmospheric CO 2 is that the 14 C concentration in tree-ring cellulose was close to the corresponding average from mid-June to early September of 14 C concentrations in atmospheric CO 2 . Furthermore, the 14 C concentrations in tree-ring cellulose were found to be merely influenced by the drastic decrease of 14 C concentrations in atmospheric CO 2 in winter, which might be caused by air pollution from the Asian continent and additional local fossil fuel contribution. These results suggest that the 14 C concentration in tree-ring cellulose for a given growing year reflects the 14 C concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 during the warm summer months. (author)

  11. Effect of Fe ion concentration on corrosion of carbon steel in CO2 environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska, Magdalena; Gudme, J.; Rubin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion behaviour of steel wires in solutions containing different concentrations of Fe2+ was investigated by the linear polarisation resistance method, while the evolution of pH was monitored in situ and changes of the Fe2+ concentration were monitored ex situ. Characterisation...

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  13. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farma, R.; Awitdrus,; Taer, E. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia); Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-16

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N{sub 2} environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO{sub 2} activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes.

  14. Direct analysis of δ13C and concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in environmental samples by TOC-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cerli, Chiara; Federherr, Eugen; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in carbon cycling in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Stable isotope analysis (delta 13C) of DOC could provide valuable insights in its origin, fluxes and environmental fate. Precise and routine analysis of delta 13C and DOC concentration are therefore highly desirable. A promising, new system has been developed for this purpose, linking a high-temperature combustion TOC analyzer trough an interface with a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Elementar group, Hanau, Germany). This TOC-IRMS system enables simultaneous stable isotope (bulk delta 13C) and concentration analysis of DOC, with high oxidation efficiency by high-temperature combustion for complex mixtures as natural DOC. To give delta 13C analysis by TOC-IRMS the necessary impulse for broad-scale application, we present a detailed evaluation of its analytical performance for realistic and challenging conditions inclusive low DOC concentrations and environmental samples. High precision (standard deviation, SD predominantly TOC-IRMS and conventional EA-IRMS) were achieved by TOC-IRMS for a broad diversity of DOC solutions. This precision is comparable or even slightly better than that typically reported for EA-IRMS systems, and improves previous techniques for δ13C analysis of DOC. Simultaneously, very good precision was obtained for DOC concentration measurements. Assessment of natural abundance and slightly 13C enriched DOC, a wide range of concentrations (0.2-150 mgC/L) and injection volumes (0.05-3 ml), demonstrated good analytical performance with negligible memory effects, no concentration/volume effects and a wide linearity. Low DOC concentrations (TOC-IRMS was successfully applied to analyze DOC from diverse terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments (SD TOC-IRMS performs fast and reliable analysis of DOC concentration and δ13C in aqueous samples, without any pre-concentration/freeze-drying. Flexible usage is highlighted by

  15. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC.

  16. Novel star-like surfactant as dispersant for multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous suspensions at high concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Min; Ran, Qianping; Wu, Shishan

    2018-03-01

    A kind of novel surfactant with star-like molecular structure and terminated sulfonate was synthesized, and it was used as the dispersant for multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous suspensions compared with a traditional single-chained surfactant. The star-like surfactant showed good dispersing ability for multi-walled CNTs in aqueous suspensions. Surface tension analysis, total organic carbon analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were performed to research the effect of star-like surfactant on the dispersion of multi-walled CNTs in aqueous suspensions. With the assistance of star-like surfactant, the CNTs could disperse well in aqueous suspension at high concentration of 50 g/L for more than 30 days, while the CNTs precipitated completely in aqueous suspension after 1 day without any dispersant or after 10 days with sodium 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dispersant.

  17. Impact of Wetland Decline on Decreasing Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations along the Mississippi River Continuum

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Shuiwang; He, Yuxiang; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Guo, Laodong

    2017-01-01

    Prior to discharging to the ocean, large rivers constantly receive inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from tributaries or fringing floodplains and lose DOC via continuous in situ processing along distances that span thousands of kilometers. Current concepts predicting longitudinal changes in DOC mainly focus on in situ processing or exchange with fringing floodplain wetlands, while effects of heterogeneous watershed characteristics are generally ignored. We analyzed results from a 17-ye...

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ≤ 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The

  19. Production and characterization of biodiesel from carbon dioxide concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria, Serratia sp. ISTD04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Randhir K; Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2014-02-01

    A chemolithotrophic bacterium, Serratia sp. ISTD04, enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was evaluated for potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and biofuel production. CO2 sequestration efficiency of the bacterium was determined by enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). Further, Western blot analysis confirmed presence of RuBisCO. The bacterium produced 0.487 and 0.647mgmg(-1) per unit cell dry weight of hydrocarbons and lipids respectively. The hydrocarbons were within the range of C13-C24 making it equivalent to light oil. GC-MS analysis of lipids produced by the bacterium indicated presence of C15-C20 organic compounds that made it potential source of biodiesel after transesterification. GC-MS, FTIR and NMR spectroscopic characterization of the fatty acid methyl esters revealed the presence of 55% and 45% of unsaturated and saturated organic compounds respectively, thus making it a balanced biodiesel composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human response to varying concentrations of toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R; Mølhave, Lars

    1990-01-01

    less than 0.1) towards irritation in the throat, headache and dizziness. In the four performance tests there was a tendency towards a lower score in a vigilance test while no effect of toluene exposure was seen in a peg board test, a five choice serial reaction test, or a colour test, indicating only...

  1. Black Carbon and Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in New York City’s Subway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The New York City (NYC) subway is the main mode of transport for over 5 million passengers on an average weekday. Therefore, airborne pollutants in the subway stations could have a significant impact on commuters and subway workers. This study looked at black carbon (BC) and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in selected subway stations in Manhattan. BC and PM2.5 levels were measured in real time using a Micro-Aethalometer and a PDR-1500 DataRAM, respectively. Simultaneous samples were also collected on quartz filters for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) analysis and on Teflon filters for gravimetric and trace element analysis. In the underground subway stations, mean real time BC concentrations ranged from 5 to 23 μg/m3, with 1 min average peaks >100 μg/m3, while real time PM2.5 levels ranged from 35 to 200 μg/m3. Mean EC levels ranged from 9 to 12.5 μg/m3. At street level on the same days, the mean BC and PM2.5 concentrations were below 3 and 10 μg/m3, respectively. This study shows that both BC soot and PM levels in NYC’s subways are considerably higher than ambient urban street levels and that further monitoring and investigation of BC and PM subway exposures are warranted. PMID:25409007

  2. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured iron compounds prepared from the decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl dispersed into carbon materials with varying porosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettino, Miguel A. Jr.; Cunha, Alfredo G.; Nunes, Evaristo; Passamani, Edson C.; Freitas, Jair C. C.; Emmerich, Francisco G.; Morigaki, Milton K.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the production and characterization of carbon-iron nanocomposites obtained from the decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO) 5 ) mixed with different carbon materials: a high surface area activated carbon (AC), powdered graphite (G), milled graphite (MG), and carbon black (CB). The nanocomposites were prepared either under argon or in ambient atmosphere, with a fixed ratio of Fe(CO) 5 (4.0 mL) to carbon precursor (2.0 g). The images of scanning electron microscopy and the analysis of textural properties indicated the presence of nanostructured Fe compounds homogeneously dispersed into the different classes of pores of the carbon matrices. The elemental Fe content was always larger for samples prepared in ambient atmosphere, reaching values in the range of 20–32 wt%. On the other hand, samples prepared under argon showed reduced Fe content, with values in the range 5–10 wt% for samples prepared from precursors with low surface area (G, MG, and CB) and a much higher value (~19 wt%) for samples prepared from the precursor of high surface area (AC). Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry showed that the nanoparticles were mostly composed of iron oxides in the case of the samples prepared in oxygen-rich ambient atmosphere and also for the AC-derived nanocomposite prepared under argon, which is consistent with the large oxygen content of this precursor. For the other precursors, with reduced or no oxygen content, metallic iron and iron carbides were found to be the dominant phases in samples prepared under oxygen-free atmosphere. The samples prepared in ambient atmosphere and the AC-derived sample prepared under argon exhibited superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, as revealed by temperature-dependent magnetization curves and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  3. Concentration variations of the tropospheric carbon dioxide over the Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Murayama

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft measurements of the atmospheric CO_2 concentration have been made over Syowa Station, Antarctica since 1983. The minimum concentration of the average seasonal CO_2 cycle appears in March throughout the troposphere, while the maximum concentration occurs in mid-August in the upper troposphere and in late September in the middle and lower troposphere. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle decreases with height. The CO_2 concentration increases with height during most of the year; however, this height dependency is larger from summer to early winter than in the remaining seasons. The average concentration difference between the upper troposphere and the ground surface is about 0.3ppmv. From comparisons with the results of the ground-based and aircraft measurements at southern middle and high latitudes and trajectory analysis, it is hypothesized that the seasonal cycle of height-dependent atmospheric transport processes could influence the seasonal cycle and the vertical distribution of the CO_2 concentration over Syowa Station.

  4. Adsorption/desorption of low concentration of carbonyl sulfide by impregnated activated carbon under micro-oxygen conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xueqian; Qiu, Juan; Ning, Ping; Ren, Xiaoguang; Li, Ziyan; Yin, Zaifei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbonyl sulfide can be catalytic oxidized by micro-oxygen in the off-gas. ► How to use the trace oxygen for the oxidation of carbonyl sulfide was a challenge. ► The SO 4 2− species in the adsorbent sample were generated by a catalytic oxidation process. - Abstract: Activated carbon modified with different impregnants has been studied for COS removal efficiency under micro-oxygen conditions. Activated carbon modified with Cu(NO 3 ) 2 –CoPcS–KOH (denoted as Cu–Co–KW) is found to have markedly enhanced adsorption purification ability. In the adsorption purification process, the reaction temperature, oxygen concentration, and relative humidity of the gas are determined to be three crucial factors. A breakthrough of 43.34 mg COS/g adsorbent at 60 °S and 30% relative humidity with 1.0% oxygen is shown in Cu–Co–KW for removing COS. The structures of the activated carbon samples are characterized using nitrogen adsorption, and their surface chemical structures are analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Modification of Cu(NO 3 ) 2 –CoPcS–KOH appears to improve the COS removal capacity significantly, during which, SO 4 2− is presumably formed, strongly adsorbed, and present in the micropores ranging from 0.7 to 1.5 nm. TPD is used to identify the products containing sulfur species on the carbon surface, where SO 2 and COS are detected in the effluent gas generated from exhausted Cu–Co–KW (denoted Cu–Co–KWE). According to the current study results, the activated carbon impregnated with Cu(NO 3 ) 2 –CoPcS–KOH promises a good candidate for COS adsorbent, with the purified gas meeting requirements for desirable chemical feed stocks.

  5. Adsorption/desorption of low concentration of carbonyl sulfide by impregnated activated carbon under micro-oxygen conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xueqian, E-mail: wxqian3000@yahoo.com.cn [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Qiu, Juan; Ning, Ping; Ren, Xiaoguang; Li, Ziyan; Yin, Zaifei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Wei [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonyl sulfide can be catalytic oxidized by micro-oxygen in the off-gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer How to use the trace oxygen for the oxidation of carbonyl sulfide was a challenge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} species in the adsorbent sample were generated by a catalytic oxidation process. - Abstract: Activated carbon modified with different impregnants has been studied for COS removal efficiency under micro-oxygen conditions. Activated carbon modified with Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-CoPcS-KOH (denoted as Cu-Co-KW) is found to have markedly enhanced adsorption purification ability. In the adsorption purification process, the reaction temperature, oxygen concentration, and relative humidity of the gas are determined to be three crucial factors. A breakthrough of 43.34 mg COS/g adsorbent at 60 Degree-Sign S and 30% relative humidity with 1.0% oxygen is shown in Cu-Co-KW for removing COS. The structures of the activated carbon samples are characterized using nitrogen adsorption, and their surface chemical structures are analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Modification of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-CoPcS-KOH appears to improve the COS removal capacity significantly, during which, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} is presumably formed, strongly adsorbed, and present in the micropores ranging from 0.7 to 1.5 nm. TPD is used to identify the products containing sulfur species on the carbon surface, where SO{sub 2} and COS are detected in the effluent gas generated from exhausted Cu-Co-KW (denoted Cu-Co-KWE). According to the current study results, the activated carbon impregnated with Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-CoPcS-KOH promises a good candidate for COS adsorbent, with the purified gas meeting requirements for desirable chemical feed stocks.

  6. Controlling Foam Morphology of Poly(methyl methacrylate via Surface Chemistry and Concentration of Silica Nanoparticles and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Process Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Rende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposite foams have received considerable attention because of their potential use in advanced applications such as bone scaffolds, food packaging, and transportation materials due to their low density and enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties compared to traditional polymer foams. In this study, silica nanofillers were used as nucleating agents and supercritical carbon dioxide as the foaming agent. The use of nanofillers provides an interface upon which CO2 nucleates and leads to remarkably low average cell sizes while improving cell density (number of cells per unit volume. In this study, the effect of concentration, the extent of surface modification of silica nanofillers with CO2-philic chemical groups, and supercritical carbon dioxide process conditions on the foam morphology of poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA, were systematically investigated to shed light on the relative importance of material and process parameters. The silica nanoparticles were chemically modified with tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyl triethoxysilane leading to three different surface chemistries. The silica concentration was varied from 0.85 to 3.2% (by weight. The supercritical CO2 foaming was performed at four different temperatures (40, 65, 75, and 85°C and between 8.97 and 17.93 MPa. By altering the surface chemistry of the silica nanofiller and manipulating the process conditions, the average cell diameter was decreased from 9.62±5.22 to 1.06±0.32 μm, whereas, the cell density was increased from 7.5±0.5×108 to 4.8±0.3×1011 cells/cm3. Our findings indicate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles with CO2-philic surfactants has the strongest effect on foam morphology.

  7. Carbon allocation and element composition in four Chlamydomonas mutants defective in genes related to the CO2 concentrating mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmola, Francesco; Mukherjee, Bratati; Moroney, James V; Giordano, Mario

    2014-09-01

    Four mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with defects in different components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) or in Rubisco activase were grown autotrophically at high pCO2 and then transferred to low pCO2, in order to study the role of different components of the CCM on carbon allocation and elemental composition. To study carbon allocation, we measured the relative size of the main organic pools by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to analyze the elemental composition of algal cells. Our data show that although the organic pools increased their size at high CO2 in all strains, their stoichiometry was highly homeostatic, i.e., the ratios between carbohydrates and proteins, lipid and proteins, and carbohydrates and lipids, did not change significantly. The only exception was the wild-type 137c, in which proteins decreased relative to carbohydrates and lipids, when the cells were transferred to low CO2. It is noticeable that the two wild types used in this study responded differently to the transition from high to low CO2. Malfunctions of the CCM influenced the concentration of several elements, somewhat altering cell elemental stoichiometry: especially the C/P and N/P ratios changed appreciably in almost all strains as a function of the growth CO2 concentration, except in 137c and the Rubisco activase mutant rca1. In strain cia3, defective in the lumenal carbonic anhydrase (CA), the cell quotas of P, S, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn were about 5-fold higher at low CO2 than at high CO2. A Principle Components Analysis showed that, mostly because of its elemental composition, cia3 behaved in a substantially different way from all other strains, at low CO2. The lumenal CA thus plays a crucial role, not only for the correct functioning of the CCM, but also for element utilization. Not surprisingly, growth at high CO2 attenuated differences among strains.

  8. Fine-scale estimation of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter concentrations in proximity to a road intersection by using wavelet neural network with genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Feng; He, Hong-di; Lu, Qing-Chang; Wang, Dongsheng; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2015-03-01

    At road intersections, vehicles frequently stop with idling engines during the red-light period and speed up rapidly in the green-light period, which generates higher velocity fluctuation and thus higher emission rates. Additionally, the frequent changes of wind direction further add the highly variable dispersion of pollutants at the street scale. It is, therefore, very difficult to estimate the distribution of pollutant concentrations using conventional deterministic causal models. For this reason, a hybrid model combining wavelet neural network and genetic algorithm (GA-WNN) is proposed for predicting 5-min series of carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in proximity to an intersection. The proposed model is examined based on the measured data under two situations. As the measured pollutant concentrations are found to be dependent on the distance to the intersection, the model is evaluated in three locations respectively, i.e. 110 m, 330 m and 500 m. Due to the different variation of pollutant concentrations on varied time, the model is also evaluated in peak and off-peak traffic time periods separately. Additionally, the proposed model, together with the back-propagation neural network (BPNN), is examined with the measured data in these situations. The proposed model is found to perform better in predictability and precision for both CO and PM2.5 than BPNN does, implying that the hybrid model can be an effective tool to improve the accuracy of estimating pollutants' distribution pattern at intersections. The outputs of these findings demonstrate the potential of the proposed model to be applicable to forecast the distribution pattern of air pollution in real-time in proximity to road intersection.

  9. Carbon dioxide absorbents containing potassium hydroxide produce much larger concentrations of compound A from sevoflurane in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakage, M; Yamada, S; Chen, X; Iwasaki, S; Tsujiguchi, N; Namiki, A

    2000-07-01

    We investigated the concentrations of degraded sevoflurane Compound A during low-flow anesthesia with four carbon dioxide (CO(2)) absorbents. The concentrations of Compound A, obtained from the inspiratory limb of the circle system, were measured by using a gas chromatograph. In the groups administered 2 L/min fresh gas flow with 1% sevoflurane, when the conventional CO(2) absorbents, Wakolime(TM) (Wako, Tokyo, Japan) and Drägersorb(TM) (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany), were used, the concentrations of Compound A increased steadily from a baseline to 14.3 ppm (mean) and 13.2 ppm, respectively, at 2 h after exposure to sevoflurane. In contrast, when the other novel types of absorbents containing decreased or no potassium hydroxide/sodium hydroxide, Medisorb(TM) (Datex-Ohmeda, Louisville, CO) and Amsorb(TM) (Armstrong, Coleraine, Northern Ireland), were used, Compound A remained at baseline (potassium hydroxide/sodium hydroxide produce much larger concentrations of Compound A from sevoflurane in clinical practice. An absorbent containing neither potassium hydroxide nor sodium hydroxide produces the smallest concentrations of Compound A.

  10. Carbon monoxide concentrations in outdoor wood-fired kitchens in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso--implications for women's and children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsson, Sofia; Holmer, Björn; Andjelic, Andreas; Lindén, Jenny; Cimerman, Sandra; Barregard, Lars

    2014-07-01

    A majority of households in developing countries rely on biomass fuel for cooking, typically burned in open fires or simple stoves. The incomplete combustion of these fuels causes adverse health effects such as respiratory diseases, especially among women and children. However, quantitative data on pollution levels and on associated diseases are limited. We examined cooking habits and self-reported health in 31 households with outdoor open wood fires in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, using structured interviews. In eight households, carbon monoxide (CO) was measured using passive sampling. In addition, meteorology and ambient CO concentrations were assessed. The average CO concentration during cooking was 4.3 ppm, with a maximum of 65.3 ppm and minimum of 0.3 ppm (1-min values). A clear daily pattern was observed, with relatively low concentrations during the day and high during the evening, occasionally exceeding the World Health Organization 1- and 8-h guidelines when the air stabilised. On average, CO concentrations were 43 % higher in kitchens located in closed yards than in those located in open yards, showing that fireplace location affected the levels. Eye irritation and coughing among women and children were reported by 30 % of the households. Based on previously reported relations between CO concentrations and fine particles (health risk among women and children in households with outdoor open wood fires. The results suggest that burning should be limited between sunset and dawn and in areas with limited ventilation to reduce pollutions levels.

  11. Can a low-carbon-energy transition be sustained in post-Fukushima Japan? Assessing the varying impacts of exogenous shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Takako; Zusman, Eric; Monogan, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear crisis, Japan began contemplating energy policy reforms that drew inspiration from low-carbon research. This article focuses on a question central to advancing low-carbon research in Japan and elsewhere: namely, how does an exogenous shock affect the onset, magnitude, and permanence of changes in electricity consumption? The article employs intervention analysis with an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model to answer this question. The data analysis reveals that post-Fukushima electricity use underwent a sudden, significant, and sustained reduction across Japan. The shock not only affected the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) coverage area but the more distant Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO) coverage area. Large electricity users responded with an immediate and significant reduction in electricity consumption that rebounded to below pre-crisis levels; households responded more gradually with no rebound. Two of the more interesting results from the data analysis – the persistence in reductions in the more distant KEPCO coverage area and the rebound among large users – are then explained with a review of survey data and policy trends. Overall the quantitative and qualitative evidence suggests that an exogenous shock may give rise to a reduction in electricity consumption but cannot sustain a low-carbon transition. - Highlights: • Contributing to the literature on low carbon transitions. • Comparing post-Fukushima electricity consumption across regions and user groups. • Recommending reforms to sustain energy savings after an exogenous shock

  12. The soil organic carbon content of anthropogenically altered organic soils effects the dissolved organic matter quality, but not the dissolved organic carbon concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bechtold, Michel; Lücke, Andreas; Bol, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This is especially true for peatlands which usually show high concentrations of DOC due to the high stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC). Most previous studies found that DOC concentrations in the soil solution depend on the SOC content. Thus, one would expect low DOC concentrations in peatlands which have anthropogenically been altered by mixing with sand. Here, we want to show the effect of SOC and groundwater level on the quantity and quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM). Three sampling sites were installed in a strongly disturbed bog. Two sites differ in SOC (Site A: 48%, Site B: 9%) but show the same mean annual groundwater level of 15 and 18 cm below ground, respectively. The SOC content of site C (11%) is similar to Site B, but the groundwater level is much lower (-31 cm) than at the other two sites. All sites have a similar depth of the organic horizon (30 cm) and the same land-use (low-intensity sheep grazing). Over two years, the soil solution was sampled bi-weekly in three depths (15, 30 and 60 cm) and three replicates. All samples were analyzed for DOC and selected samples for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and delta-13C and delta-15N. Despite differences in SOC and groundwater level, DOC concentrations did not differ significantly (A: 192 ± 62 mg/L, B: 163 ± 55 mg/L and C: 191 ± 97 mg/L). At all sites, DOC concentrations exceed typical values for peatlands by far and emphasize the relevance even of strongly disturbed organic soils for DOC losses. Individual DOC concentrations were controlled by the temperature and the groundwater level over the preceding weeks. Differences in DOM quality were clearer. At site B with a low SOC content, the DOC:DON ratio of the soil solution equals the soil's C:N ratio, but the DOC:DON ratio is much higher than the C:N ratio at site A. In all cases, the DOC:DON ratio strongly correlates with delta-13C. There is no

  13. Effects of carbon concentration on microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast nickel-free Co–28Cr–9W-based dental alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Kenta; Mori, Manami; Chiba, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We determined the effects of carbon concentration on the microstructures and tensile properties of the Ni-free Co–29Cr–9W–1Si–C (mass%) cast alloys used in dental applications. Alloy specimens prepared with carbon concentrations in the range 0.01–0.27 mass% were conventionally cast. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) revealed that precipitates had formed in all the alloy specimens. The σ phase, a chromium-rich intermetallic compound, had formed in the region between the dendrite arms of the low-carbon-content (e.g., 0.01C) alloys. Adding carbon to the alloys increased the amount of interdendritic precipitates that formed and changed the precipitation behavior; the precipitated phase changed from the σ phase to the M 23 C 6 carbide with increasing carbon concentration. Adding a small amount of carbon (i.e., 0.04 mass%) to the alloys dramatically enhanced the 0.2% proof stress, which subsequently gradually increased with increasing content of carbon in the alloys. Elongation-to-failure, on the other hand, increased with increasing carbon content and showed a maximum at carbon concentrations of ∼ 0.1 mass%. The M 23 C 6 carbide formed at the interdendritic region may govern the tensile properties of the as-cast Co–Cr–W alloys similar to how it governed those of the hot-rolled alloys prepared in our previous study. - Highlights: • Microstructure and tensile properties of C-doped Co–Cr–W cast alloys was studied. • Adding carbon stabilized the γ matrix and changed the precipitation behavior. • Formation of carbide precipitates strengthened C-doped Co–Cr–Mo alloys. • A maximum tensile elongation was obtained at carbon concentrations of ∼0.1 mass%

  14. Estimation of carbonate concentration and characterization of marine sediments by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Venkatachalapathy, R.

    its saturation horizon is shallower than that calcite [1]. Elements such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, in addition to their substantial contribution to marine sediments, are used biologically in vital cellular processes and in the mineralization of skeletons... such as ocean acidification on ecosystems. Thus, a rapid, cheap and non-destructive tool is required to investigate the distribution of CaCO3 in sediments for the understanding of the fate of biologically produced carbonate. 3    FTIR spectroscopy is one...

  15. Last Glacial to Holocene changes of deep and intermediate water carbonate ion concentrations in the Southern Ocean: constraints from foraminiferal Boron/Calcium ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Kersten, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the first records of intermediate and deep water carbonate ion concentrations in the South Pacific were generated in order to study carbon cycle dynamics throughout the past 30,000 years. Benthic foraminiferal B/Ca, an indicator of past seawater carbonate ion saturation is the main paleoceanographic proxy that was used in this study. Down-core proxy studies carried out within the scope of this thesis were used to address currently unresolved questions about the origin, mechani...

  16. The Effect Of Carbon Concentration On The Retained Austenite Content And The Mechanical Properties Of TRIP Steel Wire Rod Obtained From The Stelmor Controlled Cooling Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskalski Z.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The austenite content of the multiphase TRIP-structure steels depends, inter alia, on the carbon concentration and the properly selected parameters of the two-stage heat treatment.

  17. Deficiency of Carbonic Anhydrase II Results in a Urinary Concentrating Defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnan, Devishree; Pan, Wanling; Beggs, Megan R

    2018-01-01

    (TDL); however, the physiological role of a CAII-AQP1 interaction in this nephron segment is not known. To determine if CAII was required for urinary concentration, we studied water handling in CAII-deficient mice. CAII-deficient mice demonstrate polyuria and polydipsia as well as an alkaline urine...... and bicarbonaturia, consistent with a type III renal tubular acidosis. Natriuresis and hypercalciuria cause polyuria, however, CAII-deficient mice did not have increased urinary sodium nor calcium excretion. Further examination revealed dilute urine in the CAII-deficient mice. Urinary concentration remained reduced...

  18. Relationship of bifenthrin sediment concentrations to grain size and total organic carbon in California waterbodies: implications for ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D

    2014-12-01

    A summary analysis of data sets from six California waterbodies was conducted to determine the relationship of bifenthrin sediment concentrations to: % sand/gravel; % silt; % clay; % silt/clay and % total organic carbon (TOC). The relationship of TOC to % sand/gravel, % silt, % clay, and % silt/clay was also analyzed. Statistically significant and meaningful direct relationships were reported between bifenthrin and % TOC, % silt, % clay and % silt/clay while a significant and meaningful inverse relationship was reported between bifenthrin and % sand/gravel. A significant and meaningful inverse relationship was reported between % TOC and % sand/gravel, while a significant and meaningful direct relationship was reported between % TOC and % silt, % clay and % silt/clay. Significant bifenthrin sediment concentrations would not be expected in non-depositional (sand/gravel) areas which have been reported to be dominant in various streams in California's Central Valley and are also the preferred habitat for many benthic macroinvertebrate taxa.

  19. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and mercury concentration in the scalp hair of residents from Taiji, a whaling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed δ 13 C, δ 15 N and Hg in hair from Japanese whale meat-eaters and non-eaters. ► The δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in whale meat-eaters were higher than those in non-eaters. ► The Hg concentration in whale meat-eaters was higher than that in non-eaters. ► A positive correlation was seen between δ 15 N and Hg in whale meat-eaters. ► Consumption of whale meat may increase δ 15 N, δ 13 C and Hg in the scalp hair. -- Abstract: We analyzed stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) as well as mercury (Hg) concentration in the scalp hair of Japanese who consumed whale meat and those who did not, and investigated the relationships among the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and Hg concentration. The average δ 15 N and δ 13 C values of whale meat-eaters (10.11‰ and −18.5‰) were significantly higher than those of non-eaters (9.28‰ and −18.9‰), respectively. The average Hg concentration of whale meat-eaters (20.6 μg/g) was significantly higher than that of non-eaters (2.20 μg/g). Significant positive correlations were found between the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration in the hair of whale meat-eaters, while the correlation between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration was not statistically significant in the non-eaters. The consumption of whale meat may increase Hg concentration as well as δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in scalp hair

  20. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H.; Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  1. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H. [University of Freiburg, Inst. of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R. [Technische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology and Ecophysiology of Plants, Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  2. Modelling soil organic carbon concentration of mineral soils in arable lands using legacy soil data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suuster, E; Ritz, Christian; Roostalu, H

    2012-01-01

    is appropriate if the study design has a hierarchical structure as in our scenario. We used the Estonian National Soil Monitoring data on arable lands to predict SOC concentrations of mineral soils. Subsequently, the model with the best prediction accuracy was applied to the Estonian digital soil map...

  3. Use of a double-wave carbon dioxide laser for determining small concentrations of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitovich, A.P.; Dunaev, V.B.; Prokopov, A.P.

    1985-09-01

    According to this experiment, the smallest detectable concentration of trichloroethylene is C = 2.0/sup -5/ mg/cm/sup 2/. The experiments described were made with an unstabilized laser; it is expected that with an improved radiation recording and a laser with greater stability, the detection limit could be reduced by one or two orders of magnitude.

  4. Optical and Structural Properties of Multi-wall-carbon-nanotube-modified ZnO Synthesized at Varying Substrate Temperatures for Highly Efficient Light Sensing Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Saasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural, optical and light detection properties on carbon-nanotube-modified ZnO thin films grown at various temperatures from room to 1173 K are investigated. The optical band gap values calculated from reflectivity data show a hump at a critical temperature range of 873-1073 K. Similar trends in surface roughness as well as crystallite size of the films are observed. These changes have been attributed to structural change from wurzite hexagonal to cubic carbon modified ZnO as also validated by x-ray diffraction, RBS and PIXE of these layers. UV and visible light detection properties show similar trends. It is demonstrated that the present films can sense both UV and visible light to a maximum response efficiency of 66 % which is much higher than the last reported efficiency 10 %. This high response is given predominantly by cubic crystallite rather than the wurzite hexagonal composites.

  5. Evaluating vertical concentration profile of carbon source released from slow-releasing carbon source tablets and in situ biological nitrate denitrification activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeum, Y.; HAN, K.; Yoon, J.; Lee, J. H.; Song, K.; Kang, J. H.; Park, C. W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Slow-releasing carbon source tablets were manufactured during the design of a small-scale in situ biological denitrification system to reduce high-strength nitrate (> 30 mg N/L) from a point source such as livestock complexes. Two types of slow-releasing tablets, precipitating tablet (PT, apparent density of 2.0 g/mL) and floating tablet (FT), were prepared to achieve a vertically even distribution of carbon source (CS) in a well and an aquifer. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was used to control the release rate, and microcrystalline cellulose pH 101 (MCC 101) was added as a binder. The #8 sand was used as a precipitation agent for the PTs, and the floating agents for the FTs were calcium carbonate and citric acid. FTs floated within 30 min. and remained in water because of the buoyance from carbon dioxide, which formed during the acid-base reaction between citric acid and calcium carbonate. The longevities of PTs with 300 mg of HPMC and FTs with 400 mg of HPMC were 25.4 days and 37.3 days, respectively. We assessed vertical CS profile in a continuous flowing physical aquifer model (release test, RT) and its efficiency on biological nitrate denitrification (denitrification test, DT). During the RT, PTs, FTs and a tracer (as 1 mg rhodamine B/L) were initially injected into a well of physical aquifer model (PAM). Concentrations of CS and the tracer were monitored along the streamline in the PAM to evaluate vertical profile of CS. During the DT, the same experiment was performed as RT, except continuous injection of solution containing 30 mg N/L into the PAM to evaluate biological denitrification activity. As a result of RT, temporal profiles of CS were similar at 3 different depths of monitoring wells. These results suggest that simultaneous addition of PT and FT be suitable for achieving a vertically even distribution of the CS in the injection well and an aquifer. In DT, similar profile of CS was detected in the injection well, and nitrate was biologically

  6. Straw incorporation increases crop yield and soil organic carbon sequestration but varies under different natural conditions and farming practices in China: a system analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xiao; Xu, Cong; Dungait, Jennifer A. J.; Bol, Roland; Wang, Xiaojie; Wu, Wenliang; Meng, Fanqiao

    2018-01-01

    Loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) from agricultural soils is a key indicator of soil degradation associated with reductions in net primary productivity in crop production systems worldwide. Technically simple and locally appropriate solutions are required for farmers to increase SOC and to improve cropland management. In the last 30 years, straw incorporation (SI) has gradually been implemented across China in the context of agricultural intensification and rural liveliho...

  7. Long-term trends in California mobile source emissions and ambient concentrations of black carbon and organic aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C; Goldstein, Allen H; Harley, Robert A

    2015-04-21

    A fuel-based approach is used to assess long-term trends (1970-2010) in mobile source emissions of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosol (OA, including both primary emissions and secondary formation). The main focus of this analysis is the Los Angeles Basin, where a long record of measurements is available to infer trends in ambient concentrations of BC and organic carbon (OC), with OC used here as a proxy for OA. Mobile source emissions and ambient concentrations have decreased similarly, reflecting the importance of on- and off-road engines as sources of BC and OA in urban areas. In 1970, the on-road sector accounted for ∼90% of total mobile source emissions of BC and OA (primary + secondary). Over time, as on-road engine emissions have been controlled, the relative importance of off-road sources has grown. By 2010, off-road engines were estimated to account for 37 ± 20% and 45 ± 16% of total mobile source contributions to BC and OA, respectively, in the Los Angeles area. This study highlights both the success of efforts to control on-road emission sources, and the importance of considering off-road engine and other VOC source contributions when assessing long-term emission and ambient air quality trends.

  8. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  9. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  10. Contribution of Black Carbon to PM2.5 Concentration in Six Brazilian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M.; Miranda, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The data presented here was part of a comprehensive project coordinated by the University of São Paulo School of Medicine. The objective was to identify the sources to the PM2.5 mass in the following cities: São Paulo (classified as a megacity, with 20 million inhabitants); Rio de Janeiro (the second largest city in Brazil, with ten million inhabitants); Belo Horizonte (2.5 million inhabitants); Curitiba (1.8 million inhabitants); Recife (a coastal city in the northeast of the country, with 1.5 million inhabitants); and Porto Alegre (1.4 million inhabitants). For each city, sampling was performed over a period of approximately 2 years (from winter 2007 to winter 2009). At each location, 24-h samples (8:00 AM to 8:00 AM) were collected on 37-mm polycarbonate filters at 10 Lm -1 using a PM2.5 Harvard Impactor, developed at the Harvard School of Public Health. The sampling stations can all be classified as being urban sites (Chow et al. 2002). They were all near streets with high traffic volumes, where there is significant participation not only by the light-duty fleet (gasohol and ethanol emissions) but also by the heavy-duty fleet (diesel emissions). Two of the cities evaluated, Rio de Janeiro and Recife, are near the Atlantic coast. Before and after sampling, the filters were weighed on a microbalance with 1-μg readability (Mettler-Toledo, Columbus, OH, USA). The BC concentrations were determined by optical reflectance with a smoke stain reflectometer (model 43D; Diffusion Systems Ltd, London, UK). It was shown in Sao Paulo that BC is mainly emitted by heavy-duty fleet. Mean PM2.5 concentrations in the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, and Recife were 28.0, 17.2, 14.7, 14.4, 13.4, and 7.3 μg/m3, respectively. And mean BC concentrations were 10.2, 3.5, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6 and 1.9 in the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, and Recife, respectively. The BC concentration was used as a

  11. Accelerating carbon uptake in the Northern Hemisphere - Evidence from the interhemispheric difference of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxuan [Ministry of Education Key Lab. for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Dept. of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M Univ. at Galveston, Galveston (United States)], e-mail: yxw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Mingwei; Shen, Lulu [Ministry of Education Key Lab. for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2013-11-15

    Previous studies have indicated that the regression slope between the interhemispheric difference (IHD) of CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and fossil fuel (FF) CO{sub 2} emissions was rather constant at about 0.5 ppm/Pg C yr{sup -1} during 1957 - 2003. In this study, we found that the average regression slopes between the IHD of CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and IHD of FF emissions for 16 sites in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) decreased from 0.69{+-}0.12 ppm/Pg C yr{sup -1} during 1982 - 1991 to 0.37{+-}0.06 ppm/Pg C yr{sup -1} during 1996 - 2008 (IHD of CO{sub 2} defined as the differences between each site and the South Pole, SPO). The largest difference was found in summer and autumn. The change in the spatial distribution of FF emissions driven by fast increasing Asian emissions may explain the slope change at three sites located north of 60 deg N but not at the other sites. A 30-yr SF{sub 6} simulation with time-varying meteorology and constant emissions suggests no significant difference in the decadal average and seasonal variation of interhemispheric exchange time{sub (}t{sub ex)} between the two periods. Based on the hemispheric net carbon fluxes derived from a two-box model, we attributed 75 % of the regression slope decrease at NH sites south of 60 deg N to the acceleration of net carbon sink increase in the NH and 25 % to the weakening of net carbon sink increase in the SH during 1996 - 2008. The growth rate of net carbon sink in the NH has increased by a factor of about three from 0.028{+-}0.023 [mean{+-}2{sigma}] Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1982 - 1991 to 0.093{+-}0.033 Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1996 - 2008, exceeding the percentage increase in the growth rate of IHD of FF emissions between the two periods (45%). The growth rate of net carbon sink in the SH has reduced 62 % from 0.058{+-}0.018 Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1982 - 1991 to 0.022{+-}0.012 Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1996 - 2008.

  12. Exposure of commuters to carbon monoxide in Mexico City II. Comparison of in-vehicle and fixed-site concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bremauntz, A A; Ashmore, M R

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare measurements of carbon monoxide taken concurrently inside vehicles and at fixed-site monitoring stations (FSMs), in order to assess if the FSM stations can be used to estimate commuters' exposure to this pollutant. During the study period ambient CO concentrations were very high. Five selected stations reported concentrations in excess of the Mexican (13 ppm) and United States (9 ppm) 8-hour standards for CO. Since, for all modes of transportation, the in-vehicle concentrations were always larger than the concurrent ambient concentrations, the differences between them were always positive and the ratios were always greater than one. Average, in-vehicle/ambient ratios for each mode of transportation were: automobile, 5.2; minivan, 5.2; minibus, 4.3; bus, 3.1; trolleybus 3.0; and metro, 2.2. A series of simple regression models with a moderate predictive power (R2 = 0.47 to 0.71) were developed for metro, bus, minibus, and automobile commuters. The models include the FSM measurements and also, depending on the mode of transportation, other variables, such as vehicular speed, the route of travel, and the wind speed. In the future, the models should be validated in two ways to determine their predictive power. First, they should be verified against additional samples taken under similar conditions; and second, their applications under different conditions should be explored through sampling during a different season of the year or on other commuting routes.

  13. Low Concentration of Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Modulates Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Mammalian Cell Cluster Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During radiotherapy procedures, radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE can potentially lead to genetic hazards to normal tissues surrounding the targeted regions. Previous studies showed that RIBE intensities in cell cluster models were much higher than those in monolayer cultured cell models. On the other hand, low-concentration carbon monoxide (CO was previously shown to exert biological functions via binding to the heme domain of proteins and then modulating various signaling pathways. In relation, our previous studies showed that exogenous CO generated by the CO releasing molecule, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (CORM-2, at a relatively low concentration (20 µM, effectively attenuated the formation of RIBE-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB and micronucleus (MN. In the present work, we further investigated the capability of a low concentration of exogenous CO (CORM-2 of attenuating or inhibiting RIBE in a mixed-cell cluster model. Our results showed that CO (CORM-2 with a low concentration of 30 µM could effectively suppress RIBE-induced DSB (p53 binding protein 1, p53BP1, MN formation and cell proliferation in bystander cells but not irradiated cells via modulating the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS andcyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. The results can help mitigate RIBE-induced hazards during radiotherapy procedures.

  14. The effect of Sao Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Jaqueline S; Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; Ferreira, Marizete M da C; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. RESULTS The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (phospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not.

  15. Spatiotemporal analysis of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations over the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeri, Marcelo; Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; Lyra, Gustavo Bastos

    2011-09-01

    Time series of pollutants and weather variables measured at four sites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2002 and 2004, were used to characterize temporal and spatial relationships of air pollution. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were compared to national and international standards. The annual median concentration of PM10 was higher than the standard set by the World Health Organization (WHO) on all sites and the 24 h means exceeded the standards on several occasions on two sites. SO2 and CO did not exceed the limits, but the daily maximum of CO in one of the stations was 27% higher on weekends compared to weekdays, due to increased activity in a nearby Convention Center. Air temperature and vapor pressure deficit have both presented the highest correlations with pollutant's concentrations. The concentrations of SO2 and CO were not correlated between sites, suggesting that local sources are more important to those pollutants compared to PM10. The time series of pollutants and air temperature were decomposed in time and frequency by wavelet analysis. The results revealed that the common variability of air temperature and PM10 is dominated by temporal scales of 1-8 days, time scales that are associated with the passage of weather events, such as cold fronts.

  16. Growth Kinetics of Diazotrophic Bacillus sphaericus UPMB10 Cultured Using Different Types and Concentrations of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi, T. C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth kinetics of newly isolated diazotrophic Bacillus sphaericus UPMB10 grown in various carbon (lactate, acetate, glycerol, malate, fructose, xylose and sucrose and nitrogen (glutamate, yeast extract, arginine, hystadine, glycine, polypeptone, tryptophan, lysine, NH4Cl and urea sources was investigated using 2 L stirred tank fermenter. The highest growth was obtained in a medium containing lactate as a carbon source, which gave the highest maximum cell concentration of 2.30 g/L, which is corresponding to maximum viable cell count of 4.60 x 10^9 cfu/mL. However, the highest cell yield (1.06 g cell/g carbon consumed was obtained in cultivation using glycerol though slightly lower maximum viable cell count was obtained (3.22 x 10^9 cfu/mL. In addition, cost for the production of live cell using glycerol was about 15 times lower than the cost using lactate. Growth performance of this bacterium when yeast extract was used as a nitrogen source was comparable to the use of pure amino acid. The medium containing 1.8 g/L glycerol and 2 g/L yeast extract was suggested as optimal for growth of this bacterium, which gave carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N of 10:1. The maximum viable cell count obtained in cultivation using optimised medium in 2 L stirred tank fermenter was 3.34 x 10^9 cfu/mL and the cells maintained its capacity for N2 fixation at 18 nmol C2H2/h.mL.

  17. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Thorpe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  18. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andrew K.; Frankenberg, Christian; Thompson, David R.; Duren, Riley M.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Bue, Brian D.; Green, Robert O.; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krings, Thomas; Borchardt, Jakob; Kort, Eric A.; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Roberts, Dar A.; Dennison, Philip E.

    2017-10-01

    At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  19. Black carbon concentrations in California vehicles and estimation of in-vehicle diesel exhaust particulate matter exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, Scott A.; Winer, Arthur M.; Rodes, Charles E.

    This research assessed in-vehicle exposures to black carbon (BC) as an indicator of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposures. Approximately 50 h of real-time Aethalometer BC measurements were made inside vehicles driven on freeway and arterial loops in Los Angeles and Sacramento. Video tapes of the driver's view were transcribed to record the traffic conditions, vehicles followed, and vehicle occupant observations, and these results were tested for their associations with BC concentration. In-vehicle BC concentrations were highest when directly following diesel-powered vehicles, particularly those with low exhaust pipe locations. The lowest BC concentrations were observed while following gasoline-powered passenger cars, on average no different than not following any vehicle. Because diesel vehicles were over-sampled in the field study, results were not representative of real-world driving. To calculate representative exposures, in-vehicle BC concentrations were grouped by the type of vehicle followed, for each road type and congestion level. These groupings were then re-sampled stochastically, in proportion to the fraction of statewide vehicle miles traveled (VMT) under each of those conditions. The approximately 6% of time spent following diesel vehicles led to 23% of the in-vehicle BC exposure, while the remaining exposure was due to elevated roadway BC concentrations. In-vehicle BC exposures averaged 6 μg m -3 in Los Angeles and the Bay Area, the regions with the highest congestion and the majority of the state's VMT. The statewide average in-vehicle BC exposure was 4 μg m -3, corresponding to DPM concentrations of 7-23 μg m -3, depending on the Aethalometer response to elemental carbon (EC) and the EC fraction of the DPM. In-vehicle contributions to overall DPM exposures ranged from approximately 30% to 55% of total DPM exposure on a statewide population basis. Thus, although time spent in vehicles was only 1.5 h day -1 on average, vehicles may be the most

  20. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies of graphite materials prepared by high-temperature treatment of unburned carbon concentrates from combustion fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel Cabielles; Jean-Nol Rouzaud; Ana B. Garcia [Instituto Nacional del Carbn (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used in this work to study the microstructural (structure and microtexture) changes occurring during the high-temperature treatment of the unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes. Emphasis was placed on two aspects: (i) the development of graphitic carbon structures and (ii) the disordered carbon forms remaining in the graphitized samples. In addition, by coupling HRTEM with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, the transformations with the temperature of the inorganic matter (mainly iron- and silicon-based phases) of the unburned carbon concentrates were evidenced. The HRTEM results were compared to the averaged structural order of the materials as evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. As indicated by XRD and Raman parameters, more-ordered materials were obtained from the unburned carbon concentrates with higher mineral/inorganic matter, thus inferring the catalytic effect of some of their components. However, the average character of the information provided by these instrumental techniques seems to be inconclusive in discriminating between carbon structures with different degrees of order (stricto sensu graphite, graphitic, turbostratic, etc.) in a given graphitized unburned carbon. Unlike XRD and Raman, HRTEM is a useful tool for imaging directly the profile of the polyaromatic layers (graphene planes), thus allowing the sample heterogeneity to be looked at, specifically the presence of disordered carbon phases. 49 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Impact of needle age on the response of respiration in Scots pine to long-term elevation of carbon dioxide concentration and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha, T.; Ryyppo, A.; Kellomaki, S.; Wang, K-Y.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of needle age, elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on needle respiration in Scots pine was studied during a four-year period. Results showed that respiration rates and specific leaf area decreased in elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration relative to ambient conditions, but increased in elevated temperature and when elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and elevated temperature were combined. Starch and soluble sugar concentrations for a given needle age increased in elevated carbon dioxide, but decreased slightly under combined elevated temperature and elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Respiration rate and specific leaf area were highest in current year needles in all treatment modes. All treatment modes enhanced the difference in respiration between current year and older needles relative to ambient conditions. Carbohydrate concentration or specific leaf area remained unchanged in response to any treatment. Under ambient conditions the temperature coefficient of respiration increased slightly in elevated carbon dioxide regardless of age, however, there was significant decline at elevated temperature as well as when both carbon dioxide concentration and temperature were elevated, indicating acclimation of respiration to temperature. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  2. Effect of Fe ion concentration on fatigue life of carbon steel in aqueous CO2 environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska, Magdalena; Gudme, J.; Rubin, A.

    2016-01-01

    situ measurements of Fe2+ and pH. Characterisation of the corrosion scales and crack formations was performed using microscopic and diffraction techniques. Fatigue results showed two times better fatigue life, at the stress ranges of 250 MPa, for samples tested in solutions containing the concentration...... of Fe2+ marginally above the solubility limit of FeCO3 compared to the samples tested in highly supersaturated solution of Fe2+. Results revealed that the impact of the alternating stresses on the corrosion behaviour of samples reduces with lowering the applied stresses. At the stress range of 100 MPa...

  3. Bio-Inspired Supramolecular Chemistry Provides Highly Concentrated Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes in Polythiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the first observation, through X-ray diffraction, of noncovalent uracil–uracil (U–U dimeric π-stacking interactions in carbon nanotube (CNT–based supramolecular assemblies. The directionally oriented morphology determined using atomic force microscopy revealed highly organized behavior through π-stacking of U moieties in a U-functionalized CNT derivative (CNT–U. We developed a dispersion system to investigate the bio-inspired interactions between an adenine (A-terminated poly(3-adeninehexyl thiophene (PAT and CNT–U. These hybrid CNT–U/PAT materials interacted through π-stacking and multiple hydrogen bonding between the U moieties of CNT–U and the A moieties of PAT. Most importantly, the U···A multiple hydrogen bonding interactions between CNT–U and PAT enhanced the dispersion of CNT–U in a high-polarity solvent (DMSO. The morphology of these hybrids, determined using transmission electron microscopy, featured grape-like PAT bundles wrapped around the CNT–U surface; this tight connection was responsible for the enhanced dispersion of CNT–U in DMSO.

  4. Responses of Metabolites in Soybean Shoot Apices to Changing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sicher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seedlings were grown in controlled environment chambers with CO2 partial pressures of 38 (ambient and 72 (elevated Pa. Five or six shoot apices were harvested from individual 21- to 24-day-old plants. Metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography and, out of 21 compounds, only sucrose and fructose increased in response to CO2 enrichment. One unidentified metabolite, Unk-21.03 decreased up to 80% in soybean apices in response to elevated CO2. Levels of Unk-21.03 decreased progressively when atmospheric CO2 partial pressures were increased from 26 to 100 Pa. Reciprocal transfer experiments showed that Unk-21.03, and sucrose in soybean apices were altered slowly over several days to changes in atmospheric CO2 partial pressures. The mass spectrum of Unk-21.03 indicated that this compound likely contained both an amino and carboxyl group and was structurally related to serine and aspartate. Our findings suggested that CO2 enrichment altered a small number of specific metabolites in soybean apices. This could be an important step in understanding how plant growth and development are affected by carbon dioxide enrichment.

  5. Glutamine Synthetases GLN1;2 and GLN2 in Relation to Arabidopsis Growth Response to Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Varying Nitrogen Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vurrakula, Swathi

    content while diluting nitrogen concentrations. Such a reduction in nitrogen concentration will affect plant response to stress and seed/grain yield. Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the central nitrogen-assimilatory enzyme, performing primary and secondary nitrogen assimilation, in response to environmental....... Plants grown under elevated CO2 absorbed ammonia from the atmosphere, except with a high ammonium supply. GLN1;2 had a non-redundant role in determining vegetative growth and ammonium tolerance in response to elevated CO2. Under elevated CO2, GLN1;2 was compensable by GLN2 in assimilating nitrate...

  6. Compressive strength and resistance to chloride ion penetration and carbonation of recycled aggregate concrete with varying amount of fly ash and fine recycled aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jongsung; Park, Cheolwoo

    2011-11-01

    Construction and demolition waste has been dramatically increased in the last decade, and social and environmental concerns on the recycling have consequently been increased. Recent technology has greatly improved the recycling process for waste concrete. This study investigates the fundamental characteristics of concrete using recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for its application to structural concrete members. The specimens used 100% coarse RCA, various replacement levels of natural aggregate with fine RCA, and several levels of fly ash addition. Compressive strength of mortar and concrete which used RCA gradually decreased as the amount of the recycled materials increased. Regardless of curing conditions and fly ash addition, the 28 days strength of the recycled aggregate concrete was greater than the design strength, 40 MPa, with a complete replacement of coarse aggregate and a replacement level of natural fine aggregate by fine RCA up to 60%. The recycled aggregate concrete achieved sufficient resistance to the chloride ion penetration. The measured carbonation depth did not indicate a clear relationship to the fine RCA replacement ratio but the recycled aggregate concrete could also attain adequate carbonation resistance. Based on the results from the experimental investigations, it is believed that the recycled aggregate concrete can be successfully applied to structural concrete members. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An in situ study of growth of Lemongrass Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) W. Watson on varying concentration of Chromium (Cr+6) on soil and its bioaccumulation: Perspectives on phytoremediation potential and phytostabilisation of chromium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Deepak Kumar; Pradhan, Chinmay; Patra, Hemanta Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil is a growing concern in sustainable agricultural production and food safety. Remediation of Cr from contaminated soils is a challenging task which may not only help in sustaining agriculture but also in minimizing adverse environmental impacts. Pot culture experiments were performed with the application of varied concentration of Cr +6 to assess the Chromium accumulation potential of Lemongrass and to study the impact of toxic concentration of Cr +6 on morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of the plant. The results showed an increasing accumulation trend of Chromium with increasing Chromium concentrations in both root and shoot of 60 days old Lemongrass plants, while the protein and chlorophyll contents decreased. Similarly, accumulation of Cr increased the levels of proline and antioxidant enzymes indicating the enhanced damage control activity. The potentiality of the plant with the capacity to accumulate and stabilize Cr compound in Cr contaminated soil by phytoremediation process has been explored in the present investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influences of observation method, season, soil depth, land use and management practice on soil dissolvable organic carbon concentrations: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siqi; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhisheng; Zhang, Wei; Han, Shenghui

    2018-08-01

    Quantifications of soil dissolvable organic carbon concentrations, together with other relevant variables, are needed to understand the carbon biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil dissolvable organic carbon can generally be grouped into two incomparable categories. One is soil extractable organic carbon (EOC), which is measured by extracting with an aqueous extractant (distilled water or a salt solution). The other is soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is measured by sampling soil water using tension-free lysimeters or tension samplers. The influences of observation methods, natural factors and management practices on the measured concentrations, which ranged from 2.5-3970 (mean: 69) mg kg -1 of EOC and 0.4-200 (mean: 12) mg L -1 of DOC, were investigated through a meta-analysis. The observation methods (e.g., extractant, extractant-to-soil ratio and pre-treatment) had significant effects on EOC concentrations. The most significant divergence (approximately 109%) occurred especially at the extractant of potassium sulfate (K 2 SO 4 ) solutions compared to distilled water. As EOC concentrations were significantly different (approximately 47%) between non-cultivated and cultivated soils, they were more suitable than DOC concentrations for assessing the influence of land use on soil dissolvable organic carbon levels. While season did not significantly affect EOC concentrations, DOC concentrations showed significant differences (approximately 50%) in summer and autumn compared to spring. For management practices, applications of crop residues and nitrogen fertilizers showed positive effects (approximately 23% to 91%) on soil EOC concentrations, while tillage displayed negative effects (approximately -17%), compared to no straw, no nitrogen fertilizer and no tillage. Compared to no nitrogen, applications of synthetic nitrogen also appeared to significantly enhance DOC concentrations (approximately 32%). However, further studies are needed in the future

  9. Evaluation of the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrates from municipal wastewater reclamation by coagulation and granular activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Tao; Shi, Na; Tian, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) contains elevated concentrations of contaminants which pose potential risks to aquatic environment. The treatment of ROC from an mWRRO using granular activated carbon (GAC) combined pretreatment of coagulation was optimized and evaluated. Among the three coagulants tested, ferric chloride (FeCl3) presented relatively higher DOC removal efficiency than polyaluminium chloride and lime at the same dosage and coagulation conditions. The removal efficiency of DOC, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity concentration of the ROC could achieve 16.9, 18.9, and 39.7 %, respectively, by FeCl3 coagulation (with FeCl3 dosage of 180.22 mg/L), which can hardly reduce UV254 and genotoxicity normalized by DOC of the DOM with MW activity were completely eliminated by the GAC adsorption. The results suggest that GAC adsorption combined pretreatment of FeCl3 coagulation as an efficient method to control organics, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity in the ROC from mWRRO system.

  10. Growth and {delta}{sup 13}C responses to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations for several crop species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanba, Y.T.; Wada, E. [Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osaki, M.; Nakamura, T. [Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    The responses of plant growth and carbon isotope discrimination ({Delta}) to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations for several crop species (lettuce: Lactuca sativa L.; corn: Zea Mays L. var. P3540, wheat: Triticum aestivum L. var Haruyutaka; and soybean: Glycine Max (L). Merr. var. Kitamusume) were investigated. Shoot relative growth rate was used to indicate plant growth, and {delta}{sup 13}C value of leaf materials in corn (C4 species) was used to calculate {Delta} for C3 species. Plant growth was stimulated by enriched CO{sub 2}, while {Delta} remained almost constant as CO{sub 2} concentration changed. {Delta} showed interspecific difference, and the plant species of larger {Delta} had larger relative growth rates. Relative growth rates of the plants of larger {Delta} were stimulated by CO{sub 2} enrichment more than those of the plants of smaller {Delta}. We propose that plant {Delta} could be a possible parameter to assess the interspecific difference of plant response to the increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. 3 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.

  11. [Effect of carbon substrate concentration on N2, N2O, NO, CO2, and CH4 emissions from a paddy soil in anaerobic condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nuo; Liao, Ting-ting; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Xun-hua; Hu, Rong-gui; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the effects of carbon and nitrogen substrates concentrations on the emissions of denitrification gases including nitrogen (N2) , nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from anaerobic paddy soils is believed to be helpful for development of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies. Moreover, understanding the quantitative dependence of denitrification products compositions on carbon substrate concentration could provide some key parameters or parameterization scheme for developing process-oriented model(s) of nitrogen transformation. Using a silt loam soil collected from a paddy field, we investigated the influence of carbon substrate concentration on the emissions of the denitrification gases, CO2 and CH4 from anaerobically incubated soils by setting two treatments: control (CK) with initial soil nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of ~ 50 mg.kg-1 and -28 mg kg-1 , respectively; and DOC added (C + ) with initial soil nitrate and DOC concentrations of ~50 mg.kg-1 and ~300 mg.kg-1 , respectively. The emissions of denitrification gases, CO2 and CH4, as well as concentrations of carbon and nitrogen substrates for each treatment were dynamically measured, using the gas-flow-soil-core technique and a paralleling substrate monitoring system. The results showed that CH4 emission was not observed in CK treatment while observed in C treatment. Aggregate emission of greenhouse gases for C + treatment was significantly higher comparing with the CK treatment (P emissions in total nitrogen gases emissions were approximately 9% , 35% and 56% for CK treatment, respectively; and approximately 31% , 50% and 19% for C+ treatment, respectively, with significant differences between these two treatments (P carbon substrate concentrations can significantly change the composition of nitrogen gas emissions. The results also implicated that organic fertilizer should not be applied to nitrate-rich paddy soils prior to

  12. Which plant trait explains the variations in relative growth rate and its response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes derived from a variety of habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Riichi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2016-03-01

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ([CO2]) enhances plant growth, but this enhancement varies considerably. It is still uncertain which plant traits are quantitatively related to the variation in plant growth. To identify the traits responsible, we developed a growth analysis model that included primary parameters associated with morphology, nitrogen (N) use, and leaf and root activities. We analysed the vegetative growth of 44 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana L. grown at ambient and elevated [CO2] (800 μmol mol(-1)). The 44 ecotypes were selected such that they were derived from various altitudes and latitudes. Relative growth rate (RGR; growth rate per unit plant mass) and its response to [CO2] varied by 1.5- and 1.7-fold among ecotypes, respectively. The variation in RGR at both [CO2]s was mainly explained by the variation in leaf N productivity (LNP; growth rate per leaf N),which was strongly related to photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE). The variation in the response of RGR to [CO2] was also explained by the variation in the response of LNP to [CO2]. Genomic analyses indicated that there was no phylogenetic constraint on inter-ecotype variation in the CO2 response of RGR or LNP. We conclude that the significant variation in plant growth and its response to [CO2] among ecotypes reflects the variation in N use for photosynthesis among ecotypes, and that the response of PNUE to CO2 is an important target for predicting and/or breeding plants that have high growth rates at elevated [CO2].

  13. Formation of Biofilms and Biocorrosion on AISI-1020 Carbon Steel Exposed to Aqueous Systems Containing Different Concentrations of a Diesel/Biodiesel Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanilda Ramos de Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic concerns accelerated biofuels research and industrial production. Many countries have been using diesel and biodiesel blends as fuels justifying research on biofilms formation and metals corrosion. Cylinders made of AISI-1020 carbon steel with an exposed area of 1587 mm2, water, and water associated with B3 fuel (diesel/biodiesel blend at 97 : 3 v/v were used.The formation of biofilms was detected, and biocorrosion was detected on AISI-1020. The results showed a variation in sessile microflora during the experiments. In the biofilms, a significant concentration of aerobic, anaerobic, IOB, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and sulfate-reducing bacteria was observed. The corrosion rates varied between 0.45±0.01 and 0.12±0.01 mm/year, depending on the experimental conditions. The main corrosion products identified were various forms of FeOOH, magnetite, and all forms of FexSy. In systems where there were high levels of sulfate reducing bacteria, corrosion pits were observed. In addition, the aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the fluid containing 10% B3 were totally degraded.

  14. Direct observation of solid-phase adsorbate concentration profile in powdered activated carbon particle to elucidate mechanism of high adsorption capacity on super-powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Naoya; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Decreasing the particle size of powdered activated carbon (PAC) by pulverization increases its adsorption capacities for natural organic matter (NOM) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS, which is used as a model adsorbate). A shell adsorption mechanism in which NOM and PSS molecules do not completely penetrate the adsorbent particle and instead preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the particle has been proposed as an explanation for this adsorption capacity increase. In this report, we present direct evidence to support the shell adsorption mechanism. PAC particles containing adsorbed PSS were sectioned with a focused ion beam, and the solid-phase PSS concentration profiles of the particle cross-sections were directly observed by means of field emission-scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (FE-SEM/EDXS). X-ray emission from sulfur, an index of PSS concentration, was higher in the shell region than in the inner region of the particles. The X-ray emission profile observed by EDXS did not agree completely with the solid-phase PSS concentration profile predicted by shell adsorption model analysis of the PSS isotherm data, but the observed and predicted profiles were not inconsistent when the analytical errors were considered. These EDXS results provide the first direct evidence that PSS is adsorbed mainly in the vicinity of the external surface of the PAC particles, and thus the results support the proposition that the increase in NOM and PSS adsorption capacity with decreasing particle size is due to the increase in external surface area on which the molecules can be adsorbed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The dynamic of organic carbon in South Cameroon. Fluxes in a tropical river system and a lake system as a varying sink on a glacial-interglacial time scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giresse, P. [Laboratoire de Sedimentologie et Geochimie Marines, URA CNRS 715, Universite de Perpignan, 66860 Perpignan (France); Maley, J. [Paleoenvironnements et Palynologie, ISEM/CNRS, UMR 5554, ORSTOM, UR 12, Universite de Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    1998-05-01

    In the first attempt to estimate both (i) a bulk carbon flux in a tropical river system (mainly Sanaga River) and (ii) their palaeoenvironmental implications from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the present, this study presents a synthetic approach based on the combined use of modern evaluation of fluxes and estuarine biodegradation in the tropical river system Sanaga and nearby Douala Bay rivers, and of sedimentation rates of a well studied marine shelf and lake system (Barombi-Mbo). In the lake Barombi-Mbo, the Holocene transfer of particulate carbon (96.6x10{sup 3} t) is very close to the mass fixed presently in soil catchments (117x10{sup 3} t). A complete process of stored carbon consumption would require some 10{sup 4} years, namely the Holocene period. During the last 20,000 years, variations in the sediment organic matter can be explained by the change of the vegetation cover, particularly with the substitution of open environments by forests. The global sedimentation was slow between ca. 18,000 and 10,000 years BP and increased after 12,000 years. But the carbon sedimentation rate remains fairly constant as the carbon content is higher in the LGM deposits. Such LGM carbon concentrations are probably explained by the input of coarse debris by rough floods and by a less degraded organic matter as a result of the cooling of the climate. Today, the total transport of dissolved and particulate organic carbon of the Sanaga and Douala Bay rivers to the Guinea Gulf is estimated as 0.62 to 0.79x10{sup 6} t C yr{sup -1}. Based on 50% biodegradation at the estuarine interface, the loss of organic matter per unit of land is evaluated around 8.8 t C km{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Marine oceanic records of the carbon sedimentation rate reflect with difficulty the major palaeoenvironmental changes according to interfering hydrodynamic factors. The greatest input of organic carbon during warm marine biozones would be balanced by higher concentrations during the LGM resulting in

  16. Associations of PM2.5 and black carbon concentrations with traffic, idling, background pollution, and meteorology during school dismissals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, J; Saganich, C; Bukiewicz, L; Kalin, R

    2009-05-01

    An air quality study was performed outside a cluster of schools in the East Harlem neighborhood of New York City. PM(2.5) and black carbon concentrations were monitored using real-time equipment with a one-minute averaging interval. Monitoring was performed at 1:45-3:30 PM during school days over the period October 31-November 17, 2006. The designated time period was chosen to capture vehicle emissions during end-of-day dismissals from the schools. During the monitoring period, minute-by-minute volume counts of idling and passing school buses, diesel trucks, and automobiles were obtained. These data were transcribed into time series of number of diesel vehicles idling, number of gasoline automobiles idling, number of diesel vehicles passing, and number of automobiles passing along the block adjacent to the school cluster. Multivariate regression models of the log-transform of PM(2.5) and black carbon (BC) concentrations in the East Harlem street canyon were developed using the observation data and data from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation on meteorology and background PM(2.5). Analysis of variance was used to test the contribution of each covariate to variability in the log-transformed concentrations as a means to judge the relative contribution of each covariate. The models demonstrated that variability in background PM(2.5) contributes 80.9% of the variability in log[PM(2.5)] and 81.5% of the variability in log[BC]. Local traffic sources were demonstrated to contribute 5.8% of the variability in log[BC] and only 0.43% of the variability in log[PM(2.5)]. Diesel idling and passing were both significant contributors to variability in log[BC], while diesel passing was a significant contributor to log[PM(2.5)]. Automobile idling and passing did not contribute significant levels of variability to either concentration. The remainder of variability in each model was explained by temperature, along-canyon wind, and cross-canyon wind, which were

  17. Effects of stunning with different carbon dioxide concentrations and exposure times on suckling lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bórnez, R; Linares, M B; Vergara, H

    2009-03-01

    Forty-nine Manchega breed male suckling lambs were used to determine the effect of different stunning methods (using two different CO2 concentrations and exposure times) on lamb meat quality. The lambs were allocated to five stunning treatments including four CO2 treatments [80% CO2 for 90s (G1); 90% CO2 for 90s (G2); 90% CO2 for 60s (G3); 80% CO2 for 60s (G4)] and an electrically stunned control group (G5). The gas-stunning treatments did not cause neither haematomas nor blood splash in the carcasses. Meat quality was evaluated by testing pH, colour (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), chroma, hue values), water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), shear force (SF), drip loss (DL) and total aerobic bacteria. Statistical differences in pH at 24h post-mortem, colour, WHC and CL were not found among groups. After 7 days post-mortem, there were statistical differences among groups in pH (highest in G4 and G5) and in DL (highest in G1). There were differences in SF due to stunning method evident after 72h and 7 days ageing. The statistical differences (Plambs since a highest stability with ageing time on meat quality was found using 90% CO2.

  18. Facility for studying the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and increased temperature on crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, D.W.; Mitchell, R.A.C.; Franklin, J.; Mitchell, V.J.; Driscoll, S.P.; Delgado, E. (Institute of Arable Crops Research, Harpenden (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry and Physiology)

    1993-06-01

    The requirements for the experimental study of the effects of global climate change conditions on plants are outlined. A semi-controlled plant growth facility is described which allows the study of elevated CO[sub 2] and temperature, and their interaction on the growth of plants under radiation and temperature conditions similar to the field. During an experiment on winter wheat (cv. Mercia), which ran from December 1990 through to August 1991, the facility maintained mean daytime CO[sub 2] concentrations of 363 and 692 cm[sup 3] m[sup -3] for targets of 350 and 700 cm[sup 3] m[sup 3] respectively. Temperatures were set to follow outside ambient or outside ambient +4[degree]C, and hourly means were within 0.5[degree]C of the target for 92% of the time for target temperatures greater than 6[degree]C. Total photosynthetically active radiation incident on the crop (solar radiation supplemented by artificial light with natural photoperiod) was 2% greater than the total measured outside over the same period.

  19. Temporal characteristics of black carbon concentrations and its potential emission sources in a southern Taiwan industrial urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chi-Chi; Liu, Jyh-Jian; Hsieh, Cheng-Ju

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the temporal characteristics of black carbon and its potential emission sources, as well as the fractions of BC in PM2.5 levels in Kaohsiung urban area, which is an industrial city in southern Taiwan. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 are monitored continuously from March 2006 to February 2010, using an aethalometer and a tapered element oscillating microbalance monitor. Additionally, the presence of organic compounds (or UV enhanced species) in particles at the sampling site is determined using the Delta-C (UVBC-BC) value. According to long-term measurement results, BC and PM2.5 concentrations are 3.33 and 34.0 μg m(-3), respectively, in the Kaohsiung urban area. The ratio of BC/PM2.5 is approximately 11 %. Low concentration of BC and PM2.5 in the summer of this study period is mostly likely owing to meteorological conditions that favored dispersion of local air pollutants. Nevertheless, BC concentrations peaked markedly during morning hours (7:00-11:00), likely owing to local traffic congestion. Measurement results suggest that BC is released from local traffic activities and emitted from industrial activities at this sampling site. Additionally, Delta-C values are significantly higher than zero during January-March and November-December periods in this industrial urban area, implying that UV enhanced species can be observed. At this sampling site, these UV enhanced species do not only originate from household activity and solid waste burning but also release from industrial activities. The elevated Delta-C values during nighttime (18:00-6:00) in the autumn and winter seasons are likely related to those UV enhanced species in the atmosphere, which can be condensed on particle surface under low temperature conditions. According to long-term measurement results, significantly positive Delta-C values can be observed under temperatures industrial parks and a coal-fired power plant.

  20. A Model for Interpreting High-Tower CO2 Concentration Records for the Surface Carbon Balance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Chen, J. M.; Higuchi, K.; Chan, D.; Shashkov, A.

    2002-05-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements have been made by scientists of Meteorological Service of Canada on a 40 m tower for the last 10 years at 15 minute intervals over a mostly intact boreal forest near Fraserdale (50N, 81W), Ontario, Canada. The long time records of CO2 as well as basic meteorological variables provide a unique opportunity to investigate any potential changes in the ecosystem in terms of carbon balance. A model is needed to decipher the carbon cycle signals from the diurnal and seasonal variation patterns in the CO2 record. For this purpose, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is expanded to include a one-dimensional CO2 vertical transfer model involving the interaction between plant canopies and the atmosphere in the surface layer and the diurnal dynamics of the mixed layer. An analytical solution of the scalar transfer equation within the surface layer is found using an assumption that the diurnal oscillation of CO2 concentration at a given height is sinusoidal, which is suitable for the investigation of the changes in diurnal variation pattern over the 10 year period. The complex interactions between the daily cycle of the atmosphere and vegetation CO2 exchange and the daily evolution of mixed layer entrainment of CO2 determines the CO2 variation pattern at a given height. The expanded BEPS can simulate within ñ2 ppm the hourly CO2 records at the 40 m measurement height. The annual totals of gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP), summed up from the hourly results, agree within 5% of previous estimates of BEPS at daily steps, indicating the internal consistency of the hourly model. The model is therefore ready for exploring changes in the CO2 record as affected by changes in the forest ecosystems upwind of the tower. Preliminary results indicate that the diurnal variation amplitude of CO2 has increased by 10-20% over the 10 years period, and this change can

  1. A joint global carbon inversion system using both CO2 and 13CO2 atmospheric concentration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Deng, Feng

    2017-03-01

    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites (62 collocated with 13CO2 sites) for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using prior CO2 fluxes estimated with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. This joint inversion system using both13CO2 and CO2 observations is effectively a double deconvolution system with consideration of the spatial variations of isotopic discrimination and disequilibrium. Compared to the CO2-only inversion, this 13CO2 constraint on the inversion considerably reduces the total land carbon sink from 3.40 ± 0.84 to 2.53 ± 0.93 Pg C year-1 but increases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 ± 0.40 to 2.36 ± 0.49 Pg C year-1. This constraint also changes the spatial distribution of the carbon sink. The largest sink increase occurs in the Amazon, while the largest source increases are in southern Africa, and Asia, where CO2 data are sparse. Through a case study, in which the spatial distribution of the annual 13CO2 discrimination rate over land is ignored by treating it as a constant at the global average of -14. 1 ‰, the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land was found to be significantly modified (up to 15 % for some regions). The uncertainties in our disequilibrium flux estimation are 8.0 and 12.7 Pg C year-1 ‰ for land and ocean, respectively. These uncertainties induced the unpredictability of 0.47 and 0.54 Pg C year-1 in the inverted CO2 fluxes for land and ocean, respectively. Our joint inversion system is therefore

  2. Determination of eight pesticides of varying polarity in surface waters using solid phase extraction with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahane, Soraya; Derdour, Aicha; García, María Dolores Gil; Moreno, Ana Uclés; Galera, María Martínez; Viciana, María del Mar Socías

    2015-01-01

    We describe a MWCNT-based method for the solid-phase extraction of eight pesticides from environmental water samples. The analytes are extracted from 100 mL samples at pH 5.0 (containing 5 mmol L −1 of KCl) by passing the solution through a column filled with 20 mg of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Following elution, the pesticides were determined by LC and electrospray ionization hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap MS. Two selected reaction monitoring transitions were monitored per compound, the most intense one being used for quantification and the second one for confirmation. In addition, an information-dependent acquisition experiment was performed for unequivocal confirmation of positive findings. Matrix effect was not found in real waters and therefore the quantitation was carried out with calibration graphs built with solvent based standards. Except for cymoxanil, the detection and quantitation limits in surface waters are in the range from 0.3 to 9.5 ng L −1 and 1.6 to 45.2 ng L −1 , respectively. Recoveries from spiked ultrapure water are ∼100 %, except for the most polar pesticides methomyl and cymoxanil. The same behavior is found for real water samples (except for phosalone). The relative standard deviation is <10 % in all cases. (author)

  3. Joint Application of Concentrations and Isotopic Signatures to Investigate the Global Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Budget: Inverse Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K.; Mak, J. E.; Emmons, L. K.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon monoxide is not only an important component for determining the atmospheric oxidizing capacity but also a key trace gas in the atmospheric chemistry of the Earth's background environment. The global CO cycle and its change are closely related to both the change of CO mixing ratio and the change of source strength. Previously, to estimate the global CO budget, most top-down estimation techniques have been applied the concentrations of CO solely. Since CO from certain sources has a unique isotopic signature, its isotopes provide additional information to constrain its sources. Thus, coupling the concentration and isotope fraction information enables to tightly constrain CO flux by its sources and allows better estimations on the global CO budget. MOZART4 (Model for Ozone And Related chemical Tracers), a 3-D global chemical transport model developed at NCAR, MPI for meteorology and NOAA/GFDL and is used to simulate the global CO concentration and its isotopic signature. Also, a tracer version of MOZART4 which tagged for C16O and C18O from each region and each source was developed to see their contributions to the atmosphere efficiently. Based on the nine-year-simulation results we analyze the influences of each source of CO to the isotopic signature and the concentration. Especially, the evaluations are focused on the oxygen isotope of CO (δ18O), which has not been extensively studied yet. To validate the model performance, CO concentrations and isotopic signatures measured from MPI, NIWA and our lab are compared to the modeled results. The MOZART4 reproduced observational data fairly well; especially in mid to high latitude northern hemisphere. Bayesian inversion techniques have been used to estimate the global CO budget with combining observed and modeled CO concentration. However, previous studies show significant differences in their estimations on CO source strengths. Because, in addition to the CO mixing ratio, isotopic signatures are independent tracers

  4. Intercomparison study of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide concentrations measured at the Ebre River Delta Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Paola; Morguí, Josep Anton; Àgueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Borràs, Sílvia; Cañas, Lídia; Curcoll, Roger; Grossi, Claudia; Nofuentes, Manel; Vazquez, Eusebi; Rodó, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the ClimaDat project, IC3 has established a network of eight monitoring stations across the Iberian Peninsula and the Canarian Archipelago with the aim of studying climate processes. The monitoring station at the Ebre River Delta (DEC3) is located in the Ebre River Delta Natural Park (40° 44' N; 0° 47' E) and it is characterized by the typical North-Western Mediterranean climate. Since 2013, atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG) and 222Rn tracer gas together with the meteorological parameters are continuously measured from a 10 m a.g.l. height tower. Atmospheric GHG (CO2, CH4, CO and N2O) concentrations are determined using a Picarro analyzer G2301 (CO2 and CH4) and a modified gas chromatograph (GC) Agilent 6890N (CO2, CH4, CO and N2O). Open data access is available from the www.climadat.es website. Data collected at the DEC3 station are also submitted to the InGOS platform since this station is part of the InGOS European infrastructure project. Researchers from the Laboratory of the Atmosphere and the Oceans (LAO) at IC3 have performed an intercomparison study at the DEC3 site between three different Picarro analyzers (two Picarro G2301 and one Picarro G2301M), a Los Gatos Research (LGR) analyzer and the GC system already installed at the station. The aim of this study is to compare and assess the measuring agreement between the four optical gas analyzers and the GC. In the first part of the experiment, all instruments have been calibrated using NOAA gases as primary standards analyzing five Praxair provided targets to evaluate the precision of the measuring instruments. Max Plank Institute (MPI) gases have been used as secondary standards for the GC whereas Praxair provided tanks are used as secondary standards for the Picarro and the LGR analyzers. In the second part of the experiment, atmospheric GHG were measured from natural atmospheric air taken from a 10 m a.g.l. inlet. Daily cycles of GHG measurements were carried out using different

  5. Carbon tetrachloride desorption from activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, L.A.; Sansone, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride was desorbed from a granular activated carbon subsequent to its adsorption under various vapor exposure periods. The varied conditions of exposure resulted in a range of partially saturated carbon beds which, when followed by a constant flow rate for desorption, generated different forms of the desorbing concentration versus time curve. A method of analyzing the desorption curves is presented which permits extraction of the various desorbing rates from the different desorption and to relate this to the time required for such regeneration. The Wheeler desorption kinetic equation was used to calculate the pseudo first order desorption rate constant for the carbon. The desorption rate constant was found to increase monotonically with increasing saturation of the bed, permitting the calculation of the maximum desorption rate constant for the carbon at 100% saturation. The Retentivity Index of the carbon, defined as the dimensionless ratio of the adsorption to the desorption rate constant, was found to be 681

  6. Dissolved organic carbon concentration controls benthic primary production: results from in situ chambers in north-temperate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Sean C.; Jones, Stuart E.; Weidel, Brian C.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated several potential drivers of primary production by benthic algae (periphyton) in north-temperate lakes. We used continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from in situ benthic chambers to quantify primary production by periphyton at multiple depths across 11 lakes encompassing a broad range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorous (TP) concentrations. Light-use efficiency (primary production per unit incident light) was inversely related to average light availability (% of surface light) in 7 of the 11 study lakes, indicating that benthic algal assemblages exhibit photoadaptation, likely through physiological or compositional changes. DOC alone explained 86% of the variability in log-transformed whole-lake benthic production rates. TP was not an important driver of benthic production via its effects on nutrient and light availability. This result is contrary to studies in other systems, but may be common in relatively pristine north-temperate lakes. Our simple empirical model may allow for the prediction of whole-lake benthic primary production from easily obtained measurements of DOC concentration.

  7. Adsorption of low concentration ceftazidime from aqueous solutions using impregnated activated carbon promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Zhirong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, three impregnated activated carbon IAC (AC-Cu, AC-Fe, and AC-Al) promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum were used for adsorption of ceftazidime. Iron(III), Copper(II) and Aluminum(III) nitrate were used as an impregnant. The IACs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).The influence of factors, such as ion strength, pH, temperature, initial concentration, and concentration of natural organic matter organic matter on the adsorption process were studied. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of ceftazidime were studied for the three IACs. The results showed that the adsorption was accurately represented by pseudo-second order model. Under different temperature, the maximum adsorption quantity of ceftazidime on AC-Cu calculated by pseudo-second order kinetic model were 200.0 mg g-1 (298 K), 196.1 mg g-1 (303 K) and 185.2 mg g-1 (308 K). It was much higher than that of AC-Fe and AC-Al. And the process was controlled by both film diffusion and intra particle mass transport. The results also showed that, the Freundlich and Temkin isotherm fit the adsorption well.

  8. Lake transparency: a window into decadal variations in dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Lakes of Acadia National Park, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Collin S.; Culbertson, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    A forty year time series of Secchi depth observations from approximately 25 lakes in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA, evidences large variations in transparency between lakes but relatively little seasonal cycle within lakes. However, there are coherent patterns over the time series, suggesting large scale processes are responsible. It has been suggested that variations in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are primarily responsible for the variations in transparency, both between lakes and over time and further that CDOM is a robust optical proxy for dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Here we present a forward model of Secchi depth as a function of DOC based upon first principles and bio-optical relationships. Inverting the model to estimate DOC concentration from Secchi depth observations compared well with the measured DOC concentrations collected since 1995 (RMS error < 1.3 mg C l-1). This inverse model allows the time series of DOC to be extended back to the mid 1970s when only Secchi depth observations were collected, and thus provides a means for investigating lake response to climate forcing, changing atmospheric chemistry and watershed characteristics, including land cover and land use.

  9. INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN HOSPITALS - Verification of the physical parameters of comfort and the concentration of carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In hospitals, the presence of pollutants in the indoor air creates conditions that may prejudice the recovery of patients and affect the productivity of employees. Thus, these places need air conditioning well designed, to provide adequate ventilation rates to ensure the comfort of its occupants and the aseptic of environments. The present study focused on evaluating the indoor air quality (IAQ in a surgical center and an intensive care unit, by checking the physical parameters of comfort and the concentrations of carbon dioxide, following the procedure recommended by Resolution No. 09 of the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA and to propose an air conditioning system for each of the environments evaluated. The results showed that the IAQ in those environments may be improved, since some of the parameters showed values higher than those recommended by that resolution. High concentrations of CO2 obtained, for example, can be justified by the lack of renewal of air. It is suggested that the air conditioning systems must to be substituted for that allowed the renewal of the air at rates acceptable to the current legislation.

  10. Sensing of low concentration of ammonia at room temperature by decorated multi-walled carbon nanotube: fabrication and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnahena, S. T.; Roy, M.

    2018-01-01

    A chemical sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) decorated with densely populated thiol-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with sizes smaller than 3 nm for sensing low concentrations of ammonia gas is reported. The functionalized MWCNTs, subsequently decorated with AuNPs following an easy fabrication route were exposed to NH3 gas at the room temperature and the electrical resistance of the sensor changed upon exposure. The sensor also partially recovered the initial state after sensing in the normal air environment (without any dry air or N2 gas purge). The gold nanoparticles decoration is found to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of MWCNT towards NH3 gas under ambient conditions with a reduced response and recovery time. The material was structurally characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the sensor till 574 °C was demonstrated by TGA analysis. This papers describes how thiol-capped AuNPs are uniformly decorated on the outer walls of the MWCNTs with a separation of 2-3 nm making use of the ionic nature of Au and how this uniform distribution of AuNPs increases the active sites for absorption of NH3 gas molecules leading to sensing its low concentrations.

  11. Ethanol electrooxidation on novel carbon supported Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts with varied Pt:Sn ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, L. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 116023 Dalian (China); Colmenares, L.; Jusys, Z. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Sun, G.Q. [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 116023 Dalian (China)], E-mail: gqsun@dicp.ac.cn; Behm, R.J. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)], E-mail: juergen.behm@uni-ulm.de

    2007-12-01

    Novel carbon supported Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts with Pt:Sn atomic ratios of 5:5, 6:4, 7:3 and 8:2 were prepared by a modified polyol method and characterized with respect to their structural properties (X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)), chemical composition (XPS), their electrochemical properties (base voltammetry, CO{sub ad} stripping) and their electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for ethanol oxidation (ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR)). The data show that the Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts are composed of Pt and tin oxide nanoparticles with an average Pt particle diameter of about 2 nm. The steady-state activity of the Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts towards the EOR decreases with tin content at room temperature, but increases at 80 deg. C. On all Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts, acetic acid and acetaldehyde represent dominant products, CO{sub 2} formation contributes 1-3% for both potentiostatic and potentiodynamic reaction conditions. With increasing potential, the acetaldehyde yield decreases and the acetic acid yield increases. The apparent activation energies of the EOR increase with tin content (19-29 kJ mol{sup -1}), but are lower than on Pt/C (32 kJ mol{sup -1}). The somewhat better performance of the Pt/SnO{sub x}/C catalysts compared to alloyed PtSn{sub x}/C catalysts is attributed to the presence of both sufficiently large Pt ensembles for ethanol dehydrogenation and C-C bond splitting and of tin oxide for OH generation. Fuel cell measurements performed for comparison largely confirm the results obtained in model studies.

  12. Enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges for antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2})/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors with varied Sb doping concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Ma, Wen-Hai [School of Physical Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Mao, Yan-Li, E-mail: ylmao1@163.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Institute for Computational Materials Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized with varied Sb doping concentration, and the Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors were prepared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. The separation efficiency of photoinduced charges was characterized with surface photovoltage (SPV) technique. Compared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} presents an enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges, and the SPV enhancements were estimated to be 1.40, 1.43, and 1.99 for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. To understand the enhancement, the band structure of Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} in the heterojunction semiconductor was determined, and the conduction band offsets (CBO) between Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} were estimated to be 0.56, 0.64, and 0.98 eV for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. These results indicate that the separation efficiency enhancement is resulting from the energy level matching, and the increase of enhancement is due to the rising of CBO.

  13. Geochemical Impacts to Groundwater from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Controls on pH and Inorganic Carbon Concentrations from Reaction Path and Kinetic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic carbon sequestration has the potential to cause long-term reductions in global emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Safe and effective application of carbon sequestration technology requires an understanding of the potential risks to the quality of underground...

  14. Carbon dioxide concentration in caves and soils in an alpine setting: implications for speleothem fabrics and their palaeoclimate significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Andrea; Frisia, Silvia; Miorandi, Renza

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide concentration in soils controls carbonate dissolution, soil CO2 efflux to the atmosphere, and CO2 transfer to the subsurface that lead, ultimately, to speleothem precipitation. Systematic studies on CO2 concentration variability in soil and caves at regional scale are, however, few. Here, the systematic investigation of CO2 concentration in caves and soils in a temperate, Alpine region along a 2,100 m altitudinal range transect, which corresponds to a mean annual temperature (MAT) range of 12°C is presented. Soil pCO2 is controlled by the elevation and MAT and exhibits strong seasonality, which follows surface air temperature with a delay of about a month. The aquifer pCO2, by contrast, is fairly constant throughout the year, and it is primarily influenced by summer soil pCO2. Cave CO2 concentration is a balance between the CO2 influx and CO2 efflux, where the efflux is controlled by the cave ventilation, which is responsible for low pCO2 values recorded in most of the caves with respect to soil levels. Carbon dioxide in the innermost part of the studied caves exhibits a clear seasonal pattern. Thermal convection is the most common mechanism causing higher ventilation and low cave air pCO2 levels during the winter season: this promotes CO2 degassing and higher supersaturation in the drip water and, eventually, higher speleothem growth rates during winter. The combined influence of three parameters - dripwater pCO2, dripwater Ca content, and cave air pCO2 - all related to the infiltration elevation and MAT directly controls calcite supersaturation in dripwater. Four different altitudinal belts are then defined, which reflect temperature-dependent saturation state of dripwaters. These belts broadly correspond to vegetation zones: the lower montane (100 to 800 m asl), the upper montane (800 to 1600 m asl), the subalpine (1600 to 2200 m asl) and the Alpine (above 2200 m asl). Each altitudinal belt is characterised by different calcite fabrics, which can

  15. Influence of land cover on riverine dissolved organic carbon concentrations and export in the Three Rivers Headwater Region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Liu, Guimin; Wu, Xiaodong; Smoak, Joseph M; Ye, Linlin; Xu, Haiyan; Zhao, Lin; Ding, Yongjian

    2018-07-15

    The Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP) stores a large amount of soil organic carbon and is the headwater region for several large rivers in Asia. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of environmental factors on river water quality and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export in this region. We examined the water physico-chemical characteristics, DOC concentrations and export rates of 7 rivers under typical land cover types in the Three Rivers Headwater Region during August 2016. The results showed that the highest DOC concentrations were recorded in the rivers within the catchment of alpine wet meadow and meadow. These same rivers had the lowest total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations. The rivers within steppe and desert had the lowest DOC concentrations and highest TSS concentrations. The discharge rates and catchment areas were negatively correlated with DOC concentrations. The SUVA 254 values were significantly negatively correlated with DOC concentrations. The results suggest that the vegetation degradation, which may represent permafrost degradation, can lead to a decrease in DOC concentration, but increasing DOC export and soil erosion. In addition, some of the exported DOC will rapidly decompose in the river, and therefore affect the regional carbon cycle, as well as the water quality in the source water of many large Asian rivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Window and door opening behavior, carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, and energy use during the heating season in classrooms with different ventilation retrofits—ASHRAE RP1624

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll, Anna; Wargocki, Pawel; Toftum, Jørn

    2018-01-01

    of Copenhagen, Denmark, were retrofitted either with a decentralized, balanced supply and exhaust mechanical ventilation unit with heat recovery; automatically operable windows with an exhaust fan; automatically operable windows with alternating counter-flow heat recovery through slots in the outside wall......; or a visual feedback display unit showing the current classroom carbon dioxide concentration, thus advising when the windows should be opened. For comparison, one classroom retained the original approach for achieving ventilation by manual opening of windows. One year after retrofitting the classrooms carbon...... dioxide concentrations, temperatures, energy use, and window and door opening behavior were recorded during a four week period in the heating season in January. The measured carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly lower in the classrooms with the mechanical ventilation system and the system...

  17. The Effects of Voltage and Concentration of Sodium Bicarbonate on Electrochemical Synthesis of Ethanol from Carbon Dioxide Using Brass as Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Septian; Fariduddin, Sholah; Rizki Aminudin, Afianti; Kurnia Hayatri, Antisa; Riyanto

    2017-11-01

    The effects of voltage and concentration of sodium bicarbonate were investigated to determine the optimum conditions of the electrochemical synthesis process to convert carbon dioxide into ethanol. The conversion process is carried out using a sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution in an electrochemical synthesis reactor equipped with a cathode and anode. As the cathode was used brass, while as the anode carbon was utilized. Sample of the electrochemical synthesis process was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the content of the compounds produced. The optimum electrochemical synthesis conditions to convert carbon dioxide into ethanol are voltage and concentration of sodium bicarbonate are 3 volts and 0.4 M with ethanol concentration of 1.33%.

  18. Straw incorporation increases crop yield and soil organic carbon sequestration but varies under different natural conditions and farming practices in China: a system analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss of soil organic carbon (SOC from agricultural soils is a key indicator of soil degradation associated with reductions in net primary productivity in crop production systems worldwide. Technically simple and locally appropriate solutions are required for farmers to increase SOC and to improve cropland management. In the last 30 years, straw incorporation (SI has gradually been implemented across China in the context of agricultural intensification and rural livelihood improvement. A meta-analysis of data published before the end of 2016 was undertaken to investigate the effects of SI on crop production and SOC sequestration. The results of 68 experimental studies throughout China in different edaphic conditions, climate regions and farming regimes were analyzed. Compared with straw removal (SR, SI significantly sequestered SOC (0–20 cm depth at the rate of 0.35 (95 % CI, 0.31–0.40 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, increased crop grain yield by 13.4 % (9.3–18.4 % and had a conversion efficiency of the incorporated straw C of 16 % ± 2 % across China. The combined SI at the rate of 3 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 with mineral fertilizer of 200–400 kg N ha−1 yr−1 was demonstrated to be the best farming practice, where crop yield increased by 32.7 % (17.9–56.4 % and SOC sequestrated by the rate of 0.85 (0.54–1.15 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. SI achieved a higher SOC sequestration rate and crop yield increment when applied to clay soils under high cropping intensities, and in areas such as northeast China where the soil is being degraded. The SOC responses were highest in the initial starting phase of SI, then subsequently declined and finally became negligible after 28–62 years. However, crop yield responses were initially low and then increased, reaching their highest level at 11–15 years after SI. Overall, our study confirmed that SI created a positive feedback loop of SOC enhancement together with

  19. Straw incorporation increases crop yield and soil organic carbon sequestration but varies under different natural conditions and farming practices in China: a system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Xu, Cong; Dungait, Jennifer A. J.; Bol, Roland; Wang, Xiaojie; Wu, Wenliang; Meng, Fanqiao

    2018-04-01

    Loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) from agricultural soils is a key indicator of soil degradation associated with reductions in net primary productivity in crop production systems worldwide. Technically simple and locally appropriate solutions are required for farmers to increase SOC and to improve cropland management. In the last 30 years, straw incorporation (SI) has gradually been implemented across China in the context of agricultural intensification and rural livelihood improvement. A meta-analysis of data published before the end of 2016 was undertaken to investigate the effects of SI on crop production and SOC sequestration. The results of 68 experimental studies throughout China in different edaphic conditions, climate regions and farming regimes were analyzed. Compared with straw removal (SR), SI significantly sequestered SOC (0-20 cm depth) at the rate of 0.35 (95 % CI, 0.31-0.40) Mg C ha-1 yr-1, increased crop grain yield by 13.4 % (9.3-18.4 %) and had a conversion efficiency of the incorporated straw C of 16 % ± 2 % across China. The combined SI at the rate of 3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 with mineral fertilizer of 200-400 kg N ha-1 yr-1 was demonstrated to be the best farming practice, where crop yield increased by 32.7 % (17.9-56.4 %) and SOC sequestrated by the rate of 0.85 (0.54-1.15) Mg C ha-1 yr-1. SI achieved a higher SOC sequestration rate and crop yield increment when applied to clay soils under high cropping intensities, and in areas such as northeast China where the soil is being degraded. The SOC responses were highest in the initial starting phase of SI, then subsequently declined and finally became negligible after 28-62 years. However, crop yield responses were initially low and then increased, reaching their highest level at 11-15 years after SI. Overall, our study confirmed that SI created a positive feedback loop of SOC enhancement together with increased crop production, and this is of great practical importance to straw management as agriculture

  20. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and temperature on bud burst and shoot growth of boreal Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaney, M.; Linder, S.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations are predicted to double during the next century, and recent studies have suggested that temperature changes as a result of global warming will be pronounced over the mid and high latitudes of northern continents. The phenology of boreal forests is mainly driven by temperature, and is a reliable indicator of climate change. This article presented the results of a study investigating the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and temperature on bud and shoot phenology of mature Norway spruce trees grown in northern Sweden. The trees were grown in whole tree chambers over a period of 3 years and supplied with either ambient or elevated CO 2 at either ambient, or elevated temperatures, which were altered on a monthly time step based on simulations by the Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Program. Temperature elevation ranged between 2.8 and 5.6 degrees C above ambient temperatures, with a CO 2 elevation of 700 μmol per mol. Bud development and shoot extension were monitored from early spring until the termination of elongation growth. Results of the study showed that elevated air temperature hastened both bud development and the initiation and termination of shoot growth by 2 to 3 weeks in each of the study years. It was noted that elevated CO 2 had no significant effect on bud development patterns or on the length of the shoot growth period. Although there was a distinct correlation between temperature sum and shoot elongation, a precise timing of bud burst could not be obtained by using an accumulation of temperature sums. It was concluded that climate warming will results in earlier bud burst in boreal Norway spruce. 59 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  1. The seasonal cycle of the mixing layer height and its impact on black carbon concentrations in the Kathmandu Valley (Nepal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mues, Andrea; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Hoor, Peter; Bozem, Heiko; Münkel, Christoph; Lauer, Axel; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The properties and the vertical structure of the mixing layer as part of the planetary boundary layer are of key importance for local air quality. They have a substantial impact on the vertical dispersion of pollutants in the lower atmosphere and thus on their concentrations near the surface. In this study, ceilometer measurements taken within the framework of the SusKat project (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley) are used to investigate the mixing layer height in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The applied method is based on the assumption that the aerosol concentration is nearly constant in the vertical and distinctly higher within the mixing layer than in the air above. Thus, the height with the steepest gradient within the ceilometer backscatter profile marks the top of the mixing layer. Ceilometer and black carbon (BC) measurements conducted from March 2013 through February 2014 provide a unique and important dataset for the analysis of the meteorological and air quality conditions in the Kathmandu Valley. In this study the mean diurnal cycle of the mixing layer height in the Kathmandu Valley for each season (pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter season) and its dependency on the meteorological situation is investigated. In addition, the impact of the mixing layer height on the BC concentration is analyzed and compared to the relevance of other important processes such as emissions, horizontal advection and deposition. In all seasons the diurnal cycle is typically characterized by low mixing heights during the night, gradually increasing after sun rise reaching to maximum values in the afternoon before decreasing again. Seasonal differences can be seen particularly in the height of the mixing layer, e.g. from on average 153/1200 m (pre-monsoon) to 241/755 m (monsoon season) during the night/day, and the duration of enhanced mixing layer heights during daytime (around 12 hours (pre-monsoon season) to 8 hours (winter)). During the monsoon

  2. Branch growth and gas exchange in 13-year old loblobby pine (Pinus taeda) trees in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration and fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, C. A.; Johnsen, K. H.; Butnor, J.; Kress, L. W.; Anderson, P. H.

    2002-01-01

    The combined effects of nutrient availability and carbon dioxide on growth and physiology in mature loblobby pine trees was investigated. Whole-tree open top chambers were used to expose 13-year old loblobby pine trees, growing in soil with high or low nutrient availability to elevated carbon dioxide to examine how carbon dioxide, foliar nutrition and crown position affect branch growth, phenology and physiology. Results showed that fertilization and elevated carbon dioxide increased branch leaf area, and the combined effects were additive. However, fertilization and elevated carbon dioxide differentially altered needle lengths, number of fascicles and flush length in such a way that flush density increased with improved nutrition but decreased with exposure to elevated carbon dioxide. Based on these results, it was concluded that changes in nitrogen availability and atmospheric carbon dioxide may alter canopy structure, facilitating greater foliage retention and deeper crowns in loblobby pine forests. Net photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency was increased in the presence of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and lowered the light compensation point, whereas fertilization had no appreciable effect on foliage gas exchange. 71 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G. [Edinburgh Univ., Inst. of Ecology and Resource Management, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Grayston, S. J. [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Plant-Soil Interaction Group, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G.; Grayston, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Carbon allocation and element composition in four Chlamydomonas mutants defective in genes related to the CO2 concentrating mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Memmola, F.; Mukherjee, B.; Moroney, James V.; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 121, 2-3 (2014), s. 201-211 ISSN 0166-8595 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chlamydomonas mutants * carbon * carbon dioxide * elemental stoichiometry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.502, year: 2014

  6. Black Carbon Concentrations from ~1850-1980 from a High-Resolution Ice Core from Geladandong, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M.; Kaspari, S.; Kang, S.; Grigholm, B. O.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil and bio-fuels, is estimated to be the second largest contributor to global warming behind CO2; when deposited on snow and ice BC reduces albedos, potentially enhancing surface melt and glacial retreat. The study of BC's past and present variability is imperative in order to better understand and estimate its potential impact on climate and water resources. This is especially important in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau, a region that provides fresh water to over a billion people and where BC's climatic effects are estimated to be the largest (Flanner et al., 2007; Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). To more accurately constrain BC's past variability in this sensitive region, an ice core recovered in 2005 from Mt. Geladandong (5800 m a.s.l.) on the central Tibetan Plateau was analyzed for BC at high resolution using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Results indicate that 1) average BC concentrations at this location are higher than at other locations closer to BC sources and analyzed by the same method (Mt. Everest by Kaspari et al., 2011 and Muztagh Ata by Wang et al., in prep), and 2) BC exists in peak concentrations high enough (>10 μg/L) to cause a >1% reduction in surface albedo at the sampling location (Ming et al., 2009; Hadley et al., 2010). Potential causes of the higher BC concentrations at the Geladandong site include lower annual precipitation and the mechanical trapping and concentration of BC caused by surface melt and/or sublimation (Conway et al., 1996; Huang et al., 2011). Preliminary dating (Grigholm et al., in prep) has dated the top of the core to ~1980, suggesting that annual mass loss at the site has removed the upper portion of the record. This supports the findings of Kehrwald et al. (2008) who reported that glaciers below ~6050 m a.s.l. in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau are losing mass annually. Presented here is the record of BC on the central Tibetan Plateau over the time

  7. Can mud (silt and clay) concentration be used to predict soil organic carbon content within seagrass ecosystems?

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, P. S.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Calafat, Antoni; York, P.; Steven, Andy; Macreadie, Peter I.

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of blue carbon science is seeking cost-effective ways to estimate the organic carbon content of soils that are bound by coastal vegetated ecosystems. Organic carbon (C-org) content in terrestrial soils and marine sediments has

  8. Microbial community evolution during simulated managed aquifer recharge in response to different biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentrations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the microbial community in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating the infiltration zone of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Parallel systems were supplemented with either moderate (1.1 mg/L) or low (0.5 mg/L) biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) for a period of six months during which time, spatial (1 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, and 120 cm) and temporal (monthly) analyses of sediment-associated microbial community structure were analyzed. Total microbial biomass associated with sediments was positively correlated with BDOC concentration where a significant decline in BDOC was observed along the column length. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated dominance by Bacteria with Archaea comprising less than 1 percent of the total community. Proteobacteria was found to be the major phylum in samples from all column depths with contributions from Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial community structure at all the phylum, class and genus levels differed significantly at 1 cm between columns receiving moderate and low BDOC concentrations; in contrast strong similarities were observed both between parallel column systems and across samples from 30 to 120 cm depths. Samples from 1 cm depth of the low BDOC columns exhibited higher microbial diversity (expressed as Shannon Index) than those at 1 cm of moderate BDOC columns, and both increased from 5.4 to 5.9 at 1 cm depth to 6.7-8.3 at 30-120 cm depths. The microbial community structure reached steady state after 3-4 months since the initiation of the experiment, which also resulted in an improved DOC removal during the same time period. This study suggested that BDOC could significantly influence microbial community structure regarding both composition and diversity of artificial MAR systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Performance assessment of CO2 capture with calcination carbonation reaction process driven by coal and concentrated solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuelei; Liu, Yingguang

    2014-01-01

    Calcination carbonation reaction (CCR) process is regarded as a promising option for pulverized coal power plant to mitigate CO 2 emission. In this paper, concentrated solar power (CSP) substitutes for coal to supply part of the calcination energy in order to reduce the fossil fuel consumption associated with the calciner. A CCR process driven by coal and CSP is examined from the perspective of energy efficiency. This paper focuses on the parameters of heat recovery efficiency, CSP capacity, compression energy, air separation energy and recycled energy to determine the contribution of each to the overall energy penalty. In addition, the effects of heat recovery efficiency, CSP capacity, purge percentage and CO 2 capture efficiency on the co-driven case are analyzed through a sensitivity analysis. The results indicate that the thermal efficiency of integrating CCR co-driven process into an ultra-supercritical 1019 MW power plant is 35.37%, which means that the overall efficiency penalty is 9.63 percentage points. Moreover, the co-driven case reduces the fossil fuel consumption and the mass flow rate of fresh sorbent and circulation solids compared with coal-driven case. Increasing heat recovery efficiency and CSP efficiency can improve the co-driven case performance. - Highlights: • We examine a CCR process driven by coal and concentrated solar power simultaneously. • The contributors to the overall energy penalty are quantitatively identified. • Obvious coal-saving effect has been found in the co-driven system. • A sensitivity analysis is conducted to find the impact of key parameters

  10. Correlation between clinical severity and different non-invasive measurements of carbon monoxide concentration: A population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hullin

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is a major concern in industrialized countries. Each year, thousands of victims, resulting in approximately 100 fatalities, are encountered in France. The diagnosis of CO poisoning is challenging; while carboxyhemoglobin (COHb may be useful, it is a weak indicator of the severity of CO poisoning. This weak indicator may be a result of the delay between poisoning occurrence and the blood assay. Two apparatuses, CO oximeters and exhaled CO analyzers, now permit COHb to be determined outside hospitals. Our hypothesis is that these instruments allow the early measurement of COHb concentrations, which are more correlated with the severity of poisoning, expressed using the poisoning severity score (PSS.In an observational and retrospective cohort study, the distribution of COHb measurements obtained by CO oximetry or by exhaled CO analyzers was compared between groups of severity expressed using the PSS.Data were collected in the Paris area from January 2006 to December 2010 by the French Surveillance System of CO poisoning.All patients with CO poisoning reported to the French Surveillance System of CO poisoning.There was a significant difference in the COHb values obtained by CO oximetry between groups stratified according to PSS (p<0.0001. A significant difference in the values of exhaled CO was also observed between PSS groups (p = 0.006, although the relationship was not linear.The COHb concentrations measured using CO oximetry, but not those measured using exhaled CO analyzers, were well correlated with the severity of CO poisoning.

  11. STRUCTURAL AND DIELECTRIC STUDIES ON Sr0.5-3y/2LayBa0.5Nb2O6 CERAMIC SYSTEMS WITH VARIED SINTERING TIME AND La CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahariman S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 (SBN50 ceramic doped with different concentration of Lanthanum, La according to stoichiometric formulation of Sr0.5-3y/2LayBa0.5Nb2O6 (LSBN with y = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 prepared using traditional ceramic method at the calcination temperature of 1200°C and sintered at 1300°C at varied sintering time. The effects of the sintering time and La3+ substitution on the morphological, compositional, structural and electrical properties of the LSBN is presented using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD and dielectric analysis. The XRD spectra confirm the presence of TTB structure in the ceramics. The Curie temperature (Tc of the ceramic identified from the dielectric studies performed in the temperature range of 28°C to 300°C. The temperature dependent dielectric exhibits broad peaks indicating a diffuse phase transition and relaxor behavior of the ceramic. The measured density of the samples is proportional to the sintering time and inversely proportional to the amount of the La3+ substitution. The solubility limit of La3+ ions in the SBN solid solution is at y ~ 0.05. This observation is also supported by the dielectric results where the dielectric properties of the ceramic deteriorate for y > 0.05 La substitution.

  12. The concentration of "1"3"7Cs and organic carbon on sediment at Rat island in Indian ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muslim; Reza Agung Arjana; Wahyu Retno Prihatiningsih

    2016-01-01

    Rat Island is one of the islands in Indonesia, located in the Indian Ocean, about 10 kilometers west of Bengkulu, which has a beautiful scenery both on its land and on the seabed, making it a favorite tourist in Bengkulu. The purpose of this study was to determine the condition of "1"3"7Cs in sediments and its relation to the total carbon and sediment texture. Sediment sampling carried out on 17 September 2014 at six stations where three stations are still relatively close to The Rat island with water depth of ≤ 1 m and 3 others are far from Rat Island waters with a depth of 14-18 meters. Sediment texture and TOC content at waters depth of ≤ 1 m is sand and its TOC contents were <5.5%. On other hand at water depth of 14-18 meters sediment texture are silt sand mixture and the TOC content were ≥6%. The concentration of "1"3"7Cs in sediment were influenced by texture characteristic and TOC content. (author)

  13. Black carbon concentrations in the highly polluted Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: a three year monitoring with a dual-spot Aethalometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupakheti, Maheswar; Drinovec, Luka; Puppala, SivaPraveen; Mahata, Khadak; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Singdan, Pratik; Panday, Arnico; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Our knowledge about ambient black carbon (BC) in the vast Himalayan region, a region vulnerable to impacts of global warming, is very limited due to unavailability of a long-term ambient monitoring. Here we present results from a continuous monitoring of ambient BC concentrations, with a new generation Aethalometer (AE33), over a three year period (January 2013- January 2016) at a semi-urban site in the highly polluted Kathmandu Valley in the foothills of the central Himalaya, one of the most polluted cities in the world. This is the longest time series of BC concentrations that have been monitored with AE33 (which uses the dual-spot technique for a real-time filter loading compensation) in highly polluted ambient environment. The measurements were carried out under the framework of project SusKat (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley). BC concentrations were found to be extremely high, especially in winter and the pre-monsoon period, with the hourly-averaged values often exceeding 50 μg/m3. BC concentrations showed a clear diurnal cycle with a prominent peak around 8-9 am and a second peak around 8-9 pm local time in all four seasons. Night-time BC was also fairly high. The diurnal cycle was driven by a combination of increased emissions from traffic, cooking activities, garbage burning, and lower mixing heights (˜200 m) and reduced horizontal ventilation in the mornings and evenings. BC concentrations showed significant seasonal variations - a maximum in winter season and minimum during the monsoon (rainy) season, with monthly average values in the range 5-30 μg/m3. An increase in emissions from the operation of over 100 brick kilns in winter and spring, and an increase in the use of small but numerous diesel power generators during hours with power cuts contributed significantly to ambient BC concentrations in the valley. Fractional contributions of biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion to BC was estimated based on a real-time method for