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Sample records for varivestis showed moderate

  1. The Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis regurgitome and insights into beetle-borne virus specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Gedling

    Full Text Available For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant's defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects. Feeding beetles regurgitate onto leaf surfaces and it is thought that these oral secretions influence insect-plant interactions and even play a role in virus-vector specificity. Since the molecular and biological makeup of the regurgitant is virtually unknown, we carried out RNA sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis on a major soybean pest, Epilachna varivestis, to generate the first ever beetle "regurgitome" and characterize its microbiome. Interestingly, the regurgitant is comprised of a rich molecular assortment of genes encoding putative extracellular proteins involved in digestion, molting, immune defense, and detoxification. By carrying out plant inoculation assays, we reinforced the fundamental role of the regurgitant in beetle-borne virus specificity. Ultimately, these studies begin to characterize the importance of regurgitant in virus transmission and beetle-plant interactions.

  2. Progesterone treatment shows benefit in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available Controlled cortical impact (CCI models in adult and aged Sprague-Dawley (SD rats have been used extensively to study medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC injury and the effects of post-injury progesterone treatment, but the hormone's effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI in juvenile animals have not been determined. In the present proof-of-concept study we investigated whether progesterone had neuroprotective effects in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.Twenty-eight-day old (PND 28 male Sprague Dawley rats received sham (n = 24 or CCI (n = 47 injury and were given progesterone (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg per 100 g body weight or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID 1-7, subjected to behavioral testing from PID 9-27, and analyzed for lesion size at PID 28.The 8 and 16 mg/kg doses of progesterone were observed to be most beneficial in reducing the effect of CCI on lesion size and behavior in PND 28 male SD rats.Our findings suggest that a midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex will reliably produce a moderate TBI comparable to what is seen in the adult male rat and that progesterone can ameliorate the injury-induced deficits.

  3. Show Me the Money: A Systematic Exploration of Manipulations, Moderators, and Mechanisms of Priming Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Eugene M; Shapira, Oren; Landy, Justin F

    2017-08-01

    A major challenge for accumulating knowledge in psychology is the variation in methods and participant populations across studies in a single domain. We offer a systematic approach to addressing this challenge and implement it in the domain of money priming. In three preregistered experiments ( N = 4,649), participants were exposed to one of a number of money manipulations before completing self-report measures of money activation (Study 1); engaging in a behavioral-persistence task (Study 3); completing self-report measures of subjective wealth, self-sufficiency, and communion-agency (Studies 1-3); and completing demographic questions (Studies 1-3). Four of the five manipulations we tested activated the concept of money, but, contrary to what we expected based on the preponderance of the published literature, no manipulation consistently affected any dependent measure. Moderation by sociodemographic characteristics was sparse and inconsistent across studies. We discuss implications for theories of money priming and explain how our approach can complement recent efforts to build a reproducible, cumulative psychological science.

  4. Models of alien species richness show moderate predictive accuracy and poor transferability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Capinha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Robust predictions of alien species richness are useful to assess global biodiversity change. Nevertheless, the capacity to predict spatial patterns of alien species richness remains largely unassessed. Using 22 data sets of alien species richness from diverse taxonomic groups and covering various parts of the world, we evaluated whether different statistical models were able to provide useful predictions of absolute and relative alien species richness, as a function of explanatory variables representing geographical, environmental and socio-economic factors. Five state-of-the-art count data modelling techniques were used and compared: Poisson and negative binomial generalised linear models (GLMs, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, random forests (RF and boosted regression trees (BRT. We found that predictions of absolute alien species richness had a low to moderate accuracy in the region where the models were developed and a consistently poor accuracy in new regions. Predictions of relative richness performed in a superior manner in both geographical settings, but still were not good. Flexible tree ensembles-type techniques (RF and BRT were shown to be significantly better in modelling alien species richness than parametric linear models (such as GLM, despite the latter being more commonly applied for this purpose. Importantly, the poor spatial transferability of models also warrants caution in assuming the generality of the relationships they identify, e.g. by applying projections under future scenario conditions. Ultimately, our results strongly suggest that predictability of spatial variation in richness of alien species richness is limited. The somewhat more robust ability to rank regions according to the number of aliens they have (i.e. relative richness, suggests that models of aliens species richness may be useful for prioritising and comparing regions, but not for predicting exact species numbers.

  5. Polygenic scores predict alcohol problems in an independent sample and show moderation by the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Aliev, Fazil; Edwards, Alexis C; Evans, David M; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Lewis, Glyn; Kendler, Kenneth S; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-04-10

    Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems-derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female)-predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14) in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female). We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance) moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07-0.08, all p-values ≤ 0.01). Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b), p-values (p), and percent of variance (R2) accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively). Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes.

  6. Polygenic Scores Predict Alcohol Problems in an Independent Sample and Show Moderation by the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems—derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female—predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14 in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female. We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07–0.08, all p-values ≤ 0.01. Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b, p-values (p, and percent of variance (R2 accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively. Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes.

  7. Effects of Thiamethoxam-Treated Seed on Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Nontarget Arthropods, and Crop Performance in Southwestern Virginia Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L; Kuhar, T P; Kring, T; Herbert, D A; Arancibia, R; Schultz, P

    2017-12-08

    Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide commonly applied directly to the seeds (seed-treatment) of commercial snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. While previous studies have examined target and nontarget effects of thiamethoxam seed-treatments in snap beans and other crops, to our knowledge, none have been conducted in agroecosystems predominated by the pest Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). This study examined the effects of thiamethoxam-treated snap beans on E. varivestis, other arthropods, and crop performance in southwestern Virginia. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate residual toxicity of treated snap beans to E. varivestis and a key predator, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Treated plants were highly toxic to E. varivestis at 13 d, moderately toxic from 16 to 20 d, and minimally toxic at 24 d. P. maculiventris was unaffected by exposure to treated plants or by feeding on E. varivestis that consumed treated plants. Small plot field experiments in 2014 and 2015 showed no significant effects of thiamethoxam seed-treatments on E. varivestis densities, other arthropods, crop injury, or yield. In 2016, planting was delayed by persistent rain, resulting in early E. varivestis colonization. In this year, thiamethoxam-treated plants had significantly lower densities and feeding injury from E. varivestis, followed by significantly higher yields. Natural enemies were unaffected by seed-treatments in all field experiments. These experiments demonstrated that thiamethoxam seed-treatments provide control of E. varivestis when beetles infest fields within 2 to 3 wk after planting; but otherwise provide negligible advantages. Negative effects from thiamethoxam seed-treatments on nontarget arthropods appear minimal for snap beans in this region. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please

  8. The moderator's moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, G.K.

    1990-01-01

    A brief account is given of the development of graphite moderators for Magnox and advanced gas cooled reactors. The accident at Windscale in 1957 brought to worldwide attention the importance of irradiation damage in graphite and the consequent storage of Wigner energy. In spite of the Windscale setback, preparations for the civil programme of Magnox reactors went ahead apace. Some of the background to the disastrous Dungeness B tender is presented. In spite of all the difficulties and uncertainties, the graphite in UK reactors has performed well. In all cases, as far as the author is aware, the behaviour of the graphite moderators will not prevent design life being achieved. (author)

  9. Moderate running and plyometric training during off-season did not show a significant difference on soccer-related high-intensity performances compared with no-training controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Yasumatsu, Mikinobu; Akimoto, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    Several investigators have reported the effects of reduced training and interrupted training on athletic performance, but few reports are available for soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine, using the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YoYoIR2) test and sprint performance, the effects on soccer players of a reduced training program consisting of either moderate running training, plyometric training. After the completion of a competitive season, 29 male soccer players were divided into 3 groups: the running group (n = 13), the plyometric group (n = 11), and the control group (n = 5). Both training groups completed either running or plyometric training sessions 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks, whereas the control group was not allowed to perform any training. The subjects performed YoYoIR2 and 20-m sprint tests before (pre) and after (post) the experimental period. Neither training group showed any significant training effects on the YoYoIR2 performance or 20-m sprint times compared with the control group. This study suggests that neither endurance running nor plyometric training 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks has a significant effect on high-intensity performance compared with a nontraining regimen. However, our results do not support complete inactivity. These results may have important implications for the management of training cessation for a few weeks.

  10. Efficient Cryosolid Positron Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    table layout Figure 21 shows the integration of the IR spectroscopy optics with the positron Moderation and Annihilation vacuum chambers on the...Characterization of Cryogenic Moderators The application of Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy (MIS) to characterizing cryogenic solid positron ...Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy capability into our Positron Moderation apparatus, which enables spectroscopic characterization of the cryogenic

  11. Single and repeated moderate consumption of native or dealcoholized red wine show different effects on antioxidant parameters in blood and DNA strand breaks in peripheral leukocytes in healthy volunteers: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN68505294

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spengler Ulrich

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red wine (RW is rich in antioxidant polyphenols that might protect from oxidative stress related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Antioxidant effects after single ingestion of RW or dealcoholized RW (DRW have been observed in several studies, but results after regular consumption are contradictory. Thus, we examined if single or repeated consumption of moderate amounts of RW or DRW exert antioxidant activity in vivo. Methods Total phenolic content and concentration of other antioxidants in plasma/serum, total antioxidant capacity (TEAC in plasma as well as DNA strand breaks in peripheral leukocytes were measured in healthy non-smokers A before, 90 and 360 min after ingestion of one glass of RW, DRW or water; B before and after consumption of one glass of RW or DRW daily for 6 weeks. DNA strand breaks (SB were determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet Assay in untreated cells and after induction of oxidative stress ex vivo with H2O2 (300 μM, 20 min. Results Both RW and DRW transiently increased total phenolic content in plasma after single consumption, but only RW lead to a sustained increase if consumed regularly. Plasma antioxidant capacity was not affected by single or regular consumption of RW or DRW. Effects of RW and DRW on DNA SB were conflicting. DNA strand breaks in untreated cells increased after a single dose of RW and DRW, whereas H2O2 induced SB were reduced after DRW. In contrast, regular RW consumption reduced SB in untreated cells but did not affect H2O2 induced SB. Conclusion The results suggest that consumption of both RW and DRW leads to an accumulation of phenolic compounds in plasma without increasing plasma antioxidant capacity. Red wine and DRW seem to affect the occurrence of DNA strand breaks, but this cannot be referred to antioxidant effects.

  12. Moderate Bravery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to act in a purposeful and effective way amid institutional tensions and paradoxes is, right now, a highly prized quality in public leadership. The purpose of this chapter is to qualify moderately brave acts as a learning format that combines the analytical and performative...

  13. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  14. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  15. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  16. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  18. Grooved cold moderator tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Iwasa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Ikeda, S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Ishikawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We performed some grooved cold moderator experiments for methane at 20 K by using the Hokkaido University linac to obtain information to be used in the planning of the KENS-I' project. Cold neutron gains, spatial distribution of emitted beams and time distribution of the neutrons in the grooved cold moderator were measured. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of the grooved cold moderator on the performances of the spectrometers presently installed at the KENS-I cold source. We concluded that the grooved cold moderator benefited appreciably the performances of the spectrometers

  19. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  20. Moderation for Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Moderation is put forward as they key strategy for improving the reliability of teacher assessment. However, for many teachers the word "moderation" conjures up ideas of uncomfortable situations in which marking is being checked by others and there are prolonged arguments about tiny features of individual work. In this article, the…

  1. Methane pellet moderator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Schechter, D.E.; Carpenter, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A methane pellet moderator assembly consisting of a pelletizer, a helium cooled sub-cooling tunnel, a liquid helium cooled cryogenic pellet storage hopper and a 1.5L moderator cell has been constructed for the purpose demonstrating a system for use in high-power spallation sources. (orig.)

  2. Moderator for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, M.S.; Dunn, J.T.; Hart, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a moderator for a nuclear reactor and more specifically, to a composite moderator. A moderator is designed to slow down, or thermalize, neutrons which are released during nuclear reactions in the reactor fuel. Pure or almost pure materials like light water, heavy water, beryllium or graphite are used singly as moderators at present. All these materials, are used widely. Graphite has a good mechanical strength at high temperatures encountered in the nuclear core and therefore is used as both the moderator and core structural material. It also exhibits a low neutron-capture cross section and high neutron scattering cross section. However, graphite is susceptible to attach by carbon dioxide and/or oxygen where applicable, and releases stress energy under certain circumstances, although under normal operating conditions these reactions can be controlled. (author). 1 tab

  3. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  4. High efficiency positron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taqqu, D.

    1990-01-01

    A new positron moderation scheme is proposed. It makes use of electric and magnetic fields to confine the β + emitted by a radioactive source forcing them to slow down within a thin foil. A specific arrangement is described where an intermediary slowed-down beam of energy below 10 keV is produced. By directing it towards a standard moderator optimal conversion into slow positrons is achieved. This scheme is best applied to short lived β + emitters for which a 25% moderation efficiency can be reached. Within the state of the art technology a slow positron source intensity exceeding 2 x 10 10 e + /sec is achievable. (orig.)

  5. Interviewing the moderator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2004-01-01

    There has been an upsurge of academic interest in using focus groups (FGs) as a main or stand-alone qualitative method. In this article, the authors introduce a recently developed ancillary method to FGs called interviewing the moderator. The method is employed immediately after an FG and consists...... of a one-on-one interview with the FG moderator by another member of the research team. The authors argue, with reference to a specific study, that interviewing the moderator adds a new and valuable dimension to group interviews used in research. They describe how this method came about and provide...

  6. Study of tungsten based positron moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucio, O.G. de; Pérez, M.; Mendoza, U.; Morales, J.G.; Cruz, J.C. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México DF (Mexico); DuBois, R.D. [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Positrons and how they interact with matter has a growing interest in many fields. Most of their uses require the production of slow positron beams with a well-defined energy, but since these particles are usually generated by means of a radioactive source, they are fast and with a broad distribution of energies. For this reason it is necessary to moderate them to lower energies via inelastic collisions. Then, they can be accelerated to the desired energies. This requires the use of a moderator. Tungsten is one of the most commonly used moderator materials because of its reasonable efficiency and relatively low cost. In this work we present different methods of producing transmission tungsten-based moderators, with particular interest in a combination of tungsten thin foils and grids. We also show results about the characterization of these moderators by ion beam analysis and microscopy techniques along with their relative moderation efficiencies.

  7. Study of tungsten based positron moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucio, O.G. de; Pérez, M.; Mendoza, U.; Morales, J.G.; Cruz, J.C.; DuBois, R.D.

    2015-01-01

    Positrons and how they interact with matter has a growing interest in many fields. Most of their uses require the production of slow positron beams with a well-defined energy, but since these particles are usually generated by means of a radioactive source, they are fast and with a broad distribution of energies. For this reason it is necessary to moderate them to lower energies via inelastic collisions. Then, they can be accelerated to the desired energies. This requires the use of a moderator. Tungsten is one of the most commonly used moderator materials because of its reasonable efficiency and relatively low cost. In this work we present different methods of producing transmission tungsten-based moderators, with particular interest in a combination of tungsten thin foils and grids. We also show results about the characterization of these moderators by ion beam analysis and microscopy techniques along with their relative moderation efficiencies

  8. Segmented fuel and moderator rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous segmented fuel and moderator rod for use with a water cooled and moderated nuclear fuel assembly. The rod comprises: a lower fuel region containing a column of nuclear fuel; a moderator region, disposed axially above the fuel region. The moderator region has means for admitting and passing the water moderator therethrough for moderating an upper portion of the nuclear fuel assembly. The moderator region is separated from the fuel region by a water tight separator

  9. Development of cold source moderator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Tomokaze; Ishikura, Syuichi; Terada, Atsuhiko; Teshigawara, Makoto; Watanabe, Noboru; HIno, Ryutaro

    1999-01-01

    The cold and thermal neutrons generated at the target (which works as a spallation neutron source under a 5MW proton beam condition) is filtered with cold source moderators using supercritical hydrogen. Preliminary structural analysis was carried out to clarify technical problems on the concept of the thin-walled structure for the cold source moderator. Structural analytical results showed that the maximum stress of 1 12MPa occurred on the moderator surface, which exceeded the allowable design stresses of ordinary aluminum alloys. Flow patterns measured by water flow experiments agreed well with hydraulic analytical results, which showed that an impinging jet flow from an inner pipe of the moderator caused a recirculation flow on a large scale. Based on analytical and experimental results, new moderator structures with minute frames, blowing flow holes etc. were proposed to keep its strength and to suppress the recirculation flow. (author)

  10. Cold moderators at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, upgrading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  11. Coupled moderator neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    Optimizing the neutronic performance of a coupled-moderator system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source is a new and challenging area for the spallation target-system designer. For optimal performance of a neutron source, it is essential to have good communication with instrument scientists to obtain proper design criteria and continued interaction with mechanical, thermal-hydraulic, and materials engineers to attain a practical design. A good comprehension of the basics of coupled-moderator neutronics will aid in the proper design of a target system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source

  12. NORMATIVE MODERATORS OF IMPULSE BUYING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danes Jaya Negara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has presented the moderating role of normative evaluations in the relationship between the impulsive buying trait and consumers’ buying behaviors. In this article the authors show that consumer tendency to buy something spontaneous, unreflectively and immediately can be perceived as a factor which describes buying impulsiveness. This article also shows conceptual and empirical evidence that there is some support for the moderating role of normative evaluations in the relationship between buying impulsiveness and impulse buying behaviors. Significance occurs when consumers believe that act on impulse is suitable. The result suggests that consumers’ normative evaluation can moderate the link between the trait and behavioral aspects of impulse buying.

  13. Moderator Chemistry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation

  14. Den moderate revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bøje

    "normale" industrivirksomheder, men den er absolut set begrænset. Årsagerne til denne kun "moderate revolution" af organisationsformerne diskuteres: Er det fordi klassisk organisation og social nærkontakt er nødvendig i den nye økonomi, eller er det manglende fantasi og tryghedsbehov? Begge muligheder...

  15. Cryogenic moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplock, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the present design of the two cold moderators to be built for the Spallation Neutron Source. It discusses the reasons behind a number of the design features and highlights several problem areas requiring solutions before a final design can be constructed

  16. In Everything Moderation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    For many people, drinking alcohol is a regular part of social occasions, but moderation is important. Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to serious health and social problems. A recent report found that binge drinking is common among women and girls. In this podcast, Dr. Dafna Kanny discusses the dangers of binge drinking.

  17. [Moderately haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotsenko, Iu A; Doronina, N V; Li, Ts D; Reshetnikov, A S

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic methylobacteria utilizing oxidized and substituted methane derivatives as carbon and energy sources are widespread in nature and involved in the global carbon cycle, being a unique biofilter on the path of these C1 compounds from different ecosystems to the atmosphere. New data on the biological features of moderately halophilic, neutrophilic, and alkaliphilic methylobacteria isolated from biotopes with higher osmolarity (seas, saline and soda lakes, saline soils, and deteriorating marble) are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the latest advances in the study of the mechanisms of osmoadaptation of aerobic moderately haloalkaliphilic methylobacteria: formation of osmolytes, in particular, molecular and genetic aspects of biosynthesis of the universal bioprotectant ectoine. The prospects for further studies of the physiological and biochemical principles of haloalkalophily and for the application of haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylobacteria in biosynthesis and biodegradation are discussed.

  18. Cold moderator scattering kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    New thermal-scattering-law files in ENDF format have been developed for solid methane, liquid methane liquid ortho- and para-hydrogen, and liquid ortho- and para-deuterium using up-to-date models that include such effects as incoherent elastic scattering in the solid, diffusion and hindered vibration and rotations in the liquids, and spin correlations for the hydrogen and deuterium. These files were generated with the new LEAPR module of the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System. Other modules of this system were used to produce cross sections for these moderators in the correct format for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code (MCNP) being used for cold-moderator-design calculations at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE). 20 refs., 14 figs

  19. Development of a cone-geometry positron moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, K.G.; Gramsch, E.; Usmar, S.G.; Sferlazzo, P.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on a new cone-shaped positron moderator which shows a high moderator efficiency (i.e., conversion of beta decay to emitted slow positrons). The moderator efficiencies for the cone moderators studied were found to be up to 0.14% compared to thin-foil measurements of 0.06% in the same experimental system including identical source and holder. These moderators are rugged and easily fabricated, however, they have a lower brightness than single-crystal foil moderators. Comparison of various geometries is presented as well as suggestions for further improvements to increase the total efficiencies

  20. Triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hügle, Th.; Mocko, M.; Hartl, M.A.; Daemen, L.L.; Muhrer, G.

    2014-01-01

    New challenges in neutron scattering result in an increased demand in novel moderator concepts. The most direct way to address the problem would be to change the moderator material itself. However the range of available neutron moderator materials is small. In this paper, we discuss triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material especially promising for cold neutron moderator applications. Our investigations include a parallel experimental and theoretical approach ranging from cross-section measurements and inelastic neutron spectroscopy to molecular modeling. -- Highlights: • Triphenylmethane as a potential moderator material is discussed. • Parallel theoretical and experimental approach. • Possibly very useful for cold neutrons

  1. Moderation of neutron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlatt, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor system having a nuclear reactor which has a core including fuel assemblies, means for transmitting through the core a coolant, the coolant having a predetermined neutron-energy moderating property, sealed tubes in the core, each tube containing a material having a different neutron-energy moderating property than the coolant, means, when actuated, to engage at least certain of the tubes, for opening certain of the tubes to permit the coolant to replace the material in the tubes thereby to change the energy spectrum of the neutrons in the reactor, hydraulic means, connected to the opening means, for actuating the opening means to engage certain of the tubes to open the tubes. A device, external to the reactor, connected to the hydraulic means controlls the actuation of the opening means, the opening means being so set with reference to the tubes that only certain of the tubes are opened at any time as the opening means is advanced towards the tubes by the hydraulic means

  2. How do people define moderation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Moderator Configuration Options for ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanini, L.; Batkov, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2016-01-01

    The current, still evolving status of the design and the optimization work for the moderator configuration for the European Spallation Source is described. The moderator design has been strongly driven by the low-dimensional moderator concept recently proposed for use in spallation neutron sources...... or reactors. Quasi-two dimensional, disc- or tube-shaped moderators,can provide strong brightness increase (factor of 3 or more) with respect to volume para-H2moderators, which constitute the reference, state-of-the-art technology for high-intensity coupled moderators. In the design process other, more...... conventional, principles were also considered,such as the importance of moderator positioning, of the premoderator, and beam extraction considerations. Different design and configuration options are evaluated and compared with the reference volume moderator configuration described in the ESS Technical Design...

  4. Spallation neutron source moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes various aspects of the spallation neutron source (SNS) moderator design. Included are the effects of varying the moderator location, interaction effects between moderators, and the impact on neutron output when various reflector materials are used. Also included is a study of the neutron output from composite moderators, where it is found that a combination of liquid H 2 O and liquid H 2 can produce a spectrum very similar to liquid methane (L-CH 4 ). (orig.)

  5. SNS moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    The pulsed-neutron source SNS facility will start operation at 1 MW. A later upgrade to 5 MW is planned. The facility consists of a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and a target station. The protons from the accumulator ring will be injected into the target station at 1 GeV. The subsequent spallation process will then produce low-energy thermal neutrons that may be used for a wide variety of experiments. In this paper the authors discuss neutronic calculations which address various aspects of the moderate design. The computer codes HETC and MCNP were used for these calculations with the former code performing the high-energy transport. Neutrons which fell in energy to 20 MeV or less were then passed to MCNP for further transport

  6. FLUID MODERATED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1957-10-22

    A reactor which utilizes fissionable fuel elements in rod form immersed in a moderator or heavy water and a means of circulating the heavy water so that it may also function as a coolant to remove the heat generated by the fission of the fuel are described. In this design, the clad fuel elements are held in vertical tubes immersed in heavy water in a tank. The water is circulated in a closed system by entering near the tops of the tubes, passing downward through the tubes over the fuel elements and out into the tank, where it is drawn off at the bottom, passed through heat exchangers to give up its heat and then returned to the tops of the tubes for recirculation.

  7. "Show me the money": vulnerability to gambling moderates the attractiveness of money versus suspense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cheryl; Wilson, Timothy D; McRae, Kaichen; Gilbert, Daniel T

    2013-10-01

    Do people take risks to obtain rewards or experience suspense? We hypothesized that people vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of winning money whereas people less vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of suspense. Consistent with this hypothesis, participants with high scores on a subscale of the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey--a measure of vulnerability to gambling--reported more of a motivation to earn money (pilot study), were more likely to accept a certain or near-certain amount of money than to gamble for that same amount (Studies 1-2), and worked harder to earn money (Study 3). People vulnerable to gambling also made more accurate predictions about how much they would gamble. People less vulnerable to gambling, in contrast, gambled more than people vulnerable to gambling, but did not know that they would.

  8. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  9. Thermal neutron moderating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigami, Hiroyuki.

    1995-01-01

    In a thermal neutron moderating device, superconductive coils for generating magnetic fields capable of applying magnetic fields vertical to the longitudinal direction of a thermal neutron passing tube, and superconductive coils for magnetic field gradient for causing magnetic field gradient in the longitudinal direction of the thermal neutron passing tube are disposed being stacked at the outside of the thermal neutron passing tube. When magnetic field gradient is present vertically to the direction of a magnetic moment, thermal neutrons undergo forces in the direction of the magnetic field gradient in proportion to the magnetic moment. Then, the magnetic moment of the thermal neutrons is aligned with the direction vertical to the passing direction of the thermal neutrons, to cause the magnetic field gradient in the passing direction of the thermal neutrons. The speed of the thermal neutrons can be optionally selected and the wavelength can freely be changed by applying forces to the thermal neutrons and changing the extent and direction of the magnetic field gradient. Superconductive coils are used as the coils for generating magnetic fields and the magnetic field gradient in order to change extremely high energy of the thermal neutrons. (N.H.)

  10. Toward a Moderate Autoethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Stahlke Wall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autoethnography is an avant-garde method of qualitative inquiry that has captured the attention of an ever-increasing number of scholars from a variety of disciplines. Personal experience methods can offer a new and unique vantage point from which to make a contribution to social science yet, autoethnography has been criticized for being self-indulgent, narcissistic, introspective, and individualized. Methodological discussions about this method are polarized. As an autoethnographer and qualitative methodologist with an interest in personal experience methods, I have had the opportunity to review several autoethnographic manuscripts over the years. As my reviews accumulated, I began to see themes in my responses and it became apparent that I was advocating for an approach to autoethnography that lies in contrast to the frequently offered methodological polemics from philosophically divergent scholars. In this article, I draw from the reviews I have done to address topics such as applications and purposes for autoethnography, the degree of theory and analysis used within the method, data sources and dissemination of findings, and ethical issues. I then connect the concerns I see in the reviewed manuscripts to examples in the autoethnographic literature. Ultimately, I propose a moderate and balanced treatment of autoethnography that allows for innovation, imagination, and the representation of a range of voices in qualitative inquiry while also sustaining confidence in the quality, rigor, and usefulness of academic research.

  11. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  12. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  13. The case for moderate gun control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrazia, David

    2014-03-01

    In addressing the shape of appropriate gun policy, this essay assumes for the sake of discussion that there is a legal and moral right to private gun ownership. My thesis is that, against the background of this right, the most defensible policy approach in the United States would feature moderate gun control. The first section summarizes the American gun control status quo and characterizes what I call "moderate gun control." The next section states and rebuts six leading arguments against this general approach to gun policy. The section that follows presents a positive case for moderate gun control that emphasizes safety in the home and society as well as rights whose enforcement entails some limits or qualifications on the right to bear arms. A final section shows how the recommended gun regulations address legitimate purposes, rather than imposing arbitrary restrictions on gun rights, and offers concluding reflections.

  14. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  15. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  16. Moderate Secularism and Multicultural Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    Tariq Modood argues that European states are only ‘moderately secular' and that this kind of secularism is compatible with public accommodation of religious groups and provides a model of Muslim integration appropriate for European states. Although attention to the fact of moderate secularism...... provides a response to a prominent argument against multicultural accommodation of religious minorities, what is really at stake in discussions of multiculturalism and secularism are political principles. Modood's case for accommodation of Muslims along the lines of moderate secularism presupposes...

  17. Doing statistical mediation and moderation

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, conversational style, this book offers a hands-on approach to statistical mediation and moderation for both beginning researchers and those familiar with modeling. Starting with a gentle review of regression-based analysis, Paul Jose covers basic mediation and moderation techniques before moving on to advanced topics in multilevel modeling, structural equation modeling, and hybrid combinations, such as moderated mediation. User-friendly features include numerous graphs and carefully worked-through examples; ""Helpful Suggestions"" about procedures and pitfalls; ""Knowled

  18. Assessment of ACR moderator circulation design using CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunama, R.; Carlucci, L.N.; Waddington, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of the thermalhydraulic performance of the moderator circulation system for the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) was carried out using the specialized Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code MODTURC C LAS V2.9 IST. The assessment included modeling the moderator circulation inside the calandria vessel under nominal and isothermal flow conditions. The modeling results show that the moderator flow through the core is relatively uniform and mostly upward. The moderator temperature distribution is nearly stratified and increases monotonically from the bottom to the top of the calandria vessel. (author)

  19. Effect of moderate exercise on peritoneal neutrophils from juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Glauber Ruda; Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Pedroza, Anderson Apolonio; da Silva, Aline Isabel; Sousa, Shirley Maria; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Lagranha, Claudia

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies showed that moderate exercise in adult rats enhances neutrophil function, although no studies were performed in juvenile rats. We evaluated the effects of moderate exercise on the neutrophil function in juvenile rats. Viability and neutrophils function were evaluated. Moderate exercise did not impair the viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential of neutrophils, whereas there was greater reactive oxygen species production (164%; p < 0.001) and phagocytic capacity (29%; p < 0.05). Our results suggest that moderate exercise in juvenile rats improves neutrophil function, similar to adults.

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neafsey EJ

    2011-08-01

    drinking provided a similar benefit, but heavy drinking was associated with nonsignificantly higher cognitive risk for dementia and cognitive impairment. Although the meta-analysis also indicated that wine was better than beer or spirits, this was based on a relatively small number of studies because most studies did not distinguish among these different types of alcohol. Furthermore, a number of the studies that did make the distinction reported no difference among the effects of these different types of alcohol. Therefore, at present this question remains unanswered. Analysis also showed that the presence of the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele eliminated the benefit of moderate drinking. However, this was based on a relatively small number of studies and several other studies have found a beneficial effect of the epsilon e4 allele. Further studies are necessary to settle this question. The benefit of moderate alcohol for cognition was seen in both men and women, although the amount and pattern of drinking is very different between the two sexes. Lastly, the finding of unaffected or significantly reduced cognitive risk in light to moderate drinkers was seen in 14/19 countries for which country-specific ratio data were available, with three of the five remaining countries showing nonsignificant reductions as well. Overall, light to moderate drinking does not appear to impair cognition in younger subjects and actually seems to reduce the risk of dementia and cognitive decline in older subjects.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, drinking

  1. Neutron moderation theory with thermal motion of the moderator nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusov, V.D.; Tarasov, V.A.; Chernezhenko, S.A.; Kakaev, A.A.; Smolyar, V.P. [Odessa National Polytechnic University, Department of Theoretical and Experimental Nuclear Physics, Odessa (Ukraine)

    2017-09-15

    In this paper we present the analytical expression for the neutron scattering law for an isotropic source of neutrons, obtained within the framework of the gas model with the temperature of the moderating medium as a parameter. The obtained scattering law is based on the solution of the general kinematic problem of elastic scattering of neutrons on nuclei in the L-system. Both the neutron and the nucleus possess arbitrary velocities in the L-system. For the new scattering law we obtain the flux densities and neutron moderation spectra as functions of temperature for the reactor fissile medium. The expressions for the moderating neutrons spectra allow reinterpreting the physical nature of the underlying processes in the thermal region. (orig.)

  2. Acute emesis: moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Rapoport, Bernardo; Warr, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recommendations for the prophylaxis of acute emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy as concluded at the third Perugia Consensus Conference, which took place in June 2009. The review will focus on new studies appearing since the Second consensus conference...... receiving multiple cycles of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy will be reviewed. Consensus statements are given, including optimal dose and schedule of serotonin(3) receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and neurokinin(1) receptor antagonists. The most significant recommendations (and changes since the 2004...... version of the guidelines) are as follows: the best prophylaxis in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (not including a combination of an anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide) is the combination of palonosetron and dexamethasone on the day of chemotherapy, followed by dexamethasone...

  3. Graphite moderated 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    The thorium molten salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a 252 Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the 252 Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. (Author)

  4. Radicals versus Moderates: A Critique of Gyekye's Moderate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The communitarian conception of person is a widely accepted view in African thought. Kwame Gyekye thinks there is a distinction between what he calls radical communitarianism and his own version of moderate communitarianism. He is of the view that radical communitarianism is faced with insurmountable problems and ...

  5. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  6. Diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shoucheng; Chen Zhijian; Chen Youxin

    1989-01-01

    Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were given 60 Co TLI. 21 cases received 6 Gy and 19 received 8 Gy. It was estimated that a single TLI of 6 and 8 Gy would correspond to TBI of 3.55 Gy and 4.25 Gy (average values) by analysing peripheral blood cell chromosome aberrations and 1.85-2.37 Gy by measuring red bone marrow stem cells clinically. Moderate acute radiation sickness with digestive tract reaction and hemopoietic and immunologic depression was observed. WBC and platelets decreased rapidly. Lymphocytes showed quantitative and qualitative changes even at early stage. All these indexes are significant for diagnosis. Besides, the degree of labial stimulation response, levels of C-reactive protein, corticoid, and urinal nucleoside and alkaloid base presented great changes both pre-and post-irradiation. Early diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness could be made in cancer patients subjected to 6-8 Gy TLI

  7. Moderator circulation in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, H.E.S.; Hussein, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional computer code that is capable of predicting the moderator flow and temperature distribution inside CANDU calandria is presented. The code uses a new approach to simulate the calandria tube matrix by blocking the cells containing the tubes in the finite difference mesh. A jet momentum-dominant flow pattern is predicted in the nonisothermal case, and the effect of the buoyancy force, resulting from nuclear heating, is found to enhance the speed of circulation. Hot spots are located in low-velocity areas at the top of the calandria and below the inlet jet level between the fuel channels. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effect of moderator inlet velocity,moderator inlet nozzle location, and geometric scaling. The results indicate that decreasing the moderator inlet velocity has no significant influence on the general features of the flow pattern (i.e., momentum dominant); however, too many high-temperature hot spots appear within the fuel channels

  8. Local Assessment Moderation in SEPUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lily; And Others

    Assessment moderation is a procedure in which scorers or raters meet to achieve a consensus on scores assigned to student work. In the Science Education for Public Understanding Program (SEPUP), local teams of teachers met regularly at six sites nationwide to score student work, review methods of assigning scores, discuss and resolve discrepancies…

  9. Nuclear data generation for cryogenic moderators and high temperature moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petriw, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    The commonly used processing codes for nuclear data only allow the generation of cross section data for a limited number of materials and physical conditions.At present, one of the most used computer codes for the generation of neutron cross sections is N J O Y, which is based on a phonon expansion of the scattering function starting from the frequency spectrum.Therefore, the information related to the system's density of states is crucial to produce the required data of interest. In this work the formalism of the Synthetic Model for Molecular Solids (S M M S) was implemented, which is in turn based on the Synthetic Frequency Spectrum (S F S) concept.The synthetic spectrum is central in the present work, and it is built from simple, relevant parameters of the moderator, thus conforming an alternative tool when no information on the actual frequency spectrum of the moderator material is available.S F S 's for several material of interest where produced in this work, for both cryogenic and high temperature moderators.We studied some materials of special interest, like solid methane, ice, methyl clathrate and two which are of special interest in the nuclear industry: graphite and beryllium.The libraries generated in the present work for the materials considered, in spite of their synthetic origin, are able to produce results that are even in better agreement with available information [es

  10. Moderator temperature coefficient in BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka

    1977-01-01

    Temperature dependences of infinite multiplication factor k sub(infinity) and neutron leakage from the core must be examined for estimation of moderator temperature coefficient. Temperature dependence on k sub(infinity) has been investigated by many researchers, however, the dependence on neutron leakage of a BWR with cruciformed control rods has hardly been done. Because there are difficulties and necessity on calculations of three space dimensional and multi-energy groups neutron distribution in a BWR core. In this study, moderator temperature coefficients of JPDR-II (BWR) core were obtained by calculation with DIFFUSION-ACE, which is newly developed three-dimensional multi-group computer code. The results were compared with experimental data measured from 20 to 275 0 C of the moderator temperature and the good agreement was obtained between calculation and measurement. In order to evaluate neutron leakage from the core, the other two calculations were carried out, adjusting criticality by uniform absorption rate and by material buckling. The former underestimated neutron leakage and the latter overestimated it. Discussion on the results shows that in order to estimate the temperature coefficient of BWR, neutron leakage must be evaluated precisely, therefore the calculation at actual pattern of control rods is necessary. (auth.)

  11. IPNS grooved, solid methane moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.; Schulke, A.W.; Scott, T.L.; Wozniak, D.G.; Benson, B.E.; Leyda, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    There are two motives for using cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources, to provide higher fluxes of long-wavelength neutrons, and to extend the epithermal range with its short pulse structure to lower energies. For both these purposes solid methane, operated at the lowest possible temperatures, is the best material we know of. Two problems accompany the use of solid methane in high power sources, namely heat transport in view of the low thermal conductivity of solid methane, and deterioration due to radiation damage. We have designed a system suitable to operate in IPNS, subject to nuclear heating of about 25 W, which incorporates an aluminum foam matrix to conduct the heat from within the moderator. We report the results of the first few months' operation and of a few tests that we have performed

  12. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Reysen; Iva Katzarska-Miller

    2013-01-01

    In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week), moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week), high (reciprocating attraction five days a week), or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation). Participants then rated thei...

  13. Cryogenic moderator simulations: confronting reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a spallation neutron source dedicated to materials research. Its three cryogenic methane moderators provide twelve neutron beams to fourteen instruments and test facilities. This report concerns ongoing activities for benchmarking our Monte Carlo model of the IPNS neutron generation system. This paper concentrates on the techniques (both experimental and calculational) used in such benchmarking activities

  14. Reflector-moderated critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, H.C.; Jarvis, G.A.; Byers, C.C.

    1975-07-01

    Experiments with reflector-moderated critical assemblies were part of the Rover Program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). These assemblies were characterized by thick D 2 O or beryllium reflectors surrounding large cavities that contained highly enriched uranium at low average densities. Because interest in this type of system has been revived by LASL Plasma Cavity Assembly studies, more detailed descriptions of the early assemblies than had been available in the unclassified literature are provided. (U.S.)

  15. Moderate Psoriasis: A Proposed Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Velasco, M; de la Cueva, P; Notario, J; Martínez-Pilar, L; Martorell, A; Moreno-Ramírez, D

    2017-12-01

    The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) is the most widely used scale for assessing the severity of psoriasis and for therapeutic decision making. On the basis of the PASI score, patients have been stratified into 2 groups: mild disease and moderate-to-severe disease. To draft a proposal for the definition and characterization of moderate psoriasis based on PASI and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. A group of 6 dermatologists with experience in the treatment of psoriasis undertook a critical review of the literature and a discussion of cases to draft a proposal. In order of priority, PASI, DLQI, and body surface area (BSA) are the parameters to be used in daily practice to classify psoriasis as mild, moderate, or severe. Severity should be assessed on the basis of a combined evaluation and interpretation of the PASI and DLQI. And 3, PASI and DLQI should carry equal weight in the determination of disease severity. On this basis, psoriasis severity was defined using the following criteria: mild, PASI15, independently of the DLQI score. A more precise classification of psoriasis according to disease severity will improve the risk-benefit assessment essential to therapeutic decision making in these patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  17. Performance tests of external moderators of a PGNAA setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Maslehuddin, M.

    2003-01-01

    Performance tests of external cylindrical moderators of an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup have been carried out through thermal neutrons and prompt γ-ray yield measurements. The PGNAA setup is to be used for analysis of cement samples. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geometry of cylindrical moderator on yield of thermal neutrons and prompt γ-rays for two different types of moderator assemblies. One of the moderators was to be used with a small sample and the other to be used with a large sample. Fast and thermal neutron yield was measured inside the sample volume as a function of the front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Neutron yield measurement was carried out at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 350 keV pulsed beam accelerator using nuclear track detectors. The pulsed 200 keV deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 31.25 kHz frequency was used to produce 2.8 MeV neutrons via D(d,n) reaction. Neutron yield measurements showed that the large sample moderator has a smaller yield of thermal neutrons as compared to the small sample moderator, which is in complete agreement with the results of Monte Carlo yield calculations of the thermal and fast neutrons from both the moderators. Finally, the prompt γ-ray yield from a Portland cement sample was measured using the two moderators and was compared with each other. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, in spite of a smaller yield of thermal neutrons, the large sample moderator has a higher yield of prompt γ-rays

  18. Moderator behaviour and reactor internals integrity at Atucha I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, S.; Guala, M.; Herzovich, P.; Chocron, M.; Lorenzo, A.; Raffo Calderon, Ma. C. del; Urrutia, G.

    1996-01-01

    Atucha I is a Pressure Vessel Heavy Water Cooled Heavy Water Moderator Reactor. In this kind of reactor the moderator tank is physically connected to the primary coolant. Since neutron economy requires the moderator to be as cold as possible, it is necessary that even when physically connected, it should have a separated cooling system, which in this case is also used as a feed-water preheater, and also heat mass transfer with primary coolant should be minimized. This condition requires that some reactor internals are designed in principle to last the whole life of the plant. However, in 1988 the failure of one internal produced a 16 month shut down. This incident could have been prevented but the idea that reactor internals would not have failures due to aging was dominant at that time avoiding the early detection of the failure. However, the analysis of the records after the incident showed that some process variables had changed previously to the incident, i.e., power exchanged at the moderator heat exchanger had increased. Since the station restart up some changes in the moderator process variables and a flow rate reduction of about 10% through the primary side of one moderator cooler were observed. In order to understand the flow reduction and the overall behaviour of moderators parameters, two models were developed that predict moderator and moderator cooler behavior under the new conditions. The present paper refers to these models, which together with the improvement of process variables measurements mentioned in another paper presented at this meeting permits to understand current moderator behaviour and helps to early diagnostic of an eventual reactor internal failure. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  19. Performance tests of external moderators of a PGNAA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Maslehuddin, M

    2003-01-01

    Performance tests of external cylindrical moderators of an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup have been carried out through thermal neutrons and prompt {gamma}-ray yield measurements. The PGNAA setup is to be used for analysis of cement samples. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geometry of cylindrical moderator on yield of thermal neutrons and prompt {gamma}-rays for two different types of moderator assemblies. One of the moderators was to be used with a small sample and the other to be used with a large sample. Fast and thermal neutron yield was measured inside the sample volume as a function of the front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Neutron yield measurement was carried out at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 350 keV pulsed beam accelerator using nuclear track detectors. The pulsed 200 keV deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 31.25 kHz frequency was used to produce 2.8 MeV neutrons via D(d,n) reaction. Neutron yield measurements showed that the large sample moderator has a smaller yield of thermal neutrons as compared to the small sample moderator, which is in complete agreement with the results of Monte Carlo yield calculations of the thermal and fast neutrons from both the moderators. Finally, the prompt {gamma}-ray yield from a Portland cement sample was measured using the two moderators and was compared with each other. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, in spite of a smaller yield of thermal neutrons, the large sample moderator has a higher yield of prompt {gamma}-rays.

  20. Moderator behaviour and reactor internals integrity at Atucha I NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berra, S; Guala, M; Herzovich, P [Central Nuclear Atucha I, Nucleoelectrica Argentina, Lima, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chocron, M; Lorenzo, A; Raffo Calderon, Ma. C. del; Urrutia, G [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes

    1997-12-31

    Atucha I is a Pressure Vessel Heavy Water Cooled Heavy Water Moderator Reactor. In this kind of reactor the moderator tank is physically connected to the primary coolant. Since neutron economy requires the moderator to be as cold as possible, it is necessary that even when physically connected, it should have a separated cooling system, which in this case is also used as a feed-water preheater, and also heat mass transfer with primary coolant should be minimized. This condition requires that some reactor internals are designed in principle to last the whole life of the plant. However, in 1988 the failure of one internal produced a 16 month shut down. This incident could have been prevented but the idea that reactor internals would not have failures due to aging was dominant at that time avoiding the early detection of the failure. However, the analysis of the records after the incident showed that some process variables had changed previously to the incident, i.e., power exchanged at the moderator heat exchanger had increased. Since the station restart up some changes in the moderator process variables and a flow rate reduction of about 10% through the primary side of one moderator cooler were observed. In order to understand the flow reduction and the overall behaviour of moderators parameters, two models were developed that predict moderator and moderator cooler behavior under the new conditions. The present paper refers to these models, which together with the improvement of process variables measurements mentioned in another paper presented at this meeting permits to understand current moderator behaviour and helps to early diagnostic of an eventual reactor internal failure. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab.

  1. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic and structural strength analyses for pre-moderator of cold moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-08-01

    A light-water cooled pre-moderator with a thin-walled structure made of aluminum alloy is installed around a liquid hydrogen moderator in order to enhance the neutron performance of a MW-scale spallation target system which is being developed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Since the pre-moderator is needed to be located close to a target working as a neutron source, it is indispensable to remove nuclear heat deposition in the pre-moderator effectively by means of smooth water flow without flow stagnation. Also, the structural integrity of the thin-walled structure should be kept against the water pressure. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic analytical results showed that the water temperature rise could be suppressed less than 1degC while keeping the smooth water flow, which would assure the expected neutron performance. As for the structural integrity, several measures to meet allowable stress conditions of aluminum alloy were proposed on the basis of the preliminary structural strength analyses. (author)

  2. Learning and the Great Moderation

    OpenAIRE

    Bullard, James B.; Singh, Aarti

    2009-01-01

    We study a stylized theory of the volatility reduction in the U.S. after 1984 - the Great Moderation - which attributes part of the stabilization to less volatile shocks and another part to more difficult inference on the part of Bayesian households attempting to learn the latent state of the economy. We use a standard equilibrium business cycle model with technology following an unobserved regime-switching process. After 1984, according to Kim and Nelson (1999a), the variance of U.S. macroec...

  3. Acute Moderate Exercise Improves Mnemonic Discrimination in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwabe, Kazuya; Hyodo, Kazuki; Byun, Kyeongho; Ochi, Genta; Yassa, Michael A.; Soya, Hideaki

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular moderate exercise increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and improves memory functions in both humans and animals. The DG is known to play a role in pattern separation, which is the ability to discriminate among similar experiences, a fundamental component of episodic memory. While long-term voluntary exercise improves pattern separation, there is little evidence of alterations in DG function after an acute exercise session. Our previous studies showing acute moderate exercise-enhanced DG activation in rats, and acute moderate exercise-enhanced prefrontal activation and executive function in humans, led us to postulate that acute moderate exercise may also activate the hippocampus, including more specifically the DG, thus improving pattern separation. We thus investigated the effects of a 10-min moderate exercise (50% V̇O2peak) session, the recommended intensity for health promotion, on mnemonic discrimination (a behavioral index of pattern separation) in young adults. An acute bout of moderate exercise improved mnemonic discrimination performance in high similarity lures. These results support our hypothesis that acute moderate exercise improves DG-mediated pattern separation in humans, proposing a useful human acute-exercise model for analyzing the neuronal substrate underlying acute and regular exercise-enhanced episodic memory based on the hippocampus. PMID:27997992

  4. LIGHT WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, R.F.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1957-09-17

    A uranium fuel reactor designed to utilize light water as a moderator is described. The reactor core is in a tank at the bottom of a substantially cylindrical cross-section pit, the core being supported by an apertured grid member and comprised of hexagonal tubes each containing a pluralily of fuel rods held in a geometrical arrangement between end caps of the tubes. The end caps are apertured to permit passage of the coolant water through the tubes and the fuel elements are aluminum clad to prevent corrosion. The tubes are hexagonally arranged in the center of the tank providing an amulus between the core and tank wall which is filled with water to serve as a reflector. In use, the entire pit and tank are filled with water in which is circulated during operation by coming in at the bottom of the tank, passing upwardly through the grid member and fuel tubes and carried off near the top of the pit, thereby picking up the heat generated by the fuel elements during the fission thereof. With this particular design the light water coolant can also be used as the moderator when the uranium is enriched by fissionable isotope to an abundance of U/sup 235/ between 0.78% and 2%.

  5. Demand Moderation in Military Communication Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackmore, Perry

    2002-01-01

    .... Demand moderation is the term used to encompass the array of mechanisms aimed at achieving this end. Integrated Defence networks of the future should benefit enormously from demand moderation mechanisms.

  6. HUD Low and Moderate Income Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on the U.S. Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) low to moderate income areas. The term Low to Moderate Income,...

  7. [Cardiorespiratory capacity in children living at moderate altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Arruda, Miguel; Almonacid-Fierro, Alejandro; Holbold, Edílson; Amaral-Camargo, Cristiane; Gamero, Diego; Cossio-Bolanos, Marco A

    2014-04-01

    To determine the cardiorespiratory capacity of school children living at moderate altitude. 795 children (394 children and 401 girls) were selected from urban public schools in Arequipa, Peru at moderate altitude (2,320 m). Anthropometric variables (body mass, height, body fat percentage) and cardiorespiratory capacity were assessed using the Course Navette test, considering the following categories: deficient, poor, fair, good, very good and excellent. The results showed significant differences in all categories (poverweight (r=-0.20 to -0.22) and a moderate negative correlation with obesity (r=-0.39 to -0.42) were described for both genders. Low levels of cardiorespiratory capacity in boys and girls living at moderate altitude are observed, which is negatively correlated with excess body weight. The results suggest that 1 in 5 children are likely to suffer some type of cardiovascular event.

  8. Youth Exposed to Terrorism: the Moderating Role of Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shur, Lia; Gilady, Ayelet

    2016-05-01

    The present review examines the moderating role of ideology on the effects of war, armed conflict, and terrorism on youth. Ideology is an important factor given the central role played by religio-political ideology and nationalism in present-day conflicts. Ideologies or worldviews represent cognitive frameworks that imbue the traumatic situation with meaning and order. Analysis of the pool of studies identified three categories of ideologically based moderating factors, each representing an aspect of social construction of traumatic events, namely, religion, political ideology, and self-concept. The two closely related categories of religion and politico-religious beliefs showed both positive and negative effects on psychological and psychiatric outcomes among youth. The third category of different aspects of self-concept yielded consistently positive moderating effects. The mechanisms by which each category of ideology moderates effects of exposure to war, armed conflict, and terrorism are discussed, and research and clinical implications are presented.

  9. Low to moderate temperature nanolaminate heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, J Del [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Hau-Riege, Stefan [Fremont, CA; Walton, Chris [Oakland, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2011-01-11

    A low to moderate temperature heat source comprising a high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures wherein the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is positioned between two thin pieces to form a close contact sheath. In one embodiment the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is a nanolaminate multilayer foil of reactive materials that produces a heating level of less than 200.degree. C.

  10. Cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources and provides details of the performance of different cold moderator materials and configurations. Analytical forms are presented which describe wavelength spectra and emission time distributions. Several types of cooling arrangements used in pulsed source moderators are described. Choices of materials are surveyed. The author examines some of the radiation damage effects in cold moderators, including the phenomenon of ''burping'' in irradiated cold solid methane. 9 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Some concluding remarks about cold moderator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is the transcription of remarks made at the conclusion of the Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources held at the Los Angeles National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, March 5--7, 1990. Areas of interest include the following: scattering functions; cold moderator materials; radiation mixing of chemical composition; comparison of some pulsed moderator spectra; hydrogen mixtures; premoderators and shields; composite reflectors; exotic moderator materials; deuterated methanes; mixed moderator materials; and test facility availabilities. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Molten fuel-moderator interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.S.; Kynstautas, R.

    1987-02-01

    A critical review of the current understanding of vapor explosions was carried out. It was concluded that, on the basis of actual industrial accidents and large scale experiments, energetic high yield steam explosion cannot be regarded as an improbable event if large quantities of molten fuel and coolant are mixed together. This study also reviewed a hydrodynamic transient model proposed by Henry and Fauske Associates to assess a molten fuel-moderator interaction event. It was found that the proposed model negates a priori the possibility of a violent event, by introducing two assumptions: 1) fine fragmentation of the molten fuel, and ii) rapid heat transfer from the fine fragments to form steam. Using the Hicks and Menzies thermodynamic model, maximum work potential and pressure rise in the calandria were estimated. However, it is recommended that a more representative upper bound model based on an underwater explosion of a pressurized volume of steam be developed

  13. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  14. Upgrades to the ISIS moderator configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The current ISIS moderator configuration, was designed in 1980 to provide a flexible set of beams for a hypothetical instrument suite. The use of fluid moderators at three different temperatures offering six faces to the instruments, has proved to be effective. In this paper we discuss an upgrade of these moderators in the light of the current and projected instrument configuration. (author)

  15. Thermal hydraulic simulation of moderator heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Lal, S.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Srinivasan, R.; Chetal, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Pressurized heavy water reactors form the majority in the first stage of India's nuclear power programme. Heavy water is both moderator and primary coolant. The heat generated in the moderator due to neutron moderation and capture has to be removed in moderator heat exchangers. It has been desired to improve the performance characteristics of moderator heat exchangers, whereby moderator would enter the calandria vessel at a low temperature and would enable higher power of operation for the same limiting temperature of moderator in the calandria. Results of studies carried out using a three dimensional computer code for various operating options are given. Using these velocities the heat exchangers have been analysed for flow induced vibrations. 7 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Moderate voluntary exercise attenuates the metabolic syndrome in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient rats showing central dopaminergic dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Obici

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Central dopamine dysregulation during VWR reinforces the link between MC4R function and molecular and behavioral responding to rewards. The data also suggest that exercise can be a successful lifestyle intervention in MC4R-haploinsufficient individuals despite reduced positive reinforcement during exercise training.

  17. Biologic and Conventional Systemic Therapies Show Similar Safety and Efficacy in Elderly and Adult Patients With Moderate to Severe Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Caren; Plotnikova, Natalia; Au, Shiu-chung; Sorensen, Eric P; Gottlieb, Alice

    2015-08-01

    Despite the aging population, few studies have documented the treatment of geriatric psoriasis. The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety, and prescribing patterns of biologics and conventional systemic medications in elderly versus adult psoriasis. All patient visits coded for psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis (ICD-9 696.1 or 696.0) at the Tufts Medical Center General Dermatology Clinic from January 1, 2008, to March 1, 2015 were included in this retrospective cohort study. The outcome measure used was the validated simple-measure for assessing psoriasis activity (S-MAPA), the product of the physician's global assessment and the body surface area. 194 patients who underwent 278 treatment courses were included in the study. 48 patients were included in the elderly cohort (≥ 65 years old) and 146 in the adult cohort (18-64 years old). There was no significant difference in S-MAPA improvement at 12 weeks between the two cohorts when treated with biologics (42.92% improvement in adults, 48.77% in elderly; P=0.498) or conventional systemics (43.96% and 51.82%, respectively; P=0.448). Within the elderly cohort, there was no significant difference in efficacy of biologics versus conventional systemics at any time point. Topical prescription rates were significantly higher in the elderly cohort ( P=0.004) while biologic prescription rates were significantly lower ( P=0.014) despite the same baseline S-MAPA in both age groups. For both biologics and conventional systemics, there was no statistically significant intergroup difference in the rate of adverse events ( P=0.322 for biologics; P=0.581 for conventional systemics) or infection ( P=0.753 for biologics; P=0.828 for conventional systemics). Within the elderly cohort, there was a higher rate of adverse events with conventional systemic treatment than with biologic treatment ( P=0.033). This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that biologic and conventional systemic therapies are similarly safe and effective in the elderly and non-elderly cohorts. Within the elderly population, biologics may be a safer option than conventional systemic agents.

  18. Neutron temperature measurements in a cryogenic hydrogenous moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Hoovler, G.S.; Lewis, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Benchmarkings of neutronic calculations are most successful when there is a direct correlation between a measurement and an analytic result. In the thermal neutron energy region, the fluence rate as a function of moderator temperature and position within the moderator is an area of potential correlation. The measurement can be done by activating natural lutetium. The two isotopes of the element lutetium have widely different cross sections and permit the discrimination of flux shape and energy distributions at different reactor conditions. The 175 Lu has a 1/v dependence in the thermal energy region, and 176 Lu has a resonance structure that approximates a constant cross section in the same region. The saturation activation of the two isotopes has been measured in an insulated moderator container at the center of a thermal heterogeneous reactor designed for space nuclear propulsion. The measurements were made in a hydrogenous (polyethylene) moderator at three temperatures (83, 184, and 297 K) and five locations within the moderator. Simultaneously, the reactivity effect of the change in the moderator temperature was determined to be positive with an increase in temperature. The plot of activation shows the variation in neutron fluence rate and current with temperature and explains the positive reactivity coefficient. A neutron temperature can be inferred from a postulated Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and compared with Monte Carlo or other calculations

  19. Lessons Learned for Online Health Community Moderator Roles: A Mixed-Methods Study of Moderators Resigning From WebMD Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Rebecca; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2016-01-01

    with moderators, expressing they would cease their community participation. On the other hand, patients also indicated that moderators were not useful or sometimes even harmful for peer interactions. The overall communities’ posting activity, which was already in decline, showed no significant difference before and after the moderators’ departure. In fact, the overall posting activities of the communities were declining well before the moderators’ departure. These declining posting activities might be the reason why WebMD removed the moderators. Conclusion Compassionate moderators who provide medical expertise, control destructive member posts, and help answer questions can provide important support for patient engagement in OHCs. Moderators are in general received positively by community members and do not appear to interfere with peer interactions. Members are well aware of the possibility of misinformation spreading in OHCs. Further investigation into the attitudes of less vocal community members should be conducted. PMID:27608721

  20. The use of computerized tomography in patients showing tardive dyskinesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Themelis, I.

    1983-01-01

    29 patients showing moderate to markedly pronounced tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a further 29 control patients (C) under a similar long-term medication with neuroleptics that had been so chosen as to match the age and sex distributions of the former group were subjected to computered tomography, neurological examination and psychological testing. The results did not point to any correlations between the structural changes and duration of treatment and the clinical signs or symptoms of extrapyramidal disorder. This was taken as further evidence in support of the theory that the initial damage in tardive dyskinesia mainly is at the level of the basal ganglia. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Parametric study of moderator heat exchanger for Candu 6 advanced reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Efrizon; Vecchiarelli, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The passive moderator system for Candu 6 advanced reactor require moderator heat exchanger with the small size and the low resistance coefficient of the shell-side. The study is to determine the required size of moderator heat exchanger, and to calculate the shell side of resistance coefficient have been done. Using computer code CATHENA, it is concluded that the moderator heat exchanger can be used at full power-normal operation condition, especially for the cases with 3600 to 8100 number of tube and 15.90 mm tube diameter. This study show that the proposed moderator heat exchanger have given satisfactory results

  2. Composite hydrogen-solid methane moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picton, D.; Bennington, S.; Ansell, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, J.; Broome, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the results of Monte-Carlo calculations for a coupled moderator on a low-power pulsed neutron spallation source and is part of the design study for a second target station for the ISIS spallation source. Various options were compared including hydrogen, solid methane, grooving the solid methane and compound moderators made of hydrogen in front of solid methane. To maximise the neutron current at low energies two strategies appear to emerge from the calculations. For instruments that view a large area of moderator surface a layer of hydrogen in front of a thin solid-methane moderator is optimum, giving a gain of about a factor 10 relative to the current liquid hydrogen moderator on the existing ISIS tantalum target. For instruments that only view a restricted area higher flux, corresponding to a gain of 13.5, can be achieved with the use of a single groove or re-entrant hole in the moderator. (orig.)

  3. Why should we bother with assessment moderation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colleen

    2012-08-01

    Assessment moderation is a significant component of a quality education system. How this practice is conceptualised, applied to the assessment process and embedded in teaching and learning, influence the quality of nurse education programmes. This paper challenges the traditional view that moderation is confined to what happens at the time of assessment which is evident in the use of language such as pre-moderation and post-moderation practice. It critiques traditional moderation practices such as double marking, applying assessment criteria and standards and assigning marks and grades and argues that these practices don't do justice to the complexity of assessment. It calls for a whole of course approach to moderation based on a set of principles which encompass constructive alignment, a community of practice group, the subjective nature of assessment and a reflective quality improvement cycle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A safety concern related to CANDU moderator subcooling and status of KAERI moderator circulation test (MCT) experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Bo W.; Kim, Hyoung T.; Kim, Tongbeum; Im, Sunghyuk

    2015-01-01

    The flow inside the moderator tank of a CANDU-6 reactor during full power steady state operation has been suspected to be operating in the buoyancy/inertial driven mixed convection regime as illustrated in the middle figure. At some regions of the moderator tank where the buoyancy driven upward flow and the inertial momentum driven downward flows interface counter-currently, there exist some interface regions between these two flows like the middle one, and the local temperatures at these interface regions are known to oscillate with different amplitude at various fluctuation frequencies as shown. According to a numerical simulation of the moderator flow and temperature distribution at full power steady state carried out by previous researches showed that any small disturbances in the flow or temperature may initiate the system unstable and aggravate the asymmetric flow and temperature patterns. The tests at the 3-D Moderator Test Facility (MTF) that is a representative scaled-down of CANDU reactors, reproduced the expected and observed moderator behavior in the reactor as well as the local temperature fluctuations arising from the delicate balance of forced and buoyancy induced flow. This observation raised a safety concern as the local moderator temperature at some regions showed fluctuations with an amplitude that may jeopardize the safety margin, i.e. the difference between the available subcooling and the subcooling requirement. The scope of this paper is to review the basis of the safety concern related to this moderator subcooling and local temperature fluctuation and describe the current status of MCT erection and some of the experiments carried so far

  5. Personality Traits and Examination Anxiety: Moderating Role of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Arezou; Abdul.Kadir, Rusnani bte; Elias, Habibah bte; Baba, Maznah bte

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between personality traits and state anxiety. The participants were 375 Iranian high school students (193 males and 182 females). The instruments used were the NEO-FFI-3 Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory. Results of the structural model showed that from the…

  6. A Behavioral Weight Reduction Model for Moderately Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotatori, Anthony F.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A behavioral weight reduction treatment and maintenance program for moderately mentally retarded adolescents which involves six phases from background information collection to followup relies on stimulus control procedures to modify eating behaviors. Data from pilot studies show an average weekly weight loss of .5 to 1 pound per S. (CL)

  7. Moderator 3-D Thermalhydraulic Analysis Using MODTURCCLAS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Yoon, Churl; Park, Joo Hwan

    2008-12-01

    For the moderator subcooling analysis of the refurbished Wolsong NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) Unit 1, the 3-D moderator thermalhydraulic calculations were preliminarily conducted from September to October in 2008, using the preliminary thermalhydraulic analysis results and the MODTURC C LAS (MODerator TURbulent Circulation Co-Located Advanced Solutions) Ver.2.9-IST, which was developed and validated by OPG (Ontario Power Generation) in Canada. The present report consists of the steady-state calculation and transient calculation. First the grid structure, main input parameters, and boundary conditions needed for the steady-state calculation are produced and the steady-state results are obtained. These steady-state results are used for the initial conditions for the transient analysis during a LOCA. The moderator analysis results during the steady-state calculation show the quasy-steady state behavior, because the thermalhydraulic behavior are fluctuating although all boundary conditions are constant. In the transient calculations, based on the present thermalhydraulic analysis results, 3-D thermalhydraulic behavior and moderator subcooling are predicted for the accident scenarios of reactor inlet header 35% and 40% breaks, outlet header 100% break, and pump suction 80% break, subsequent with loss of Class IV power. In the previous moderator analysis for Wolsong NPP Unit 2,3,4 a PHOENICS code was used, which is different from the MODTURC C LAS code used for the analysis of Wolsong NPP Unit 1. However, the moderator subcooling analysis results by these two codes are qualitatively similar. The minimum subcooling for RIH 40% break of Wolsong NPP Unit 1 is 17 .deg. C which is larger than 13 .deg. C for RIH 35% break of Wolsong NPP Unit 2,3,4. Therefore, it is concluded that the refurbished Wolsong NPP Unit 1 satisfies the channel integrity criteria based on the higher subcooling margin compared with that of Wolsong NPP Unit 2,3,4

  8. Design concept of the HPLWR moderator flow path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, Christina; Schulenberg, Thomas; Starflinger, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    The latest design concept of the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) includes a thermal core in which supercritical water at 25 MPa inlet pressure is heated up from 280degC reactor inlet temperature to 500degC core exit temperature in three steps with intermediate coolant mixing to minimize peak cladding temperatures of the fuel rods. Prior to entering the first fuel assemblies, the coolant is used as moderator in water rods inside assemblies, in the gap volume between assembly boxes, as well as in the surrounding axial or radial reflectors. Even though assembly boxes and moderator rods are designed with a certain thermal insulation, heat is generated in the moderator water or transferred to it from the superheated steam inside assemblies, causing concern of natural convection phenomena with uncontrolled neutronic feedback on the core power distribution. Moreover, bypass flows of the moderator water need to be minimized at any thermal expansion of the reactor internal structures to avoid an unpredictable moderator mass flow. The design concept of the moderator flow path described in this paper is trying to overcome these problems. Downward flow of moderator water is limited to sub-cooled conditions, well below the pseudo-critical point of supercritical water. Dedicated orifices are foreseen to allow later correction of the mass flow split. The sealing concept accounts for larger thermal expansions of reactor components by using C-rings or bellows. A welded construction is preferred wherever possible to minimize leakage. The removable steam plenum is aligned at the extractable steam pipes to minimize thermal displacements at the sealing positions. The paper is showing several design details to illustrate the technical solutions. (author)

  9. Analysis of passive moderator cooling system of Candu-6A reactor at emergency condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Efrizon; Subki, M. Hadid; Vecchiarelli, Jack

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of passive moderator cooling system subject to in-core LOCA with no emergency core cooling injection has been done. In this study, the new model of passive moderator system has been tested for emergency conditions and CATHENA code Mod-3.5b/Rev1 is used to calculate some parameters of this passive moderator cooling system. This result of simulation show that the proposed moderator cooling system have given satisfactory result, especially for the case with 0.7 m riser diameter and the number of heat exchanger tubes 8100. For PEWS tank containing 3000 m3 of light water initially at 30 0C and a 3641 m2 moderator heat exchanger, the average long-term heat removed rate balances the moderator heat load and the flow through the passive moderator loop remains stable for over 72 hours with no saturated boiling in the calandria and flow instabilities do not develop during long-term period

  10. Mediator of moderators: temporal stability of intention and the intention-behavior relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Abraham, Charles

    2003-02-01

    Intention certainty, past behavior, self-schema, anticipated regret, and attitudinal versus normative control all have been found to moderate intention-behavior relations. It is argued that moderation occurs because these variables produce "strong" intentions. Stability of intention over time is a key index of intention strength. Consequently, it was hypothesized that temporal stability of intention would mediate moderation by these other moderators. Participants (N = 185) completed questionnaire measures of theory of planned behavior constructs and moderator variables at two time points and subsequently reported their exercise behavior. Findings showed that all of the moderators, including temporal stability, were associated with significant improvements in consistency between intention and behavior. Temporal stability also mediated the effects of the other moderators, supporting the study hypothesis. Copyright 2003 Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Automation techniques applied to systematic studies of moderator coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansell, S.; Garcia, J.F.; Bennington, S.M.; Picton, D.J.; Broome, T.

    2004-01-01

    We present new computation methods in which the geometry management of MCNPX input files can be automated. We demonstrate this method with respect to the target station 2 design at ISIS. The method presented is not a mathematically robust method, but by starting from a valid baseline model allows this model to be mutated in a reliable way. Those features that still need to be improved and added are discussed at the end. We use this method to show that a mixed lead/water pre-moderator gives a better neutron flux to radiation damage ratio for the coupled moderator. (orig.)

  12. Automation techniques applied to systematic studies of moderator coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansell, S; Garcia, J F; Bennington, S M; Picton, D J; Broome, T [Rutherford Appleton Lab, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    We present new computation methods in which the geometry management of MCNPX input files can be automated. We demonstrate this method with respect to the target station 2 design at ISIS. The method presented is not a mathematically robust method, but by starting from a valid baseline model allows this model to be mutated in a reliable way. Those features that still need to be improved and added are discussed at the end. We use this method to show that a mixed lead/water pre-moderator gives a better neutron flux to radiation damage ratio for the coupled moderator. (orig.)

  13. Moderators of the Relationship between Implicit and Explicit Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    Automatic and controlled modes of evaluation sometimes provide conflicting reports of the quality of social objects. This paper presents evidence for four moderators of the relationship between automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) evaluations. Implicit and explicit preferences were measured for a variety of object pairs using a large sample. The average correlation was r = .36, and 52 of the 57 object pairs showed a significant positive correlation. Results of multilevel modeling analyses suggested that: (a) implicit and explicit preferences are related, (b) the relationship varies as a function of the objects assessed, and (c) at least four variables moderate the relationship – self-presentation, evaluative strength, dimensionality, and distinctiveness. The variables moderated implicit-explicit correspondence across individuals and accounted for much of the observed variation across content domains. The resulting model of the relationship between automatic and controlled evaluative processes is grounded in personal experience with the targets of evaluation. PMID:16316292

  14. Moderate Secularism, Difference Sensitivity and Contextualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    The article is a rejoinder to Tariq Modood's reply (Politics, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2009) to my article 'Moderate Secularism and Multicultural Equality' (Politics, Vol 28, No. 3, 2008).......The article is a rejoinder to Tariq Modood's reply (Politics, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2009) to my article 'Moderate Secularism and Multicultural Equality' (Politics, Vol 28, No. 3, 2008)....

  15. Identifying Discourses of Moderation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Lenore; Lloyd, Margaret; Beutel, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Moderation of student assessment is a critical component of teaching and learning in contemporary universities. Yet, despite this, it tends to be marked by idiosyncratic and sporadic processes informed by liminal understanding. This paper, in the light of forthcoming radical national requirements for the declaration of moderation processes in…

  16. Integrating Mediators and Moderators in Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe mediating variables and moderating variables and provide reasons for integrating them in outcome studies. Separate sections describe examples of moderating and mediating variables and the simplest statistical model for investigating each variable. The strengths and limitations of incorporating mediating…

  17. Understanding and Using Mediators and Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2008-01-01

    Mediation and moderation are two theories for refining and understanding a causal relationship. Empirical investigation of mediators and moderators requires an integrated research design rather than the data analyses driven approach often seen in the literature. This paper described the conceptual foundation, research design, data analysis, as…

  18. Neutron moderators for the European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Zanini, L.; Batkov, K.

    The design of the neutron moderators for the European Spallation Source, intended to be installed at the start of operations of the facility in 2019 has now been finalized and the moderators are being fabricated. Among the driving principles in the design have been flexibility for instruments...... to have access to cold and thermal neutrons with highest possible source brightness. Different design and configuration options were evaluated. The final configuration accepted for construction foresees two moderators with identical para-hydrogen (so-called "butterfly") shape, but different heights......, placed above and below the spallation target. Both moderators are able to serve the full 2 x 120° beam extraction sectors of instrument suite. The top, 3-cm tall moderator, has both high thermal and high cold brightness, more than by a factor of 2.5 compared to the previous design of the Technical Design...

  19. Unperturbed moderator brightness in pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkov, K.; Takibayev, A.; Zanini, L.; Mezei, F.

    2013-01-01

    The unperturbed neutron brightness of a moderator can be defined from the number of neutrons leaving the surface of a moderator completely surrounded by a reflector. Without openings for beam extraction, it is the maximum brightness that can be theoretically achieved in a moderator. The unperturbed brightness of a cylindrical cold moderator filled with pure para-H 2 was calculated using MCNPX; the moderator dimensions were optimised, for a fixed target and reflector geometry corresponding to the present concept for the ESS spallation source. This quantity does not depend on openings for beam extraction and therefore can be used for a first-round optimisation of a moderator, before effects due to beam openings are considered. We find that such an optimisation yields to a factor of 2 increase with respect to a conventional volume moderator, large enough to accommodate a viewed surface of 12×12 cm 2 : the unperturbed neutron brightness is maximum for a disc-shaped moderator of 15 cm diameter, 1.4 cm height. The reasons for this increase can be related to the properties of the scattering cross-section of para-H 2 , to the added reflector around the exit surface in the case of a compact moderator, and to a directionality effect. This large optimisation gain in the unperturbed brightness hints towards similar potentials for the perturbed neutron brightness, in particular in conjunction with advancing the optical quality of neutron delivery from the moderator to the sample, where by Liouville theorem the brightness is conserved over the beam trajectory, except for absorption and similar type losses

  20. Peer Moderation of Asynchronous Online Discussions: An Exploratory Study of Peer E-Moderating Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirian, Hajar; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd

    2017-01-01

    This study explored patterns of e-moderating behaviour students performed when they were assigned as peer moderators of asynchronous online discussions in a reciprocal manner. Eighty-four students from an undergraduate blended course were observed during a 7-week-long online discussions. Using quantitative content analysis peer moderators'…

  1. Methods for Integrating Moderation and Mediation: A General Analytical Framework Using Moderated Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey R.; Lambert, Lisa Schurer

    2007-01-01

    Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated…

  2. Mediators and moderators in early intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Srihari, Vinod H; Pollard, Jessica M; Addington, Donald N; Woods, Scott W

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide clarification with regard to the nature of mediator and moderator variables and the statistical methods used to test for the existence of these variables. Particular attention will be devoted to discussing the ways in which the identification of mediator and moderator variables may help to advance the field of early intervention in psychiatry. We completed a literature review of the methodological strategies used to test for mediator and moderator variables. Although several tests for mediator variables are currently available, recent evaluations suggest that tests which directly evaluate the indirect effect are superior. With regard to moderator variables, two approaches ('pick-a-point' and regions of significance) are available, and we provide guidelines with regard to how researchers can determine which approach may be most appropriate to use for their specific study. Finally, we discuss how to evaluate the clinical importance of mediator and moderator relationships as well as the methodology to calculate statistical power for tests of mediation and moderation. Further exploration of mediator and moderator variables may provide valuable information with regard to interventions provided early in the course of a psychiatric illness.

  3. Towards a Moderate Stance on Human Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikil Mukerji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we argue against radical ethical views about human enhancement that either dismiss or endorse it tout court. Instead, we advocate the moderate stance that issues of enhancement should be examined with an open mind and on a case-by-case basis. To make this view plausible, we offer three reasons. The first lies in the fact that it is difficult to delineate enhancement conceptually, which makes it hard to argue for general ethical conclusions about it. The second is that an appropriate view of the edifice of moral theory suggests that tenable moral judgements about human enhancement are the result of a careful consideration of the pros and cons that attach to the use of a specific enhancement technology. Lastly, we show that important normative factors in the enhancement debate can be used both in arguments for and in arguments against enhancement. The bottom line of our discussion is that we should treat issues of human enhancement like we do any other ethical issue, viz. by weighing up the reasons pro and con.

  4. Moderate pressure plasma source of nonthermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, S.; Raitses, Y.

    2018-06-01

    Plasma sources of electrons offer control of gas and surface chemistry without the need for complex vacuum systems. The plasma electron source presented here is based on a cold cathode glow discharge (GD) operating in a dc steady state mode in a moderate pressure range of 2–10 torr. Ion-induced secondary electron emission is the source of electrons accelerated to high energies in the cathode sheath potential. The source geometry is a key to the availability and the extraction of the nonthermal portion of the electron population. The source consists of a flat and a cylindrical electrode, 1 mm apart. Our estimates show that the length of the cathode sheath in the plasma source is commensurate (~0.5–1 mm) with the inter-electrode distance so the GD operates in an obstructed regime without a positive column. Estimations of the electron energy relaxation confirm the non-local nature of this GD, hence the nonthermal portion of the electron population is available for extraction outside of the source. The use of a cylindrical anode presents a simple and promising method of extracting the high energy portion of the electron population. Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy confirm the presence of electrons with energies ~15 eV outside of the source. These electrons become available for surface modification and radical production outside of the source. The extraction of the electrons of specific energies by varying the anode geometry opens exciting opportunities for future exploration.

  5. Steam-moderated oxy-fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seepana, Sivaji; Jayanti, Sreenivas

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to propose a new variant of the oxy-fuel combustion for carbondioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration in which steam is used to moderate the flame temperature. In this process, pure oxygen is mixed with steam and the resulting oxidant mixture is sent to the boiler for combustion with a fossil fuel. The advantage of this method is that flue gas recirculation is avoided and the volumetric flow rates through the boiler and auxiliary components is reduced by about 39% when compared to the conventional air-fired coal combustion power plant leading to a reduction in the size of the boiler. The flue gas, after condensation of steam, consists primarily of CO 2 and can be sent directly for compression and sequestration. Flame structure analysis has been carried out using a 325-step reaction mechanism of methane-oxidant combustion to determine the concentration of oxygen required to ensure a stable flame. Thermodynamic exergy analysis has also been carried out on SMOC-operated CO 2 sequestration power plant and air-fired power plant, which shows that though the gross efficiency increases the absolute power penalty of ∼8% for CO 2 sequestration when compared to air-fired power plant.

  6. Moderately reverberant learning ultrasonic pinch panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolovski, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Tactile sensing is widely used in human-computer interfaces. However, mechanical integration of touch technologies is often perceived as difficult by engineers because it often limits the freedom of style or form factor requested by designers. Recent work in active ultrasonic touch technologies has made it possible to transform thin glass plates, metallic sheets, or plastic shells into interactive surfaces. The method is based on a learning process of touch-induced, amplitude-disturbed diffraction patterns. This paper proposes, first, an evolution in the design with multiple dipole transducers that improves touch sensitivity or maximum panel size by a factor of ten, and improves robustness and usability in moderately reverberant panels, and second, defines a set of acoustic variables in the signal processing for the evaluation of sensitivity and radiating features. For proof of concept purposes, the design and process are applied to 3.2- and 6-mm-thick glass plates with variable damping conditions. Transducers are bonded to only one short side of the rectangular substrates. Measurements show that the highly sensitive free lateral sides are perfectly adapted for pinch-touch and pinch-slide interactions. The advantage of relative versus absolute touch disturbance measurement is discussed, together with tolerance to abutting contaminants.

  7. Steam-moderated oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seepana, Sivaji; Jayanti, Sreenivas [Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras, Adyar, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of the present paper is to propose a new variant of the oxy-fuel combustion for carbondioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in which steam is used to moderate the flame temperature. In this process, pure oxygen is mixed with steam and the resulting oxidant mixture is sent to the boiler for combustion with a fossil fuel. The advantage of this method is that flue gas recirculation is avoided and the volumetric flow rates through the boiler and auxiliary components is reduced by about 39% when compared to the conventional air-fired coal combustion power plant leading to a reduction in the size of the boiler. The flue gas, after condensation of steam, consists primarily of CO{sub 2} and can be sent directly for compression and sequestration. Flame structure analysis has been carried out using a 325-step reaction mechanism of methane-oxidant combustion to determine the concentration of oxygen required to ensure a stable flame. Thermodynamic exergy analysis has also been carried out on SMOC-operated CO{sub 2} sequestration power plant and air-fired power plant, which shows that though the gross efficiency increases the absolute power penalty of {proportional_to}8% for CO{sub 2} sequestration when compared to air-fired power plant. (author)

  8. Overview moderator material for nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairing Manutu Pongtuluran; Hendra Prihatnadi

    2009-01-01

    In order for a reactor design is considered acceptable absolute technical requirement is fulfilled because the most important part of a reactor design. Safety considerations emphasis on the handling of radioactive substances emitted during the operation of a reactor and radioactive waste handling. Moderator material is a layer that interacts directly with neutrons split the nuclear fuel that will lead to changes in physical properties, nuclear properties, mechanical properties and chemical properties. Reviews moderator of this time is of the types of moderator is often used to meet the requirements as nuclear material. (author)

  9. Reflector optimization for coupled liquid hydrogen moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanagi, Y.; Iwasa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Furusaka, M.

    1991-01-01

    As a part of optimization studies on a coupled liquid hydrogen moderator system, the optimal thickness of the reflector, the effects of neutron absorbing liners and other beam hole/moderator on the cold-neutron-beam intensity were studied experimentally. It turns out that the optimal thickness is rather thick in this system and the existence of Cd liners around the beam extraction hole considerably reduces the cold neutron beam intensity, while the existence of other beam hole and moderator does not give an important intensity reduction. (author)

  10. Solid-methane moderator systems at KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusaka, M.

    1997-09-01

    An overview of the target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA) systems at the Neutron Science Laboratory (KENS) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is described together with the historical changes. Because of the optimized design of TMRA, the neutron-generation efficiency is very high. The characteristics of the cold moderator system, such as the absolute intensity, spectrum and radiation damage to it, are also described. There are a number of new neutron-scattering instruments which are being viewed at the moderator. A brief description of the proposed TMRA for our future project is also given. (auth)

  11. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  12. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  13. Nutritional Recovery Outcome among Moderately Malnourished ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional Recovery Outcome among Moderately Malnourished Under-five Children in Communities Implementing Positive Deviance - Hearth or Community Health Workers' Nutrition Promotion Approaches in Karusi and Kirundo Provinces, Burundi.

  14. Solar and Interplanetary Disturbances causing Moderate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    magnetospheric conditions leading to 121 moderate geomagnetic storms. (MGS) have been ... increases on sudden storm commencement (SSC) day than its previous day value and acquires .... Tokyo, Japan. Webb, D. F. 1995, Rev. Geophys.

  15. Moderator heat recovery of CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, H.E.S.; Ahmed, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    A moderator heat recovery scheme is proposed for CANDU reactors. The proposed circuit utilizes all the moderator heat to the first stages of the plant feedwater heating system. CANDU-600 reactors are considered with moderator heat load varying from 120 to 160 MWsub(th), and moderator outlet temperature (from calandria) varying from 80 to 100 0 C. The steam saved from the turbine extraction system was found to produce an additional electric power ranging from 5 to 11 MW. This additional power represents a 0.7-1.7% increase in the plant electric output power and a 0.2-0.7% increase in the plant thermal efficiency. The outstanding features and advantages of the proposed scheme are presented. (author)

  16. TMD Evolution at Moderate Hard Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Ted [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Collins, John C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We summarize some of our recent work on non-perturbative transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution, emphasizing aspects that are necessary for dealing with moderately low scale processes like semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

  17. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  18. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  19. On the effect of a moderator in the central region of a hollow fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simopoulos, S.; Leonidou, D.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effect of a short slowing down length moderator, in the central region of a hollow fuel element, is attempted in the present work. Water, paraffin and plexiglass have been used as moderator materials. The results obtained show that an increase of the flux level is observed with such a moderator positioned in the central region of the fuel element, when comparing the situation with that existing without a central moderator. The increase is found to depend at least upon the thermal to fast neutron composition of the neutron spectrum. (author)

  20. Neutronic studies on decoupled hydrogen moderator for a short-pulse spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Teshigawara, Makoto; Kai, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2005-01-01

    Neutronic studies of decoupled hydrogen moderators were performed by calculations taking into account para hydrogen content, decoupling energy, moderator dimensions/shapes and reflector material. Low-energy parts of calculated spectral intensities with different para hydrogen contents were analyzed by a modified Maxwell function to characterize neutron spectra. The result shows that a 100% para hydrogen moderator gives the highest pulse peak intensity together with the narrowest pulse width and the shortest decay times. Pulse broadening with a reflector was explained by time distributions of source neutrons entering into the moderator through a decoupler. Material dependence of time distribution was studied. A decoupling energy higher than 1 eV does not bring about a large improvement in pulse widths and decay times, even at a large penalty in the peak intensity. The optimal moderator thickness was also discussed for a rectangular parallelepipe-shaped and a canteen-shaped moderator

  1. Sample to moderator volume ratio effects in neutron yield from a PGNAA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-02-15

    Performance of a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup depends upon thermal neutron yield at the PGNAA sample location. For a moderator, which encloses a sample, thermal neutron intensity depends upon the effective moderator volume excluding the void volume due to sample volume. A rectangular moderator assembly has been designed for the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) PGNAA setup. The thermal and fast neutron yield has been measured inside the sample cavity as a function of its front moderator thickness using alpha particle tracks density and recoil proton track density inside the CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The thermal/fast neutron yield ratio, obtained from the alpha particle tracks density to proton tracks density ratio in the NTDs, shows an inverse correlation with sample to moderator volume ratio. Comparison of the present results with the previously published results of smaller moderators of the KFUPM PGNAA setup confirms the observation.

  2. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  3. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  4. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  5. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  6. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  7. Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Lability, and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults At-Risk for ADHD: Testing Moderation and Moderated Moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunford, Nóra; Wymbs, Brian T; Dawson, Anne E; Shorey, Ryan C

    2017-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems are common among young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the degree to which maltreatment and alcohol problems are associated; potential pertinent mediating or moderating mechanisms, such as emotional lability; and whether this association varies by sex. We examined, in a sample of adults at risk for ADHD (N = 122, 37% male), the association between childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems, whether emotional lability mediated or moderated this association, and whether either role of emotional lability differed between men and women. Emotional lability moderated the association between emotional neglect and alcohol problems; maltreatment increased risk for alcohol problems for those scoring high tovery high on emotional lability, but not for those with very low-moderate levels. The association between emotional abuse and alcohol problems depended both on emotional lability and sex; emotional abuse decreased the risk for alcohol problems among men very low/low on emotional lability, but not for men who were moderate to very high on emotional lability, or for women. These findings have implications for the way in which targeting maltreatment and emotional lability may be incorporated into prevention and intervention programs to prevent alcohol problems among men and women at risk for ADHD.

  8. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  9. Online Consumer Reviews: The Moderating Effect of Product Category

    OpenAIRE

    Bjering, Einar; Havro, Lars Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests a previously proposed model for assessing consumer generated online reviews effect on sales, the review impact continuum. Product category is found to play an important role as a moderating factor of several properties concerning user generated online reviews - including its impact on sales. The authors introduce a novel method for product category classification using natural language processing (NLP), and by applying this method show that reviews are more influential for su...

  10. Financial innovation, macroeconomic volatility and the great moderation

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghini, Andrea; Bencivelli, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    In the paper we propose an assessment of the role of financial innovation in shaping US macroeconomic dynamics. We extend an existing model by Christiano, Eichenbaum and Evans which studied the transmission of monetary policy impulses to business and corporate sector financing variables just before the Great Moderation period. By investigating the properties of the model over a longer time span we show that in the later period a change in the monetary policy transmission mechanism is likely t...

  11. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  12. Moderator mixing after a pressure tube failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, J.C.; Fortman, R.A.; Hadaller, G.I.

    1997-01-01

    During a guaranteed shutdown state (GSS) in a CANDU reactor, there must be sufficient negative reactivity to ensure subcriticality in the event of a process failure. In one of the acceptable states, the reactor is kept subcritical by a high concentration of a neutron-absorbing chemical (the poison gadolinium nitrate) dissolved in the moderator (i.e., the moderator is guaranteed overpoisoned). A postulated accident scenario which is considered as a part of reactor safety analysis is the rupture of a fuel channel (i.e., a pressure tube/calandria tube break) when the reactor is in a GSS. If one of the channels in the core breaks (requiring a simultaneous failure of both the pressure tube and the surrounding calandria tube), coolant from the primary heat transport system will be discharged into the moderator, causing an associated displacement of fluid through relief ducts at the top of the calandria vessel. The incoming (unpoisoned) coolant may mix quickly with the moderator, or may mix slowly while displacing poisoned moderator through the relief ducts. The effectiveness of mixing generally depends on the break location, the coolant discharge rate and the moderator circulation. If an in-core loss of coolant accident occurred while the reactor is in this overpoisoned state, it must be guaranteed that even with the dilution of the poison by the incoming coolant the reactor will remain subcritical on both a local and global basis. This paper presents an overview of an experimental program in progress at the Moderator Test Facility at Stern Laboratories to investigate coolant/poison mixing for a simulated in-core fishmouth pressure tube/calandria tube rupture. The nominal system conditions investigated are of a reactor in a GSS, with coolant in the primary heat transport system at the same temperature as the heavily poisoned moderator, i.e., a depressurised 'cold' state. The results presented are those obtained during the commissioning of the modified Test Facility. The

  13. Effects of Weather on Tourism and its Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Kim, S.; Lee, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Tourism is weather sensitive industry (Gómez Martín, 2005). As climate change has been intensifying, the concerns about negative effects of weather on tourism also have been increasing. This study attempted to find ways that mitigate the negative effects from weather on tourism, by analyzing a path of the effects of weather on intention to revisit and its moderation. The data of the study were collected by a self-recording online questionnaire survey of South Korean domestic tourists during August 2015, and 2,412 samples were gathered. A path model of effects of weather on intention to revisit that including moderating effects from physical attraction satisfaction and service satisfaction was ran. Season was controlled in the path model. The model fit was adequate (CMIN/DF=2.372(p=.000), CFI=.974, RMSEA=.024, SRMR=0.040), and the Model Comparison, which assumes that the base model to be correct with season constrained model, showed that there was a seasonal differences in the model ( DF=24, CMIN=32.430, P=.117). By the analysis, it was figured out that weather and weather expectation affected weather satisfaction, and the weather satisfaction affected intention to revisit (spring/fall: .167**, summer: .104**, and winter: .114**). Meanwhile physical attraction satisfaction (.200**), and service satisfaction (.210**) of tourism positively moderated weather satisfaction in summer, and weather satisfaction positively moderated physical attraction (.238**) satisfaction and service satisfaction (.339**). In other words, in summer, dissatisfaction from hot weather was moderated by satisfaction from physical attractions and services, and in spring/fall, comfort weather conditions promoted tourists to accept tourism experience and be satisfied from attractions and services positively. Based on the result, it was expected that if industries focus on offering the good attractions and services based on weather conditions, there would be positive effects to alleviate tourists

  14. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  15. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  16. Review of the Safety Concern Related to CANDU Moderator Temperature Distribution and Status of KAERI Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Bo W.; Kim, Hyoung T. [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tongbeum [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Im, Sunghyuk [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    threshold temperature and no further deformation is expected. Consequently, a sufficient condition to ensure fuel channel integrity following a large LOCA, is the avoidance of sustained calandria tubes dryout. If the moderator available subcooling at the onset of a large LOCA is greater than the subcooling requirements, a sustained calandria tube dryout is avoided. The temperature oscillations observed in reactor and in test measurements such as MTF need to be characterized and quantified to show that it does not jeopardize the currently available safety margins. Because of the importance of an accurate prediction of moderator temperature distributions and the related moderator subcooling, a 1/4 scaled-down moderator tank of a CANDU-6 reactor, called Moderator Circulation Test (MCT), was erected at KAERI and the current status of MCT experiment progress is described and further experiments are expected to be carried out to generate the experimental data necessary to validate the computer codes that will be used to analyze the accident analysis of operating CANDU-6 plants.

  17. Study on the effect of moderator density reactivity for Kartini reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Rohman; Widarto

    2009-01-01

    One of important characteristics of water-cooled reactors is the change of reactivity due to change in the density of coolant or moderator. This parameter generally has negative value and it has significant role in preventing the excursion of power during operation. Many thermal-hydraulic codes for nuclear reactors require this parameter as the input to account for reactivity feedback due to increase in moderator voids and the subsequent decrease in moderator density during operation. Kartini reactor is cooled and moderated by water, therefore, it is essential to study the effect of the change in moderator density as well as to determine the value of void or moderator density reactivity coefficient in order to characterize its behavior resulting from the presence of vapor or change of moderator density during operation. Analysis by MCNP code shows that the reactivity of core is decreasing with the decrease in moderator density. The analysis estimates the void or moderator density reactivity coefficient for Kartini Reactor to be -2.17×10-4 Δρ/ % void . (author)

  18. Premoderator optimization of decoupled hydrogen moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masahide; Teshigawara, Makoto; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Watanabe, Noboru; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-03-01

    An optimization study on the premoderator, the reflector material choice and a length of the linear is carried out for the design of high performance decoupled hydrogen moderator. NMTC/JAM and MCNP-4C are used for the neutronics calculation. The result indicates that, assuming premoderator dimensions and decoupling energy is controlled, the decoupled hydrogen moderator with a premoderator can provide better pulse characteristics than that without the premoderator for a Be reflector. On the selection of the reflector material, it is clearly shown that Pb and Hg reflectors give merits in using the premoderator for higher intensity and reduction of energy deposition in moderator. It is also shown that a H 2 O premoderator provides a short tail while a D 2 O premoderator provides the high peak intensity. Minimum liner length is evaluated to be 20 cm from the viewpoint of neutronics. (author)

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption and chronic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Clowry, Catherine M; Murray, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Drinking within recommended limits is highly prevalent in much of the world, and strong epidemiological associations exist between moderate alcohol consumption and risk of several major chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, diabetes, and breast cancer. In many cases, plausible...... biological mediators for these associations have been identified in randomized trials, but gold standard evidence that moderate drinking causes or prevents any chronic disease remains elusive and important concerns about available evidence have been raised. Although long-term randomized trials to test...... suggests that objections to the execution of a full-scale, long-term clinical trial of moderate drinking on chronic disease are increasingly untenable. We present potential lessons learned for such a trial and discuss key features to maximize its feasibility and value....

  20. Graphite moderated {sup 252}Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The thorium molten salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a {sup 252}Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the {sup 252}Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. (Author)

  1. Gadolinium depletion event in a CANDU® moderator - causes and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D.W.; Price, J.; Swami, D.; Fracalanza, E.; Brett, M.E.; Puzzuoli, F.V.; Garg, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Herrmann, O.; Rudolph, A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Stuart, C.; Glowa, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Smee, J. [Niagara Technical Consultants, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Gadolinium nitrate is added to the moderator of CANDU units to maintain the reactor in a guaranteed shutdown state (GSS). In April 2008, after being in stable GSS for over 30 hours, one of Ontario Power Generation's Pickering-B units showed a gradual depletion of the dissolved gadolinium, despite purification being isolated. Further additions of gadolinium stabilized the moderator gadolinium concentration, however, since the root cause of the depletion was not immediately identified, the unit was placed in the drained shutdown state, per established procedures. The cumulative gadolinium depletion amounted to about 3200 grams, the equivalent of about 12 ppm. Analysis showed the presence of oxalate in the moderator water. It is well-known that gadolinium forms a very insoluble oxalate (log K{sub sp} = -29.1). Although sub-micron filtration of water samples did not show the presence of gadolinium particulate, the measured levels of oxalate, 1.2 to 2 ppm, were sufficient to react with 1.4 to 2.4 ppm of gadolinium. The source of oxalate was traced to radiolysis of dissolved CO{sub 2} species. This unit had been experiencing chronic low-level ingress of CO{sub 2} from the Annulus Gas System. Free oxalate ion is normally susceptible to radiolytic breakdown back to CO{sub 2}, but Gd{sup 3+} provides a stable sink for radiogenic oxalate, 2 Gd{sup 3+} + 3 C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} → Gd{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}. Subsequent testing confirmed that gadolinium oxalate is quite stable with respect to gamma irradiation. Inspections showed well-crystallized gadolinium oxalate deposited on moderator system surfaces. Estimates indicated that about 1200 grams of gadolinium could have deposited on in-core surfaces, including the outside of the calandria tubes. That amount of negative reactivity was a concern, since it would prevent re-start of the unit. OPG, with support from AECL-Chalk River and Kinectrics, embarked on a two-pronged chemistry recovery program aimed at 1

  2. Effect of flow configuration on moderator temperature distribution for 700 MWe Calandria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharj, Jaspal Singh; Sahaya, R.R.; Dharne, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The Calandria of a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) is essentially a horizontal cylindrical vessel housing a matrix of horizontal tubes called Calandria tubes within which is contained the pressure tubes that house the fuel bundles. In addition there are horizontal and vertical flux control and shutdown devices. The Calandria is filled with heavy water moderator at a pressure slightly above the atmosphere. A large amount of heat (about 125 MWth) is generated within the moderator mainly due to neutron slowing down and attenuation of gamma radiations. This heat generation gives rise to a strong buoyancy-driven natural convection flow. In the proposed configuration of 700 MWe PHWR Calandria, moderator inlet diffusers are directed upwards and the outlet nozzles are at the bottom of the Calandria. The basis for the above said inlet/outlet configuration depends upon the various factors like space availability, NPSH requirement for the moderator pumps, and interference of flow with the other components inside the Calandria. This configuration is not conducive for the buoyancy-dominated flows generated due to large volumetric heat generation in the moderator. In order to see the effects of changes in flow configuration by re-orienting the inlet/outlet, a CFD study was undertaken for moderator flows in the conceptual Calandria. In the study, the moderator inlet diffusers direct the cool moderator towards the bottom of the Calandria and hot moderator flows out through the outlets in the upper half of the Calandria. The results of the study with various flow configurations show that modification in moderator flow configuration in Calandria, by way of introduction of moderator in the downward direction through diffusers and provision of the exits from the upper portion of the Calandria, results in significant reduction of the maximum temperature of moderator in Calandria. Further, the temperature distribution in the Calandria in the proposed configurations is much more

  3. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  4. High efficiency cyclotron trap assisted positron moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Gerchow, L.; Cooke, D. A.; Braccini, S.; Döbeli, M.; Kirch, K.; Köster, U.; Müller, A.; Van Der Meulen, N. P.; Vermeulen, C.; Rubbia, A.; Crivelli, P.

    2017-01-01

    We report the realisation of a cyclotron trap assisted positron tungsten moderator for the conversion of positrons with a broad keV- few MeV energy spectrum to a mono-energetic eV beam with an efficiency of 1.8(2)% defined as the ratio of the slow positrons divided by the $\\beta^+$ activity of the radioactive source. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude compared to the state of the art of tungsten moderators. The simulation validated with this measurement suggests that usi...

  5. Moderator Demonstration Facility Design and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClanahan, Tucker C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is implementing a Moderator Demonstration Facility (MDF) to demonstrate the performance characteristics of advanced moderators central to the Second Target Station (STS) for SNS. The MDF will use the "spare" front-end installation within the SNS accelerator support complex – an ion source, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and medium-energy beam transport (MEBT) chopper - to provide a 2.5 MeV proton beam of peak current 50 mA and maximum pulse length of less than 10 s at a repetition rate of no more than 60 Hz to a suitable neutron-producing target to demonstrate those aspects of moderator performance necessary to meet the goals of the STS design e ort. The accelerator beam parameters are not open to variation beyond that described above - they are fixed by the nature of the spare front-end installation (the Integrated Test Stand Facility; ITSF). Accordingly, there are some neutronic challenges in developing prototypic moderator illumination from a very non-prototypic primary neutron source; the spallation source we are attempting to mimic has an extended neutron source volume approximately 40 cm long (in the direction of the proton beam), approximately 10 cm wide (horizontally transverse to the proton beam) and approximately 5 cm high (vertically transverse to the proton beam), and an isotropic evaporation energy spectrum with mean energy above 1 MeV. In contrast, the primary neutron source available from the 7Li(p,n) reaction (the most prolific at 2.5 MeV proton energy by more than an order of magnitude) is strongly anisotropic, with an energy spectrum that is both strongly dependent on emission angle and kinematically limited to less than 700 keV, and the interaction zone between the incident protons and any target material (neutron-producing or not) is intrinsically limited to a few tens of microns. The MDF will be unique and innovative amongst the world

  6. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  7. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  8. On the Reduced Geoeffectiveness of Solar Cycle 24: A Moderate Storm Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumaran, R.; Veenadhari, B.; Akiyama, S.; Pandya, Megha; Gopalswamy, N,; Yashiro, S.; Kumar, Sandeep; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2016-01-01

    The moderate and intense geomagnetic storms are identified for the first 77 months of solar cycles 23 and 24. The solar sources responsible for the moderate geomagnetic storms are indentified during the same epoch for both the cycles. Solar cycle 24 has shown nearly 80% reduction in the occurrence of intense storms whereas it is only 40% in case of moderate storms when compared to previous cycle. The solar and interplanetary characteristics of the moderate storms driven by coronal mass ejection (CME) are compared for solar cycles 23 and 24 in order to see reduction in geoeffectiveness has anything to do with the occurrence of moderate storm. Though there is reduction in the occurrence of moderate storms, the Dst distribution does not show much difference. Similarly, the solar source parameters like CME speed, mass, and width did not show any significant variation in the average values as well as the distribution. The correlation between VBz and Dst is determined, and it is found to be moderate with value of 0.68 for cycle 23 and 0.61 for cycle 24. The magnetospheric energy flux parameter epsilon (epsilon) is estimated during the main phase of all moderate storms during solar cycles 23 and 24. The energy transfer decreased in solar cycle 24 when compared to cycle 23. These results are significantly different when all geomagnetic storms are taken into consideration for both the solar cycles.

  9. Stimulus Modality and Smoking Behavior: Moderating Role of Implicit Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Valentine C; Mefoh, Philip

    2015-07-20

    This study investigated whether stimulus modality influences smoking behavior among smokers in South Eastern Nigeria and also whether implicit attitudes moderate the relationship between stimulus modality and smoking behavior. 60 undergraduate students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka were used. Participants were individually administered the IAT task as a measure of implicit attitude toward smoking and randomly assigned into either image condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive images of potential health consequences or text condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive texts of potential health consequences. A one- predictor and one-moderator binary logistic analysis indicates that stimulus modality significantly predicts smoking behavior (p = smoke with greater probability than the text condition. The interaction between stimulus modality and IAT scores was also significant (p = attitudes towards smoking. The finding shows the urgent need to introduce the use of aversive images of potential health consequences on cigarette packs in Nigeria.

  10. Study on core design for reduced-moderation water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Tsutomu

    2002-01-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a water-cooled reactor with the harder neutron spectrum comparing with the LWR, resulting from low neutron moderation due to reduced water volume fraction. Based on the difference from the spectrum from the LWR, the conversion from U-238 to Pu-239 is promoted and the new cores preferable to effective utilization of uranium resource can be possible Design study of the RMWR core started in 1997 and new four core concepts (three BWR cores and one PWR core) are recently evaluated in terms of control rod worths, plutonium multiple recycle, high burnup and void coefficient. Comparative evaluations show needed incorporation of control rod programming and simplified PUREX process as well as development of new fuel cans for high burnup of 100 GW-d/t. Final choice of design specifications will be made at the next step aiming at realization of the RMWR. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Job characteristics, flow, and performance: the moderating role of conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia

    2006-07-01

    The present article aims to show the importance of positive work-related experiences within occupational health psychology by examining the relationship between flow at work (i.e., absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation) and job performance. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that (a) motivating job characteristics are positively related to flow at work and (b) conscientiousness moderates the relationship between flow and other ratings of (in-role and out-of-role) performance. The hypotheses were tested on a sample of 113 employees from several occupations. Results of moderated structural equation modeling analyses generally supported the hypotheses. Motivating job characteristics were predictive of flow, and flow predicted in-role and extra-role performance, for only conscientious employees.

  12. Study on core design for reduced-moderation water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Tsutomu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a water-cooled reactor with the harder neutron spectrum comparing with the LWR, resulting from low neutron moderation due to reduced water volume fraction. Based on the difference from the spectrum from the LWR, the conversion from U-238 to Pu-239 is promoted and the new cores preferable to effective utilization of uranium resource can be possible Design study of the RMWR core started in 1997 and new four core concepts (three BWR cores and one PWR core) are recently evaluated in terms of control rod worths, plutonium multiple recycle, high burnup and void coefficient. Comparative evaluations show needed incorporation of control rod programming and simplified PUREX process as well as development of new fuel cans for high burnup of 100 GW-d/t. Final choice of design specifications will be made at the next step aiming at realization of the RMWR. (T. Tanaka)

  13. What's the Point of Moderation? A Discussion of the Purposes Achieved through Contemporary Moderation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Sue; Hughes, Clair; Adie, Lenore

    2016-01-01

    An increasingly regulated higher education sector is renewing its attention to those activities referred to as "moderation" in its efforts to ensure that judgements of student achievement are based on appropriate standards. Moderation practices conducted throughout the assessment process can result in purposes identified as equity,…

  14. UV Visibility of Moderate-Redshift Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Rhee

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We show quantitatively whether giant elliptical galaxies would be visible at far UV wavelengths if they were placed at moderate redshift of 0.4-0.5. On the basis of simple cosmological tests, we conclude that giant elliptical galaxies can be detectable upto the redshift of 0.4-0.5 in the proposed GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey. We also show that obtaining UV color index such as m_1550 - V from upcoming GALEX and SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations should be feasible.

  15. Mediated moderation or moderated mediation: relationship between length of unemployment, resilience, coping and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Víctor; Guarino, Leticia

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate a model of mediated moderation vs. moderated mediation that could explain the relationship between length of unemployment, dispositional resilience, coping styles and depression and social functioning of Venezuelan unemployed individuals. Self-report measures were administered to a sample of 328 unemployed residents in Caracas, Venezuela. Results indicated that emotional coping acted as a mediator in the relationship between resilience and depression. Individuals with greater resilience used more detachment coping when unemployment was longer, while individuals with poorer resilience in the same situation used less avoidance coping. Resilience acted as a protective moderating factor between longer periods of unemployment and social functioning, a process mediated by detachment coping. Overall, results supported a mediated moderation model, with resilience as the moderating factor and coping as the mediator in the relation between stress due to the length of unemployment and well-being.

  16. Moderate takes key science role in Congress

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    2001-01-01

    Sherry Boehlert has been named as chair of the Science committee in the US House of Representatives. Described as a moderate Republican with a keen interest in environmental and energy issues, it is seen as a good appointment by scientists (1/2 page)

  17. High conversion heavy water moderated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Yoshio; Wakabayashi, Toshio.

    1989-01-01

    In the present invention, fuel rods using uranium-plutonium oxide mixture fuels are arranged in a square lattice at the same pitch as that in light water cooled reactor and heavy water moderators are used. Accordingly, the volume ratio (Vm/Vf) between the moderator and the fuel can be, for example, of about 2. When heavy water is used for the moderator (coolant), since the moderating effect of heavy water is lower than that of light water, a high conversion ratio of not less than 0.8 can be obtained even if the fuel rod arrangement is equal to that of PWR (Vm/Vf about 2). Accordingly, it is possible to avoid problems caused by dense arrangement of fuel rods as in high conversion rate light water cooled reactors. That is, there are no more troubles in view of thermal hydrodynamic characteristics, re-flooding upon loss of coolant accident, etc., as well as the fuel production cost is not increased. (K.M.)

  18. Financial fragility in the Great Moderation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Grydaki, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A nascent literature explores the measurement of financial fragility. This paper considers evidence for rising financial fragility during the 1984-2007 Great Moderation in the U.S. The literature suggests that macroeconomic stability combined with strong growth of credit to asset markets, in asset

  19. Online Moderation of Synchronous E-Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asterhan, Christa S. C.; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present findings on moderation of synchronous, small-group argumentation in blended, co-located learning environments. Drawing on findings from the literature on human facilitation of dialogue in face-to-face settings, we first elaborate on the potential promise of this new practice. However, little is known about what…

  20. Golimumab for moderate to severe ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, Anne S.; Berends, Sophie E.; Mathôt, Ron A.; D'Haens, Geert R.; Löwenberg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Golimumab (GLM) is a subcutaneously administered human anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agent that has been approved by the regulatory authorities for the treatment of moderate to severe ulcerative colitis (UC) in 2013. Areas covered: Maintained clinical remission rates up to 50% have been shown in

  1. Moderation of Peer Assessment in Group Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, Graeme

    2006-01-01

    It is shown here that a grade distribution scheme commonly used to moderate peer assessments where self assessment is excluded is based on a false premise and will give an erroneous ranking in the situation where the best performer in a student group ranks the second best performer much higher than the other group members. An alternative to…

  2. Drivers and moderators of business decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reports of business failure elicit various reactions, while research in this domain often appears to be limited by a lack of access to information about failure and by the negativity that surrounds it. Those who have experienced failure do not readily talk about it, or they disappear from the radar screen of researchers. Yet failure is preceded by decline which, when focused on strategically, can reduce eventual failures if early action is taken. The main purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework or typology of the drivers and moderators of business decline. Design/methodology/approach: After applying the "grounded theory" approach to the academic literature on decline and failure, a conceptual framework for the variables that drive and moderate business decline is proposed. Findings: The study proposes that decline has three core drivers, three peripheral drivers and four moderators. The core drivers identified are: resource munificence; leadership as origin; and causality (strategic versus operational origin of decline. The three peripheral drivers are: unique preconditions; continuous decisions impact; and extremes dichotomy. The study describes four moderators of the drivers: life cycle stage; stakeholder perspective; quantitative versus qualitative nature of signs and causes; and finally the age and size effects. Research limitations/implications: The proposed conceptual framework is based on literature only, although it has found support during discussions with practitioners. It is proposed to readers of this journal for scrutiny and validation. Practical implications: Strategists need to understand what drives decline in order to act timeously; practitioners who have an insight into the moderators with their impacts could make better decisions in response to decline in organisations and possibly avoid business failure. Originality/Value: Understanding business decline is still a huge theoretical challenge, which

  3. Management of moderate wind energy coastal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanis, D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Life cycle analysis reveals the viability of moderate wind fields utilization. → Wind turbine is the greenest electricity generator at a touristic site. → Wind parks should be collective applications of small hotel-apartments owners. -- Abstract: The feasibility of wind energy utilization at moderate wind fields was investigated for a typical touristic coastal site in Western Greece. Initially, the wind speed and direction as well as its availability, duration and diurnal variation were assessed. For an analysis period of eight years, the mean wind speed at ten meters was determined as 3.8 m s -1 with a small variation in monthly average wind speeds between 3.0 (January) and 4.4 m s -1 (October). The mean wind power density was less than 200 W m -2 at 10 m indicating the limiting suitability of the site for the usual renewable energy applications. However, life cycle analysis for wind turbine generators with lower cut-in, cut-out, and rated speeds revealed that the energy yield ratio can reach a value of six for a service life of 20 years while the energy pay-back period can be 3 years with 33 kt CO 2 -e of avoided greenhouse emissions. Therefore, the recent technological turbine improvements make wind power viable even at moderate wind fields. Moreover, the study of electricity supply of typical small hotel-apartments in the region of Western Greece indicated that the installation of 300 wind turbine generators in these moderate wind fields would cover the total consumption during the open touristic period with profits during the rest of the year. According to these results, wind turbine generators are the 'greenest' way of generating electricity in touristic coastal sites, even of moderate wind speeds.

  4. OpenFOAM Analysis of CANDU-6 Moderator Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chang, Se-Myong

    2015-01-01

    In this study OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), an open source CFD solver, is used to simulate the three-dimensional moderator flow in calandria tank of CANDU-6 reactor improving the computational efficiency by parallel computing which does not need any proprietary license. A prototype of CANDU-6 reactor is numerically analyzed about three-dimensional moderator flow in calandrian tank with OpenFOAM, an open source CFD code. The horizontal fuel channels in a CANDU-6 reactor (a pressurized heavy water reactor) are submerged in the heavy water (D 2 O) pool which is contained by a cylindrical tank, calandria. Each fuel channel consists of concentric tubes: a Pressure Tube (PT) and a Calandria Tube (CT). And the CO 2 gas is filled between these tubes. Consequently, a heat flux is rapidly transferred to the outer CT so that a film boiling may occur in CT. As a result, it is important to keep the subcooling in the moderator. It is one of the major concerns in the CANDU safety analyses to estimate the local subcooling margin of the moderator inside the calandria tank. Previous experimental studies showed that the film boiling would be unlikely to occur if the local moderator subcooling is sufficient. Therefore, an accurate prediction of the moderator temperature distribution in the calandria tank is needed to confirm the channel integrity. There have been numerous computational efforts to estimate the thermal hydraulics in the calandria tank using CFD codes. Hadaller et al. obtained a tube bank pressure drop model for tube bundle region of the calandria tank and implemented it into the MODTURC C LAS code. Yoon et al. used the CFX code to develop a CFD model with a porous media approach for the core region. However, it is known that porous media modeling provide only average values of flow velocities and temperatures and do not give any information about local flow variables near tube solid walls, which are necessary to implement accurate heat transfer

  5. OpenFOAM Analysis of CANDU-6 Moderator Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Se-Myong [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), an open source CFD solver, is used to simulate the three-dimensional moderator flow in calandria tank of CANDU-6 reactor improving the computational efficiency by parallel computing which does not need any proprietary license. A prototype of CANDU-6 reactor is numerically analyzed about three-dimensional moderator flow in calandrian tank with OpenFOAM, an open source CFD code. The horizontal fuel channels in a CANDU-6 reactor (a pressurized heavy water reactor) are submerged in the heavy water (D{sub 2}O) pool which is contained by a cylindrical tank, calandria. Each fuel channel consists of concentric tubes: a Pressure Tube (PT) and a Calandria Tube (CT). And the CO{sub 2} gas is filled between these tubes. Consequently, a heat flux is rapidly transferred to the outer CT so that a film boiling may occur in CT. As a result, it is important to keep the subcooling in the moderator. It is one of the major concerns in the CANDU safety analyses to estimate the local subcooling margin of the moderator inside the calandria tank. Previous experimental studies showed that the film boiling would be unlikely to occur if the local moderator subcooling is sufficient. Therefore, an accurate prediction of the moderator temperature distribution in the calandria tank is needed to confirm the channel integrity. There have been numerous computational efforts to estimate the thermal hydraulics in the calandria tank using CFD codes. Hadaller et al. obtained a tube bank pressure drop model for tube bundle region of the calandria tank and implemented it into the MODTURC{sub C}LAS code. Yoon et al. used the CFX code to develop a CFD model with a porous media approach for the core region. However, it is known that porous media modeling provide only average values of flow velocities and temperatures and do not give any information about local flow variables near tube solid walls, which are necessary to implement accurate heat

  6. The moderating role of objective and subjective numeracy in attribute framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Eyal; Kreiner, Hamutal; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has found that objective numeracy moderates framing effects: People who are less numerate were found to be more susceptible to goal-framing and attribute-framing effects than people who are highly numerate. This study examined the possibility that subjective numeracy likewise moderates attribute framing in contexts where participants are presented with percentages of success or failure. The results show that compared with highly numerate participants, less numerate participants were more susceptible to the effect of attribute framing. Interestingly, this moderating effect was revealed only when using objective numeracy measures, and not when subjective numeracy measures were used. Future research is suggested to replicate these findings, to establish the generalizability of numeracy as a moderator of other cognitive biases, and to examine several possible theoretical explanations for the differential moderation of attribute-framing bias. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. A thematic analysis of messages posted by moderators within health-related asynchronous online support forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Richard M; Coulson, Neil S

    2017-09-01

    To identify and describe the activities performed by online support community moderators. A total of 790 messages were downloaded for analysis. Messages were written by 59 moderators from 6 forums that represent a diverse range of conditions (arthritis, complex regional pain syndrome, Crohn's disease, depression, diabetes and Huntington's disease). Thematic analysis revealed four themes: supportive tasks supportive tasks involve providing help to members, moderators sharing experiences shows how they use forums to fulfil their own personal support needs, making announcements about new discoveries and upcoming events, and administrative tasks such as enforcing rules and deleting spam. These results are consistent with the helper-therapy principle and provide a new insight into the diverse and varied range of activities carried out by moderators. Moderators perform many roles, including using forums for their own support needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial distribution of moderated neutrons along a Pb target irradiated by high-energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragopoulou, M.; Manolopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Brandt, R.; Westmeier, W.; Kulakov, B.A.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Sosnin, A.N.; Debeauvais, M.; Adloff, J.C.; Zamani Valasiadou, M.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy protons in the range of 0.5-7.4 GeV have irradiated an extended Pb target covered with a paraffin moderator. The moderator was used in order to shift the hard Pb spallation neutron spectrum to lower energies and to increase the transmutation efficiency via (n,γ) reactions. Neutron distributions along and inside the paraffin moderator were measured. An analysis of the experimental results was performed based on particle production by high-energy interactions with heavy targets and neutron spectrum shifting by the paraffin. Conclusions about the spallation neutron production in the target and moderation through the paraffin are presented. The study of the total neutron fluence on the moderator surface as a function of the proton beam energy shows that neutron cost is improved up to 1 GeV. For higher proton beam energies it remains constant with a tendency to decline

  9. Preliminary optimization experiments of coupled liquid hydrogen moderator for KENS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Inoue, K.; Furusaka, M.; Ikeda, S.; Arai, M.; Iwasa, H.

    1989-01-01

    As a preliminary optimization experiment on the cold-neutron source for KENS-II, energy and time distributions of cold neutrons emanating from coupled liquid-hydrogen moderators with and without a premoderator in a graphite reflector were measured and compared with those from a decoupled liquid-hydrogen moderator. The results showed that the energy spectra from the coupled liquid-hydrogen moderators are almost the same as those from a decoupled one. Relative gain of the former to the latter is fairly high, more than 5, and further increases with increasing wavelength. The broadening of the neutron pulse width in coupled moderators at the cold-neutron region is not so significant and only 1.5 times compared to the solid methane moderator presently operated at KENS-II. 2 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  10. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C; Soto, Luis P; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database ( n  = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten , while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  11. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  12. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C.; Soto, Luis P.; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten, while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  13. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social support moderates caregiver life satisfaction following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergh, Tanya C; Hanks, Robin A; Rapport, Lisa J; Coleman, Renee D

    2003-12-01

    Social support is an important determinant of adjustment following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained by a family member. The present study examined the extent to which social support moderates the influence of characteristics of the person with injury on caregiver subjective well-being. Sixty pairs of individuals who had sustained a moderate to severe TBI and their caregivers (N=120) participated. Years postinjury ranged from 0.3 to 9.9 ( M=4.8, SD=2.6). Cognitive, functional, and neurobehavioral functioning of participants with TBI were assessed using neuropsychological tests and rating scales. Caregiver life satisfaction and perceived social support were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that time since injury was unrelated to life satisfaction. Neurobehavioral disturbances showed an inverse relation with life satisfaction. Social support emerged as an important moderator of life satisfaction. Only among caregivers with low social support was cognitive dysfunction adversely related to life satisfaction. Similarly, a trend suggested that patient unawareness of deficit was associated with caregiver life dissatisfaction only among caregivers with low social support. In contrast, these characteristics were unrelated to life satisfaction among caregivers with adequate social support.

  15. Proposed upgrade of the lower tier water moderators for the LANSE 1L MARK-III upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhrer, G.; Pitcher, E.J.; Russell, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    We will show in this article the proposed upgrade for the lower tier water moderators for the LANSCE 1L Mark-III design. This proposal will include the introduction of pre-moderators for the high intensity moderators and a change of the decoupler from Cadmium to Gadolinium on all lower tier water moderators. We will present the influence of these changes on the integrated thermal flux and the time distribution of these moderators. As part of the upgrade of the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center target (1L target) the goal was to increase the integrated thermal flux of the lower high intensity and the high resolution moderator by 20%. We will show in this paper that this goal can be achieved by introducing a pre-moderator concept on the high resolution moderators and by changing the decoupling scheme on all three moderators. Furthermore we will show that this goal can be achieved without jeopardizing the time of flight resolution of these moderators. For the all these calculations we used the radiation transport code MCNPX, which is most commonly used for this type of calculations.

  16. Neutron Cross Section Libraries for Cryogenic Aromatic Moderator Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantargi, Florencia; Granada, J.R.; Sbaffoni, Maria Monica

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of a set of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, mesitylene and a 3:2 mixture (by volume) of mesitylene and toluene, all of them in solid phase, was studied as potential moderator materials for cold neutron sources. Cross section libraries were generated for hydrogen bounded in those materials, at several temperatures in ACE format, and they were used in MCNP calculations to analyze their neutron production compared with traditional materials like solid methane and liquid hydrogen. In particular, cross section libraries were generated at 20 K, which is the operating temperature of the majority of the existing cold neutron sources. Although solid methane is the best moderator in terms of cold neutron production, it has very poor radiation resistance, causing spontaneous burping even at fairly low doses. Such effect is considerably reduced in the aromatic hydrocarbons. On the other hand, all of them show a similar and significant neutron production, with the exception of benzene. Even though those aromatic materials are very easy to handle, the solid phases that produce an enhanced flux of cold neutrons correspond to amorphous structures rich in low-energy excitations, and they can be created through lengthy cooling processes requiring in many cases additional annealing stages. The 3:2 mesitylene-toluene mixture, that forms in a simple and direct manner the appropriate disordered structure, constitutes an excellent cryogenic moderator material, as it is able to produce an intense flux of cold neutrons while presenting high resistance to radiation, thus conforming a new and advantageous alternative to traditional moderator materials. (authors)

  17. Reconceptualising Moderation in Asynchronous Online Discussions Using Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Panos; Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a grounded theory study of the moderation of asynchronous online discussions, to explore the processes by which tutors in higher education decide when and how to moderate. It aims to construct a theory of e-moderation based on some key factors which appear to influence e-moderation. It discusses previous research on the…

  18. Thorium utilization in heavy water moderated Accelerator Driven Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, Anil; Degweker, S.B.; Ghosh, Biplab

    2011-01-01

    is a much more realistic option, since it gives us a good gain with heavy water as coolant and even with light water cooled heavy water moderated reactor, the gain is somewhat lower, but still acceptable. We show that the self sustaining cycle for a critical system gives rather low discharge burnup. To obtain higher burnup, the critical reactor needs an external feed of fissile material. We show that the accelerator driven sub-critical mode of operation gives acceptable burnup in a self sustaining cycle. (author)

  19. Integrating mediation and moderation to advance theory development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Armstrong, Bridget; Janicke, David M; Darling, Katherine E

    2014-03-01

    The concepts and associated analyses of mediation and moderation are important to the field of psychology. Although pediatric psychologists frequently incorporate mediation and moderation in their theories and empirical research, on few occasions have we integrated mediation and moderation. In this article, conceptual reasons for integrating mediation and moderation are offered. We illustrate a model that integrates mediation and moderation. In our illustration, the strength of an indirect or a mediating effect varied as a function of a moderating variable. Clinical implications of the integration of mediation and moderation are discussed, as is the potential of integrated models to advance research programs in pediatric psychology.

  20. Moderator materials for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a neutron source providing intense neutron fluxes that will be used for performing a large variety of neutron scattering experiments. SNS is to be completed and start operation in 2005. Protons will be accelerated to 1 GeV, stored in an accumulator ring, and then injected into a neutron-producing target. After leaving the target (Hg in the ca/se of SNS), the neutrons are prepared for experiments by first using a moderator to impose energy and width requirements on the neutron pulse. One of the most important ingredients is the moderator material. Four materials that are commonly used and that were considered for use in SNS are liquid hydrogen (L-H 2 ), liquid water (L-H 2 O), liquid methane (L-CH 4 ), and solid methane (S-CH 4 ). The spectra (neutron current versus neutron energy) for these four materials are shown. As may be seen, at low neutron energies ( 4 , which produces up to four times as many neutrons in this energy range as L-H 2 . The problem with the material is the internal storage of energy that can be spontaneously and explosively released. At energies of just above 10 MeV, the most effective moderator material is L-CH 4 . Polymerization problems, however, preclude its use at high powers (again such as in SNS), where the buildup of undesirable materials becomes prohibitive. This is, however, an important energy range for neutron experiments. Preliminary consideration is being given to a composite moderator that contains two adjacent sections, one of L-H 2 and one of L-H 2 O, which produces a spectrum that is very similar to L-CH 4

  1. Neutron transport from targets to moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.D.

    1981-06-01

    By appropriately choosing parameters such as temperature, decoupler, thickness and effective size it is possible to tailor the moderators of a pulsed spallation neutron source in such a way that the different characteristics regarding time structure and spectral distribution as requested for the different instruments can be met very closely. This enables a unique flexibility in the design of neutron spectrometers to be used at such a source. (author)

  2. Graphite-moderated and heavy water-moderated spectral shift controlled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala Ruiz, F.

    1984-01-01

    It has been studied the physical mechanisms related with the spectral shift control method and their general positive effects on economical and non-proliferant aspects (extension of the fuel cycle length and low proliferation index). This methods has been extended to non-hydrogenous fuel cells of high moderator/fuel ratio: heavy water cells have been con- trolled by graphite rods graphite-moderated and gas-cooled cells have been controlled by berylium rods and graphite-moderated and water-cooled cells have been controlled by a changing mixture of heavy and light water. It has been carried out neutron and thermal analysis on a pre design of these types of fuel cells. We have studied its neutron optimization and their fuel cycles, temperature coefficients and proliferation indices. Finally, we have carried out a comparative analysis of the fuel cycles of conventionally controlled PWRs and graphite-moderated, water-cooled and spectral shift controlled reactors. (Author) 71 refs

  3. Optimization of moderators and beam extraction at the ESS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andersen, K. H.; Bertelsen, M.; Zanini, L.; Klinkby, E. B.; Schonfeldt, T.; Bentley, P. M.; Šaroun, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2018), s. 264-281 ISSN 1600-5767 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015048 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : water moderators * para-hydrogen moderators * low-dimensional moderators * pancake moderators * butterfly moderators * brilliance transfer * neutron instruments Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.495, year: 2016

  4. TECHNOLOGY USAGE AMONG CONSTRUCTION STUDENTS THE MODERATING ROLE OF GENDER

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ramayah; Mastura Jaafar

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on the extent of personal computer (PC) usage among a group of undergraduates at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It also looks at the moderating role of gender in the above said relationship. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 244 students responded to the survey. Results showed that perceived ease of use (β = 0.309, p < 0.01) was positively re...

  5. Problem-solving skills and perceived stress among undergraduate students: The moderating role of hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Carlbring, Per; Harvey, Richard; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills, hardiness, and perceived stress and to test the moderating role of hardiness in the relationship between problem-solving skills and perceived stress among 500 undergraduates from Malaysian public universities. The analyses showed that undergraduates with poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and approach-avoidance style were more likely to report perceived stress. Hardiness moderated the relationships between problem-solving skills and perceived stress. These findings reinforce the importance of moderating role of hardiness as an influencing factor that explains how problem-solving skills affect perceived stress among undergraduates.

  6. Test Anxiety and Academic Performance among Undergraduates: The Moderating Role of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor

    2017-02-13

    This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p students' achievement motivation.

  7. Eating in moderation and the essential role of awareness. A Dutch longitudinal study identifying psychosocial predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walthouwer, Michel Jean Louis; Oenema, Anke; Candel, Math; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2015-04-01

    Eating in moderation, i.e. the attempt to monitor and limit the intake of energy-dense foods, is a promising strategy in the prevention of weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine which psychosocial factors derived from the I-Change Model (ICM) were associated with eating in moderation, and whether these factors differed between adults with a correct (aware) or incorrect (unaware) perception of their dietary behaviour. This study used a longitudinal design with measurements at baseline (N = 483) and six-month follow-up (N = 379). Eating in moderation was defined as the average daily energy intake from energy-dense food products and was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the associations between the ICM factors and eating in moderation. The moderating role of awareness was examined by including interactions between awareness and the ICM factors in the regression analyses using the pick-a-point approach to further examine the associations for aware and unaware participants. Participants who were aware of their dietary behaviour had a significantly lower average daily energy intake compared to those who were unaware. Eating in moderation was predicted by awareness, risk perception, social influence and intention. Among the aware participants, eating in moderation was predicted by risk perception, attitude, social influence and intention. Among the unaware participants, only risk perception and self-efficacy were significantly associated with eating in moderation. Our findings show that psychosocial factors may only predict eating in moderation when people are aware of their risk behaviour. Therefore, interventions aimed at promoting complex behaviours, such as eating in moderation, should first focus on improving individuals' awareness of their risk behaviour before targeting motivational factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapy of moderate and severe psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werfel, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and methods: This health technology assessment (HTA report synthesises systematically randomized controlled studies (RCT on the therapy of moderate and severe psoriasis vulgaris which were published between 1999 and 2004; it includes some important clinical studies which have been published after 2004 and thus updates the English HTA report by Griffiths et al. [1]. The major objective is the evaluation of the medical effectiveness of different therapeutical approaches and the cost effectiveness with relevance for Germany. Results: The major conclusions from the results of medical RCT on moderate and severe psoriasis vulgaris are: Oral fumarates are effective in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis vulgaris. However, fumarates quiet frequently cause moderate side effects. Cyclosporine and methotrexate are both effective in the treatment of severe psoriasis vulgaris. Both substances have a different spectrum of side effects which may limit the individual applicability. Acetritin is only moderately effective in the treatment of severe psoriasis of the plaque type. Calcipotriol or UV-radiation used at the same time can increase the clinical effectiveness of acetritin. Systemic PUVA, balneo-PUVA and UVB therapy are all effective for the treatment of severe psoriasis. The combination of UV therapy with vitamin D3 analogues or with topical steroids is more effective than the treatment with UV radiation alone. Saltwater baths increase the effectiveness of UVB therapy. No RCT on the therapeutical effects of topical tar or of dithranol in combination with UV therapy have been published so far. A continuous therapy with PUVA should not be applied due to its proven photocarcinogenicity. Three substances from the group of biologicals (Efalizumab, Etanercept, and Infliximab are now available in Europe and a further substance (Alefacept is available in the USA for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. All biologicals have been

  9. Communication Behaviors as Predictors of Long-Term Dyadic Adjustment: Personality as a Moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Lazaridès; Claude Bélanger; Stéphane Sabourin

    2010-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the moderating role of personality in the relationship between communication behaviors and long-term dyadic adjustment. A sample of 82 couples completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. These couples were also videotaped during a 15-minute problem-solving discussion. Approximately 2.5 years later, these couples completed again the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Results show that personality of both men and women moderates the rel...

  10. Moderator feedback effects in two-dimensional nodal methods for pressurized water reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downar, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    A method was developed for incorporating moderator feedback effects in two-dimensional nodal codes used for pressurized water reactor (PWR) neutronic analysis. Equations for the assembly average quality and density are developed in terms of the assembly power calculated in two dimensions. The method is validated with a Westinghouse PWR using the Electric Power Research Institute code SIMULATE-E. Results show a several percent improvement is achieved in the two-dimensional power distribution prediction compared to methods without moderator feedback

  11. Modeling the impact of normative beliefs in the context of online buying: Direct and moderating effects

    OpenAIRE

    Iconaru Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Normative beliefs tend to play a significant role in the context of online buying, having both direct and moderating effects. The results of the structural equation modeling indicate a direct effect of normative beliefs on the intention to buy online. Also, the magnitude of the relationship between online trust and perceived risk depends on the level of normative beliefs, showing that the effect of online trust on perceived risk varies as a function of the level of the moderator variable. Thi...

  12. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Optimisation studies for a moderator on a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picton, D.J.; Ross, D.K.; Taylor, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    Having reviewed general aspects of moderator design for pulsed neutron sources, calculations are presented on a number of aspects of moderator optimization. Results of time-independent calculations on metal hydride moderators and a detailed method of evaluating moderated pulse intensities and time distributions, are given. Using computer codes, neutron cross-sections have been calculated from vibrational frequency distributions and time-dependent moderator calculations performed by Monte Carlo methods. The choice of an ambient moderator material and the optimum configuration of heterogeneous poisoning are examined and evaluations of liquid-nitrogen-cooled moderators are presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the relative merits of cooled and poisoned moderators and an evaluation presented of solid methane at 20 K as a moderator for the production of cold neutrons. (U.K.)

  14. Halophilic Amylase from a Moderately Halophilic Micrococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiroshi

    1972-01-01

    A moderately halophilic Micrococcus sp., isolated from unrefined solar salt, produced a considerable amount of extracellular dextrinogenic amylase when cultivated aerobically in media containing 1 to 3 m NaCl. The Micrococcus amylase had maximal activity at pH 6 to 7 in 1.4 to 2 m NaCl or KCl at 50 C. Calcium ion and a high concentration of NaCl or KCl were essential for activity and stability of the amylase. The salt response of the amylase depended greatly on the pH and temperature of the enzyme assay. PMID:5058445

  15. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  16. Developing food supplements for moderately malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku

    2015-01-01

    ). The resulting products proved highly effective in promoting weight gain in both severely and moderately wasted children and adults, including those infected with HIV. The formulation of the existing RUTFs, however, has never been optimized to maximize linear growth, vitamin and mineral status, and functional...... of protein quality, antinutrient content, and flatulence factors that will result from the replacement of current dairy ingredients by less expensive protein-rich ingredients. The formulation of alternative RUTFs will require further research on these aspects, followed by efficacy studies comparing...

  17. Diplopia Following Short Treatment for Moderate Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoole, Janice; Barrow, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    A case of an autistic child, aged 8 years, who reported binocular diplopia following just 2 hours total occlusion per day for 6 weeks for strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia is reported. There was a history of known long-standing reduced uniocular acuity without treatment. Pretreatment Sbisa bar assessment suggested moderate suppression. The diplopia was treated over 6 months including occluding the amblyopic eye and gradually reducing the density of the occluder until fixation with the nonamblyopic eye could be maintained and diplopia ignored. Possible contributing factors are discussed.

  18. Fuel to Moderator Ratio Sensitivity Study Using Water Rod Moderator in SCWR Conceptual Core Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Seong Man; Kim, Yong Bae; Park, Dong Hwan; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2009-01-01

    The conceptual operating condition of Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) is above critical point of water, such that the coolant temperature ranges from 280 .deg. C to 510 .deg. C with a pressure of 25MPa. This operating condition makes an SCWR have both merits and demerits when compared with current Light Water Reactors (LWRs). One of the demerits of SCWR is degradation of neutron moderation due to a lower water density from ∼0.1g/cm 3 to ∼0.7g/cm 3 under a high coolant temperature condition. Therefore it is necessary to enhance the moderation capability for SCWR to slow down the fast fission neutrons. Many SCWR designs have a water rod concept as an additional moderator, because water has a good moderation capability. Through reviewing the previous water rod assembly designs, it was identified that a sensitivity study is required to optimize fuel assembly pitch to increase the neutron economy. In this paper, the results of the conceptual assembly design sensitivity study which focuses on the comparison of sensitivity for the fuel pitch to diameter (P/D) ratio using water rod moderator, are presented

  19. Antecedents and Moderators of Software Professionals’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Prasad H. C.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Software professionals’ (SPs' performance is often understood narrowly in terms of input–output productivity. This study approaches performance from a broader perspective and examines whether the emotional intelligence competencies (EICs of SPs, the leadership style of team leaders, social capital among team members, and human resource management (HRM practices of software firms affect performance of SPs. It also tests whether the value of and opportunities for knowledge sharing moderate such relationships. Data were collected from 441 Indian SPs in a questionnaire survey. Fifty-five team leaders assessed the performance of SPs, and SPs assessed the other constructs. Results revealed that EICs, transformational leadership style, social capital, and HRM practices positively affect performance. EICs are the most important predictors of performance. Under high (low value of and high (low opportunities for knowledge sharing, the antecedents influencing performance are strengthened (attenuated or nullified. The value of and opportunities for knowledge sharing are quasi-moderators. These findings have significant implications for organizing effective work teams.

  20. Neutron moderation at very low temperatures (1691)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, A.

    1961-04-01

    Starting from Harwell experiment carried out inside a low-power reactor, we intended to maintain a liquid hydrogen cell in a channel of the EL3 reactor (at Saclay) whose thermal neutrons flux is 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 /s. We tried to work out a device giving off an important beam of cold neutrons and able to operate in a way as automatic as possible during many consecutive day without a stop. Several circuits have already been achieved at very low temperatures but they brought out volumes and fluxes much lower than those we used this time. The difficulties we have met in carrying out such a device arose on the one hand from the very high energy release to which any kind of experiment is inevitably submitted when placed near the core of the reactor, on the other, hand from the very little room which is available in experimental channels of reactors. In such condition, it is necessary to use a moderator as effective as possible. This study is divided into three parts ; in the first part, we try to determine: a) conditions in which moderation takes place, hence the volume of the cell; b) materials likely to be used at low temperature and in pile; c) cooling system; hence we had to study fluid flow conditions at very low temperatures in very long ducts. The second part is devoted to the description of the device. The third part ventilates the results we have obtained. (author) [fr

  1. Neutron transport from targets to moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The title of this meeting is 'Targets for Neutron Beam Spallation Sources', but so far all the emphasis in the talks has been on how to produce the fast neutron flux. I would like to stress that that is just the beginning of the story. What we are required to produce are beams of thermal and epithermal neutrons with time and spectral characteristics tailored to the instrumental requirements. The real source of our neutrons is not uranium arrays or thorium cylinders but a small volume of hydrogenous material, some 10 x 10 x 5 cm 3 . This is really what the whole thing is about - the target produces a copious field of fast neutrons, but if we fail to moderate them with the right energy and time characteristics, we will not match to what is happening downstream. In this talk, I am going to deal specifically with what we have done for SNS to optimise the target-moderator-reflector and decoupler system in this respect. (orig.)

  2. Cardiopulmonary Changes with Moderate Decompression in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R.; Little, T.; Doursout, M.-F.; Butler, B. D.; Chelly, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were compressed to 616 kPa for 120 min then decompressed at 38 kPa/min to assess the cardiovascular and pulmonary responses to moderate decompression stress. In one series of experiments the rats were chronically instrumented with Doppler ultrasonic probes for simultaneous measurement of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, left and right ventricular wall thickening fraction, and venous bubble detection. Data were collected at base-line, throughout the compression/decompression protocol, and for 120 min post decompression. In a second series of experiments the pulmonary responses to the decompression protocol were evaluated in non-instrumented rats. Analyses included blood gases, pleural and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and hemoglobin concentration, pulmonary edema, BAL and lung tissue phospholipids, lung compliance, and cell counts. Venous bubbles were directly observed in 90% of the rats where immediate post-decompression autopsy was performed and in 37% using implanted Doppler monitors. Cardiac output, stroke volume, and right ventricular wall thickening fractions were significantly decreased post decompression, whereas systemic vascular resistance was increased suggesting a decrease in venous return. BAL Hb and total protein levels were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression, pleural and plasma levels were unchanged. BAL white blood cells and neutrophil percentages were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression and pulmonary edema was detected. Venous bubbles produced with moderate decompression profiles give detectable cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in the rat.

  3. Moderation in Australia-Policy and Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CREINA STOCKLEY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol has been consumed in Australia since European settlement in 1788. In 1998, approximately 60 % of Australians consumed an alcoholic beverage at least once per week. The effects of alcohol on the human body are dose dependent, where the harmful effects of alcohol are generally observed only when alcohol consumption exceeds moderate consumption levels of 30 to 40 g of alcohol per day. The discovery that a J-shaped curve described the relationship between level of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease was, however, only made in 1990_cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the western world. Thus prior to 1990, Australian public health policy focused primarily on the harmful effects of alcohol consumption and the health benefits of a moderate level of alcohol consumption have only recently been recognized in public policy. This paper chronicles changes in Australian Federal government policy on alcohol since the initial draft National health policy on alcohol in Australia was presented to the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy in 1987 to the National Drug Strategic plan for action 2001 to 2003-2004 which was launched in July last year

  4. Method of operating heavy water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiroyuki.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable stabilized reactor control, and improve the working rate and the safety of the reactor by removing liquid poison in heavy water while maintaining the power level constant to thereby render the void coefficient of the coolants negative in the low power operation. Method: The operation device for a heavy water moderated reactor comprises a power detector for the reactor, a void coefficient calculator for coolants, control rods inserted into the reactor, a poison regulator for dissolving poisons into or removing them out of heavy water and a device for removing the poisons by the poison regulator device while maintaining the predetermined power level or inserting the control rods by the signals from the power detector and the void coefficient calculator in the high temperature stand-by conditions of the reactor. Then, the heavy water moderated reactor is operated so that liquid poisons in the heavy water are eliminated in the high temperature stand-by condition prior to the start for the power up while maintaining the power level constant and the plurality of control rods are inserted into the reactor core and the void coefficient of the coolants is rendered negative in the low power operation. (Seki, T.)

  5. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  6. Added value measures in education show genetic as well as environmental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M A; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2011-02-02

    Does achievement independent of ability or previous attainment provide a purer measure of the added value of school? In a study of 4000 pairs of 12-year-old twins in the UK, we measured achievement with year-long teacher assessments as well as tests. Raw achievement shows moderate heritability (about 50%) and modest shared environmental influences (25%). Unexpectedly, we show that for indices of the added value of school, genetic influences remain moderate (around 50%), and the shared (school) environment is less important (about 12%). The pervasiveness of genetic influence in how and how much children learn is compatible with an active view of learning in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities.

  7. Leadership and change commitment in the life insurance service context in Taiwan: the mediating-moderating role of job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2011-06-01

    The effects of transformational leadership and satisfaction were studied along with their interconnected effects (mediation and moderation) on commitment to change in the life insurance industry in two samples, sales managers and salespersons. A multiple mediated-moderated regression approach showed mediation and moderation to have statistically significant main effects on change commitment. Transformational leadership and satisfaction made a more important contribution to change commitment while job satisfaction had a mediating and moderating role that could enhance the relationships between leadership and change commitment. This information is of importance in building successful change commitment associations with customers.

  8. Bean leaf growth response to moderate ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L S

    1973-01-01

    The middle leaflet from the first trifoliate leaf of pinto bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) was subjected to various ozone levels for both 12 and 24 h to show moderate oxidant injury. Rates of leaf expansion were used as criteria to measure the effects of ozone at three leaflet positions. Growth analysis included Y-intercepts indicating growth after day 1, growth after day 3, and regression line slopes between days 1 and 7 after the beginning of the experiments. Slopes of growth rate regression lines differentiated untreated leaflets from leaflets exposed to a 0.60 ppm-h (0.05 ppm for 12 h) dose. Growth rates of plants exposed to 1.20 ppm-h (either 0.05 ppm for 24 h, or 0.10 ppm for 12 h) were distinguishable from untreated plants within three days. Basal leaf portions showed the most differential ozone response compared with lateral and tip positions.

  9. Ascent to moderate altitude impairs overnight memory improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Noemi; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Lo Cascio, Christian M; Stadelmann, Katrin; Stoewhas, Anne-Christin; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-02-01

    Several studies showed beneficial effects of sleep on memory performance. Slow waves, the electroencephalographic characteristic of deep sleep, reflected on the neuronal level by synchronous slow oscillations, seem crucial for these benefits. Traveling to moderate altitudes decreases deep sleep. In a randomized cross-over design healthy male subjects performed a visuo-motor learning task in Zurich (490 m) and at Davos Jakobshorn (2590 m) in random order. Memory performance was assessed immediately after learning, before sleep, and in the morning after a night of sleep. Sleep EEG recordings were performed during the nights. Our findings show an altitude induced reduction of sleep dependent memory performance. Moreover, this impaired sleep dependent memory performance was associated with reduced slow wave derived measures of neuronal synchronization. Our results are consistent with a critical role of slow waves for the beneficial effects of sleep on memory that is susceptible to natural environmental influences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Determinants, Moderators and Consequences of Organizational Interaction Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hoops

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction orientation reflects the ability of a company to interact with the individual customer and to gather information from successful interactions. Four dimensions of interaction orientation are identified in the literature: customer concept, interaction response capacity, customer empowerment and customer value management (Ramani and Kumar, 2008. This study shows that indeed a fifth dimension of interaction orientation exists and investigates the determinants, moderators and consequences of this construct. The first notable finding is that B2B companies exhibit a greater degree of interaction orientation than B2C firms. Ramani and Kumar hypothesized that in their study. We show that there are B2C industries such as financial services, whose companies also have a greater interaction orientation. This could be the reason why the authors could not prove their hypothesis. Furthermore, we examine the influence of strategic orientations on organizational performances and compare various orientations with each other.

  11. Moderate alcohol use and cardiovascular disease from Mendelian randomization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu Lun Au Yeung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies show moderate alcohol use negatively associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, healthier attributes among moderate users compared to never users may confound the apparent association. A potentially less biased way to examine the association is Mendelian randomization, using alcohol metabolizing genes which influence alcohol use. METHODS: We used instrumental variable analysis with aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 genotypes (AA/GA/GG as instrumental variables for alcohol use to examine the association of alcohol use (10 g ethanol/day with CVD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids and glucose and morbidity (self-reported IHD and CVD among men in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. RESULTS: ALDH2 genotypes were a credible instrument for alcohol use (F-statistic 74.6. Alcohol was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0.05 mmol/L per alcohol unit, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.02 to 0.08 and diastolic blood pressure (1.15 mmHg, 95% CI 0.23 to 2.07 but not with systolic blood pressure (1.00 mmHg, 95% CI -0.74 to 2.74, LDL-cholesterol (0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.08, log transformed triglycerides (0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.08 or log transformed fasting glucose (0.01 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.006 to 0.03, self-reported CVD (odds ratio (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.27 or self-reported IHD (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.45. CONCLUSION: Low to moderate alcohol use among men had the expected effects on most CVD risk factors but not fasting glucose. Larger studies are needed to confirm the null associations with IHD, CVD and fasting glucose.

  12. Kinetics of homocysteine metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Kok, F.J.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with alcohol consumption, the authors investigated the effect of moderate

  13. Kinetics of homocysteine metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Kok, F.J.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with alcohol consumption, the authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol

  14. Spiritual coping, perceived growth, and the moderating role of spiritual mindfulness in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaz, Myriam; Ledermann, Thomas; Grzywacz, Joseph G

    2018-06-05

    This study examined the moderating role of spiritual mindfulness on the association between spiritual coping and perceived growth in individuals with and without current treatment for cancer. Adults with a cancer history (N = 534) from the Midlife in the United States study completed a telephone interview and self-administered questionnaires. Moderated regression analyses, controlled for age and educational attainment, showed that mindfulness moderated the effect of spiritual coping on personal growth and on positive reinterpretation. High mindfulness amplified the effect of spiritual coping on both personal growth and positive reinterpretation. Further, this moderating effect was significantly different for adults with versus without current treatment for cancer for positive reinterpretation but not for personal growth. These findings highlight the potential amplifying effect of spiritual mindfulness on the effect of spiritual coping on perceived growth in cancer survivors.

  15. Moderating effect of age on the association between future time perspective and preventive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Lu-Lu; Cui, Ji-Fang; Chen, Xing-Jie; Shi, Hai-Song; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the moderating effect of age on the relationship between future time perspective (FTP) and future-oriented coping. A total of 1,915 participants aged 9-84 years completed measures of FTP and future-oriented coping. Moderation analyses were conducted to examine whether age played a role in the association between FTP and future-oriented coping (proactive and preventive). Results showed that proactive and preventive coping were negatively correlated with age, and age moderated the association between FTP and preventive coping but not proactive coping. Furthermore, the strength of the positive association between FTP and preventive coping was strongest among the older participants, moderate among the middle-aged participants, and weakest among the younger participants. These results suggest that the association between FTP and preventive coping varies across the lifespan. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Organizational identification moderates the impact of organizational justice on job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guo; Jia, Libin; Zhao, Jian

    2016-03-09

    Few studies concern the moderator effect of organizational identification between organizational justice and job satisfaction. This study aimed to examine the trilateral relationship among organizational identification, organizational justice and job satisfaction, especially focus on the moderator effect of organizational identification. 354 staffs completed the measures of organizational justice, organizational identification and job satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that organizational identification moderated the association between organizational justice and job satisfaction. When staffs reported a low level of organizational identification, those with high organizational justice reported higher scores in job satisfaction than those with low organizational justice. However, the impact of organizational justice on job satisfaction was not significant in high organizational identification group. Organizational identification can significantly moderate the impact of organizational justice on job satisfaction. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.

  17. PENGARUH KOMITMEN ORGANISASI DAN KOMITMEN PROFESIONALTERHADAP KEPUASAN KERJA AKUNTAN PUBLIK:ROLE STRESS SEBAGAI VARIABEL MODERATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ardi Agung Heriawan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyzed the influence of organizational commitment, professional commitment to job satisfaction of public accountants with a role stress as moderating variable. The samples of this research are 44 public accountants that worked at public accountants office which registered in Yogyakarta and Semarang. The data were analyzed by multiple regression method with moderating variable.The result of this analysis of individual test show that role conflict is not moderated of relation by organizational commitment with job satisfaction. Also with role ambiguity which not moderated or relation by organizational commitment with job satisfaction. The main practical implication of this research is that the public accountants organizational must be attention to jobs expectation of their auditors. Because that is the factors that rising the organizational commitment and in the future it will be to give a high school satisfaction.

  18. Skill learning in patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease: a prospective pilot-study of waltz-lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, Alexander; Seifritz, Erich; Kräuchi, Kurt; Spoerl, David; Brokuslaus, Ilona; Proserpi, Sara-Maria; Gendre, Annekäthi; Savaskan, Egemen; Hofmann, Marc

    2002-12-01

    The authors report the effect of a 12-day prospective, blinded dance-learning trial in 5 patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 5 age-matched depressed patients. Patients with AD showed a significant effect in procedural learning whereas depressed patients did not. These findings suggest potential implications for therapeutic interventions in patients with moderate AD. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Mediated moderation in combined cognitive behavioral therapy versus component treatments for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G; Fisher, Aaron J

    2013-06-01

    This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of dynamic flexibility in daily symptoms was quantified as the inverse of spectral power due to daily to intradaily oscillations in four-times-daily diary data (Fisher, Newman, & Molenaar, 2011). This was a secondary analysis of the data of Borkovec, Newman, Pincus, and Lytle (2002). Seventy-six participants with a principle diagnosis of GAD were assigned randomly to combined CBT (n = 24), cognitive therapy (n = 25), or self-control desensitization (n = 27). Duration of GAD moderated outcome such that those with longer duration showed greater reliable change from component treatments than they showed from CBT, whereas those with shorter duration fared better in response to CBT. Decreasing predictability in daily and intradaily oscillations of anxiety symptoms during therapy reflected less rigidity and more flexible responding. Increases in flexibility over the course of therapy fully mediated the moderating effect of GAD duration on condition, indicating a mediated moderation process. Individuals with longer duration of GAD may respond better to more focused treatments, whereas those with shorter duration of GAD may respond better to a treatment that offers more coping strategies. Importantly, the mechanism by which this moderation occurs appears to be the establishment of flexible responding during treatment.

  20. Chocolate: A Heart-healthy Food? Show Me the Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Sandra M.; Schmitz, Harold H.; Keen, Carl L.

    2002-01-01

    Cocoa and chocolate foods produced by appropriate methods can contribute significant amounts of heart-healthy flavanols to the diet. These flavanols may enhance cardiovascular health by delaying blood clotting, improving vascular endothelial function, and helping to moderate inflammation. The benefits of chocolate can be enjoyed without guilt as part of a healthful balanced diet.

  1. Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reported a high spin (S=5/2) ternary iron(III) complex. [Fe(BHA)(L)Cl] of a ... designed low-spin iron(II) complexes as a new class of ..... They were moderately soluble in methanol, ethanol and .... Cell permeable DCFDA on oxidation by cel-.

  2. Performance of novel moderator for pulsed neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.E.; Granada, J.R.; Dawidowski, J.; Gillette, V.H.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of neutron pulse time-width and intensity have been carried out on grids of small moderators placed side by side and decoupled by cadmium strips. This moderator concept had been introduced at ICANS-10. The present measurements explore greater moderator thicknesses than those previously attained, yielding information on thickness optimization, while confirming the previous results on resolution which make this moderator a favourable choice in front of the conventional sandwich set-up. (author)

  3. Neutronic moderator design for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Johnson, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Neutronics analyses are now in progress to support the initial selection of moderator design parameters for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The results of the initial optimization studies involving moderator poison plate location, moderator position, and premoderator performance for the target system are presented in this paper. Also presented is an initial study of the use of a composite moderator to produce a liquid methane like spectrum

  4. Nonprofit brand strength’s moderational role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wymer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature and characteristics of the nonprofit brand strength construct are conceptualized. Brand strength is defined as a multidimensional construct, composed by brand familiarity, brand remarkability, and brand attitude. Brand familiarity refers to the level of knowledge the target audience has about the brand object. Brand attitude refers to the degree to which a brand object is perceived favorably by a target group. Brand remarkability refers to the degree to which a brand object is perceived by a target group to be extraordinary. In the brand management nomological net, brand strength acts as a moderator, influencing the strength of the relationship between marketing tactics (antecedents and marketing outcomes (consequents. Brand strength’s inter-dimensional relationships are conceptualized. A brand strength strategy grid is presented, which informs brand management strategy based on a brand’s current levels of brand familiarity and brand remarkability.

  5. Characteristic analysis on moderating material for obtaining epithermal neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xinbiao; Chen Da; Zhang Ying

    2000-01-01

    The one dimension discrete coordinates transport code ANISN was used to calculate three-group constants of 11 elements which could be used to consist moderating epithermal neutron material of beam. Moderating character of simple substances, compounds and mixtures consisted of the optimized elements analyzed three kinds of moderating materials were optimized for epithermal neutron beam

  6. Some neutronic studies on flux-trap type moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanagi, Y.; Watanabe, N.

    1991-01-01

    The neutronic performance of a flux-trap type moderator was studied by computer simulation in connection with the KENS-II target-moderator system. It was confirmed that this system can provide 1.3-1.4 times higher neutron intensity than a traditional wing-geometry moderator system. (author)

  7. Moderately preterm children need attention! : Behavior and development of moderately preterm children at toddler age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, more than 10.000 children in the Netherlands are born moderately preterm after 32 to 36+6 weeks of gestation, which is 6.1% of all births. These children are at risk for difficulties on the short and long term. Previous studies especially found academic problems and difficulties in

  8. Heavy water moderated gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly du Bois, B.; Bernard, J.L.; Naudet, R.; Roche, R.

    1964-01-01

    France has based its main effort for the production of nuclear energy on natural Uranium Graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactors, and has a long term programme for fast reactors, but this country is also engaged in the development of heavy water moderated gas-cooled reactors which appear to present the best middle term prospects. The economy of these reactors, as in the case of Graphite, arises from the use of natural or very slightly enriched Uranium; heavy water can take the best advantages of this fuel cycle and moreover offers considerable development potential because of better reactor performances. A prototype plant EL 4 (70 MW) is under construction and is described in detail in another paper. The present one deals with the programme devoted to the development of this reactor type in France. Reasons for selecting this reactor type are given in the first part: advantages and difficulties are underlined. After reviewing the main technological problems and the Research and Development carried out, results already obtained and points still to be confirmed are reported. The construction of EL 4 is an important step of this programme: it will be a significant demonstration of reactor performances and will afford many experimentation opportunities. Now the design of large power reactors is to be considered. Extension and improvements of the mechanical structures used for EL 4 are under study, as well as alternative concepts. The paper gives some data for a large reactor in the present state of technology, as a result from optimization studies. Technical improvements, especially in the field of materials could lead to even more interesting performances. Some prospects are mentioned for the long run. Investment costs and fuel cycles are discussed in the last part. (authors) [fr

  9. Heavy water moderated reactors advances and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.; Olmstead, R.A.; Yu, A.M.; Dastur, A.R.; Yu, S.K.W.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear energy is now considered a key contributor to world electricity production, with total installed capacity nearly equal to that of hydraulic power. Nevertheless, many important challenges lie ahead. Paramount among these is gaining public acceptance: this paper makes the basic assumption that public acceptance will improve if, and only if, nuclear power plants are operated safely and economically over an extended period of time. The first task, therefore, is to ensure that these prerequisites to public acceptance are met. Other issues relate to the many aspects of economics associated with nuclear power, include capital cost, operation cost, plant performance and the risk to the owner's investment. Financing is a further challenge to the expansion of nuclear power. While the ability to finance a project is strongly dependent on meeting public acceptance and economic challenges, substantial localisation of design and manufacture is often essential to acceptance by the purchaser. The neutron efficient heavy water moderated CANDU with its unique tube reactor is considered to be particularly well qualified to respond to these market challenges. Enhanced safety can be achieved through simplification of safety systems, design of the moderator and shield water systems to mitigate severe accident events, and the increased use of passive systems. Economics are improved through reduction in both capital and operating costs, achieved through the application of state-of-the-art technologies and economy of scale. Modular features of the design enhance the potential for local manufacture. Advanced fuel cycles offer reduction in both capital costs and fuelling costs. These cycles, including slightly enriched uranium and low grade fuels from reprocessing plants can serve to increase reactor output, reduce fuelling cost and reduce waste production, while extending resource utilisation. 1 ref., 1 tab

  10. Organic food consumption in China: the moderating role of inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Tsai-Fa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector across Taiwan Strait, little is known about how consumers’ self congruity will influence organic food decision through various degrees of attitude and whether or not consumers with various degrees of inertia will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption self congruity on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of attitude as well as the moderating role of inertia. Research data were collected from organic food consumers across Taiwan Strait via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 500 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM. The results show that consumer attitude significantly mediates the effects of self congruity on organic food purchase intention. Moreover, the moderating effect of inertia is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between attitude and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of inertia. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers.

  11. Development work for the moderator of the ITR-fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenner, P.; Becker, D.

    1973-06-01

    In the frame of the ITR-project (Incore-Thermionic-Reactor) fuel-moderator-materials had been investigated, which are also of interest for the KNK-project and which are therefore documented in this report. Partial pressure measurements on the systems Zr-H, Zr U-H, Y-H and YH-H revealed the premise for the elaboration of a hydration technique. On the basis of the functional relation between partial H 2 -pressure, temperature and H 2 -content of the hydride, an optimum hydration kinetic for the production of flawless and well defined hydrated Zirconium hydride/Uranium pellets and of Zirconium hydride and Yttrium hydride moderator bodies was developed. Alternatively to the ZrH x -U-technology a powder- metallurgical procedure for the production of a Y-U sinter-alloy as base material was tested. In an irradiation experiment in the DIDO reactor (in Juelich) the burnup behavior of Zirconium hydride-Uranium and Yttrium hydride-Uranium under ITR-similar conditions has been tested. With a U235-burnup of 6.75 % and an irradiation temperature of 490 deg C a fission gas release rate of 0.1 % was observed. The ZrH x -pellets remained mechanically intact, whereas the YH x -pellets crumbled during the post-examinations. The ZrH x -U showed a maximum density reduction of 4.2 % [de

  12. Chronic effect of ketanserin in mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woittiez, A J; Wenting, G J; van den Meiracker, A H; Ritsema van Eck, H J; Man in't Veld, A J; Zantvoort, F A; Schalekamp, M A

    1986-02-01

    Ketanserin, an antagonist highly selective for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) type 2 (S2) receptors, was given as monotherapy in a dose of 40 mg b.i.d. to 24 subjects with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Its effects were evaluated in a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study. The effect on blood pressure in 18 subjects was monitored by 24-hour ambulatory intra-arterial measurements. Systolic and diastolic intra-arterial pressures were significantly lowered by ketanserin both during the day and at night, whereas heart rate was unchanged. Cuff pressure readings (triplicate measurements) with the London School of Hygiene sphygmomanometer and an automatic device (12 measurements in 1 hour) in the outpatient clinic also showed a significant effect on both supine and standing pressures. No postural hypotension was noted. Ketanserin had no effect on endogenous creatinine clearance, serum cholesterol levels, and the plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone. The only side effect that was significantly more common with ketanserin than with placebo treatment was an increase in body weight. Ketanserin may have a place in the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension.

  13. Neutronic Design of KALIMER-600 Core with Moderator Rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ser Gi Hong; Sang Ji Kim; Hoon Song; Yeong Il Kim

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the liquid-metal reactor research team of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) designed a 600 MWe sodium-cooled, metallic fueled fast reactor meeting the goals of Generation-IV, such as economics and proliferation resistance. In this paper, the core design analysis and its performance are reported. The core is designed to have a conversion ratio slightly larger than unity with no blanket assemblies in order not to produce an excess amount of high grade plutonium and to have no need for external feeds of fissile materials. To mitigate the sodium void reactivity of the fuel-self-sufficient core with no blanket assemblies, several design changes from a reference core are tried; reduction of the active core height, annular type cores with central dummy assemblies, and the use of moderator (BeO or ZrH 2 ) rods. As a result of the analysis, it is found that of the considered designs the use of moderator rods for the softening of the core neutron spectrum is the best choice for reducing the sodium void worth with the smallest changes from the reference fuel and assembly designs. The core analysis shows that the sodium void reactivity is reduced by ∼2$ in comparison with the reference core and the core has a much more negative fuel temperature reactivity feedback in comparison with the reference core. (authors)

  14. TECHNOLOGY USAGE AMONG CONSTRUCTION STUDENTS THE MODERATING ROLE OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramayah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on the extent of personal computer (PC usage among a group of undergraduates at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It also looks at the moderating role of gender in the above said relationship. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 244 students responded to the survey. Results showed that perceived ease of use (β = 0.309, p < 0.01 was positively related to PC usage. A surprising finding of this study was that perceived usefulness was not a significant predictor of PC usage whereas perceived ease of use was. This can be explained in the context of mandated use where the usefulness is no longer an issue and ease of use becomes the primary concern. Gender was not a moderator in the above said relationship but was a significant independent predictor of usage. Males exhibited higher usage of the PC compared to the female students.

  15. System dynamic analyses on the JKJ mercury target and cold moderator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Aso, Tomokazu; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    The temperature responses of major points in a mercury target cooling system and in a cold moderator system of JKJ (JAERI/KEK Joint Project) were simulated by the analytical code MATLAB (SIMULINK). As a result, it was made clear that non-control of mercury temperature is the best way to control the mercury target cooling system. If the mercury temperature of the system is controlled by the PID control system using an outlet temperature of heat exchanger, the PID control system shows the characteristics of an on-off control system, and the temperature cannot be controlled. Analytical results also showed that mercury temperature remained below the boiling point of 356degC under 0.1 MPa during a transient at one cooling pump trip. Analytical results for the cold moderator system showed that the outlet temperature of cold moderator vessels could be kept within a temperature range of 1 k during steady-state conditions. (author)

  16. Mediator and moderator effects in developmental and behavioral pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brigid M; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Coakley, Rachael Millstein; Franks, Elizabeth A

    2004-02-01

    The terms mediation and moderation are defined and clarified with particular emphasis on the role of mediational and moderational analyses in developmental and behavioral pediatric research. The article highlights the applicability of mediational and moderational analyses to longitudinal, intervention, and risk and protective factor research, and it provides basic information about how these analyses might be conducted. Also included is a discussion of various ways that both mediator and moderator variables can be incorporated into a single model. The article concludes with extended examples of both types of analyses using a longitudinal pediatric study for illustration. The article provides recommendations for applying mediational and moderational research in clinical practice.

  17. Effects of moderation level on core reactivity and. neutron fluxes in natural uranium fueled and heavy water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.J.; Aslam; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, R.; Ahmad, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    The neutron moderation level in a nuclear reactor has a strong influence on core multiplication, reactivity control, fuel burnup, neutron fluxes etc. In the study presented in this article, the effects of neutron moderation level on core reactivity and neutron fluxes in a typical heavy water moderated nuclear research reactor is explored and the results are discussed. (author)

  18. Resilience amid Academic Stress: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Wilks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170 from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data were collected on demographics and constructs of academic stress, family support, friend support, and resilience. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to show the composite impact of demographic and model factors on the resilience outcome. Moderation was tested using a traditional regression series as guidelines of moderation with continuous variables. Path analyses illustrated main effects and moderation in the study’s conceptual model. Results: The sample reported moderate levels of academic stress and social support, and a fairly high level of resilience. Academic stress negatively related to social support and resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience. Academic stress accounted for the most variation in resilience scores. Friend support significantly moderated the negative relationship between academic stress and resilience. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that friend support plays a protective role with resilience amid an environment of academic stress. Implications for social work faculty and internship agency practitioners are discussed.

  19. Reactor-moderated intermediate-energy neutron beams for neutron-capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Less, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to producing an intermediate energy beam is moderating fission neutrons escaping from a reactor core. The objective of this research is to evaluate materials that might produce an intermediate beam for NCT via moderation of fission neutrons. A second objective is to use the more promising moderator material in a preliminary design of an NCT facility at a research reactor. The evaluations showed that several materials or combinations of materials could produce a moderator source for an intermediate beam for NCT. The best neutron spectrum for use in NCT is produced by Al 2 O 3 , but mixtures of Al metal and D 2 O are also attractive. Using the best moderator materials, results were applied to the design of an NCT moderator at the Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor's bio-medical facility. The amount of photon shielding and thermal neutron absorber were optimized with respect to the desired photon dose rate and intermediate neutron flux at the patient position

  20. Moderators of fluoxetine treatment response for children and adolescents with comorbid depression and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Pagano, Maria E; Christian, Kelly M; McNamara, Nora K; Stansbrey, Robert J; Lingler, Jacqui; Faber, Jon E; Demeter, Christine A; Bedoya, Denise; Findling, Robert L

    2012-06-01

    Our recent 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in adolescents (ages 12-17 years) with comorbid depression and substance use disorder (SUD) did not detect a significant antidepressant treatment effect. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to explore moderators of the effect of fluoxetine in this sample. Static moderators measured at baseline were depression chronicity and hopelessness severity; time-varying moderators measured at baseline and weekly during the 8-week trial period were alcohol and marijuana use severity. Treatment effects on depression outcomes were examined among moderating subgroups in random effects regression models. Subjects assigned to fluoxetine treatment with chronic depression at baseline (p = .04) or no more than moderate alcohol use during the trial (p = .04) showed significantly greater decline in depression symptoms in comparison to placebo-assigned subgroups. The current analysis suggests that youth with chronic depression and no more than moderate alcohol consumption are likely to respond better to treatment with fluoxetine compared with placebo than youth with transient depression and heavy alcohol use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioleaching of multiple metals from contaminated sediment by moderate thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Min; Jie, Shiqi; Li, Mingming; Zhu, Jianyu; Liu, Xinxing

    2015-08-15

    A moderately thermophilic consortium was applied in bioleaching multiple metals from contaminated sediment. The consortium got higher acidification and metals soubilization efficiency than that of the pure strains. The synergistic effect of the thermophilic consortium accelerated substrates utilization. The utilization of substrate started with sulfur in the early stage, and then the pH declined, giving rise to making use of the pyrite. Community dynamic showed that A. caldus was the predominant bacteria during the whole bioleaching process while the abundance of S. thermotolerans increased together with pyrite utilization. Solubilization efficiency of Zn, Cu, Mn and Cd reached 98%, 94%, 95%, and 89% respectively, while As, Hg, Pb was only 45%, 34%, 22%. Logistic model was used to simulate the bioleaching process, whose fitting degree was higher than 90%. Correlation analysis revealed that metal leaching was mainly an acid solubilization process. Fraction analysis revealed that metals decreased in mobility and bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna; Beyer, Nina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise may modulate neuropathology and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This pilot study assessed the feasibility of conducting a study of moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in home-dwelling patients with mild AD. METHODS: An uncontrolled preintervention......-postintervention test design with a single group receiving the same intervention. A total of eight patients with mild to moderate AD from the Copenhagen Memory clinic were included in the study. The intervention lasted for 14 weeks and consisted of supervised, 1-h sessions of aerobic exercise three times per week (50......-60% of heart rate reserve for a two-week adaptation period and 70-80 % of heart rate reserve for the remaining 12 weeks) Feasibility was assessed based on acceptability, including attendance and drop-out, safety, and patients' and caregivers' attitudes towards the intervention as well as other relevant...

  3. [Is olfactory function impaired in moderate height?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M; Welsch, H; Zahnert, T; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The human sense of smell seems to be influenced by the surrounding barometric pressure. These factors appear to be especially important during flights, for example, in order to recognize the smell of fire etc. Thus, questions are whether pilots or passengers exhibit an impaired smell sensitivity when tested at moderate heights, or, whether changes in humidity would affect the sense of smell. Using climate chambers, odor discrimination and butanol odor thresholds were tested in 77 healthy normosmic volunteers (5 female, 72 male; aged 25+/-8 years from 18 up to 53 years) under hypobaric (2 700+/-20 m, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, rh=50+/-5%) and hyperbaric, (10+/-0.5 m (2 bar)) and different humidity conditions (30 vs. 80%, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, normobaric). During all conditions cognitive performance was tested. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity was impaired at threshold, but not suprathreshold level, in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests. During flight hypobaric conditions, mild hypoxia and dry air may cause impaired sensitivity of smell. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  4. Pressure fluctuation caused by moderate acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kurihara, Chihiro; Kiyama, Akihito

    2017-11-01

    Pressure fluctuation caused by acceleration of a liquid column is observed in various important technologies, e.g. water-hammer in a pipeline. The magnitude of fluctuation can be estimated by two different approaches: When the duration time of acceleration is much shorter than the propagation time for a pressure wave to travel the length of the liquid column, e.g. sudden valve closure for a long pipe, Joukowsky equation is applied. In contrast, if the acceleration duration is much longer, the liquid is modeled as a rigid column, ignoring compressibility of the fluid. However, many of practical cases exist between these two extremes. In this study we propose a model describing pressure fluctuation when the duration of acceleration is in the same order of the propagation time for a pressure wave, i.e. under moderate acceleration. The novel model considers both temporal and spatial evolutions of pressure propagation as well as gradual pressure rise during the acceleration. We conduct experiments in which we impose acceleration to a liquid with varying the length of the liquid column, acceleration duration, and properties of liquids. The ratio between the acceleration duration and the propagation time is in the range of 0.02 - 2. The model agrees well with measurement results. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26709007 and 17H01246.

  5. Moderating Effects of Sales Promotion Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Oliveira Santini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the influence sales promotion types have on the relationship between perception of financial risk and perception of utilitarian and hedonic value on consumer purchase intentions. To this end, an experiment was conducted involving 589 participants divided into two groups defined by distinct scenarios in which the sales promotion type (monetary vs. non-monetary was manipulated. The working hypotheses predicted a direct and positive relationship between the perception of (hedonic and utilitarian consumption value and purchase intention for a promoted product and a negative relationship between the perception of consumption value and the perception of financial risk. In addition, it was supposed that the sales promotion type would moderate these direct relationships and that a monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the relationship between purchase intention and perceived product utility, whereas a non-monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the other relationships (hedonic value and financial risk perceptions. Analysis of the outcomes supported the proposed hypotheses.

  6. Heavy water moderated tubular type nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohashi, Masahisa.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to effectively change the volume of heavy water per unit fuel lattice in heavy water moderated pressure tube type nuclear reactors. Constitution: In a nuclear reactor in which fuels are charged within pressure tubes and coolants are caused to flow between the pressure tubes and the fuels, heavy water tubes for recycling heavy water are disposed to a gas region formed to the outside of the pressure tubes. Then, the pressure tube diameter at the central portion of the reactor core is made smaller than that at the periphery of the reactor core. Further, injection means for gas such as helium is disposed to the upper portion for each of the heavy water tubes so that the level of the heavy water can easily be adjusted by the control for the gas pressure. Furthermore, heavy water reflection tubes are disposed around the reactor core. In this constitution, since the pitch for the pressure tubes can be increased, the construction and the maintenance for the nuclear reactor can be facilitated. Also, since the liquid surface of the heavy water in the heavy water tubes can be varied, nuclear properties is improved and the conversion ratio is improved. (Ikeda, J.)

  7. A Moderate Redshift Supernova Search Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. T.; Wheeler, J. C.; Ward, M.; Wren, W. R.; Schmidt, B. P.

    1995-12-01

    We report on a recently initiated supernova (SN) search program using the McDonald Observatory 0.76m telescope and Prime Focus Camera (PFC). This SN search program takes advantage of the PFC's 42.6 x 42.6 arcmin FOV to survey moderate redshift Abell clusters in single Kron-Cousins R-band images. Our scientific goal is to discover and provide quality BVRI photometric follow-up, to R \\ +21, for a significant SNe sample at 0.03 group (Perlmutter et al 1995, ApJ, 440, L41), and the High Redshift SN Search Team (Schmidt et al 1995, Aiguiblava NATO ASI Proceedings). The McDonald SN search program includes a sample of the Abell clusters used by Lauer and Postman (1994, ApJ, 425, 418) to analyze Local Group motion. SNe discovered in these clusters contribute to the resolution of the Local Group motion controversy. We present an overview of the McDonald Observatory supernova search program, and discuss recent results.

  8. Developing models of how cognitive improvements change functioning: Mediation, moderation and moderated mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Huddy, Vyv; Taylor, Rumina; Wood, Helen; Ghirasim, Natalia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Landau, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive remediation (CRT) affects functioning but the extent and type of cognitive improvements necessary are unknown. Aim To develop and test models of how cognitive improvement transfers to work behaviour using the data from a current service. Method Participants (N49) with a support worker and a paid or voluntary job were offered CRT in a Phase 2 single group design with three assessments: baseline, post therapy and follow-up. Working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning and work outcomes were assessed. Results Three models were tested (mediation — cognitive improvements drive functioning improvement; moderation — post treatment cognitive level affects the impact of CRT on functioning; moderated mediation — cognition drives functioning improvements only after a certain level is achieved). There was evidence of mediation (planning improvement associated with improved work quality). There was no evidence that cognitive flexibility (total Wisconsin Card Sorting Test errors) and working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III digit span) mediated work functioning despite significant effects. There was some evidence of moderated mediation for planning improvement if participants had poorer memory and/or made fewer WCST errors. The total CRT effect on work quality was d = 0.55, but the indirect (planning-mediated CRT effect) was d = 0.082 Conclusion Planning improvements led to better work quality but only accounted for a small proportion of the total effect on work outcome. Other specific and non-specific effects of CRT and the work programme are likely to account for some of the remaining effect. This is the first time complex models have been tested and future Phase 3 studies need to further test mediation and moderated mediation models. PMID:22503640

  9. Everything in Moderation: Moderate Use of Screens Unassociated with Child Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    The impact of children's use of "screen" media including television and computer games, continues to be debated. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) until recently recommended a relatively restrictive screen time diet of 2 h or less for most youth. A representative correlational sample of youth were assessed for links between screen time and risky behavioral outcomes. Data collection occurred in 2013 conducted by the State of Florida. Use of screens that was moderately high, in excess of the AAP's former recommendations, but not excessive (1 SD or higher than average), was not associated with delinquency, risky behaviors, sexual behaviors, substance abuse, reduced grades or mental health problems. Even excessive screen use (1 SD or higher) was only weakly associated with negative outcomes related to delinquency, grades and depression only, and at levels unlikely to be practically significant. Results conceptually replicate those of Przybylski (2014) with a US sample for depression and delinquency as outcomes. Moderate use of screens, though in excess of the AAP's historical recommendations, are unassociated with problem outcomes. Excessive use of screens is only weakly associated with negative outcomes, and only those related to depression and delinquency as well as reduced grades, but not risky driving, substance use, risky sex or disordered eating. Although an "everything in moderation" message when discussing screen time with parents may be most productive, results do not support a strong focus on screen time as a preventative measure for youth problem behaviors.

  10. Auditory feedback improves heart rate moderation during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykevich, Alex; Grove, J Robert; Jackson, Ben; Landers, Grant J; Dimmock, James

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to automated HR feedback can produce improvements in the ability to regulate HR during moderate-intensity exercise and to evaluate the persistence of these improvements after feedback is removed. Twenty healthy adults performed 10 indoor exercise sessions on cycle ergometers over 5 wk after a twice-weekly schedule. During these sessions (FB), participants received auditory feedback designed to maintain HR within a personalized, moderate-intensity training zone between 70% and 80% of estimated maximum HR. All feedback was delivered via a custom mobile software application. Participants underwent an initial assessment (PREFB) to measure their ability to maintain exercise intensity defined by the training zone without use of feedback. After completing the feedback training, participants performed three additional assessments identical to PREFB at 1 wk (POST1), 2 wk (POST2), and 4 wk (POST3) after their last feedback session. Time in zone (TIZ), defined as the ratio of the time spent within the training zone divided by the overall time of exercise, rate of perceived exertion, instrumental attitudes, and affective attitudes were then evaluated to assess results using two-way, mixed-model ANOVA with sessions and gender as factors. Training with feedback significantly improved TIZ (P moderate-intensity exercise in healthy adults.

  11. Prediction of CANDU-6 moderator system response following a large break LOCA using a 3D model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, T K; Collins, W M; Holmes, R W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    CANDU nuclear reactors use D{sub 2}0 as a moderator inside the calandria vessel. Heat is generated in the calandria by neutron and gamma radiation from nuclear fission. During normal operating condition, hot moderator fluid is continuously pumped out from the bottom of the CANDU-6 calandria. After passing through a heat exchanger, the cooled moderator fluid is returned to the calandria through inlet nozzles. In the unlikely event of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) the moderator acts as a heat sink. To predict moderator system response following a large break (reactor inlet header break) LOCA, a simulation was undertaken for Class IV power available (i.e. main moderator pump running) as well as for Class IV power unavailable during the LOCA. The analysis was performed to facilitate the assessment of fuel channel integrity following pressure tube (PT) and calandria tube (CT) contact by estimating the subcooling available during the inlet header break. The 3D code PHOENICS2 developed by CHAM U.K was used for the simulation. The results show an asymmetric flow pattern within the moderator both in the axial Z-direction of the calandria as well as in the X-Y plane. The temperature distribution within the moderator system shows, that hot spots are generated in areas, where the flow approaches stagnation. Hot spot temperatures are higher with Class IV power unavailable. (author). 1 ref., 12 figs.

  12. Prediction of CANDU-6 moderator system response following a large break LOCA using a 3D model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, T.K.; Collins, W.M.; Holmes, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    CANDU nuclear reactors use D 2 0 as a moderator inside the calandria vessel. Heat is generated in the calandria by neutron and gamma radiation from nuclear fission. During normal operating condition, hot moderator fluid is continuously pumped out from the bottom of the CANDU-6 calandria. After passing through a heat exchanger, the cooled moderator fluid is returned to the calandria through inlet nozzles. In the unlikely event of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) the moderator acts as a heat sink. To predict moderator system response following a large break (reactor inlet header break) LOCA, a simulation was undertaken for Class IV power available (i.e. main moderator pump running) as well as for Class IV power unavailable during the LOCA. The analysis was performed to facilitate the assessment of fuel channel integrity following pressure tube (PT) and calandria tube (CT) contact by estimating the subcooling available during the inlet header break. The 3D code PHOENICS2 developed by CHAM U.K was used for the simulation. The results show an asymmetric flow pattern within the moderator both in the axial Z-direction of the calandria as well as in the X-Y plane. The temperature distribution within the moderator system shows, that hot spots are generated in areas, where the flow approaches stagnation. Hot spot temperatures are higher with Class IV power unavailable. (author). 1 ref., 12 figs

  13. THE EFFECT OF WORKPLACE SPIRITUALITY DIMENSIONS ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT WITH PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT AS MODERATING VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Haryokusumo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to test the effect of workplace spirituality dimensions (inner life, meaningful work, and condition for community on organizational commitment (affective, continuance, and normative and also to test the moderating effect of perceived organizational support. 130 questionnaires were collected from six organizations in Yogyakarta.The result of this research shows the workplace spirituality dimensions have positive effect on affective commitment. Testing of moderation effect shows perceived organizational support does not moderate the positive effect of workplace spirituality dimensions on components of organizational commitment. Based on this research, condition for community has the biggest effect on affective commitment, while inner life has biggest effect on normative and continuance commitment. Implication for management theory and practice are discussed.

  14. Combined analysis of 19 common validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants shows moderate discriminative value and no evidence of gene-gene interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Grarup, N; Andreasen, C.

    2009-01-01

    study; and additional type 2 diabetic patients and glucose-tolerant individuals. The case-control studies involved 4,093 type 2 diabetic patients and 5,302 glucose-tolerant individuals. RESULTS: Single-variant analyses demonstrated allelic odds ratios ranging from 1.04 (95% CI 0.98-1.11) to 1.33 (95% CI...... analysis of the 19 validated variants enables detection of subgroups at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, the discrimination between glucose-tolerant and type 2 diabetes individuals is still too inaccurate to achieve clinical value.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The list of validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants has recently been expanded from three to 19. The variants identified are common and have low penetrance in the general population. The aim of the study is to investigate the combined effect of the 19 variants by applying...

  15. Glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid show no beneficial effect on the chemical composition and mechanical properties of bones in ovariectomized rats, when administered in moderate dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Klasik-Ciszewska, Sylwia; Wojnar, Weronika

    2016-10-01

    One of the major causes of osteoporosis and bone fracture in postmenopausal women is estrogen deficiency. To prevent the fractures, and avoid the side effects of hormone replacement therapy, phytoestrogens including the isoflavonoids are used. In the presented study two constituents occurring in the licorice root-the isoflavane glabridin and triterpenoid saponin glycyrrhizic acid were examined on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats. The female Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group, ovariectomized group as well as three ovariectomized groups treated with estradiol (0.2mg/kg), glabridin (5mg/kg) or glycyrrhizic acid (15mg/kg). All substances were administered orally for 4 weeks. The estradiol served as a positive control. The mechanical properties of femoral diaphysis, tibial metaphysis and femoral neck were assessed using bending and compression tests. Moreover the chemical composition of the femur, tibia and L-4 vertebra - content of water, organic substances and minerals - was determined. Ovariectomy induced unfavorable changes in the skeletal system of the rats. Administration of glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid to the ovariectomized rats did not improve analyzed parameters of the bones. Obtained results indicate, that the tested substances revealed no beneficial effect on the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the tested bones, thus they cannot be used as the osteoporosis protective agents. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of the 5' flanking region and exon 3 polymorphisms of IGF-1 gene showed moderate association with semen quality in Sanjabi breed rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, R; Abdolmohammadi, A; Hajarian, H; Nikousefat, Z; Kalantar-Neyestanaki, D

    2017-12-01

    In this study, semen samples were collected from 96 Sanjabi rams in order to investigate the IGF-1 gene polymorphisms and their relationship with the characteristics of semen quality and testicular size. The dimensions of scrotal length, width and circumference were measured during autumn and spring over two years. Blood samples were simultaneously collected from jugular vein to extract DNA. PCR was performed using specific primers to amplify 294 and 272bp fragments including 5' regulatory region and exon 3 of IGF-1 gene, respectively. PCR products were digested by BFOI and Eco88l restriction enzymes, respectively. Two genotypes including AA (194 and 100bp), AB (294, 194 and 100bp) and all possible genotypes including CC (182 and 90bp), CT (272, 182, and 90bp) and TT (272bp) were observed for 5' flanking region and exon 3 of IGF-1 gene, respectively. The significant differences among IGF-1 genotypes for testicular dimensions were not observed. However, the polymorphism of 5' flanking region in the studied population had significant effect on individual motility and percent morphology traits. Animals with AB genotype had significantly higher individual motility compared with AA genotype (P IGF-1 gene had significant effect on individual motility, concentration, morphology and water test traits. Animals with CT genotype had the highest sperm concentration (P IGF-1 genotypes. It might be concluded that polymorphisms in IGF-1gene can be considered to develop male fertility in future and for using in selection process of better animals under masker assisted selection programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Moderate-vigorous physical activity across body mass index in females: moderating effect of endocannabinoids and temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Aranda

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1 examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2 explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI.Physical activity was measured with the wrist-worn accelerometer Actiwatch AW7, in a sample of 189 female participants (43 morbid obese, 30 obese, and 116 healthy-weight controls. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised questionnaire was used to assess personality traits. BMI was calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis via the TANITA digital scale. Blood analyses were conducted to measure levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds. Path-analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and MVPA.Obese groups showed lower MVPA and dysfunctional temperament traits compared to healthy-weight controls. Plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglyceryl (2-AG were greater in obese groups. Path-analysis identified a direct effect between greater MVPA and low BMI (b = -0.13, p = .039 and high MVPA levels were associated with elevated anandamide (AEA levels (b = 0.16, p = .049 and N-oleylethanolamide (OEA levels (b = 0.22, p = .004, as well as high Novelty seeking (b = 0.18, p<.001 and low Harm avoidance (b = -0.16, p<.001.Obese individuals showed a distinct temperament profile and circulating endocannabinoids compared to controls. Temperament and endocannabinoids may act as moderators of the low MVPA in obesity.

  18. Chronic exposure to low frequency noise at moderate levels causes impaired balance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Tamura

    Full Text Available We are routinely exposed to low frequency noise (LFN; below 0.5 kHz at moderate levels of 60-70 dB sound pressure level (SPL generated from various sources in occupational and daily environments. LFN has been reported to affect balance in humans. However, there is limited information about the influence of chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels for balance. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level of 70 dB SPL affects the vestibule, which is one of the organs responsible for balance in mice. Wild-type ICR mice were exposed for 1 month to LFN (0.1 kHz and high frequency noise (HFN; 16 kHz at 70 dB SPL at a distance of approximately 10-20 cm. Behavior analyses including rotarod, beam-crossing and footprint analyses showed impairments of balance in LFN-exposed mice but not in non-exposed mice or HFN-exposed mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a decreased number of vestibular hair cells and increased levels of oxidative stress in LFN-exposed mice compared to those in non-exposed mice. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels causes impaired balance involving morphological impairments of the vestibule with enhanced levels of oxidative stress. Thus, the results of this study indicate the importance of considering the risk of chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level for imbalance.

  19. High moderation MOX cores for effective use of plutonium in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Kazuko; Kanagawa, Takashi; Hiraiwa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi; Moriwaki, Masanao; Aoyama, Motoo; Yamamoto, Toru; Ueji, Masao

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual design studies have been performed for high moderation full MOX cores aiming at increasing fissile Pu consumption rate (ratio of the consumed to the loaded fissile Pu) and reducing residual Pu in discharged MOX fuel. The BWR cores studied have hydrogen to heavy metal ratio(H/HM) of 5.9 with increasing water rods and 7.0 with reducing a fuel rod diameter based on a reference 9x9 fuel (H/HM=4.9) of ABWR. The PWR cores studied have H/HM of 5.0 and 6.0 with reducing a fuel rod diameter based on a reference 17x17 fuel (H/HM=4.0) of APWR. Equilibrium core design and plant safety analyses showed that those high moderation cores have compatibility with ABWR and APWR. The fissile Pu consumption rate is 22% larger than the full MOX cores with reference fuel of ABWR and 50% for APWR. The core performance and compatibility has been also evaluated in the condition of multi-recycle of Pu in these high moderation cores. Study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of introducing these high moderation cores in the fuel cycle of Japan. It shows that the high moderation cores produce 26% more cumulative electricity and reduce 22% stock of the fissile Pu by 2050 than the reference cores. (author)

  20. Response surface method optimization of ectoine fermentation medium with moderate halophilic bacteria Halomonas sp. H02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T. T.; Qu, A.; Yuan, X. N.; Tan, F. X.; Li, X. W.; Wang, T.; Zhang, L. H.

    2017-07-01

    Moderate halophilic bacteria are of halophilic bacteria whose suitable growth of NaCl is 5-10%. When the moderate halophilic bacteria response to high osmotic stress, the intracellular will synthesize small organic molecule compatible solutes. Ectoine, which is the major synthetic osmotic compatible solutes for moderate halophilic bacteria, can help microbial enzymes, nucleic acids and the whole cell resist to hypertonic, high temperature, freezing and other inverse environment. In order to increase the Ectoine production of Moderate halophilic bacteria Halomonas sp. H02, the Ectoine fermentation medium component was optimized by Plackett-Burman (PB) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on the principle of non-complete equilibrium The results of PB experiments showed that the three main influencing factors of Moderate halophilic bacteria Halomonas sp. H02 synthesis Ectoine culture medium were C5H8NNaO4 concentration, NaCl concentration and initial pH. According to the center point of the steepest climbing experiment, the central combination design experiment was used to show that the model is consistent with the actual situation. The optimum combination of three influencing factors were C5H8NNaO4 41 g/L, NaCl 87.2 g/L and initial pH 5.9, and the predicted amount of Ectoine was 1835.8 mg/L, increased by 41.6%.

  1. Moderate Versus Light Pressure Massage Therapy Leads to Greater Weight Gain in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel A.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Figuereido, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-eight preterm infants (M GA=3Owks.) were randomly assigned to a moderate or to a light pressure massage therapy group to receive 15 massages 3 times per day for 5 days. Behavior state, stress behaviors and heart rate were recorded for 15 minutes before and during the first 15-minute therapy session. Weight gain was recorded over the 5 day therapy period. The moderate versus light pressure massage group gained significantly more weight per day. During the behavior observations the moderate versus light pressure massage group showed significantly lower increases from the pre-session to the session recording on: 1) active sleep; 2) fussing; 3) crying; 4) movement; and 5) stress behavior (hiccupping). They also showed a smaller decrease in deep sleep, a greater decrease in heart rate and a greater increase in vagal tone. Thus, the moderate pressure massage therapy group appeared to be more relaxed and less aroused than the light pressure massage group which may have contributed to the greater weight gain of the moderate pressure massage therapy group. PMID:17138310

  2. Neutron Dose Measurement Using a Cubic Moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinfeld, M.; Mazor, T.; Cohen, Y.; Kadmon, Y.; Orion, I.

    2014-01-01

    The Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS), introduced In July 1960 by a research group from Rice University, Texas, is a major approach to neutron spectrum estimation. The BSS, also known as multi-sphere spectrometer, consists of a set of a different diameters polyethylene spheres, carrying a small LiI(Eu) scintillator in their center. What makes this spectrometry method such widely used, is its almost isotropic response, covering an extraordinary wide range of energies, from thermal up to even hundreds of MeVs. One of the most interesting and useful consequences of the above study is the 12'' sphere characteristics, as it turned out that the response curve of its energy dependence, have a similar shape compared with the neutron's dose equivalent as a function of energy. This inexplicable and happy circumstance makes it virtually the only monitoring device capable providing realistic neutron dose estimates over such a wide energy range. However, since the detection mechanism is not strictly related to radiation dose, one can expect substantial errors when applied to widely different source conditions. Although the original design of the BSS included a small 4mmx4mmO 6LiI(Eu) scintillator, other thermal neutron detectors has been used over the years: track detectors, activation foils, BF3 filled proportional counters, etc. In this study we chose a Boron loaded scintillator, EJ-254, as the thermal neutron detector. The neutron capture reaction on the boron has a Q value of 2.78 MeV of which 2.34 MeV is shared by the alpha and lithium particles. The high manufacturing costs, the encasement issue, the installation efficiency and the fabrication complexity, led us to the idea of replacing the sphere with a cubic moderator. This article describes the considerations, as well as the Monte-Carlo simulations done in order to examine the applicability of this idea

  3. Issues in Moderation of National Curriculum Assessment at Key Stage 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Les

    1994-01-01

    Highlights the issues of moderation of teacher judgments for accountability and moderation for achieving consistent assessments. Discusses the meaning of moderation, the need for moderating teacher judgments, approaches to moderation, methods of moderation, and most appropriate methods of moderation at Key Stage 3. Presents an approach to…

  4. Optimization of moderators and beam extraction at the ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Andersen, Ken; Bertelsen, Mads; Zanini, Luca

    2018-01-01

    A global approach coupling the moderator to the beam extraction system has been applied for the design optimization of the thermal and cold moderators of the European Spallation Source (ESS), which will be the brightest neutron source in the world for condensed-matter studies. The design is based...... on the recently developed high-brightness low-dimensional moderator concepts. Para-hydrogen is used for the cold neutron source, while thermal neutrons are provided by moderation in water. The overall moderation configuration was chosen in order to satisfy a range of requirements on bispectral extraction......, beamport configuration and instrument performance. All instruments are served by a single moderator assembly above the target, arranged in a `butterfly' geometry with a height of 3cm. This was determined to be the optimal height for trade-off between high brightness and efficient guide illumination...

  5. Moderator purification and design modifications based on operation feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S; Chakrabarti, A K; Shirolkar, K M; Sharma, V K [Nuclear Power Corporation, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy water is used as a moderator in the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors using natural uranium as a fissile fuel. The purification system is provided to maintain the purity of moderator heavy water so as to minimise the radiolytic decomposition of heavy water due to nuclear radiation which otherwise would lead to hazardous concentration of deuterium in the moderator cover gas. The presence of dissolved impurity in the moderator increases the radiolysis rate by impeding the reverse reaction and hence these must be removed. The purification system in general controls the chemistry of moderator by minimizing the corrosion of piping in the circuit and along with the liquid poison injection system adjusts the concentration of the poisons in the moderator. This paper describes the evolution of the purification system for the 500 MWe PHWRs based on various operating requirements and feedback from the operating stations. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Moderator purification and design modifications based on operation feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Chakrabarti, A.K.; Shirolkar, K.M.; Sharma, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy water is used as a moderator in the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors using natural uranium as a fissile fuel. The purification system is provided to maintain the purity of moderator heavy water so as to minimise the radiolytic decomposition of heavy water due to nuclear radiation which otherwise would lead to hazardous concentration of deuterium in the moderator cover gas. The presence of dissolved impurity in the moderator increases the radiolysis rate by impeding the reverse reaction and hence these must be removed. The purification system in general controls the chemistry of moderator by minimizing the corrosion of piping in the circuit and along with the liquid poison injection system adjusts the concentration of the poisons in the moderator. This paper describes the evolution of the purification system for the 500 MWe PHWRs based on various operating requirements and feedback from the operating stations. (author)

  7. Efficiency of nonsurgical periodontal therapy in moderate chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlachkova, Antoaneta M; Popova, Christina L

    2014-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is defined as an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth caused by microorganisms in the dental biofilm, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation and gingival recession. Treatment of chronic periodontitis aims at arresting the inflammation and stopping the loss of attachment by removal and control of the supra- and subgingival biofilm and establishing a local environment and microflora compatible with periodontal health. The AIM of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-surgical therapy (scaling and root planning) in the treatment of moderate chronic periodontitis. The study included 30 patients aged between 33 and 75 years, of which 46.7% women and 53.3% men, diagnosed with moderate and, at some sites, severe periodontitis. They were treated with non-surgical periodontal therapy methods (scaling and root planning and curettage if indicated). Additionally, chemical plaque control with rinse water containing chlorhexidine was applied. The diagnostic and reassessment procedures included measuring the periodontal indices of 601 periodontal units before and after the therapy. The indices measured were the papillary bleeding index (PBI), the hygiene index (HI), the probing pocket depth (PPD) and the clinical attachment level (CAL). Significant reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation was found in all treated patients; we also found a statistically significant reduction of periodontal pockets with clinically measured depth 5 mm did not show statistically significant lower incidence rates probably due to the initially small percentage of deep pockets in the patients studied. There was a statistically significant reduction of all sites with attachment loss, the highest significance found at sites where the attachment loss was greater than 5 mm. The results of the study suggest that nonsurgical periodontal therapy is effective in managing the moderate

  8. Neutronic characteristics of coupled moderator proposed in integrated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Sakata, Hideaki; Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Ikeda, Yujiro; Watanabe, Noboru

    2001-05-01

    A pulsed spallation source for the materials science and the life science is currently developing for its construction in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project proposed jointly by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). This report presents the analytical results of the neutronic characteristics of the coupled moderator based on the analytical results obtained by using an integrated model which has established on the extensive neutronic and technical study. Total heat deposition in a hydrogen (H 2 ) moderator working as the main moderator was about 420 W/MW. Maximum nuclear heat density in the H 2 moderator was about 1 W/cm 3 /MW. Also total heat deposition in a premoderator was about 9.2 kW/MW. The heat density of the premoderator was comparable to that of the moderator vessel made of aluminum alloy. The heat density of the premoderator and the moderator vessel is about 1.2-2 times higher than that of the hydrogen moderator. The temperature from 300 K to 400 K of the premoderator did not affect on neutron intensity of the H 2 moderator. This suggested an engineering advantage on the thermal and hydraulic design. 6000 or 7000 type of a aluminum alloy was considered from the viewpoint of the neutron beam transmission. The proton beams scattered by the proton beam window did not affect on the nuclear heating in the H 2 moderator. The heat deposition in the H 2 moderator and the neutron intensity of the H 2 moderator did not depend on the proton beam profile but it did on the distance between the proton beam and the moderator. (author)

  9. Reference moderator calculated performance for the LANSCE upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, P.D.; Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have calculated the performance of five moderators of interest to the LANSCE upgrade project. Coupled and decoupled light water and liquid hydrogen moderators in flux-trap geometry surrounded by a neutronically infinite heavy-water cooled beryllium reflector have been studied. Time and energy spectra, as well as semi-empirical fits to the data, are presented. The data has been made available to aid the instrument design and moderator selection process

  10. Developing a guiding protocol for the moderation of summative assessments.

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, W.; Raaper, R.

    2016-01-01

    According to literature, assessment moderation is a process for assuring ‘valid, fair and reliable’ assessment outcomes but also consistency of applied marking criteria. While being an important area in assessment, moderation is often referred as an ‘under researched area of higher education’. The School of Education in the University of Glasgow, like many other academic units in the UK and internationally, adopts a range of approaches to moderating assessment within any one programme and acr...

  11. VARIABEL LATEN SEBAGAI MODERATOR DAN MEDIATOR DALAM HUBUNGAN KAUSAL

    OpenAIRE

    I KOMANG GEDE ANTARA; I PUTU EKA NILA KENCANA; KETUT JAYANEGARA

    2014-01-01

    Latent variables are variables that can not be measured directly. In analysis of causal relationship involving three latent variables, one latent variable can be a moderator or mediator variables. Goodness of Fit moderation and mediation model of latent variables is affected by the value of the canonical correlation between moderator/mediator latent variables with the independent latent variables and dependent latent variables. If the value of both canonical correlation is well , so the Good...

  12. Comparison of MCNP calculations against measurements in moderator temperature experiments with CANFLEX-LEU in ZED-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, D.G.; Adams, F.P.; Zeller, M.B.; Bromley, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes sample calculations of MCNP5 compared against measurements of moderator temperature coefficient experiments in the ZED-2 critical facility with CANFLEX-LEU fuel. MCNP5 is tested for key parameters associated with various reactor physics phenomena of interest for CANDU/ACR-1000) reactors, including reactivity changes with coolant density, moderator density, and moderator temperature, and also normalized flux distributions. The experimental data for these comparisons were obtained from critical experiments in AECL's ZED-2 critical facility using CANFLEX-LEU fuel in a 24-cm square lattice pitch. These comparisons establish biases/uncertainties in the calculation of k-eff, coolant void reactivity, and moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity. Results show very little bias in the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity, and very good agreement in the calculation of normalized flux distributions. (author)

  13. Production And Characterization Of Tungsten-Based Positron Moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucio, O. G. de; Morales, J. G.; Cruz-Manjarrez, H.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments of interest in Atomic Physics require production of well-defined low-energy positron beams through a moderation process of high-energy positrons, which can be produced by either the use of a radioactive source or by accelerator based pair production process. Tungsten is one of the most commonly used moderator materials because of its reasonable efficiency, high work function and relatively low cost. In this work we present different methods to produce tungsten-based candidate moderators in a variety of shapes. We also present results from characterizing these candidate moderators by ion beam analysis and microscopy techniques.

  14. VARIABEL LATEN SEBAGAI MODERATOR DAN MEDIATOR DALAM HUBUNGAN KAUSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG GEDE ANTARA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent variables are variables that can not be measured directly. In analysis of causal relationship involving three latent variables, one latent variable can be a moderator or mediator variables. Goodness of Fit moderation and mediation model of latent variables is affected by the value of the canonical correlation between moderator/mediator latent variables with the independent latent variables and dependent latent variables. If the value of both canonical correlation is well , so the Goodness of Fit models of mediation is getting better, while the opposite Goodness of Fit models will be better moderation.

  15. VARIABEL LATEN SEBAGAI MODERATOR DAN MEDIATOR DALAM HUBUNGAN KAUSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG GEDE ANTARA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Latent variables are variables that can not be measured directly. In analysis of causal relationship involving three latent variables, one latent variable can be a moderator or mediator variables. Goodness of Fit moderation and mediation model of latent variables is affected by the value of the canonical correlation between moderator/mediator latent variables with the independent latent variables and dependent latent variables. If the value of both canonical correlation is well , so the Goodness of Fit models of mediation is getting better, while the opposite Goodness of Fit models will be better moderation.

  16. Research on the Moderate Scale Operation of Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junying; WEI; Qing; YU

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring food security has always been an important and enduring strategic project. However,the contradiction between a large population and little land,the shortcomings of the household contract responsibility system and the current rapid development of industrialization and urbanization,make problems concerning farming increasingly prominent. To build a new agriculture business entity,the development of agricultural moderate scale operation is imperative. Based on this,this paper analyzes the insecure moderate scale of food and the impact of moderate scale operation of food,and puts forth recommendations for promoting moderate scale operation of food.

  17. Older adults report moderately more detailed autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert S; Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2015-01-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is an essential component of the human mind. Although the([A-z]+) amount and types of subjective detail (content) that compose AMs constitute important dimensions of recall, age-related changes in memory content are not well characterized. Previously, we introduced the Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (CRAM; see http://cramtest.info), an instrument that collects subjective reports of AM content, and applied it to college-aged subjects. CRAM elicits AMs using naturalistic word-cues. Subsequently, subjects date each cued AM to a life period and count the number of remembered details from specified categories (features), e.g., temporal detail, spatial detail, persons, objects, and emotions. The current work applies CRAM to a broad range of individuals (18-78 years old) to quantify the effects of age on AM content. Subject age showed a moderately positive effect on AM content: older compared with younger adults reported ∼16% more details (∼25 vs. ∼21 in typical AMs). This age-related increase in memory content was similarly observed for remote and recent AMs, although content declined with the age of the event among all subjects. In general, the distribution of details across features was largely consistent among younger and older adults. However, certain types of details, i.e., those related to objects and sequences of events, contributed more to the age effect on content. Altogether, this work identifies a moderate age-related feature-specific alteration in the way life events are subjectively recalled, among an otherwise stable retrieval profile.

  18. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F; Khair, Aditya S

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of V_{o}/(k_{B}T/e), where V_{o} is the amplitude of the driving voltage and k_{B}T/e is the thermal voltage with k_{B} as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D/λ_{D}L, where D is the ion diffusivity, λ_{D} is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O(V_{o}^{3}) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in V_{o}. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing V_{o}. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.

  19. Older adults report moderately more detailed autobiographical memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is an essential component of the human mind. Although the amount and types of subjective detail (content that compose AMs constitute important dimensions of recall, age-related changes in memory content are not well characterized. Previously, we introduced the Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (CRAM; see http://cramtest.info, an instrument that collects subjective reports of AM content, and applied it to college-aged subjects. CRAM elicits AMs using naturalistic word-cues. Subsequently, subjects date each cued AM to a life period and count the number of remembered details from specified categories (features, e.g., temporal detail, spatial detail, persons, objects, and emotions. The current work applies CRAM to a broad range of individuals (18-78 years old to quantify the effects of age on AM content. Subject age showed a moderately positive effect on AM content: older compared with younger adults reported ~16% more details (~25 vs. ~21 in typical AMs. This age-related increase in memory content was similarly observed for remote and recent AMs, although content declined with the age of the event among all subjects. In general, the distribution of details across features was largely consistent among younger and older adults. However, certain types of details, i.e., those related to objects and sequences of events, contributed more to the age effect on content. Altogether, this work identifies a moderate age-related feature-specific alteration in the way life events are subjectively recalled, among an otherwise stable retrieval profile.

  20. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of Vo/(kBT /e ) , where Vo is the amplitude of the driving voltage and kBT /e is the thermal voltage with kB as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D /λDL , where D is the ion diffusivity, λD is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O (Vo3) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in Vo. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing Vo. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.

  1. Resonant Effects in Neutral beam Moderation at TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.; Fuentes, C.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of fast ion losses in neutral beam moderation at TJ-II is analysed theoretically, in particular the influence of resonant effects and the radial electric field dependence. The direct losses show strong resonant effects when the ratio of the poloidal and toroidal rotation velocities pass near the values -4/3, -2 or 0. These effects are visible as strong maxima on the loss fractions and also as characteristic trajectory behaviours. The delayed losses present resonant effects also, generally at intermediate energies (5 to 20 KeV for 40 keV injection). Near the resonances the population of passing particles in these losses is very high and the loss fraction can equal or even surpass the direct losses. In these delayed losses the particles concentrate along vertical strips on the loss cone diagrams of roughly constant parallel velocity. This parallel velocity increases with the electric field, the loss maxima are reached usually when the pitch and energy of these strips are near the initial injection values. The trapped particle population in these delayed losses is maximal at null electric and decreases with the field intensity for both potential signs. The corresponding final energies are usually low (1 to 5 keV). Except at extreme potentials, where the -4 resonance can appear, no resonant effects are observed for this population. The resonance ordering is similar for all configurations and follows reasonably the predictions of a simple model. The extreme configurations are dominated by the effects of the 0 and -2 resonances, giving very high loss fractions even for null electric field. In contrast the intermediate configurations, near the Reference one, do not present resonant effects and the losses are moderate at low potentials. Only above 2000 v the resonant effects start to appear. (Author) 11 refs

  2. Beneficiary contact moderates relationship between authentic leadership and engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Scheepers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Beneficiary contact moderates the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effect of the breadth, depth and frequency of employee interaction with the beneficiaries of their work on the positive impact of authentic leadership on work engagement. Motivation for the study: Investigating the boundary conditions of the relationship between leaders and followers is vital to enhance the positive effect of leadership. Authentic leadership has not previously been examined with respect to beneficiary contact as a specific situational factor. The researchers therefore set out to ascertain whether beneficiary contact has a strengthening or weakening effect on the impact of authentic leadership on work engagement. Research design, approach and method: The researchers administered the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and Grant’s scale on Beneficiary Contact. Main findings: The findings showed that beneficiary contact had a weakening effect on the positive relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. Practical/managerial implications: Ideally, organisations create environments conducive to work engagement in which leadership plays an important role. This study found that one factor in the work environment, namely beneficiary contact, might have an adverse effect on the positive relationship that authentic leadership has on work engagement. Leaders should therefore take organisational contextual realities into account, such as regular, intense interaction of employees with the beneficiaries of their work. This situation could create strain for individual employees, requiring additional organisational support. Contribution/value-add: Organisations need to recognise the impact of beneficiary contact on the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. The researchers

  3. Social Cognitive Predictors of Peer Acceptance at Age 5 and the Moderating Effects of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Munoz, Jose M.; Carreras, Maria R.; Braza, Paloma; Garcia, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sanchez-Martin, Jose R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of…

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Joosten, M.M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W.A.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is

  5. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Joosten, M.M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W.A.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is

  6. The Moderating Effect of Sex on the Prediction of Job Satisfaction in the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond

    1982-01-01

    Examined the moderating effect of sex on the contribution of specific job characteristics as sources of general job satisfaction. A survey of over 2,000 public employees showed only minimal sex differences. Supervision was more important to females. Females also tended to be more satisfied with their salaries. (JAC)

  7. Feedback type as a moderator of the relationship between achievement goals and feedback reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Janssen, Onne; Duyck, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to shed new light on the inconsistent relationship between performance-approach (PAp) goals and feedback reactions by examining feedback type as a moderator. Results of a field experiment (N = 939) using a web-based work simulation task showed that the effect of

  8. Neighborhood Disorder and the Sense of Personal Control: Which Factors Moderate the Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Conley, Meghan E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether and how select individual characteristics moderate the relationship between neighborhood disorder and a sense of personal control. Our findings show that neighborhood disorder is associated with a decreased sense of control. However, regression analyses including interaction terms of neighborhood disorder and some…

  9. Genetic Moderation of Early Child-Care Effects on Social Functioning Across Childhood: A Developmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Data from 508 Caucasian children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development shows that the DRD4 (but not 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism moderates the effect of child-care quality (but not quantity or type) on caregiver-reported externalizing problems at 54 months and in kindergarten and teacher-reported social skills at kindergarten and…

  10. The comparison between torsional and conventional mode phacoemulsification in moderate and hard cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Wee, Won-Ryang; Lee, Jin-Hak; Kim, Mee-Kum

    2010-12-01

    To compare the intraoperative performances and postoperative outcomes of cataract surgery performed with longitudinal phacoemulsification and torsional phacoemulsification in moderate and hard cataracts. Of 85 patients who had senile cataracts, 102 eyes were operated on using the Infiniti Vision System. Preoperative examinations (slit lamp examination, mean central corneal thickness, and central endothelial cell counts) were performed for each patient. Cataracts were subdivided into moderate and hard, according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III grading of nucleus opalescence (NO). Eyes in each cataract group were randomly assigned to conventional and torsional phaco-mode. Intraoperative parameters, including ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and the balanced salt solution plus (BSSP) volume utilized were evaluated. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was checked on postoperative day 30; mean central corneal thickness and central endothelial cell counts were investigated on postoperative days 7 and 30. Preoperative BCVA and mean grading of NO showed no difference in both groups. Preoperative endothelial cell count and central corneal thickness also showed no significant difference in both groups. In the moderate cataract group, the CDE, UST, and BSSP volume were significantly lower in the torsional mode than the longitudinal mode, but they did not show any difference in the hard cataract group. Torsional group showed less endothelial cell loss and central corneal thickening at postoperative day seven in moderate cataracts but showed no significant differences, as compared with the longitudinal group, by postoperative day 30. Torsional phacoemulsification showed superior efficiency for moderate cataracts, as compared with longitudinal phacoemulsification, in the early postoperative stage.

  11. The Comparison between Torsional and Conventional Mode Phacoemulsification in Moderate and Hard Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Wee, Won-Ryang; Lee, Jin-Hak

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the intraoperative performances and postoperative outcomes of cataract surgery performed with longitudinal phacoemulsification and torsional phacoemulsification in moderate and hard cataracts. Methods Of 85 patients who had senile cataracts, 102 eyes were operated on using the Infiniti Vision System. Preoperative examinations (slit lamp examination, mean central corneal thickness, and central endothelial cell counts) were performed for each patient. Cataracts were subdivided into moderate and hard, according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III grading of nucleus opalescence (NO). Eyes in each cataract group were randomly assigned to conventional and torsional phaco-mode. Intraoperative parameters, including ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and the balanced salt solution plus (BSSP) volume utilized were evaluated. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was checked on postoperative day 30; mean central corneal thickness and central endothelial cell counts were investigated on postoperative days 7 and 30. Results Preoperative BCVA and mean grading of NO showed no difference in both groups. Preoperative endothelial cell count and central corneal thickness also showed no significant difference in both groups. In the moderate cataract group, the CDE, UST, and BSSP volume were significantly lower in the torsional mode than the longitudinal mode, but they did not show any difference in the hard cataract group. Torsional group showed less endothelial cell loss and central corneal thickening at postoperative day seven in moderate cataracts but showed no significant differences, as compared with the longitudinal group, by postoperative day 30. Conclusions Torsional phacoemulsification showed superior efficiency for moderate cataracts, as compared with longitudinal phacoemulsification, in the early postoperative stage. PMID:21165231

  12. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves sleep quality in men older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Amir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research was to investigate the effect of low and moderate intensity aerobic exercises on sleep quality in older adults. The statistical sample included 45 volunteer elderly men with age range of 60-70 years old that divided randomly in two experimental groups (aerobic exercise with low and moderate intensity and one control group. The maximum heart rate (MaxHR of subjects was obtained by subtracting one's age from 220. Furthermore, based on aerobic exercise type (40-50% MaxHR for low intensity group and 60-70% MaxHR for moderate intensity group the target MaxHR was calculated for each subject. The exercise protocol consisted of 8 weeks aerobic exercises (2 sessions in per-week based on Rockport one-mile walking/running test and the control group continued their daily activities. All subjects in per-test and post-test stages were completed the Petersburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Results in post-test stage showed that there were significant differences between control and experimental groups in sleep quality and its components (P<0.05. Also, the Tukey Post Hoc showed that the moderate intensity group scores in sleep quality and its components were better than other groups (P<0.05. Finally, the low intensity group scores were better than control group (P<0.05. Generally, the present research showed that the aerobic exercises with moderate intensity have a positive and significant effect on sleep quality and its components. Thus, based on these findings, the moderate intensity aerobic exercises as a useful and medical method for improve the sleep quality among community older adults was recommended.

  13. Chiral crystal of a C2v-symmetric 1,3-diazaaulene derivative showing efficient optical second harmonic generation

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xiaohua; Fu, Limin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Ai, Xicheng; Zhang, Jianping; Han, Yu; Guo, Zhixin

    2011-01-01

    the moderate static first hyperpolarizabilities (β0) for both APNA [(136 ± 5) à - 10-30 esu] and DPAPNA [(263 ± 20) à - 10-30 esu], only APNA crystal shows a powder efficiency of second harmonic generation (SHG) of 23 times that of urea. It is shown

  14. Moderators of wellbeing interventions: Why do some people respond more positively than others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Adele H Wang

    Full Text Available Interventions rarely have a universal effect on all individuals. Reasons ranging from participant characteristics, context and fidelity of intervention completion could cause some people to respond more positively than others. Understanding these individual differences in intervention response may provide clues to the mechanisms behind the intervention, as well as inform future designs to make interventions maximally beneficial for all. Here we focus on an intervention designed to improve adolescent wellbeing, and explore potential moderators using a representative and well-powered sample. 16-year old participants (N = 932 in the Twins Wellbeing Intervention Study logged online once a week to complete control and wellbeing-enhancing activities consecutively. Throughout the study participants also provided information about a range of potential moderators of intervention response including demographics, seasonality, personality, baseline characteristics, activity fit, and effort. As expected, some individuals gained more from the intervention than others; we used multi-level modelling to test for moderation effects that could explain these individual differences. Of the 15 moderators tested, none significantly explained individual differences in intervention response in the intervention and follow-up phases. Self-reported effort and baseline positive affect had a notable effect in moderating response in the control phase, during which there was no overall improvement in wellbeing and mental health. Our results did not replicate the moderation effects that have been suggested by previous literature and future work needs to reconcile these differences. They also show that factors that have previously been shown to influence baseline wellbeing do not also influence an individual's ability to benefit from a wellbeing intervention. Although future research should continue to explore potential moderators of intervention efficacy, our results suggest

  15. Moderators of wellbeing interventions: Why do some people respond more positively than others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Coffey, S. Katherine; Layous, Kristin; Jacobs Bao, Katherine; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Haworth, Claire M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Interventions rarely have a universal effect on all individuals. Reasons ranging from participant characteristics, context and fidelity of intervention completion could cause some people to respond more positively than others. Understanding these individual differences in intervention response may provide clues to the mechanisms behind the intervention, as well as inform future designs to make interventions maximally beneficial for all. Here we focus on an intervention designed to improve adolescent wellbeing, and explore potential moderators using a representative and well-powered sample. 16-year old participants (N = 932) in the Twins Wellbeing Intervention Study logged online once a week to complete control and wellbeing-enhancing activities consecutively. Throughout the study participants also provided information about a range of potential moderators of intervention response including demographics, seasonality, personality, baseline characteristics, activity fit, and effort. As expected, some individuals gained more from the intervention than others; we used multi-level modelling to test for moderation effects that could explain these individual differences. Of the 15 moderators tested, none significantly explained individual differences in intervention response in the intervention and follow-up phases. Self-reported effort and baseline positive affect had a notable effect in moderating response in the control phase, during which there was no overall improvement in wellbeing and mental health. Our results did not replicate the moderation effects that have been suggested by previous literature and future work needs to reconcile these differences. They also show that factors that have previously been shown to influence baseline wellbeing do not also influence an individual’s ability to benefit from a wellbeing intervention. Although future research should continue to explore potential moderators of intervention efficacy, our results suggest that the beneficial

  16. Materialism moderates the impact of mortality salience on impulsive tendencies toward luxury brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrin, Catherine; Cheval, Boris; Chanal, Julien

    2018-02-01

    Luxury goods have been shown to help individuals coping with death-related anxiety. However, the extent to which the symbolic value allocated to possessions (i.e., materialism) moderates this effect is still unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of materialism on impulsive approach tendencies toward luxury clothing brands in a context of mortality salience. Results showed that the impact of mortality salience was moderated by materialism with lower impulsive approach tendencies toward luxury clothing brands observed in non-materialistic participants. These findings highlight how materialism values may impact luxury consumption through impulsive pathways in a situation of death-related anxiety.

  17. Message content of alcohol moderation TV commercials: impact of corporate versus nonprofit sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, A M

    1999-01-01

    This content analysis examines a sample of 203 alcohol-related North American TV commercials dealing with alcohol moderation and driving under the influence (DUI), in order to determine whether the type of ad sponsor has an impact on the message content. Corporate sponsors, such as breweries and distillers, are compared to nonprofit sponsors such as governments and nonprofit organizations. Findings show that ads from corporate sponsors are less likely to make mention of threats or negative consequences, and are also less likely to use fear arousal. However, DUI/alcohol moderation ads from corporate sponsors and nonprofit sponsors do not differ in the degree to which they use humor or positive approaches.

  18. The multilevel analysis of surface acting and mental health: A moderation of positive group affective tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Shiu; Huang, Jui-Chan; Wu, Tzu-Jung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among surface acting, mental health, and positive group affective tone. According to the prior theory, this study attempts to establish a comprehensive research framework among these variables, and furthermore tests the moderating effect of positive group affective tone. Data were collected from 435 employees in 52 service industrial companies by questionnaire, and this study conducted multilevel analysis. The results showed that surface acting will negatively affect the mental health. In addition, the positive group affective tone have significant moderating effect on the relationship among surface acting and mental health. Finally, this study discusses managerial implications and highlights future research suggestions.

  19. Ion Transfer Voltammetry Associated with Two Polarizable Interfaces Within Water and Moderately Hydrophobic Ionic Liquid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Shiyu; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical system composed of two polarizable interfaces (the metallic electrode|water and water|ionic liquid interfaces), namely two‐polarized‐interface (TPI) technique, has been proposed to explore the ion transfer processes between water and moderately hydrophobic ionic liquids (W...... to an extremely narrow polarized potential window (ppw) caused by these moderately hydrophobic ionic components. In this article, we show that TPI technique has virtually eliminated the ppw limitation based on a controlling step of concentration polarization at the electrode|water interface. With the aid...

  20. Regularized Estimation of Structural Instability in Factor Models: The US Macroeconomy and the Great Moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent; Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    This paper shows that the parsimoniously time-varying methodology of Callot and Kristensen (2015) can be applied to factor models.We apply this method to study macroeconomic instability in the US from 1959:1 to 2006:4 with a particular focus on the Great Moderation. Models with parsimoniously time...... that the parameters of both models exhibit a higher degree of instability in the period from 1970:1 to 1984:4 relative to the following 15 years. In our setting the Great Moderation appears as the gradual ending of a period of high structural instability that took place in the 1970s and early 1980s....

  1. Psychological contract types as moderator in the breach-violation and violation-burnout relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Amber; Raja, Usman; Darr, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relationships between perceived psychological contract breach, felt violation, and burnout in a sample (n = 361) of employees from various organizations in Pakistan. The moderating role of contract types in these relationships was also tested. Findings supported a positive association between perceived psychological contract breach and felt violation and both were positively related to burnout. Transactional and relational contracts moderated the felt violation-burnout relationship. Scores on relational contract type tended to be higher than for transactional contract type showing some contextual influence.

  2. Leader charisma and affective team climate: the moderating role of the leader's influence and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Baeza, Ana; Araya Lao, Cristina; García Meneses, Juliana; González Romá, Vicente

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we evaluate the role of leader charisma in fostering positive affective team climate and preventing negative affective climate. The analysis of a longitudinal database of 137 bank branches by means of hierarchical moderated regression shows that leader charisma has a stronger effect on team optimism than on team tension. In addition, the leader's influence and the frequency of leader-team interaction moderate the relationship between charisma and affective climate. However, whereas the leader's influence enhances the relationship between leader charisma and positive affective climate, the frequency of interaction has counterproductive effects.

  3. The Energy Variation of the Sensitivity of a Polyethylene Moderated BF{sub 3} Proportional Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraeki, R; Leimdoerfer, M; Malmskog, S

    1962-11-15

    The variation with neutron energy of the sensitivity of a polyethylene moderated boron counter has been investigated experimentally at 2.3 MeV, 550 keV, 210 keV, 110 keV, 340 eV and 5 eV, and theoretically by the multigroup diffusion method in the same range. Different moderator thicknesses up to 10 cm were considered Results show good agreement between experimental and theoretical sensitivities for the keV and MeV energies, while a discrepancy of the order of a factor 2 at the most is obtained in the eV region.

  4. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion.

  5. An 8-Week Neuromuscular Exercise Program for Patients With Mild to Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Brian; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Roos, Ewa M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:   To describe the feasibility of a neuromuscular exercise (NEMEX) program in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (KOA). BACKGROUND:   Neuromuscular exercise has been increasingly used in patients with osteoarthritis to achieve sensorimotor control and improved daily...... function. TREATMENT:   A study of the first 23 physically active patients (11 men, 12 women; age range = 48-70 years) who had mild to moderate KOA and were undergoing an 8-week, twice-weekly program, consisting of 11 exercises with 3 to 4 levels of difficulty, as part of an ongoing randomized controlled...... to increased (n = 2) or persisting (n = 1) knee pain. However, their pain ratings did not show worsening symptoms. UNIQUENESS:   This NEMEX-KOA program was designed for physically active middle-aged patients with mild to moderate KOA; therefore, it involved exercises and difficulty levels that were more...

  6. Youth hedonistic behaviour: moderating role of peer attachment on the effect of religiosity and worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Suandi, Turiman; Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Tamam, Ezhar

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on the moderating effect of peer attachment on the relationships between religiosity and worldview, and on how hedonistic behaviour among Malaysian undergraduate students is shaped by such influences. With regard to peer attachment, the study focused on the influences of communication, trust and alienation among youth. Bronfenbrenner's theory of human ecology and Armsden and Greenberg's attachment model were used as the framework. Drawing on a quantitative survey of 394 Malaysian university students (M age = 21.0, SD = 0.40), structural equation modelling and path analysis revealed a significant relationship between worldview and hedonistic behaviour. Peer attachment moderated the relationships between religiosity and religious worldview. The results further showed that the unique moderating effect of the lower level of attachment with peers is positively related to the hedonistic behaviour. Implications from the findings are discussed. PMID:25431513

  7. Moderate drop in water table increases peatland vulnerability to post-fire regime shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettridge, N; Turetsky, M R; Sherwood, J H; Thompson, D K; Miller, C A; Benscoter, B W; Flannigan, M D; Wotton, B M; Waddington, J M

    2015-01-27

    Northern and tropical peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reserve accumulated over thousands of years of waterlogged conditions. It is unclear whether moderate drying predicted for northern peatlands will stimulate burning and carbon losses as has occurred in their smaller tropical counterparts where the carbon legacy has been destabilized due to severe drainage and deep peat fires. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland subjected to decadal drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire converted the low productivity, moss-dominated peatland to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy of stored peat carbon.

  8. Audit Committee Accounting Expert and Earnings Management with “Status” Audit Committee as Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Suprianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the effect of accounting expert of audit committee on earnings management. This research also assesses the role of audit committee on earnings management with audit committee status as moderating variable. The population is all of firm’s which listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Purposive sampling is used to collect data. Data used financial statements and annual report companies from Indonesia Stock Exchange website. Moderated regression analysis (MRA is used to analyze the hypothesis. The result shows that accounting expert of audit committee has negative effect on earnings management. Yet, variable of audit committee status cannot moderate the relationship between accounting expert of audit committee and earnings management in Indonesia.

  9. Perceptions of intimacy and friendship reciprocity moderate peer influence on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meter, Diana J; Casper, Deborah M; Card, Noel A

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that close friends' influence can exacerbate adolescents' aggressive behavior, but results of studies which examine whether friendships of greater or lesser qualities moderate peer influence effects are inconsistent. The present study tested whether the perception of the positive friendship quality of intimate exchange and friendship reciprocity moderated best friend influence on participant aggression over time. The 243 participants were approximately 12 years old and ethnically diverse. Neither intimate exchange nor reciprocity significantly moderated friend influence on aggression in a simple way, but the interaction of intimate exchange and friendship reciprocity predicted peer influence on participants' aggression over time. Specifically, highly intimate, nonreciprocal best friendships and less intimate, reciprocal best friendships showed greatest influence when friends' proportion of peer nominations for aggression was high. Reciprocity and intimacy should be considered when predicting peer influence on aggression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Experience with ustekinumab for the treatment of moderate to severe Hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulliver, W.P.; Baker, K.A.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2012-01-01

    , however, abrogation of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) function has proven effective in some patients. Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of the interleukin-12/23 inhibitor, ustekinumab for treatment of HS in three patients with moderate-severe disease. Methods The subjects received 3-45 mg...... subcutaneous injections of ustekinumab at 0, 1 and 4 months. Improvement was assessed by the dermatology life quality index (DLQI), visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) and physician's global assessment (PGA) at each monthly visit. Results Prior to treatment, subjects had moderate-severe HS (Hurley stage II......-III) with a DLQI score between 8 and 12. At 6 months, one patient showed complete disease remission, while a 25-49% improvement was seen in a second patient and no change in a third. A moderate but statistically significant relationship was observed between VAS and DLQI scores (r = 0.75; P

  11. Regulation of human skeletal muscle perfusion and its heterogeneity during exercise in moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka H; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    , the results show that increased BF during one-leg exercise in moderate hypoxia is confined only to the contracting muscles, and the working muscle hyperemia appears not to be directly mediated by adenosine. Increased flow heterogeneity in noncontracting muscles likely reflects sympathetic nervous constraints...... healthy young men using positron emission tomography during one-leg dynamic knee extension exercise in normoxia and moderate physiological systemic hypoxia (14% O(2) corresponding to approximately 3,400 m of altitude) without and with local adenosine receptor inhibition with femoral artery infusion...... to curtail BF increments in areas other than working skeletal muscles, but this effect is not potentiated in moderate systemic hypoxia during small muscle mass exercise....

  12. CFD analysis of moderator flow and temperature fields inside a vertical calandria vessel of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, Anuj Kumar; Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B.; Maheshwari, Naresh Kumar; Vijayan, Pallippattu Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D CFD of vertical calandria vessel. • Spatial distribution of volumetric heat generation. • Effect of Archimedes number. • Non-dimensional analysis. - Abstract: Three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed for the moderator flow and temperature fields inside a vertical calandria vessel of nuclear reactor under normal operating condition using OpenFOAM CFD code. OpenFOAM is validated by comparing the predicted results with the experimental data available in literature. CFD model includes the calandria vessel, calandria tubes, inlet header and outlet header. Analysis has been performed for the cases of uniform and spatial distribution of volumetric heat generation. Studies show that the maximum temperature in moderator is lower in the case of spatial distribution of heat generation as compared to that in the uniform heat generation in calandria. In addition, the effect of Archimedes number on maximum and average moderator temperature was investigated

  13. CFD analysis of moderator flow and temperature fields inside a vertical calandria vessel of nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansal, Anuj Kumar, E-mail: akansal@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B., E-mail: jbjoshi@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Maheshwari, Naresh Kumar, E-mail: nmahesh@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vijayan, Pallippattu Krishnan, E-mail: vijayanp@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • 3D CFD of vertical calandria vessel. • Spatial distribution of volumetric heat generation. • Effect of Archimedes number. • Non-dimensional analysis. - Abstract: Three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed for the moderator flow and temperature fields inside a vertical calandria vessel of nuclear reactor under normal operating condition using OpenFOAM CFD code. OpenFOAM is validated by comparing the predicted results with the experimental data available in literature. CFD model includes the calandria vessel, calandria tubes, inlet header and outlet header. Analysis has been performed for the cases of uniform and spatial distribution of volumetric heat generation. Studies show that the maximum temperature in moderator is lower in the case of spatial distribution of heat generation as compared to that in the uniform heat generation in calandria. In addition, the effect of Archimedes number on maximum and average moderator temperature was investigated.

  14. Self-regulating characteristics of cold neutron source with annular cylindrical moderator cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takeshi; Lee Chien-Hsiung; Chan Yea-Kuang; Guung Tai-Cheng; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Kawabata, Yuji; Hino, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    The conditions, in which the ORPHEE type cold neutron source with an annular cylindrical moderator cell could have self-regulating characteristics, were obtained through thermodynamic considerations. From a viewpoint of engineering, it is not easy to establish these conditions because three parameters are involved even in an idealized system without the effect of the mass transfer resistance in the moderator transfer tube between the condenser and the moderator cell. The inner shell of the ORPHEE moderator cell is open in the bottom, but it is expected that only hydrogen vapor is contained in the inner shell and liquid hydrogen in the outer shell. The thermodynamic considerations show that such a state is maintained only when a liquefaction capacity of the condenser is large compared to heat lead and three parameters are optimized with a good balance. We proposed another type of a moderator cell, which has an inner cylindrical cavity with no hole in the bottom but a vapor inlet opening at the uppermost part of the cavity. In this structure, a self-regulating characteristic is established easily and the liquid level in the outer shell is maintained almost constant against thermal disturbances. Therefore it is enough to control one parameter, that is, the reservoir tank pressure corresponding to the liquefaction capacity of the condenser given by the refrigeration power of the helium refrigerator. (author)

  15. Moderate maternal food restriction in mice impairs physical growth, behavior, and neurodevelopment of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitake, Yoshiharu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Hosokawa, Masato; Mishima, Kenichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) occurs in 3% to 7% of all pregnancies. Recent human studies have indicated that neurodevelopmental disabilities, learning disorders, memory impairment, and mood disturbance are common in IUGR offspring. However, the interactions between IUGR and neurodevelopmental disorders are unclear because of the wide range of causes of IUGR, such as maternal malnutrition, placental insufficiency, pregnancy toxemia, and fetal malformations. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that moderate food restriction enhances spatial learning and improves mood disturbance in adult humans and animals. To date, the effects of maternal moderate food restriction on fetal brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would be caused by even moderate food restriction in pregnant females and that the offspring would have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Mid-pregnant mice received moderate food restriction through the early lactation period. The offspring were tested for aspects of physical development, behavior, and neurodevelopment. The results showed that moderate maternal food restriction induced IUGR. Offspring had low birth weight and delayed development of physical and coordinated movement. Moreover, IUGR offspring exhibited mental disabilities such as anxiety and poor cognitive function. In particular, male offspring exhibited significantly impaired cognitive function at 3 weeks of age. These results suggested that a restricted maternal diet could be a risk factor for developmental disability in IUGR offspring and that male offspring might be especially susceptible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental estimation of moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rubens C. da; Bitelli, Ulysses D.; Mura, Luiz Ernesto C.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the procedure for the experimental estimation of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor, a parameter that has an important role in the physics and the control operations of any reactor facility. At the experiment, the IPEN/MB-01 reactor went critical at the power of 1W (1% of its total power), and whose core configuration was 28 x 26 rectangular array of UO_2 fuel rods, inside a light water (moderator) tank. In addition, there was a heavy water (D_2O) reflector installed in the West side of the core to obtain an adequate neutron reflection along the experiment. The moderator temperature was increased in steps of 4 °C, and the measurement of the mean moderator temperature was acquired using twelve calibrated thermocouples, placed around the reactor core. As a result, the mean value of -4.81 pcm/°C was obtained for such coefficient. The curves of ρ(T) (Reactivity x Temperature) and α"M_T(T)(Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity x Temperature) were developed using data from an experimental measurement of the integral reactivity curves through the Stable Period and Inverse Kinetics Methods, that was carried out at the reactor with the same core configuration. Such curves were compared and showed a very similar behavior between them. (author)

  17. Experimental estimation of moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rubens C. da; Bitelli, Ulysses D.; Mura, Luiz Ernesto C., E-mail: rubensrcs@usp.br, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br, E-mail: credidiomura@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PNV/POLI/USP), SP (Brazil). Arquitetura Naval e Departamento de Engenharia Oceanica; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present the procedure for the experimental estimation of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor, a parameter that has an important role in the physics and the control operations of any reactor facility. At the experiment, the IPEN/MB-01 reactor went critical at the power of 1W (1% of its total power), and whose core configuration was 28 x 26 rectangular array of UO{sub 2} fuel rods, inside a light water (moderator) tank. In addition, there was a heavy water (D{sub 2}O) reflector installed in the West side of the core to obtain an adequate neutron reflection along the experiment. The moderator temperature was increased in steps of 4 °C, and the measurement of the mean moderator temperature was acquired using twelve calibrated thermocouples, placed around the reactor core. As a result, the mean value of -4.81 pcm/°C was obtained for such coefficient. The curves of ρ(T) (Reactivity x Temperature) and α{sup M}{sub T}(T)(Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity x Temperature) were developed using data from an experimental measurement of the integral reactivity curves through the Stable Period and Inverse Kinetics Methods, that was carried out at the reactor with the same core configuration. Such curves were compared and showed a very similar behavior between them. (author)

  18. Relationships among race, education, criminal thinking, and recidivism: moderator and mediator effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-02-01

    Moderator and mediator relationships linking variables from three different theoretical traditions-race (subcultural theory), education (life-course theory), and criminal thinking (social learning theory)-and recidivism were examined in 1,101 released male federal prison inmates. Preliminary regression analyses indicated that racial status (White, Black, Hispanic) moderated the relationship between criminal thinking, as measured by the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) score of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), and recidivism. Further analysis, however, revealed that it was not racial status, per se, that moderated the relationship between the PICTS and recidivism, but educational attainment. Whereas the PICTS was largely effective in predicting recidivism in inmates with 12 or more years of education, it was largely ineffective in predicting recidivism in inmates with fewer than 12 years of education. When education and the GCT score were compared as possible mediators of the race-recidivism relationship only the GCT successfully mediated this relationship. Sensitivity testing showed that the GCT mediating effect was moderately robust to violations of the sequential ignorability assumption on which causal mediation analysis rests. Moderator and mediator analyses are potentially important avenues through which theoretical constructs can be integrated and assessment strategies devised.

  19. A behavioral economic reward index predicts drinking resolutions: moderation revisited and compared with other outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Roth, David L; Vignolo, Mary J; Westfall, Andrew O

    2009-04-01

    Data were pooled from 3 studies of recently resolved community-dwelling problem drinkers to determine whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons distinguished among moderation (n = 30), abstinent (n = 95), and unresolved (n = 77) outcomes. Moderation over 1- to 2-year prospective follow-up intervals was hypothesized to involve longer term behavior regulation processes than abstinence or relapse and to be predicted by more balanced preresolution monetary allocations between short-term and longer term objectives (i.e., drinking and saving for the future). Standardized odds ratios (ORs) based on changes in standard deviation units from a multinomial logistic regression indicated that increases on this "Alcohol-Savings Discretionary Expenditure" index predicted higher rates of abstinence (OR = 1.93, p = .004) and relapse (OR = 2.89, p moderation outcomes. The index had incremental utility in predicting moderation in complex models that included other established predictors. The study adds to evidence supporting a behavioral economic analysis of drinking resolutions and shows that a systematic analysis of preresolution spending patterns aids in predicting moderation.

  20. Assessing moderated mediation in linear models requires fewer confounding assumptions than assessing mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeys, Tom; Talloen, Wouter; Goubert, Liesbet; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2016-11-01

    It is well known from the mediation analysis literature that the identification of direct and indirect effects relies on strong no unmeasured confounding assumptions of no unmeasured confounding. Even in randomized studies the mediator may still be correlated with unobserved prognostic variables that affect the outcome, in which case the mediator's role in the causal process may not be inferred without bias. In the behavioural and social science literature very little attention has been given so far to the causal assumptions required for moderated mediation analysis. In this paper we focus on the index for moderated mediation, which measures by how much the mediated effect is larger or smaller for varying levels of the moderator. We show that in linear models this index can be estimated without bias in the presence of unmeasured common causes of the moderator, mediator and outcome under certain conditions. Importantly, one can thus use the test for moderated mediation to support evidence for mediation under less stringent confounding conditions. We illustrate our findings with data from a randomized experiment assessing the impact of being primed with social deception upon observer responses to others' pain, and from an observational study of individuals who ended a romantic relationship assessing the effect of attachment anxiety during the relationship on mental distress 2 years after the break-up. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. The Family Environment as a Moderator of Psychosocial Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether the family environment moderates psychosocial outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children. Method Participants were recruited prospectively from consecutive hospital admissions of 3-6 year old children, and included 19 with severe TBI, 56 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 99 with orthopedic injuries (OI). They completed four assessments across the first 18 months post-injury. The initial assessment included measures of parenting style, family functioning, and the quality of the home. Children’s behavioral adjustment, adaptive functioning, and social competence were assessed at each occasion. Mixed model analyses examined the relationship of the family environment to psychosocial outcomes across time. Results The OI and TBI groups differed significantly in social competence, but the family environment did not moderate the group difference, which was of medium magnitude. In contrast, group differences in behavioral adjustment became more pronounced across time at high levels of authoritarian and permissive parenting; among children with severe TBI, however, even those with low levels of permissive parenting showed increases in behavioral problems. For adaptive functioning, better home environments provided some protection following TBI, but not over time for the severe TBI group. These three-way interactions of group, family environment, and time post injury were all of medium magnitude. Conclusions The findings indicate that the family environment moderates the psychosocial outcomes of TBI in young children, but the moderating influence may wane with time among children with severe TBI. PMID:20438212

  2. Consideration on the partial moderation in criticality safety analysis of LWR fresh fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Tanimoto, R.; Suzuki, K.; Ishitobi, M.

    1987-01-01

    In criticality safety analyses of fuel fabrication facilities, neutron effective multiplication factor (k eff ) of a storage vault has been calculated assuming ''partial moderation'' in whole space (hereafter reffered to as unlimited partial moderation). Where the enrichment of fuels to be stored is about 3.5 % or less, calculated k eff is usually low enough to show subcriticality even in unlimited partial moderation. However, it is scheduled to elevate LWR fuels enrichment for economical higher burnup and the unlimited partial moderation would require to introduce neutron absorbers to maintain subcriticality. It is clear that this causes economical disadvantages, and hence we reconsidered this assumption to avoid such a condition. Reconsideration of the unlimited partial moderation was carried out in following steps. (1) Water quantity to be assumed in atmosphere to obtain criticality was revealed too much to realize. (2) Typical realistic water quantity in atmosphere was estimated to apply as an alternative assumption. (3) A fresh fuel assembly storage was chosen as a model array and calculations with lattice code WIMS-D 1 and Monte Calro code KENO-IV 2 were performed to compare new alternative assumption with the unlimited one. As results of the above calculations, maximum k eff of the array under the new assumption was remarkably reduced to the value less than 0.95 though the maximum k eff under the unlimited one was higher than 1.0. (author)

  3. Social support moderates the effects of stress on sleep in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the association between stress and sleep. Adolescents (n = 202, meanage 14.6 years, standard deviation = 0.71) reported on academic stress, sleep, and support using questionnaires during a low- and high-stress period, defined by the absence or presence of examinations, respectively. Inquiries were made regarding social support from parents, friends, and class supervisor. During both stress periods, academic stress was associated negatively with sleep quality and positively with sleep reduction. Social support increased sleep quality and lowered sleep reduction. In addition, social support moderated the effects of academic stress on sleep, thus improving sleep quality and lowering sleep reduction. Moderating effects were stronger during a period of high stress. The present study showed that adolescents can benefit from stress moderation through social support by improvements of sleep quality and sleep reduction. Such moderating effects should be taken into account when studying stress and sleep. Implications and recommendations based on these findings are discussed. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANISATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND PERFORMANCE MODERATED BY THE AGE AND SIZE OF FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimin Ismadi Ismail

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that achieving a position of competitive advantage is a necessary precursor to a firm's significant performance. This paper will empirically examine the potential moderating variables that could affect the relationship between a firm's competitive advantage and performance, namely the firms' age and size. By examining the relative moderating effects of these variables, this paper delivers valuable information to firms, specifically with regard to strategic management directed toward performance and attaining a competitive advantage. This research was conducted among 127 manufacturers listed in the 2008 Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers Directory. A cross- sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire to obtain responses from the manufacturers. A two-way ANOVA shows that only the age of firms is a significant moderator in the relationship between competitive advantage and performance, and that this relationship is stronger for older firms. The size of firms does not significantly moderate the relationship between competitive advantage and performance. Despite the non-significant moderating effect of firms' size, overall, this study provides empirical support for the Resource-Based View (RBV of Malaysian manufacturers regarding the issue of competitive advantage.

  5. Perceived stress and resilience in Alzheimer's disease caregivers: testing moderation and mediation models of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Croom, Beth

    2008-05-01

    The study examined whether social support functioned as a protective, resilience factor among Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers. Moderation and mediation models were used to test social support amid stress and resilience. A cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data was conducted. Measures of demographics, perceived stress, family support, friend support, overall social support, and resilience were administered to caregiver attendees (N=229) of two AD caregiver conferences. Hierarchical regression analysis showed the compounded impact of predictors on resilience. Odds ratios generated probability of high resilience given high stress and social supports. Social support moderation and mediation were tested via distinct series of regression equations. Path analyses illustrated effects on the models for significant moderation and/or mediation. Stress negatively influenced and accounted for most variation in resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience, and caregivers with high family support had the highest probability of elevated resilience. Moderation was observed among all support factors. No social support fulfilled the complete mediation criteria. Evidence of social support as a protective, moderating factor yields implications for health care practitioners who deliver services to assist AD caregivers, particularly the promotion of identification and utilization of supportive familial and peer relations.

  6. Structure optimization of CFB reactor for moderate temperature FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Kai; You, Changfu [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The gas velocity distribution, sorbent particle concentration distribution and particle residence time in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactors for moderate temperature flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have significant influence on the desulfurization efficiency and the sorbent calcium conversion ratio for sulfur reaction. Experimental and numerical methods were used to investigate the influence of the key reactor structures, including the reactor outlet structure, internal structure, feed port and circulating port, on the gas velocity distribution, sorbent particle concentration distribution and particle residence time. Experimental results showed that the desulfurization efficiency increased 5-10% when the internal structure was added in the CFB reactor. Numerical analysis results showed that the particle residence time of the feed particles with the average diameter of 89 and 9 {mu}m increased 40% and 17% respectively, and the particle residence time of the circulating particles with the average diameter of 116 {mu}m increased 28% after reactor structure optimization. The particle concentration distribution also improved significantly, which was good for improving the contact efficiency between the sorbent particles and SO{sub 2}. In addition, the optimization guidelines were proposed to further increase the desulfurization efficiency and the sorbent calcium conversion ratio.

  7. Social dominance orientation moderates the effectiveness of mindset messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Crystal L; B Forsyth, Rachel; Burnette, Jeni L

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we examine whether differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) moderate the effectiveness of mindsets of intelligence messages. We suggest that SDO is a foundational ideological belief system, on which individuals vary, that maintains the desire to endorse fixed beliefs about the nature of human intelligence. Thus, attempts to change individuals' mindsets should be met with resistance from those who strongly endorse the social dominance ideology - individuals high on SDO. In contrast, individuals low on SDO are less likely to use mindsets of intelligence to justify an ideological belief system, and thus, mindset manipulations should be effective for them. We test these predictions across three experimental studies (N Study1  = 271, N Study2  = 207, N Study3  = 313). Across the studies, we find that individuals who are high, relative to low, on SDO have more fixed beliefs about the nature of intelligence and show smaller effects of manipulations of mindsets. However, when comparing to a control condition, there was no evidence that high-SDO participants resisted the growth message that contradicts their ideology more than the fixed one that supports it; additionally, low-SDO participants showed heightened responsiveness to a fixed message. We discuss implications for theoretical advances in our understanding of mindsets. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Solar envelope concepts: moderate density building applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, R.L.; Berry, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Solar energy utilization in urban areas requires public guarantees that all property owners have direct access to the sun. The study examines the implications of this premise in relation to the need for cities to also encourage or accommodate rebuilding and future development. The public policy mechanism for guaranteeing solar access is conceptualized as a solar zoning envelope that allows the largest possible building bulk on a land parcel without shadowing neighboring properties during specified times. Step-by-step methods for generating solar envelopes are described with extensive drawings, showing a variety of urban platting and lot configurations. Development and design possibilities are examined on a selected set of Los Angeles sites with typically diverse urban characteristics. Envelope attributes suitable for encouraging moderate-density commercial and residential building are examined in the context of two hypothetical but realistic development programs: one for speculative office buildings and one for condominium housing. Numerous illustrations of envelope forms and prototypical building designs are provided. The results of development simulation studies on all test sites are tabulated to show building bulk, density, land-coverage and open space characteristics obtainable under the hypothesized envelopes.

  9. Testing overall and moderator effects meta-regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, H.M.; Visser, I.; Dolan, C.V.

    2011-01-01

    Random effects meta-regression is a technique to synthesize results of multiple studies. It allows for a test of an overall effect, as well as for tests of effects of study characteristics, that is, (discrete or continuous) moderator effects. We describe various procedures to test moderator effects:

  10. A combined matrix isolation spectroscopy and cryosolid positron moderation apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molek, Christopher D.; Michael Lindsay, C.; Fajardo, Mario E. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Ordnance Division, Energetic Materials Branch, AFRL/RWME, 2306 Perimeter Road, Eglin AFB, Florida 32542-5910 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    We describe the design, construction, and operation of a novel apparatus for investigating efficiency improvements in thin-film cryogenic solid positron moderators. We report results from solid neon, argon, krypton, and xenon positron moderators which illustrate the capabilities and limitations of our apparatus. We integrate a matrix isolation spectroscopy diagnostic within a reflection-geometry positron moderation system. We report the optical thickness, impurity content, and impurity trapping site structures within our moderators determined from infrared absorption spectra. We use a retarding potential analyzer to modulate the flow of slow positrons, and report positron currents vs. retarding potential for the different moderators. We identify vacuum ultraviolet emissions from irradiated Ne moderators as the source of spurious signals in our channel electron multiplier slow positron detection channel. Our design is also unusual in that it employs a sealed radioactive Na-22 positron source which can be translated relative to, and isolated from, the cryogenic moderator deposition substrate. This allows us to separate the influences on moderator efficiency of surface contamination by residual gases from those of accumulated radiation damage.

  11. Assessment Moderation in an Australian Context: Processes, Practices, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Denise; Adie, Lenore; Lloyd, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Moderation is a quality assurance process that plays a central role in the teaching, learning, and assessment cycle in higher education. While there is a growing body of research globally on teaching, learning, and, to a lesser degree, assessment in higher education, the process of moderation of assessment has received even less attention. In a…

  12. Performativity, Fabrication and Trust: Exploring Computer-Mediated Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Based on research conducted in an English secondary school, this paper explores computer-mediated moderation as a performative tool. The Module Assessment Meeting (MAM) was the moderation approach under investigation. I mobilise ethnographic data generated by a key informant, and triangulated with that from other actors in the setting, in order to…

  13. Multi-Disciplinary Peer-Mark Moderation of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmot, Peter; Pond, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Self and peer assessment offers benefits for enhancing student learning. Peer moderation provides a convenient solution for awarding individual marks in group assignments. This paper provides a significant review of peer-mark moderation, and describes an award winning, web-based tool that was developed in the UK and is now spreading across the…

  14. Towards a moderated mediation model of innovative work behaviour enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, Jol M.; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Notelaers, Guy L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate a moderated mediation model of innovative work behaviour enhancement. Perceived firm (organizational and market) performance was assumed to moderate the relationships between leader-member exchange (LMX) and organizational citizenship behaviour

  15. Solid methane cold moderator for the IBR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beliakov, A. A.; Tretiakov, I. T.; Shabalin, E. P.; Golikov, V. V.; Luschivkov, V I.

    1997-09-01

    The paper describes the research and design work carried out since 1986 at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna to create a cryogenic moderator for the IBR-22 reactor using solid methane as a moderating substance.

  16. Moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The aim of this paper is to provide pointwise and uniform moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of a nonrandom regression function. Moreover, we give an application of these moderate deviations principles to the construction of condence regions for the regression function. Resume. L'objectif de ...

  17. A discourse on moderation as a philosophical concept | Airoboman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a contemporary attempt to revivify interest in the ancient philosophical concept of moderation. It attempts a conceptual analysis of the concept of moderation as virtue. It examined this concept hand in hand with sensual desire and holds that appetites and passions need not be eradicated completely, but instead, ...

  18. Moderators and mediators of treatments for youth with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oord, S.; Daley, D.; Maric, M.; Prins, P.J.M.; Ollendick, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies assessing moderation and mediation of behavioral treatment and cognitive training outcome in children with ADHD. Only two studies have assessed moderation of treatment outcome. For behavioral treatment outcome, comorbid anxiety, parental self-efficacy, paternal ADHD, and no or

  19. Dispositional and Situational Autonomy as Moderators of Mood and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yinghe; Zheng, Zhiwei; Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that mood can influence creativity, the controversy about the effects of positive and negative moods has raged for years. This study investigated how the relationship between induced mood and creativity is moderated by dispositional and situational autonomy. It contrasted the different moderating effects of the…

  20. Psychopathic Traits Moderate Peer Influence on Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Margaret; Van Zalk, Maarten; Stattin, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Peer influence on adolescent delinquency is well established, but little is known about moderators of peer influence. In this study, we examined adolescents' (targets) and their peers' psychopathic personality traits as moderators of peer influence on delinquency in peer networks. We used three separate dimensions of the psychopathic…

  1. Moderate Muslims and Islamist Terrorism: Between Denial and Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Since President Trump attempted to ban Muslims from certain countries from entering the United States, the question which Muslims are ‘moderate Muslims’ and which are potential ‘radical Islamist terrorists’ has gained new relevance. While some Muslim leaders deny any connection between their religion and terrorism, it is undeniable that many terrorists claim to act in the name of Islam. This Research Paper first seeks to determine where the world’s 1.6 billion Muslims stand in relation to terrorism, distinguishing between Jihadist Muslims, Islamist Muslims, Conservative Muslims and Pluralist Muslims. It then looks at which criteria would allow us to distinguish between ‘moderates’ and other Muslims. Subsequently, the focus is on the role of moderation in Islam itself, whereby attention is given to the Global Movement of Moderates which originated in Malaysia. While some leading Muslim scholars stress that moderation is a central value in Islam, many Muslims nevertheless do not like to be called ‘moderates’ for fear of being seen as pro-Western. A further section of this Research Paper looks at how Islamist extremists view moderate Muslims. This is followed by a section that focuses on moderate Muslims voicing their opposition to Islamist terrorism – something often overlooked by Western media. The concluding section raises the thorny question whether moderation is rooted in Islam itself or comes from outside and the author pleads for humanism to be the middle ground for moderates of all faiths and political persuasions.

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption increases cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Tol, A. van; Fournier, N.; Gent, T. van; Paul, J.L.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol, which is involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on cholesterol efflux, using J774 mouse macrophages and Fu5AH cells, and on other parameters in the

  3. Three dimensional numerical simulation of a full scale CANDU reactor moderator to study temperature fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarchami, Araz; Ashgriz, Nasser; Kwee, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D model of a Candu reactor is modeled to investigate flow distribution. • The results show the temperature distribution is not symmetrical. • Temperature contours show the hot regions at the top left-hand side of the tank. • Interactions of momentum flows and buoyancy flows create circulation zones. • The results indicate that the moderator tank operates in the buoyancy driven mode. -- Abstract: Three dimensional numerical simulations are conducted on a full scale CANDU Moderator and transient variations of the temperature and velocity distributions inside the tank are determined. The results show that the flow and temperature distributions inside the moderator tank are three dimensional and no symmetry plane can be identified. Competition between the upward moving buoyancy driven flows and the downward moving momentum driven flows in the center region of the tank, results in the formation of circulation zones. The moderator tank operates in the buoyancy driven mode and any small disturbances in the flow or temperature makes the system unstable and asymmetric. Different types of temperature fluctuations are noted inside the tank: (i) large amplitude are at the boundaries between the hot and cold; (ii) low amplitude are in the core of the tank; (iii) high frequency fluctuations are in the regions with high velocities and (iv) low frequency fluctuations are in the regions with lower velocities

  4. Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Rand, Tatyana A; Didham, Raphael K; Fahrig, Lenore; Batáry, Péter; Bengtsson, Janne; Clough, Yann; Crist, Thomas O; Dormann, Carsten F; Ewers, Robert M; Fründ, Jochen; Holt, Robert D; Holzschuh, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra M; Kleijn, David; Kremen, Claire; Landis, Doug A; Laurance, William; Lindenmayer, David; Scherber, Christoph; Sodhi, Navjot; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thies, Carsten; van der Putten, Wim H; Westphal, Catrin

    2012-08-01

    Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which we hope will encourage more systematic research on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. We organize the eight hypotheses under four overarching themes. Section A: 'landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns' includes (1) the landscape species pool hypothesis-the size of the landscape-wide species pool moderates local (alpha) biodiversity, and (2) the dominance of beta diversity hypothesis-landscape-moderated dissimilarity of local communities determines landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Section B: 'landscape moderation of population dynamics' includes (3) the cross-habitat spillover hypothesis-landscape-moderated spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes and (4) the landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesis-spatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations with functional consequences. Section C: 'landscape moderation of functional trait selection' includes (5) the landscape-moderated functional trait selection hypothesis-landscape moderation of species trait selection shapes the functional role and trajectory of community assembly, and (6) the landscape-moderated insurance hypothesis-landscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. high resilience and stability of ecological processes in changing environments. Section D: 'landscape constraints on

  5. Coupled hydrogen moderator optimization with ortho/para hydrogen ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Teshigawara, Makoto; Watanabe, Noboru; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2004-01-01

    Neutronic performance of a coupled hydrogen moderator was studied as a function of para hydrogen concentration, moderator thickness and height, premoderator thickness, etc. for the J-PARC spallation neutron source. It was found that a thick (140 mm) moderator with 100% para-hydrogen was optimal to provide a high time- and energy-integrated neutron intensity below 15 meV and high pulse-peak intensities at lower energies. Distribution of the cold neutrons on a moderator viewed surface was studied and found to exhibit an intensity-enhanced region at the fringe part near the premoderator. This rather peculiar distribution suggested that the moderator and the viewed surface must be designed so as to take the full advantage of the brighter region near the premoderator

  6. The effectivty of hydrogeneous moderators in pulsed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rief, H.; Hartman, J.

    1975-01-01

    Guide lines are provided for an evaluation of the potential of pulsed reactors. In the SORA reactor, neutrons emitted from the fast core are converted in hydrogeneous moderators to beams of low energy neutrons for time of flight experiments. The important characteristics of the neutron sources are absolute intensity of the neutron beam and its energy and time distribution. The problem is solved mathematcially by the random walk (Monte Carlo) method. Calculational methods which are described are compared with pulsed moderator measurements. The choice of moderators and criteria of optimization are discussed. Particular examples of realistic moderator design as planned for SOYA, and as they will be used in pulsed reactors, are analysed, a distinction being made between thermal, cold, and hot moderators. Finally flux estimates are compared with those obtained for a spallation target. (U.K.)

  7. Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James A; Allen, John J B

    2004-10-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry appears to serve as (1) an individual difference variable related to emotional responding and emotional disorders, and (2) a state-dependent concomitant of emotional responding. Such findings, highlighted in this review, suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry may serve as both a moderator and a mediator of emotion- and motivation-related constructs. Unequivocal evidence supporting frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and/or mediator of emotion is lacking, as insufficient attention has been given to analyzing the frontal EEG asymmetries in terms of moderators and mediators. The present report reviews the frontal EEG asymmetry literature from the framework of moderators and mediators, and overviews data analytic strategies that would support claims of moderation and mediation.

  8. Demonstration and evaluation of a method for assessing mediated moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; MacKinnon, David P

    2006-02-01

    Mediated moderation occurs when the interaction between two variables affects a mediator, which then affects a dependent variable. In this article, we describe the mediated moderation model and evaluate it with a statistical simulation using an adaptation of product-of-coefficients methods to assess mediation. We also demonstrate the use of this method with a substantive example from the adolescent tobacco literature. In the simulation, relative bias (RB) in point estimates and standard errors did not exceed problematic levels of +/- 10% although systematic variability in RB was accounted for by parameter size, sample size, and nonzero direct effects. Power to detect mediated moderation effects appears to be severely compromised under one particular combination of conditions: when the component variables that make up the interaction terms are correlated and partial mediated moderation exists. Implications for the estimation of mediated moderation effects in experimental and nonexperimental research are discussed.

  9. Moderators of Implicit-Explicit Exercise Cognition Concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Rodgers, Wendy M; Markland, David; Hall, Craig R

    2016-12-01

    Investigating implicit-explicit concordance can aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and possible intervention effects. This research examined the concordance between implicit associations of exercise with health or appearance and related explicit motives. Variables considered as possible moderators were behavioral regulations, explicit attitudes, and social desirability. Participants (N = 454) completed measures of implicit associations of exercise with health and appearance and questionnaire measures of health and appearance motives, attitudes, social desirability, and behavioral regulations. Attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between implicit associations of exercise with health and health motives. Identified regulations significantly moderated implicit-explicit concordance with respect to associations with appearance. These results suggest that implicit and explicit exercise-related cognitions are not necessarily independent and their relationship to each other may be moderated by attitudes or some forms of behavioral regulation. Future research that takes a dual-processing approach to exercise behavior should consider potential theoretical moderators of concordance.

  10. Validation of moderator-level reactivity coefficient using station data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younis, M.; Martchouk, I., E-mail: mohamed.younis@amecfw.com, E-mail: iouri.martchouk@amecfw.com [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, ON (Canada); Buchan, P.D., E-mail: david.buchan@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    The reactivity effect due to variations in the moderator level has been recognized as a reactor physics phenomenon of importance during normal operation and accident analysis. The moderator-level reactivity coefficient is an important parameter in safety analysis of CANDU reactors, e.g., during Loss of Moderator Heat Sink as well as in the simulation of Reactor Regulating System action in CANDU reactors that use moderator level for reactivity control. This paper presents the results of the validation exercise of the reactor-physics toolset using the measurements performed in Pickering Unit 4 in 2003. The capability of the code suite of predicting moderator-level reactivity effect was tested by comparing measured and predicted reactor-physics parameters. (author)

  11. Moderators elements of entrepreneurship. Gender differences

    OpenAIRE

    M. José Portillo Navarro; Ana Millán Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on reviewing, through a competency analysis, the factors that favor or limit female entrepreneurship. Elements that affect both individually, as that influence from the environment are considered. The results show that relational capital, ideology, education, social class and age are important variables that may stimulate or restrain entrepreneurship in women entrepreneurs. As for the contextual factors of note are financing, the geographic scope, taxation and economic se...

  12. Students' Perceptions of Online Discussions, Participation and E-Moderation Behaviours in Peer-Moderated Asynchronous Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirian, Hajar; Fauzi Mohd Ayub, Ahmad; Salehi, Keyvan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' perceptions of online discussions, participation and e-moderation behaviours in peer-moderated asynchronous online discussions. Using survey data, the learning system's activity log and discussion transcripts, the authors analysed how 84 learners' perceptions of online…

  13. Thermal-hydraulic experiments and analyses for cold moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2003-01-01

    Cold moderators using liquid hydrogen are one of the key components in a MW-scale target system working as a spallation neutron source. The cold moderators directly affect the neutronic performance both in intensity and resolution. Cold moderator vessels are designed to be flat and cylindrical type vessels, which are required to realize and uniform temperature distribution in the vessel to obtain better neutronic performance. Velocity distributions in the moderator vessels, affecting the temperature distributions, were measured by using moderator models under water flowing conditions. In the experiments, jet-induced flows such as recirculation flows and stagnant regions were observed. For the flat type moderator vessel, the analytical results of velocity distributions using a standard k-ε turbulence model agreed well with experimental results obtained with a PIV system. However, for the cylindrical type moderator vessel, especially predicted heat transfer coefficients on a bottom of the vessel were much lower than the experimental results, which gave conservative analytical result of temperature. (author)

  14. Moderation analysis with missing data in the predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    The most widely used statistical model for conducting moderation analysis is the moderated multiple regression (MMR) model. In MMR modeling, missing data could pose a challenge, mainly because the interaction term is a product of two or more variables and thus is a nonlinear function of the involved variables. In this study, we consider a simple MMR model, where the effect of the focal predictor X on the outcome Y is moderated by a moderator U. The primary interest is to find ways of estimating and testing the moderation effect with the existence of missing data in X. We mainly focus on cases when X is missing completely at random (MCAR) and missing at random (MAR). Three methods are compared: (a) Normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood estimation (NML); (b) Normal-distribution-based multiple imputation (NMI); and (c) Bayesian estimation (BE). Via simulations, we found that NML and NMI could lead to biased estimates of moderation effects under MAR missingness mechanism. The BE method outperformed NMI and NML for MMR modeling with missing data in the focal predictor, missingness depending on the moderator and/or auxiliary variables, and correctly specified distributions for the focal predictor. In addition, more robust BE methods are needed in terms of the distribution mis-specification problem of the focal predictor. An empirical example was used to illustrate the applications of the methods with a simple sensitivity analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Concept of Moderation Among Islamic Pious Predecessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumsudin Yabi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Islam is religion of simplicity, moderation, just and perfect that leads its followers to the rightful path. Moderation is an important aspect in our daily life. Prophet Muhammad praise be upon him (PBUH moderate lifestyle is a perfect exemplary. These exemplary has been adapted by previous Islamic scholars in their daily life thus they had emphasized the importance of understanding Al-Quran and Sunnah based on the understanding of previous pious predecessors. Some of the factors that had caused the digression are the diversion, misunderstanding and misinterpretation resulting to improper understanding of the concept on moderation. All these had caused misunderstanding and conflict of interests among us that had caused a disaster to the community. Results of the study found that the pious predecessors had drawn the concepts of moderations in five aspects of life. They are moderation in doing justice and goodness, doing pious deeds, in managing the economic and financial, in following the rightful path and finally moderation in leading our daily life following the exemplary of Prophet Muhammad PBUH.

  16. Measuring device for the temperature coefficient of reactor moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yuzo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly determine by automatic calculation the temperature coefficient for moderators which has been determined so far by a log of manual processings. Constitution: Each of signals from a control rod position indicator, a reactor reactivity, instrument and moderator temperature meter are inputted, and each of the signals and designed valued for the doppler temperature coefficients are stored. Recurling calculation is conducted based on the reactivity and the moderator temperature at an interval where the temperature changes of the moderators are equalized at an identical control rod position, to determine isothermic coefficient. Then, the temperature coefficient for moderator are calculated from the isothermic coefficient and the doppler temperature coefficient. The relationship between the reactivity and the moderator temperature is plotted on a X-Y recorder. The stored signals and the calculated temperature coefficient for moderators are sequentially displayed and the results are printed out when the measurement is completed. According to the present device, since the real time processing is conducted, the processing time can be shortened remarkably. Accordingly, it is possible to save the man power for the test of the nuclear reactor and improve the reactor operation performance. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Ballooning mode stabilization by moderate sheared rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameiri, E.

    1996-01-01

    Sheared toroidal plasma rotation has been known for some time to have a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A recent calculation showed that a large flow shear, with dΩ/dq of the order of the Alfven toroidal frequency, can stabilize the ballooning modes. This latest result is, in fact, not so optimistic. For observed flows with Mach number of order unity one gets dΩ/dq smaller by a factor O(√β) from the required level (if the flow shear length is of the same order as the magnetic shear length). Moreover, the calculation does not take into account a possibly large transient growth of the mode amplitude due to its Floquet structures We show here that, in fact, there is a general tendency of the ballooning mode to stabilize as soon as the flow shear dΩ/dq exceeds the (O√β smaller) open-quotes slowclose quotes magnetosonic wave frequency. Our analysis is perturbative, where the small parameter is related to the small coupling between the slow and Alfven waves-as is the case in a high aspect-ratio tokamak. (In the perturbation it is important to take the Hamiltonian nature of the governing equations into account.) Moreover, our results apply to the relevant transient growth of the mode amplitude

  18. Does Apolipoprotein e4 Status Moderate the Association of Family Environment with Long-Term Child Functioning following Early Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury? A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Martin, Lisa J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Wade, Shari L; Kurowski, Brad G

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether apolipoprotein e4 (APOE) status moderates the association of family environment with child functioning following early traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-five children with moderate to severe TBI and 70 children with orthopedic injury (OI) completed assessments 6, 12, 18 months, and 3.5 and 6.8 years post injury. DNA was extracted from saliva samples and genotyped for APOE e4 status. Linear mixed models examined moderating effects of APOE e4 status on associations between two family environment factors (parenting style, home environment) and three child outcomes (executive functioning, behavioral adjustment, adaptive functioning). Children with TBI who were carriers of the e4 allele showed poorer adaptive functioning relative to non-carriers with TBI and children with OI in the context of low authoritarianism. At high levels of authoritarianism, non-carriers with TBI showed the poorest adaptive functioning among groups. There were no main effects or interactions involving APOE and executive functioning or behavioral adjustment. The APOE e4 allele was detrimental for long-term adaptive functioning in the context of positive parenting, whereas in less optimal parenting contexts, being a non-carrier was detrimental. We provide preliminary evidence for an interaction of APOE e4 status and parenting style in predicting long-term outcomes following early TBI. (JINS, 2016, 22, 859-864).

  19. Prior storm experience moderates water surge perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Webster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme water speeds and how does their perception affect perceived risk? Prior research has focused on the characteristics of moving water that can reduce human stability or balance. The current research presents the first experiment on people's perceptions of risk and moving water at different speeds and depths. METHODS: Using a randomized within-person 2 (water depth: 0.45, 0.90 m ×3 (water speed: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 m/s experiment, we immersed 76 people in moving water and asked them to estimate water speed and the risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people increasingly overestimated water speeds as actual water speeds increased or as water depth increased. Water speed perceptions mediated the direct positive relationship between actual water speeds and perceptions of risk; the faster the moving water, the greater the perceived risk. Participants' prior experience with rip currents and tropical cyclones moderated the strength of the actual-perceived water speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced no rip currents or fewer storms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a clearer understanding of water speed and risk perception, which may help communicate the risks associated with anticipated floods and tropical cyclones.

  20. Hippocampal electrical activity of adult rabbits during moderate passive hyperventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchard, Francoise

    1982-01-01

    The effects of a moderate passive hyperventilation (HV) were studied in immobilized un-anesthetized rabbits. Hypocapnia (PCO 2 = 23.3 ± 2.8 mm Hg) and alkalosis (pH = 7.54 ± 0.07) were measured on arterial samples. PO 2 remained stable. The following results were obtained. From the onset of HV, the mean discharge rate (F) of the pyramidal cells (CA 1 ) was modified. Several types of cellular behaviours were defined according to whether F decreased (51 pc of the neurons), increased (39 pc) or remained stable (6 pc). The most marked effect was observed 15 min after HV onset when 87 pc of cells showed a discharge rate lower than in controls. Whatever F variations, the temporal organization of the action potentials remained unchanged in 71 pc of cases. The evoked response resulting from the stimulation of the commissural inputs corresponded with the activity of GABA inhibitory neurons (basket cells). The response threshold, amplitude and latency were not modified by HV. Only the facilitation process resulting from paired pulses was modified in its late stage. These results as well as those concerning unit activity do not support various assumption such as trouble of the neuronal energetic metabolism due to hypoxia, modification of ionic exchanges (Na + , K + , Ca ++ ), or variations of neurotransmitter concentrations (especially GABA). The effects observed could be ascribed to modifications of neuronal membrane resting potential resulting from direct action of CO 2 and alkalosis. (author) [fr

  1. Immunogenicity moderation effect of interleukin-24 on myelogenous leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Miao, Jingcheng; Xia, Wei; Gu, Zong-Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that interleukin-24 (IL-24) has tumor-suppressing activity by multiple pathways. However, the immunogenicity moderation effect of IL-24 on malignant cells has not been explored extensively. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-24 in immunogenicity modulation of the myelogenous leukemia cells. Data show that myelogenous leukemia cells express low levels of immunogenicity molecules. Treatment with IL-24 could enhance leukemia cell immunogenicity, predominantly regulate leukemia cells to produce immune-associated cytokines, and improve the cytotoxic sensitivity of these cells to immune effector cells. IL-24 expression could retard transplanted leukemia cell tumor growth in vivo in athymic nude mice. Moreover, IL-24 had marked effects on downregulating the expression of angiogenesis-related proteins vascular endothelial growth factor, cluster of differentiation (CD) 31, CD34, collagen IV and metastasis-related factors CD147, membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and MMP-2 and MMP-9 in transplanted tumors. These findings indicated novel functions of this antitumor gene and characterized IL-24 as a promising agent for further clinical trial for hematologic malignancy immunotherapy.

  2. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbing Tang

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors, the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level.

  3. [Impaired lung function in patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, paO2 and paCO2 were determined in 22 patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis (FEV1, 79-50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency, 90.9% of the patients had lung volume and capacity changes; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was present in 72.7%. Bronchial patency impairments were manifested by a decrease in FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and an increase in Raw, Rin, Rex. Changes in the lung volumes and capacities appeared as higher RV, TGV, TLC, lower VC and FVC. Pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as a reduction in pO2 and DLCO-SS a reduction and an increase in paCO2. The magnitude of the functional changes observed in most patients was low. Significant and pronounced disorders were seen in one third of the patients.

  4. Foraminiferal proxies for pollution monitoring in moderately polluted harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armynot du Chatelet, E.; Debenay, J.-P.; Soulard, R.

    2004-01-01

    Foraminiferal density and species richness that decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration may be used as pollution indicators. - Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as environmental bio-indicators, especially in polluted environments where their sensitivity to pollutants may be expressed by a modification of the assemblages. Eighteen sediment samples were collected in September 2000 in five harbors located in moderately polluted estuaries on the coast of Vendee (France) for the study of foraminiferal assemblages. Ten heavy metals and 13 PAH have been analyzed from the sediments. The marine to continental estuarine gradient has a prevalent influence on the foraminiferal distribution. However, the results show that foraminiferal density and species richness of the assemblages decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration, and therefore may be used as pollution indicators. Moreover, the more polluted areas are dominated by the tolerant pioneer species Haynesina germanica that may be used as bio-indicator of pollution, mainly in the uppermost areas

  5. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Moderately nonlinear ultrasound propagation in blood-mimicking fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Nikolay A; Vince, D Geoffrey

    2004-04-01

    In medical diagnostic ultrasound (US), higher than-in-water nonlinearity of body fluids and tissue usually does not produce strong nonlinearly distorted waves because of the high absorption. The relative influence of absorption and nonlinearity can be characterized by the Gol'dberg number Gamma. There are two limiting cases in nonlinear acoustics: weak waves (Gamma 1). However, at diagnostic frequencies in tissue and body fluids, the nonlinear effects and effects of absorption more likely are comparable (Gol'dberg number Gamma approximately 1). The aim of this work was to study the nonlinear propagation of a moderately nonlinear US second harmonic signal in a blood-mimicking fluid. Quasilinear solutions to the KZK equation are presented, assuming radiation from a flat and geometrically focused circular Gaussian source. The solutions are expressed in a new simplified closed form and are in very good agreement with those of previous studies measuring and modeling Gaussian beams. The solutions also show good agreement with the measurements of the beams produced by commercially available transducers, even without special Gaussian shading.

  7. Sentence comprehension following moderate closed head injury in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2012-09-01

    The current study explores sentence comprehension impairments among adults following moderate closed head injury. It was hypothesized that if the factor of syntactic complexity significantly affects sentence comprehension in these patients, it would testify to the existence of syntactic processing deficit along with working-memory problems. Thirty-six adults (18 closed head injury patients and 18 healthy controls matched in age, gender, and IQ) participated in the study. A picture-sentence matching task together with various tests for memory, language, and reading abilities were used to explore whether sentence comprehension impairments exist as a result of a deficit in syntactic processing or of working-memory dysfunction. Results indicate significant impairment in sentence comprehension among adults with closed head injury compared with their non-head-injured peers. Results also reveal that closed head injury patients demonstrate considerable decline in working memory, short-term memory, and semantic knowledge. Analysis of the results shows that memory impairment and syntactic complexity contribute significantly to sentence comprehension difficulties in closed head injury patients. At the same time, the presentation mode (spoken or written language) was found to have no effect on comprehension among adults with closed head injury, and their reading abilities appear to be relatively intact.

  8. In-core LOCA (PTR) analysis with poisoned moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. R.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, T. M.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, Yun Ho; Choi, Hoon

    2005-01-01

    CANDU reactors have been analyzed and evaluated for the postulated in-core LOCA while the reactor is operating normally with low moderator poison concentration. However, when the reactor is operating with relatively large amounts of boron and/or gadolinium poisons in the moderator, the assessment for fuel integrity was required for pressure tube rupture (PTR) accident. The methodology of in-core LOCA analysis with poisoned moderator is developed to determine the effective trip parameters, evaluate the fuel integrity, and establish the standard reactor start-up model for CANDU reactor recently. The developed methodology and results are presented

  9. Moderation of antidepressant response by the serotonin transporter gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huezo-Diaz, Patricia; Uher, Rudolf; Smith, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background: There have been conflicting reports on whether the length polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the antidepressant effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We hypothesised that the pharmacogenetic effect of 5-HTTLPR...... the serotonin transporter gene were genotyped in 795 adults with moderate-to-severe depression treated with escitalopram or nortriptyline in the Genome Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. Results: The 5-HTTLPR moderated the response to escitalopram, with long-allele carriers improving more...

  10. Moderator material for neutrons and use of said material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiismaeki, P.; Auterinen, I.

    1994-01-01

    The invention concerns a moderator material used for mediation of high-velocity neutrons, in particular of fission neutrons, to epithermal neutrons. The principal components of the moderator material are aluminum fluoride and aluminum metal, which have been formed into a dense composite substantially free of pores, wherein the material contains 20-50 percent-vol. of aluminum metal and 80-50 percent-vol. aluminum fluoride. Further, the use of the moderator material in accordance with the invention in neutron capture therapy of cancer tumours is described, such as in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

  11. Effects of various moderators on the critical mass of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The fissile material storage tanks in the Hanford Plutonium Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) in Richland, Washington, are presently being upgraded. During the design and planning phase of this modification, criticality analysis was necessary to compare potential moderator/absorber materials used as isolators between tanks. A parameter study was performed to assist in determining the appropriate moderator material to be used in the plutonium nitrate storage tank system in the mix room at the CML. Four moderator/absorber materials were identified as providing adequate isolation between the tanks

  12. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  13. Estimating Source Duration for Moderate and Large Earthquakes in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Yen; Hwang, Ruey-Der; Ho, Chien-Yin; Lin, Tzu-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Estimating Source Duration for Moderate and Large Earthquakes in Taiwan Wen-Yen Chang1, Ruey-Der Hwang2, Chien-Yin Ho3 and Tzu-Wei Lin4 1 Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC 2Department of Geology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC 3Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC 4Seismology Center, Central Weather Bureau, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC ABSTRACT To construct a relationship between seismic moment (M0) and source duration (t) was important for seismic hazard in Taiwan, where earthquakes were quite active. In this study, we used a proposed inversion process using teleseismic P-waves to derive the M0-t relationship in the Taiwan region for the first time. Fifteen earthquakes with MW 5.5-7.1 and focal depths of less than 40 km were adopted. The inversion process could simultaneously determine source duration, focal depth, and pseudo radiation patterns of direct P-wave and two depth phases, by which M0 and fault plane solutions were estimated. Results showed that the estimated t ranging from 2.7 to 24.9 sec varied with one-third power of M0. That is, M0 is proportional to t**3, and then the relationship between both of them was M0=0.76*10**23(t)**3 , where M0 in dyne-cm and t in second. The M0-t relationship derived from this study was very close to those determined from global moderate to large earthquakes. For further understanding the validity in the derived relationship, through the constructed relationship of M0-, we inferred the source duration of the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake with M0=2-5*10**27 dyne-cm (corresponding to Mw = 7.5-7.7) to be approximately 29-40 sec, in agreement with many previous studies for source duration (28-42 sec).

  14. Relationship of moderate and low isometric lumbar extension through architectural and muscular activity variables: a cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    No study relating the changes obtained in the architecture of erector spinae (ES) muscle were registered with ultrasound and different intensities of muscle contraction recorded by surface EMG (electromyography) on the ES muscle was found. The aim of this study was analyse the relationship in the response of the ES muscle during isometric moderate and light lumbar isometric extension considering architecture and functional muscle variables. Cross-sectional study. 46 subjects (52% men) with a group mean age of 30.4 (±7.78). The participants developed isometric lumbar extension while performing moderate and low isometric trunk and hip extension in a sitting position with hips flexed 90 degrees and the lumbar spine in neutral position. During these measurements, electromyography recordings and ultrasound images were taken bilaterally. Bilaterally pennation angle, muscle thickness, torque and muscle activation were measured. This study was developed at the human movement analysis laboratory of the Health Science Faculty of the University of Malaga (Spain). Strong and moderate correlations were found at moderate and low intensities contraction between the variable of the same intensity, with correlation values ranging from 0.726 (Torque Moderate – EMG Left Moderate) to 0.923 (Angle Left Light – Angle Right Light) (p < 0.001). This correlation is observed between the variables that describe the same intensity of contraction, showing a poor correlation between variables of different intensities. There is a strong relationship between architecture and function variables of ES muscle when describe an isometric lumbar extension at light or moderate intensity

  15. Effect of Flow Configuration on Velocity and Temperature Distribution of Moderator Inside 540 MWe PHWR Calandria using CFD Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharj, J.S.; Sahaya, R.R.; Datta, D.; Dharne, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    The calandria of a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) is a horizontal cylindrical vessel housing a matrix of horizontal tubes called calandria tubes, through which pass the pressure tubes that house the fuel bundles. The calandria is filled with heavy water acting as moderator. A large amount of heat (about 95 MW) is generated within the moderator mainly due to neutron slowing down and attenuation of gamma radiations. In the present configuration of 540 MWe calandria, moderator inlet diffusers are directed upwards and the outlet is from the bottom of the calandria. This configuration is not conducive for the buoyancy-dominated flows generated due to large volumetric heat generation in the moderator. In order to decide the effects of changes in flow configuration by changing location/direction of inlet/outlet nozzles, a study was done for moderator flows in the using PHOENICS CFD software. The results of study with various flow configurations show that modification in moderator flow configuration, reduces the peak temperature of moderator in calandria by about 12 deg C as well as gives a much more uniform temperature distribution. (authors)

  16. Unemployment, Parental Distress and Youth Emotional Well-Being: The Moderation Roles of Parent-Youth Relationship and Financial Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Marques, Adilson; Neville, Fergus G; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M

    2016-10-01

    We investigated, in a sample of 112 unemployed parents of adolescents aged 10-19 years, the links between parental distress and change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment, and the moderation roles of parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations. Further, simple moderation, additive moderation, and moderated moderation models of regression were performed to analyze the effects of parental distress, parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation in predicting change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. Results show that parental distress moderated by parent-youth relationship predicted levels of change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. This study provides evidence that during job loss, parental distress is linked to youth emotional well-being and that parent-youth relationships play an important moderation role. This raises the importance of further researching parental distress impacts on youth well-being, especially during periods of high unemployment rates.

  17. Neutron moderation at very low temperatures (1691); Moderation des neutrons aux tres basses temperatures (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-04-15

    Starting from Harwell experiment carried out inside a low-power reactor, we intended to maintain a liquid hydrogen cell in a channel of the EL3 reactor (at Saclay) whose thermal neutrons flux is 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s. We tried to work out a device giving off an important beam of cold neutrons and able to operate in a way as automatic as possible during many consecutive day without a stop. Several circuits have already been achieved at very low temperatures but they brought out volumes and fluxes much lower than those we used this time. The difficulties we have met in carrying out such a device arose on the one hand from the very high energy release to which any kind of experiment is inevitably submitted when placed near the core of the reactor, on the other, hand from the very little room which is available in experimental channels of reactors. In such condition, it is necessary to use a moderator as effective as possible. This study is divided into three parts ; in the first part, we try to determine: a) conditions in which moderation takes place, hence the volume of the cell; b) materials likely to be used at low temperature and in pile; c) cooling system; hence we had to study fluid flow conditions at very low temperatures in very long ducts. The second part is devoted to the description of the device. The third part ventilates the results we have obtained. (author) [French] Partant de l'experience de Harwell faite dans une pile de faible puissance, nous nous sommes propose de maintenir une cellule d'hydrogene liquide dans un canal de la pile EL3 de Saclay dont le flux de neutrons thermiques est de 10{sup 14} neutrons par seconde et par cm{sup 2}. Nous avons cherche a realiser une installation donnant un faisceau de neutrons froids important, et pouvant fonctionner d'une maniere aussi automatique que possible, pendant des periodes de plusieurs jours sans arret. Plusieurs circuits aux tres basses temperatures ont deja ete realises, mais ils ne mettaient

  18. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kate; Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in post-task self-rated alertness scores. The declines in both performance and subjective alertness were attenuated in the chewing-gum group. In particular, correct RTs were significantly shorter following the chewing of gum in the latter stages of the task. Additionally, the gradients of decline for target detection and incline for correct RTs were both attenuated for the chewing-gum group. These findings are consistent with the data of Tucha and Simpson (2011), Appetite, 56, 299-301, who showed beneficial effects of chewing gum in the latter stages of a 30 min visual attention task, and extend their data to a task that necessitates the continuous updating of order memory. It is noteworthy that our data contradict the claim (Kozlov, Hughes, & Jones, 2012, Q. J. Exp. Psychology, 65, 501-513) that chewing gum negatively impacts short-term memory task performance. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Moderator clean-up system in a heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasada, Yasuhiro; Hamamura, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the fluctuation of the poison concentration in heavy water moderator due to a heavy water clean-up system. Constitution: To a calandria tank filled with heavy water as poison-containing moderators, are connected both end of a pipeway through which heavy water flows and to which a clean-up device is provided. Strongly basic resin is filled within the clean-up device and a cooler is disposed to a pipeway at the upstream of the clean-up device. In this structure, the temperature of heavy water at the inlet of the clean-up device at a constant level between the temperature at the exit of the cooler and the lowest temperature for the moderator to thereby decrease the fluctuation in the poison concentration in the heavy water moderator due to the heavy water clean-up device. (Moriyama, K.)

  20. Advertising Spending, Firm Performance, and the Moderating Impact of CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Ahn, Jin Sun

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the potential of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to influence the link between advertising spending and firm performance. Drawing upon the literature of CSR, we hypothesize that CSR positively moderates the relationship between advertising spending and firm perform...

  1. Analysis of the moderating ratio in BWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Xolocostli, V.; Alonso, G.

    2001-01-01

    In all different light water nuclear reactors is very important the fuel assembly design. It has to be designed to achieve safety and efficiency performance in an economical way. The moderating ratio plays a very important role because an adequate election can provide an optimal energy production making the fuel assembly more efficient. This work analyze the moderation ratio as a function of the fuel assembly enrichment and ifs burnup, based on this study the optimal moderation ratio are obtained. Furthermore, based on numerical relations some simulation schemes are proposed to describe the behavior of the infinite multiplication factor as a function of the moderating ratio for a given fuel assembly enrichment at zero burnup. (Author)

  2. Thermal gradients caused by the CANDU moderator circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohindra, V.K.; Vartolomei, M.A.; Scharfenberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    The heavy water moderator circulation system of a CANDU reactor, maintains calandria moderator temperature at power-dependent design values. The temperature differentials between the moderator and the cooler heavy water entering the calandria generate thermal gradients in the reflector and moderator. The resultant small changes in thermal neutron population are detected by the out-of-core ion chambers as small, continuous fluctuations of the Log Rate signals. The impact of the thermal gradients on the frequency of the High Log Rate fluctuations and their amplitude is relatively more pronounced for Bruce A as compared to Bruce B reactors. The root cause of the Log Rate fluctuations was investigated using Bruce Power operating plant information data and the results of the investigation support the interpretation based on the thermal gradient phenomenon. (author)

  3. Low dimensional neutron moderators for enhanced source brightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezei, Ferenc; Zanini, Luca; Takibayev, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In a recent numerical optimization study we have found that liquid para-hydrogen coupled cold neutron moderators deliver 3–5 times higher cold neutron brightness at a spallation neutron source if they take the form of a flat, quasi 2-dimensional disc, in contrast to the conventional more voluminous...... for cold neutrons. This model leads to the conclusions that the optimal shape for high brightness para-hydrogen neutron moderators is the quasi 1-dimensional tube and these low dimensional moderators can also deliver much enhanced cold neutron brightness in fission reactor neutron sources, compared...... to the much more voluminous liquid D2 or H2 moderators currently used. Neutronic simulation calculations confirm both of these theoretical conclusions....

  4. Neutronic studies of a liquid hydrogen-water composite moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, T.; Ooi, M.; Iwasa, H.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Iverson, E.B.; Crabtree, J.A.; Lucas, A.T.

    2001-01-01

    A liquid hydrogen-liquid water composite moderator may provide performance like liquid methane at high-power spallation sources where liquid methane is impractical. We have measured the neutronic properties of such a composite moderator, where a hydrogen layer 1.25 cm thick was closely backed by water layers of 1.75 cm and 3.75 cm thickness. We also studied a moderator in which a 1.75 cm water layer was closely backed by a 1.25 cm hydrogen layer. We further performed simulations for each of these systems for comparison to the experimental results. We observed enhancement of the spectral intensity in the 'thermal' energy range as compared to the spectrum from a conventional liquid hydrogen moderator. This enhancement grew more significant as the water thickness increased, although the pulse shapes became wider as well. (author)

  5. Avoidance orientation moderates the effect of threatening messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Vries, de H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of individual differences in people's dispositional avoidance orientation on the persuasive effects of low- and high-threat messages promoting moderate drinking. First, participents (N = 99) individual differences in avoidance orientation were assessed, after

  6. Development of zirconium hydride highly effective moderator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Changgeng

    2005-10-01

    The zirconium hydride with highly content of hydrogen and low density is new efficient moderator material for space nuclear power reactor. Russia has researched it to use as new highly moderator and radiation protection materials. Japanese has located it between the top of pressure vessel and the main protection as a shelter, the work temperature is rach to 220 degree C. The zirconium hydride moderator blocks are main parts of space nuclear power reactor. Development of zirconium hydride moderator materials have strength research and apply value. Nuclear Power Research and Design Instituteoh China (NPIC) has sep up the hydrogenation device and inspect systems, and accumurate a large of experience about zirconium hydride, also set up a strict system of QA and QC. (authors)

  7. Assessment of the Effects of Moderating Factors of Entrepreneurial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moderating Factors of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) on the performance of ... factors such as cultural orientation and organizational structure (internal factors), social economic factors and political and legal factors (external factors) have a ...

  8. On the neutron slowing-down in moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avançados (IEAV), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisão de Energia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Neutron slowing-down is a very important subject to be considered in several areas of nuclear energy application, such as thermal nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine, radiological protection, detectors design and so on. Moderator materials are the responsible to perform this task and among the neutron induced cross sections, the elastic scattering cross section is the main nuclear interaction in this case. At thermal neutron energies, the moderator molecular or crystalline structure become important and dependent on the moderator phase, gas, liquid, or solid, its cross sections and, consequently, the angular and energy distributions of the scattered neutron are affected. The procedures used for generating correctly moderators cross sections at thermal neutron energies from evaluated nuclear data files utilizing the NJOY system are addressed. (author)

  9. St. John Benthic Habitat Mapping - Moderate Depth Ground Validation Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitats of the moderate-depth marine environment in and around the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument were mapped using a combination of...

  10. Assessment of a Pressure Tube Rupture with a Poisoned Moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. R.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, E. K.

    2005-01-01

    The postulated in-core LOCA has been analyzed and evaluated while the reactor is operating normally with a low moderator poison concentration for CANDU. However, when the reactor is operating with a relatively large amount of boron and/or gadolinium poison in the moderator, an assessment of the fuel integrity was required for the pressure tube rupture (PTR) accident. Poisoned moderator exists mainly during a startup after a prolonged shutdown lasting for more than one day. For the case of a reactor regulating system (RRS) working, the methodology of the PTR assessment with a poisoned moderator has been developed to determine the effective trip parameters, evaluate the fuel integrity, and establish the standard reactor start-up model for the Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants recently. The developed methodology and results are presented

  11. Does intensity of physical activity moderate interrelationships among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine whether perceived intensity of training ... intensity of training and functional capacity with various measures of health. Perceived intensity of training had marginally moderating effects on physical ...

  12. Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Objective: To compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of bone ... second group (B) received mild intensity aerobic exercise training. ..... Using functional loading to influence.

  13. Neutronic performance issues for the Spallation Neutron Source moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, E.B.; Murphy, B.D.

    2001-01-01

    We continue to develop the neutronic models of the Spallation Neutron Source target station and moderators in order to better predict the neutronic performance of the system as a whole and in order to better optimize that performance. While we are not able to say that every model change leads to more intense neutron beams being predicted, we do feel that such changes are advantageous in either performance or in the accuracy of the prediction of performance. We have computationally and experimentally studied the neutronics of hydrogen-water composite moderators such as are proposed for the SNS Project. In performing these studies, we find that the composite moderator, at least in the configuration we have examined, does not provide performance characteristics desirable for the instruments proposed and being designed for this neutron scattering facility. The pulse width as a function of energy is significantly broader than for other moderators, limiting attainable resolution-bandwidth combinations. Furthermore, there is reason to expect that higher-energy (0.1-1 eV) applications will be significantly impacted by bimodal pulse shapes requiring enormous effort to parameterize. As a result of these studies, we have changed the SNS design, and will not use a composite moderator at this time. We have analyzed the depletion of a gadolinium poison plate in a hydrogen moderator at the Spallation Neutron Source, and found that conventional poison thicknesses will be completely unable to last the desired component lifetime of three operational years. A poison plate 300-600 μm thick will survive for the required length of time, but will somewhat degrade the intensity (by as much as 15% depending on neutron energy) and the consistency of the neutron source performance. Our results should scale fairly easily to other moderators on this or any other spallation source. While depletion will be important for all highly-absorbing materials in high-flux regions, we feel it likely that

  14. Profile: a victory for intelligence and moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the Butte Action Committee for the Environment (BAC), its creation, and operation is provided. The Committee was founded in the fall of 1999 near Caroline, Alberta in response to PetroCanada's request for a 30-metre deep water well to pump fresh water for use as a 'waterflood' in an enhanced recovery project. The Committee's reason for existence is to protect Alberta's fresh water resources by encouraging sound water management and raising objection to any uses that may have a negative impact on surface water and aquifers. The Committee was concerned that PetroCanada's plans would interfere with the local water supply and after protracted negotiations convinced the Company to go to another source to satisfy its need for water. While this initial action of BAC was resolved amicably, not all cases have gone so smoothly. The case in point is a dispute with Corsair Exploration over a waterflood application to draw 1,000 cubic meters a day from the North Saskatchewan River. The BAC energized the population, and the application, filed 11 months ago, stalled against the flood of objections that poured into the Alberta Utilities and Energy Board. Eventually, the Board approved the application, but the decision has been challenged by BAC. The Board was forced to listen and is now encouraging the formation of synergy groups such as BAC because they confront potential problems with oil companies early before they cause serious rifts between the industry and the community. The BAC experience shows that when both sides are willing to talk and listen, the results can be mutually beneficial

  15. Calculation of reactivity of control rods in graphite moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1978-01-01

    A study about the method of calculation for the reactivity of control rods in graphite-moderated critical assemblies, is presented. The result of theoretical calculation, developed by super celles and Nordheim-Scalettar methods are compared with experimental results for the critical Assembly of General Atomic. The two methods are then applicable to reactivity calculation of the control rods of graphite moderated critical assemblies [pt

  16. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, A.; Bülow Pedersen, I.; Knudsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism, similar to findings in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to study a possible....... CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of Graves' disease with hyperthyroidism - irrespective of age and sex. Autoimmune thyroid disease seems to be much more dependent on environmental factors than hitherto anticipated....

  17. Management preferences of pediatricians in moderate and severe acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arga, Mustafa; Bakirtas, Arzu; Catal, Ferhat; Derinoz, Oksan; Topal, Erdem; Demirsoy, M Sadik; Turktas, Ipek

    2013-05-01

    To assess and compare management preferences of physicians for moderate and severe acute asthma based on case scenarios and to determine the factors influencing their decisions. A questionnaire based on the Global Initiative on Asthma (GINA) guideline and comprising eight questions on management of acute asthma was delivered to participants of two national pediatric congresses. Management of moderate and severe acute asthma cases was evaluated by two clinical case scenarios for estimation of acute attack severity, initial treatment, treatment after 1h, and discharge recommendations. A uniform answer box comprising the possible choices was provided just below the questions, and respondents were requested to tick the answers they thought was appropriate. Four-hundred and eighteen questionnaires were analyzed. All questions regarding moderate and severe acute asthma case scenarios were answered accurately by 15.8% and 17.0% of physicians, respectively. The initial treatment of moderate and severe cases was known by 100.0% and 78.2% of physicians, respectively. Knowledge of the appropriate plan for treatment after 1h was low both for moderate (45.0%) and severe attacks (35.4%). Discharge recommendations were adequate in 32.5% and 70.8% of physicians for moderate and severe attacks, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that working at a hospital with a continuing medical education program was the only significant predictor of a correct response to all questions regarding severe attacks (p = .04; 95%CI, 1.02-3.21). No predictors were found for information on moderate attacks. Pediatricians have difficulty in planning treatment after 1 hour both for moderate and severe asthma attacks. Postgraduate education programs that target physicians in hospitals without continuing medical education facilities may improve guideline adherence.

  18. Pulsed neutron source cold moderators --- concepts, design and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Guenter S.

    1997-01-01

    Moderator design for pulsed neutron sources is becoming more and more an interface area between source designers and instrument designers. Although there exists a high degree of flexibility, there are also physical and technical limitations. This paper aims at pointing out these limitations and examining ways to extend the current state of moderator technology in order to make the next generation neutron sources even more versatile and flexible tools for science in accordance with the users' requirements. (auth)

  19. Moderation analysis using a two-level regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Cheng, Ying; Maxwell, Scott

    2014-10-01

    Moderation analysis is widely used in social and behavioral research. The most commonly used model for moderation analysis is moderated multiple regression (MMR) in which the explanatory variables of the regression model include product terms, and the model is typically estimated by least squares (LS). This paper argues for a two-level regression model in which the regression coefficients of a criterion variable on predictors are further regressed on moderator variables. An algorithm for estimating the parameters of the two-level model by normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood (NML) is developed. Formulas for the standard errors (SEs) of the parameter estimates are provided and studied. Results indicate that, when heteroscedasticity exists, NML with the two-level model gives more efficient and more accurate parameter estimates than the LS analysis of the MMR model. When error variances are homoscedastic, NML with the two-level model leads to essentially the same results as LS with the MMR model. Most importantly, the two-level regression model permits estimating the percentage of variance of each regression coefficient that is due to moderator variables. When applied to data from General Social Surveys 1991, NML with the two-level model identified a significant moderation effect of race on the regression of job prestige on years of education while LS with the MMR model did not. An R package is also developed and documented to facilitate the application of the two-level model.

  20. Thermal-hydraulic experiments and analyses on cold moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsushi; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    A cold moderator using supercritical hydrogen is one of the key components in a MW-scale spallation target system, which directly affects the neutronic performance both in intensity and resolution. Since a hydrogen temperature rise in the moderator vessel affects the neutronic performance, it is necessary to suppress the local temperature rise within 3 K. In order to develop the conceptual design of the moderator structure in progress, the flow patterns were measured using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimeter) system under water flow conditions using a flat model that simulated a moderator vessel. From these results, the flow patterns (such as recirculation flows, stagnant flows etc.) were clarified. The hydraulic analytical results obtained using the STAR-CD code agreed well with experimental results. Thermal-hydraulic analyses in the moderator vessel were carried out using the STAR-CD code. Based on these results, we clarified the possibility of suppressing the local temperature rise to within 3 K under 2 MW operating conditions. In order to achieve the cost decreasing of the hydrogen loop, it is necessary to operate it reducing the hydrogen flow rate and the whole hydrogen mass. Then improved moderator concept using blowholes and a twisted tape was proposed, and we have tried to examine the effect of the blowing flow from the inlet pipe. From the experimental and analytical results, the blowing flow could be feasible for the suppression of the stagnant region. (author)

  1. Is the Moderating Effect of Social Support on New Korean Mothers' Psychological Distress Contingent on Levels of Marital Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Tae

    2018-03-01

    This study examines how levels of marital quality change the effect of social support on postpartum psychological distress among new Korean mothers using the Panel Study on Korean Children (N = 1585). In accord with findings from previous studies, this study shows that low marital quality negatively affects new mothers' mental health, but that social support alleviates psychological distress independent of marital quality. The main finding of this research is that the moderating effect of social support is contingent on levels of marital quality. Aggregated social support moderates the effects of marital quality on new mothers' mental health only when the level of marital quality is low. Furthermore, each dimension of social support (emotional, informational, and instrumental) only has a moderating effect when marital quality is low. The findings highlight the fact that the moderating effect of social support varies with the individual context and so customized social support that fits individual needs matters for the mental health of new mothers.

  2. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  3. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  4. Graphite-moderated and heavy water-moderated spectral shift controlled reactors; Reactores de moderador solido controlados por desplazamiento espectral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcala Ruiz, F

    1984-07-01

    It has been studied the physical mechanisms related with the spectral shift control method and their general positive effects on economical and non-proliferant aspects (extension of the fuel cycle length and low proliferation index). This methods has been extended to non-hydrogenous fuel cells of high moderator/fuel ratio: heavy water cells have been con- trolled by graphite rods graphite-moderated and gas-cooled cells have been controlled by berylium rods and graphite-moderated and water-cooled cells have been controlled by a changing mixture of heavy and light water. It has been carried out neutron and thermal analysis on a pre design of these types of fuel cells. We have studied its neutron optimization and their fuel cycles, temperature coefficients and proliferation indices. Finally, we have carried out a comparative analysis of the fuel cycles of conventionally controlled PWRs and graphite-moderated, water-cooled and spectral shift controlled reactors. (Author) 71 refs.

  5. The Relation of Moderate Alcohol Consumption to Hyperuricemia in a Rural General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: although alcohol abuse is known to increase serum uric acid, the relation between moderate drinking and uric acid have remained poorly understood. We performed this study to evaluate whether different alcohol consumption level has different effects on the risk of hyperuricemia based on a rural general population. Method: multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years or older. Participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Data regarding the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the blood biochemical indexes of these participants were collected by well-trained personnel. Results: in total, 11,039 participants aged 35 years or older were included (4997 men and 6042 women. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the different male alcohol consumption groups was 11.9% in non-drinkers, 12.6% in moderate drinkers, and 16.3% in heavy drinkers (p < 0.001. In females, the rates were 6.3% in non-drinkers, 8.1% in moderate drinkers, and 6.6% for heavy drinkers (p = 0.818. In males, multivariate logistic regression analyses shows heavy drinkers had an approximately 1.7-fold higher risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.657, 95% CI: 1.368 to 2.007, p < 0.001 than non-drinkers; moderate drinkers did not experience a significant increase in risk (OR: 1.232, 95% CI: 0.951 to 1.596, p = 0.114. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of females showed that, compared with non-drinkers, neither moderate nor heavy drinkers had a significantly increased risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.565, 95% CI: 0.521 to 4.695, p = 0.425 for heavy drinkers; OR: 0.897, 95% CI: 0.117 to 6.855, p = 0.916 for moderate drinkers. Conclusions: heavy alcohol consumption increased the risk of hyperuricemia for males but not for females. Among both males and females, moderate alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of hyperuricemia.

  6. Criticality Data for Spherical 235U, 239Pu, and 237Np Systems Reflector-Moderated by Low Capturing-Moderator Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza, David J.; Stratton, William

    2004-01-01

    The critical dimensions of spherical systems moderated and reflected by low-capturing materials such as D 2 O, BeO, Be, and C were investigated. A parametric study of the critical mass of enriched uranium, plutonium, and neptunium is examined and tabulated. The results obtained expand on the understanding of reflector-moderated critical systems, and they show regions of unstable criticality for 235 U and 239 Pu reflected cores at intermediate densities. This instability is illustrated by calculations of the positive reactivity coefficient of volume expansion. The coefficient is positive, not negative, in the intermediate density region for 235 U and 239 Pu systems. For 237 Np cores reflected by the same moderator, the effect is negligible. The critical dimensions were calculated with the DANTSYS codes using the Hansen-Roach cross-section libraries. This study is both a summary of mostly unpublished calculations and new calculations. Experimental data for these configurations are extremely limited. These are examined in the text when applicable

  7. A randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of premarital intervention: moderators of divorce outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Peterson, Kristina M

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effects of premarital relationship intervention on divorce during the first 8 years of first marriage. Religious organizations were randomly assigned to have couples marrying through them complete the Prevention and Relationship Education Program (PREP) or their naturally occurring premarital services. Results indicated no differences in overall divorce rates between naturally occurring services (n = 44), PREP delivered by clergy at religious organizations (n = 66), or PREP delivered by professionals at a university (n = 83). Three moderators were also tested. Measured premaritally and before intervention, the level of negativity of couples' interactions moderated effects. Specifically, couples observed to have higher levels of negative communication in a video task were more likely to divorce if they received PREP than if they received naturally occurring services; couples with lower levels of premarital negative communication were more likely to remain married if they received PREP. A history of physical aggression in the current relationship before marriage and before intervention showed a similar pattern as a moderator, but the effect was only marginally significant. Family-of-origin background (parental divorce and/or aggression) was not a significant moderator of prevention effects across the two kinds of services. Implications for defining risk, considering divorce as a positive versus negative outcome, the practice of premarital relationship education, and social policy are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. The moderating effect of perceived partner empathy on body image and depression among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Ying; Chang, Hong-Tai; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study were the following: (1) to understand the relationship between women's perceptions of empathy from their partners and their depressive symptoms and body image and (2) to examine the moderating effects of women's perceptions of empathy from their partners on the relationship between body image and depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used, in which a convenience sample of 151 women who completed surgery and the necessary chemotherapy/radiotherapy were recruited from southern Taiwan. A structured questionnaire including the Other Dyadic Perspective-Taking Scale, the Body Image Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were administered. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the moderating effects of empathy from partners between the women's body image and their level of depressive symptoms. The results showed significant relationships between empathy from a partner and depressive symptoms (p  0.05). The moderating effect of empathy from a partner on the relationship between body image and depressive symptoms was also significant (p moderate the impact of body image changes on depressive symptoms. Women's depressive symptoms, resulting from a change in body image after breast cancer surgery, might be minimized if they perceived greater empathy from their partners. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Robust Methods for Moderation Analysis with a Two-Level Regression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miao; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Moderation analysis has many applications in social sciences. Most widely used estimation methods for moderation analysis assume that errors are normally distributed and homoscedastic. When these assumptions are not met, the results from a classical moderation analysis can be misleading. For more reliable moderation analysis, this article proposes two robust methods with a two-level regression model when the predictors do not contain measurement error. One method is based on maximum likelihood with Student's t distribution and the other is based on M-estimators with Huber-type weights. An algorithm for obtaining the robust estimators is developed. Consistent estimates of standard errors of the robust estimators are provided. The robust approaches are compared against normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood (NML) with respect to power and accuracy of parameter estimates through a simulation study. Results show that the robust approaches outperform NML under various distributional conditions. Application of the robust methods is illustrated through a real data example. An R program is developed and documented to facilitate the application of the robust methods.

  10. THE EFFECT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DISCLOSURE ON INVESTOR REACTIONS WITH PROFITABILITY AS MODERATING VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariadi K.L.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to understand how Corporate Governance affects investor’s reaction in capital market by profitability as a moderating variable. This research uses secondary data obtained from Indonesian Stock Exchange. Investor’s reaction is measured by Cumulative Abnormal Return, which happened around the time of annual report publication. Corporate Governance are measured by Institutional ownership, ownership by board of commissioner, audite commite, and independent commissioner. Profitability as moderating variabel is measured by Return on Asset. This research was done to 25 companies which were listed in Indeks LQ 45 in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2015-2016. Data analysis techniques used in this research are regresion analysis and moderated regresion analysis (MRA. The result shows that corporate governance (Institutional ownership, ownership by board of commissioner, audite commite, and independent commissioner negatively affect Cumulative Abnormal Return. Profitability as a moderating variable was able to explain the relationship of corporate governance (ownership by board of commissioner and audite commite affect significantly to Cumulative Abnormal Return partially. Corporate governance does not have any impact to Cumulative Abnormal Return value, because of the implementation of corporate governance in Indonesia is not provide optimum results mean while in the process of considering corporate governance practices take time to know the benefits.

  11. Physiological Responses Underlying the Perception of Effort during Moderate and Heavy Intensity Cycle Ergometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen C. Cochrane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined patterns of responses for physiological and perceptual variables during cycle ergometry at a constant rate of perceived exertion (RPE within the moderate and heavy exercise intensity domains. Nineteen (mean age 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 43.4 ± 2.0 mL·kg−1·min−1 V ˙ O 2 Peak moderately trained cyclists performed an incremental test to exhaustion and two 60 min constant RPE rides at the RPE corresponding to the gas exchange threshold (RPEGET and 15% above the GET (RPEGET+15%. Oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, heart rate (HR, minute ventilation ( V ˙ E , breathing frequency ( ℱ b , and power output (PO were monitored throughout the rides. Polynomial regression analyses showed V ˙ O2, RER, HR, and V ˙ E (correlation = −0.85 to −0.98 tracked the decreases in PO required to maintain a constant RPE. Only ℱ b tracked RPE during the moderate and heavy intensity rides. Repeated measures ANOVAs indicated that V ˙ O2 during the 60 min rides at RPEGET was not different (p > 0.05 from V ˙ O2 at GET from the incremental test to exhaustion. Thus, monitoring intensity using an RPE associated with the GET is sustainable for up to 60 min of cycling exercise and a common mechanism may mediate ℱ b and the perception of effort during moderate and heavy intensity cycle ergometry.

  12. The region-of-origin effect in the purchase of wine: The moderating role of familiarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gallego, J.M.; Chamorro-Mera, A.; García-Galán, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the place-of-origin effect has proliferated in recent decades, although there are still gaps in this field, especially in relation to the region-of-origin (ROO) and to the influence of certain moderating variables on the effect. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the ROO effect in the purchase of wine, paying special attention to the moderating role played by familiarity. Via a survey of 427 consumers carried out in the region of Extremadura (Spain), the paper study how variables as the region's overall image, its image as a wine producer, the perceived quality of its products, and consumer ethnocentrism affect the intention to purchase regional wines. To reach that goal, a structural equation model was applied using the Partial Least Square technique to identify the variables that explain and moderate this intention. The results show the region's overall image (2.65% of contribution to the purchase intentions explained variance), its image as a wine producer (8.39%), the perceived quality of its products (22.42%), and consumer ethnocentrism (10.23%) to affect the purchase intentions directly and indirectly. The confirmation of a moderating effect of familiarity in one of the model relationships contributes to give answer to one of the most significant questions in marketing theory about the origin effect. These results have important managerial implications for policy decision-makers, confirming the value of implementing communication campaigns that pursue improvement of the region's image as a brand. (Author)

  13. Balance and risk of fall in individuals with bilateral mild and moderate knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Nafiseh; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Mehdikhani, Mahboobeh; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Balance is essential for mobility and performing activities of daily living. People with knee osteoarthritis display impairment in knee joint proprioception. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate balance and risk of fall in individuals with bilateral mild and moderate knee osteoarthritis. Sixty subjects aged between 50 and 70 years volunteered in this study. They were categorized into three groups which were healthy (n = 20), mild (n = 20) and moderate (n = 20) bilateral knee osteoarthritis groups. Dynamic and static balance and risk of fall were assessed using Biodex Stability System. In addition, Timed Up and Go test was used as a clinical test for balance. Results of this study illustrated that there were significant differences in balance (dynamic and static) and risk of fall between three groups. In addition, the main (most significant) difference was found to be between healthy group and moderate group. Furthermore, on clinical scoring of balance, the "Timed Up and Go" test, all three groups showed significant difference. In conclusion, bilateral knee osteoarthritis impaired the balance and increased the risk of fall, particularly in people with moderate knee osteoarthritis.

  14. Optimism on quality of life in Portuguese chronic patients: moderator/mediator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Estela; Pais-Ribeiro, José; Silva, Isabel; Pedro, Luísa; Meneses, Rute F; Cardoso, Helena; Silva, António Martins da; Mendonça, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    optimism is an important variable that has consistently been shown to affect adjustment to quality of life in chronic diseases. This study aims to clarify if dispositional optimism exerts a moderating or a mediating influence on the personality traits-quality of life association, in Portuguese chronic patients. multiple regression models were used to test the moderation and mediation effects of dispositional optimism in quality of life. A sample of 729 patients was recruited in Portugal's main hospitals and completed self-reported questionnaires assessing socio-demographic and clinical variables, personality, dispositional optimism, quality of life (QoL) and subjective well-being (SWB). the results of the regression models showed that dispositional optimism did not moderate the relationships between personality traits and quality of life. After controlling for gender, age, education level and severity of disease perception, the effects of personality traits on QoL and in SWB were mediated by dispositional optimism (partially and completely), except for the links between neuroticism/openness to experience and physical health. dispositional optimism is more likely to play a mediating, rather than a moderating role in personality traits-quality of life pathway in Portuguese chronic patients, suggesting that "the expectation that good things will happen" contributes to a better quality of life and subjective well-being.

  15. Optimism on quality of life in Portuguese chronic patients: moderator/mediator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vilhena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: optimism is an important variable that has consistently been shown to affect adjustment to quality of life in chronic diseases. This study aims to clarify if dispositional optimism exerts a moderating or a mediating influence on the personality traits-quality of life association, in Portuguese chronic patients. Methods: multiple regression models were used to test the moderation and mediation effects of dispositional optimism in quality of life. A sample of 729 patients was recruited in Portugal's main hospitals and completed self-reported questionnaires assessing socio-demographic and clinical variables, personality, dispositional optimism, quality of life (QoL and subjective well-being (SWB. Results: the results of the regression models showed that dispositional optimism did not moderate the relationships between personality traits and quality of life. After controlling for gender, age, education level and severity of disease perception, the effects of personality traits on QoL and in SWB were mediated by dispositional optimism (partially and completely, except for the links between neuroticism/openness to experience and physical health. Conclusion: dispositional optimism is more likely to play a mediating, rather than a moderating role in personality traits-quality of life pathway in Portuguese chronic patients, suggesting that "the expectation that good things will happen" contributes to a better quality of life and subjective well-being.

  16. Work and women's well-being: religion and age as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Noraini M

    2008-12-01

    Religion has been found to moderate the stress-strain relationship. This moderator role, however, may be dependent on age. The present study tested for the three-way interaction between work experience, age, and religiosity in the prediction of women's well-being, and predicted that work experience and religiosity will combine additively in older women, while in younger women religiosity is predicted to moderate the relationship between work experience and well-being. In a sample of 389 married Malay Muslim women, results of the regression analyses showed significant three-way interactions between work experience, age, and religiosity in the prediction of well-being (measured by distress symptoms and life satisfaction). While in younger women the results were in line with the predictions made, in the older women, both additive and moderator effects of religiosity were observed, depending on the well-being measures used. These results are discussed in relation to the literature on work and family, with specific reference to women's age, religion, as well as the issue of stress-strain specificity.

  17. The Moderating Effect of Religion on the Relationship Between Depression and Suicidal Ideation in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, JaeHoon; Roh, Daeyoung; Moon, Yoo Sun; Kim, Do Hoon

    2017-08-01

    This article aimed to compare the level of suicidal ideation in the religiously affiliated and nonaffiliated groups and identify the moderating effect of religion variables on the relationship between depression and suicidal ideation. The sample in this study was 1180 residents who were older than 60 years and who resided in Gangwon Province, South Korea. We studied the cross-sectional relationships among religions and studied variables including organizational religious activity (ORA), non-ORA (NORA), intrinsic religiosity (IR), depression, well-being, and suicidal ideation. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, the depression, well-being, and suicidal ideation level in the religiously affiliated group were not significantly different from that of the religiously nonaffiliated group and the variables also were not significantly different between Christians and Buddhists. The effect of depression on suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by ORA and IR, and the effect showed different patterns by religion; ORA was a moderator only among the Buddhist group, and IR only moderated the relationships among the Christians.

  18. For Whom Does Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Work? Moderating Effects of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyklíček, Ivan; Irrmischer, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling for socio-demographic factors. Meditation-naïve participants from the general population self-presenting with psychological stress complaints ( n  = 167 participants, 70% women, mean age 45.8 ± 9.3 years) were assessed in a longitudinal investigation of change in mood before and after the intervention and at a 3-month follow-up. Participants initially scoring high on neuroticism showed stronger decreases in both anxious and depressed mood (both p  moderating effects, when controlled for baseline mood. Only neuroticism showed to be associated with delayed benefit. Results are discussed in the context of findings from similar research using more traditional cognitive-behavioral interventions.

  19. Job Resources and Work Engagement: Optimism as Moderator Among Finnish Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Rumenova Salminen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the moderating role of optimism in the relationship between job resources (organizational climate, job control and work engagement among Finnish young managers ('N' = 747. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that both job resources and optimism exerted a positive effect on work engagement and its three dimensions of vigor, dedication, and absorption. The moderation results showed that optimism can diminish the negative impact of low job resources on work engagement. These findings provide evidence to the importance of including personal resources in future research conducted on motivational process. Additionally, these findings provide significant suggestions for the utilization of these resources in organizational practice too, i.e., in staff recruitment, retention and development.

  20. Entertaining politics, seriously?! : How talk show formats blur conceptual boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schohaus, Birte

    2017-01-01

    What happens behind the scenes of a talk show? Why do some politicians seem to appear on every show while others are hardly ever seen? Birte Schohaus conducted a multi-layered research in which she conducted interviews with journalists, producers, PR advisors and (former) politicians and combined

  1. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  2. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  3. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  4. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  5. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a...

  6. What’s the point of moderation? A discussion of the purposes achieved through contemporary moderation practices

    OpenAIRE

    Bloxham, Susan; Hughes, Clair; Adie, Lenore

    2016-01-01

    An increasingly regulated higher education sector is renewing its attention to those activities referred to as ‘moderation’ in its efforts to ensure that judgements of student achievement are based on appropriate standards. Moderation practices conducted throughout the assessment process can result in purposes identified as equity, justification, accountability and community building. This paper draws on the limited studies of moderation and wider relevant research on judgement, standards and...

  7. Positron reemission: measurement of thin single crystal W(100) films to be used as transmission moderator or re-moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.M.; Lynn, K.G.; Pareja, R.; Nielsen, B.

    1984-11-01

    It has been shown that one can produce thin single crystal W films capable of reemitting positrons at a sufficiently high fraction to be used either as a moderator or as a re-moderator. Both the impurities and the defects could be removed by the appropriate cleaning and annealing procedures, and narrow beam emission could be attained when the films were cleaned. This technique would also be a good method for characterizing defect concentration at interfaces or in thin films

  8. Having mentors and campus social networks moderates the impact of worries and video gaming on depressive symptoms: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Jeong, Bumseok

    2014-05-05

    Easy access to the internet has spawned a wealth of research to investigate the effects of its use on depression. However, one limitation of many previous studies is that they disregard the interactive mechanisms of risk and protective factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate a resilience model in the relationship between worry, daily internet video game playing, daily sleep duration, mentors, social networks and depression, using a moderated mediation analysis. 6068 Korean undergraduate and graduate students participated in this study. The participants completed a web-based mental health screening questionnaire including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and information about number of worries, number of mentors, number of campus social networks, daily sleep duration, daily amount of internet video game playing and daily amount of internet searching on computer or smartphone. A moderated mediation analysis was carried out using the PROCESS macro which allowed the inclusion of mediators and moderator in the same model. The results showed that the daily amount of internet video game playing and daily sleep duration partially mediated the association between the number of worries and the severity of depression. In addition, the mediating effect of the daily amount of internet video game playing was moderated by both the number of mentors and the number of campus social networks. The current findings indicate that the negative impact of worry on depression through internet video game playing can be buffered when students seek to have a number of mentors and campus social networks. Interventions should therefore target individuals who have higher number of worries but seek only a few mentors or campus social networks. Social support via campus mentorship and social networks ameliorate the severity of depression in university students.

  9. Comparison of methods for the determination of boron in heavy water moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.W.; Davey, E.C.; Gulens, J.; Longhurst, T.H.; Mislan, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Five analysis methods were compared for the determination of boron in heavy water moderator: isotope dilution mass spectrometry, spectrophotometry, neutron activation, inductively coupled plasma -atomic emission spectrometry, and ion selective electrode potentiometry. Ten samples were analysed by each method; the results showed close agreement between all of the methods. Only mass spectrometry achieved the required precision ( 10 B concentration must be determined, only mass spectrometry and neutron activation are applicable

  10. Calculation of the fissile mass of a graphite moderated critical assembly using 93% enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, F.; Marzo, M.A.S.; Collussi, I.; Ferreira, A.C.A.

    1976-01-01

    The critical mass of uranium has been calculated for a graphite moderated set fueled with 93% enriched uranium to be mounted on the Instituto de Energia Atomica split table Zero Power Reactor. The core composition was optimized to permit the maximum number of configurations to be studied. Analysis of three core compositions shows that 8 Kg of uranium enriched to 93% - U-235 (by weight) and 100 Kg of thorium would be sufficient for criticality experiments [pt

  11. Inflation and the Great Moderation: Evidence from a Large Panel Data Set

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Karras

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the Great Moderation and two measures of inflation performance: trend inflation and inflation volatility. Using annual data from 1970 to 2011 for a large panel of 180 developed and developing economies, the results show that, as expected, both measures are positively correlated with output volatility. When the two measures are jointly considered, however, and there is sufficient information to identify their effects separately, our empirical...

  12. Trust in Organizational and Workplace Deviant Behavior The Moderating Effect of Locus of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahman Abdul Rahim; Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

    2008-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate the moderating role of locus of control (LOC) in the relationship between trust in organization (TiO) and workplace deviant behavior (WDB). Three forms of deviant behavior are identified: interpersonal deviance, production deviance, and property deviance. The regression analyses carried out on a sample of 355 employees show mixed results. Trust in organization (TiO) demonstrates a negative relationship with production deviance and property deviance. In contrast...

  13. Global a priori estimates for the inhomogeneous Landau equation with moderately soft potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Stephen; Silvestre, Luis; Snelson, Stanley

    2018-05-01

    We establish a priori upper bounds for solutions to the spatially inhomogeneous Landau equation in the case of moderately soft potentials, with arbitrary initial data, under the assumption that mass, energy and entropy densities stay under control. Our pointwise estimates decay polynomially in the velocity variable. We also show that if the initial data satisfies a Gaussian upper bound, this bound is propagated for all positive times.

  14. The Effect of Leverage and Financial Distress on Earnings Management with Good Corporate Governance as the Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anugerah Iman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available t Every investor wants his company’s financial statement to be in accordance with the condition of the company. In practice, it often occurs that a company does profit management to attract investors’ interest. The factors which can increase the practice of profit management are leverage and financial distress. The objective of the research was to find out and to analyze the influence of leverage and financial distress on profit management with good corporate governance as moderating variable in banking companies in Indonesia. The research used descriptive explanatory method. The data were gathered by conducting documentary study. The population was 42 banking companies listed in BEI (Indonesia Stock Exchange and the population target was 30 companies. The gathered data were analyzed by using path analysis with E-views 7.0 Software program. The result of the first model showed that leverage and financial distress simultaneously had positive and significant influence on profit management in banking companies in Indonesia at the coefficient determination (R2 of 0.1243 or 12.43%. Partially, leverage had positive and significant influence on profit management, and financial distress had negative but significant influence on profit management in banking companies in Indonesia. The result of the second model showed that institutional ownership as moderating variable could not weaken and strengthen the influence of financial distress on profit management and was considered as potential moderation. The result of the third model showed that managerial ownership as moderating variable could weaken the influence of leverage on profit management and was stated as quasi moderation. It can also weaken the influence of financial distress on profit management and was stated as quasi moderation. The result of the fourth model showed that independent commissioners as moderating variable could not weaken or strengthen the influence of leverage on profit

  15. Davedan Show Di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ruastiti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini disusun dari hasil penelitian yang bertujuan untuk dapat memahami pertunjukan Davedan Show di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali. Penelitian ini dilakukan karena adanya ketimpangan antara asumsi dan kenyataan di lapangan. Pada umumnya wisatawan yang datang ke Bali hanya senang dan antusias menonton seni pertunjukan pariwisata berbasis seni budaya lokal saja. Tetapi kenyataan ini berbeda. Walaupun Davedan Show tidak dibangun dari seni budaya lokal saja, tetapi kenyataannya wisatawan sangat senang menonton pertunjukan tersebut. Pertanyaannya: bagaimanakah bentuk pertunjukan Davedan Show tersebut?; mengapa wisatawan senang menonton pertunjukan itu?; apa implikasinya bagi pelaku, masyarakat, dan industri pariwisata di Nusa Dua, Bali?. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif, khususnya implementatif partisipatoris yang mengutamakan kerjasama antara periset dengan para informan terkait. Sumber data penelitian ini adalah pertunjukan Davedan itu sendiri, pihak manajemen, para penari, penonton, hasil-hasil penelitian yang telah ada sebelumnya. Seluruh data yang telah dikumpulkan dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, FGD, dan studi kepustakaan itu dianalisis secara kritis dengan menggunakan teori estetika postmodern, teori praktik, dan teori relasi kuasa pengetahuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa: (1 Davedan Show disajikan dalam bentuk oratorium. Hal itu dapat dilihat dari cara penyajian, koreografi, dan iringan pertunjukannya. Davedan Show yang menampilkan tema Treasure of The Archipelago, membuka gerbang petualangan baru itu diiringi musik rekaman etnik Nusantara secara medley, berkelanjutan dengan struktur pertunjukan: seni budaya Bali, Sumatra, Sunda, Solo, Kalimantan, dan seni budaya Papua; (2 Davedan Show banyak diminati wisatawan manca negara karena penciptaan pertunjukan itu dilatari oleh ideologi pasar, ideologi estetika, dan ideologi budaya Nusantara; (3 Hingga kini Davedan Show berkembang secara berkelanjutan di Nusa Dua

  16. Physical particularities of nuclear reactors using heavy moderators of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, G. G.; Shmelev, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear reactors, thermal neutron spectra are formed using moderators with small atomic weights. For fast reactors, inserting such moderators in the core may create problems since they efficiently decelerate the neutrons. In order to form an intermediate neutron spectrum, it is preferable to employ neutron moderators with sufficiently large atomic weights, using "2"3"3U as a fissile nuclide and "2"3"2Th and "2"3"1Pa as fertile ones. The aim of the work is to investigate the properties of heavy neutron moderators and to assess their advantages. The analysis employs the JENDL-4.0 nuclear data library and the SCALE program package for simulating the variation of fuel composition caused by irradiation in the reactor. The following main results are obtained. By using heavy moderators with small neutron moderation steps, one is able to (1) increase the rate of resonance capture, so that the amount of fertile material in the fuel may be reduced while maintaining the breeding factor of the core; (2) use the vacant space for improving the fuel-element properties by adding inert, strong, and thermally conductive materials and by implementing dispersive fuel elements in which the fissile material is self-replenished and neutron multiplication remains stable during the process of fuel burnup; and (3) employ mixtures of different fertile materials with resonance capture cross sections in order to increase the resonance-lattice density and the probability of resonance neutron capture leading to formation of fissile material. The general conclusion is that, by forming an intermediate neutron spectrum with heavy neutron moderators, one can use the fuel more efficiently and improve nuclear safety.

  17. Physical particularities of nuclear reactors using heavy moderators of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, G. G., E-mail: ggkulikov@mephi.ru; Shmelev, A. N. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    In nuclear reactors, thermal neutron spectra are formed using moderators with small atomic weights. For fast reactors, inserting such moderators in the core may create problems since they efficiently decelerate the neutrons. In order to form an intermediate neutron spectrum, it is preferable to employ neutron moderators with sufficiently large atomic weights, using {sup 233}U as a fissile nuclide and {sup 232}Th and {sup 231}Pa as fertile ones. The aim of the work is to investigate the properties of heavy neutron moderators and to assess their advantages. The analysis employs the JENDL-4.0 nuclear data library and the SCALE program package for simulating the variation of fuel composition caused by irradiation in the reactor. The following main results are obtained. By using heavy moderators with small neutron moderation steps, one is able to (1) increase the rate of resonance capture, so that the amount of fertile material in the fuel may be reduced while maintaining the breeding factor of the core; (2) use the vacant space for improving the fuel-element properties by adding inert, strong, and thermally conductive materials and by implementing dispersive fuel elements in which the fissile material is self-replenished and neutron multiplication remains stable during the process of fuel burnup; and (3) employ mixtures of different fertile materials with resonance capture cross sections in order to increase the resonance-lattice density and the probability of resonance neutron capture leading to formation of fissile material. The general conclusion is that, by forming an intermediate neutron spectrum with heavy neutron moderators, one can use the fuel more efficiently and improve nuclear safety.

  18. Individuals underestimate moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karissa L Canning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the common physical activity (PA intensity descriptors used in PA guidelines worldwide align with the associated percent heart rate maximum method used for prescribing relative PA intensities consistently between sexes, ethnicities, age categories and across body mass index (BMI classifications. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine whether individuals properly select light, moderate and vigorous intensity PA using the intensity descriptions in PA guidelines and determine if there are differences in estimation across sex, ethnicity, age and BMI classifications. METHODS: 129 adults were instructed to walk/jog at a "light," "moderate" and "vigorous effort" in a randomized order. The PA intensities were categorized as being below, at or above the following %HRmax ranges of: 50-63% for light, 64-76% for moderate and 77-93% for vigorous effort. RESULTS: On average, people correctly estimated light effort as 51.5±8.3%HRmax but underestimated moderate effort as 58.7±10.7%HRmax and vigorous effort as 69.9±11.9%HRmax. Participants walked at a light intensity (57.4±10.5%HRmax when asked to walk at a pace that provided health benefits, wherein 52% of participants walked at a light effort pace, 19% walked at a moderate effort and 5% walked at a vigorous effort pace. These results did not differ by sex, ethnicity or BMI class. However, younger adults underestimated moderate and vigorous intensity more so than middle-aged adults (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: When the common PA guideline descriptors were aligned with the associated %HRmax ranges, the majority of participants underestimated the intensity of PA that is needed to obtain health benefits. Thus, new subjective descriptions for moderate and vigorous intensity may be warranted to aid individuals in correctly interpreting PA intensities.

  19. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  20. Topical application of ALA PDT for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ling-Lin; Su, Lina; Guo, Ming-Xia; Huang, Zheng

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)- medicated photodynamic therapy (ALA PDT) for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Methods: Sixteen Chinese patients with moderate to severe facial acne were treated with 1-3 courses of ALA PDT. ALA cream (3%) was freshly prepared and applied to acne lesions for 3-4 h. The lesions were irradiated by a 635 nm diode laser at dose levels of 60 - 80 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2. Clinical assessments were conducted before and after treatment up to 3 months. Results: All patents showed response to ALA PDT. Complete clearance was seen in 10 patients (62.5%) and partial clearance in 6 patients (37.5%). One case showed recurrence after complete clearance at 2 months and another two showed recurrence after complete clearance at 3 months. However, the number of new lesions were significantly reduced. Adverse effects were minimal. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary clinical study is encouraging. ALA PDT is a simple, safe and useful therapeutic option for the treatment of moderate to severe acne. Further studies to evaluate the treatment with a larger number of patients and for a longer period of follow-up are needed.

  1. Does Surgical Repair of Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation Improve Survival? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Saurav; Tripathi, Byomesh; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan; Ahmed, Mohammed; Bavishi, Chirag; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Sardar, Partha; Giri, Jay; Omidvari, Karan; Chikwe, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the common complications in myocardial infarction (MI) patients. Almost half of the post MI patients have MR (ischemic MR)(17) which is moderate to severe (grade II-IV). Whether there is a mortality benefit of performing mitral valve repair (MVR) along with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with post MI moderate MR remains inconclusive. Literature search was done from PubMed, Google scholar, Ovid, and Medline databases. Studies which included post MI patients with moderate ischemic MR and reported mortality outcomes of performing CABG and MVR were chosen for the systematic review. Our preliminary literature search identified 194 studies, of which 11 studies met our inclusion criteria. Nine studies showed no survival benefit of performing simultaneous MVR and CABG. One study demonstrated survival benefit of performing CABG plus MVR only in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III-IV, and one study suggested survival benefit of performing CABG plus MVR as compared to CABG alone in patient with ischemic MR irrespective of preoperative NYHA functional class. Review of current literature showed mixed results in terms of improvement in functional status but failed to show any survival benefit of performing MVR along with CABG. Limitations of studies include small sample size, difference in baseline demographic variables, and short follow-up period which might influence the outcome of the study. Prospective randomized studies are required to establish clear benefit of performing MVR simultaneously with CABG.

  2. Mortality associated with moderate intakes of wine, beer, or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic drinks and mortality. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol intake, smoking habit, income, education, and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--6051 men and 7234 women aged 30-70 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of cause-specific deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--The risk of dying steadily decreased with an increasing intake of wine--from a relative risk of 1.00 for the subjects who never drank wine to 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.81) for those who drank three to five glasses a day. Intake of neither beer nor spirits, however, was associated with reduced risk. For spirits intake the relative risk of dying increased from 1.00 for those who never drank to 1.34 (1.05 to 1.71) for those with an intake of three to five drinks a day. The effects of the three types of alcoholic drinks seemed to be independent of each other, and no significant interactions existed with sex, age, education, income, smoking, or body mass index. Wine drinking showed the same relation to risk of death from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease as to risk of death from all causes. CONCLUSION--Low to moderate intake of wine is associated with lower mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and other causes. Similar intake of spirits implied an increased risk, while beer drinking did not affect mortality. PMID:7767150

  3. Berberine Moderates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism through Multipathway Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberine is known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, but the mechanism is still under investigation. In this paper, we explored the effects of berberine on the weight, glucose levels, lipid metabolism, and serum insulin of KKAy mice and investigated its possible glucose and lipid-regulating mechanism. We randomly divided KKAy mice into two groups: berberine group (treated with 250 mg/kg/d berberine and control group. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, weight, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and fasting serum insulin were measured in both groups. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. RT2 PCR array gene expression analysis was performed using skeletal muscle of KKAy mice. Our data demonstrated that berberine significantly decreased FBG, area under the curve (AUC, fasting serum insulin (FINS, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, TC, and TG, compared with those of control group. RT2 profiler PCR array analysis showed that berberine upregulated the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, MAPK8(c-jun N-terminal kinase, JNK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2, and hepatic nuclear factor 4α(HNF4α, whereas it downregulated the expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP, PPARγ coactivator 1α(PGC 1α, and resistin. These results suggest that berberine moderates glucose and lipid metabolism through a multipathway mechanism that includes AMP-activated protein kinase-(AMPK- p38 MAPK-GLUT4, JNK pathway, and PPARα pathway.

  4. marker development for two novel rice genes showing differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... School of Crop Improvement, College of PostGraduate Studies, Central Agricultural University, ... from the root transcriptome data for tolerance to low P. .... Values show a representative result of three independent experiments ...

  5. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  6. Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Army Study Shows Decline in Behavioral Health Stigma By Rob McIlvaine Army News Service WASHINGTON, Jan. 20, 2012 - A newly released Army study on...conference yesterday. The three-year study outlines the problem of suicide in the Army and related issues of substance abuse, spouse abuse and child abuse...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma 5a. CONTRACT

  7. Multicollinearity is a red herring in the search for moderator variables: A guide to interpreting moderated multiple regression models and a critique of Iacobucci, Schneider, Popovich, and Bakamitsos (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Gary H; Irwin, Julie R; Disatnik, David; Sivan, Liron

    2017-02-01

    Multicollinearity is irrelevant to the search for moderator variables, contrary to the implications of Iacobucci, Schneider, Popovich, and Bakamitsos (Behavior Research Methods, 2016, this issue). Multicollinearity is like the red herring in a mystery novel that distracts the statistical detective from the pursuit of a true moderator relationship. We show multicollinearity is completely irrelevant for tests of moderator variables. Furthermore, readers of Iacobucci et al. might be confused by a number of their errors. We note those errors, but more positively, we describe a variety of methods researchers might use to test and interpret their moderated multiple regression models, including two-stage testing, mean-centering, spotlighting, orthogonalizing, and floodlighting without regard to putative issues of multicollinearity. We cite a number of recent studies in the psychological literature in which the researchers used these methods appropriately to test, to interpret, and to report their moderated multiple regression models. We conclude with a set of recommendations for the analysis and reporting of moderated multiple regression that should help researchers better understand their models and facilitate generalizations across studies.

  8. Moderators and predictors of response to behavior therapy for tics in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Woods, Douglas W; Piacentini, John; Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L; Katsovich, Lily; Dziura, James; Walkup, John T; Scahill, Lawrence

    2017-03-14

    To examine moderators and predictors of response to behavior therapy for tics in children and adults with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders. Data from 2 10-week, multisite studies (1 in children and 1 in adults; total n = 248) comparing comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) to psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST) were combined for moderator analyses. Participants (177 male, 71 female) had a mean age of 21.5 ± 13.9 years (range 9-69). Demographic and clinical characteristics, baseline tic-suppressing medication, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders were tested as potential moderators for CBIT vs PST or predictors of outcome regardless of treatment assignment. Main outcomes measures were the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale Total Tic score and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score assessed by masked evaluators. The presence of tic medication significantly moderated response to CBIT vs PST ( p = 0.01). Participants showed tic reduction after CBIT regardless of tic medication status, but only participants receiving tic medication showed reduction of tics after PST. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders, age, sex, family functioning, tic characteristics, and treatment expectancy did not moderate response. Across both treatments, greater tic severity ( p = 0.005) and positive participant expectancy ( p = 0.01) predicted greater tic improvement. Anxiety disorders ( p = 0.042) and premonitory urge severity ( p = 0.005) predicted lower tic reduction. Presence of co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or anxiety disorders did not moderate response to CBIT. Although participants on tic medication showed improvement after CBIT, the difference between CBIT and PST was greater for participants who were not on tic-suppressing medication. The child and adult CBIT studies are listed on clinical trials.gov (NCT00218777 and NCT00231985, respectively). This study provides Class I evidence that

  9. Enhancing neutron beam production with a convoluted moderator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, E.B., E-mail: iversoneb@ornl.gov [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Baxter, D.V. [Center for the Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Muhrer, G. [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ansell, S.; Dalgliesh, R. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Gallmeier, F.X. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kaiser, H. [Center for the Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Lu, W. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    We describe a new concept for a neutron moderating assembly resulting in the more efficient production of slow neutron beams. The Convoluted Moderator, a heterogeneous stack of interleaved moderating material and nearly transparent single-crystal spacers, is a directionally enhanced neutron beam source, improving beam emission over an angular range comparable to the range accepted by neutron beam lines and guides. We have demonstrated gains of 50% in slow neutron intensity for a given fast neutron production rate while simultaneously reducing the wavelength-dependent emission time dispersion by 25%, both coming from a geometric effect in which the neutron beam lines view a large surface area of moderating material in a relatively small volume. Additionally, we have confirmed a Bragg-enhancement effect arising from coherent scattering within the single-crystal spacers. We have not observed hypothesized refractive effects leading to additional gains at long wavelength. In addition to confirmation of the validity of the Convoluted Moderator concept, our measurements provide a series of benchmark experiments suitable for developing simulation and analysis techniques for practical optimization and eventual implementation at slow neutron source facilities.

  10. Delinquent peer affiliation as an etiological moderator of childhood delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S A; Klump, K L

    2013-06-01

    Prior research has indicated that affiliation with delinquent peers activates genetic influences on delinquency during adolescence. However, because other studies have indicated that the socializing effects of delinquent peers vary dramatically across childhood and adolescence, it is unclear whether delinquent peer affiliation (DPA) also moderates genetic influences on delinquency during childhood. Method The current study sought to evaluate whether and how DPA moderated the etiology of delinquency in a sample of 726 child twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). The results robustly supported etiological moderation of childhood delinquency by DPA. However, this effect was observed for shared environmental, rather than genetic, influences. Shared environmental influences on delinquency were found to be several-fold larger in those with higher levels of DPA as compared to those with lower levels. This pattern of results persisted even when controlling for the overlap between delinquency and DPA. Our findings bolster prior work in suggesting that, during childhood, the association between DPA and delinquency is largely (although not solely) attributable to the effects of socialization as compared to selection. They also suggest that the process of etiological moderation is not specific to genetic influences. Latent environmental influences are also amenable to moderation by measured environmental factors.

  11. Summary of the 4th workshop on the reduced-moderation water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, Toru; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Iwamura, Takamichi (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors (RMWRs) has been performed in JAERI for the development of future innovative reactors. The workshop on the RMWRs has been held every year since fiscal 1997 aimed at information exchange between JAERI and other organizations such as universities, laboratories, utilities and vendors. The 4th workshop was held on March 2, 2001 under the joint auspices of JAERI and North Kanto branch of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The workshop began with three lectures on recent research activities in JAERI entitled 'Recent Situation of Research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor', 'Analysis on Electricity Generation Costs of Reduced Moderation Water Reactors' and 'Reprocessing Technology for Spent Mixed-Oxides Fuel from LWR'. Then five lectures followed: 'Micro Reactor Physics of MOX Fueled LWR' which shows the recent results of reactor physics, Fast Reactor Cooled by Supercritical Light Water' which is another type of reduced-moderation reactor, 'Phase 1 of Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System' mainly conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), 'Integral Type Small PWR with Stand-alone Safety' which is intended to suit for the future consumers' needs, and Utilization of Plutonium in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors' which dictates benefits of plutonium utilization with RMWRs. This report includes the original papers presented at the workshop and summaries of the questions and answers for each lecture, as well as presentation handouts, program and participant list as appendixes. The 8 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. 2-D CFD time-dependent thermal-hydraulic simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi Zadeh, Foad [Department of Engineering Physics/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Étienne, Stéphane [Department of Mechanical Engineering/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Teyssedou, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.teyssedou@polymtl.ca [Department of Engineering Physics/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • 2-D time-dependent CFD simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flows are presented. • A thermal-hydraulic code using thermal physical fluid properties is used. • The numerical approach and convergence is validated against available data. • Flow configurations are correlated using Richardson’s number. • Frequency components indicate moderator flow oscillations vs. Richardson numbers. - Abstract: The distribution of the fluid temperature and mass density of the moderator flow in CANDU-6 nuclear power reactors may affect the reactivity coefficient. For this reason, any possible moderator flow configuration and consequently the corresponding temperature distributions must be studied. In particular, the variations of the reactivity may result in major safety issues. For instance, excessive temperature excursions in the vicinity of the calandria tubes nearby local flow stagnation zones, may bring about partial boiling. Moreover, steady-state simulations have shown that for operating condition, intense buoyancy forces may be dominant, which can trigger a thermal stratification. Therefore, the numerical study of the time-dependent flow transition to such a condition, is of fundamental safety concern. Within this framework, this paper presents detailed time-dependent numerical simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flow for a wide range of flow conditions. To get a better insight of the thermal-hydraulic phenomena, the simulations were performed by covering long physical-time periods using an open-source code (Code-Saturne V3) developed by Électricité de France. The results show not only a region where the flow is characterized by coherent structures of flow fluctuations but also the existence of two limit cases where fluid oscillations disappear almost completely.

  13. Summary of the 4th workshop on the reduced-moderation water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Toru; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Iwamura, Takamichi

    2001-09-01

    The research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors (RMWRs) has been performed in JAERI for the development of future innovative reactors. The workshop on the RMWRs has been held every year since fiscal 1997 aimed at information exchange between JAERI and other organizations such as universities, laboratories, utilities and vendors. The 4th workshop was held on March 2, 2001 under the joint auspices of JAERI and North Kanto branch of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The workshop began with three lectures on recent research activities in JAERI entitled 'Recent Situation of Research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor', 'Analysis on Electricity Generation Costs of Reduced Moderation Water Reactors' and 'Reprocessing Technology for Spent Mixed-Oxides Fuel from LWR'. Then five lectures followed: 'Micro Reactor Physics of MOX Fueled LWR' which shows the recent results of reactor physics, Fast Reactor Cooled by Supercritical Light Water' which is another type of reduced-moderation reactor, 'Phase 1 of Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System' mainly conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), 'Integral Type Small PWR with Stand-alone Safety' which is intended to suit for the future consumers' needs, and Utilization of Plutonium in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors' which dictates benefits of plutonium utilization with RMWRs. This report includes the original papers presented at the workshop and summaries of the questions and answers for each lecture, as well as presentation handouts, program and participant list as appendixes. The 8 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. History of sexual trauma moderates psychotherapy outcome for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C; Neria, Yuval; Lovell, Karina; Van Meter, Page E; Petkova, Eva

    2017-08-01

    Moderators of differential psychotherapy outcome for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are rare, yet have crucial clinical importance. We tested the moderating effects of trauma type for three psychotherapies in 110 unmedicated patients with chronic DSM-IV PTSD. Patients were randomized to 14 weeks of prolonged exposure (PE, N = 38), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT, N = 40), or relaxation therapy (RT, N = 32). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was the primary outcome measure. Moderator candidates were trauma type: interpersonal, sexual, physical. We fit a regression model for week 14 CAPS as a function of treatment (a three-level factor), an indicator of trauma type presence/absence, and their interactions, controlling for baseline CAPS, and evaluated potential confounds. Thirty-nine (35%) patients reported sexual, 68 (62%) physical, and 102 (93%) interpersonal trauma. Baseline CAPS scores did not differ by presence/absence of trauma types. Sexual trauma as PTSD criterion A significantly moderated treatment effect: whereas all therapies had similar efficacy among nonsexually-traumatized patients, IPT had greater efficacy among sexually traumatized patients (efficacy difference with and without sexual trauma: IPT vs. PE and IPT vs. RT P's < .05), specifically in PTSD symptom clusters B and D (P's < .05). Few studies have assessed effects of varying trauma types on effects of differing psychotherapies. In this exploratory study, sexual trauma moderated PTSD outcomes of three therapies: IPT showed greater benefit for sexually traumatized patients than PE or RT. The IPT focuses on affect to help patients determine trust in their current environments may particularly benefit patients who have suffered sexual assault. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of moderate beer consumption on health and disease: A consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gaetano, G; Costanzo, S; Di Castelnuovo, A; Badimon, L; Bejko, D; Alkerwi, A; Chiva-Blanch, G; Estruch, R; La Vecchia, C; Panico, S; Pounis, G; Sofi, F; Stranges, S; Trevisan, M; Ursini, F; Cerletti, C; Donati, M B; Iacoviello, L

    2016-06-01

    A large evidence-based review on the effects of a moderate consumption of beer on human health has been conducted by an international panel of experts who reached a full consensus on the present document. Low-moderate (up to 1 drink per day in women, up to 2 in men), non-bingeing beer consumption, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. This effect is similar to that of wine, at comparable alcohol amounts. Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate consumption of either beer or wine may confer greater cardiovascular protection than spirits. Although specific data on beer are not conclusive, observational studies seem to indicate that low-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of developing neurodegenerative disease. There is no evidence that beer drinking is different from other types of alcoholic beverages in respect to risk for some cancers. Evidence consistently suggests a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption (including beer) and all-cause mortality, with lower risk for moderate alcohol consumers than for abstainers or heavy drinkers. Unless they are at high risk for alcohol-related cancers or alcohol dependency, there is no reason to discourage healthy adults who are already regular light-moderate beer consumers from continuing. Consumption of beer, at any dosage, is not recommended for children, adolescents, pregnant women, individuals at risk to develop alcoholism, those with cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, depression, liver and pancreatic diseases, or anyone engaged in actions that require concentration, skill or coordination. In conclusion, although heavy and excessive beer consumption exerts deleterious effects on the human body, with increased disease risks on many organs and is associated to significant social problems such as addiction, accidents, violence and crime, data reported in this document show evidence for no harm of moderate beer consumption for major chronic conditions and some benefit against

  16. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pedagogical Techniques Employed by the Television Show "MythBusters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik

    2016-11-01

    "MythBusters," the long-running though recently discontinued Discovery Channel science entertainment television program, has proven itself to be far more than just a highly rated show. While its focus is on entertainment, the show employs an array of pedagogical techniques to communicate scientific concepts to its audience. These techniques include: achieving active learning, avoiding jargon, employing repetition to ensure comprehension, using captivating demonstrations, cultivating an enthusiastic disposition, and increasing intrinsic motivation to learn. In this content analysis, episodes from the show's 10-year history were examined for these techniques. "MythBusters" represents an untapped source of pedagogical techniques, which science educators may consider availing themselves of in their tireless effort to better reach their students. Physics educators in particular may look to "MythBusters" for inspiration and guidance in how to incorporate these techniques into their own teaching and help their students in the learning process.

  18. The high moderating ratio reactor using 100% MOX reloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbrault, P.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the concept of a High Moderating ratio Reactor, which should accept 100% MOX reloads. This reactor aims to be the plutonium version of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR), which is developed jointly by French and German companies. A moderating ration of 2.5 (instead of the standard value of 2.0) is obtained by replacing several fuel rods by water holes. The core would contain 241 Fuel Assemblies. We present some advantages of over-moderation for plutonium fuel, a description of the core and assemblies, calculations of fuel reload schemes and Reactivity Shutdown Margins, and the behavior of the core during two occidental transients. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Moderator veranderlikes en differensiele geldigheid van die aansoekvorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Bod

    1977-11-01

    Empiriese studies toon dat die Geweegde Aansoekvorm (G.A.V. 'n doeltreffende voorspellingsinstrument in personeelseleksie is. Daar is egter studies wat voorspel dat die voorspellingsgeldigheid van die G.A.V. in die literatuur aansienlik oorbeklemtoon word. Teenstrydig met die beginsels van klassieke psigometriese teorie word voorgestel dat moderator veranderlikes vir hierdie paradoks verantwoordelik is. Hierdie studie toon hoe die biografiese korrelate van dienstyd as moderators fungeer en empiriese bewys van die modererende effek op die voorspellingsgeldigheid van die G.A.V. word gelewer. Daar word voorgestel dat ‘n nuwe benadering tot die ontwikkeling van die G.A.V. noodsaaklik is ten einde die effek van moderators te benut.

  20. European consumers’ perception of moderate wine consumption on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Vecchio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the perceptions that French, Italian and Spanish consumers have about the possible health effects of what they consider to be a moderate wine consumption. Furthermore, it identifies whether the following factors positively or negatively influence consumer opinion – wine appreciation, environmental awareness, environmental labels, local legislation and media coverage. Perceptions were identified through an online survey of 1183 respondents. The respondents perceive wine as a rather healthy product if consumed moderately. Wine appreciation positively influences the perception of a healthy effect of moderate wine consumption. French policies advising constraints on wine consumption indirectly influence consumer opinion about the unhealthy effects caused by wine. French and Spanish consumers with high environmental awareness perceive a wine with an eco-label to be healthier than a conventional one.

  1. The ideology of moderated modernism in Serbian music and musicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The term ′moderated modernism′ has been current for quite some time in Serbian music historiography, but there have been only a few attempts to define it. I shall try to define the term, introduce some of its key concepts and features and demonstrate its applicability. Although moderated modernism was an international phenomenon which had divergent manifestations in various periods before and after the Second World War throughout Europe, my aim is to focus on the period between the decline of Socialist Realism and the ascent of post-modernism (roughly 1950 to 1980 in socialist Serbia, and to discuss the discourses and ideologies surrounding moderated modernism then and there.

  2. Is Familiarity a Moderator of Brand/Country Alliances?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Jaffe, Eugene D.

    2014-01-01

    Product and brand familiarity have an important role in consumer choice behaviour and they have been equated with knowledge and experience Consumers having high and low familiarity utilized brand information (an extrinsic cue) in their evaluations, whereas moderately familiar consumers used...... intrinsic cues (product attributes) in evaluating products. The question of whether familiarity moderates the country-of-origin (COO) effect is a valid one. In this present paper, we attempt to provide additional evidence as to how familiarity with products, brands and countries moderates consumer...... evaluation of brand/country alliances. Specifically, we concentrate on the brand leveraging process identified by Keller (2003) applied to the effect of familiarity on country/brand alliances....

  3. Implications of the Goal Theory on air show programs planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewald Venter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Events have long played an important role in human society (Shone & Parry, 2010: 3. The toils and efforts of daily lives have often been broken up by events of all kinds as humans seek an escape from the harsh reality of existence and events provide the outlet. Events are classified into four categories according to Shone and Parry (2010: 5 namely leisure (sport, recreation, personal (weddings, birthdays, cultural (art, folklore and organizational (politics, commercial. Successful events either match or exceed visitor motives and goals. It is critical that data be collected from visitors to determine their motives and goals in order to satisfy them and thereby encouraging repeat visits. One such event is the annual air show held at the Zwartkop Air Force Base (AFB in Pretoria, South Africa. Zwartkop AFB is also home to the South African Air Force (SAAF museum that also the hosts of the air show. Much of the museum‟s funds are generated through hosting the air show and sponsor contributions. Visitor goal satisfaction should therefore be of critically importance to the program planners. Military hardware has long held a fascination for those who used them and inspired the imagination of young and old. Such hardware often serves as a remembrance of times passed and as a testament to those who perished. For many visiting museums and air shows, curiosity plays a big role. The particular focus of this article will be on how the goal theory of leisure travel can be utilized by the air show organizers to enhance visitor experience to an air show.

  4. CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

  5. The Biochemistry Show: a new and fun tool for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Ono

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods to teach biochemistry in most universities are based on the memorization of chemical structures,  biochemical  pathways  and  reagent  names,  which  is  many  times  dismotivating  for  the  students.  We presently describe an innovative, interactive and alternative method for teaching biochemistry to medical and nutrition undergraduate students, called the Biochemistry Show (BioBio Show.The Biobio show is based on active participation of the students. They are divided in groups and the groups face each other. One group faces another one group at a time, in a game based on true or false questions that involve subjects of applied biochemistry (exercise, obesity, diabetes, cholesterol, free radicals, among others. The questions of the Show are previously elaborated by senior students. The Biobio Show has four phases, the first one is a selection exam, and from the second to the fourth phase, eliminatory confrontations happen. On a confrontation, the first group must select a certain quantity of questions for the opponent to answer.  The group who choses the questions must know how to answer and justify the selected questions. This procedure is repeated on all phases of the show. On the last phase, the questions used are taken from an exam previously performed by the students: either the 9-hour biochemistry exam (Sé et al. A 9-hour biochemistry exam. An iron man competition or a good way of evaluating undergraduate students? SBBq 2005, abstract K-6 or the True-or-False exam (TFE (Sé et al. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams? SBBq 2004, abstract K-18. The winner group receives an extra 0,5 point on the final grade. Over 70% of the students informed on a questionnaire that the Biobio Show is a valuable tool for learning biochemistry.    That is a new way to enrich the discussion of biochemistry in the classroom without the students getting bored. Moreover, learning

  6. Neutron spectra produced by moderating an isotopic neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo Nunnez, Aureliano; Vega Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2001-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study has been carried out to determine the neutron spectra produced by an isotopic neutron source inserted in moderating media. Most devices used for radiation protection have a response strongly dependent on neutron energy. ISO recommends several neutron sources and monoenergetic neutron radiations, but actual working situations have broad spectral neutron distributions extending from thermal to MeV energies, for instance, near nuclear power plants, medical applications accelerators and cosmic neutrons. To improve the evaluation of the dosimetric quantities, is recommended to calibrate the radiation protection devices in neutron spectra which are nearly like those met in practice. In order to complete the range of neutron calibrating sources, it seems useful to develop several wide spectral distributions representative of typical spectra down to thermal energies. The aim of this investigation was to use an isotopic neutron source in different moderating media to reproduce some of the neutron fields found in practice. MCNP code has been used during calculations, in these a 239PuBe neutron source was inserted in H2O, D2O and polyethylene moderators. Moderators were modeled as spheres and cylinders of different sizes. In the case of cylindrical geometry the anisotropy of resulting neutron spectra was calculated from 0 to 2 . From neutron spectra dosimetric features were calculated. MCNP calculations were validated by measuring the neutron spectra of a 239PuBe neutron source inserted in a H2O cylindrical moderator. The measurements were carried out with a multisphere neutron spectrometer with a 6LiI(Eu) scintillator. From the measurements the neutron spectrum was unfolded using the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Some of the moderators with the source produce a neutron spectrum close to spectra found in actual applications, then can be used during the calibration of radiation protection devices

  7. Variation of Neutron Moderating Power on HDPE by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwang June; Ju, June Sik; Kang, Hee Young; Shin, Hee Sung; Kim, Ho Dong

    2009-01-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) is degraded due to a radiation-induced oxidation when it is used as a neutron moderator in a neutron counter for a nuclear material accounting of spent fuels. The HDPE exposed to the gamma-ray emitted from the fission products in a spent nuclear fuel results in a radiation-induced degradation which changes its original molecular structure to others. So a neutron moderating power variation of HDPE, irradiated by a gamma radiation, was investigated in this work. Five HDPE moderator structures were exposed to the gamma radiation emitted from a 60 Co source to a level of 10 5 -10 9 rad to compare their post-irradiation properties. As a result of the neutron measurement test with 5 irradiated HDPE structures and a neutron measuring system, it was confirmed that the neutron moderating power for the 105 rad irradiated HDPE moderator revealed the largest decrease when the un-irradiated pure one was used as a reference. It implies that a neutron moderating power variation of HDPE is not directly proportional to the integrated gamma dose rate. To clarify the cause of these changes, some techniques such as a FTIR, an element analysis and a densitometry were employed. As a result of these analyses, it was confirmed that the molecular structure of the gamma irradiated HDPEs had partially changed to others, and the contents of hydrogen and oxygen had varied during the process of a radiation-induced degradation. The mechanism of these changes cannot be explained in detail at present, and thus need further study

  8. Studies on gadolinium precipitation in moderator system of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Akhilesh C.; Rajesh, Puspalata; Rufus, A.L.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium is used in the moderator system of many Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) for start-up, shut-down and reactivity control during operation. It is very much essential to maintain gadolinium concentration in the system as desired. It has been reported that gadolinium gets precipitated in as oxalate in carbonated water under the influence of γ-radiation. Hence, studies were carried out to investigate the effect of dose, presence of other metal ions and metal surfaces on the precipitation of gadolinium. The results showed that the amount of carboxylic acids viz., formic acid and oxalic acid, formed due to radiolysis is dependent on the dose and that the curve passes though a maxima. Gadolinium is added in higher concentration in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. So, experiments with high concentration of gadolinium were also carried out. Ultra pure water saturated with high purity CO 2 containing gadolinium and desired ion/surface was irradiated with γ-radiation from 60 Co source at 25°C to doses ranging from 2.5-16.6 Mrad. At lower doses, formation of carboxylic acids takes place but as the dose increases, decomposition of these acids starts and hence the concentration Vs dose passes through a maximum. It was found that precipitation of gadolinium as oxalate occurred at lower doses. At higher doses, it was seen that pH of the solution decreases and hence solubility of gadolinium oxalate increases. It was also observed that the amount of gadolinium precipitated varied linearly with the initial concentration of gadolinium varying from 2 ppm to 20 ppm. While for gadolinium concentration from 20 ppm to 400 ppm, gadolinium in particulate form was observed. The amount of carboxylic acids formed depends on the nature of cations present in solution. It was found that the amount of oxalic acid formed in the case of gadolinium was more than that formed in the case of sodium. Presence of metal oxides such as ZrO 2 formed over zircoloy surfaces was found to

  9. Pinoy Nutrition Hub: The Philippine Experience in Addressing Moderate Malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Arlo; Fuentes, Eureka; Duque, Yvonette; Soriano, Nezer; Gomez, Marijo

    2014-01-01

    Full text: • Objective: Malnutrition is a persistent problem in the Philippines. The 2011 survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute reported that 3 out of 10 children are malnourished. Data shows 20.2% of children 0-47 months are underweight while 33.6% are stunted. This rate is higher in depressed areas in the country. PD Hearth is a time and tested effective program model to address malnutrition. But the PDH has minimum standards that need to be followed in the program implementation. However, a developing country like the Philippines has limitations in its resources and implementations. This paper aims to share the Philippine experience in addressing moderate malnutrition through a contextualized and modified PD Hearth approach. The specific objectives of this paper are: - to describe the challenges in implementing PD Hearth in the context of the Philippines; - to describe the innovations and modifications in the PD Hearth; - and, to illustrate the successful intervention of the PNH program against malnourished children in the community. • Methods: The Pinoy Nutrition Hub model is an innovation of PD Hearth approach. The first step was the participatory approach evaluation of existing programs on MNCHN in the communities. The next step was for the stakeholders to identify the gaps and address them. This was followed by gathering lessons learned and good practices that arose from implementing PD Hearth. Innovations were adopted to address restrictions and maximize learning in its implementation. The contextualized approach was called Pinoy Nutrition Hub (PNH). • Outcomes: - The PNH was piloted in three Area Development Programs (ADP) that represent the three island groups of the Philippines. All three ADPs reported improvement in the weight of the malnourished children enrolled in the program. Below is an illustration of the how the actual weight of children in the Visayas ADP increased. Figure 1 (Display Omitted). Average Weight of Malnourished

  10. Transient Moderator Simulation Using CFX10-CAMO, a CANDU Moderator Analysis Model Based on a Coupled Solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Churl; Park, Joo Hwan

    2007-01-01

    When a PHT(Primary Heat Transfer) system fails to remove excess heat from fuel channels for some loss of coolant accidents(LOCA's) in CANDU NPP's, the fuel channel temperature could increase until the pressure tube strains (i.e., balloon or sag) to contact its surrounding Calandria tube.(PT/CT contact) Following a PT/CT contact, there is a spike in the heat flux to the moderator surrounding the Calandria tube, which may lead to a sustained CT dryout and also a failure of a fuel channel. The prevention of a CT dryout following a PT/CT contact depends on the local moderator subcooling. That is, fuel channel integrity depends on the capability of the moderator to act as the ultimate heat sink for some LOCA's in a CANDU reactor. In KAERI, Yoon et al. developed a CFD model for predicting a CANDU-6 moderator temperature on the basis of a commercial CFD code CFX-4(ANSYS Inc.). This analytic model has the strength of modelling the hydraulic resistances in the core region and accounting for a heat source term in the energy equations. But convergence difficulties and a slow computing speed are the limitations of this model, because the CFX-4 code adapts a segregated solver to resolve a moderator circulation including a strong coupled-effect. Compared to a segregated solver, a coupled-solver is highly efficient and robust especially for a flow with a strong interference between the variables such as combustion

  11. Can a Mediator Moderate? Considering the Role of Time and Change in the Mediator-Moderator Distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T; Berlin, Kristoffer S

    2018-01-01

    The concepts of mediation and moderation are important for specifying ways in which psychological treatments work and for whom they are most beneficial. Historically, the terms were confused and used interchangeably, so a rich body of scholarly literature makes clear their distinction. Researchers are also becoming increasingly aware that mediation and moderation can be integrated and that such integration can advance theory development and testing. One question that has not received sufficient attention is whether a mediator can simultaneously moderate. We tackle this question in this paper, and in doing so we expand on the MacArthur conceptualizations of mediation and moderation. The result is a presentation of a meta-theoretical model that illustrates how a construct that is initially a mediator can, not simultaneously but over time, evolve into a construct that moderates. When this occurs, a construct that changed for the better as a result of an intervention can later promote more positive change during a later intervention. Various implications of this novel paradigm for future research are discussed, including the importance of this model in the emerging context of managed health care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. An autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi

    1983-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  14. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Wiersinga-Post, J Esther C

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  15. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  16. Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aditya

    Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity in visible light. ADITYA GARAI a. , UTTARA BASU a. , ILA PANT b. , PATURU KONDAIAH*. ,b. AND. AKHIL R. CHAKRAVARTY*. ,a a. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 560012, India. E-mail: ...

  17. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  18. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets a...

  19. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 1) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  20. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 3) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.