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Sample records for variously fixed bovine

  1. Age Dependent Differences in Collagen Alignment of Glutaraldehyde Fixed Bovine Pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie H. Sizeland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine pericardium is used for heart valve leaflet replacement where the strength and thinness are critical properties. Pericardium from neonatal animals (4–7 days old is advantageously thinner and is considered as an alternative to that from adult animals. Here, the structures of adult and neonatal bovine pericardium tissues fixed with glutaraldehyde are characterized by synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and compared with the mechanical properties of these materials. Significant differences are observed between adult and neonatal tissue. The glutaraldehyde fixed neonatal tissue has a higher modulus of elasticity (83.7 MPa than adult pericardium (33.5 MPa and a higher normalised ultimate tensile strength (32.9 MPa than adult pericardium (19.1 MPa. Measured edge on to the tissue, the collagen in neonatal pericardium is significantly more aligned (orientation index (OI 0.78 than that in adult pericardium (OI 0.62. There is no difference in the fibril diameter between neonatal and adult pericardium. It is shown that high alignment in the plane of the tissue provides the mechanism for the increased strength of the neonatal material. The superior strength of neonatal compared with adult tissue supports the use of neonatal bovine pericardium in heterografts.

  2. Age Dependent Differences in Collagen Alignment of Glutaraldehyde Fixed Bovine Pericardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizeland, Katie H.; Wells, Hannah C.; Higgins, John; Cunanan, Crystal M.; Kirby, Nigel; Hawley, Adrian; Mudie, Stephen T.; Haverkamp, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine pericardium is used for heart valve leaflet replacement where the strength and thinness are critical properties. Pericardium from neonatal animals (4–7 days old) is advantageously thinner and is considered as an alternative to that from adult animals. Here, the structures of adult and neonatal bovine pericardium tissues fixed with glutaraldehyde are characterized by synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and compared with the mechanical properties of these materials. Significant differences are observed between adult and neonatal tissue. The glutaraldehyde fixed neonatal tissue has a higher modulus of elasticity (83.7 MPa) than adult pericardium (33.5 MPa) and a higher normalised ultimate tensile strength (32.9 MPa) than adult pericardium (19.1 MPa). Measured edge on to the tissue, the collagen in neonatal pericardium is significantly more aligned (orientation index (OI) 0.78) than that in adult pericardium (OI 0.62). There is no difference in the fibril diameter between neonatal and adult pericardium. It is shown that high alignment in the plane of the tissue provides the mechanism for the increased strength of the neonatal material. The superior strength of neonatal compared with adult tissue supports the use of neonatal bovine pericardium in heterografts. PMID:25295250

  3. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  4. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  5. Impact of various luting cements on the fixed dentures bonding strength

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    Krunić Nebojša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Various luting cements are used to fix dental crowns to prepared teeth, and should provide an adhesive bond to the tooth structure giving reliable retention. The aim of this study was to establish in vitro which type of the tested luting cement provided the strongest adhesive bond of the prepared teeth to the fixed denture. Methods. Testing was carried out on the sample of 100 intact human premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons. The preparation of the teeth was performed by a heavy-duty machine. The surfaces of the prepared teeth were mathematically calculated. Dental crowns from the Nickel-Chromium- Molybenum (Ni-Cr-Mo alloy were made in a standard fashion, and fixed to prepared teeth (two samples of each group with 5 different types of luting cements. The strength of force applyed to separate the cast crowns from the prepared teeth was measured by an electronic dynamometer, after 7 days. Results. The obtained results revealed the connection between the type of luting cement and the values of retention power. The best adhesive bond under the constant convergence angle of the prepared teeth was provided by the resin cement. Conclusion. When choosing a luting cement for fixing dental crowns to prepared teeth, the advantage should be given to the resin cement in case the glassionomers are not available.

  6. Design of various fixed-geometry water-lubricated hydrodynamic journal bearings for maximum stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, F. T.

    1973-01-01

    This publication is the result of over 260 fractional-frequency-whirl stability tests on a variety of fixed-geometry journal bearings. It is intended principally as a guide in the selection and design of antiwhirl bearings that must operate at high speeds and low loads in low-viscosity fluids such as water or liquid metals. However, the various fixed-geometry configurations can be employed as well in applications where other lubricants, such as oil, are used and fractional-frequency whirl is a problem. The important parameters that effect stability are discussed for each bearing type, and design curves to facilitate the design of optimum-geometry bearings are included. A comparison of the stability of the different bearing configurations tested is also given.

  7. Effects of crude extracts of various plants on infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-plaque production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, C L; Schipper, I A; Schermeister, L J; Vacik, J P

    1976-02-01

    Extracts of 28 plants were tested without demonstable antiviral activity in an agar-overlay plaque-reduction antiviral assay system, using infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and bovine endocardial cell cultures. Ethanolic extract of Narcissus tazetta L bulb elicited antiviral activity by inhibition of viral plaque formation. Antiviral activity was demonstrated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and equine rhinopneumonitis viruses. Narcissus tazetta L bulb did not directly inactivate the virus extracellularly. The extract exhibited only limited toxicity to rapidly multiplying bovine endocardial cells at plaque-inhibitory levels and was not cytoxic to preformed confluent cell monolayers. Narcissus extract did not induce the formation of drug-resistant viral strains.

  8. Treatment effects of various prescriptions and techniques for fixed orthodontic appliances : A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousoulea, Sophia; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Eliades, Theodore

    2017-09-01

    Although several prescriptions and techniques exist for comprehensive fixed appliance treatment, their treatment effects have not yet been adequately assessed in an evidence-based manner. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the therapeutic and adverse effects of various prescriptions or techniques for orthodontic appliances from randomized clinical trials on human patients. Eight databases were searched up to July 2016 for randomized trials assessing any orthodontic prescriptions or techniques in human patients. After elimination of duplicate studies, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment according to the Cochrane guidelines, random effects meta-analyses with mean differences (MD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed. Compared to Roth preadjusted appliances, both Begg and modified Begg appliances were associated with statistically significantly worse occlusal outcome assessed with Peer Assessment Review (PAR) scores (1 trial, MD 3.1 points, 95% CI 1.9-4.3 points and 1 trial, MD 2.4 points, 95% CI 1.2-3.6 points, respectively) with low quality of evidence, due to bias and imprecision. Compared to a partially programmed fixed orthodontic appliance, a fully programmed appliance was associated with a statistically significant, but clinically irrelevant increase in treatment duration (1 trial, MD 2.4 months, 95% CI 0.6-4.2 months), supported by high quality of evidence. However, caution is needed in the interpretation of these results as only a limited number of small trials with methodological issues were available. Based on existing trials, there is limited evidence to support any robust clinical recommendation regarding the prescriptions or techniques for fixed orthodontic appliances. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42016042727). None.

  9. Comparison of molecular species of various transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine (PS) with bovine cortex PS by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Li, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    The exogenous introduction of a molecular species mixture of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine (BC-PS) has been claimed to improve memory function in subjects suffering from age-associated memory impairment and dementia. However, it has been also reported that oral administration of another molecular

  10. Fixed Points of Geraghty-Type Mappings in Various Generalized Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Ðukić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed point theorems for mappings satisfying Geraghty-type contractive conditions are proved in the frame of partial metric spaces, ordered partial metric spaces, and metric-type spaces. Examples are given showing that these results are proper extensions of the existing ones.

  11. An investigation into the susceptibility of cattle to bovine leukosis virus following inoculation by various routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Wibberley, G; Chasey, D

    1982-03-06

    The effect of different routes of inoculation on the incubation period, as indicated by the detection of antibody and by the detection of bovine leukosis virus (BLV) in lymphocytes, were compared. None of the 12-month-old steers exposed to BLV by the oral route developed BLV infection. Intratracheal, subcutaneous and intradermal inoculations were found to be particularly effective in establishing BLV infection, which was detected three to four weeks after inoculation. In the majority of animals, serum antibody and virus were detected at the same time. One out of four in-oestrus heifers inoculated via the uterus with mixtures of BLV infected lymphocytes and semen became infected. It appears that there is an inhibitory factor in fresh semen that prevents BLV infection from becoming established. Viral antigen was detected earlier in BLV infected lymphocytes using the cocultivation method than by electron microscopy to demonstrate BLV particles in mitogen stimulated lymphocytes.

  12. Assessment of Various Factors for Feasibility of Fixed Cantilever Bridge: A Review Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ashu Sharma; G. R. Rahul; Soorya T. Poduval; Karunakar Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Cantilever fixed partial dentures are defined as having one or more abutments at one end of the prosthesis while the other end is unsupported. Much controversy without documentary evidence has surrounded this prosthesis. Despite negative arguments, the cantilever prosthesis has been used extensively by the clinicians. If used nonjudiciously without following proper guidelines these might lead to some complications. Although complications may be an indication that clinical failure has occurred...

  13. Evaluation of Moving Object Detection Based on Various Input Noise Using Fixed Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaee, N.; Hashemizadeh, E.; Zarrinpanjeh, N.

    2017-09-01

    Detecting and tracking objects in video has been as a research area of interest in the field of image processing and computer vision. This paper evaluates the performance of a novel method for object detection algorithm in video sequences. This process helps us to know the advantage of this method which is being used. The proposed framework compares the correct and wrong detection percentage of this algorithm. This method was evaluated with the collected data in the field of urban transport which include car and pedestrian in fixed camera situation. The results show that the accuracy of the algorithm will decreases because of image resolution reduction.

  14. Kinetics of Glycoxidation of Bovine Serum Albumin by Methylglyoxal and Glyoxal and its Prevention by Various Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare several methods for measurement of bovine serum albumin (BSA modification by glycoxidation with reactive dicarbonyl compounds (methylglyoxal ‒ MGO and glyoxal ‒ GO, for studies of the kinetics of this process and to compare the effects of 19 selected compounds on BSA glycation by the aldehydes. The results confirm the higher reactivity of MGO with respect to GO and point to the usefulness of AGE, dityrosine and N′-formylkynurenine fluorescence for monitoring glycation and evaluation of protection against glycation. Different extent of protection against glycation induced by MGO and GO was found for many compounds, probably reflecting effects on various stages of the glycation process. Polyphenols (genistein, naringin and ellagic acid were found to protect against aldehyde-induced glycation; 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid was also an effective protector.

  15. Levels of "toxic" and "essential" metals in samples of bovine milk from various dairy farms in Calabria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, P; Trombetta, D; Cristani, M; Giofrè, F; Martino, D; Calò, M; Naccari, F

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the possible contamination by heavy metals of milk from cows bred on various farms in Calabria. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined in 40 samples of bovine milk from the various dairy farms. Each sample, homogenized and powdered, was mineralized in a microwave oven. Quantitative analyses of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Se were performed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with graphite furnace; As was analyzed by hot vapor generation technique and Zn with the flame method. As regards toxic heavy metals, highest values are those of As (g.m. 37.90 microg/kg w.w.) and Pb (g.m. 1.32 microg/kg w.w.), while lowest concentrations are those of Cd (g.m. 0.02 microg/kg w.w). With regard to essential metals, Zn (g.m. 2016 microg/kg w.w) and Se (g.m. 13.24 microg/kg w.w.) showed the highest concentrations, followed by Cr (g.m. 2.03 microg/kg w.w.) and Cu (g.m. 1.98 microg/kg w.w.). Further investigations of the levels of heavy metals (As) in a greater number of milk samples from various zones of Calabria are necessary, both to examine this problem from the clinical epidemiological point of view and to identify the possible causes of milk contamination.

  16. Stabilities of Cubic Mappings in Various Normed Spaces: Direct and Fixed Point Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Azadi Kenary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1940 and 1964, Ulam proposed the general problem: “When is it true that by changing a little the hypotheses of a theorem one can still assert that the thesis of the theorem remains true or approximately true?”. In 1941, Hyers solved this stability problem for linear mappings. According to Gruber (1978 this kind of stability problems are of the particular interest in probability theory and in the case of functional equations of different types. In 1981, Skof was the first author to solve the Ulam problem for quadratic mappings. In 1982–2011, J. M. Rassias solved the above Ulam problem for linear and nonlinear mappings and established analogous stability problems even on restricted domains. The purpose of this paper is the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability for the following cubic functional equation: (++(−=(++(−+2(3−(,≥2 in various normed spaces.

  17. Short communication: Determination of the ability of Thymox to kill or inhibit various species of microorganisms associated with infectious causes of bovine lameness in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Megan; Zibaee, Fahimeh; Allard, Marianne; Döpfer, Dörte

    2015-11-01

    Infectious claw diseases continue to plague cattle in intensively managed husbandry systems. Poor foot hygiene and constant moist environments lead to the infection and spread of diseases such as digital dermatitis (hairy heel warts), interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital phlegmon (foot rot). Currently, copper sulfate and formalin are the most widely used disinfecting agents in bovine footbaths; however, the industry could benefit from more environmentally and worker friendly substitutes. This study determined the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of Thymox (Laboratoire M2, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada) for a selection of microorganisms related to infectious bovine foot diseases. Thymox is a broad-spectrum agricultural disinfectant that is nontoxic, noncorrosive, and readily biodegradable. The values for minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration indicated that Thymox inhibited growth and killed the various species of microorganisms under study at much lower concentrations compared with the recommended working concentration of a 1% solution. Overall, the values found in this study of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of Thymox show its potential as an alternative antibacterial agent used in bovine footbaths; however, field trials are needed to determine its effectiveness for the control and prevention of infectious claw diseases. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of the binding affinity in vitamin B12-Bovine serum albumin system using various spectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    The binding affinity between vitamin B12 (VitB12) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated in aqueous solution at pH = 7.4, employing UV-vis absorption and steady-state, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. Representative effects noted for BSA intrinsic fluorescence resulting from the interactions with VitB12 confirm the formation of π-π stacked non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes in the system VitB12-BSA. All the determined parameters, the binding, fluorescence quenching and bimolecular quenching rate constants (of the order of 104 L mol- 1, 103 L mol- 1 and 1011 L mol- 1 s- 1, respectively), as well as Förster resonance energy transfer parameters validate the mechanism of static quenching. The interaction with VitB12 induces folding of the polypeptide chains around Trp residues of BSA, resulting in a more hydrophobic surrounding. Presented outcomes suggest that the addition of VitB12 can lead to the more organized BSA conformation and its more folded tertiary structure, what could influence the physiological functions of bovine serum albumin, notably in case of its overuse or abnormal metabolism.

  19. Effects of various induced local environmental conditions and histopathological studies in experimental Dermatophilus congolensis infection on the bovine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduye, O O

    1975-11-01

    Although localised to the site of inoculation, experimental cutaneous streptothricosis was readily produced on scarified and/or defatted bovine skin infected with nutrient broth cultures of Dermatophilus congolensis. There was no difference in the extent and duration of lesions produced by either method. D congolensis failed to infect intact normal skin. Simulated rainfall and insect bite did not effect spread and production of generalized streptothricosis. On the other hand, localised experimental lesions regressed more rapidly when subjected to simulated rainfall. The histopathological changes were characterised by invasion of hair follicles by the germinating hyphae and mycelia of D gongolensis, accumulation of neutrophilic exudate beneath the infected epidermis, migration of some neutrophils through the epidermis resulting in intra-epidermal microabscess formation and regeneration of new epidermis from follicular sheath epithelium.

  20. KEEN Wave Simulations: Comparing various PIC to various fixed grid Vlasov to Phase-Space Adaptive Sparse Tiling & Effective Lagrangian (PASTEL) Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeyan, Bedros; Larson, David; Shadwick, Bradley; Sydora, Richard

    2017-10-01

    We compare various ways of solving the Vlasov-Poisson and Vlasov-Maxwell equations on rather demanding nonlinear kinetic phenomena associated with KEEN and KEEPN waves. KEEN stands for Kinetic, Electrostatic, Electron Nonlinear, and KEEPN, for electron-positron or pair plasmas analogs. Because these self-organized phase space structures are not steady-state, or single mode, or fluid or low order moment equation limited, typical techniques with low resolution or too much noise will distort the answer too much, too soon, and fail. This will be shown via Penrose criteria triggers for instability at the formation stage as well as particle orbit statistics in fully formed KEEN waves and KEEN-KEEN and KEEN-EPW interacting states. We will argue that PASTEL is a viable alternative to traditional methods with reasonable chances of success in higher dimensions. Work supported by a Grant from AFOSR PEEP.

  1. Co-digestion of bovine slaughterhouse wastes, cow manure, various crops and municipal solid waste at thermophilic conditions: a comparison with specific case running at mesophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagés-Díaz, J; Sárvári-Horváth, I; Pérez-Olmo, J; Pereda-Reyes, I

    2013-01-01

    A co-digestion process was evaluated when mixing different ratios of agro-industrial residues, i.e. bovine slaughterhouse waste (SB); cow manure (M); various crop residues (VC); and municipal solid waste (MSW) by anaerobic batch digestion under thermophilic conditions (55 °C). A selected study case at mesophilic condition (37 °C) was also investigated. The performance of the co-digestion was evaluated by kinetics (k(0)). The best kinetic results were obtained under thermophilic operation when a mixture of 22% w/w SB, 22% w/w M, 45% w/w VC and 11% w/w MSW was co-digested, which showed a proper combination of high values in r(s)CH(4) and k(0) (0.066 Nm(3)CH(4)/kgVS*d, 0.336 d(-1)) during the anaerobic process. The effect of temperature on methane yield (Y(CH4)), specific methane rate (r(s)CH(4)) and k(0) was also analyzed for a specific study case; there a mixture of 25% w/w of SB, 37.5% w/w of M, 37.5% of VC and 0% of MSW was used. Response variables were severely affected by mesophilic conditions, diminishing to at least 45% of the thermophilic values obtained for a similar mixture. The effect of temperature suggested that thermophilic conditions are suitable to treat these residues.

  2. Whole genome detection of rotavirus mixed infections in human, porcine and bovine samples co-infected with various rotavirus strains collected from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaga, Martin M; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Esona, Mathew D; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Stucker, Karla M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Akopov, Asmik; Stockwell, Timothy B; Peenze, Ina; Diop, Amadou; Ndiaye, Kader; Boula, Angeline; Maphalala, Gugu; Berejena, Chipo; Mwenda, Jason M; Steele, A Duncan; Wentworth, David E; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are among the main global causes of severe diarrhea in children under the age of 5years. Strain diversity, mixed infections and untypeable RVA strains are frequently reported in Africa. We analysed rotavirus-positive human stool samples (n=13) obtained from hospitalised children under the age of 5years who presented with acute gastroenteritis at sentinel hospital sites in six African countries, as well as bovine and porcine stool samples (n=1 each), to gain insights into rotavirus diversity and evolution. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and genotyping with G-(VP7) and P-specific (VP4) typing primers suggested that 13 of the 15 samples contained more than 11 segments and/or mixed G/P genotypes. Full-length amplicons for each segment were generated using RVA-specific primers and sequenced using the Ion Torrent and/or Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platforms. Sequencing detected at least one segment in each sample for which duplicate sequences, often having distinct genotypes, existed. This supported and extended the PAGE and RT-PCR genotyping findings that suggested these samples were collected from individuals that had mixed rotavirus infections. The study reports the first porcine (MRC-DPRU1567) and bovine (MRC-DPRU3010) mixed infections. We also report a unique genome segment 9 (VP7), whose G9 genotype belongs to lineage VI and clusters with porcine reference strains. Previously, African G9 strains have all been in lineage III. Furthermore, additional RVA segments isolated from humans have a clear evolutionary relationship with porcine, bovine and ovine rotavirus sequences, indicating relatively recent interspecies transmission and reassortment. Thus, multiple RVA strains from sub-Saharan Africa are infecting mammalian hosts with unpredictable variations in their gene segment combinations. Whole-genome sequence analyses of mixed RVA strains underscore the considerable diversity of rotavirus sequences and

  3. Development of a modified straw method for vitrification of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts and various genes expression in between the methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, A-Na; Lee, Sang-Ryeul; Jeon, Jeong-Seon; Park, Han-Seul; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jin, Jong-In; Sessions, Benjamin R; Wang, Zhongde; White, Kenneth L; Kong, Il-Keun

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated a modified plastic straw loading method for vitrification of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts. A modified straw was used with a depressed area on its inner surface to which embryos attach. In vitro-produced blastocysts were randomly assigned into three groups: (i) blastocysts attached to the inner surface of a plastic straw (aV), (ii) blastocysts attached to the inner surface of a modified plastic straw (maV), and (iii) non-vitrified blastocysts (control). The recovery rates were not significantly different between aV and maV groups (95.8% vs. 94.3%). The post-thaw survival rate did not significantly differ between aV and maV groups (86.4% vs. 88.2%). The total cell numbers of blastocyst was higher in control than in aV and maV groups (142 ± 21.8 vs. 117 ± 29.7 and 120 ± 25.2; P < 0.05), but not significantly differ between aV and maV groups. The mRNA levels of pro-apoptosis related genes Bax and Caspase-3 were higher in aV and maV than in control (P < 0.05). By contrast, the mRNA levels of anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and of antioxidant-related genes MnSOD and Prdx5 were lower in aV and maV than in control (P < 0.05). Confocal microscopy analysis of Golgi apparatus and mitochondria showed that the fluorescence intensity of Golgi apparatus and mitochondria was higher in control than in aV and maV groups. In conclusion, both aV and maV methods can be used to successfully vitrify IVP blastocysts, with maV method to be preferable because of its easiness in embryo loading. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Swelling of the collagen-keratocyte matrix of the bovine corneal stroma ex vivo in various solutions and its relationship to tissue thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, M J

    2000-12-01

    The mammalian corneal stroma, like some other connective tissues, can absorb fluid, swell and become oedematous. Since studies on the corneal stroma have been carried out with different types of preparations and solutions, inter-study comparisons are very difficult. A study was thus undertaken on a standardised preparation to assess the relative magnitude of this swelling and its relationship to thickness of the preparations. From selected recent post-mortem eyes of adult cattle, stroma preparations were cut from the central part of the cornea. These preparations were immersed in various solutions of known pH and osmolality, and the time-dependent changes in wet mass were assessed over 9 h at 37 degrees C. The relative rates and magnitude of the swelling of the tissue were then compared. A reference value for stromal swelling was obtained by incubation in a 35 mM bicarbonate-buffered mixed salts solution equilibrated with 5% CO2-air (pH 7.60) where a 3.39-fold increase in wet mass and a 4.58-fold increase in thickness was realised in 9 h, at an initial rate of 76 +/- 3%/h. The swelling was essentially the same in an organic buffer-mixed salt solution (pH 7.5) but progressively greater in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.5), a range of phosphate buffers (10-67 mM, pH 7.5), NaCl solutions (0.025-1%) and with gross swelling observed in water (where a 15.9-fold increase in wet mass occurred along with a 25-fold increase in thickness, at an initial rate of 643 +/- 62%/h). Overall, the wet mass changes were strongly related to thickness (P stroma has been overestimated in the past, and that a similar discrepancy may also exist for studies on other connective tissues ex vivo when non-physiological experimental solutions are used.

  5. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Fix 40!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ansambel Fix peab 13. detsembril Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis oma 40. sünnipäeva. Kontserdi erikülaline on ansambel Apelsin, kaastegevad Jassi Zahharov ja HaleBopp Singers. Õhtut juhib Tarmo Leinatamm

  7. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... products to revise the conditions for the importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines...

  8. Load-bearing capacity of indirect inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses made of particulate filler composite alone or reinforced with E-glass fibers impregnated with various monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mutlu; Koekoek, Winand; Pekkan, Gurel

    2012-08-01

    The load-bearing capacity and failure types of indirect inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDP), made of particulate filler composite (PFC) (Estenia) alone or reinforced with E-glass fibers impregnated with various monomers were evaluated. Indirect inlay-retained FDPs were made between first premolars and first molars (N=30, 10/per group). The inlay parts of the specimens were silica coated and silanized and the specimens were cemented with dual-polymerized resin cement under ultrasonic vibrations. The experimental groups were as follows: Group 1: FRC1 (BR-100, UTMA) + PFC; Group 2: FRC2 (everStick C&B, Bis-GMA/PMMA) + PFC; Group 3: PFC only. The specimens were kept in distilled water at 37 °C for one month and then subjected to fracture strength test. No significant difference was found between the Group 1 and Group 2 FDPs (1357±301 N and 1213±316 N, respectively) (p>0.05) (ANOVA). Group 3 (856±299 N) showed significantly lower results than those of FRC reinforced groups (pdelamination of the veneering was observed. The use of silica coating and silanization in combination with the dual-polymerized resin cement used; under ultrasonic cementation procedure provided sufficient adhesion to withstand static loading forces at the cementation interface, since the failures were predominantly delamination of the veneering in the FRC reinforced groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  10. National Radiological Fixed Lab Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Radiological Fixed Laboratory Data Asset includes data produced in support of various clients such as other EPA offices, EPA Regional programs, DOE,...

  11. Efeitos da radiação gama no comportamento mecânico e na calcificação do pericárdio bovino fixado com glutaraldeído Effects of gamma irradiation on mechanical behavior and calcification of glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Baucia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento mecânico e os efeitos no processo de calcificação pós-implante do pericárdio bovino tratado com glutaraldeído submetido a várias doses de radiação gama. MÉTODO: Pericárdios bovinos fixados com glutaraldeído foram submetidos a radiação gama, nas doses de 0 a 10000 Gy. Seis amostras de cada grupo foram avaliadas pela microscopia óptica, determinação da temperatura de desnaturação do colágeno e ensaio mecânico de tração e implantadas subcutaneamente em ratos. Após quatro meses do implante, as amostras foram explantadas e o conteúdo de Ca2+ determinado pela espectrometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: Níveis de Ca2+ (em µg/mg: 0 Gy (controle - 194,45; 50 Gy - 154,64; 100 Gy - 169,37; 200 Gy - 163,64; 500 Gy - 199,89; 1000 Gy - 184,02; 2000 Gy - 198,95; 5000 Gy - 227,95 e 10000 Gy - 362,62. Houve alteração significativa no comportamento mecânico do tecido irradiado, quando comparado ao grupo controle, mesmo com o emprego de baixas doses de radiação. CONCLUSÃO: O emprego da radiação gama no pericárdio bovino tratado com glutaraldeído não reduziu os níveis de Ca2+ em implantes subcutâneos em ratos por quatro meses e promoveu alteração significativa no comportamento mecânico do tecido, com redução na sua resistência, quando comparados ao grupo controle.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium. METHOD: Glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium was exposed to gamma radiation (doses from 0 to 10000 Gy. Six samples from each of nine groups were evaluated by optic microscopy, and shrinking and mechanical tests and the denaturation temperature was determined. Additionally, they were subcutaneously implanted in rats and after four months they were explanted and Ca2+ levels measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. RESULTS: The Ca2+ levels were (in µg/mg: control (0 Gy - 194.45; 50 Gy - 154.64; 100 Gy - 169.37; 200 Gy

  12. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is caused by a number of Mycobacterium species, of which Mycobacterium bovis, causing 'bovine tuberculosis' is ... KEY WORDS: Mycobacterium bovis, Zoonosis, Holeta, Ethiopia causing 'bovine tuberculosis ..... isolation of infected animals in which communal grazing and watering practiced.

  13. the Fixed Point Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penumurthy Parvateesam Murthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fixed point theorem is presented for single-valued map with using generalized φ-weak contractive condition involving various combinations of dx,y on a complete metric space. Our result is an extension as well as a generalization of Alber and Guerre-Delabriere (1997 in particular. It also generalizes the results of Rhoades (2001, Choudhury and Dutta, (2000, and Dutta and Choudhury, (2008.

  14. Evaluación hidromecánica de venas yugulares bovinas frescas y fijadas en glutaraldehído para uso como bioimplante cardiovascular Hydromechanical evaluation of bovine jugular veins fixed in glutaldehyde for its use as cardiovascular implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bustamante

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Muchas de las enfermedades cardiovasculares congénitas pueden intervenirse mediante cirugía, con implantes biológicos o artificiales, lo cuales permitirán restablecer la funcionalidad del sistema cardiovascular. Por sus propiedades, los injertos biológicos procedentes de donantes cadavéricos (homoinjertos son los más apropiados para cirugías reconstructivas del tracto de salida ventricular, pero infortunadamente son difíciles de adquirir ya que se obtienen de donantes con pocas semanas de nacidos, pretendiendo que se correlacionen con las dimensiones y geometría de la estructura nativa a reparar. Con este proyecto se evaluó el comportamiento hidrodinámico de tramos valvulados de venas yugulares bovinas, obtenidas en la Central Ganadera de Medellín, montando el segmento venoso de estudio en un banco de pruebas que emulaba las condiciones del tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho y tronco de la pulmonar, con el fin de analizar su comportamiento en condiciones similares a las que debe afrontar el vaso como bioimplante en la corrección de alteraciones cardiovasculares congénitas en neonatos y niños.Many congenital heart diseases may be treated surgically with biological or artificial implants that will allow the restoration of cardiovascular system functionality. Due to its properties, the biologic implants obtained from dead donors (homografts are the most appropriate for ventricular output reconstructive surgeries. Unfortunately, these are difficult to acquire, because they are obtained from newborn donors and may be correlated to the dimensions and geometry of the native structure to be repaired. This project evaluated the hydrodynamic behavior of valvular segments of bovine jugular veins (obtained from the Livestock Central in Medellin, mounting the venous segment on a test bank that simulated the right ventricle output tract and the pulmonary trunk, in order to analyze its behavior in similar conditions to those that the

  15. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid, linoleic acid, phytanic acid and the combination of various fatty acids on proliferation and cytokine expression of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lydia; Kersten, Susanne; Duevel, Anna; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-07-12

    Fatty acids may have an impact on immune functions, which is important in times of increased mobilization of body fat, e.g., around parturition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the CLA isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, phytanic acid (PA), linoleic acid (LA) and a fatty acid (FA) mixture (containing 29.8% palmitic acid, 6.7% palmitoleic acid, 17.4% stearic acid and 46.1% oleic acid) on the proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro using alamar blue (AB) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in response to cis-9,trans-11 and LA. The IC50 values did not differ between the investigated FA, but there were differences within the proliferation in the response of these FA in a concentration range between 20 and 148 µM (e.g., increased proliferation after treatment with lower concentrations of LA). No differences occurred when different FA combinations were tested. ConA stimulation increased the expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ, whereas IL-10 decreased. In general, neither the baseline expression nor the ConA-stimulated mRNA expression of cytokines and PPAR-γ were affected by the FA. In conclusion, all FA inhibit the proliferation of PBMC dose dependently without significantly altering the induced cytokine spectrum of activated bovine PBMC.

  16. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing on...

  17. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule document...

  18. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  19. Assessment of the quality of DNA from various formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and the use of this DNA for next-generation sequencing (NGS) with no artifactual mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einaga, Naoki; Yoshida, Akio; Noda, Hiroko; Suemitsu, Masaaki; Nakayama, Yuki; Sakurada, Akihisa; Kawaji, Yoshiko; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Tokino, Takashi; Esumi, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues used for pathological diagnosis are valuable for studying cancer genomics. In particular, laser-capture microdissection of target cells determined by histopathology combined with FFPE tissue section immunohistochemistry (IHC) enables precise analysis by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the genetic events occurring in cancer. The result is a new strategy for a pathological tool for cancer diagnosis: 'microgenomics'. To more conveniently and precisely perform microgenomics, we revealed by systematic analysis the following three details regarding FFPE DNA compared with paired frozen tissue DNA. 1) The best quality of FFPE DNA is obtained by tissue fixation with 10% neutral buffered formalin for 1 day and heat treatment of tissue lysates at 95°C for 30 minutes. 2) IHC staining of FFPE tissues decreases the quantity and quality of FFPE DNA to one-fourth, and antigen retrieval (at 120°C for 15 minutes, pH 6.0) is the major reason for this decrease. 3) FFPE DNA prepared as described herein is sufficient for NGS. For non-mutated tissue specimens, no artifactual mutation occurs during FFPE preparation, as shown by precise comparison of NGS of FFPE DNA and paired frozen tissue DNA followed by validation. These results demonstrate that even FFPE tissues used for routine clinical diagnosis can be utilized to obtain reliable NGS data if appropriate conditions of fixation and validation are applied.

  20. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  1. Otimização da imunoistoquímica para detecção de herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BHV-5 em tecidos do sistema nervoso central fixados com formaldeído Optimization of immunohistochemistry for Bovine Herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5 detection on formalin-fixed tissues of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Hübner

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de otimizar a técnica de imunoistoquímica para detecção de herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BHV-5 em tecidos do sistema nervoso central fixado em formaldeído, foram avaliados diferentes métodos de digestão enzimática, diferentes anticorpos e reagentes para bloqueio de reações inespecíficas. As reações apresentaram a máxima intensidade de coloração específica e a quantidade mínima de coloração de fundo quando foram usadas protease de Streptomyces griseus (0,1% ou proteinase K de Tritirachium album limber (0,05%, mediante incubação durante 15 minutos a 37°C. Entre os anticorpos monoclonais analisados, dois foram capazes de detectar BHV-5. As reações inespecíficas foram bloqueadas mais efetivamente pela incubação do tecido com caseína (0,5%, durante cinco minutos, ou leite em pó (2,5%, durante 60 minutos, ou soro eqüino (2,5%, durante 60 minutos. Com a técnica otimizada foi possível a detecção de BHV-5 em material de arquivo.In order to optimize immunohistochemical technique (IHC for detection of Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5 on formalin-fixed sections of central nervous system, different methods of enzymatic digestion, use of different antibodies and products for blocking of nonspecific reactivity were evaluated. The reactions showed the highest intensity of specific coloration and the minimum amounts of background when protease from Streptomyces griseus (0.1% or proteinase K from Tritirachium album limber (0.05% were used, incubating for 15 minutes at 37°C. Only two of the tested monoclonal antibodies specifically labelled BHV-5 antigen. The nonspecific reactions were blocked through incubation of tissues with casein (0.5% for five minutes or powdered milk (2.5% for 60 minutes or equine serum (2.5% for 60 minutes. The optimized immunohistochemical method allowed the detection of BHV-5 antigen in histopathological archives.

  2. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  3. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  4. Comparison of bacteriological qualities of various egg yolk sources and the in vitro and in vivo fertilizing potential of bovine semen frozen in egg yolk or lecithin based diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousseau, S; Brillard, J P; Marguant-Le Guienne, B; Guérin, B; Camus, A; Lechat, M

    1998-10-01

    The addition of components of animal origin (egg yolk, milk) to most commercial diluents used to freeze bull semen represents a potential risk of contamination of the doses with bacteria or mycoplasma. A series of quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed to detect microbiological contamination observed in Biociphos plus (a new lecithin-glycerol based freezing salt buffer), in an egg yolk diluent (Triladyl) or in an egg yolk + milk-based (Laiciphos) diluent of bull semen. The 2 diluents containing animal products showed moderate (10 to 60 CFU/mL) contamination (17/17 samples) with bacteria or mycoplasma, or both, while no contamination was observed in the 6 examined batches of Biociphos plus. Biociphos plus was also compared with another commercial diluent (Laiciphos) for use in freezing bull semen intended for in vitro and/or in vivo fertilization. No difference (P > 0.05) could be detected between the 2 diluents for in vitro fertility rates (percentage of cleaved zygotes: 85.7% and 88.0%, respectively, for Laiciphos and Biociphos plus). Similarly, 2 series of comparisons conducted in dairy cows artificially inseminated with semen frozen in either Biociphos plus or Laiciphos showed no difference in fertilizing capacity (tested at 60 to 90 d; P > 0.05) irrespective of the age of the bulls (Trial 1, bulls aged 14 to 15 m.o.; Trial 2, bulls aged 2 to 5 yr, field trials). It is concluded that, in addition to maintaining the fertilizing capacity of bull semen at levels comparable to those observed with standard freezing diluent, Biociphos plus also prevents microbiological contamination by bacteria or mycoplasma, both of which are generally present in the various commercially available sources of egg yolk.

  5. Enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, L

    1978-09-02

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is associated with infection by bovine leucosis virus. The incubation period is measured in years and a minority of infected animals develop clinical signs. The disease is widespread in Europe and elsewhere and can cause significant economic loss. The epidemiology is incompletely understood and findings from one cattle production system may not be directly applicable to another. Major control programmes exist in Denmark and West Germany and control schemes are being developed elsewhere. Eradication of enzootic bovine leucosis has been established as a goal in the EEC and research is revealing the ways in which this goal may be attained. To be effective, control and epidemiological monitoring must be interactive. Recently introduced serological tests, of improved sensitivity, provide a valuable tool.

  6. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of carbohydrate structures and the distribution of the newly identified mucin MUC15, a highly glycosylated protein associated with the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Distribution of MUC15 was investigated in various fractions of bovine milk......-containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......-linked glycans were shown to contain mainly hybrid-type N-glycans. In addition, the N-glycans were shown to be sialylated and contain terminal poly-lactosamine structures. The O-linked glycans were found to constitute some unsubstituted Core-1 structures and a substantial number of sialylated Core-1 O...

  7. Bovine serum albumin: survival and osmolarity effect in bovine spermatozoa stored above freezing point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nang, C F; Osman, K; Budin, S B; Ismail, M I; Jaffar, F H F; Mohamad, S F S; Ibrahim, S F

    2012-05-01

    Liquid nitrogen preservation in remote farms is a limitation. The goal of this study was to determine optimum temperature above freezing point for bovine spermatozoa preservation using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a supplementation. Pooled semen sample from three ejaculates was subjected to various BSA concentration (1, 4, 8 and 12 mg ml(-1)), before incubation in different above freezing point temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C). Viability assessment was carried out against time from day 0 (fresh sample) until all spermatozoa become nonviable. Optimal condition for bovine spermatozoa storage was at 4 °C with 1 mg ml(-1) BSA for almost 7 days. BSA improved bovine spermatozoa viability declining rate to 44.28% at day 4 and 57.59% at day 7 compared to control, with 80.54% and 98.57% at day 4 and 7 respectively. Increase in BSA concentration did not improve sperm viability. Our results also confirmed that there was a strong negative correlation between media osmolarity and bovine spermatozoa survival rate with r = 0.885, P freezing point. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  9. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  10. Activities for leptin in bovine trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C K; Xie, M M; McCoski, S R; Ealy, A D

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h. Transcript profiles were examined from extracted RNA. Leptin supplementation did not affect abundance of the maternal recognition of pregnancy factor, interferon-tau (IFNT), but leptin increased (P leptin. Transcript abundance of the remodeling factor, metalloprotease 2 (MMP2), was greater (P leptin-treated cells at 24 h but not at 6 h. The 24 h MMP2 response was greatest (P leptin treatment. In a separate set of studies, cell proliferation assays were completed. Leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell line proliferation at any dose tested. In conclusion, leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell proliferation or IFNT expression, but leptin increases CSH2 and MMP2 transcript abundance. Both of these factors are involved with peri-implantation and postimplantation placental development and function, and this implicates leptin as a potential mediator of early placental development and function in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Bovine Ephemeral Fever in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Amin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF is an arthropod-borne viral disease of cattle caused by a single stranded RNA virus that belongs to the rhabdovirus group. The outbreak was diagnosed as BEF on the bases of clinical signs and pathological lesions. In the present study, out of two hundred and fifty cows, fourteen cows are died from BEF by mortality ratio 5.6%. The diseased cows showed viraemia, inappetance, depression, salivation, lacrimation, nasal discharge, lameness, and recumbency followed by death. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from naturally infected cows with BEFV were grossly and microscopically evaluated and tested using immunohistochemistry. The main gross findings include grayish-white streaks in the skeletal muscles, congestion and mottling of the lung surface with darkness of the lobar septa, congestion of the tracheal mucosae with the presence of mucous exudate in their lumen. The liver and kidneys were congested with edematous and enlarged lymph nodes. The microscopical examination revealed various pathological changes in different organs. Diffuse hemorrhage and pulmonary emphysema with alveolar atelectasis and catarrhal bronchiolitis were observed in the lung. The skeletal muscle showed severe hyaline degeneration and myomalacia with inter-muscular hemorrhage. Edema with marked lymphoid depletion was observed in the pre-scapular and pre-femoral lymph nodes. Necrotic changes were noticed in the renal and intestinal tissues. Diagnosis was confirmed by detecting viral antigen in the spleen, lung, muscle, kidney, heart and lymph nodes with most of the antigen appearing within macrophages and pericytes using immunohistochemistry.

  12. (Un)Fixing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Aaron M.; Petrovic, John E.

    2018-01-01

    In this article we consider the material dimensions of schooling as constitutive of the possibilities inherent in "fixing" education. We begin by mapping out the problem of "fixing education," pointing to the necrophilic tendencies of contemporary education--a desire to kill what otherwise might be life-giving. In this sense,…

  13. Ultrastructure and Development of Vitrified/Warmed Bovine Oocytes Matured with 9-cis Retinoic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Aida; Gómez, Enrique; Antolín, Isaac; Duque, Paloma; Hidalgo, C.O. (Carlos); Alonso, Cristina; Tamargo, Carolina; Fernández, Lina; Carbajo, Maite; Facal, Nieves; Caamaño, J.N. (José); Díez, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In this work we analyze the effects of vitrification on the ultrastructure and developmental ability of bovine oocytes matured in the presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA). Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in a basic medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), 9-cis-RA or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Mature oocytes were vitrified using the Open Pulled Straw method with minor modifications. A group of fresh and vitrified/warmed COCs was fixed for ultrastructural analysis, wh...

  14. About Applications of the Fixed Point Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucur Amelia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fixed point theory is essential to various theoretical and applied fields, such as variational and linear inequalities, the approximation theory, nonlinear analysis, integral and differential equations and inclusions, the dynamic systems theory, mathematics of fractals, mathematical economics (game theory, equilibrium problems, and optimisation problems and mathematical modelling. This paper presents a few benchmarks regarding the applications of the fixed point theory. This paper also debates if the results of the fixed point theory can be applied to the mathematical modelling of quality.

  15. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  17. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Díaz Ismael Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  18. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  19. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  20. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  1. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of newborn bovine serum on cryopreservation of adult bovine testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J Y; Sun, Y X; Wang, A B; Che, G Y; Hu, T J; Zhang, X M

    2014-04-01

    Bovine serum is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. However, its cryoprotective effects on the cells and tissues are ambiguous and controversial. To test the effects of newborn calf serum (NCS) on cryopreservation of bovine testis tissue, NCS of 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% (v/v) was added into minimum essential medium + 10% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)-based medium according to our previous report. Interestingly, the testicular cell viabilities and spermatogonia percentages from four groups were very close. The results indicated that an increase in the concentration of NCS in freezing medium to 20% has no significant effect on survival of both testicular cells and spermatogonia, and 10% DMSO-based freezing medium can maintain the testicular cell viability and spermatogonia percentage at a relatively high level (83.4 ± 0.7 and 56.5 ± 2.2 respectively). Taken together, NCS is dispensable for cryopreservation of adult bovine testis tissue. Our results provide an evidence for cutting down the costs in cryopreservation research of bovine testis tissue by reducing or giving up the use of serum. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Topological fixed point theory of multivalued mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Górniewicz, Lech

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents a broad introduction to the topological fixed point theory of multivalued (set-valued) mappings, treating both classical concepts as well as modern techniques. A variety of up-to-date results is described within a unified framework. Topics covered include the basic theory of set-valued mappings with both convex and nonconvex values, approximation and homological methods in the fixed point theory together with a thorough discussion of various index theories for mappings with a topologically complex structure of values, applications to many fields of mathematics, mathematical economics and related subjects, and the fixed point approach to the theory of ordinary differential inclusions. The work emphasises the topological aspect of the theory, and gives special attention to the Lefschetz and Nielsen fixed point theory for acyclic valued mappings with diverse compactness assumptions via graph approximation and the homological approach. Audience: This work will be of interest to researchers an...

  4. Fixing Dataset Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Three current search engines are queried for ozone data at the GES DISC. The results range from sub-optimal to counter-intuitive. We propose a method to fix dataset search by implementing a robust relevancy ranking scheme. The relevancy ranking scheme is based on several heuristics culled from more than 20 years of helping users select datasets.

  5. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  6. Bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia: A review | Kumar | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raw or undercooked beef results taeniasis in human population and an important cause of economic loss mainly due to condemnation, refrigeration and downgrading of infected carcasses. Bovine cysticercosis is prevalent in cattle population of various regions of Ethiopia in a range of 2.2% to 26.25%. The reported rates of ...

  7. Binding of Staphylococcus aureus onto bovine intestinal mucin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucins act as protection for the gastrointestinal tract against various invading organisms. They are also crucial in developing drugs against these organisms as well as other therapeutic purposes. This study was carried out to investigate the binding of Staphylococcus aureus onto bovine intestinal mucin in vitro. The isolate ...

  8. Identifying and Prioritizing Genes involved in Bovine Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Li

    and integrate different layers of biological data, attempting to make a systematic inference of underlying genes to bovine mastitis. Robust and flexible methods have been implemented in data summarization and integration for gene prioritization, which can be applied to study various complex traits in different...

  9. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  10. Some fixed point results for dualistic rational contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new contraction called dualistic contraction of rational type and obtain some fixed point results. These results generalize various comparable results appeared in the literature. We provide an example to show the superiority of our results over corresponding fixed point results proved in metric spaces.

  11. Nonlinear Contractive Conditions for Coupled Cone Fixed Point Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Wei-Shih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some new coupled fixed point theorems for various types of nonlinear contractive maps in the setting of quasiordered cone metric spaces which not only obtain several coupled fixed point theorems announced by many authors but also generalize them under weaker assumptions.

  12. Fixed solar energy concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, A.J.; Knasel, T.M.

    1981-01-20

    An apparatus for the concentration of solar energy upon a fixed array of solar cells is disclosed. A transparent material is overlayed upon the cell array, and a diffuse reflective coating is applied to the surface area of the transparent medium in between cells. Radiant light, which reflects through the transparent layer and does not fall directly incident to a cell surface is reflected by the coating layer in an approximate cosine pattern. Thereafter, such light undergoes internal reflection and rediffusion until subsequently it either strikes a solar cell surface or is lost through the upper surface of the transparent material.

  13. Digital fixed points, approximate fixed points, and universal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Boxer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A. Rosenfeld [23] introduced the notion of a digitally continuous function between digital images, and showed that although digital images need not have fixed point properties analogous to those of the Euclidean spaces modeled by the images, there often are approximate fixed point properties of such images. In the current paper, we obtain additional results concerning fixed points and approximate fixed points of digitally continuous functions. Among these are several results concerning the relationship between universal functions and the approximate fixed point property (AFPP.

  14. Fixed target beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Fraser, M A; Gatignon, L; Goddard, B; Velotti, F

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves asLHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixedtarget experiments. At low energy, the vertical acceptancebecomes critical with high intensity large emittance fixed tar-get beams. Optimizing the vertical available aperture is a keyingredient to optimize transmission and reduce activationaround the ring. During the 2016 run a tool was developed toprovide an automated local aperture scan around the entirering.The flux of particles slow extracted with the1/3inte-ger resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERNshould ideally be constant over the length of the extractionplateau, for optimum use of the beam by the fixed target ex-periments in the North Area. The extracted intensity is con-trolled in feed-forward correction of the horizontal tune viathe main SPS quadrupoles. The Mains power supply noiseat 50 Hz and harmonics is also corrected in feed-forwardby small amplitude tune modulation at the respective fre-quencies with a dedicated additional quad...

  15. Integer programming, lattices, and results in fixed dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Aardal (Karen); F. Eisenbrand

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe review and describe several results regarding integer programming problems in fixed dimension. First, we describe various lattice basis reduction algorithms that are used as auxiliary algorithms when solving integer feasibility and optimization problems. Next, we review three

  16. Structural changes of in vitro matured buffalo and bovine oocytes following cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina De Blasi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate chromatin and spindle organization of buffalo and bovine in vitro matured oocytes after vitrification/warming by Cryotop and after their exposure to cryoprotectants (CP. In vitro matured oocytes were vitrified/warmed and exposed to the vitrification/warming solutions containing ethylene glycol (EG, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and sucrose as CP. Two hours after warming, oocytes were fixed and immunostained for microtubules and nuclei and examined by fluorescence microscopy. Data were analyzed by Chi Square test. A higher percentage of Telophase II stage oocytes was found in the toxicity (26 and 34% in bovine and buffalo and the vitrification groups (13 and 7% in bovine and buffalo compared to the control, indicating occurrence of activation. An increased percentage of oocytes with abnormal spindle and chromosome organization was found in oocytes exposed to CP (24 and 13% in bovine; 32 and 30% in buffalo respectively and in those vitrified (26 and 31% in bovine; 26 and 29% in buffalo respectively compared to the control (0 in bovine and 2.5 % in buffalo.

  17. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  18. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  19. Improved parthenogenetic development of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes activated with 9% ethanol plus 6-DMAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Y -p; Liu, Ying; Dai, Y -p

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to compare various activation protocols on developmental potential of vitrified bovine oocytes. Bovine oocytes matured in vitro for 23 h were vitrified with EDFSF30 in open pulled straws. After warming, they were cultured in vitro for 1 h, followed by parthenogenetic activation...... evaluating other activation protocols with 9% ethanol, calcium ionophore A23187, or ionomycin alone, or in combination with DMAP or cycloheximide (CHX). In conclusion, the oocyte activation protocol affected developmental capacity of vitrified bovine oocytes; 9% ethanol (5 min) followed by 6-DMAP (4 h...

  20. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  1. Soybean Nitrogen Fixing Attributes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reproductive unit and nitrogen fixing attributes (Carruthers er. al., 2000). In combination with various lupin and forages, these authors showed that soybean grain yield was decreased by most treatments. In order to limit over population and pollution risks, low nitrogen fertilizer agricultural systems are likely to be advocated.

  2. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  3. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general

  4. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-14

    A cattle dashboard has recently been developed to share surveillance information gathered from submissions to the Great Britain veterinary diagnostic network. Data relating to Scotland come from the SAC C VS. This article, by Tim Geraghty, relates to cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland, as summarised on the APHA Cattle Dashboard. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  6. Identification of lactoferrin in bovine tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1996-09-01

    To determine whether bovine tear film contains the iron-binding glycoprotein, lactoferrin. 40 Adult Hereford, Angus, and Simmental cattle. Protein analysis: pooled bovine tears were used for protein analysis (size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] fractionation). HPLC was used for tear analysis. A diode array detector was used (215 and 280 microns) for chromatogram analysis and comparisons. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE): protein electrophoresis was performed, using 7.5% running gels with 4% stacking gels. Molecular weight of proteins in the unknown samples was determined as recommended by the manufacturer of the standards. Protein sequencing: amino acid sequencing, using automated Edman degradation of HPLC purified protein, was performed. The sequence obtained was compared with the known protein sequence of bovine lactoferrin. HPLC analysis of whole bovine tears resulted in a consistent chromatogram. Peak collection was performed to recover a protein from the bovine tear film with chromatogram characteristics nearly identical to purified bovine lactoferrin. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE of this peak revealed a band with molecular mass consistent with bovine lactoferrin (estimated mass of 78 kd). The first 13 amino acid residues of this protein were identical to the amino acid sequence of bovine lactoferrin. Analysis of whole bovine tears, using size exclusion HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and amino acid sequencing, provided evidence that bovine tears contain lactoferrin. Lactoferrin probably exerts a bacteriostatic effect in bovine tear film. Locally produced lactoferrin may bathe the ocular surface and sequester iron from potential pathogens.

  7. Development of Slide Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (SELISA for Detection of Trypanosoma evansi Infection in Bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siva Jothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The slide enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (SELISA was standardized for detection of antibodies specific to Trypanosoma evansi and subsequently used for the screening of naturally infected bovine sera. A novel SELISA, a modification of the standard ELISA technique was used for the detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma evansi in bovines using positive and negative control sera. The test is based on immunostaining of the fixed whole Trypanosoma evansi organisms on microscopic glass slide, incubation with sera, antibovine IgG-HRPO conjugate and substrate Diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB. Finally the reaction was read under oil immersion of microscope. A total of 702 sera samples from bovines in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh were examined by SELISA and 192 were found positive for Trypanosoma evansi antibodies.

  8. Bovine leukemia virus: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliarena MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marcela Alicia Juliarena,1 Clarisa Natalia Barrios,1 Claudia María Lützelschwab,1 Eduardo Néstor Esteban,2 Silvina Elena Gutiérrez1 1Department of Animal Health and Preventive Medicine, Veterinary Research Center of Tandil (CIVETAN, CIC-CONICET, Faculty of Veterinary Science, National University of the Center of Buenos Aires Province, Tandil, Argentina; 2BIOALPINA Program (GENIAL/COTANA, Colonia Alpina, Argentina Abstract: Enzootic bovine leukosis, caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, is the most common neoplasm of dairy cattle. Although beef and dairy cattle are susceptible to BLV infection and BLV-associated lymphosarcoma, the disease is more commonly detected in dairy herds, mostly because of the management practices in dairy farms. The pathogenicity of BLV in its natural host, the bovine, depends mainly on the resistance/susceptibility genetics of the animal. The majority of infected cattle are asymptomatic, promoting the extremely high dissemination rate of BLV in many bovine populations. The important productive losses caused by the BLV, added to the health risk of maintaining populations with a high prevalence of infection with a retrovirus, generates the need to implement control measures. Different strategies to control the virus have been attempted. The most effective approach is to identify and cull the totality of infected cattle in the herd. However, this approach is not suitable for herds with high prevalence of infection. At present, no treatment or vaccine has proven effective for the control of BLV. Thus far, the genetic selection of resistant animals emerges as a natural strategy for the containment of the BLV dissemination. In natural conditions, most of the infected, resistant cattle can control the infection, and therefore do not pass the virus to other animals, gradually decreasing the prevalence of the herd. Keywords: bovine leukemia virus, control, genetic resistance, BoLA-DRB3

  9. Flat coalgebraic fixed point logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, L.; Venema, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact

  10. Fixed and variable cost of automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    Recent empirical analyses have found strong reactions of car prices to changes in fuel costs. We develop a model of car quality choice to further investigate this relationship. We show that in the empirically relevant case quality characteristics increase fixed as well as variable costs, and our...... model focuses on that situation. Quality aspects must then be an argument of the utility function and we introduce them in a general way. In equilibrium the marginal willingness to pay for these aspects must be equal to their margi nal impact on fixed as well as variable costs. We estimate the marginal...... costs of various quality aspects using an extensive Danish data set. We show that under suitable assumptions the marginal willingness to pay for quality aspects is a structural parameter of the consumer’s preference. We use our results to investigate this structural parameter and study its relationship...

  11. Supplementation of fetal bovine serum alters histone modification H3R26me2 during preimplantation development of in vitro produced bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Arnold

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In vitro production (IVP of bovine embryos is not only of great economic importance to the cattle industry, but is also an important model for studying embryo development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histone modification, H3R26me2 during pre-implantation development of IVP bovine embryos cultured with or without serum supplementation and how these in vitro treatments compared to in vivo embryos at the morula stage. After in vitro maturation and fertilization, bovine embryos were cultured with either 0 or 2.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Development was evaluated and embryos were collected and fixed at different stages during development (2-, 4-, 8-, 16-cell, morula and blastocyst. Fixed embryos were then used for immunofluorescence utilizing an antibody for H3R26me2. Images of stained embryos were analyzed as a percentage of total DNA. Embryos cultured with 2.5% FBS developed to blastocysts at a greater rate than 0%FBS groups (34.85±5.43% vs. 23.38±2.93%; P<0.05. Levels of H3R26me2 changed for both groups over development. In the 0%FBS group, the greatest amount of H3R26me2 staining was at the 4-cell (P<0.05, 16-cell (P<0.05 and morula (P<0.05 stages. In the 2.5%FBS group, only 4-cell stage embryos were significantly higher than all other stages (P<0.01. Morula stage in vivo embryos had similar levels as the 0%FBS group, and both were significantly higher than the 2.5%FBS group. These results suggest that the histone modification H3R26me2 is regulated during development of pre-implantation bovine embryos, and that culture conditions greatly alter this regulation.

  12. Pilot study on binding of bovine salivary proteins to grit silicates and plant phytoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Marcus; M Kaiser, Thomas; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2013-06-01

    Mostly fed with grass in fresh or conserved form, cattle and other livestock have to cope with silicate defence bodies from plants (phytoliths) and environmental silicates (grit), which abrade tooth enamel and could additionally interact with various salivary proteins. To detect potential candidates for silicate-binding proteins, bovine whole saliva was incubated with grass-derived phytoliths and silicates. Interactions of salivary proteins with pulverized bovine dental enamel and dentine were additionally analysed. After intense washing, the powder fractions were loaded onto 1D-polyacrylamide gels, most prominent adhesive protein bands were cut out and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry within three independent replicates. All materials were mainly bound by bovine odorant-binding protein, bovine salivary protein 30×10(3) and carbonic anhydrase VI. The phytolith/silicate fraction showed additional stronger interaction with haemoglobin β and lactoperoxidase. Conceivably, the binding of these proteins to the surfaces may contribute to biological processes occurring on them.

  13. Structural changes of in vitro matured buffalo and bovine oocytes following cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marina De Blasi; Evelina Mariotti; Salvatore Velotto; Marcello Rubessa; Serena Di Francesco; Bianca Gasparrini

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate chromatin and spindle organization of buffalo and bovine in vitro matured oocytes after vitrification/warming by Cryotop and after their exposure to cryoprotectants (CP). In vitro matured oocytes were vitrified/warmed and exposed to the vitrification/warming solutions containing ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sucrose as CP. Two hours after warming, oocytes were fixed and immunostained for microtubules and nuclei and examined by fluores...

  14. Fixed points of periodic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, S E; Shaneson, J L

    1980-09-01

    Let f be a periodic differentiable map from a sphere to itself. A well-known conjecture of Smith asserts that in many cases (e.g., when the fixed points are isolated) the derivatives of f at its fixed points, regarded as Jacobian matrices, are linearly similar. Here we give counterexamples to this conjecture. The results show that, in many cases, these Jacobian matrices are only nonlinearly similar. This uses our recent discovery of orthogonal matrices which are nonlinearly similar without being linearly similar. Some results on general smooth actions of finite groups on differentiable manifolds are presented; the topological equivalence of their tangential representations at the fixed points is studied.

  15. Nucleolar changes in bovine nucleotransferred embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, V; Vignon, X; LeBourhis, D; Renard, J P; Fléchon, J E

    2002-02-01

    This study focused on nucleolar changes in bovine embryos reconstructed from enucleated mature oocytes fused with blastomeres of morulae or with cultured, serum unstarved bovine fetal skin fibroblasts (embryonic vs. somatic cloning). The nucleotransferred (NT) embryos were collected and fixed at time intervals of 1-2 h (early 1-cell stage), 10-15 h (late 1-cell stage), 22-24 h (2-cell stage), 37-38 h (4-cell stage), 40-41 h (early 8-cell stage), 47-48 h (late 8-cell stage), and 55 h (16-cell stage) after fusion. Immunocytochemistry by light and electron microscopy was used for structure-function characterization of nucleolar components. Antibodies against RNA, protein B23, protein C23, and fibrillarin were applied. In addition, DNA was localized by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) technique, and the functional organization of chromatin was determined with the nick-translation immunogold approach. The results show that fully reticulated (active) nucleoli observed in donor cells immediately before fusion as well as in the early 1-cell stage after fusion were progressively transformed into nucleolar bodies displaying decreasing numbers of vacuoles from the 2- to 4-cell stage in both types of reconstructed embryos. At the late 8-cell stage, morphological signs of resuming nucleolar activity were detected. Numerous new small vacuoles appeared, and chromatin blocks reassociated with the nucleolar body. During this period, nick-translation technique revealed numerous active DNA sites in the periphery of chromatin blocks associated with the nucleolar body. Fully reticulated nucleoli were again observed as early as the 16-cell stage of embryonic cloned embryos. In comparison, the embryos obtained by fetal cloning displayed a lower tendency to develop, mainly during the first cell cycle and during the period of presumed reactivation. Correlatively, the changes in nucleolar morphology (desegregation and rebuilding) were at least delayed in many somatic NT

  16. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  17. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  18. Can Interagency Cooperation Be Fixed?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vavasseur, Jana A

    2007-01-01

    ...) in order to figure out the root of our failures and fix it. That introspection has drawn many academics, politicians and military officers alike to examine interagency coordination for a solution...

  19. Current trend of drug sensitivity in bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 190 milk samples of bovine mastitis and 138 samples were confirmed positives for microorganisms. All the 138 samples were subjected to drug sensitivity test. The most effective antibiotic was enrofloxacin (91.67% followed by ciprofloxacin (90.15%, amikacin (87.12%, ceftriaxone (84.10%, chloramphenicol (80.31%, cefotaxime (79.55% and gentamicin (77.27%. Microorganisms were mostly resistant to drugs like streptomycin, penicillinG, ampicillin, cloxacillin, amoxycillin and neomycin in increasing order of resistance. Hence, it is suggested that the line of treatment should be based on antibiogram study of various isolates from bovine mastitis. Further, the selection of drugs after culture and sensitivity test should be based on their ability to cross blood tissue barrier or mammary parenchyma, lipophilicity and ability to work in alkaline pH. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 17-20

  20. CERN's Fixed Target Primary Ion Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, Django; Axensalva, Jerome; Bellodi, Giulia; Blas, Alfred; Bodendorfer, Michael; Bohl, Thomas; Cettour-Cave, Stephane; Cornelis, Karel; Damerau, Heiko; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Fabich, Adrian; Ferreira Somoza, Jose; Findlay, Alan; Freyermuth, Pierre; Gilardoni, Simone; Hancock, Steven; Holzer, Eva Barbara; Jensen, Steen; Kain, Verena; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Michet, Alice; O'Neil, Michael; Pasinelli, Sergio; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Tranquille, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The renewed availability of heavy ions at CERN for the needs of the LHC programme has triggered the interest of the fixed-target community. The project, which involves sending several species of primary ions at various energies to the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron, has now entered its operational phase. The first argon run, with momenta ranging from 13 AGeV/c to 150 AGeV/c, took place from February 2015 to April 2015. This paper presents the status of the project, the performance achieved thus far and an outlook on future plans.

  1. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  2. Comparison of bacterial communities in leachate from decomposing bovine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We obtained a total of 110,442 reads from the triplicate samples of various sampling time points (total of 15 samples, and found that the phylum Firmicutes was dominant at most sampling times. Differences in the bacterial communities at the various time points were observed among the triplicate samples. The bacterial communities sampled at 4 months showed the most different compositions. The genera Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in all of the samples obtained after 3 months. Bacillaceae, Clostridium, and Clostridiales were found to be predominant after 4 months in the leachate from one carcass, whereas Planococcaceae was found to be a dominant in samples obtained at the first and second months from the other two carcasses. The results showed that potentially pathogenic microbes such as Clostridium derived from bovine leachate could dominate the soil environment of a burial site. Conclusion Our results indicated that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of a decomposing bovine shifted continuously during the experimental period, with significant changes detected after 4 months of burial.

  3. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  4. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo ...

  5. Fixed effects analysis of variance

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Lloyd; Birnbaum, Z W; Lukacs, E

    1978-01-01

    Fixed Effects Analysis of Variance covers the mathematical theory of the fixed effects analysis of variance. The book discusses the theoretical ideas and some applications of the analysis of variance. The text then describes topics such as the t-test; two-sample t-test; the k-sample comparison of means (one-way analysis of variance); the balanced two-way factorial design without interaction; estimation and factorial designs; and the Latin square. Confidence sets, simultaneous confidence intervals, and multiple comparisons; orthogonal and nonorthologonal designs; and multiple regression analysi

  6. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  7. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of commercially available vaccines against bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus for mitigation of bovine respiratory disease complex in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Miles E; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and analyze data from controlled studies on the effectiveness of vaccinating cattle with commercially available viral antigen vaccines for mitigation of the effects of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Systematic review and meta-analysis. 31 studies comprising 88 trials. Studies that reported the effectiveness of commercially available bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3) vaccines for protection of cattle against BRDC or its components were included in the analysis. Studies or trials were categorized as natural exposure or experimental challenge and were further divided by the viral antigen evaluated and vaccine type (modified-live virus [MLV] or inactivated vaccine). Meta-analysis was performed; summary Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios were determined, and Forest plots were generated. In natural exposure trials, beef calves vaccinated with various antigen combinations had a significantly lower BRDC morbidity risk than did nonvaccinated control calves. In trials evaluating BHV-1 and MLV BVDV vaccines in experimental challenge models, vaccinated calves had a lower BRDC morbidity risk than did control calves; however, in experimental challenge trials evaluating MLV BRSV and PI3 vaccines, no significant difference in morbidity or mortality risk was found between vaccinated and control calves. Estimating clinical efficacy from results of experimental challenge studies requires caution because these models differ substantially from those involving natural exposure. The literature provides data but does not provide sufficiently strong evidence to guide definitive recommendations for determining which virus components are necessary to include in a vaccination program for prevention or mitigation of BRDC in cattle.

  9. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  10. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  12. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Declan T; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A

    2016-10-25

    Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of:(1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and(2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 2 June 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 5) in the Cochrane Library (searched 2 June 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 2 June 2016) and EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2 June 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. All review authors

  13. Two general fixed point principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao C. Dhage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a couple of general fixed point principles using the constructive approach and derive some interesting well-known fixed point theorems in a metric space and a partially ordered metric space as corollaries. Our general fixed point principles include more than 100 fixed point theorems in different metric spaces as special cases.

  14. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five bovine...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  16. Biomimetic coprecipitation of calcium phosphate and bovine serum albumin on titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yuelian; Layrolle, Pierre; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.

    2001-01-01

    Titanium alloy implants were precoated biomimetically with a thin and dense layer of calcium phosphate and then incubated either in a supersaturated solution of calcium phosphate or in phosphate-buffered saline, each containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) at various concentrations, under

  17. Evaluation of royal jelly as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of royal jelly as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell culture using cell proliferation assays and live cell imaging. Materials and Methods: MRC-5 cells were treated with various concentrations of royal jelly extract in MTT assay. The control groups were comprised of ...

  18. Evaluation of tests for antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 performed in national reference laboratories in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramps, J.A.; Banks, M.; Beer, M.; Kerkhofs, P.; Perrin, M.; Wellenberg, G.J.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Sets of serum and milk samples were collected from various countries and prepared, lyophilised and distributed by 1 laboratory to 12 reference laboratories in Europe. The serum sets contained the three European bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) reference serum samples (EU1, EU2 and EU3), serum samples

  19. Virulence and genotype of a bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate from semen of a subclinically infected bull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Straver, P.J.; Ruuls, R.C.; Quak, J.; Davidse, A.; Westenbrink, E.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Dijk, van J.E.; Moerman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) isolate from the semen of a subclinically infected bull was administered to cattle by various routes to assess its virulence. Cattle that were artificially inseminated or inoculated intrapreputially did not develop clinical signs, but did transmit the virus to contact

  20. Enteric disease in postweaned beef calves associated with a Bovine coronavirus clade 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronavirus (BoCV) infections are associated with varied clinical presentations including neonatal diarrhea, winter dysentery in dairy cattle, and respiratory disease in various ages of cattle. This report presents information on BoCV infections associated with enteric disease of postweaned b...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on Mycoplasma bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of molecules which play an important role in the innate immune response in various organisms, including cattle. Bovine NK-lysins, a type of AMP, have been predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Collective results...

  2. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  3. Regulatory requirements for marketing fixed dose combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasheel, B G

    2010-10-01

    The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. FDCs have advantages when there is an identifiable patient population for whom treatment with a particular combination of actives in a fixed ratio is safe and effective and when all of the actives contribute to the overall therapeutic effect. Such combinations of drugs are particularly useful in the management of chronic diseases. In addition, there can be real clinical benefits in the form of increased efficacy and/or a reduced incidence of adverse effects. Additional advantages of FDCs are potentially lower costs of manufacturing compared to the costs of producing separate products administered concurrently, simpler logistics of distribution and reduced development of resistance in the case of antimicrobials. Above all, FDC therapy reduces pill burden and improves medication compliance. Although, FDCs seem to be ideal under certain pre-defined circumstances, if a dosing adjustment is warranted, there may not be an FDC available in the most appropriate strength for the patient and if an adverse drug reaction occurs from using an FDC, it may be difficult to identify the active ingredient responsible for causing the reaction. Appendix VI of Schedule Y (Drugs & Cosmetics Rules 1945, India) states the requirements for marketing approval of various types of FDCs. The same is further elaborated in this article to provide a detailed guidance including the clinical trial requirements. However, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic field makes it difficult to develop a standard guidance document.

  4. Regulatory requirements for marketing fixed dose combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B G Jayasheel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. FDCs have advantages when there is an identifiable patient population for whom treatment with a particular combination of actives in a fixed ratio is safe and effective and when all of the actives contribute to the overall therapeutic effect. Such combinations of drugs are particularly useful in the management of chronic diseases. In addition, there can be real clinical benefits in the form of increased efficacy and/or a reduced incidence of adverse effects. Additional advantages of FDCs are potentially lower costs of manufacturing compared to the costs of producing separate products administered concurrently, simpler logistics of distribution and reduced development of resistance in the case of antimicrobials. Above all, FDC therapy reduces pill burden and improves medication compliance. Although, FDCs seem to be ideal under certain pre-defined circumstances, if a dosing adjustment is warranted, there may not be an FDC available in the most appropriate strength for the patient and if an adverse drug reaction occurs from using an FDC, it may be difficult to identify the active ingredient responsible for causing the reaction. Appendix VI of Schedule Y (Drugs & Cosmetics Rules 1945, India states the requirements for marketing approval of various types of FDCs. The same is further elaborated in this article to provide a detailed guidance including the clinical trial requirements. However, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic field makes it difficult to develop a standard guidance document.

  5. Various / Barry Witherden

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Witherden, Barry

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Various. John Keys (organ), Andrew Angus (bass). Vasari Singers / Jeremy Backhouse". EMI Eminence 7243 5 65 903 2. 74:09 DDD. Plaadil ka A. Pärdi "Summa", "The Beautitudes", "Seven Magnificat Antiphons"

  6. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  7. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  8. Formulaic language: fixed and varied

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Formulaic language has been shown to be an important component of language usage. This paper summarizes evidence of this importance and then goes on to focus upon two key characteristics of formulaic language: fixedness and variability. Formulaic language is usually conceptualized as being basically fixed, but examples are given to illustrate that in many cases formulaic language contains a considerable amount of variation. The degree and type of variation depends on which kind of formulaic l...

  9. Factors influencing bonding fixed restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Medić Vesna; Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Crown displacement often occurs because the features of tooth preparations do not counteract the forces directed against restorations. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preparation designs on retention and resistance of fixed restorations. METHOD The study was performed on 64 differently sized stainless steel dies. Also, caps which were used for evaluated retention were made of stainless steel for each die. After cementing the caps on experimental ...

  10. Oral rehabilitation with fixed prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe Velásquez, Romel; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Salcedo Moncada, Doris; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Ochoa Tataje, Julio; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Horna Palomino, Hernán; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Herrera Cisneros, Marco; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Paz Fernández, Juan José; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    This treatment was carried out in a 58 years old male patient, who has had the antecedent of a car crash accident two years before; he loosed several teeth and fractured others. Pulp necrosis and alteration of occlusal plane occurred. Because of the pathologies presented, it was installed a multidisciplinary treatment phase having periodontal, endodontic, surgical and orthodontic procedures, tehe installation of posts, crowns and fixed bridges. Treatment was carried out for five months. El...

  11. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  12. A fixed-point farrago

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to some of the best-known fixed-point theorems, with an emphasis on their interactions with topics in analysis. The level of exposition increases gradually throughout the book, building from a basic requirement of undergraduate proficiency to graduate-level sophistication. Appendices provide an introduction to (or refresher on) some of the prerequisite material and exercises are integrated into the text, contributing to the volume’s ability to be used as a self-contained text. Readers will find the presentation especially useful for independent study or as a supplement to a graduate course in fixed-point theory. The material is split into four parts: the first introduces the Banach Contraction-Mapping Principle and the Brouwer Fixed-Point Theorem, along with a selection of interesting applications; the second focuses on Brouwer’s theorem and its application to John Nash’s work; the third applies Brouwer’s theorem to spaces of infinite dimension; and the fourth rests ...

  13. Molecular structure and Equilibrium forces of bovine submaxillary mucin adsorbed at a solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zappone, Bruno; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Madsen, Jan Busk

    2015-01-01

    -ranged, repulsive, and nonhysteretic forces upon compression of the adsorbed layers. Detailed analysis of such forces suggests that adsorbed mucins had an elongated conformation favored by the stiffness of the central domain. Acidification of aqueous media was chosen as means to reduce mucin−mucin and mucin...... by an adsorbed layer with a fixed surface coverage also remained unaltered upon acidification. This observation can be linked to the surface-protective, pH-resistant role of bovine submaxillary mucin in the variable environmental conditions of the oral cavity.......By combining dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface force apparatus, the conformation of bovine submaxillary mucin in dilute solution and nanomechanical properties of mucin layers adsorbed on mica have been investigated. The samples were...

  14. Nuclear and nuclear reprogramming during the first cell cycle in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Petrovicova, Ida; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The immediate events of genomic reprogramming at somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are to high degree unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the nuclear and nucleolar changes during the first cell cycle. Bovine SCNT embryos were produced from starved bovine fibroblasts and fixed......, somatic cell nuclei introduced into enucleated oocytes displayed chromatin condensation, partial nuclear envelope breakdown, nucleolar desegregation and transcriptional quiescence already at 0.5 hpa. Somatic cell cytoplasm remained temporally attached to introduced nucleus and nucleolus was partially...... restored indicating somatic influence in the early SCNT phases. At 1-3 hpa, chromatin gradually decondensed toward the nucleus periphery and nuclear envelope reformed. From 4 hpa, the somatic cell nucleus gained a PN-like appearance and displayed NPBs suggesting ooplasmic control of development....

  15. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-01-01

    ...) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV...

  16. Virome of US bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Yugo, Danielle M; Phan, Tung Gia; Deng, Xutao; Kanevsky, Isis; Opriessnig, Tanja; Woolums, Amelia R; Hurley, David J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Delwart, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Using viral metagenomics we analyzed four bovine serum pools assembled from 715 calves in the United States. Two parvoviruses, bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) and a previously uncharacterized parvovirus designated as bosavirus (BosaV), were detected in 3 and 4 pools respectively and their complete coding sequences generated. Based on NS1 protein identity, bosavirus qualifies as a member of a new species in the copiparvovirus genus. Also detected were low number of reads matching ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, bovine hepacivirus, and several papillomaviruses. This study further characterizes the diversity of viruses in calf serum with the potential to infect fetuses and through fetal bovine serum contaminate cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Lundemose, JB; Birkelund, Svend

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were....... Background and non-specific fluorescence were reduced by treating the tissue sections with trypsin, rabbit serum and Evans blue counterstain. Besides giving an exact diagnosis at autopsy, the method provides the possibility of determining the occurrence of chlamydia infections in various tissues, based...

  18. Metabolism and Calcification of Bovine Tooth Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    高木, 亨; 田上, 順次; 中村, 聡; Tohru, Takagi; Junji, TAGAMI; Satoshi, Nakamura; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 生化学講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 歯科保存学第1講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 医用器材研究所; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Institute of Medical and Dental Engineering, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mineralization mechanism in developing enamel using pH staining. Unerupted bovine teeth were used for the expriment. The activity of a proteolytic enzyme was evaluated against enamel protein obtainedfrom bovine enamel. Crystals in developing enamel, which were classlfied into neutral zone 1 and 2, acid zone 1 and 2, were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and power X-ray diffractometry. Proteolytic enzyme showed the hig...

  19. Interactions between bovine cornea proteoglycans and collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Speziale, P.; Bardoni, A; Balduini, C.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of proteoglycan subunits were obtained from bovine cornea, the first mainly composed of proteochondroitin sulphate and the second of proteokeratan sulphate. These two fractions can be obtained from the tissue as an aggregate, and are able to recombine each other after separation, to re-form the original structure. In order to investigate collagen-proteoglycan interactions, type-I collagen was isolated from bovine cornea by pepsin digestion followed by 3.5% (w/v) NaCl precipitation, ...

  20. Optimization of hydrolysis conditions for bovine plasma protein using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Eun-Young; Go, Gwang-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish optimal conditions for the hydrolysis of bovine plasma protein. Response surface methodology was used to model and optimize responses [degree of hydrolysis (DH), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and Fe(2+)-chelating activity]. Hydrolysis conditions, such as hydrolysis temperature (46.6-63.4 °C), hydrolysis time (98-502 min), and hydrolysis pH (6.32-9.68) were selected as the main processing conditions in the hydrolysis of bovine plasma protein. Optimal conditions for maximum DH (%), DPPH radical-scavenging activity (%) and Fe(2+)-chelating activity (%) of the hydrolyzed bovine plasma protein, were respectively established. We discovered the following three conditions for optimal hydrolysis of bovine plasma: pH of 7.82-8.32, temperature of 54.1 °C, and time of 338.4-398.4 min. We consequently succeeded in hydrolyzing bovine plasma protein under these conditions and confirmed the various desirable properties of optimal hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fixed time versus fixed range reverberation calculation: analytical solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Chris H; Ainslie, Michael A

    2010-07-01

    Reverberation is commonly calculated by estimating the propagation loss to and from an elementary area, defined by transmitted pulse length and beam width, and treating the resulting backscatter from the area as a function of its range. In reality reverberation is strictly a function of time and contributions for a given time come from many ranges. Closed-form solutions are given for reverberation calculated both at fixed range and at fixed time isovelocity water and some variants of Lambert's law and linear reflection loss with an abrupt critical angle. These are derived by considering the shape of the two-way scattered multipath pulse envelope from a point scatterer. The ratio of these two solutions is shown to depend on the dominant propagation angle spread for the particular range or time. The ratio is largest at intermediate ranges (though typically less than 1 dB) and depends explicitly on the critical angle. At longer ranges mode-stripping reduces the propagation angle spread and the ratio reduces ultimately to unity. At short range the ratio is also close to unity although interpreting it requires care.

  3. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedeković, Tomislav; Lemo, Nina; Lojkić, Ivana; Beck, Ana; Lojkić, Mirko; Madić, Josip

    2011-12-05

    Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle.

  4. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeković Tomislav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle.

  5. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  6. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat-Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat-bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  7. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals. PMID:28638381

  8. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okagawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1, is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2 was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV. Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  9. Fixed prosthetic treatment in patients with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajevska Jagoda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prosthetic treatment of patients with cleft palate includes various treatment options such as fixed partial dentures, removable partial prosthesis, etc. The type of prosthetic appliance is determined by the oral health of each individual and the circumstances. We presented three adult patients with the cleft lip and palate subjected to prosthetic treatment. Case report. From the possible prosthetic solutions according to the conditions in the oral cavity and the circumstances, fixed partial dentures veneered with composite or ceramic were chosen. A proper relationship between the teeth was reached with the fixed partial dentures, and function established, the phonetics improved and satisfying aesthetics effect accomplished improving the profile appearance of the patient’s face. Plastic surgery of the nose was performed after that. Conclusion. Multidisclipinary treatment is necessary for favourable long-term outcome in cleft lip and palate patients.

  10. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  11. Widespread bullous fixed drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patell, Rushad D; Dosi, Rupal V; Shah, Purav C; Joshi, Harshal S

    2014-02-07

    A 53-year-old man developed a widespread erythematous eruption which rapidly evolved into fluid-filled bulla mostly involving the distal areas of all four limbs and erosions on the oral as well as anogenital mucosa. Based on clinical presentation, chronology of drug exposure, past events and histopathology as diagnosis of widespread bullous fixed drug eruption was made over Steven Johnson-toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome. Steroids were deferred and the lesions healed with minimal pigmentation within a week. Differentiating between the two entities has been historically difficult, and yet can have significant therapeutic and prognostic implications.

  12. Susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial cells to bovine herpesviruses and pseudocowpox virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Jongejan, F.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial (BUE) cells to bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1, BHV2, BHV4 and BHV5, and to pseudocowpox virus. the detection limits and growth curves of these viruses in BUE cells were compared with those in Vero,

  13. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all t...

  14. Detection of bovine central nervous system tissues in rendered animal by-products by one-step real-time reverse transcription PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrievskaia, Olga; Tangorra, Erin

    2014-12-01

    Contamination of rendered animal byproducts with central nervous system tissues (CNST) from animals with bovine spongiform encephalopathy is considered one of the vehicles of disease transmission. Removal from the animal feed chain of CNST originated from cattle of a specified age category, species-labeling of rendered meat products, and testing of rendered products for bovine CNST are tasks associated with the epidemiological control of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. A single-step TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT) PCR assay was developed and evaluated for specific detection of bovine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA, a biomarker of bovine CNST, in rendered animal by-products. An internal amplification control, mammalian b -actin mRNA, was coamplified in the duplex RRT-PCR assay to monitor amplification efficiency, normalize amplification signals, and avoid false-negative results. The functionality of the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR was assessed through analysis of laboratory-generated binary mixtures of bovine central nervous system (CNS) and muscle tissues treated under various thermal settings imitating industrial conditions. The assay was able to detect as low as 0.05 % (wt/wt) bovine brain tissue in binary mixtures heat treated at 110 to 130°C for 20 to 60 min. Further evaluation of the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR assay involved samples of industrial rendered products of various species origin and composition obtained from commercial sources and rendering plants. Low amounts of bovine GFAP mRNA were detected in several bovine-rendered products, which was in agreement with declared species composition. An accurate estimation of CNS tissue content in industrial-rendered products was complicated due to a wide range of temperature and time settings in rendering protocols. Nevertheless, the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR assay may be considered for bovine CNS tissue detection in rendered products in combination with other available tools (for example, animal age

  15. Contractive definitions and discontinuity at fixed point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra K Bisht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate some contractive definitions which are strong enough to generate a fixed point that do not force the mapping to be continuous at the fixed point. Finally, we obtain a fixed point theorem for generalized nonexpansive mappings in metric spaces by employing Meir-Keeler type conditions.

  16. Predicting the fix time of bugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, E.; Pinzger, M.; Gall, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions concerning the coordination of development effort are which bugs to fix first and how long it takes to fix them. In this paper we investigate empirically the relationships between bug report attributes and the time to fix. The objective is to compute prediction models that

  17. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  18. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV 1), Leptospirosis and Neosporosis, and associated risk factors in 161 Irish beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Damien; Parr, Mervyn; Fagan, John; Johnson, Alan; Tratalos, Jamie; Lively, Francis; Diskin, Michael; Kenny, David

    2018-01-06

    There are limited data available, in Ireland or elsewhere, to determine the extent of exposure to various endemic diseases among beef cows and factors associated with exposure to causative pathogens. The objectives of this study were to determine the herd and within herd prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Leptospirosis and Neosporosis in a large scale study of commercial beef herds on the island of Ireland, and to examine herd level factors associated with exposure to these pathogens in these herds. The average number of cows tested per herd was 35.5 (median 30). Herd level seroprevalence to Bovine Herpesvirus-1(BHV-1), Bovine Viral-Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Leptospirosis and Neosporosis was 90%, 100%, 91% and 67%, respectively, while the mean within herd prevalence for the these pathogens was 40%, 77.7%, 65.7% and 5.7%, respectively. The study confirms that the level of seroconversion for the four pathogens of interest increases with herd size. There was also evidence that exposure to one pathogen may increase the risk of exposure to another pathogen. Herd level seroprevalences were in excess of 90% for BVDV, BHV-1 and Leptosporosis. Larger herds were subject to increased exposure to disease pathogens. This study suggests that exposure to several pathogens may be associated with the further exposure to other pathogens.

  19. Seeking Fixed Points in Multiple Coupling Scalar Theories in the $\\varepsilon$ Expansion arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Osborn, Hugh

    Fixed points for scalar theories in $4-\\varepsilon$, $6-\\varepsilon$ and $3-\\varepsilon$ dimensions are discussed. It is shown how a large range of known fixed points for the four dimensional case can be obtained by using a general framework with two couplings. The original maximal symmetry, $O(N)$, is broken to various subgroups, both discrete and continuous. A similar discussion is applied to the six dimensional case. Perturbative applications of the $a$-theorem are used to help classify potential fixed points. At lowest order in the $\\varepsilon$-expansion it is shown that at fixed points there is a lower bound for $a$ which is saturated at bifurcation points.

  20. Prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis: a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandro Pruence Nickele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage (Cysticercus bovis of Taenia saginata. This study aimed to identify prevention and control measures for bovine cysticercosis indicated by experts in the fields of public and animal health. The study was conducted through three rounds of the Delphi method and had the participation of 44 experts from 13 Brazilian states in 30 educational institutions, research institutions, and sanitary inspection services. The first round comprised an open question, the answers to which formed the basis for structuring the second and third questionnaire. To reach a consensus in the second and third rounds, experts were asked to express their agreement or disagreement of each proposition on the questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed at the end of each round. Twenty-three specialists (52.27% participated in all three rounds. The first round resulted in 28 proposals categorized into six areas: health education, methods of diagnosis and treatment, sanitation measures, epidemiological studies, legislation and sanitary supervision, and intersectorality. In the second round, the experts reached a consensus on 16 propositions (57.14%. This percentage increased by 3.54% during the third round. At the end of the third round, the experts had reached a consensus on 17 of the 28 initial propositions (60.71%. The highest percentage of agreement (29.4% was observed in the category of health education. This study allowed us to identify 17 recommendations pertaining to the prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis. These measures are not mutually exclusive, and require an integrated approach to the establishment of intervention actions at various points in the life cycle of the parasite.

  1. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  2. Various anchorage approaches in unilateral mandibular molar distalization using a fixed lingual arch appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero; Fritz, Ulrike; Diedrich, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Mean unilateral mandibular molar distalization of 3.33 +/- 1.28 mm was achieved in 20 patients (average age: 13 years, 1 month) by fitting an asymmetrically activated lingual arch appliance for an average treatment period of 4 months. Three different anchorage techniques were used: Anchorage was provided in seven patients by the lingual arm of the appliance alone, while another seven patients received additional sectional archwires, and another six patients sectional archwires and lip bumpers. Anchorage by means of the lingual arm alone proved to be insufficient to prevent labial tipping of the incisors. The mean protrusion and labial tipping recorded at the lower incisors was 7.67 degrees +/- 1.53 degrees and 2.64 +/- 0.48 mm respectively. The anchorage quality was enhanced and satisfactory stabilization achieved by additionally inserting a sectional archwire. In these cases the mean incisor protrusion and labial tipping was 1.75 degrees +/- 0.96 degree and 0.71 +/- 0.76 mm respectively and thus significantly lower (p lip bumper provided no further increase in anchorage quality (incisor protrusion 1.75 degrees +/- 2.87 degrees and 0.67 +/- 1.21 mm respectively). Fitting additional anchorage aids appears to have no direct impact on the extent and quality of molar distalization.

  3. Bovine Eimeria species in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W

    2012-05-01

    Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from

  4. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of ...

  5. Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factors for human infection with bovine tuberculosis among dairy and non-dairy farming neighbour households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  6. Multidisciplinary approach of ectodermal dysplasia with implant retained fixed prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Priya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia represents a group of rare inherited conditions in which two or more ectodermally derived anatomical structures fail to develop. Early dental intervention can improve patient′s appearance, thereby minimizing associated emotional and psychological problems in these patients. Treatment requires a teamwork by medical personnel along with dental professionals of various specialties. Here, a rare case of a young female patient is presented with prosthetic management with implant supported fixed partial denture.

  7. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  8. Interaction of aspirin and vitamin C with bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Bagheri Sadeghi, Golshan; PanahYab, Ataollah

    2011-12-02

    Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) has a major biological role as a natural antioxidant. Aspirin belongs to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and functions as an antioxidant via its ability to scavenge-OH radicals. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is the major soluble protein constituent of the circulatory system and has many physiological functions including transport of a variety of compounds. In this report, the competitive binding of vitamin C and aspirin to bovine serum albumin has been studied using constant protein concentration and various drug concentrations at pH 7.2. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods were used to analyze vitamin C and aspirin binding modes, the binding constants and the effects of drug complexation on BSA stability and conformation. Spectroscopic evidence showed that vitamin C and aspirin bind BSA via hydrophilic interactions (polypeptide and amine polar groups) with overall binding constants of K(vitamin C-BSA)=1.57×10(4)M(-1) and K(aspirin-BSA)=1.15×10(4)M(-1); assuming that there is one drug molecule per protein. The BSA secondary structure was altered with major decrease of α-helix from 64% (free protein) to 57% (BSA-vitamin C) and 54% (BSA-aspirin) and β-sheet from 15% (free protein) to 6-7% upon drug complexation, inducing a partial protein destabilization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Protection against bovine leukosis virus infection in sheep with the BL 20 bovine lymphoblastoid cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Sands, J; Wibberley, G

    1982-11-01

    The bovine lymphoblastoid BL 20 cell line derived from a case of sporadic bovine leukosis when inoculated into sheep did not induce an antibody response directed against bovine leukosis virus (BLV) structural proteins. Sheep were inoculated twice with the BL 20 cell line and then challenged with BLV infected lymphocytes. Three out of four sheep challenged four weeks after BL 20 inoculation did not develop BLV antibodies. Of the 12 sheep challenged later, three sheep did not develop BLV antibodies. BLV was isolated from all the seropositive animals and from none of the seronegative animals.

  10. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's Solution...

  11. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  12. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cultures for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine...

  13. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  14. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine...

  15. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  16. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vs 17.67, 15.68, 16.53). In conclusion in this experiment, melatonin cannot improve cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes. When concentrations is high, melatonin may affect bovine oocytes meiotic maturation at metaphase-1 stage, but it is improbable melatonin be toxic for bovine oocytes.

  17. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public meetings...

  18. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  19. Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Jagdish K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Desai, Sajjad A; Sabale, Rajendra N; Naik, Sameer P; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2014-08-11

    A bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) containing rotavirus human-bovine (UK) reassortant strains of serotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 has been developed by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA. The vaccine underwent animal toxicity studies and Phase I and II studies in adults, toddlers and infants. It has been found safe and immunogenic and will undergo a large Phase III study to assess efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic......, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard...

  1. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  2. Fixed telephony evolution at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The heart of CERN’s telephony infrastructure consists of the Alcatel IP-PBX that links CERN’s fixed line phones, Lync softphones and CERN’s GSM subscribers to low-cost local and international telephony services. The PABX infrastructure also supports the emergency “red telephones” in the LHC tunnel and provides vital services for the Fire and Rescue Service and the CERN Control Centre. Although still reliable, the Alcatel hardware is increasingly costly to maintain and looking increasingly outmoded in a market where open source solutions are increasingly dominant. After presenting an overview of the Alcatel PABX and the services it provides, including innovative solutions such as the Closed User Group for our mobile telephony services, we present a possible architecture for a software based system designed to meet tomorrow’s communication needs and describe how the introduction of open-source call routers based on the SIP protocol and Session Border Controllers (SBC) could foster the introduction...

  3. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    In 1976, Jungck [4] proved a common fixed point theorem for commuting maps generalizing the Banach's fixed point theorem, which states that, 'let (X, d) be a complete metric space. If T satisfies d(Tx,Ty) ≤ kd(x,y) for each x,y ∈ X where 0 ≤ k < 1, then T has a unique fixed point in X'. This theorem has many applications, ...

  4. Gauge fixing and the gibbs phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.

    1999-03-01

    We address the question of why global gauge fixing, specifically to the lattice Landau gauge, becomes an extremely lengthy process for large lattices. We construct an artificial "gauge-fixing" problem which has the essential features encountered in actuality. In the limit in which the size of the system to be gauge fixed becomes infinite, the problem becomes equivalent to finding a series expansion in functions which are related to the Jacobi polynomials. The series converges slowly, as expected. It also converges non-uniformly, which is an observed characteristic of gauge fixing. In the limiting example, the non-uniformity arises through the Gibbs phenomenon.

  5. Gauge fixing and the gibbs phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandula, Jeffrey E

    1999-03-01

    We address the question of why global gauge fixing, specifically to the lattice Landau gauge, becomes an extremely lengthy process for large lattices. We construct an artificial 'gauge-fixing' problem which has the essential features encountered in actuality. In the limit in which the size of the system to be gauge fixed becomes infinite, the problem becomes equivalent to finding a series expansion in functions which are related to the Jacobi polynomials. The series converges slowly, as expected. It also converges non-uniformly, which is an observed characteristic of gauge fixing. In the limiting example, the non-uniformity arises through the Gibbs phenomenon.

  6. Fixed point theorems in spaces and -trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk WA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that if is a bounded open set in a complete space , and if is nonexpansive, then always has a fixed point if there exists such that for all . It is also shown that if is a geodesically bounded closed convex subset of a complete -tree with , and if is a continuous mapping for which for some and all , then has a fixed point. It is also noted that a geodesically bounded complete -tree has the fixed point property for continuous mappings. These latter results are used to obtain variants of the classical fixed edge theorem in graph theory.

  7. Dapsone-associated fixed drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Daniel; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-07-01

    Dapsone is a sulfone drug used to treat infectious conditions and also numerous dermatologic diseases. Fixed drug eruption is a distinctive adverse cutaneous reaction associated with the initial administration and subsequent delivery of a specific agent. Areas covered: The authors preformed a literature search using the following keywords: dapsone, fixed drug eruption, and adverse cutaneous drug reaction. Bibliographies were also reviewed for pertinent articles. The results were combed for relevant papers and reviewed. Articles pertaining to dapsone-associated fixed drug eruption were included. Expert commentary: The majority of cases of dapsone-associated fixed drug eruption in the literature come from Africa or India where there is a high prevalence of patients treated for leprosy. Characteristics of these cases are similar to fixed drug eruption described in the western literature, with differences in frequency of multiple versus solitary lesions. Dapsone-associated fixed drug eruption should be considered when reviewing the drug history of a patient with fixed drug eruption. In the case of darker pigmented individuals, multiple fixed drug eruption lesions may be more common. Multiple lesions may mimic Kaposi's sarcoma in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients. Dapsone-associated fixed drug eruption should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple hyperpigmented lesions.

  8. Fixed point theorem utilizing operators and functionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Anderson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fixed point theorem utilizing operators and functionals in the spirit of the original Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem which is void of any invariance-like conditions. The underlying sets in the Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem that were defined using the total order of the real numbers are replaced by sets that are defined using an ordering generated by a border-symmetric set, that is, the sets that were defined using functionals in the original Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem are replaced by sets that are defined using operators.

  9. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in reproductive tract and gametes of slaughtered bovine females

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Claudemir de; Freitas,Antonio Carlos de; Brunner,Olga; Góes,Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Cavalcante,Andréa Yaguiu; Beçak,Willy; Santos,Rita de Cassia Stocco dos

    2003-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are described selectively infecting epithelial tissues and are associated with many forms of cancer in different species. Considering the widespread dissemination of papillomatosis in livestock, interest is being centred on possible forms of viral transmission and respective mechanisms. In the present study, we report the detection of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA sequences in female reproductive tract tissues, fluids and oocytes from slaughtered bovines not afflicted by cu...

  10. Prototheca zopfii isolated from bovine mastitis induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yanan; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Deng, Youtian; Sabir, Naveed; Su, Jingliang; Han, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Bovine protothecal mastitis results in considerable economic losses worldwide. However, Prototheca zopfii induced morphological alterations and oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is not comprehensively studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this current study was to investigate the P. zopfii induced pathomorphological changes, oxidative stress and apoptosis in bMECs. Oxidative stress was assessed by evaluating catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxi...

  11. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  12. Developing a vaccine for eradicating contagious bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) — also known as lung plague — is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP kills up to 50% of infected animals, when newly introduced into a population, and many cattle.

  13. Seroprevalence Study Of Bovine Brucellosis In Extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of bovine brucellosis was measured in cross sectional study in Jimma zone, Western Ethiopia using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBT) and CFT from October 2003 to April 2004. The study animals consisted of 1305 local breed found in extensive system in five districts of in the zone. The overall individual animal ...

  14. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  15. Hydrophobic interactions of phenoxazine modulators with bovine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The binding of phenothiazine drugs to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied 1. Although most of the authors obtained total binding constants of the same order of magnitude, the number of binding sites varied considerably. It has been found 2 that the number of binding sites on BSA for promazine and ...

  16. Transmission of new bovine prion to mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, T.G.M.; Biacabe, A.G.; Bencsik, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6

  17. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  18. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  19. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology and cha...

  20. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  1. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in Sokoto Metropolitan Abattoir in Nigeria. JE Onu. Abstract. No Abstract. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol.

  2. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  3. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skin gelatin compared to commercial bovine gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykin-Dinçer, E; Koç, A; Erbas, M

    2017-09-01

    Gelatin was extracted from broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skins and analyzed to compare its physicochemical properties with those of commercial bovine gelatin. The average yield of broiler skin gelatin was 6.5% on a wet weight basis. Broiler skin gelatin had more α1-and α2-chains than β-chain and contained high molecular weight (γ-chain) polymers. Glycine was the dominant amino acid in broiler skin gelatin (20.26%), followed by proline (Pro) (15.12%) then hydroxyproline (Hyp) (11.36%). Compared to commercial bovine gelatin, broiler skin gelatin had less total imino acids (Pro and Hyp) but a higher (33.65 vs. 31.38°C) melting temperature (P broiler and commercial bovine gelatins appeared to be associated with differences in their amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The sensory evaluation results revealed that broiler skin gelatin could be a potential alternative to commercial bovine gelatin, useful in various food products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Binding of ethyl pyruvate to bovine serum albumin: Calorimetric, spectroscopic and molecular docking studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Mallika [Department of Chemistry, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007 (India); Mishra, Rashmi; Agarwala, Paban K. [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Ojha, Himanshu, E-mail: himanshu.drdo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Singh, Bhawna [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Singh, Anju; Kukreti, Shrikant [Nucleic Acid Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007 (India)

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • ITC study showed binding of ethyl pyruvate with BSA with high binding affinity. • Ethyl pyruvate binding caused conformation alteration of BSA. • Fluorescence quenching mechanism is static in nature. • Electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces involved in binding. • Docking confirmed role of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces. - Abstract: Various in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential role of ethyl pyruvate. Bio-distribution of drugs is significantly influenced by the drug-serum protein binding. Therefore, the binding mechanism of the ethyl pyruvate with bovine serum albumin was investigated using UV–vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking techniques. Absorption and fluorescence quenching studies indicated the binding of ethyl pyruvate with protein. Circular dichroism spectra of bovine serum albumin confirmed significant change in the conformation of protein upon binding. Thermodynamic data confirmed that ethyl pyruvate binds to bovine serum albumin at the two different sites with high affinity. Binding of ethyl pyruvate to bovine serum albumin involves hydrogen bonding, van der Waal and hydrophobic interactions. Further, docking studies indicated that ethyl pyruvate could bind significantly at the three binding sites. The results will definitely contribute to the development of ethyl pyruvate as drug.

  5. Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

    Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded β-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

  6. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  7. A multilaboratory study on the variability of bovine semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Leonardo F C

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the variability of semen analysis, five replicates of 10 different bovine frozen semen batches were coded with different identification numbers and submitted to various laboratories for evaluation. Three studies were conducted: study I included eight laboratories in semen processing centers in the United States; study II included one laboratory in one semen processing center and five veterinary university laboratories in the United States; and study III included five veterinary university laboratories in Brazil. Evaluation methodology, sample classification criteria, and reporting format varied considerably among laboratories. There were laboratory effects (P semen analysis in check and make it very difficult, if not impossible, to meaningfully interpret evaluation results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility and (3-lactamase prevalence for staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitic milk samples

    OpenAIRE

    Turutoglu H.; Mudul S.; Pehlivanoglu F.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the mastitis pathogens and to determine the b-lactamase activities of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis milk samples and the sensitivities of these isolates to various antibiotics. For this purpose, 1180 dairy cows On 131 farms were examined for mastitis and 496 mastitis milk samples were taken 'from 249 cows. Staphylococcus aureus was present in 33.16%, coagulase negative staphylococci in 31.10 %, Eschehchia coli in 11.57 %, S...

  9. Evaluation of bovine coronavirus antibody levels, virus shedding, and respiratory disease incidence throughout the beef cattle production cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective- Determine how levels of serum antibody to bovine coronavirus (BCV) are related to virus shedding patterns and respiratory disease incidence in beef calves at various production stages. Animals- 890 crossbred beef calves from four separately managed herds at the U.S. Meat Animal Research C...

  10. Favorable Effects of the Detergent and Enzyme Extraction Method for Preparing Decellularized Bovine Pericardium Scaffold for Tissue Engineered Heart Valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Min; Chen, Chang-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Ning; Zhu, Ya-Bin; Gu, Y. John

    2009-01-01

    Bovine pericardium has been extensively applied as the biomaterial for artificial heart valves and may potentially be used as a scaffold for tissue-engineered heart valves after decellularization. Although various methods of decellularization are currently available, it is unknown which method is

  11. Factors influencing bonding fixed restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Crown displacement often occurs because the features of tooth preparations do not counteract the forces directed against restorations. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preparation designs on retention and resistance of fixed restorations. METHOD The study was performed on 64 differently sized stainless steel dies. Also, caps which were used for evaluated retention were made of stainless steel for each die. After cementing the caps on experimental dies, measuring of necessary tensile forces to separate cemented caps from dies was done. Caps, which were made of a silver-palladium alloy with a slope of 60° to the longitudinal axis formed on the occlusal surface, were used for evaluating resistance. A sudden drop in load pressure recorded by the test machine indicated failure for that cap. RESULTS A significant difference was found between the tensile force required to remove the caps from the dies with different length (p<0.05 and different taper (p<0.01. The greatest retentive strengths (2579.2 N and 2989.8 N were noticed in experimental dies with the greatest length and smallest taper. No statistically significant (p>0.05 differences were found between tensile loads for caps cemented on dies with different diameter. Although there was an apparent slight increase in resistance values for caps on dies with smaller tapers, the increase in resistance for those preparation designs was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference among the resistance values for caps on dies with different length (p<0.01 and diameter (p<0.05. CONCLUSION In the light of the results obtained, it could be reasonably concluded that retention and resistance of the restoration is in inverse proportion to convergence angle of the prepared teeth. But, at a constant convergence angle, retention and resistance increase with rising length and diameter.

  12. [Factors influencing bonding fixed restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medić, Vesna; Obradović-Djuricić, Kosovka

    2008-01-01

    Crown displacement often occurs because the features of tooth preparations do not counteract the forces directed against restorations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preparation designs on retention and resistance of fixed restorations. The study was performed on 64 differently sized stainless steel dies. Also, caps which were used for evaluated retention were made of stainless steel for each die. After cementing the caps on experimental dies, measuring of necessary tensile forces to separate cemented caps from dies was done. Caps, which were made of a silver-palladium alloy with a slope of 600 to the longitudinal axis formed on the occlusal surface, were used for evaluating resistance. A sudden drop in load pressure recorded by the test machine indicated failure for that cap. A significant difference was found between the tensile force required to remove the caps from the dies with different length (p different taper (p 0.05) differences were found between tensile loads for caps cemented on dies with different diameter. Although there was an apparent slight increase in resistance values for caps on dies with smaller tapers, the increase in resistance for those preparation designs was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference among the resistance values for caps on dies with different length (p < 0.01) and diameter (p < 0.05). In the light of the results obtained, it could be reasonably concluded that retention and resistance of the restoration is in inverse proportion to convergence angle of the prepared teeth. But, at a constant convergence angle, retention and resistance increase with rising length and diameter.

  13. Renormalization-group flows and fixed points in Yukawa theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Esben; Shrock, R.

    2014-01-01

    We study renormalization-group flows in Yukawa theories with massless fermions, including determination of fixed points and curves that separate regions of different flow behavior. We assess the reliability of perturbative calculations for various values of Yukawa coupling y and quartic scalar co....... In the regime of weak couplings where the perturbative calculations are most reliable, we find that the theories have no nontrivial fixed points, and the flow is toward a free theory in the infrared.......We study renormalization-group flows in Yukawa theories with massless fermions, including determination of fixed points and curves that separate regions of different flow behavior. We assess the reliability of perturbative calculations for various values of Yukawa coupling y and quartic scalar...... coupling lambda by comparing the properties of flows obtained with the beta functions of these couplings calculated to different orders in the loop expansion. The results provide a determination of the region in y and lambda where calculations up to two loops can yield reasonably reliable results...

  14. Approximate Equilibrium Problems and Fixed Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mazaheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We find a common element of the set of fixed points of a map and the set of solutions of an approximate equilibrium problem in a Hilbert space. Then, we show that one of the sequences weakly converges. Also we obtain some theorems about equilibrium problems and fixed points.

  15. Infra-red fixed points in supersymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    malization group (RG) running of the parameters is dominated by infra-red stable fixed points. Typically, these fixed points are for ratios like Yukawa couplings to the gauge cou- pling, or in the context of supersymmetric models, the supersymmetry breaking trilinear. A-parameter to the gaugino mass, etc. These ratios do not ...

  16. Implant complications and failures: the fixed prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, D; Watson, C J; Preston, A J

    2002-11-01

    The implant-retained fixed prosthesis has been advocated as an effective restoration offering significant benefits over conventional prosthetics. The success of treatment depends on careful pre-surgical planning and prosthesis design. This paper outlines some common complications encountered during the planning, fabrication and maintenance of both large and small fixed prostheses and suggests how these complications can be minimized.

  17. Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  18. Characterization of Bovine Brain ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    with a complex structure (presence of galactose, vannose and sialic acid ). This structure raises the possibility of immobilizing via immobilized...SYNAPIIC The (Ca2+ + M9*2)- dependent ATPase-Calcitu Channel Complex is found at the synaptic termini of neurons ( 1). With the exception of Mojave toxin...for 60% inhibition. We examined the effects of various phospholipids on catalytic activity (Table IX). With the exception of phosphatidic acid , all

  19. The effects of formalin fixation and tissue embedding of bovine liver on copper, iron, and zinc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Lamm, Catherine; Erb, Hollis N; Hillebrandt, Joseph R

    2008-03-01

    Veterinary analytical chemistry laboratories might be called upon to analyze formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded tissue samples for trace minerals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether concentrations of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) are comparable among fresh or frozen, formalin-fixed, and paraffin-embedded bovine liver samples on an as-received basis. Three liver sample subtypes (fresh or frozen, formalin-fixed, and paraffin-embedded) from 12 cows were collected and analyzed for Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations. Concentrations were measured by using inductively coupled argon plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy. There was no significant difference in mineral measurements between fresh or frozen and formalin-fixed samples for Cu and Zn (both P > or = 0.052). The median concentration of Fe was lower in the fresh or frozen samples than in the formalin-fixed samples. However, for every pair of fresh or frozen and paraffin-embedded samples for all 3 minerals, the fresh or frozen sample had a lower measurement than the paraffin-embedded sample (all P = 0.005). Differences in mineral measurements associated with tissue processing did not result in differences in classification (within or outside the reference range) for Fe. However, the classification of Cu and Zn was different up to 25% of the time with fresh or frozen versus formalin-fixed or embedded liver. Although Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations attained from processed tissue may be useful, they must be evaluated with caution.

  20. A combined binding mechanism of nonionic ethoxylated surfactants to bovine serum albumin revealed by fluorescence and circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovescu, Alina; Băran, Adriana; Stîngă, Gabriela; Cantemir-Leontieş, Anca Ruxandra; Maxim, Monica Elisabeta; Anghel, Dan Florin

    2015-12-01

    The study systematically investigates aqueous mixtures of fixed bovine serum albumin (BSA) and various ethoxylated nonionic surfactants belonging to a homologous series or not. Mono-disperse tetra-(C12E4), hexa-(C12E6) and octa-ethyleneglycol mono-n-dodecyl ether (C12E8), and poly-disperse eicosa-ethyleneglycol mono-n-tetradecyl ether (C14EO20) are respectively employed. Fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements are performed at surfactant/protein molar ratios (rm)s lower and higher than one. We aim to get new insights into the binding mechanism of these species and to differentiate among the interaction abilities of these surfactants. The relative magnitude of the binding thermodynamic parameters by fluorescence, and the increase of α-helix prove that hydrogen bonding drives the interaction next to the hydrophobic attraction. C12En (n=4,6,8) develop more H bonds with the albumin than C14EO20 owing to a zigzag conformation of their short ethyleneoxide chains. Among the homologous surfactants, C12E6 has a slightly stronger interaction with BSA due to a maximal number of H bonds at a minimal hindering. Static fluorescence and dynamic fluorescence indicate an inter-conversion between the tryptophan (Trp) rotamers which happens around the surfactants critical micellar concentration. For C14EO20, the meander conformation of the polar group determines a less evident conversion of the Trp rotamers and smaller α-helix rise. Binding isotherms of the homologous surfactants and the fluorescence quenching mechanism by C12E6 are also provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Court of Justice of the European Union and Fixed-term Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Emmenegger, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    permanent workers and aims to prevent abuse of this contract form. Surprisingly, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) rulings in this area have by and large been neglected in comparative labour market research. We fill this gap by systematically analysing the CJEU case law concerning fixed......While fixed-term work benefits employers and increases the prospects of employability of various categories of workers, it is inherently precarious. The European Union (EU) directive on fixed-term work emphasizes the importance of equal treatment of workers on fixed-term contracts with comparable......-term work and connecting it to the literatures on labour market dualization and Europeanization of labour law. We develop an analytical framework to analyse the Europeanization of labour law, which we then use to analyse the directive and the case law regarding the directive on fixed-term work. Our findings...

  2. Non-thermal fixed point in a holographic superfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewerz, Carlo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Gasenzer, Thomas [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Karl, Markus; Samberg, Andreas [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-05-14

    We study the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of a (2+1)-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature and chemical potential using its holographic description in terms of a gravitational system in 3+1 dimensions. Starting from various initial conditions corresponding to ensembles of vortex defects we numerically evolve the system to long times. At intermediate times the system exhibits Kolmogorov scaling the emergence of which depends on the choice of initial conditions. We further observe a universal late-time regime in which the occupation spectrum and different length scales of the superfluid exhibit scaling behaviour. We study these scaling laws in view of superfluid turbulence and interpret the universal late-time regime as a non-thermal fixed point of the dynamical evolution. In the holographic superfluid the non-thermal fixed point can be understood as a stationary point of the classical equations of motion of the dual gravitational description.

  3. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, A G; Banner, Jytte; Birkelund, Svend

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were...... examined and the effect of autolysis and tetracycline treatment was evaluated. Furthermore, lung tissue from two patients who died of ornithosis was examined. Inclusions detected in lung sections showed a bright apple-green fluorescence, and had a characteristic and easily recognizable morphology....... Background and non-specific fluorescence were reduced by treating the tissue sections with trypsin, rabbit serum and Evans blue counterstain. Besides giving an exact diagnosis at autopsy, the method provides the possibility of determining the occurrence of chlamydia infections in various tissues, based...

  4. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  5. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  6. Ovine rotavirus strain LLR-85-based bovine rotavirus candidate vaccines: construction, characterization and immunogenicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Tao; Li, Xin; Liu, Hai-Jun; Yu, Li

    2010-11-20

    Group A bovine rotaviruses (BRVs) are the most important cause of diarrheal diseases in neonatal calves and cause significant morbidity and mortality in the young animals, and epidemiologic surveillance of bovine rotavirus G genotypes conducted in various cattle populations throughout the world has shown that approximately 90% of the bovine rotavirus isolates belong to G6 and G10. Based on the modified Jennerian approach to immunization, we constructed and characterized a reassortant rotavirus stain, which bears a single bovine rotavirus VP7 gene encoding G genotype 6 specificity while the remaining 10 genes are derived from the ovine attenuated rotavirus LLR-85. The reassortant rotavirus strain, named as R191, and its parental virus strain LLR-85 were combined as bivalent vaccine candidates to inoculate the colostrums-deprived neonatal calves for evaluation of the immunogenicity. The calves were orally inoculated with the reassortant R191 (group 1), the parental rotavirus LLR-85 (group 2), or combined the R191 and LLR-85 (group 3), and serum specimens were detected to determine the immune response of IgG and IgA antibodies. Results showed that seroconversion to positivity for IgG and IgA antibodies occurred at postinoculation day (PID) 10 in all of the inoculated calves, and the highest titers of the serum IgG (range 1:800 to 1:6400) and IgA (range 1:800 to 1:3200) antibodies were obtained at PID 21 for all calves. Meanwhile, virus shedding was detected after inoculation, showing that the inoculated virus was positive in 2 of 77 fecal specimens (2.6%) collected from the inoculated calves during the first 7 days of oral inoculation with the rotavirus vaccine candidates. The results suggested that the rotavirus strains R191 and LLR-85 are promising bivalent vaccine candidates for the prevention of bovine G6 and G10 rotavirus infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploitations énergétique, environnementale et agronomique de la Biométhanisation rurale bovine en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M'SADAK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the analysis of various possible valuations of rural Biomethanisation applied to the bovine manure. The diagnosis concerned gas productivity and some pollution parameters, plant growth and fertigation in a vegetable nursery. The preliminary results of the study showed that the conditioning of the produced rural biogas has improved its energy efficiency. The use of peat mixed with bovine methacompost as a nursery substrate has shown encouraging results as measured through height growth of pepper plants. In addition, the juice of bovin process, diluted with 75% of water, has showed an interesting fertilizing capacity; with the absence of plant wilting. However, in terms of environmental protection, the process of Biomethanisation does not allow a satisfactorily reduction of pollution load of suspended solids and BOD5.

  8. Identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tholen Ernst

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are the major class of gene-regulating molecules playing diverse roles through sequence complementarity to target mRNAs at post-transcriptional level. Tightly regulated expression and interaction of a multitude of genes for ovarian folliculogenesis could be regulated by these miRNAs. Identification of them is the first step towards understanding miRNA-guided gene regulation in different biological functions. Despite increasing efforts in miRNAs identification across various species and diverse tissue types, little is known about bovine ovarian miRNAs. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary through cloning, expression analysis and target prediction. Results The miRNA library (5'-independent ligation cloning method, which was constructed from bovine ovary in this study, revealed cloning of 50 known and 24 novel miRNAs. Among all identified miRNAs, 38 were found to be new for bovine and were derived from 43 distinct loci showing characteristic secondary structure. While 22 miRNAs precursor loci were found to be well conserved in more than one species, 16 were found to be bovine specific. Most of the miRNAs were cloned multiple times, in which let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, miR-21, miR-23b, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-126 and miR-143 were cloned 10, 28, 13, 4, 11, 7, 6, 4 and 11 times, respectively. Expression analysis of all new and some annotated miRNAs in different intra-ovarian structures and in other multiple tissues showed that some were present ubiquitously while others were differentially expressed among different tissue types. Bta-miR-29a was localized in the follicular cells at different developmental stages in the cyclic ovary. Bio-informatics prediction, screening and Gene Ontology analysis of miRNAs targets identified several biological processes and pathways underlying the ovarian function. Conclusion Results of this study suggest the presence of miRNAs in the

  9. Stem cell research: a novel boulevard towards improved bovine mastitis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry is a multi-billion dollar industry catering the nutritional needs of all age groups globally through the supply of milk. Clinical mastitis has a severe impact on udder tissue and is also an animal welfare issue. Moreover, it significantly reduces animal value and milk production. Mammary tissue damage reduces the number and activity of epithelial cells and consequently contributes to decreased milk production. The high incidence, low cure rate of this highly economic and sometimes deadly disease is an alarming for dairy sector as well as policy makers. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and their stem cells are very important in milk production and bioengineering. The adult mammary epithelium consists of two main cell types; an inner layer of luminal epithelial cells, which produce the milk during lactation, and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells resting on a basement membrane, which are responsible for pushing the milk through the ductal network to the teat cistern. Inner layer of columner/luminal cells of bovine MECs, is characterized by cytokeratin18, 19 (CK18, CK19) and outer layer such as myoepithelial cells which are characterized by CK14, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and p63. Much work has been done in mouse and human, on mammary gland stem cell research, particularly in cancer therapy, but stem cell research in bovine is still in its infancy. Such stem/progenitor cell discoveries in human and mouse mammary gland bring some hope for application in bovines. These progenitors may be therapeutically adopted to correct the structural/cytological defects in the bovine udder due to mastitis. In the present review we focused on various kinds of stem/progenitor cells which can have therapeutic utility and their possibilities to use as a potential stem cell therapy in the management of bovine post-mastitis damage in orders to restore milk production. The possibilities of bovine mammary stem cell therapy offers significant potential for

  10. Fixed-point adiabatic quantum search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Alexander M.; Yoder, Theodore J.; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2017-01-01

    Fixed-point quantum search algorithms succeed at finding one of M target items among N total items even when the run time of the algorithm is longer than necessary. While the famous Grover's algorithm can search quadratically faster than a classical computer, it lacks the fixed-point property—the fraction of target items must be known precisely to know when to terminate the algorithm. Recently, Yoder, Low, and Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 210501 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.210501] gave an optimal gate-model search algorithm with the fixed-point property. Previously, it had been discovered by Roland and Cerf [Phys. Rev. A 65, 042308 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevA.65.042308] that an adiabatic quantum algorithm, operating by continuously varying a Hamiltonian, can reproduce the quadratic speedup of gate-model Grover search. We ask, can an adiabatic algorithm also reproduce the fixed-point property? We show that the answer depends on what interpolation schedule is used, so as in the gate model, there are both fixed-point and non-fixed-point versions of adiabatic search, only some of which attain the quadratic quantum speedup. Guided by geometric intuition on the Bloch sphere, we rigorously justify our claims with an explicit upper bound on the error in the adiabatic approximation. We also show that the fixed-point adiabatic search algorithm can be simulated in the gate model with neither loss of the quadratic Grover speedup nor of the fixed-point property. Finally, we discuss natural uses of fixed-point algorithms such as preparation of a relatively prime state and oblivious amplitude amplification.

  11. Comparison of Thermal Performances of Fixed and Tracking Solar Collectors With Computational Fluid Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Keçel, Selçuk

    2015-01-01

    Solar collectors, one of the important areas of use for solar power, are based on the principle of heating water flowing through piping systems with solar radiation. Collectors are mostly fixed with various constructions on roofs of buildings, which provide hot water. Efficiency differences between fixed systems and tracking systems are generally compared over efficiencies of photovoltaic systems. As a different this study, the thermal analysis of solar collector systems to be installed on tw...

  12. Cross-reactivity of anti-human, anti-porcine and anti-bovine cytokine antibodies with cetacean tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, J R; Pérez, J; Zafra, R; Herráez, P; Rodríguez, F; Arbelo, M; de los Monteros, A Espinosa; Fernández, A

    2010-07-01

    The cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies specific for human, porcine and bovine cytokines was evaluated for three cetacean species: Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). Formalin-fixed and snap-frozen tissue sections of lung, spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph node were evaluated. T and B lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages were detected by use of anti-human CD3, IgG and lysozyme polyclonal antibodies (pAbs), respectively. These reagents were successfully applied to both fixed and frozen tissues. Anti-human interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and CD25, anti-porcine IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and anti-bovine IL-4 and interferon (IFN)-gamma antibodies produced immunolabelling in cetacean snap-frozen lymph node sections similar to that obtained with tissue from the species of origin, but they did not react with formalin-fixed tissue sections. Anti-porcine IL-12 pAb did not react with snap-frozen cetacean tissue samples. Macrophages and lymphocytes were the most common cells immunolabelled with the anti-cytokine antibodies. This panel of anti-cytokine antibodies may be used to evaluate cytokine expression in snap-frozen tissue samples from the cetacean species tested. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Rational Type Cocyclic Mappings in Multiplicative Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present fixed point result of mappings satisfying a generalized rational contractive condition in the setup of multiplicative metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of pair of rational contractive types mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a multiplicative metric space are also obtained. Some examples are presented to support the results proved herein. Our results generalize and extend various results in the existing literature.

  14. Bovine oocytes in secondary follicles grow in medium containing bovine plasma after vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Takajo, Asuka; Bao, Rong-Mei; Hamawaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Motoichi; Miyano, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    There has been no culture system that supports the growth of bovine oocytes for more than 2 weeks. In the present study, bovine secondary follicles were cultured for 4 weeks, and the effects of supplemented protein components and FSH in the culture medium on the growth of the oocytes were examined. The effect of vitrification of secondary follicles on the subsequent oocyte growth was also examined. Secondary follicles (150 to 200 µm in diameter) containing growing oocytes (approximately 60 µm in diameter) were dissected from ovaries and cultured in a medium supplemented with FSH (0, 25 or 50 ng/ml) and one of the following four kinds of protein components: bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine plasma (BPL), fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine follicular fluid (BFF). In BSA- and BPL-supplemented media with 0 or 25 ng/ml FSH, more than 50% of follicles showed no degenerative signs during culture, and oocytes significantly increased in size after 4 weeks (Pbovine secondary follicles for 4 weeks, even after vitrification and warming of the follicles.

  15. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polineni, Pavana; Aragonda, Prathyusha; Xavier, Suresh R; Furuta, Richard; Adelson, David L

    2006-06-05

    Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling) in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL) populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle) QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  16. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  17. Fixed target issues for the Tevatron Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanski, R.

    1988-08-29

    The Tevatron Upgrade poses some interesting prospects for the Fixed-Target program if an option to extract the high energy proton beam is preserved. This paper presents a summary of the advantages of increased energy for fixed target experiments, and evaluates some of the more challenging technical issues. In particular, Bottom production, muon and neutrino interactions, and polarized /bar p/ experiments would benefit substantially from a higher energy primary beam. The new Main Injector will also be important for fixed target experiments as a source for test beams and intense kaon and neutrino beams. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Fixed point algebras for easy quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Olivier; Weber, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Compact matrix quantum groups act naturally on Cuntz algebras. The first author isolated certain conditions under which the fixed point algebras under this action are Kirchberg algebras. Hence they are completely determined by their K-groups. Building on prior work by the second author,we prove...... that free easy quantum groups satisfy these conditions and we compute the K-groups of their fixed point algebras in a general form. We then turn to examples such as the quantum permutation group S+ n,the free orthogonal quantum group O+ n and the quantum reflection groups Hs+ n. Our fixed point...

  19. Papillomatosis of the bovine teat (mammary papilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R O; Olson, C; Easterday, B C

    1982-12-01

    A 4th of 667 cattle examined at a Wisconsin abattoir had teat papillomas. Excised teat papillomas were sorted by gross morphologic characteristics into 3 groups: (i) atypical filiform, (ii) atypical flat, and (iii) typical fibropapilloma. Bovine papilloma virus capsid antigen was detected in thin-section slides of the 3 groups of teat papillomas by peroxidase-antiperoxidase assay. The bovine papilloma virus involved with the atypical papillomas could not be characterized by molecular hybridization, because enough pure virus could not be harvested. Homogenates of the 3 groups of teat papillomas were inoculated on 2 ponies and 4 calves. Typical fibropapillomas were produced on the 4 calves, and fibromas, on the 2 ponies. Atypical papillomas were produced only in 2 heifers.

  20. The Theory of Reich's Fixed Point Theorem for Multivalued Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moţ Ghiocel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a theory of Reich's fixed point theorem for multivalued operators in terms of fixed points, strict fixed points, multivalued weakly Picard operators, multivalued Picard operators, data dependence of the fixed point set, sequence of multivalued operators and fixed points, Ulam-Hyers stability of a multivalued fixed point equation, well-posedness of the fixed point problem, and the generated fractal operator.

  1. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus: Subtyping, evolution, and zoonotic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, R; Cosandey, A; Luini, M; Artursson, K; Bardiau, M; Breitenwieser, F; Hehenberger, E; Lam, Th; Mansfeld, M; Michel, A; Mösslacher, G; Naskova, J; Nelson, S; Podpečan, O; Raemy, A; Ryan, E; Salat, O; Zangerl, P; Steiner, A; Graber, H U

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies using ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, however, demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections are genetically heterogeneous, with Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and GTC being the most prominent genotypes. Furthermore, Staph. aureus GTB was found to be contagious, whereas Staph. aureus GTC and all the remaining genotypes were involved in individual cow disease. In addition to RS-PCR, other methods for subtyping Staph. aureus are known, including spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). They are based on sequencing the spa and various housekeeping genes, respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare the 3 analytic methods using 456 strains of Staph. aureus isolated from milk of bovine intramammary infections and bulk tanks obtained from 12 European countries. Furthermore, the phylogeny of animal Staph. aureus was inferred and the zoonotic transfer of Staph. aureus between cattle and humans was studied. The analyzed strains could be grouped into 6 genotypic clusters, with CLB, CLC, and CLR being the most prominent ones. Comparing the 3 subtyping methods, RS-PCR showed the highest resolution, followed by spa typing and MLST. We found associations among the methods but in many cases they were unsatisfactory except for CLB and CLC. Cluster CLB was positive for clonal complex (CC)8 in 99% of the cases and typically positive for t2953; it is the cattle-adapted form of CC8. Cluster CLC was always positive for tbl 2645 and typically positive for CC705. For CLR and the remaining subtypes, links among the 3 methods were generally poor. Bovine Staph. aureus is highly clonal and a few clones predominate. Animal Staph. aureus always evolve from human strains, such that every human strain may be the ancestor of a novel animal-adapted strain. The zoonotic transfer of IMI- and milk-associated strains

  2. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a...... in aqueous compartments. - Bojesen, I. N., and H. S. Hansen. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin....

  3. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  4. Mycoplasma bovis escapes bovine neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondaira, Satoshi; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Nishi, Koji; Iwano, Hidetomo; Nagahata, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a significant pathogen in bovine infections including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis and otitis media, and is the cause of large economic losses in beef and dairy farms. During infection with M. bovis, recruited neutrophils are not sufficient to eradicate M. bovis from the infection site. The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is one of the innate immune responses of neutrophils but the effect of M. bovis on NET formation by bovine neutrophils has not yet been clarified. The objective of our research was to examine the effect of M. bovis on NET formation and the killing activity of bovine neutrophils. We showed that NETs were not detected following stimulation of neutrophils by M. bovis alone or with Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetat (PMA). Reactive oxygen species production is essential for NET formation but the levels in neutrophils stimulated with M. bovis at multiplicity of infections of 10, 100, and 1000 were similar to those of unstimulated cells. NET formation induced by PMA stimulated neutrophils disappeared following the addition of M. bovis but this phenomenon was not observed when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was added. M. bovis colony forming units were significantly decreased by the addition of EDTA in the presence of NETs. Our results suggested that M. bovis infection alone did not induce NETs and that M. bovis nucleases, as hypothesis-based, contributed to resistance against the killing activity of NETs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  6. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    search algorithms, and molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with limited experimental evidence, the model suggests that the substrate binds in an extended conformation with charged residues on either side of the scissile bond playing an important role in stabilizing the binding pose. Lys111......Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational......) is found to be important for stabilizing the binding pose. The catalytic site (including the catalytic water molecule) is stable in the starting conformation of the previously proposed general acid/base catalytic mechanism for 18 ns of molecular dynamics simulations...

  7. HEALTH INSURANCE: FIXED CONTRIBUTION AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMA

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  8. Anderson Acceleration for Fixed-Point Iterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Homer F. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, MA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of this grant was to support research on acceleration methods for fixed-point iterations, with applications to computational frameworks and simulation problems that are of interest to DOE.

  9. The fixed/detachable implant provisional prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibirka, R M; Linebaugh, M L

    1997-06-01

    Interim modification and management of a complete denture following surgical uncovering of dental implants can be time-intensive and may fail to provide adequate patient benefit until the definitive prosthesis can be completed. Inadequate interim management can result in functional and tissue difficulties. Modification of the conventional complete denture to a fixed/detachable provisional prosthesis in a one-stage procedure provides the patient an opportunity to experience a fixed prosthesis. The incorporation of fixed, provisional cylinders to the existing denture base using autopolymerizing acrylic resin with a closed-mouth technique is described. The peripheral regions are reduced and the distal extension shortened to resemble a fixed/detachable prosthesis. This conversion technique can provide patient satisfaction and comfort until delivery of the definitive prosthesis. Esthetic concerns, home care problems, or patient difficulties with the provisional prosthesis can be rectified in the final prosthesis.

  10. Invariant manifolds near hyperbolic fixed points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: In these notes, we discuss obstructions to the existence of local invariant manifolds of some smoothness class, near hyperbolic fixed points of diffeomorphisms. We present an elementary construction for continuously differentiable invariant manifolds that are not necessarily normally

  11. Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular biology and genomics. Mariana Obertello, Mame Oureye SY, Laurent Laplaze, Carole Santi, Sergio Svistoonoff, Florence Auguy, Didier Bogusz, Claudine Franche ...

  12. Fixed-Point Configurable Hardware Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocher Romuald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between the VLSI technology capability and the designer productivity, design reuse based on IP (intellectual properties is commonly used. In terms of arithmetic accuracy, the generated architecture can generally only be configured through the input and output word lengths. In this paper, a new kind of method to optimize fixed-point arithmetic IP has been proposed. The architecture cost is minimized under accuracy constraints defined by the user. Our approach allows exploring the fixed-point search space and the algorithm-level search space to select the optimized structure and fixed-point specification. To significantly reduce the optimization and design times, analytical models are used for the fixed-point optimization process.

  13. A novel isolation strategy for obtaining crude membrane vesicles from bovine skim milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blans, Kristine; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Wiking, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milks content of phospholipid membranes have largely been explored in the cream fraction, and known as the milk fat globule membrane that surrounds fat droplets. In skim milk, the population of phospholipid membranes is reported to constitute membrane vesicles with a soluble content known...... as exosomes and microvesicles. These vesicles contain various types of RNAs and proteins, suggested to transfer health-promoting messages from mother to offspring. However, the variety of the vesicles in milk is less understood and, additionally, complicated by the complexity of more pronounced milk...... components. Here we present a novel strategy for a short, gentle and non-denaturing isolation of skim milk-derived membrane vesicles. Methods: Untreated fresh bovine milk was defatted to remove milk fat globules. The resulting skim milk was subjected to ultracentrifugation. The resulting ochre...

  14. Analytical methods for gelatin differentiation from bovine and porcine origins and food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz Raja; Ismail, Amin; Che Man, Yaakob B

    2012-01-01

    Usage of gelatin in food products has been widely debated for several years, which is about the source of gelatin that has been used, religion, and health. As an impact, various analytical methods have been introduced and developed to differentiate gelatin whether it is made from porcine or bovine sources. The analytical methods comprise a diverse range of equipment and techniques including spectroscopy, chemical precipitation, chromatography, and immunochemical. Each technique can differentiate gelatins for certain extent with advantages and limitations. This review is focused on overview of the analytical methods available for differentiation of bovine and porcine gelatin and gelatin in food products so that new method development can be established. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Fractal Structures For Fixed Mems Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2014-08-28

    An embodiment of a fractal fixed capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure. The capacitor body has a first plate with a fractal shape separated by a horizontal distance from a second plate with a fractal shape. The first plate and the second plate are within the same plane. Such a fractal fixed capacitor further comprises a substrate above which the capacitor body is positioned.

  16. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  17. Microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel in roselle extract solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, M. T.; Noerdin, A.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of roselle extract solution on the microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel. Ten bovine teeth and a 5% concentration of roselle extract solution were prepared. Immersions of each bovine tooth in roselle extract solution were conducted up to 60 minutes. The bovine enamel surface was characterized in hardness and microscopy. It was apparent that the initial hardness was 328 KHN, and after immersion in 15 and 60 min, the values decrease to 57.4 KHN and 11 KHN, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changes in enamel rods after immersion in the roselle extract solution.

  18. Neurogenic vasodilatation in isolated bovine and canine penile arteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Bowman; J S Gillespie

    1983-01-01

    Field stimulation of isolated, perfused bovine or canine penile arteries produced dilatation, after the adrenergic motor component of the response had been blocked with guanethidine and the vessels...

  19. Morphologic and mechanical characteristics of engineered bovine arteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niklason, Laura E; Abbott, William; Gao, Jinming; Klagges, Brian; Hirschi, Karen K; Ulubayram, Kezban; Conroy, Nancy; Jones, Rosemary; Vasanawala, Ami; Sanzgiri, Seema; Langer, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... Engineered vessels were cultured from bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells that were seeded onto biodegradable polymer scaffolds and cultured under physiologically pulsatile conditions...

  20. Effects of resin or charcoal treatment on fetal bovine serum and bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhimin; West, Clint; Norton-Wenzel, Carol S; Rej, Robert; Davis, Faith B; Davis, Paul J; Rej, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal- or resin-stripping of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or bovine calf serum (BCS) intended for supplementation of cell culture media is widely practiced to remove a variety of endogenous compounds, including steroid, peptide, and thyroid hormones. The possibility that stripping removes other biologically relevant factors from serum may not be appreciated. In this report, standardized clinical laboratory testing methods were used to assess the effects of resin- and charcoal-stripping on content in FBS and BCS of more than 25 analytes in the sera. In addition to hormones, the serum constituents affected by stripping are certain vitamins, electrolytes, enzyme activities, and metabolites.

  1. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shailja Katoch; Shweta Dohru; Mandeep Sharma; Vikram Vashist; Rajesh Chahota; Prasenjit Dhar; Aneesh Thakur; Subhash Verma

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The sam...

  2. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R.S. Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  3. Kinetics of Thermal Denaturation and Aggregation of Bovine Serum Albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera A Borzova

    Full Text Available Thermal aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA has been studied using dynamic light scattering, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation and analytical ultracentrifugation. The studies were carried out at fixed temperatures (60°C, 65°C, 70°C and 80°C in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, at BSA concentration of 1 mg/ml. Thermal denaturation of the protein was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Analysis of the experimental data shows that at 65°C the stage of protein unfolding and individual stages of protein aggregation are markedly separated in time. This circumstance allowed us to propose the following mechanism of thermal aggregation of BSA. Protein unfolding results in the formation of two forms of the non-native protein with different propensity to aggregation. One of the forms (highly reactive unfolded form, Uhr is characterized by a high rate of aggregation. Aggregation of Uhr leads to the formation of primary aggregates with the hydrodynamic radius (Rh,1 of 10.3 nm. The second form (low reactive unfolded form, Ulr participates in the aggregation process by its attachment to the primary aggregates produced by the Uhr form and possesses ability for self-aggregation with formation of stable small-sized aggregates (Ast. At complete exhaustion of Ulr, secondary aggregates with the hydrodynamic radius (Rh,2 of 12.8 nm are formed. At 60°C the rates of unfolding and aggregation are commensurate, at 70°C the rates of formation of the primary and secondary aggregates are commensurate, at 80°C the registration of the initial stages of aggregation is complicated by formation of large-sized aggregates.

  4. Kinetics of Thermal Denaturation and Aggregation of Bovine Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzova, Vera A.; Markossian, Kira A.; Chebotareva, Natalia A.; Kleymenov, Sergey Yu.; Poliansky, Nikolay B.; Muranov, Konstantin O.; Stein-Margolina, Vita A.; Shubin, Vladimir V.; Markov, Denis I.; Kurganov, Boris I.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied using dynamic light scattering, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation and analytical ultracentrifugation. The studies were carried out at fixed temperatures (60°C, 65°C, 70°C and 80°C) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, at BSA concentration of 1 mg/ml. Thermal denaturation of the protein was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Analysis of the experimental data shows that at 65°C the stage of protein unfolding and individual stages of protein aggregation are markedly separated in time. This circumstance allowed us to propose the following mechanism of thermal aggregation of BSA. Protein unfolding results in the formation of two forms of the non-native protein with different propensity to aggregation. One of the forms (highly reactive unfolded form, Uhr) is characterized by a high rate of aggregation. Aggregation of Uhr leads to the formation of primary aggregates with the hydrodynamic radius (Rh,1) of 10.3 nm. The second form (low reactive unfolded form, Ulr) participates in the aggregation process by its attachment to the primary aggregates produced by the Uhr form and possesses ability for self-aggregation with formation of stable small-sized aggregates (Ast). At complete exhaustion of Ulr, secondary aggregates with the hydrodynamic radius (Rh,2) of 12.8 nm are formed. At 60°C the rates of unfolding and aggregation are commensurate, at 70°C the rates of formation of the primary and secondary aggregates are commensurate, at 80°C the registration of the initial stages of aggregation is complicated by formation of large-sized aggregates. PMID:27101281

  5. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other

  6. Fixed Dosing of Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Haanen, John B A G; Voest, Emile E; Schellens, Jan H M; Huitema, Alwin D R; Beijnen, Jos H

    2017-10-01

    Most monoclonal antibodies in oncology are administered in body-size-based dosing schedules. This is believed to correct for variability in both drug distribution and elimination between patients. However, monoclonal antibodies typically distribute to the blood plasma and extracellular fluids only, which increase less than proportionally with the increase in body weight. Elimination takes place via proteolytic catabolism, a nonspecific immunoglobulin G elimination pathway, and intracellular degradation after binding to the target. The latter is the primary route of elimination and is related to target expression levels rather than body size. Taken together, the minor effects of body size on distribution and elimination of monoclonal antibodies and their usually wide therapeutic window do not support body-size-based dosing. We evaluated effects of body weight on volume of distribution and clearance of monoclonal antibodies in oncology and show that a fixed dose for most of these drugs is justified based on pharmacokinetics. A survey of the savings after fixed dosing of monoclonal antibodies at our hospital showed that fixed dosing can reduce costs of health care, especially when pooling of preparations is not possible (which is often the case in smaller hospitals). In conclusion, based on pharmacokinetic parameters of monoclonal antibodies, there is a rationale for fixed dosing of these drugs in oncology. Therefore, we believe that fixed dosing is justified and can improve efficiency of the compounding. Moreover, drug spillage can be reduced and medication errors may become less likely. The currently available knowledge of elimination of monoclonal antibodies combined with the publicly available data from clinical trials and extensive population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modeling justifies fixed dosing. Interpatient variation in exposure is comparable after body weight and fixed dosing and most monoclonal antibodies show relatively flat dose-response relationships

  7. Fixed point theory in metric type spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; O’Regan, Donal; Roldán-López-de-Hierro, Antonio Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Written by a team of leading experts in the field, this volume presents a self-contained account of the theory, techniques and results in metric type spaces (in particular in G-metric spaces); that is, the text approaches this important area of fixed point analysis beginning from the basic ideas of metric space topology. The text is structured so that it leads the reader from preliminaries and historical notes on metric spaces (in particular G-metric spaces) and on mappings, to Banach type contraction theorems in metric type spaces, fixed point theory in partially ordered G-metric spaces, fixed point theory for expansive mappings in metric type spaces, generalizations, present results and techniques in a very general abstract setting and framework. Fixed point theory is one of the major research areas in nonlinear analysis. This is partly due to the fact that in many real world problems fixed point theory is the basic mathematical tool used to establish the existence of solutions to problems which arise natur...

  8. The computation of fixed points and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Michael J

    1976-01-01

    Fixed-point algorithms have diverse applications in economics, optimization, game theory and the numerical solution of boundary-value problems. Since Scarf's pioneering work [56,57] on obtaining approximate fixed points of continuous mappings, a great deal of research has been done in extending the applicability and improving the efficiency of fixed-point methods. Much of this work is available only in research papers, although Scarf's book [58] gives a remarkably clear exposition of the power of fixed-point methods. However, the algorithms described by Scarf have been super~eded by the more sophisticated restart and homotopy techniques of Merrill [~8,~9] and Eaves and Saigal [1~,16]. To understand the more efficient algorithms one must become familiar with the notions of triangulation and simplicial approxi- tion, whereas Scarf stresses the concept of primitive set. These notes are intended to introduce to a wider audience the most recent fixed-point methods and their applications. Our approach is therefore ...

  9. Cobalt-chromium alloys in fixed prosthodontics in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassapidou, Maria; Franke Stenport, Victoria; Hjalmarsson, Lars; Johansson, Carina B

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compile the usage of Co-Cr alloys in fixed prosthodontics (FP) among dental laboratories in Sweden. Methods: From March to October 2015, questionnaires were sent to 542 registered dental laboratories in Sweden. The questionnaires were divided in two parts, one for fixed dental-supported prosthodontics (FDP) and one for fixed implant-supported prosthodontics (FIP). Reminders were sent three times. Results: In total of 542 dental laboratories, 55% answered the questionnaires. Most dental laboratories use Co-Cr in FP, 134 (74%) in FDP and 89(66%) in FIP. The laboratories used Co-Cr alloys of various compositions in the prostheses, 35 for FDP and 30 for FIP. The most commonly used Co-Cr alloys for tooth-supported FDPs were (a) Wirobond® 280, (b) Cara SLM and (c) Wirobond® C. For implant-supported frameworks the frequently used alloys were: (a) Cara SLM, (b) Cara Milled and (c) Wirobond® 280. Except for the difference in composition of these alloys, they were also manufactured with various techniques. In tooth-supported prostheses the dominating technique was the cast technique while newer techniques as laser-sintering and milling were more commonly reported for implant-supported constructions. A fourth technique; the 'pre-state' milling was reported in FDP. Conclusion: More than 30 different Co-Cr alloys were reported as being used in FP. Thus, there is a need for studies exploring the mechanical and physical behavior and the biological response to the most commonly used Co-Cr alloys.

  10. On Fixed Points of Generalized α-φ Contractive Type Mappings in Partial Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Shahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Samet et al. (B. Samet, C. Vetro and P. Vetro, Fixed point theorem for $\\alpha$-$\\psi$ contractive type mappings, Nonlinear Anal. 75 (2012, 2154--2165 introduced a very interesting new category of contractive type mappings known as $\\alpha$-$\\psi$ contractive type mappings. The results obtained by Samet et al. generalize the existing fixed point results in the literature, in particular the Banach contraction principle. Further, Karapinar and Samet (E. Karapinar and B. Samet, Generalized $\\alpha$-$\\psi$-contractive type mappings and related fixed point theorems with applications, Abstract and Applied Analysis 2012 Article ID 793486, 17 pages doi:10.1155/2012/793486 generalized the $\\alpha$-$\\psi$ contractive type mappings and established some fixed point theorems for this generalized class of contractive mappings. In (G. S. Matthews, Partial metric topology, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 728 (1994, 183--197, the author introduced and studied the concept of partial metric spaces, and obtained a Banach type fixed point theorem on complete partial metric spaces. In this paper, we establish the fixed point theorems for generalized $\\alpha$-$\\psi$ contractive mappings in the context of partial metric spaces. As consequences of our main results, we obtain fixed point theorems on partial metric spaces endowed with a partial order and that for cyclic contractive mappings. Our results extend and strengthen various known results. Some examples are also given to show that our generalization from metric spaces to partial metric spaces is real.

  11. Common fixed points in best approximation for Banach operator pairs with Ciric type I-contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N.

    2008-02-01

    The common fixed point theorems, similar to those of Ciric [Lj.B. Ciric, On a common fixed point theorem of a Gregus type, Publ. Inst. Math. (Beograd) (N.S.) 49 (1991) 174-178; Lj.B. Ciric, On Diviccaro, Fisher and Sessa open questions, Arch. Math. (Brno) 29 (1993) 145-152; Lj.B. Ciric, On a generalization of Gregus fixed point theorem, Czechoslovak Math. J. 50 (2000) 449-458], Fisher and Sessa [B. Fisher, S. Sessa, On a fixed point theorem of Gregus, Internat. J. Math. Math. Sci. 9 (1986) 23-28], Jungck [G. Jungck, On a fixed point theorem of Fisher and Sessa, Internat. J. Math. Math. Sci. 13 (1990) 497-500] and Mukherjee and Verma [R.N. Mukherjee, V. Verma, A note on fixed point theorem of Gregus, Math. Japon. 33 (1988) 745-749], are proved for a Banach operator pair. As applications, common fixed point and approximation results for Banach operator pair satisfying Ciric type contractive conditions are obtained without the assumption of linearity or affinity of either T or I. Our results unify and generalize various known results to a more general class of noncommuting mappings.

  12. Discovery of a bovine enterovirus in alpaca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasta D McClenahan

    Full Text Available A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs, viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1, but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.

  13. Discovery of a bovine enterovirus in alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L; Krause, Philip R; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.

  14. The design of a scalable, fixed-time computer benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, J.; Rover, D.; Elbert, S.; Carter, M.

    1990-10-01

    By using the principle of fixed time benchmarking, it is possible to compare a very wide range of computers, from a small personal computer to the most powerful parallel supercomputer, an a single scale. Fixed-time benchmarks promise far greater longevity than those based on a particular problem size, and are more appropriate for grand challenge'' capability comparison. We present the design of a benchmark, SLALOM{trademark}, that scales automatically to the computing power available, and corrects several deficiencies in various existing benchmarks: it is highly scalable, it solves a real problem, it includes input and output times, and it can be run on parallel machines of all kinds, using any convenient language. The benchmark provides a reasonable estimate of the size of problem solvable on scientific computers. Results are presented that span six orders of magnitude for contemporary computers of various architectures. The benchmarks also can be used to demonstrate a new source of superlinear speedup in parallel computers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  16. Bovine neosporosis: clinical and practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almería, S; López-Gatius, F

    2013-10-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a wide host range but with a preference for cattle and dogs. Since the description of N. caninum as a new genus and species in 1988, bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. This review focuses on the epidemiology of the disease and on prospects for its control in cattle. Finally, based on the implications of clinical findings reported to date, a set of recommendations is provided for veterinarians and cattle farmers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fatty acids in bovine milk fat

    OpenAIRE

    Lindmark Månsson, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Milk fat contains approximately 400 different fatty acid, which make it the most complex of all natural fats. The milk fatty acids are derived almost equally from two sources, the feed and the microbial activity in the rumen of the cow and the lipids in bovine milk are mainly present in globules as an oil-in-water emulsion. Almost 70% of the fat in Swedish milk is saturated of which around 11% comprises short-chain fatty acids, almost half of which is butyric acid. Approximately 25% of the fa...

  18. Bluetongue virus infection of bovine monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetter, L E; Maclachlan, N J; Gebhard, D H; Heidner, H W; Moore, P F

    1989-07-01

    Cultures of adherent and non-adherent bovine blood mononuclear cells were infected with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10. Production of BTV proteins in mononuclear cell cultures was detected by immune precipitation of viral proteins from [35S]methionine-labelled extracts of these cells, by immunofluorescence staining of cells using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to BTV proteins VP7 and NS2, and by flow cytometry with MAbs to VP2, VP7, NS1 and NS2. BTV-infected cells were most numerous in cultures of adherent mononuclear cells; infected cells were initially identified as monocytes on the basis of their morphology, and size and scatter characteristics as determined by analysis with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). The majority of adherent mononuclear cells with these scatter characteristics were confirmed to be monocytes by FACS analysis with a MAb specific for bovine monocytes. Identification of BTV-infected adherent mononuclear cells as monocytes was further established by double immunofluorescent labelling, as infected adherent cells reacted with the MAb specific for bovine monocytes, and with another MAb specific for class II antigen. Infection of adherent mononuclear cells was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, as BTV virions and tubules were present in lysates of cultures of BTV-infected adherent mononuclear cells and within the cytoplasm of adherent cells. In contrast, BTV proteins were detected in few cells identified as lymphocytes on the basis of their scatter characteristics, and mean fluorescence of such cells was considerably less than that of BTV-infected monocytes. Viraemia persisted until 35 days after inoculation of a colostrum-deprived calf inoculated with BTV. Virus was isolated from blood mononuclear cells at 1 week after infection of the calf, but not thereafter. BTV infection of blood mononuclear cells was demonstrated until 9 days after inoculation by indirect immunofluorescence staining of mononuclear cells. In

  19. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  20. Isolation of new serotypes of bovine rotavirus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, T; Samejima, T; Kuwahara, H; Tajima, M

    1983-01-01

    Two cytopathogenic bovine rotavirus strains were isolated. The infectivity of both isolates was relatively stable at pH 3.0 and resistant to ether. Their replication was not affected by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. The new isolates shared immunofluorescent antigen with the Lincoln strain of bovine rotavirus. By neutralization test, however, these strains were clearly distinguished from one another.

  1. Prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in a municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12 month cross-sectional study was carried out at Lafenwa Abattoir Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria from July, 2011 to June, 2012. This was to determine the prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in this abattoir. A total of 928 cases of bovine tuberculosis out of 52,273 cattle slaughtered during this period ...

  2. Prevalence of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL) in the Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, a commercial immuno enzymatic assay (blocking- ELISA), were used to detect BLV antibodies in bovine serum using two monoclonal antibodies against the viral gp51 from bovines of two major districts namely, Waqoyi Galbed, and Togdheer of northern Somalia (Somaliland). Out of 468 tested cows ...

  3. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune responses by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. Since different alleles favor the ...

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis and most Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, information on the epidemiology of the disease especially bovine tuberculosis is still very scanty. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) was carried out on 113 tissue samples to have an idea of not only the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis but also the most common ...

  5. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, M.; Hilchie, A.L.; Haney, E.F.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Hyndman, M.E.; Hancock, R.E.W.; Vogel, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits

  6. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope ...

  7. Study on Seroprevalence of Bovine Brucellosis and Abortion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried on bovine brucellosis from November 2008 to March 2009 to determine the sero-prevalence and distribution of bovine brucel osis in selected sites of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. A total of 950 animals (541 female and 409 male) were examined serologically by using RBPT as ...

  8. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soveri T

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  9. Preliminary study on the impact of Bovine Tuberculosis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was conducted on 100 (50 bovine TB positive and 50 negative) dairy cows to determine the effect of bovine tuberculosis (TB) on reproductive efficiency and productivity of Holstein dairy cows. In order to achieve this, five year records of reproductive/ productive variables including age at puberty, age at ...

  10. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  11. Research Article: Food Animal Practice Bovine Papillomatosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six cases of bovine papillomatosis were reported to the University of Nairobi veterinary clinic. Diagnosis was based on presented clinical signs and histopathology of affected skin lesions. The histological samples of the warts confirmed the diagnosis of papillomatosis. An autogenous formalin killed bovine specific wart ...

  12. Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxytétracycline LA) dans le traitement des bovins atteints de péripneumonie contagieuse bovine (PPCB) et de déterminer le risque de transmission de la maladie à partir d'animaux traités. Une transmission expérimentale a été conduite par la mise ...

  13. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco den Hartog

    Full Text Available Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors, and used directly or allowed to differentiate to dendritic cells under the influence of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Recombinant bovine IL-10 inhibited TLR induced activation of monocytes, and dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced activation of monocyte-derived DCs comparable to human IL-10. By using blocking antibodies to either bovine IL-10 or the human IL-10 receptor it was demonstrated that inhibition of monocyte activation by bovine IL-10 was dependent on binding of bovine IL-10 to the human IL-10R. These data demonstrate that bovine IL-10 potently inhibits the activation of human myeloid cells in response to TLR activation. Bovine IL-10 present in dairy products may thus potentially contribute to the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and allergy, enhance mucosal tolerance induction and decrease intestinal inflammation and may therefore be applicable in infant foods and in immunomodulatory diets.

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...

  15. Computational identification of fertility functions of bovine Reprimo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domain structure of bovine RPRM protein was predicted using simple modular architecture research tool (SMART). Protein tertiary structures (3D structures) of bovine RPRM gene and other cattle fertility genes were predicted with Phyre2 software. To have structural and functional similarity, it has been found that protein ...

  16. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  17. Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis in single and pooled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff-Jørgensen, R

    1990-12-01

    Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis is based on detection of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, BLV. Some ELISA modifications have proved sensitive enough for use in the examination of pooled blood samples from slaughterhouses, milk and pooled milk samples. Suggestions for the standardisation of different ELISA modifications using a common reference serum are presented.

  18. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review | Zhao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the pathogen of Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a powerful means to control the virus. Here, the review described the currently available knowledge regarding to the advance in the field of BoHV-1 ...

  19. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of

  20. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Schoemaker, R.; Tijhaar, E.; Westphal, A.H.; Ruiter, de T.; Weg-Schrijver, van de Elise; Neerven, van R.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood

  1. Differential neutrophil gene expression in early bovine pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizaki Keiichiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In food production animals, especially cattle, the diagnosis of gestation is important because the timing of gestation directly affects the running of farms. Various methods have been used to detect gestation, but none of them are ideal because of problems with the timing of detection or the accuracy, simplicity, or cost of the method. A new method for detecting gestation, which involves assessing interferon-tau (IFNT-stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL, was recently proposed. PBL fractionation methods were used to examine whether the expression profiles of various PBL populations could be used as reliable diagnostic markers of bovine gestation. Methods PBL were collected on days 0 (just before artificial insemination, 7, 14, 17, 21, and 28 of gestation. The gene expression levels of the PBL were assessed with microarray analysis and/or quantitative real-time reverse transcription (q PCR. PBL fractions were collected by flow cytometry or density gradient cell separation using Histopaque 1083 or Ficoll-Conray solutions. The expression levels of four IFNT-stimulated genes, interferon-stimulated protein 15 kDa (ISG15, myxovirus-resistance (MX 1 and 2, and 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1, were then analyzed in each fraction through day 28 of gestation using qPCR. Results Microarray analysis detected 72 and 28 genes in whole PBL that were significantly higher on days 14 and 21 of gestation, respectively, than on day 0. The upregulated genes included IFNT-stimulated genes. The expression levels of these genes increased with the progression of gestation until day 21. In flow cytometry experiments, on day 14 the expression levels of all of the genes were significantly higher in the granulocyte fraction than in the other fractions. Their expression gradually decreased through day 28 of gestation. Strong correlations were observed between the expression levels of the four genes in the granulocyte

  2. Differential neutrophil gene expression in early bovine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizaki, Keiichiro; Shichijo-Kizaki, Ayumi; Furusawa, Tadashi; Takahashi, Toru; Hosoe, Misa; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi

    2013-02-05

    In food production animals, especially cattle, the diagnosis of gestation is important because the timing of gestation directly affects the running of farms. Various methods have been used to detect gestation, but none of them are ideal because of problems with the timing of detection or the accuracy, simplicity, or cost of the method. A new method for detecting gestation, which involves assessing interferon-tau (IFNT)-stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), was recently proposed. PBL fractionation methods were used to examine whether the expression profiles of various PBL populations could be used as reliable diagnostic markers of bovine gestation. PBL were collected on days 0 (just before artificial insemination), 7, 14, 17, 21, and 28 of gestation. The gene expression levels of the PBL were assessed with microarray analysis and/or quantitative real-time reverse transcription (q) PCR. PBL fractions were collected by flow cytometry or density gradient cell separation using Histopaque 1083 or Ficoll-Conray solutions. The expression levels of four IFNT-stimulated genes, interferon-stimulated protein 15 kDa (ISG15), myxovirus-resistance (MX) 1 and 2, and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1), were then analyzed in each fraction through day 28 of gestation using qPCR. Microarray analysis detected 72 and 28 genes in whole PBL that were significantly higher on days 14 and 21 of gestation, respectively, than on day 0. The upregulated genes included IFNT-stimulated genes. The expression levels of these genes increased with the progression of gestation until day 21. In flow cytometry experiments, on day 14 the expression levels of all of the genes were significantly higher in the granulocyte fraction than in the other fractions. Their expression gradually decreased through day 28 of gestation. Strong correlations were observed between the expression levels of the four genes in the granulocyte fractions obtained with flow cytometry and with density

  3. Effect of bovine ovarian tissue vitrification on the structural preservation of antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, M S; Carvalhais, I; Baron, E; Moreira da Silva, F

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the structural preservation of antral follicles after bovine ovarian tissue vitrification using histological analysis. Ovaries (n = 30) of slaughtered cows were cut into small fragments using a scalpel blade, and the ovarian tissues were randomly assigned to vitrification using 15% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and 15% ethylene glycol (EG) and fresh tissues (control) groups. For histological evaluations, fresh and post-thawing ovarian tissues were immediately fixed, serially sectioned into 5-μm sections and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Nine serial sections per fragment were subjected for morphological assessment. The diameter of the antral follicles was determined and classified into four groups: 1 (≤1 mm), 2 (>1-2 mm), 3 (>2-3 mm) and 4 (>3-4 mm). Then, follicular morphology was evaluated in relation to atresia and categorized into seven grades: Grade A (healthy follicle); Grades B, C and D (early atresia); Grades E and F (moderate atresia); and Grade G (advanced atresia). The results revealed that small diameters of antral follicles (1 and 2 mm) were more susceptible for cryoinjury. The normal follicular morphology (Grade A) was not affected by vitrification throughout follicle diameters. Nevertheless, some damage features were monitored after vitrification. In conclusion, the morphological structure of bovine antral follicles could be successfully preserved by ovarian tissue vitrification. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Impact of fixed-mobile convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pachnicke, Stephan; Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Autenrieth, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) is a very trendy concept as it promises integration of the previously separated fixed access network and the mobile network. From this novel approach telecommunication operators expect significant cost savings and performance improvements. FMC can be separated...... into structural convergence (regarding the infrastructure) and functional convergence (regarding the necessary functionalities required in fixed and mobile networks). The latter one goes hand-in-hand with Network Function Virtualization (NFV), where important network functions are provided by a server inside...... of the next generation point-of-presence (NG-POP). In this article implications on the system architecture as well as structural and functional convergence topics will be discussed....

  5. Fixed point theory of parametrized equivariant maps

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich, Hanno

    1988-01-01

    The first part of this research monograph discusses general properties of G-ENRBs - Euclidean Neighbourhood Retracts over B with action of a compact Lie group G - and their relations with fibrations, continuous submersions, and fibre bundles. It thus addresses equivariant point set topology as well as equivariant homotopy theory. Notable tools are vertical Jaworowski criterion and an equivariant transversality theorem. The second part presents equivariant cohomology theory showing that equivariant fixed point theory is isomorphic to equivariant stable cohomotopy theory. A crucial result is the sum decomposition of the equivariant fixed point index which provides an insight into the structure of the theory's coefficient group. Among the consequences of the sum formula are some Borsuk-Ulam theorems as well as some folklore results on compact Lie-groups. The final section investigates the fixed point index in equivariant K-theory. The book is intended to be a thorough and comprehensive presentation of its subjec...

  6. Validation of an immunohistochemical assay for bovine cysticercosis, with comparison to a standard histological method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandrett, W Brad; Haines, Deborah M; Parker, Sarah E; Robinson, Yves; Forbes, Lorry B; Brandt, Jef; Geerts, Stanny; Dorny, Pierre; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2012-05-25

    The larval stage (syn Cysticercus bovis) of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata causes cysticercosis in cattle, which has both aesthetic and food safety implications to consumers of beef. A monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemical (IHC) assay developed to improve postmortem diagnosis of this parasite and a standard histological method were assessed to determine their fitness for intended use. Sections from 169 known-positive specimens of T. saginata from experimentally or naturally infected cattle, and from 30 known-negative specimens and lesions of various etiologies from non-infected cattle, were tested. The IHC assay identified significantly more known positive bovine cysticerci than the histological method (91.7% and 38.5%, respectively). Positive IHC staining occurred on sections from other cestode species, but should not affect the diagnostic specificity of this assay for bovine cysticercosis, due to the different host and/or tissue preferences amongst these parasites. Use of the IHC assay should improve the reliability of diagnosing lesions caused by degenerated cysticerci, facilitating more effective and efficient control of bovine cysticercosis. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a radioimmunoassay for quantitation of calregulin in bovine tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, N.C.; Waisman, D.M.

    1986-03-11

    Experimental conditions are described for a convenient and simple one-step method for radioimmunoassay (RIA) of the calcium binding protein calregulin. The radioimmunoassay utilizes /sup 125/I-labeled calregulin and pansorbin cells (Staphylococcus aureus) coated with rabbit anti-calregulin antibody. Binding equilibrium is attained in 30 min, and the total time of the assay is 1 h. The assay is sensitive to about 30 fmol of calregulin. Calregulin was quantitated in various bovine tissue extracts and was detected in all tissues except erythrocytes. It was present in particularly high amounts in pancreas (540 micrograms/g of tissue), liver (375 micrograms/g of tissue), and testis (256 micrograms/g of tissue). While about 80% of the total tissue calregulin is soluble, about 20% of this protein was found to be associated with particulate fractions. Unmasking of particulate calregulin required the presence of nonionic detergent. Gel permeation chromatography of bovine brain 100 000 g supernatant in the presence or absence of calcium has resolved a single peak of calregulin by RIA. In addition, the distribution of calregulin in the soluble or particulate fraction of bovine brain was unaffected by the presence or absence of calcium during homogenization, suggesting that calregulin does not form either calcium-dependent or calcium-independent association with soluble or particulate proteins. These results identify calregulin as a major tissue Ca2+ binding protein.

  8. Leucemia inhibitory factor; investigating the time-dependent effect on viability of vitrified bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, A; Cevik, M

    2017-12-01

    Leucemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is involved in various reproductive processes, including sperm development, regulation of ovulation, as well as blastocyst formation, hatching and implantation in embryos. Moreover, LIF has also been shown significantly to enhance the blastocyst formation rates of bovine embryos, a finding that remains controversial. Our purpose was to investigate time-dependent effect of LIF on bovine embryo culture, especially in terms of addition timing. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in five different groups. In this study, 100 ng/ml LIF was added to the culture medium were as follows; control: SOF alone, group A: at day 0 (fertilization day), group B: at day 4 post-insemination (p.i.), group C: at day 4 to 7 (p.i. before vitrification) and group D: at day 8 (p.i. after thawing). Addition of LIF to the culture medium at day 4 significantly increased the percentage of blastocyst rate when compared day 0, day 4 at 6/7 and control group (41.8% versus 24.3%, 19.7%, 34.6%). In conclusion, the addition of LIF only on day 4 (p.i.) to the culture medium was found to be beneficial for bovine embryonic development based on several measures, including blastocysts rate, re-expansion rate and cellular cryotolerance after vitrification. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Primary transgenic bovine cells and their rejuvenated cloned equivalents show transgene-specific epigenetic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-González, Lucia; Couldrey, Christine; Meinhardt, Marcus W; Cole, Sally A; Wells, David N; Laible, Götz

    2012-01-01

    Cell-mediated transgenesis, based on somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), provides the opportunity to shape the genetic make-up of cattle. Bovine primary fetal fibroblasts, commonly used cells for SCNT, have a limited lifespan, and complex genetic modifications that require sequential transfections can be challenging time and cost-wise. To overcome these limitations, SCNT is frequently used to rejuvenate the cell lines and restore exhausted growth potential. We have designed a construct to be used in a 2-step cassette exchange experiment. Our transgene contains a puromycin resistance marker gene and an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) expression cassette, both driven by a strong mammalian promoter, and flanked by loxP sites and sequences from the bovine β-casein locus. Several transgenic cell lines were generated by random insertion into primary bovine cell lines. Two of these original cell lines were rederived by SCNT and new primary cells, with the same genetic makeup as the original donors, were established. While the original cell lines were puromycin-resistant and had a characteristic EGFP expression profile, all rejuvenated cell lines were sensitive to puromycin, and displayed varied EGFP expression, indicative of various degrees of silencing. When the methylation states of individual CpG sites within the transgene were analyzed, a striking increase in transgene-specific methylation was observed in all rederived cell lines. The results indicate that original transgenic donor cells and their rejuvenated derivatives may not be equivalent and differ in the functionality of their transgene sequences.

  10. Duan's fixed point theorem: Proof and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkowitz Martin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, any map and the th power map. Duan proved that has a fixed point if . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a -structure as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that and each has a fixed point.

  11. Fix og færdig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Pedersen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fix & Finish “WHO CAN FIX IT?” is an investigation of the needles left behind by drug users in Copenhagen’s Vesterbro district. Based on the praxiological methods developed by Annemarie Mol as well as processes of objectification as described by Daniel Miller, the used needle appears to be a multiple object that is related to opportunities, fear, good intentions and trash. This article is an invitation to study material culture and material practices as a part of semiotic and discursive analyses in order to sharpen a researcher’s analytical focus while remaining grounded in reality.

  12. Carbon-Fixing Reactions of Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Summaryplantcell;28/7/tpc.116.tt0716/FIG1F1fig1Photosynthesis in plants converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy. Although photosynthesis involves many proteins and catalytic processes, it often is described as two sets of reactions, the light-dependent reactions and the carbon-fixing reactions. This lesson introduces the core biochemistry of the carbon-fixing reactions of photosynthesis, as well as its variations, C4 and CAM. Finally, it addresses how and why plants are affected by rising atmospheric CO2 levels, and research efforts to increase photosynthetic efficiency in current and future conditions. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Fixed point indices and manifolds with collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henry Gottlieb

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a formula which relates the Lefschetz number L(f for a map f:M→M′ to the fixed point index I(f summed with the fixed point index of a derived map on part of the boundary of ∂M. Here M is a compact manifold and M′ is M with a collar attached.

  14. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper presents a new and simple heterogeneous-firms specification. We develop a symmetric two......-country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  15. Comparison between Slow Freezing and Vitrification in Terms of Ovarian Tissue Viability in a Bovine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ana Luisa Menezes; Guedes, Janaína de Souza; Rodrigues, Jhenifer Kliemchen; Pace, Walter Antônio Prata; Fontoura, Renato Rinco; Caetano, João Pedro Junqueira; Marinho, Ricardo Mello

    2016-07-01

    Objective To assess the viability of bovine ovarian tissue after cryopreservation through either slow freezing or vitrification, and to compare it to that of control tissue by performing morphological analyses. Methods The study included 20 bovine ovarian cortex fragments that were divided into control, vitrification, and slow freezing groups. Each group consisted of four fragments of the same ovary, two fixed without cultivation, and two fixed with cultivation. Tissues were evaluated based on follicular morphology immediately after heating and after 7 days of culture, and compared with the control group. Results A total of 240 fragments were analyzed, generating a sample of 1,344 follicles without cultivation and 552 with cultivation. When the non-cultivated samples were classified as non-atretic follicles, 572 were found in the control group, 289 in the vitrification group, and 373 in the slow freezing group, showing no significant differences. When classified as atretic, 46 follicles were found in the control group, 23 in the vitrification group, and 41 in the slow freezing group, also showing no statistical difference. In the post-culture sample, an evolution of the follicular stages could be observed. This finding was important to support that the follicles considered non-atretic in the non-cultivated group were actually viable in the morphological evaluation. Conclusion With no differences between the protocols, vitrification was shown to be an advanced and alternative method for patients who will undergo treatments that carry the risk of ovarian failure, as the method is less expensive, faster, and more adaptable to laboratory routine. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  16. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  17. Lack of Virus-Specific Bacterial Adherence to Bovine Embryonic Lung Cells Infected with Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 †

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Thomas E.; Gates, Connie

    1983-01-01

    Infection of bovine embryonic lung cells with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 did not induce in vitro, virus-specific, hemadsorption-related adherence of Corynebacterium pyogenes, Haemophilus somnus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Pasteurella haemolytica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Brucella sp., or Salmonella typhimurium.

  18. Quantum Monte Carlo with variable spins: Fixed-phase and fixed-node approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Cody A.; Mitas, Lubos

    2017-10-01

    We study several aspects of the recently introduced fixed-phase spinor diffusion Monte Carlo method, in particular, its relation to the fixed-node method and its potential use as a general approach for electronic structure calculations. We illustrate constructions of spinor-based wave functions with the full space-spin symmetry without assigning up or down spin labels to particular electrons, effectively "complexifying" even ordinary real-valued wave functions for Hamiltonians without spin terms. Interestingly, with proper choice of the simulation parameters and spin variables, such fixed-phase calculations enable one to reach also the fixed-node limit. The fixed-phase approximation has several desirable properties when compared to the fixed-node approximation. The fixed-phase solution provides a straightforward interpretation as the lowest bosonic state in a given effective potential generated by the many-body approximate phase, whereas nodal boundary conditions are defined through less intuitive and complicated hypersurfaces with one dimension less than the original configuration space. In addition, the divergences of the local energy and drift at real wave function nodes are smoothed out to lower dimensionality when the wave function is complexified, thus decreasing the variation of sampled quantities and eliminating artificial nodal domain issues that can occur in the fixed-node formalism. We illustrate some of these properties on calculations of selected first-row systems that recover the fixed-node results with quantitatively similar levels of the corresponding biases. At the same time, the fixed-phase approach opens new possibilities for more general trial wave functions with further opportunities for increasing accuracy in practical calculations.

  19. Bovine liver slices: A multifunctional in vitro model to study the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijk, Jeroen C W; Bovee, Toine F H; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Groot, Maria J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Nielen, Michel W F

    2012-09-01

    Biotransformation of inactive prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can lead to the formation of potent androgens and subsequent androgenic responses in target tissues. In the present study, precision-cut bovine liver slices were used to study the effects of DHEA on the metabolite, transcript and androgenic activity level. Bovine liver slices were exposed for 6h to various concentrations of DHEA. Changes in androgenic activity of the DHEA containing cell culture media were measured using a yeast androgen bioassay and metabolites were identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS), while gene expression in the DHEA-treated liver slices was examined using bovine microarrays and compared with the profile as obtained with 17ß-testosterone (17ß-T). An increase in androgenic activity was observed in the bioassay upon testing of samples from incubations of DHEA with liver slices and the formation of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), 5-androstene-3ß,17ß-diol, 17ß-T, 7α-hydroxy-DHEA, 7-keto-DHEA and 17α-T could be confirmed by UPLC-TOFMS analysis. Exposure of liver slices to DHEA and the strong androgen 17ß-T resulted in the identification of significantly up- and down-regulated genes and revealed similar gene expression profiles for both compounds. The results indicate that DHEA itself is biologically not very active, but is rapidly converted by the liver slices into the more androgen active compounds 4-AD and 17ß-T. Moreover, the present data highlight the multi-functionality of bovine liver slices as an in vitro bioactivation model, allowing the assessment of androgen activity or gene expression as effect-based endpoints for prohormone exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytokine regulation of the intracellular growth of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in bovine monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbrick, B G; Follett, D M; Czuprynski, C J

    1988-01-01

    In this study we examined the influence of various crude and recombinant cytokines on the ingestion and intracellular survival of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis within bovine monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Cytokine pretreatment had little effect on the ingestion of M. paratuberculosis by bovine monocytes and macrophages. Monocytes that were continuously incubated with virus-induced crude bovine interferon (100 U) or recombinant bovine alpha interferon (100 U) significantly restricted the subsequent intracellular growth of M. paratuberculosis, as determined by microscopic counts of acid-fast bacilli and by recovery of CFU from lysed monocyte monolayers. In contrast to their effects on freshly adherent monocytes, these cytokines had little effect on the growth of M. paratuberculosis within monocyte-derived macrophages. In two separate experiments, we also observed inhibition of bacillary growth in monocytes treated with unpurified recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Conversely, intracellular growth of M. paratuberculosis was enhanced in monocytes that were pretreated with culture supernatants from M. paratuberculosis-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from an immunized calf. The growth-enhancing activity of these supernatants was labile at pH 2.0, suggesting a role for gamma interferon; however, subsequent experiments indicated that recombinant gamma interferon alone neither enhanced nor restricted intracellular bacillary growth. To determine the possible contributions of monocyte oxidative activity to cytokine-induced bacteriostasis, we compared the release of superoxide anion from cytokine-treated and control monocytes. No obvious relationship was observed between the release of superoxide anion and the subsequent intracellular fate of the bacilli. PMID:2838423

  1. Use of bovine carpal joints as a training model for cruciate ligament repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Nicholas; Grainger, Nicholas; Hurworth, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Currently, there is a lack of cheap and effective training models to allow orthopaedic surgery trainees to learn the basics of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The aim of this paper was to investigate the viability of using various animal joints as models for the training of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Equine stifles, bovine stifles and carpal joints, sheep stifles and porcine stifles, were sourced from a local abattoir. Each joint was assessed for the following criteria: suitable tendons for harvesting, ease of arthroscopy access, adequacy of arthroscopy view and suitable joint surfaces. Tendon harvesting, preparation, joint arthroscopy and tendon tunnelling were performed on the most suitable joint. Equine, bovine, sheep and porcine stifles were found to be unsuitable. The bovine carpal joint was similar to a human wrist joint with two rows of carpal bones and fused metacarpal bones, but with deeper flexion - similar to a human knee joint. The distal joint space was found to provide a greater range of flexion and space than the narrower proximal joint space. The joint capsule provided sufficient integrity during saline irrigation to allow adequate visualization of joint structures. Tendons surrounding the joint were found to be of similar diameter to human hamstring tendons and easily accessible. Tendon tunnelling was successfully performed in a manner similar to human anterior cruciate ligament repair. The use of bovine carpal joints is a cost-effective, safe and easily reproducible model for education on basic anterior cruciate ligament repair skills and technique prior to patient contact. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. Ultrasonographic anatomy of the bovine eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Timothy J; Hallowell, Gayle D; Bowen, I Mark

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to describe the ultrasonographic appearance and measurements of the normal bovine eye, to compare the measurements to those reported previously for cadaveric eyes and to describe differences between ocular dimensions of Holstein Friesian and Jersey cattle. Sixty transpalpebral ocular ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 30 adult Holstein Friesian cows, and 16 examinations were performed on 8 adult Jersey cows. Transpalpebral ultrasonographic images were obtained with a 10 MHz linear transducer in both horizontal and vertical imaging planes. The ultrasonographic appearance of structures within the bovine eye is similar to that in other species, although the ciliary artery was frequently identified, appearing as a 0.33 +/- 0.04 cm diameter hypoechoic area. The axial length of the globe was significantly greater in Holstein Friesian cattle (3.46 +/- 0.09 cm) compared with Jersey cattle (3.27 +/- 0.19 cm; P = 0.001), although the vitreous depth was smaller in Holstein Friesian cattle (1.46 +/- 0.09 cm) (P = 0.0009). The anterioposterior depth of the lens was significantly greater in Jersey cattle (1.92 +/- 0.11 cm) and the cornea was thinner in Jersey cattle (0.17 +/- 0.02 cm). The appearance and ocular distances for live animals were similar to those reported previously for cadaveric specimens. The knowledge of normal ocular dimensions facilitates the use of ultrasonography in the evaluation of ocular disease in cattle.

  3. Looseness in bovine leather: microstructural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Hannah C; Holmes, Geoff; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    A substantial proportion of bovine leather production may be of poor quality, with the leather suffering from a characteristic known as looseness. This defect results in a poor visual appearance and greatly reduced value. The structural mechanism of looseness is not well understood. Samples of loose and tight bovine leather are characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering, ultrasonic imaging, and electron microscopy. The density of fibre packing and orientation of the fibrils are analysed. Tensile strength is also measured. Loose leather is characterized by more highly aligned collagen fibrils. This results in a weaker connection between the layers. There is a looser packing of the fibres in loose leather than in tight leather, with more gaps between fibre bundles, particularly in a region in the lower grain. This region is visible with in situ ultrasonic imaging. Loose leather has a higher tensile strength than tight leather. While a high degree of collagen fibril alignment is normally associated with strong leather, it has been shown that too much alignment results in loose leather. Understanding the physical basis of looseness is the first step in identifying looseness in hides and learning how to prevent looseness from developing during leather manufacture. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Antihelmintic Resistance For Gastrointestinal Bovine Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Vásquez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN, in domestic animals, especially in bovines are a very important factor that affects their productivity, because cattle production systems have intervened in the relationship between gastrointestinal parasites (PGI and the host, breaking therefore the ecological balance between them. In many opportunities the development of parasitic populations have been favored or a parasitic population have been led to extinction, it has made that these populations express genes that would not express under normal conditions, favoring thus, resistance to medications that were made to their destruction. NGI are highly important in all cattle exploitations, but their inappropriate handling, mainly in the pharmacological aspect, has created vermifuge resistance by some parasitic populations. This article will determine the importance of the vermifuge resistance in cattle exploitations, as a factor of risk for the control of parasitic populations. The most important antihelmintic groups used in bovine are Benzimidazoles, Levamisol and Ivermectine and with these products resistance has been reported by parasitic populations such as in Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus. colubriformis, Ostertagia circumcicta, Ostertagia ostertagi. Different risk factors were classified in extrinsic (which don’t depend on the gastrointestinal parasite and intrinsic (which depend directly on gastrointestinal parasites related with genetics which occupy a great importance in the development of the vermifuge resistance.

  5. The collagens of the developing bovine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R E; Davison, P F

    1984-11-01

    The morphology of the developing bovine eye has been examined and the collagens in fetal bovine eyes from three months' gestation to maturity have been solubilized by pepsin treatment and analyzed to determine the ratios of the predominant types of collagen. The type I collagen decreased, while the type V collagen increased with age. Type III collagen comprised less than 1% of all the corneas, except for the three-month fetal calf. The anterior to posterior thickness of the paraffin-embedded fetal calf cornea increased from the third to the seventh month, decreased from the seventh month to birth, and then increased after birth. Descemet's membrane increased in thickness with age. Analysis of dissected regions of the calf cornea showed a uniform distribution of the collagen populations from the center to the limbus (89% type I, 10% type V and less than 1% type III collagen) and uniformity through the depth of the stroma, except that type III was concentrated around Bowman's layer, and type IV in Descement's membrane. The localization of the different collagens was consistent with the immunofluorescent staining studies with anticollagen antibodies, but the ratios of the intensities of the fluorescence did not correspond to the quantitative analyses. These results are concordant with other studies that have shown that antibody binding may be masked or diminished in certain tissues and therefore immunofluorescence cannot be used reliably for quantitative measurements.

  6. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  7. Consistent Preferences with Fixed Point Updates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Berend; Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a normative framework for complete preference orderings, in which updating is based on a straightforward fixed point principle. Its scope goes far beyond the Sure Thing Principle, and covers Bayesian updating as a special case, without reference to probabilities. The induced preference

  8. Raman imaging using fixed bandpass filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landström, L.; Kullander, F.; Lundén, H.; Wästerby, P.

    2017-05-01

    By using fixed narrow band pass optical filtering and scanning the laser excitation wavelength, hyperspectral Raman imaging could be achieved. Experimental, proof-of-principle results from the Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) tabun (GA) as well as the common CWA simulant tributyl phosphate (TBP) on different surfaces/substrates are presented and discussed.

  9. Homotopies and the Universal Fixed Point Property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymik, Markus

    2015-01-01

    . To even specify the problem, we introduce the universal fixed point property. Our results apply in particular to the analysis of convex subspaces of Banach spaces, to the topology of finite-dimensional manifolds and CW complexes, and to the combinatorics of Kolmogorov spaces associated with finite posets....

  10. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  11. Empirical Studies on Sovereign Fixed Income Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Duyvesteyn (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract This dissertation presents evidence of five studies showing that sovereign fixed income markets are not always price efficient. The emerging local currency debt market has grown to a large size of more than 1.5 trill ion US Dollars at the end of 2012. The factors

  12. Untangling Fixed Effects and Constant Regressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.; Teulings, R.

    2015-01-01

    Fixed effects (FE) in panel data models overlap each other and prohibit the identification of the impact of "constant" regressors. Think of regressors that are constant across countries in a country-time panel with time FE. The traditional approach is to drop some FE and constant regressors by

  13. Uniqueness of entire functions and fixed points

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jianming; Fang, Mingliang

    2002-01-01

    Let $f$ be a nonconstant entire function. %If $f(z)=z$ $\\Longleftrightarrow $ $f'(z)=z$, and %$f'(z)=z$ $\\Longrightarrow $ $f''(z)=z$, then $f\\equiv f'$. In particular, If $f$, $f'$ and $f''$ have the same fixed points, then $f\\equiv f'.$

  14. Fixed points and continuity for multivalued mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Hicks

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the contractive definitions do not require continuity of the map. However, in a previous paper the second author has shown in [1] that, in most cases, the function is continuous at a fixed point. In this paper we show that the same behavior is exhibited for many multivalued mappings.

  15. Fixed expressions and the production of idioms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD-thesis explores the mental representations of Fixed Expressions (FEs). Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the field of FEs and provides an overview of Chapters 2-5. In Chapter 2, research on the frequency of Dutch FEs is reported. The results suggest that about 7% of written Dutch language

  16. Fixed drug eruption against rupatadine fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Vural; Fidan, Tulin

    2011-09-01

    Second generation of antihistaminics have better therapeutic efficacy and more predictable pharmacological responses at lower doses than older compounds. However, new compounds have a reduced adverse reaction profile; clinicians can also encounter some unexpected adverse effects of these newer compounds. We report the first case of fixed drug eruption of rupatadine fumarate, which was confirmed by oral provocation test.

  17. Some Aspects of Fixed Point Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Some Aspects of Fixed Point Theory. P V Subrahmanyam. General Article Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 36-44 ... Author Affiliations. P V Subrahmanyam1. Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 600 036, India.

  18. Fixed Point Theorems for Asymptotically Contractive Multimappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Djedidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present fixed point theorems for a nonexpansive set-valued mapping from a closed convex subset of a reflexive Banach space into itself under some asymptotic contraction assumptions. Some existence results of coincidence points and eigenvalues for multimappings are given.

  19. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  20. Some Generalizations of Jungck's Fixed Point Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are going to generalize the Jungck's fixed point theorem for commuting mappings by mean of the concepts of altering distance functions and compatible pair of mappings, as well as, by using contractive inequalities of integral type and contractive inequalities depending on another function.

  1. Generalized Common Fixed Point Results with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Amin Kutbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtained some generalized common fixed point results in the context of complex valued metric spaces. Moreover, we proved an existence theorem for the common solution for two Urysohn integral equations. Examples are presented to support our results.

  2. Elevated pressure improves the extraction and identification of proteins recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol B Fowler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing.In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%. Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates.These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form suitable for proteomic analysis.

  3. Elevated pressure improves the extraction and identification of proteins recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol B; Chesnick, Ingrid E; Moore, Cedric D; O'Leary, Timothy J; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2010-12-08

    Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%). Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis) of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates. These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form suitable for proteomic analysis.

  4. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for the... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section 28...

  5. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Katoch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases. Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p0.01. Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study. Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases.

  6. A volumetric meter chip for point-of-care quantitative detection of bovine catalase for food safety control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xingye; Hu, Jie; Choi, Jane Ru; Huang, Yalin; Wang, Xuemin [The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Lu, Tian Jian, E-mail: tjlu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Xu, Feng, E-mail: fengxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China)

    2016-09-07

    A volumetric meter chip was developed for quantitative point-of-care (POC) analysis of bovine catalase, a bioindicator of bovine mastitis, in milk samples. The meter chip displays multiplexed quantitative results by presenting the distance of ink bar advancement that is detectable by the naked eye. The meter chip comprises a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layer, a double-sided adhesive (DSA) layer and a glass slide layer fabricated by the laser-etching method, which is typically simple, rapid (∼3 min per chip), and cost effective (∼$0.2 per chip). Specially designed “U shape” reaction cells are covered by an adhesive tape that serves as an on-off switch, enabling the simple operation of the assay. As a proof of concept, we employed the developed meter chip for the quantification of bovine catalase in raw milk samples to detect catalase concentrations as low as 20 μg/mL. The meter chip has great potential to detect various target analytes for a wide range of POC applications. - Highlights: • The meter chip is a standalone point-of-care diagnostic tool with visible readouts of quantification results. • A fast and low cost fabrication protocol (~3 min and ~$0.2 per chip) of meter chip was proposed. • The chip may hold the potential for rapid scaning of bovine mastitis in cattle farms for food safety control.

  7. Disorders of the postpartum bovine uterus: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael MB. Noseir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Uterine health condition plays a very important role in evoking cattle fertility or infertility. The major prerequisites to enhance and achieve postpartum bovine fertility are a normal physiological uterine involution and re-establishment of ovarian cyclicity. Uterine function is usually compromised in cattle by bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen after parturition, and pathogenic bacteria often persist, causing uterine disease, a key cause of infertility in cattle. The causes of uterine diseases are complex and multifactorial; therefore, a broad approach must be taken when trying to identify the causes or prevent them. The dairy cow undergoes a state of negative energy during the transition into lactation, which leads to immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to disease. The main risk factors for uterine diseases are dystocia, stillbirth, abortion, prolapsed uterus, retained placenta. Uterine diseases are associated with lower conception rates, increased intervals from calving to first service or conception, and more cattle culled for failure to conceive. Health and management strategies should be applied to avoid the various risk factors that may affect cattle around parturition and postpartum. This review article will through light on conditions associated with uterine health and disorders and their significance on future fertility of parturient dairy cows.

  8. A novel isolation strategy for obtaining crude membrane vesicles from bovine skim milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blans, Kristine; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Wiking, Lars

    Bovine milks content of phospholipid membranes have largely been explored in the cream fraction, and known as the milk fat globule membrane that surrounds fat droplets. In skim milk, the population of phospholipid membranes is reported to constitute membrane vesicles with a soluble content known...... as exosomes and microvesicles. These vesicles contain various types of RNAs and proteins, suggested to transfer health-promoting messages from mother to offspring. However, the variety of the vesicles in milk is less understood and, additionally, complicated by the complexity of more pronounced milk...

  9. Control and eradication programme of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) from selected dairy herds in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper.

  10. Bovine-associated mucoprotein: de novo synthesis by nonmammary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringnitz, D J; Butler, J E

    1985-08-01

    Bovine tissues were cultured in vitro in the presence of carbon-14 amino acids and tritiated hexosamine to examine the de novo synthesis of the milk fat globule glycoprotein bovine-associated mucoprotein, by selected tissues. Among tissues examined, the relative synthesis of bovine-associated mucoprotein was highest in mammary tissue. The de novo synthesized bovine-associated mucoprotein in mammary and lacrimal gland cultures when examined for incorporation of carbon-14, had similar sedimentation profiles in sucrose density gradients and incorporated the same relative amount of carbohydrate. The bovine-associated mucoprotein synthesized by lung and spleen cultures sedimented in similar fashion to mammary gland bovine-associated mucoprotein when incorporation of carbon-14 was used as the marker, but it displayed greater heterogeneity when evaluated for tritium incorporation. Bovine-associated mucoprotein in the lung and spleen incorporated relatively less carbohydrate than that synthesized by mammary tissue. These findings support the concept of intertissue heterogeneity, which had been suggested by previous studies.

  11. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles...... that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring, where the two or more genetic marker alleles are single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from Hapmap60827-rs29019866, ARS-BFGL-NGS-40979, Hapmap47854-BTA-119090, ARS-BFGL-NGS-114679, Hapmap43841-BTA-34601, Hapmap43407...

  12. Determining bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infections in dairy cattle using precolostral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Paul; Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if precolostral blood samples are useful to detect apparent fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) viruses. A convenience sample of 317 sera from 50 Canadian herds was used in the study. Antibody level was measured using 2 commercial IBR and BVD ELISA kits. Precolostral status of sera was confirmed on 304 samples using serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Postcolostral serum samples yielded a higher proportion of positive results to IBR (OR = 86; 95% CI: 17.8 to 415.7) and BVD (OR = 199.3; 95% CI: 41.7 to 952.3) than did precolostral samples. All positive precolostral serum samples (n = 7 of 304) originated from calves born to vaccinated cows. Postcolostral positive serum samples (n = 11 of 13) originated mostly (60%) from calves born to non-vaccinated cows. Precolostral serum sampling can detect apparent fetal infections in a herd.

  13. [In vitro study of the interactions between bovine herpesvirus 4 and the bovine host cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplasschen, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was devoted to the study of the interactions between bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) and bovine cells in vitro. It led to the discovery of two interesting properties of BVH-4 replication cycle: first, the cellular receptor heparan sulfate was proven to mediate BVH-4 binding to target cells. This is the first description of the implication of heparan sulfate in the binding process of a gammaherpesvirus. Second, using synchronised cells, the replication of BVH-4 DNA was proven to be dependent on the S phase of the cell cycle. This dependence could explain some properties of BVH-4 infection in vitro and could play an important role in the biology of the infection in vivo. Finally, in order to produce monoclonal antibodies against BVH-4 IE1 and IE2 proteins, the genes coding for these proteins were cloned and expressed in prokaryotic cells.

  14. Prototheca zopfii isolated from bovine mastitis induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yanan; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Deng, Youtian; Sabir, Naveed; Su, Jingliang; Han, Bo

    2017-05-09

    Bovine protothecal mastitis results in considerable economic losses worldwide. However, Prototheca zopfii induced morphological alterations and oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is not comprehensively studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this current study was to investigate the P. zopfii induced pathomorphological changes, oxidative stress and apoptosis in bMECs. Oxidative stress was assessed by evaluating catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, while ROS generation and apoptosis was measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results revealed that infection of P. zopfii genotype II (GTII) significantly changed bMECs morphology, increased apoptotic rate and MDA contents at 12 h (p effects in bMECs, and the findings of this study concluded that GTII induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in bMECs via the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant defenses as well as the production of intracellular ROS.

  15. Epidemiology, pathology, immunology and diagnosis of bovine farcy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mohamed E

    2012-06-01

    Bovine farcy (which is caused by Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense) is a chronic suppurative granulomatous inflammation of the skin and lymphatics of cattle and is seen mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is not yet certain whether Nocardia farcinica causes cutaneous nocardiosis (farcy) in animals that mimics bovine farcy. Epidemiological data have steadily reported finding bovine farcy in adult cattle of the transhumance pastoralist tribes of the Sahel and the Sudanian savannah zones. M. farcinogenes and or M. senegalense do not affect other domestic or non-domestic animals; it is not known whether these bacteria are zoonotic. The disease--once widespread in many regions--has disappeared from some countries historically known to have it. Reports of bovine farcy prevalence seem to be linked to the existence of survey initiatives by governments and diagnostic capabilities in each country. Farcy causes economic loss due to damaged hides and also is a public-health burden (because the lymphadenitis due to farcy resembles the lesions of bovine tuberculosis in carcasses and the meat is considered inappropriate for human consumption). The current literature is deficient in establishing definitely the prevalence, transmission patterns, and risk factors of bovine farcy. Ixodid ticks transmit other skin diseases (such as dermatophilosis) and might play a role in bovine farcy (given the similarity in the bio-physiology and geographic distribution of the disease). In addition, the tick-resistance of cattle breeds such as the N'Dama, Fulani or the Nilotic might explain their resistance to bovine farcy. Apart from the judicious use of conventional smear-and-culture methods, few diagnostic tests have been developed; the molecular and serological tests have not been evaluated for reproducibility and accuracy. This review points out aspects of bovine farcy that need further research and updates available data on the prevalence, distribution, risk factors

  16. Fixation of Soil Using PEC and Separation of Fixed Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) is the most apprehensive element due to its long half-lives, high solubility in water, and strong radiation emission in the form of gamma rays. Because the radioactivity is localized within topsoil, soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and form the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of anion and cation in an aqueous solution. polyelectrolyte complex can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached about 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. However it has a problem that the removed soil must separate soil and polymer to treat as the waste. In this study, the fixation of soil by polyelectrolyte complex to suppress the spread of contaminant and the separation method of soil and polymer was investigated. The properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by polyelectrolyte complex were investigated. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  17. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and

  18. Induction of immune tolerance to FIX following muscular AAV gene transfer is AAV-dose/FIX-level dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Meagan E; Zhuo, Jiacai; Bharadwaj, Arpita S; Chao, Hengjun

    2009-05-01

    Direct intramuscular injection (IM) of adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been proven a safe and potentially efficient procedure for gene therapy of many genetic diseases including hemophilia B. It is, however, contentious whether high antigen level induces tolerance or immunity to coagulation factor IX (FIX) following IM of AAV. We recently reported induction of FIX-specific immune tolerance by IM of AAV serotype one (AAV1) vector in mice. We hypothesize that the expression of high levels of FIX is critical to induction of FIX tolerance. In this study, we investigated the correlation among AAV dose, FIX expression, and tolerance induction. We observed that induction of immune tolerance or immunity to FIX was dependent on the dose of AAV1-human FIX (hFIX) given and the level of FIX antigen expressed in both normal and hemophilia mice. We then defined the minimum AAV1-hFIX dose and the lowest level of FIX needed for FIX tolerance. Different from hepatic AAV-hFIX gene transfer, we found that FIX tolerance induced by IM of AAV1 was not driven by regulatory T cells. These results provided further insight into the mechanism(s) of FIX tolerance, contributing to development of hemophilia gene therapy, and optimization of FIX tolerance induction protocols.

  19. Detection of bovine herpesvirus type 4 antibodies and bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus in New Zealand dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, M W; Zheng, T; Buddle, B M; McDougall, S

    2014-11-01

    To detect the presence of bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) type 4 in New Zealand dairy cows with clinical metritis. Serum samples taken from 92 dairy cows with clinical metritis, each from a different farm, were tested for the presence of antibodies against BoHV-4 using a commercially available, indirect ELISA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 10 BoHV-4 seropositive cows, and PBMC were examined by a pan-herpesvirus nested PCR to detect herpesvirus. PCR products were sequenced directly and a proportion of the PCR products were cloned and sequenced to identify the virus present. Antibodies to BoHV-4 were detected in 23/92 (25%) serum samples. The pan-herpesvirus PCR was positive in 8/10 PBMC samples. Cloning and sequencing identified that all of the eight PCR-positive PBMC contained bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus (BLHV); no BoHV-4 DNA was detected. This study reports the finding of the presence of apparent antibodies to BoHV-4, and BLHV DNA in New Zealand dairy cows affected by metritis. Bovine herpesvirus type 4 and BLHV are reported to have the potential to cause reproduction failure in cows. This is the first report of apparent BoHV-4 antibodies, and BLHV in New Zealand. The importance and epidemiology of these viruses in cattle in New Zealand requires further investigation.

  20. Bovine papillomavirus DNA in milk, blood, urine, semen, and spermatozoa of bovine papillomavirus-infected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C L; Almeida, M E; Vicari, C F; Carvalho, C; Yaguiu, A; Freitas, A C; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2009-01-01

    Papillomavirus infection in bovines is associated with cutaneous papillomatosis on the hide, udders and other epithelial tissues, as well as in oral respiratory, alimentary and urinary tract mucosa. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is also considered the etiological agent of esophageal tumors and the malignant bladder tumors that characterize the clinical condition associated with chronic enzootic hematuria. After infective viral DNA was found in cattle blood and BPV1, 2 and 4 DNA in cattle reproductive and embryonic tissues, we looked for and found BPV DNA in blood, milk, urine, seminal fluid, and spermatozoa of BPV-infected animals. Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from BPV-infected animals had high rates of chromosome aberrations, including radial rearrangements that signal oncogenic potential and viral interaction with telomeric regions. The finding of BPV DNA in body fluids and tissues other than the epithelium demonstrates co-infection of other tissues or cell types by papillomavirus and shows the potential role of lymphocytes, seminal fluid and spermatozoa in BPV transmission. Our findings reinforce a peremptory need for prophylactic and therapeutic instruments to curtail this disease in bovine livestock.

  1. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  2. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...... and characteristic amyloid X-ray fiber diffraction peaks. Fibrillation occurs over minutes to hours without a lag phase, is independent of seeding and shows only moderate concentration dependence, suggesting intramolecular aggregation nuclei. Nevertheless, multi-exponential increases in dye-binding signal...... and changes in morphology suggest the existence of different aggregate species. Although beta-sheet content increases from 0 to ca. 40% upon aggregation, the aggregates retain significant amounts of alpha-helix structure, and lack a protease-resistant core. Thus BSA is able to form well-ordered beta...

  3. Diagnosis and Control of Bovine Neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Milton M

    2016-07-01

    Neosporosis is one of the most common and widespread causes of bovine abortion. The causative parasite is transmitted in at least two ways, horizontally from canids, and by endogenous transmission within maternal lines of infected cattle. The prevalence of neosporosis is higher in the dairy industry than in the beef industry because of risk factors associated with intensive feeding. There are no vaccines, but logical management options are discussed that can lower the risk of abortion outbreaks and gradually reduce the prevalence of infection within herds. Steps should be taken to prevent total mixed rations from becoming contaminated by canine feces. If a herd has a high rate of infection that is associated with abortions in heifers, then the rate of reduction of infection prevalence can be speeded by only selecting seronegative replacement heifers to enter the breeding herd. Elimination of all infected cattle is not a recommended goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...

  5. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  6. Paternally inherited markers in bovine hybrid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaar, E L C; Vervaecke, H; Roden, C; Romero Mendoza, L; Barwegen, M W; Susilawati, T; Nijman, I J; Lenstra, J A

    2003-12-01

    The genetic integrity of crossfertile bovine- or cattle-like species may be endangered by species hybridization. Previously, amplified fragment length polymorphism, satellite fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite assays have been used to analyze the species composition of nuclear DNA in taurine cattle, zebu, banteng and bison populations, while mitochondrial DNA reveals the origin of the maternal lineages. Here, we describe species-specific markers of the paternally transmitted Y-chromosome for the direct detection of male-mediated introgression. Convenient PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and competitive PCR assays are shown to differentiate the Y-chromosomes of taurine cattle, American bison and European bison, and to detect the banteng origin of Indonesian Madura and Bali cattle bulls.

  7. Field Surgical Intervention of Bovine Actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq*, A. Qayyum, H. A. Samad, H. R. Chaudhry and N. Ahmad1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis, or lumpy jaw, is an important cause of economic losses in livestock because of its widespread occurrence and poor response to the routine clinical treatment. The present study describes a typical case of bovine actinomycosis in a seven-month pregnant Sahiwal heifer with a hard swelling on the middle of the maxilla bone at the level of the central molar teeth. Tentative diagnosis was made through clinical signs. After maturation of the swelling, the area was incised under local anesthesia and debridement of the wound was achieved by sharp surgical debridement and mechanical debridement. Pus, having the appearance of sulphur granules, was completely removed from the excised cavity, which was closed by applying mattress sutures. Adjunct therapy of broad-spectrum antibiotic was administered intramuscularly for five days as a post-operative measure. Catamnesis revealed that the healing was complete in 15 days with no recurrence and untoward consequences.

  8. Comparing the content of lipids derived from the eye lenses of various species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panz, Tomasz; Lepiarczyk, Magdalena; Zuber, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The lipid content in the eye lens was analyzed and compared among various species in this study. The eye lens lipids of the following species were investigated: cow, horse, duck, and freshwater trout. Additionally, the lipids derived from cataractous bovine lens and from cataractous human eye lens lipoprotein complexes were analyzed. The following lipid classes were detected in clear lenses: cholesterol, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyletanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. In cataractous bovine lens and in lipoprotein complexes from human nuclear cataract, phosphatidyloinositol and phosphatidyloglycerol were detected. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin, essential for hypothetical formation of cholesterol-rich domains, were the most abundant lipids in the lenses of all investigated species. These two components of eye lens lipid fraction were analyzed quantitatively using thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric assay; the other lipids were identified qualitatively using thin layer chromatography.

  9. Comparing the content of lipids derived from the eye lenses of various species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lepiarczyk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The lipid content in the eye lens was analyzed and compared among various species in this study. The eye lens lipids of the following species were investigated: cow, horse, duck, and freshwater trout. Additionally, the lipids derived from cataractous bovine lens and from cataractous human eye lens lipoprotein complexes were analyzed. The following lipid classes were detected in clear lenses: cholesterol, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyletanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. In cataractous bovine lens and in lipoprotein complexes from human nuclear cataract, phosphatidyloinositol and phosphatidyloglycerol were detected. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin, essential for hypothetical formation of cholesterol-rich domains, were the most abundant lipids in the lenses of all investigated species. These two components of eye lens lipid fraction were analyzed quantitatively using thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric assay; the other lipids were identified qualitatively using thin layer chromatography. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 425–430

  10. Panfungal Polymerase Chain Reaction for Identification of Fungal Pathogens in Formalin-Fixed Animal Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Edwards, Erin E; Older, Caitlin E; Branco, Mackenzie; Bryan, Laura K; Lawhon, Sara D; Suchodolski, Jan S; Gomez, Gabriel; Mansell, Joanne; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Identification of fungal organisms often poses a problem for pathologists because the histomorphology of some fungal organisms is not specific, fresh tissues may not be available, and isolation and identification in culture may take a long time. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify fungal organisms from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded curls were tested from 128 blocks containing canine, feline, equine, and bovine tissues with cutaneous, nasal, pulmonary, and systemic fungal infections, identified by the presence of fungi in histologic sections. Quantitative scoring of histologic sections identified rare (11.9%), occasional (17.5%), moderate (17.5%), or abundant (53.1%) fungal organisms. DNA was isolated from FFPE tissues and PCR was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) region, a segment of noncoding DNA found in all eukaryotes. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and identified at ≥97% identity match using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool and the NCBI database of ITS sequences. Of the 128 blocks, 117 (91.4%) yielded PCR products and high-quality sequences were derived from 89 (69.5%). Sequence and histologic identifications matched in 79 blocks (61.7%). This assay was capable of providing genus- and species-level identification when histopathology could not and, thus, is a beneficial complementary tool for diagnosis of fungal diseases.

  11. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of bovine myelin basic protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitz, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the CNS myelin sheath the nonenzymatic glycosylation reaction (at the early stage of the Amadori product) occurs only with the myelin basic protein and not with the other myelin proteins. This was observed in isolated bovine myelin by in vitro incubation with (/sup 14/C)-galactose and (/sup 14/C)-glucose. The respective in-vitro incorporation rates for purified bovine myelin basic protein with D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose were 7.2, 2.4 and 2.4 mmoles/mole myelin basic protein per day at 37/sup 0/C. A more rapid, HPLC method was devised and characterized to specifically analyze for the Amadori product. The HPLC method was correlated to the (/sup 14/C)-sugar incorporation method for myelin basic protein under a set of standard reaction conditions using (/sup 14/C)-glucose and (/sup 14/C)-mannose with HPLC values at 1/6 and 1/5 of the (/sup 14/C)-sugar incorporation method. A novel myelin basic protein purification step has been developed that yields a relativity proteolytic free preparation that is easy to work with, being totally soluble at a neutral pH. Nine new spots appear for a trypsinized glycosylated MBP in the paper peptide map of which eight correspond to positions of the (/sup 3/H)-labeled Amadori product in affinity isolated peptides. These studies provide a general characterization of and a structural basis for investigations on nonenzymatically glycosylated MBP as well as identifying MBP as the only nonenzymatically glycosylated protein in the CNS myelin sheath which may accumulate during aging, diabetes, and demyelinating diseases in general.

  12. Zhang functions and various models

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunong

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on solving different types of time-varying problems. It presents various Zhang dynamics (ZD) models by defining various Zhang functions (ZFs) in real and complex domains. It then provides theoretical analyses of such ZD models and illustrates their results. It also uses simulations to substantiate their efficacy and show the feasibility of the presented ZD approach (i.e., different ZFs leading to different ZD models), which is further applied to the repetitive motion planning (RMP) of redundant robots, showing its application potential.

  13. Duan's fixed point theorem: proof and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, f:X→X any map and p k :X→X the k th power map. Duan proved that p k f :X→X has a fixed point if k≥2 . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces X whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a θ -structure μ θ :X→X as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that μ θ f and f μ θ each has a fixed point.

  14. An Extension of Gregus Fixed Point Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Olaleru

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Let C be a closed convex subset of a complete metrizable topological vector space (X,d and T:C→C a mapping that satisfies d(Tx,Ty≤ad(x,y+bd(x,Tx+cd(y,Ty+ed(y,Tx+fd(x,Ty for all x,y∈C, where 0fixed point. The above theorem, which is a generalization and an extension of the results of several authors, is proved in this paper. In addition, we use the Mann iteration to approximate the fixed point of T.

  15. Tranexamic acid-induced fixed drug eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Matsumura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old male showed multiple pigmented patches on his trunk and extremities after he took tranexamic acid for common cold. He stated that similar eruptions appeared when he was treated with tranexamic acid for influenza 10 months before. Patch test showed positive results at 48 h and 72 h by 1% and 10% tranexamic acid at the lesional skin only. To our knowledge, nine cases of fixed drug eruption induced by tranexamic acid have been reported in Japan. Tranexamic acid is a safe drug and frequently used because of its anti-fibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory effects, but caution of inducing fixed drug eruption should be necessary.

  16. Fixed-rate layered multicast congestion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Zhang; Bing, Yuan; Zengji, Liu

    2006-10-01

    A new fixed-rate layered multicast congestion control algorithm called FLMCC is proposed. The sender of a multicast session transmits data packets at a fixed rate on each layer, while receivers each obtain different throughput by cumulatively subscribing to deferent number of layers based on their expected rates. In order to provide TCP-friendliness and estimate the expected rate accurately, a window-based mechanism implemented at receivers is presented. To achieve this, each receiver maintains a congestion window, adjusts it based on the GAIMD algorithm, and from the congestion window an expected rate is calculated. To measure RTT, a new method is presented which combines an accurate measurement with a rough estimation. A feedback suppression based on a random timer mechanism is given to avoid feedback implosion in the accurate measurement. The protocol is simple in its implementation. Simulations indicate that FLMCC shows good TCP-friendliness, responsiveness as well as intra-protocol fairness, and provides high link utilization.

  17. Fixed point of the parabolic renormalization operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lanford III, Oscar E

    2014-01-01

    This monograph grew out of the authors' efforts to provide a natural geometric description for the class of maps invariant under parabolic renormalization and for the Inou-Shishikura fixed point itself as well as to carry out a computer-assisted study of the parabolic renormalization operator. It introduces a renormalization-invariant class of analytic maps with a maximal domain of analyticity and rigid covering properties and presents a numerical scheme for computing parabolic renormalization of a germ, which is used to compute the Inou-Shishikura renormalization fixed point.   Inside, readers will find a detailed introduction into the theory of parabolic bifurcation,  Fatou coordinates, Écalle-Voronin conjugacy invariants of parabolic germs, and the definition and basic properties of parabolic renormalization.   The systematic view of parabolic renormalization developed in the book and the numerical approach to its study will be interesting to both experts in the field as well as graduate students wishi...

  18. Revisiting Blasius Flow by Fixed Point Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known Blasius flow is governed by a third-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with two-point boundary value. Specially, one of the boundary conditions is asymptotically assigned on the first derivative at infinity, which is the main challenge on handling this problem. Through introducing two transformations not only for independent variable bur also for function, the difficulty originated from the semi-infinite interval and asymptotic boundary condition is overcome. The deduced nonlinear differential equation is subsequently investigated with the fixed point method, so the original complex nonlinear equation is replaced by a series of integrable linear equations. Meanwhile, in order to improve the convergence and stability of iteration procedure, a sequence of relaxation factors is introduced in the framework of fixed point method and determined by the steepest descent seeking algorithm in a convenient manner.

  19. Fixed Wordsize Implementation of Lifting Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Karp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a reversible nonlinear discrete wavelet transform with predefined fixed wordsize based on lifting schemes. Restricting the dynamic range of the wavelet domain coefficients due to a fixed wordsize may result in overflow. We show how this overflow has to be handled in order to maintain reversibility of the transform. We also perform an analysis on how large a wordsize of the wavelet coefficients is needed to perform optimal lossless and lossy compressions of images. The scheme is advantageous to well-known integer-to-integer transforms since the wordsize of adders and multipliers can be predefined and does not increase steadily. This also results in significant gains in hardware implementations.

  20. Low Actuation Voltage RF MEMS Switch Using Varying Section Composite Fixed-Fixed Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manivannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present authors have earlier reported the employment of varying section fixed-fixed beam for achieving lower pull-in voltage with marginal fall in restoring force. Reducing Young’s modulus also reduces the pull-in voltage but with lesser degree of reduction in restoring force. Composite beams are ideal alternatives to achieve decreased Young’s modulus. Hence new varying section composite fixed-fixed beam type RF MEMS switch has been proposed. The main advantage of this RF MEMS switch is that lower pull-in voltages can be achieved with marginal fall in stiction immunity. Spring constant of the proposed switch has been obtained using simulation studies and it has been shown that the spring constant and therefore the pull-in voltage (Vpi can be considerably reduced with the proposed switch. Simulation studies conducted on the proposed switch clearly demonstrate that the pull-in voltage can be reduced by 31.17% when compared to the varying section monolayer polysilicon fixed-fixed beam. Further this approach enables the designer to have more freedom to design lower pull-in voltage switches with improved stiction immunity.

  1. IFN-τ Mediated Control of Bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Expression and Function via the Regulation of bta-miR-148b/152 in Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichong Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IFN-τ, a type I interferon produced by the trophoblasts of ruminants, has various important immune functions, including effects on the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I (MHC-I. A previous study has reported that IFN-τ promotes the expression of MHC-I molecules on endometrial cells. However, the immunological mechanisms by which IFN-τ regulates MHC-I molecules remain unknown. Here, we investigated which microRNA (miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of MHC-I molecule expression and function in bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEECs. By using TargetScan 6.2 and http://www.microRNA.org, two miRNAs were suggested to target the 3′UTR of the bovine MHC-I heavy chain: bta-miR-148b and bta-miR-152. Dual luciferase reporter and miRNA mimic/inhibitor assays suggested that bta-miR-148b/152 were negatively correlated with bovine MHC-I heavy chain genes. The function of the MHC-I heavy chain was then investigated using qRT-PCR, ELISA, western blotting, immunofluorescence, and RNA interference assays in primary bEECs and an endometrial epithelial cell line (BEND. The results demonstrated that bta-miR-148b/152 could promote TLR4-triggered inflammatory responses by targeting the bovine MHC-I heavy chain, and the MHC-I molecule negatively regulated TLR4-induced inflammatory reactions may through the Fps-SHP-2 pathway. Our discovery offers novel insight into negative regulation of the TLR4 pathway and elucidates the mechanism by which bovine MHC-I molecules control congenital inflammatory reactions.

  2. Decomposing graphs into paths of fixed length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Barát and Thomassen have conjectured that, for any fixed tree T, there exists a natural number k T such that the following holds: If G is a k T -edge-connected graph such that |E(T)| divides |E(G)|, then G has a T-decomposition. The conjecture is trivial when T has one or two edges. Before submis...

  3. Colligative properties of solutions: I. Fixed concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Kenneth; Biskup, Marek; Chayes, Lincoln

    2004-01-01

    Using the formalism of rigorous statistical mechanics, we study the phenomena of phase separation and freezing-point depression upon freezing of solutions. Specifically, we devise an Ising-based model of a solvent-solute system and show that, in the ensemble with a fixed amount of solute, a macroscopic phase separation occurs in an interval of values of the chemical potential of the solvent. The boundaries of the phase separation domain in the phase diagram are characterized and shown to asym...

  4. Impulsive differential inclusions a fixed point approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ouahab, Abdelghani; Henderson, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations have been developed in modeling impulsive problems in physics, population dynamics, ecology, biotechnology, industrial robotics, pharmacokinetics, optimal control, etc. The questions of existence and stability of solutions for different classes of initial values problems for impulsive differential equations and inclusions with fixed and variable moments are considered in detail. Attention is also given to boundary value problems and relative questions concerning differential equations. This monograph addresses a variety of side issues that arise from its simple

  5. Optimal investment with fixed refinancing costs

    OpenAIRE

    Jason G. Cummins; Ingmar Nyman

    2001-01-01

    Case studies show that corporate managers seek financial independence to avoid interference by outside financiers. We incorporate this financial xenophobia as a fixed cost in a simple dynamic model of financing and investment. To avoid refinancing in the future, the firm alters its behavior depending on the extent of its financial xenophobia and the realization of a revenue shock. With a sufficiently adverse shock, the firm holds no liquidity. Otherwise, the firm precautionarily saves and hol...

  6. Magnetic Fixed Points and Emergent Supersymmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    these there are stable supersymmetric ones emerging from a generic nonsupersymmetric renormalization group flow once the mass operators have been properly subtracted away. We therefore conclude that four dimensional supersymmetry can emerge as a fixed point theory from a nonsupersymmetric Lagrangian. Our results suggest...... that supersymmetry can be viewed as an emergent phenomenon in four dimensional field theory complementing recent discoveries in lower number of dimensions [4, 5]....

  7. Nitrogen Fixing Legumes in the Plant Communities

    OpenAIRE

    M. A.A. Al-Fredan

    2011-01-01

    Problems statement: Numerous authors have used energetic to explain the ecological success of N-fixing plants. Legume biodiversity assessment, species dynamics, nitrogen fixation monitoring and environment impact assessment of these ecological events in Al-Hassa Oasis, Saudi Arabia are rare and need to be continuous and more frequent. Approach: Thus the objectives of this study were to analyze legume abundance within and outside Al-Hassa Oasis and relate it to the dis...

  8. Solar tracker motor having a fixed caliper and a translating caliper each with an electromagnetic brake system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Scott James

    2013-01-29

    Concepts and technologies described herein provide for an accurate and cost-effective method for rotating a solar array disk for tracking the movement of the sun. According to various aspects, a motor includes a fixed caliper and a translating caliper positioned adjacent to one another. Electromagnetically controlled brakes on the translating caliper grip the solar array disk while adjacent, but spaced apart, electromagnets on the fixed caliper and the translating caliper are energized to create an attractive force that pulls the translating caliper with the solar array disk toward the fixed caliper. After reaching the fixed caliper, brakes on the fixed caliper are engaged with the disk, brakes on the translating caliper are released from the disk, and the translating caliper is pushed back to the starting location where the process repeats until the desired rotation is completed.

  9. Fixed point theory in distance spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, William

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on fixed point theory, covering the purely metric aspects of the theory–particularly results that do not depend on any algebraic structure of the underlying space. Traditionally, a large body of metric fixed point theory has been couched in a functional analytic framework. This aspect of the theory has been written about extensively. There are four classical fixed point theorems against which metric extensions are usually checked. These are, respectively, the Banach contraction mapping principal, Nadler’s well known set-valued extension of that theorem, the extension of Banach’s theorem to nonexpansive mappings, and Caristi’s theorem. These comparisons form a significant component of this book. This book is divided into three parts. Part I contains some aspects of the purely metric theory, especially Caristi’s theorem and a few of its many extensions. There is also a discussion of nonexpansive mappings, viewed in the context of logical foundations. Part I also contains certain re...

  10. Fixed points and FLRW cosmologies: Flat case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel

    2013-05-01

    We use a phase space approach to study possible consequences of fixed points in a single fluid flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) models with pressure p(H), where H is the Hubble parameter. One of these consequences is that a fluid with a differentiable pressure, i.e., a finite adiabatic speed of sound, reaches a fixed point in an infinite time and has no finite-time singularities of types I, II, and III described by Nojiri, Odintsov, and Tsujikawa [Phys. Rev. D 71, 063004 (2005)]. It is impossible for such a fluid to cross the phantom divide in a finite time. We show that a divergent dp/dH, or the speed of sound, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for phantom crossing. We use pressure properties, such as asymptotic behavior and fixed points, to qualitatively describe the entire behavior of a solution in flat FLRW models. We discuss FLRW models with bulk viscosity η˜ρr, in particular, solutions for r=1 and r=1/4 cases, which can be expressed in terms of the Lambert-W function. The last solution behaves as either a nonsingular phantom fluid or a unified dark fluid. Using causality and stability constraints, we show that the universe must end as a de Sitter space. Relaxing the stability constraint leads to a de Sitter universe, an empty universe, or a turnaround solution that reaches a maximum size and then recollapses.

  11. Zirconia in fixed prosthesis. A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Solá-Ruíz, María F.; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Statement of problem: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. Objective: To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. Material and Methods: This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words “zirconium oxide,” “zirconia,” “non-metal restorations,” “ceramic oxides,” “veneering ceramic,” “zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses”. Both in vivo and in vitro studies into zirconia-based prosthodontic restoration behavior were included. Results: Clinical studies have revealed a high rate of fracture for porcelain-veneered zirconia-based restorations that varies between 6% and 15% over a 3- to 5-year period, while for ceramo-metallic restorations the fracture rate ranges between 4 and 10% over ten years. These results provoke uncertainty as to the long-term prognosis for this material in the oral medium. The cause of veneering porcelain fractures is unknown but hypothetically they could be associated with bond failure between the veneer material and the zirconia sub-structure. Key words:Veneering ceramic, zirconia-based ceramic restoration, crown, zirconia, tooth-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:24596638

  12. for Fixed Offshore Platforms in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawekal Ricky L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In RBUI method, platform with higher risk level will need inspection done more intensively than those with lower risk level. However, the probability of failure (PoF evaluation in RBUI method is usually carried out in semi quantitative way by comparing failure parameters associated with the same damage mechanism between a group of platforms located in the same area. Therefore, RBUI will not be effective for platforms spread in distant areas where failure parameter associated with the same damage mechanism may not be the same. The existing standard, American Petroleum Institute, Recommended Practice for Structural Integrity Management of Fixed Offshore Structures (API RP-2SIM, is limited on the general instructions in determining the risk value of a platform, yet it does not provide a detail instruction on how determining the Probability of Failure (PoF of platform. In this paper, the PoF is determined quantitatively by calculating structural reliability index based on structural collapse failure mode, thus the method in determining the inspection schedule is called Risk-Reliability Based Underwater Inspection (RReBUI. Models of 3-legs jacket fixed offshore platform in Java Sea and 4-legs jacket fixed offshore platform in Natuna Sea are used to study the implementation of RReBUI.

  13. Cellular and exosome mediated molecular defense mechanism in bovine granulosa cells exposed to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed-Zidane, Mohammed; Linden, Lea; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Held, Eva; Neuhoff, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2017-01-01

    Various environmental insults including diseases, heat and oxidative stress could lead to abnormal growth, functions and apoptosis in granulosa cells during ovarian follicle growth and oocyte maturation. Despite the fact that cells exposed to oxidative stress are responding transcriptionally, the potential release of transcripts associated with oxidative stress response into extracellular space through exosomes is not yet determined. Therefore, here we aimed to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in bovine granulosa cells in vitro on the cellular and exosome mediated defense mechanisms. Bovine granulosa cells were aspirated from ovarian follicles and cultured in DMEM/F-12 Ham culture medium supplemented with 10% exosome-depleted fetal bovine serum. In the first experiment sub-confluent cells were treated with 5 μM H2O2 for 40 min to induce oxidative stress. Thereafter, cells were subjected to ROS and mitochondrial staining, cell proliferation and cell cycle assays. Furthermore, gene and protein expression analysis were performed in H2O2-challenged versus control group 24 hr post-treatment using qRT-PCR and immune blotting or immunocytochemistry assay, respectively. Moreover, exosomes were isolated from spent media using ultracentrifugation procedure, and subsequently used for RNA isolation and qRT-PCR. In the second experiment, exosomes released by granulosa cells under oxidative stress (StressExo) or those released by granulosa cells without oxidative stress (NormalExo) were co-incubated with bovine granulosa cells in vitro to proof the potential horizontal transfer of defense molecules from exosomes to granulosa cells and investigate any phenotype changes. Exposure of bovine granulosa cells to H2O2 induced the accumulation of ROS, reduced mitochondrial activity, increased expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant genes (both mRNA and protein), altered the cell cycle transitions and induced cellular apoptosis. Granulosa cells exposed to oxidative

  14. Nanoparticle diffusion in, and microrheology of, the bovine vitreous ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingguo; Boylan, Nicholas J.; Suk, Jung Soo; Wang, Ying-Ying; Nance, Elizabeth; Yang, Jeh-Chang; McDonnell, Peter; Cone, Richard; Duh, Elia J.; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Intravitreal injection of biodegradable nanoparticles (NP) holds promise for gene therapy and drug delivery to the back of the eye. In some cases, including gene therapy, NP need to diffuse rapidly from the site of injection in order to reach targeted cell types in the back of the eye, whereas in other cases it may be preferred for the particles to remain at the injection site and slowly release drugs that may then diffuse to the site of action. We studied the movements of polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles of various sizes and surface chemistries in fresh bovine vitreous. PS NP as large as 510 nm rapidly penetrated the vitreous gel when coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), whereas the movements of NP 1190 nm in diameter or larger were highly restricted regardless of surface chemistry owing to steric obstruction. PS NP coated with primary amine groups (–NH2) possessed positively charged surfaces at the pH of bovine vitreous (pH = 7.2), and were immobilized within the vitreous gel. In comparison, PS NP coated with –COOH (possessing negatively charged surfaces) in the size range of 100–200 nm and at particle concentrations below 0.0025% (w/v) readily diffused through the vitreous meshwork; at higher concentrations (~0.1% w/v), these nanoparticles aggregated within vitreous. Based on the mobility of different sized PS-PEG NP, we estimated the average mesh size of fresh bovine vitreous to be ~550 ± 50 nm. The bovine vitreous behaved as an impermeable elastic barrier to objects sized 1190 nm and larger, but as a highly permeable viscoelastic liquid to non-adhesive objects smaller than 510 nm in diameter. Guided by these studies, we next sought to examine the transport of drug- and DNA-loaded nanoparticles in bovine vitreous. Biodegradable NP with diameter of 227 nm, composed of a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based core coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) rapidly penetrated vitreous. Rod-shaped, highly-compacted CK30PEG10k/DNA with PEG coating (neutral surface

  15. Fixed point theory for multivalued φ-contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazăr Vasile

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this paper is to present a fixed point theory for multivalued φ-contractions using the following concepts: fixed points, strict fixed points, periodic points, strict periodic points, multivalued Picard and weakly Picard operators; data dependence of the fixed point set, sequence of multivalued operators and fixed points, Ulam-Hyers stability of a multivalued fixed point equation, well-posedness of the fixed point problem, limit shadowing property of a multivalued operator, set-to-set operatorial equations and fractal operators. Our results generalize some recent theorems given in Petruşel and Rus (The theory of a metric fixed point theorem for multivalued operators, Proc. Ninth International Conference on Fixed Point Theory and its Applications, Changhua, Taiwan, July 16-22, 2009, 161-175, 2010. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification 47H10; 54H25; 47H04; 47H14; 37C50; 37C70

  16. The super fixed target beauty facility at the SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anassontzis, S. E.; Angelov, N. S.; Antoniazzi, L.; Arenton, M.; Asmolov, A. G.; Avignone, F.; Bagdasarov, S. L.; Ballagh, H. C.; Bingham, H.; Block, M.; Boca, G.; Boden, A.; Borodin, S. V.; Brashear, H.; Budagov, J. A.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cao, Z. L.; Carrigan, R.; Chen, T. Y.; Chernov, N. I.; Childers, R.; Chirikov-Zorin, I. E.; Chlachidze, G. A.; Christian, D.; Churin, I. N.; Clark, K.; Cline, D.; Conetti, S.; Cooper, M.; Corti, G.; Cox, B.; Creti, P.; Darden, C.; Davidov, J. I.; Djincharadze, D. Q.; Dodohov, V. H.; Dukes, C.; Dvornik, A. M.; Ellison, J.; Ericison, N.; Erwin, A.; Filippov, A. T.; Flyagin, V. B.; Fortney, L.; Gabriel, T.; Glagolev, V. V.; Gorini, E.; Gotra, Y. N.; Gororkov, B.; Graucagnolo, F.; Grebeniuk, V. M.; Haire, M.; He, M.; Introzzi, G.; Ioannu, P.; Ivanov, V. V.; Jenkins, M.; Kalkanis, G.; Kaplan, D.; Katsenevas, S.; Khachaturov, B. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Khazins, D. M.; Kladiva, E.; Kononenko, W.; Korenchenko, S. M.; Kourkounelis, C.; Kowald, W.; Kurilin, A. S.; Kuzminski, K.; Lau, K.; Liguori, G.; Litov, L.; Lys, J.; Maksimenko, N. V.; Maliukov, S. N.; Manousakis-Kaftsikakis, A.; Masur, P. O.; McGaughey, P. L.; McManus, A.; Merzliakov, S. I.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mo, G.; Moore, T.; Moroz, V. I.; Murphy, C. T.; Nelson, K.; Nemchik, J.; Newberger, B.; Nioradze, M. S.; Ososkov, G. A.; Palama, F.; Palamara, O.; Panareo, M.; Peggs, S.; Pistilli, P.; Pogosian, G. S.; Poroshin, N. O.; Pozdnjakov, V. N.; Premantiotis, T.; Prihod'ko, V. I.; Pruss, S.; Ratti, S.; Recagni, M.; Resvanis, L. K.; Rhoades, J.; Rumiantsev, V. S.; Russ, J.; Russakovich, N. A.; Ryzkov, V. N.; Sadovsky, A. B.; Salukvadze, Z. R.; Samsonov, V.; Sandor, L.; Selove, W.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sitar, B.; Smith, R. P.; Sokol, G.; Spentzouris, S.; Spiegel, L.; Sun, C. R.; Takhtamyshev, G. G.; Taratin, A. M.; Thomspson, M. A.; Timofeev, V. G.; Tokar, S.; Toohig, T.; Torre, P.; Trischuk, J.; Tsyganov, E. N.; Volodko, A. G.; Voulgaris, G.; Wang, C. R.; Wintenberg, A.; Wei, C.; Yao, N.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhang, N. J.; Zou, B. T.; SFT Collaboration

    1992-06-01

    The rationale for pursuing beauty physics at the SSC in a fixed target configuration is described. The increased beauty production cross section at the SSC, combined with high interaction rate capability of the proposed detector, results in 10 10-11 produced BB events per year. The long decay length of the B hadrons (≌10 cm) allows direct observation of B decays in the high resolution silicon microstrip vertex detector. To optimize the operation of the proposed beauty spectrometer and the SSC, parasitic extraction of attendant or artificially generated large amplitude protons using crystal channeling is proposed and explored. The large sample of fully reconstructed B events allows detailed studies various CP violating decays with requisite statistics to confront the standard model. The CP physics potentials of the proposed experiment is evaluated and compared with alternative approaches, such as asymmetric e +e - B Factories and specialized hadron colliders.

  17. Characterization of angiogenin receptors on bovine brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, M; Dehouck, M P; Fruchart, J C; Spik, G; Montreuil, J; Cecchelli, R

    1991-04-30

    The mitogenic effect of bovine milk angiogenin was studied on bovine brain capillary and aortic endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. The proliferation of only bovine brain capillary endothelial cells was detected at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml, with a maximum effect at 100 ng/ml. This mitogenic activity may be correlated with a specific binding of angiogenin which was demonstrated only to bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. [125I]-labeled angiogenin binding was time and concentration dependent and saturable. Scatchard analyses of binding data showed evidence of a single class of binding sites with an apparent dissociation constant of 5.10(-10)M. The molecular mass of the angiogenin receptor (49 kDa) was determined by ligand blotting.

  18. Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    2,3. , Y. Yong ... Key words: Adult, neocortex, primary culture, fraction V of bovine albumin. INTRODUCTION. Alzheimer's disease ... models to study development, aging and death (Lesuisse et al., 2002; Akasofu et al., 2006).

  19. Horosho li Iraku i Rossii vmeste? / Aleksandr Bovin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bovin, Aleksandr

    2003-01-01

    Venemaa erakorraline ja täievoliline suursaadik Iisraelis Aleksandr Bovin arvab, et Venemaa ei tohiks võtta jäika positsiooni Iraagi kaitseks USA vastu, vaid ootama kõrvalseisjana konflikti lahendust

  20. Short communication Prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo town of West Shewa Zone of ... economic implication of bovine mastitis derives from the high costs of treat- ... wot et al., 2013) and 95% statistical confidence level at 5% absolute precision.

  1. Investigation into the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors that predispose human to infection among urban dairy and non-dairy farming households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  2. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Shakespeare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  3. Isolation rates and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of bovine mastitis therapy depends on the aetiology, clinical ... Among the main reasons of low efficacy of antibiotic treatment of mastitis cases is ..... Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed, Williams and Wilkins, USA.

  4. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    The central step in cheese making is the separation of milk into curd and whey. This can be done enzymatically by hydrolysis of the Phe105-Met106 bond or nearby bonds in bovine κ-casein, which releases its hydrophilic C-terminal leading to coagulation of the milk. The preferred enzyme...... for this action is bovine chymosin from the calf's stomach, as it has a high activity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond, and a low activity towards other bonds in the milk proteins, as the latter can lead to loss of protein in the whey and release of peptides with a bitter taste. Chymosin was isolated from camel...... and characterised, and turned out to have an even higher activity and specificity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond than bovine chymosin. The sequences of bovine and camel chymosin are 85% identical, and yet they have significantly different cheese making properties. The aim of the project was to explain...

  5. Expression of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus glycoprotein D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    , immunoblotting. INTRODUCTION. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), a member of the Alphahe- rpesvirinae subfamily (Meurens et al., 2004), classified in the list B of the Office International des Epizooties. (Winkler et al., 2000), ...

  6. Studies on the interaction between triptolide and Bovine Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the interaction between triptolide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. Haidong Wang, Hailang Shi, Jie Pang, Xingfa Song, Caiyun Xu, Zengxian Sun ...

  7. On the possible involvement of bovine serum albumin precursor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biotin affinity chromatography and mass finger printing analysis technique, herein we report the identification of a 70 kDa size protein (bovine serum albumin precursor, BSAP) which binds strongly with lipoplexes and may play role in lipofection ...

  8. Prevalence and economics and bovine leukosis in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, D.K.; Beal, V.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of bovine leukosis in the US and discusses the economic significance of the disease. The term leukosis is used except when reporting the Meat Inspection Department data which used the term malignant lymphoma instead. (PCS)

  9. Bacteriological Studies of Bovine Granulomatous Lesions in Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar) in Cross River State within a 12-month study period April, 2002 – March, 2003. Mycobacteriological study of bovine granulomatous lesions obtained from these abattoirs was carried out. The diagnostic tools used for this ...

  10. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  11. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  12. Pretreatment of in vitro matured bovine oocytes with docetaxel before vitrification: Effects on cytoskeleton integrity and developmental ability after warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasombat, Jakkhaphan; Nagai, Takashi; Parnpai, Rangsun; Vongpralub, Thevin

    2015-10-01

    The stabilization of spindle fibersis important for successful vitrification of bovine oocytes because microtubules and other cytoskeleton fibers (CSF) can be damaged during vitrification, resulting in failure of fertilization after thawing. Docetaxel, a stabilizing agent, could potentially reduce CSF damage of bovine oocytes induced during vitrification. However, there have been no reports on the effects of docetaxel on their vitrification. Experiment 1 was conducted to investigate the effects of various doses of docetaxel (0.0, 0.05, 0.5, 5.0 and 50 μM) in preincubation medium of in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes on their developmental ability after in vitro fertilization (IVF). The results show that 0.05 μM docetaxel had no adverse effect on embryo development, while docetaxel at a concentration of ⩾0.5 μM inhibited development. Experiments 2 and 3 were conducted to investigate the effects of preincubation of IVM bovine oocytes with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min prior to vitrification-warming on CSF integrity (Experiment 2), and on oocyte survival and viability after IVF (Experiment 3). When preincubated with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min before vitrification, post-thawed oocytes had less CSF damage and higher survival rates compared with those untreated with docetaxel before vitrification. Surviving oocytes also had higher rates of cleavage and development to the blastocyst stage after IVF. In conclusion, preincubation of IVM bovine oocytes with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min before vitrification was effective at preventing CSF damage during vitrification, and improving oocyte viability after warming and subsequent cleavage and blastocyst formation after IVF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Video change detection for fixed wing UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelsen, Jan; Müller, Thomas; Ring, Jochen; Mück, Klaus; Brüstle, Stefan; Erdnüß, Bastian; Lutz, Bastian; Herbst, Theresa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proceed the work of Bartelsen et al.1 We present the draft of a process chain for an image based change detection which is designed for videos acquired by fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). From our point of view, automatic video change detection for aerial images can be useful to recognize functional activities which are typically caused by the deployment of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), e.g. excavations, skid marks, footprints, left-behind tooling equipment, and marker stones. Furthermore, in case of natural disasters, like flooding, imminent danger can be recognized quickly. Due to the necessary flight range, we concentrate on fixed wing UAVs. Automatic change detection can be reduced to a comparatively simple photogrammetric problem when the perspective change between the "before" and "after" image sets is kept as small as possible. Therefore, the aerial image acquisition demands a mission planning with a clear purpose including flight path and sensor configuration. While the latter can be enabled simply by a fixed and meaningful adjustment of the camera, ensuring a small perspective change for "before" and "after" videos acquired by fixed wing UAVs is a challenging problem. Concerning this matter, we have performed tests with an advanced commercial off the shelf (COTS) system which comprises a differential GPS and autopilot system estimating the repetition accuracy of its trajectory. Although several similar approaches have been presented,23 as far as we are able to judge, the limits for this important issue are not estimated so far. Furthermore, we design a process chain to enable the practical utilization of video change detection. It consists of a front-end of a database to handle large amounts of video data, an image processing and change detection implementation, and the visualization of the results. We apply our process chain on the real video data acquired by the advanced COTS fixed wing UAV and synthetic data. For the

  14. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    (nonactivated) or S phase (activated) cytoplasts. Control embryos were fixed at the two-, four-, early eight- and late eight-cell stages; nuclear transfer embryos were fixed at 1 and 3 hr post fusion and at the two-, four-, and eight-cell stages. Control embryos possessed a nucleolar precursor body throughout...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  15. Parallel fixed point implementation of a radial basis function network in an FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Alisson C D; Fernandes, Marcelo A C

    2014-09-29

    This paper proposes a parallel fixed point radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network (ANN), implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) trained online with a least mean square (LMS) algorithm. The processing time and occupied area were analyzed for various fixed point formats. The problems of precision of the ANN response for nonlinear classification using the XOR gate and interpolation using the sine function were also analyzed in a hardware implementation. The entire project was developed using the System Generator platform (Xilinx), with a Virtex-6 xc6vcx240t-1ff1156 as the target FPGA.

  16. Convexity of the Set of Fixed Points Generated by Some Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with an application of the fixed point theorem for nonexpansive mappings to a class of control systems. We study closed-loop and open-loop controllable dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations (ODEs and establish convexity of the set of trajectories. Solutions to the above ODEs are considered as fixed points of the associated system-operator. If convexity of the set of trajectories is established, this can be used to estimate and approximate the reachable set of dynamical systems under consideration. The estimations/approximations of the above type are important in various engineering applications as, for example, the verification of safety properties.

  17. Parallel Fixed Point Implementation of a Radial Basis Function Network in an FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson C. D. de Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a parallel fixed point radial basis function (RBF artificial neural network (ANN, implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA trained online with a least mean square (LMS algorithm. The processing time and occupied area were analyzed for various fixed point formats. The problems of precision of the ANN response for nonlinear classification using the XOR gate and interpolation using the sine function were also analyzed in a hardware implementation. The entire project was developed using the System Generator platform (Xilinx, with a Virtex-6 xc6vcx240t-1ff1156 as the target FPGA.

  18. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of bulk-tank milk testing for surveys to demonstrate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine enzootic leucosis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, A; Reist, M; Schwermer, H

    2012-05-01

    In Switzerland, annual surveys to substantiate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) are implemented by a random allocation of farms to the respective survey as well as blood sampling of individual animals at farm level. Contrary to many other European countries, bulk-tank milk (BTM) samples have not been used for active cattle disease surveillance for several years in Switzerland. The aim of this project was to provide a financial comparison between the current surveillance programme consisting of blood sampling only and a modified surveillance programme including BTM sampling. A financial spreadsheet model was used for cost comparison. Various surveillance scenarios were tested with different sample sizes and sampling frequencies for BTM samples. The costs could be halved without compromising the power to substantiate the freedom from IBR and EBL through the surveillance programme. Alternatively, the sensitivity could be markedly increased when keeping the costs at the actual level and doubling the sample size. The risk-based sample size of the actual programme results in a confidence of 94,18 % that the farm level prevalence is below 0,2 %. Which the doubled sample size, the confidence is 99,69 % respectively.

  20. Strain-Specific Barriers against Bovine Prions in Hamsters ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nicot, Simon; Baron, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the susceptibilities of Syrian golden hamsters to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents from cattle. We report efficient transmission of the L-type atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent into hamsters. Importantly, hamsters were also susceptible to the transmissible mink encephalopathy agent from cattle, which has molecular features similar to those of the L-type BSE agent, as also shown in bovinized transgenic mice. In sharp contrast, hamsters could no...

  1. MG-132 reduces virus release in Bovine herpesvirus-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorito, Filomena; Iovane, Valentina; Cantiello, Antonietta; Marullo, Annarosaria; Martino, Luisa De; Iovane, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) can provoke conjunctivitis, abortions and shipping fever. BoHV-1 infection can also cause immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, leading to pneumonia and occasionally to death. Herein, we investigated the influence of MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, on BoHV-1 infection in bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induces apoptotic cell death that enhances virus release. Whereas, MG-132 inhibited vir...

  2. Genetic analysis of lactoferrin content in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Arnould, Valérie; Soyeurt, Hélène; Gengler, Nicolas; Colinet, Frédéric; Georges, Marielle; Bertozzi, Carlo; Portetelle, Daniel; Renaville, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (LF) is mainly present in milk and shows important physiological and biological functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability and correlation values of LF content in bovine milk with different economic traits as milk yield (MY), fat and protein percentages, and somatic cell score (SCS). Variance components of the studied traits were estimated by REML using a multiple-trait mixed model. The obtained heritability (0.22) for LF content predicted using mid-i...

  3. Fluorine-fixing efficiency on calcium-based briquette: pilot experiment, demonstration and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiao-lan; Chen, Dong-qing; Li, Shu-min; Yue, Yin-ling; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Bing-cheng; Ying, Bo

    2010-02-05

    The fluorosis derived from coal burning is a very serious problem in China. By using fluorine-fixing technology during coal burning we are able to reduce the release of fluorides in coal at the source in order to reduce pollution to the surrounding environment by coal burning pollutants as well as decrease the intake and accumulating amounts of fluorine in the human body. The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot experiment on calcium-based fluorine-fixing material efficiency during coal burning to demonstrate and promote the technology based on laboratory research. A proper amount of calcium-based fluorine sorbent was added into high-fluorine coal to form briquettes so that the fluorine in high-fluorine coal can be fixed in coal slag and its release into atmosphere reduced. We determined figures on various components in briquettes and fluorine in coal slag as well as the concentrations of indoor air pollutants, including fluoride, sulfur dioxide and respirable particulate matter (RPM), and evaluated the fluorine-fixing efficiency of calcium-based fluorine sorbents and the levels of indoor air pollutants. Pilot experiments on fluorine-fixing efficiency during coal burning as well as its demonstration and promotion were carried out separately in Guiding and Longli Counties of Guizhou Province, two areas with coal burning fluorosis problems. If the calcium-based fluorine sorbent mixed coal was made into honeycomb briquettes the average fluorine-fixing ratio in the pilot experiment was 71.8%. If the burning calcium-based fluorine-fixing bitumite was made into a coalball, the average of fluorine-fixing ratio was 77.3%. The concentration of fluoride, sulfur dioxide and PM10 of indoor air were decreased significantly. There was a 10% increase in the cost of briquettes due to the addition of calcium-based fluorine sorbent. The preparation process of calcium-based fluorine-fixing briquette is simple yet highly flammable and it is applicable to regions with abundant

  4. The bovine paranasal sinuses: Bacterial flora, epithelial expression of nitric oxide and potential role in the in-herd persistence of respiratory disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gerard M; O'Neill, Rónan G; Lee, Alison M; McElroy, Máire C; More, Simon J; Monagle, Aisling; Earley, Bernadette; Cassidy, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    The bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. While lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. Furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. The paranasal sinuses of clinically normal cattle (n = 99) and of cattle submitted for post-mortem examination (PME: n = 34) were examined by microbial culture, PCR and serology to include bacterial and viral pathogens typically associated with BRD: Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (BPIV-3). Overall, the paranasal sinuses were either predominantly sterile or did not contain detectable microbes (83.5%: 94.9% of clinically normal and 50.0% of cattle submitted for PME). Bacteria, including BRD causing pathogens, were identified in relatively small numbers of cattle (bovine sinus as it does in humans.

  5. Homologous recombination in bovine pestiviruses. Phylogenetic and statistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leandro Roberto; Weber, E Laura

    2004-12-01

    Bovine pestiviruses (Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1 (BVDV 1) and Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 2 (BVDV 2)) belong to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae), which is composed of positive stranded RNA viruses causing significant economic losses world-wide. We used phylogenetic and bootstrap analyses to systematically scan alignments of previously sequenced genomes in order to explore further the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for variation in the virus. Previously published data suggested that homologous crossover might be one of the mechanisms responsible for the genomic rearrangements observed in cytopathic (cp) strains of bovine pestiviruses. Nevertheless, homologous recombination involves not just homologous crossovers, but also replacement of a homologous region of the acceptor RNA. Furthermore, cytopathic strains represent dead paths in evolution, since they are isolated exclusively from the fatal cases of mucosal disease. Herein, we report evidence of homologous inter-genotype recombination in the genome of a non-cytopathic (ncp) strain of Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1, the type species of the genus Pestivirus. We also show that intra-genotype homologous recombination might be a common phenomenon in both species of Pestivirus. This evidence demonstrates that homologous recombination contribute to the diversification of bovine pestiviruses in nature. Implications for virus evolution, taxonomy and phylogenetics are discussed.

  6. Rheological behaviors of bovine blood forming artificial rouleaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibara, M

    1983-01-01

    A purpose of the present study is to make an artificial rouleau of bovine red blood cells which is not capable of rouleau formation under physiological condition. Rheological behaviors of bovine blood forming artificial rouleaux were examined. The modification of cell surface by enzyme trypsin induced rouleau formation, whereas the modification of cell surface by neuraminidase did not cause any aggregate formation. The drastic elevation of the fibrinogen content in bovine red blood cells suspension also brought about the formation of rouleau. The value of dynamic rigidity modulus G' of bovine red blood cells in saline solution containing high concentration of fibrinogen is somewhat smaller than that of trypsin treated bovine red blood cells in plasma. The value of G' of trypsin treated bovine red blood cells in plasma first increased to a maximum value and then decreased with the time. It is supposed that the removal of macro-molecules from the cell surface facilitates the mutual approach of cells and causes the formation of rouleau which seems to be the same as that of human and horse bloods.

  7. Multiple fixed point theorems for contractive and Meir-Keeler type mappings defined on partially ordered spaces with a distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofan M Choban

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study a general concept of multiple fixed point for mappings defined on partially ordered distance spaces in the presence of a contraction type condition and appropriate monotonicity properties. This notion and the obtained results complement the corresponding ones from [M. Choban, V. Berinde, A general concept of multiple fixed point for mappings defined on  spaces with a distance, Carpathian J. Math. 33 (2017, no. 3, 275--286] and also simplifies some concepts of multiple fixed point considered by various authors in the last decade or so.

  8. Stability of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 nucleic acid in fetal bovine samples stored under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of pregnant cattle with bovine viral diarrhea viruses can result in reproductive disease that includes fetal reabsorption, mummification, abortion, still births, congenital defects affecting structural, neural, reproductive and immune systems and the birth of calves persistently infected w...

  9. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  10. UT-B Urea Transporter Localization in the Bovine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, J; McDaid, S; Walpole, C; Stewart, Gavin S

    2016-04-01

    Facilitative UT-B urea transporters play an important role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, particularly ruminants. Gastrointestinal UT-B transporters have previously been reported in various ruminant species-including cow, sheep and goat. In this present study, UT-B transporter localization was investigated in tissues throughout the bovine gastrointestinal tract. RT-PCR analysis showed that UT-B2 was the predominant UT-B mRNA transcript expressed in dorsal, ventral and cranial ruminal sacs, while alternative UT-B transcripts were present in other gastrointestinal tissues. Immunoblotting analysis detected a strong, glycosylated ~50 kDa UT-B2 protein in all three ruminal sacs. Immunolocalization studies showed that UT-B2 protein was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane of cells in the stratum basale layer of all ruminal sac papillae. In contrast, other UT-B protein staining was detected in the basolateral membranes of the surface epithelial cells lining the abomasum, colon and rectum. Overall, these findings confirm that UT-B2 cellular localization is similar in all ruminal sacs and that other UT-B proteins are located in epithelial cells lining various tissues in the bovine gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Investigation of Various Essential Factors for Optimum Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    OKADA, Keiji; TAKEMURA, Kei; SATO, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography for cattle clinics. The effect of various factors on the detection of surface temperature was investigated in an experimental room with a fixed ambient temperature using a square positioned on a wall. Various factors of animal objects were examined using cattle to determine the relationships among presence of hair, body surface temperature, surface temperature of the eyeball, the highest temperature of the eye circle, rectum temperature and ambient temperature. Also, the surface temperature of the flank at different time points after eating was examined. The best conditions of thermography for cattle clinics were determined and were as follows: (1) The distance between a thermal camera and an object should be fixed, and the camera should be set within a 45-degree angle with respect to the objects using the optimum focal length. (2) Factors that affect the camera temperature, such as extreme cold or heat, direct sunshine, high humidity and wind, should be avoided. (3) For the comparison of thermographs, imaging should be performed under identical conditions. If this is not achievable, hairless parts should be used. PMID:23759714

  12. Isolation of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in association with the in vitro production of bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielanski, A; Loewen, K S; Del Campo, M R; Sirard, M A; Willadsen, S

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether oocytes obtained from bovine ovaries collected at commercial abattoirs for use in in vitro fertilization programs would be contaminated with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). In total, of 85 samples tested containing 759 embryos produced by in vitro fertilization, 2 (2.4%) were positive for BHV-1 while none were positive for BVDV. The follicular fluid collected during oocyte aspiration tested positive in 11.8% for BVH-1 and in 4.7% for BVDV. Oviductal cells used to co-culture zygotes/embryos tested positive for BHV-1 and BVDV in 6.2% and 1.2% samples respectively.

  13. A fixed movable resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis--A 16 years clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Michael G; Lam, Walter Y H

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the case of a 48-year-old female patient who initially received a 4-unit fixed-fixed (FF) resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis (RBFDP) for replacement of mandibular left second premolar and first molar. Twenty-one months later, debond of the RBFDP was found at one of retainers. A new fixed-movable RBFDPs with a modified non-rigid connector as well as increased resistance form features was placed and successfully retained at the 16-year clinical review. RBFDPs are a conservative tooth replacement option that requires minimum tooth preparation and retention by a resin cement to etched enamel. However debonding is the most frequently seen complication and has been attributed to the relative movement between abutment teeth during function that stress the bonding interface. This case report highlights the use of modified non-rigid connector which allows relative movement between abutment teeth and therefore a reduced stress on the bonding interface. It is proposed that the use of modified non-rigid connectors that allow independent movement between the abutment teeth during function was responsible for the long term clinical success of fixed-movable RBFDPs. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Taranto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT, total nitrogen (TN, lactose (LTS and dry matter (NM percentage (Lactostar and somatic cell count (CCS (DeLaval cell counter DCC. Bacterial counts included: standard plate count (SPC, total psychrophilic aerobic count (PAC, total, fecal coliforms by MPN (Most Probable Number, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SR. Salmonella spp. was determined. Bacteriological examinations were performed according to the American Public Health Association (APHA methods, with some adjustements related to the requirements of the study. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed a low variability of pH values and FT, TN and DM percentage between samples; whereas LTS trend was less noticeable. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was observed between pH, TN and LTS amount. The correlation between LTS and TN contents was highly significant (P<0.001. Highly significant and negative was the correlation (P<0.001 between DM, NT and LTS content. SPC mean values were 7.54 x106 CFU/mL; PAC mean values were also high (3.3x106 CFU/mL. Acceptable values of coagulase positive staphylococci were showed; 3 Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was isolated. Coagulase negative staphylococci counts were low. A high variability in the number of TC, as for FC was observed; bacterial loads were frequently fairly high. Salmonella spp. and SR bacteria were absent. It was assumed that bacteria from samples had a prevailing environmental origin

  15. [Bovine neonatal pancytopenia in German Holstein calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Bettina Constanze; Ulrich, Reiner; Kuiper, Heidi; Reinacher, Manfred; Peters, Martin; Heimberg, Peter; Holsteg, Mark; Puff, Christina; Haas, Ludwig; Ganter, Martin; Distl, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Profiles of blood cell counts were evaluated for 15 calves from three different farms. These calves showed petechia in the mucous membranes and in the skin and prolonged secondary bleeding after puncture. The clinical course of the disease could be observed in eleven calves. With exception of one case, the blood cell counts indicated a severe anaemia, leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Out of these 15 calves, six calves survived and the other nine calves died or had to be euthanized due to the severity of the disease. Necropsy of these nine calves revealed petechia in the skin, subcutis, muscles, in inner organs and all serous membranes. Pathohistological examination showed a depletion of the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue in eight calves. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) for eight of these nine calves. Bluetongue virus serotype 8 was tested negatively using PCR. Bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was negatively tested using immunofluorescence and cell culture and salmonella species were negatively tested in seven dissected calves. A cluster of toxins was negatively tested in one of the dissected calves. All 15 calves had high antibody titres for BVDV. The BVDV-antibody titres from twelve dams with affected calves were positive in six cases and not detectable in the other six cases. In three of the six dams with not detectable BVDV-antibody titres, calves were fed with colostrum of a further dam with high BVDV-antibody titres. In the further three dams without detectable BVDV-antibody titres, we could not ascertain which colostrum has been fed to the calves. BVDV-specific antigen could not be detected in any of the samples from the calves and dams tested. Using the activity of the gamma-glutamyl-transferase, we assumed a sufficient supply with colostrum for the examined calves.The cause for the occurrence of these BNP cases was due to bone marrow depletion.The reason for the bone marrow depletion remained unclear

  16. Increased bovine Tim-3 and its ligand expressions during bovine leukemia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okagawa Tomohiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The immunoinhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3 and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9, are involved in the immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. However, there is no report concerning the role of Tim-3 in diseases of domestic animals. In this study, cDNA encoding for bovine Tim-3 and Gal-9 were cloned and sequenced, and their expression and role in immune reactivation were analyzed in bovine leukemia virus (BLV-infected cattle. Predicted amino acid sequences of Tim-3 and Gal-9 shared high homologies with human and mouse homologues. Functional domains, including tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif in the intracellular domain of Tim-3 were highly conserved among cattle and other species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that bovine Tim-3 mRNA is mainly expressed in T cells such as CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while Gal-9 mRNA is mainly expressed in monocyte and T cells. Tim-3 mRNA expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was upregulated during disease progression of BLV infection. Interestingly, expression levels for Tim-3 and Gal-9 correlated positively with viral load in infected cattle. Furthermore, Tim-3 expression level closely correlated with up-regulation of IL-10 in infected cattle. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA was upregulated when PBMC from BLV-infected cattle were cultured with Cos-7 cells expressing Tim-3 to inhibit the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway. Moreover, combined blockade of the Tim-3/Gal-9 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways significantly promoted IFN-γ mRNA expression compared with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway alone. These results suggest that Tim-3 is involved in the suppression of T cell function during BLV infection.

  17. Spectrum efficient distance-adaptive paths for fixed and fixed-alternate routing in elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anuj; Bhatia, Vimal; Prakash, Shashi

    2018-01-01

    Efficient utilization of spectrum is a key concern in the soon to be deployed elastic optical networks (EONs). To perform routing in EONs, various fixed routing (FR), and fixed-alternate routing (FAR) schemes are ubiquitously used. FR, and FAR schemes calculate a fixed route, and a prioritized list of a number of alternate routes, respectively, between different pairs of origin o and target t nodes in the network. The route calculation performed using FR and FAR schemes is predominantly based on either the physical distance, known as k -shortest paths (KSP), or on the hop count (HC). For survivable optical networks, FAR usually calculates link-disjoint (LD) paths. These conventional routing schemes have been efficiently used for decades in communication networks. However, in this paper, it has been demonstrated that these commonly used routing schemes cannot utilize the network spectral resources optimally in the newly introduced EONs. Thus, we propose a new routing scheme for EON, namely, k -distance adaptive paths (KDAP) that efficiently utilizes the benefit of distance-adaptive modulation, and bit rate-adaptive superchannel capability inherited by EON to improve spectrum utilization. In the proposed KDAP, routes are found and prioritized on the basis of bit rate, distance, spectrum granularity, and the number of links used for a particular route. To evaluate the performance of KSP, HC, LD, and the proposed KDAP, simulations have been performed for three different sized networks, namely, 7-node test network (TEST7), NSFNET, and 24-node US backbone network (UBN24). We comprehensively assess the performance of various conventional, and the proposed routing schemes by solving both the RSA and the dual RSA problems under homogeneous and heterogeneous traffic requirements. Simulation results demonstrate that there is a variation amongst the performance of KSP, HC, and LD, depending on the o - t pair, and the network topology and its connectivity. However, the proposed

  18. Fixed-point theorems for families of weakly non-expansive maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Jie-Hua; Liu, Xin-He

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we present some fixed-point theorems for families of weakly non-expansive maps under some relatively weaker and more general conditions. Our results generalize and improve several results due to Jungck [G. Jungck, Fixed points via a generalized local commutativity, Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 25 (8) (2001) 497-507], Jachymski [J. Jachymski, A generalization of the theorem by Rhoades and Watson for contractive type mappings, Math. Japon. 38 (6) (1993) 1095-1102], Guo [C. Guo, An extension of fixed point theorem of Krasnoselski, Chinese J. Math. (P.O.C.) 21 (1) (1993) 13-20], Rhoades [B.E. Rhoades, A comparison of various definitions of contractive mappings, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 226 (1977) 257-290], and others.

  19. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Tattersall; Bobby Y. Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecua...

  20. Colligative Properties of Solutions: I. Fixed Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kenneth S.; Biskup, Marek; Chayes, Lincoln

    2005-05-01

    Using the formalism of rigorous statistical mechanics, we study the phenomena of phase separation and freezing-point depression upon freezing of solutions. Specifically, we devise an Ising-based model of a solvent--solute system and show that, in the ensemble with a fixed amount of solute, a macroscopic phase separation occurs in an interval of values of the chemical potential of the solvent. The boundaries of the phase separation domain in the phase diagram are characterized and shown to asymptotically agree with the formulas used in heuristic analyses of freezing-point depression. The limit of infinitesimal concentrations is described in a subsequent paper.

  1. Chemical Separation of Fixed Tissue Using Thermolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Dua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermolysin is a metallopeptidase used to cleave peptide bonds at specific junctions. It has previously been used to cleave specific amino acid sequences found at the junction of the sensory epithelium and underlying stroma of unfixed otolithic organs of the vestibular system. We have used thermolysin to separate sensory epithelium from the underlying stroma in fixed cristae ampullares of mouse, rat, gerbil, guinea pig, chinchilla, and tree squirrel, thus removing the saddle-shaped curvature of the sensory organ and creating a flattened sensory epithelium preparation. This permits visualization of the entire sensory organ in a single mount and facilitates proper morphometric analysis.

  2. Fixed-target physics at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Maurice, Emilie Amandine

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has the unique possibility, among the LHC experiments, to be operated in fixed target mode, using its internal gas target SMOG. The energy scale achievable at the LHC and the excellent detector capabilities for vertexing, tracking and particle identification allow a wealth of measurements of great interest for cosmic ray and heavy ions physics. We report the first measurements made in this configuration: the measurement of antiproton production in proton-helium collisions and the measurements of open and hidden charm production in proton-argon collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\textrm{NN}} =$ 110 GeV.

  3. Fixed Or Controlled-Movement Foot Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Gloria B.; Blizzard, Noah

    1992-01-01

    Foot restraint gives user three options: holds user's feet in fixed position, allows them to slide sideways, or allows them to pivot independently about axis through ball of foot, as user chooses. Selects degree of restraint to suit task at hand. Movements to enter and leave foot restraint simple and direct. Simply forces each cleat lightly into space between rails until spring force of movable rail secures it. Body movements for sliding and rotation equally straightforward. Designed for use in absence of gravitation, restraint useful on Earth, underwater or in some hazardous locations where movements restricted.

  4. Constitutions as Intergenerational Contracts: Flexible or fixed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Tremmel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Constitutions enshrine the fundamental values of a people and build a framework for a state’s public policy. With regard to intergenerational justice, their endurance gives rise to two concerns: the (forgone welfare concern and the sovereignty concern. In this paper, I outline a procedure for constitution- amending that is intergenerationally just. In its line of reasoning, the paper debates ideas such as perpetual constitutions, sunset constitutions, constitutional reform commissions and constitutional conventions both historically and analytically. It arrives at the conclusion that recurrent constitutional reform commissions in fixed time intervals strike the best balance between the necessary rigidity and the necessary flexibility of constitutions.

  5. Fixed Points for Pseudocontractive Mappings on Unbounded Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Falset Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We give some fixed point results for pseudocontractive mappings on nonbounded domains which allow us to obtain generalizations of recent fixed point theorems of Penot, Isac, and Németh. An application to integral equations is given.

  6. 29 CFR 1910.24 - Fixed industrial stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this section to preclude the use of fixed ladders for access to elevated tanks, towers, and similar structures, overhead traveling cranes, etc., where the use of fixed ladders is common practice.) Spiral...

  7. THE PROBLEMS OF FIXED ASSETS CLASSIFICATION FOR ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophiia Kafka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical analysis of research in accounting of fixed assets; the basic issues of fixed assets accounting that have been developed by the Ukrainian scientists during 1999-2016 have been determined. It is established that the problems of non-current assets taxation and their classification are the most noteworthy. In the dissertations the issues of fixed assets classification are of exclusively particular branch nature, so its improvement is important. The purpose of the article is developing science-based classification of fixed assets for accounting purposes since their composition is quite diverse. The classification of fixed assets for accounting purposes have been summarized and developed in Figure 1 according to the results of the research. The accomplished analysis of existing approaches to classification of fixed assets has made it possible to specify its basic types and justify the classification criteria of fixed assets for the main objects of fixed assets.

  8. Swelling studies of camel and bovine corneal stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Almubrad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Turki Almubrad, Mohammad Faisal Jamal Khan, Saeed AkhtarCornea Research Chair, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: In the present study we investigated the swelling characteristics of fresh camel and bovine cornea in sodium salt solutions. Swelling studies were carried out at 20 minutes, 14 hours, and 46 hours on five fresh camel and 5 five fresh bovine corneas. During the 20-minute hydration of fresh corneal stroma was investigated using sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, sodium acetate (CH3COONa, sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN, and sodium floride (NaF at 2-minute time intervals. During a 46-hour time period, the hydration study was carried out using NaCl (150, 300 mM and NaF (150 mM at random intervals. The 14-hour study was carried out to assess the rehydration of corneal stroma after 6 hours of drying. During the 20-minute swelling studies in the first 2 minutes the rate of hydration in both camel and bovine corneas was high but gradually reduced in the 2–20-minute period. The rates and levels of hydration of camel and bovine cornea were not significantly different from each other in all the strengths of solutions. During the 46-hour swelling studies, the initial rate of hydration (0–2 hours of camel and bovine stroma, in all solutions was significantly higher (Z = 0.056 compared to hydration during later hours (2–46 hours. Camel stromal hydration (high in 150 mM NaCl was significantly higher compared to bovine stromal hydration in the same solution during the 10–24, and 24–46-hour time periods. Rehydration in camel stroma was significantly lower than bovine in 150 mM NaF. The 20-minute study showed that there was no selective affinity for particular ions in camel or bovine corneal stroma. Initial swelling in both corneal and bovine stroma is faster and more prominant compared to later swelling. The swelling in camel cornea is more prominant compared

  9. Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with different morphologies and polymorphs in the presence of bovine serum albumin and soluble starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxi; Chen, Yuping; Huang, Xuechen; Wu, Gang

    2017-10-01

    Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and soluble starch. Effects of various bovine serum albumin (BSA) and soluble starch on the polymorph and morphology of CaCO3 crystals were investigated. Crystallization of vaterite is favored in the presence of BSA and soluble starch, respectively, while calcite is favored in the presence of a mixture of BSA and soluble starch. The morphologies of CaCO3 particles in the presence of mixture of BSA and soluble starch are mainly rod-like, suggesting that the BSA, soluble and their assemblies play key roles in stabilizing and directing the CaCO3 crystal growth. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A fixed interval schedule in which the interval is initiated by a response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MECHNER, F; GUEVREKIAN, L; MECHNER, V

    1963-07-01

    The fixed interval schedule described requires the animal to initiate every time interval by making a response on a bar other than the one on which it is reinforced. This response, R(A), demarcates the postreinforcement pause (S(R)-R(A) interval) from the fixed interval pause (R(A)-R(B) interval) so that these pauses may be measured separately. Twelve rats and three monkeys, working in two-bar Skinner boxes, were trained and stabilized on this schedule. The resulting performances, presented for individual animals, are analyzed in terms of (1) the relative frequencies with which the animal waits various lengths of time between consecutive responses, (2) the relative frequencies with which various rates of responding appear, (3) the change in response rate throughout the fixed interval, (4) the average length of the postreinforcement pause, (5) the relative frequencies with which the animal waits different lengths of time between the R(A) and the first R(B), and (6) the average inter-response time as a function of the rank order in the fixed interval of the inter-response time. The joint interpretation of the several measures taken leads to the following conclusions: 1. The probability of an R(B) increases throughout the fixed interval. 2. The increase is discontinuous at the first R(B), at which point the probability increases sharply. 3. The frequency distributions of R(A)-R(B) pauses exhibit three discrete types of behavior with no intermediate cases. 4. The (main) mode of R(A)-R(B) interval length usually occurs just below the fixed interval requirement.

  11. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  12. Structural characterization of iodinated bovine growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, R; Turyn, D; Fernandez, H N; Dellacha, J M

    1982-02-01

    Bovine growth hormone (bGH) was submitted to iodination using limited amounts of oxidizing reagent, yielding a derivative with no more than 1-g-atom of iodine per mole of hormone. Analysis of the hydrolysis products indicated that monoiodotyrosine was almost the only product of substitution. Isolation and identification of the tryptic fragments showed that half of the 125I-labeled bGH molecules were iodinated in Tyr 174, followed by Tyr 158 (16%) and Tyr 42 (14%). Frontal gel chromatography indicated that the preparation did not contain significant amounts of unreacted bGH. Circular dichroism evidenced structural similarity between the native and the iodinated bGH. The iodinated hormone, like the native protein, undergoes self-association. The dissociation constant of the iodo-labeled bGH self-association equilibrium showed a two-fold increase when compared to that corresponding to the unlabeled hormone. At pH 8.5, where the equilibrium constant was estimated, one tenth of the molecules bear a charged iodotyrosyl residue (average pKapp = 9.3), which could account for part, if not all, of the observed difference regarding self-association. By this criterion, the presence of the iodine atom does not disturb the area engaged in dimer formation.

  13. Treponema denticola in microflora of bovine periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Borsanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis in cattle is an infectious purulent progressive disease associated with strict anaerobic subgingival biofilm and is epidemiologically related to soil management at several locations of Brazil. This study aimed to detect Treponema species in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm in the gingival sulcus of 6 to 24-month-old animals considered periodontally healthy. We used paper cones to collect the materials, after removal of supragingival plaques, and kept frozen (at -80°C up to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR using T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium and T. vincentii primers. In periodontal pocket, it was possible to identify by PCR directly, the presence of Treponema amylovorum in 73% of animals (19/26, T. denticola in 42.3% (11/26 and T. maltophilum in 54% (14/26. Among the 25 healthy sites, it was possible to identify T. amylovorum in 18 (72%, T. denticola in two (8% and T. maltophilum in eight (32%. Treponema medium and T. vincentii were not detected over all 51 evaluated samples. The presence of Treponema amylovorum, T. maltophilum and, in particular, the widely recognized T. denticola in subgingival microflora brings an original and potencially important contribution in studies of the bovine periodontitis.

  14. Dynamic compressive response of bovine liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Farhana; Chen, Weinong W; Weerasooriya, Tusit

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to experimentally determine the strain rate effects on the compressive stress-strain behavior of bovine liver tissues. Fresh liver tissues were used to make specimens for mechanical loading. Experiments at quasi-static strain rates were conducted at 0.01 and 0.1 s(-1). Intermediate-rate experiments were performed at 1, 10, and 100 s(-1). High strain rate (1000, 2000, and 3000 s(-1)) experiments were conducted using a Kolsky bar modified for soft material characterization. A hollow transmission bar with semi-conductor strain gages was used to sense the weak forces from the soft specimens. Quartz-crystal force transducers were used to monitor valid testing conditions on the tissue specimens. The experiment results show that the compressive stress-strain response of the liver tissue is non-linear and highly rate-sensitive, especially when the strain rate is in the Kolsky bar range. The tissue stiffens significantly with increasing strain rate. The responses from liver tissues along and perpendicular to the liver surface were consistent, indicating isotropic behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Closed system for bovine oocyte vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ševelová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop a vitrification carrier for bovine oocyte cryopreservation. The carrier was to be cheap enough, elementary in its construction and meet contemporary requirements for a safe closed system. In a closed system, a cell is prevented from direct exposure to liquid nitrogen, thus minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. Furthermore, two questions regarding the proper vitrification technique were resolved: if it is necessary to partially denude the oocytes before the vitrification process or whether intact cumulus oocyte complexes should be frozen; and if it is more advantageous to preheat the vitrification solutions to female body temperature (39 °C or to keep them at room temperature. Our results show that it is better to partially denude the oocytes prior to vitrification because cryopreserved intact cumulus oocyte complexes often proved dark, non-homogeneous or fragmented cytoplasm after warming, with many of them having visibly widened perivitelline spaces or fractured zonae pellucidae as a result of extensive damage during vitrification. Consequently, intact cumulus oocyte complexes showed significantly lower numbers of cleavage stage embryos on Day 3 compared to partially denuded oocytes (7.4% and 26%, respectively. On the other hand, the survival rate and following development of fertilized oocytes in preheated vitrification solution were equal to results reached at room temperature conditions. In conclusion, results achieved with the newly developed carrier were comparable to previously published studies and therefore they could be recommended for common use.

  16. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.

  17. Bovine Serum Albumin: a double allergy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltolini, S; Spigno, F; Cioè, A; Cagnati, P; Bignardi, D; Minale, P

    2013-08-01

    We analyse two cases of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) allergy. The first regards a female laboratory technician with a history of bronchial asthma due to cat allergy, who developed an exacerbation of bronchial symptoms as a consequence of BSA powder inhalation at work. To date, sensitization to BSA as a cause of occupational asthma has rarely been reported in the scientific literature. The second case concerns a woman with a similar cat sensitivity, who presented an oral allergy syndrome-type clinical reaction, gastric pain and diarrhoea immediately after eating cooked pork meat. Subsequently, she developed the same reaction after eating goat meat and goat cheese, and then also after eating beef. Both patients resulted specifically sensitized to BSA and to other mammalian serum albumins which play a role as panallergens in animals. The two cases show that BSA, a well known cause of food allergy in childhood, may also provoke symptoms of food allergy in adulthood, though in case of powder inhalation, it may provoke respiratory symptoms. Prior animal sensitization appears to represent a risk factor.

  18. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-10-01

    Recently published studies on the development and use of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) vaccines incorporating either the complete envelope (env) gene or only a fragment of the env gene consisting of the coding sequence for the env glycoprotein 51 (gp51) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV. The evidence for this protection is based on the lack of persistence of high titres of anti-gp51 antibodies compared with unvaccinated BLV infected controls, on the enhanced CD4 proliferative responses to specific BLV gp51 synthetic peptides in the vaccinated sheep, and on the inability to detect BLV pro-virus by polymerase chain reaction in the vaccinated sheep after 4 months following challenge infection compared with continual detection in unvaccinated sheep over a 16 month trial period. It has been suggested that cell-mediated immune responses may be an important aspect of protective immunity against BLV infection and it has been reported that large tracts of amino acid sequences within the env and pol genes are highly conserved in different isolates from different countries which is of importance in designing peptide derived vaccines.

  19. Bilateral cheiloschisis in bovine - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Andrade Caldas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Caldas S.A., Nogueira V.A., Lima A.E.S., Aragão A.P., d’Avila M.S., Santos A.M., Miranda I.C., Costa S.Z.R. & Peixoto T.C. [Bilateral cheiloschisis in bovine - A case report.] Queilosquise bilateral em bovino - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:55-59, 2014. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: saulocaldas@hotmail.com A case of bilateral queilosquise in a cattle two years old was reported. Clinically, there was cachexia, difficulty in grasping food and water intake. The clinical examination revealed that the nasal orifices were discontinuous with the upper lip, which allowed communication between the nostrils and mouth in its rostral portion, crowding of incisors (tweezers, as well as exposure of medium and the 2nd corner and of the tongue. In this case, the bilateral queilosquise was the result of flaws in fusion of the maxillary process and the medial nasal process and its surroundings, probably due to mineral deficiencies of pregnant cow. This pathogenesis was suggested by excluding other possible causes, the knowledge of the existence of mineral deficiencies in the region where the event occurred and bad nutritional status of pregnant female.

  20. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet a...

  1. 46 CFR 121.410 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 121.410 Section 121... AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 121.410 Electronic position fixing devices. A vessel on an oceans route must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device, capable...

  2. 46 CFR 130.320 - Electronic position-fixing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position-fixing device. 130.320 Section 130... CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.320 Electronic position-fixing device. Each vessel must be equipped with an electronic position-fixing device satisfactory for...

  3. Coincidence and common fixed point theorems in compact Hausdorff spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqing Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of coincidence and fixed points for continuous mappings in compact Hausdorff spaces is established. Some equivalent conditions of the existence of fixed and common fixed points for any continuous mapping and a pair of mappings in compact Hausdorff spaces are given, respectively. Our results extend, improve, and unify the corresponding results due to Jungck, Liu, and Singh and Rao.

  4. 46 CFR 108.631 - Fixed fire extinguishing system controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. 108.631... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.631 Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. (a) Each cabinet or space that contains a valve, control, or manifold of a fixed fire...

  5. The political economy of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R M

    2017-04-01

    A brief history of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and its control in Great Britain (GB) is presented. Numerous diverse policies to control the disease in humans, cattle and wildlife have been pursued over the last 100 years and many millions of pounds have been spent. After notable success in reducing the incidence and prevalence of bTB in cattle in GB from the 1950s to the mid-1980s, the geographical spread of the disease and the number of cattle slaughtered have increased continually since that time, with a high point of bTB incidence in 2008. This increase appeared to coincide with changing policy regarding the control of the disease in badgers, with a more humane approach adopted and with strengthened protection for badgers through legislation. Indeed, there has been much controversy in the debate on the role of badgers in disease transmission to cattle and the need for their control as vectors of the disease. The issue has attracted the attention of the media and there have been various commissioned research projects, trials and public consultations. The findings of two social science investigations presented as examples showed that citizens generally believed that bTB in cattle is an important issue that needs to be tackled, but objected to badgers being killed, whilst cattle farmers were willing to pay around £17/animal/year for a bTB cattle vaccine. It is noted that successes regarding the control of bTB in other countries have combined both cattle and wildlife controls and involved industry working in close partnership with government.

  6. Influence of selected factors on bovine spermatozoa cold shock resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of sire, extender, and addition of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL to extenders used on the percentage rate of spermatozoa survival after cold shock. Two groups of extenders were compared: without LDL addition (control variants and LDL enriched (experimental variants. Three extenders were used: AndroMed®, Bioxcell®, and Triladyl®. Experimental variants included 4–8% LDL addition into the AndroMed® and Bioxcell® extenders, and 6–10% LDL addition into the Triladyl® extender. In total, 12 samples of fresh semen were collected from 4 bulls during a period of 8 weeks. Bovine spermatozoa cold shock resistance (1 ± 1 °C, 10 min was evaluated by the percentage rate of live sperm using eosin-nigrosine staining immediately and after heat incubation (37 ± 1 °C, 120 min. The results showed the effect of sire as important and individual differences between selected sires in their sperm resistance against cold shock were confirmed. AndroMed® and Bioxcell® were found to be providing better protection of bull semen to cold shock compared to Triladyl® due to lower decline of live sperm proportion. Our results detected a positive effect of LDL addition on sperm resistance against cold shock, especially on lower decrease of live sperm percentage rate after 120 min of the heat test (P < 0.05. Further studies are needed to assess the optimal concentration of LDL in various kinds of extenders as well to state ideal time and temperature conditions for ensuring LDL reaction with sperm.

  7. Comparison of fixed versus variable biofuels incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, Wallace E.; Taheripour, Farzad; Perkis, David [Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We evaluated several variants of a variable biofuel subsidy and compared them with the fixed subsidy and Renewable Fuel Standard using two different modeling approaches. First we used a partial equilibrium model encompassing crude oil, gasoline, ethanol, corn, and ethanol by-products. Second, we used a stochastic simulation model of a prototypical ethanol plant. From the partial equilibrium analysis, it appears the variable subsidy provides a safety net for ethanol producers when oil prices are low; yet, it does not put undue pressure on corn prices when oil prices are high. At high oil prices, the level of ethanol production is driven by market forces. From the plant level stochastic analysis, essentially the same conclusions are reached. As with the fixed subsidy, the variable subsidy can increase the net present value (NPV) sufficiently to encourage investment, but with lower risk for the producer, lower probability of a loss from the investment, and often lower expected cost to government. Finally, in the US, the ethanol industry is up against a blending limit called the blend wall. If the blending wall remains in place and no way around it is found, it does not matter much what other policy options are used. (author)

  8. Duan's fixed point theorem: Proof and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Arkowitz

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Let X be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, f:X→X any map and pk:X→X the kth power map. Duan proved that pkf:X→X has a fixed point if k≥2. We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces X whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a θ-structure μθ:X→X as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that μθf and fμθ each has a fixed point.

  9. [Fiber-reinforced composite in fixed prosthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, R; Abu Rass, Z; Shmidt, A

    2010-07-01

    Fiber reinforced composite (FRC) is composed of resin matrix and fibers filler. Common types of fibers: polyethylene, carbon and glass. Fibers can be continuous and aligned, discontinuous and aligned, discontinuous and randomly oriented. The architecture of the fibers is unidirectional, woven or braided. The two main types are: dry fibers or impregnated. Inclusion of fibers to resin composite increased its average flexural strength in 100-200 MPa. FRC can be utilized by the dentist in direct approach (splinting, temporary winged bridge) or indirect approach (laboratory made fixed partial denture). Laboratory fixed partial denture (FPD) is made from FRC substructure and Hybrid/Microfill particulate composite veneer. Main indications: interim temporary FPD or FPD in cases of questionable abutment teeth, in aesthetic cases where All Ceram FPD is not feasible. Retention is attained by adhesive cementation to minimally prepared teeth or to conventionally prepared teeth; other options are inlay-onlay bridges or hybrid bridges. Contraindications are: poor hygiene, inability to control humidity, parafunction habits, and more than two pontics. Survival rate of FRC FPD over 5 years is 75%, lower compared to porcelain fused to metal FPD which is 95%. Main reasons for failure are: fracture of framework and delamination of the veneer. Part of the failures is repairable.

  10. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Reddy, Bobby Y

    2016-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing.

  11. Dark Forces Searches in Fixed Target Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglieri, M.

    2014-12-01

    Searches for physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) can be carried out with precise and GeV-energy-range experiments. In many string theories, a Hidden Sector, decoupled to the SM, foresees the existence of a new massive boson, the A‧ or heavy photon, that weakly couples to the electromagnetic current. A new particle with mass in the range of 1 MeV - 1 GeV could explain many astro-particle observations (e.g. positron excess seen by PAMELA and AMS experiments) and some anomalies not yet fully understood (e.g. muon g - 2 factor). The search for A‧ has motivated intense experimental activities in almost every accelerator facility using different techniques: colliding beam, fixed target experiments, meson rare decays. Jefferson Lab, a world-leading nuclear physics laboratory, is planning a set of fixed target experiments aiming to discover the A‧ or set new limits in its mass and coupling, with an unprecedented sensitivity and reach capability. In this contribution, after reviewing the physics case and some experimental evidences, I will report on the program of measurements planned at Jefferson Lab for the next years.

  12. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Reddy, Bobby Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing. PMID:26933409

  13. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Tattersall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruption (FDE is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing.

  14. Biological Activities of Extracellular Vesicles and Their Cargos from Bovine and Human Milk in Humans and Implications for Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempleni, Janos; Aguilar-Lozano, Ana; Sadri, Mahrou; Sukreet, Sonal; Manca, Sonia; Wu, Di; Zhou, Fang; Mutai, Ezra

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in milk harbor a variety of compounds, including lipids, proteins, noncoding RNAs, and mRNAs. Among the various classes of EVs, exosomes are of particular interest, because cargo sorting in exosomes is a regulated, nonrandom process and exosomes play essential roles in cell-to-cell communication. Encapsulation in exosomes confers protection against enzymatic and nonenzymatic degradation of cargos and provides a pathway for cellular uptake of cargos by endocytosis of exosomes. Compelling evidence suggests that exosomes in bovine milk are transported by intestinal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages in human and rodent cell cultures, and bovine-milk exosomes are delivered to peripheral tissues in mice. Evidence also suggests that cargos in bovine-milk exosomes, in particular RNAs, are delivered to circulating immune cells in humans. Some microRNAs and mRNAs in bovine-milk exosomes may regulate the expression of human genes and be translated into protein, respectively. Some exosome cargos are quantitatively minor in the diet compared with endogenous synthesis. However, noncanonical pathways have been identified through which low concentrations of dietary microRNAs may alter gene expression, such as the accumulation of exosomes in the immune cell microenvironment and the binding of microRNAs to Toll-like receptors. Phenotypes observed in infant-feeding studies include higher Mental Developmental Index, Psychomotor Development Index, and Preschool Language Scale-3 scores in breastfed infants than in those fed various formulas. In mice, supplementation with plant-derived MIR-2911 improved the antiviral response compared with controls. Porcine-milk exosomes promote the proliferation of intestinal cells in mice. This article discusses the above-mentioned advances in research concerning milk exosomes and their cargos in human nutrition. Implications for infant nutrition are emphasized, where permitted, but data in infants are

  15. Sequence and structural implications of a bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Protein 37B represents bovine lumican and proteins 37A and 25 are unique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Brown, S. J.; Vergnes, J. P.; Hassell, J. R.; Mann, M. M.; Conrad, G. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Amino acid sequence from tryptic peptides of three different bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) core proteins (designated 37A, 37B, and 25) showed similarities to the sequence of a chicken KSPG core protein lumican. Bovine lumican cDNA was isolated from a bovine corneal expression library by screening with chicken lumican cDNA. The bovine cDNA codes for a 342-amino acid protein, M(r) 38,712, containing amino acid sequences identified in the 37B KSPG core protein. The bovine lumican is 68% identical to chicken lumican, with an 83% identity excluding the N-terminal 40 amino acids. Location of 6 cysteine and 4 consensus N-glycosylation sites in the bovine sequence were identical to those in chicken lumican. Bovine lumican had about 50% identity to bovine fibromodulin and 20% identity to bovine decorin and biglycan. About two-thirds of the lumican protein consists of a series of 10 amino acid leucine-rich repeats that occur in regions of calculated high beta-hydrophobic moment, suggesting that the leucine-rich repeats contribute to beta-sheet formation in these proteins. Sequences obtained from 37A and 25 core proteins were absent in bovine lumican, thus predicting a unique primary structure and separate mRNA for each of the three bovine KSPG core proteins.

  16. A Fixed-Lag Kalman Smoother to Filter Power Line Interference in Electrocardiogram Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, G J J; Vullings, R; Schmitt, L; Van Laar, J O E H; Bergmans, J W M

    2017-08-01

    Filtering power line interference (PLI) from electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings can lead to significant distortions of the ECG and mask clinically relevant features in ECG waveform morphology. The objective of this study is to filter PLI from ECG recordings with minimal distortion of the ECG waveform. In this paper, we propose a fixed-lag Kalman smoother with adaptive noise estimation. The performance of this Kalman smoother in filtering PLI is compared to that of a fixed-bandwidth notch filter and several adaptive PLI filters that have been proposed in the literature. To evaluate the performance, we corrupted clean neonatal ECG recordings with various simulated PLI. Furthermore, examples are shown of filtering real PLI from an adult and a fetal ECG recording. The fixed-lag Kalman smoother outperforms other PLI filters in terms of step response settling time (improvements that range from 0.1 to 1 s) and signal-to-noise ratio (improvements that range from 17 to 23 dB). Our fixed-lag Kalman smoother can be used for semi real-time applications with a limited delay of 0.4 s. The fixed-lag Kalman smoother presented in this study outperforms other methods for filtering PLI and leads to minimal distortion of the ECG waveform.

  17. In vitro maturation and embryo development of bovine oocytes after meiosis blockage with MPF inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Groke Marques

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the bovine oocyte maturation and embryo development after in vitro fertilization. The maturation of the oocytes was blocked using Butyrolactone I and Roscovitine using pre-maturation medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS. The ocytes were divided in four groups: Control 0 hour, Control (24 hours of maturation, Roscovitine (maturation blockage with 50mM Roscovitine during 24 hours followed by 24 hours of maturation, and Butyrolactone I (maturation blockage with 150mM Butyrolactone I during 24 hours followed by 24 hours of maturation. The oocytes were fixed and stained with aceto orcein to evaluate the nuclear maturation. After the maturation period, the remaining oocytes of the Control group, Roscovitine, and Butyrolactone I were fertilized in vitro. Embryo development was assessed by the cleavage rate (D3 and blastocysts formation (D7. The Butyrolactone I group had similar rates of germinal vesical stage oocytes during blockage, and Metaphase 2 after maturation, comparing to Control group at 0 hour and Control group, respectively. On the other hand, the Roscovitine group had lower rates of vesical stage oocytes during blockage, and Metaphase 2 after maturation comparing to Control groups. After in vitro fertilization, higher rates of cleavage were observed in Control and Butyrolactone I groups. For the blastocyst formation rate, the Control group showed better results than Roscovitine group. In summary, Butyrolactone I group had similar results to the Control group, and for this reason, is suitable for pre-maturation of bovine oocytes using FCS. In contrast, Roscovitine group had lower oocyte maturation and embryo development.

  18. Microwave ablation: Results with double 915 MHz antennae in ex vivo bovine Livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Wenyuan [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Department of Ultrasound, Beijing TongRen Hospital Affiliated To Capital Medical University, 1 Dongjiaominxiang, Beijing 100730 (China); Liang Ping, E-mail: liangping301@hotmail.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhu Qiang [Department of Ultrasound, Beijing TongRen Hospital Affiliated To Capital Medical University, 1 Dongjiaominxiang, Beijing 100730 (China); Yu Xiaoling; Shao Qiujie; Lu Tong; Wang Yang; Dong Baowei [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the settings for the optimal microwave ablation geometry with the simultaneous application of double 915 MHz antennae in ex vivo bovine livers, so as to provide the technical basis for treating large liver tumor in one ablation session. Materials and methods: MWAs were performed on ex vivo bovine livers by simultaneously application of double 915 MHz internally cooled-shaft antennae. Four power settings (50, 60, 70 and 80 W) were used during MWAs, while application time was fixed at 10 min. Three inter-antenna distances (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 cm) were used. Diameters and shapes of the coagulation zones were observed on gross specimens. Results: (1) The coagulation shape was related to the inter-antenna distance, which was most spherical at an inter-antenna distance of 2.0 cm. A recess of the coagulation zone was observed at an inter-antenna distances of 2.5 and 3.0 cm. (2) The long-axis and short-axis coagulation diameter enlarged with increasing power output. However, there were no significant differences in the coagulation diameters between 70 and 80 W (P > 0.05). More desirable coagulation geometry could be obtained by simultaneous application of double antennae at 70 W for 10 min with an inter-antenna distance of 2.0 cm, the long-axis and short-axis coagulation diameter were 6.95 {+-} 0.32 cm and 5.30 {+-} 0.22 cm, respectively. Conclusion: Simultaneous application of double 915 MHz antennae can generate large coagulation zones with desirable shape which may be advantageous for treating large liver tumor in one ablation session.

  19. Epidemiologic characterization of bovine tuberculosis in the State of Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Benitez Vendrame

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was performed between June 2009 and March 2010 to determine the situation of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Rondônia. The state was divided into three regions and, in each of them, 300 farms with reproductive activity were randomly chosen and considered as primary sample units. In the selected farms, an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied. A fixed number of bovine females older than two years of age was randomly selected and tested through comparative cervical tuberculin test. Considering the State of Rondônia, the apparent prevalence of bTB positive farms was 2.3% (95% CI = 1.5–3.5%. The prevalence in the regions varied from 1.7% (95% CI = 0.7 – 4% to 3% (95% CI = 1.6–5.7%. The apparent prevalence of bTB positive animals in the State of Rondônia was 0.12% (95% CI = 0.06–0.25% and varied from 0.08% (95% CI = 0.04–0.18% to 0.15% (95% CI = 0.07–0.33% in the regions. The risk factor associated to tuberculosis in the State of Rondônia was the acquisition of animals (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.6–31.1. The State of Rondônia should implement a surveillance system to detect bTB-infected herds to certify them as bTB-free. Moreover, an efficient health education program to inform farmers to test replacement animals for bTB prior to introduction in their herds should also be implemented.

  20. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION BY URBAN TRANSPORT WHILE USING VARIOUS NUMBER OF FIXED-ROUTE TRANSPORT FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chumachenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of services which are offered by urban passenger transport determines a living standard of country’s inhabitants. The executed analysis of methods for quality assessment of passenger transportation service by urban transport has shown that it is expedient to use complex indices for such assessment. The existing methods for quality assessment of urban passenger transport do not fully take into account subjective passengers’ evaluation of service quality criteria. The investigations conducted with the purpose to estimate significance of quality assessment criteria pertaining to urban pas-senger transport operation for passengers have made it possible to formalize importance of the given significance. A complex index of urban passenger transport quality has been prepared that includes such isolated quality indicators as pedestrian mo-tion component, waiting time, travel time, dynamic factor of capacity usage. It has been determined that it is possible to plan quality of passenger transportation while using transport process simulation. Influence of technological parameters on quality parameters can be determined with the help of the developed simulation model for quality assessment of transportation pro-cess on route of urban passenger transport. While using the simulation model regularities in changing a complex quality index of urban passenger transport have been analyzed according to number of transport facilities operating on route. Simulation results have shown that changes in number of transport facilities significantly exert an influence on the value of dynamic fac-tor of transport facility capacity usage, waiting time for transport facility and time travel. This leads to changes in quality of transportation process. Analysis of the obtained results has permitted to make a conclusion that every route with certain parameters has such rational number of transport facilities that ensures maximum efficiency of urban passenger transport with appropriate quality. It has been revealed that any change in number of transport facilities is described with a reasonable degree of accuracy by a nonlinear regression equation where parameters of transport facilities, passenger traffic flows and route are used as independent variables. 

  1. Study of the desorption of ethylene oxide fixed on various materials during sterilization by a new procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacomme, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Lemoan, G.

    1977-01-01

    A continuous sterilization process using ethylene oxide was studied in comparison with a classical method in order to evaluate gas retention as a function of time and temperature on polyethylene, PVC, and rubber materials.

  2. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bovine leucosis virus contamination of a vaccine produced in vivo against bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R J; Dimmock, C K; de Vos, A J; Rodwell, B J

    1988-09-01

    Contamination of a batch of tick fever (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) vaccine with bovine leucosis virus (BLV) was detected when a herd, in the final stages of an enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) accreditation program, developed a large number of seropositive cattle following use of tick fever vaccine. Investigations incriminated a single calf used to produce Anaplasma centrale vaccine from which 13,959 doses were distributed. The failure of this calf to give a positive agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test before use was not fully explained. A total of 22,627 cattle from 111 herds receiving contaminated vaccine was tested to validate claims for compensation. Results showed infection rates of 62% and 51.8% in vaccinated dairy and beef cattle, respectively, compared with 6.1% and 1.5% in non-vaccinated cattle in the same herds. The results also indicated that infection did not spread from vaccinated to non-vaccinated in-contact cattle. Heavy reliance is now placed on purchase of calves for vaccine production from EBL accredited-free herds and on transmission tests from the calves to sheep to prevent a recurrence of contamination. The need for a BLV antigen detection test, with the sensitivity of the sheep transmission test but simpler and faster to perform, is evident.

  4. Response of cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus to bovine leukosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Wibberley, G; Westcott, D

    1988-03-26

    Six cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and seronegative, and two control, virus negative seropositive cattle were inoculated with lymphocytes infected with bovine leukosis virus (BLV). The two controls produced a normal immune response to BLV, developing antibodies at four and five weeks after inoculation. Two of the six cattle persistently infected with BVDV developed a strong antibody response by six weeks after inoculation with BLV. Four developed a depressed response to BLV, characterised in three by a 'hooking' reaction in the immunodiffusion test which persisted in successive bleedings but was interspersed occasionally by a weak positive reaction. In one of these animals, a series of 'hooking' reactions was followed by a number of negative results. The fourth animal remained serologically negative until 16 weeks after inoculation when a 'hooking' reaction was observed followed by a series of negative results. BLV was isolated from all the cattle persistently infected with BVDV at 42 or 58 weeks after inoculation regardless of whether the serum samples gave negative, 'hooking', weak positive or positive reactions in the immunodiffusion test. BLV was consistently isolated from the nasal secretions of a steer which was BVDV negative but seropositive. The possibility of decreased immune responsiveness to BLV in animals persistently infected with BVDV should be considered when formulating regulations governing the testing of animals for freedom from BLV.

  5. Effect of bovine seminal plasma on bovine endometrial epithelial cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongbua, T; Guo, Y; Edman, A; Humblot, P; Morrell, J M

    2017-11-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of seminal plasma (SP) from bulls of known fertility on bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEEC) in culture. The bEEC from passage 5, approximately 5.0-13 × 10(5)  cells per flask, were challenged with SP from bulls of high or low fertility (n = 3 and 2, respectively) or PBS (control), at 1% (75 μl) or 4% (300 μl) and were incubated for 72 hr (n = 13 per challenge). Total cell number and viability of bEEC after challenge with 1% SP from either high- or low-fertility bulls (75H or 75L, respectively) did not differ from controls. In contrast, challenge with 4% of SP from high- or low-fertility bulls (300H or 300L) negatively affected bEEC cell number and viability. Challenge with 300 L had a greater adverse effect than 300H. These results suggest that the negative effect of bovine SP on bEEC is both dose-dependent and fertility-dependent. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Flow cytometric analysis of in vitro bluetongue virus infection of bovine blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt-Boyes, S M; Rossitto, P V; Stott, J L; MacLachlan, N J

    1992-08-01

    Cultures of adherent and non-adherent bovine peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells were inoculated with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10. Some cultures of non-adherent cells were stimulated with interleukin 2 (IL-2) and concanavalin A for 24 h prior to virus inoculation. Cells were harvested at various intervals up to 72 h after inoculation. A panel of leukocyte differentiation antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), specific for bovine CD2, CD4 or CD8, monocytes and granulocytes, B cells, gamma delta T cells or the IL-2 receptor (IL-2r), was directly conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, and a MAb specific for the BTV major core protein VP7 was directly conjugated to phycoerythrin. Cells were labelled with conjugated MAbs in single- and double-label immunofluorescence studies to identify specifically the BTV-infected cells in inoculated cultures. The viability of cells was determined by propidium iodide exclusion, and all analyses were done using flow cytometry. Productive infection of cultures of PBM cells was confirmed by virus titration. The data revealed a clear difference between subsets of bovine PBM cells in susceptibility to infection with BTV in vitro. Monocytes were readily infected with BTV, as were stimulated CD4+ cells, and infection was cytopathic to monocytes and stimulated lymphocytes. The proportion of infected cells decreased after 24 h and virus titres dropped markedly by 72 h in all cultures. CD4+ cells in cultures of unstimulated non-adherent cells inoculated with BTV showed increased expression of IL-2r. The possible relevance of these findings to the pathogenesis of BTV infection of cattle is discussed.

  7. Primary transgenic bovine cells and their rejuvenated cloned equivalents show transgene-specific epigenetic differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Alonso-González

    Full Text Available Cell-mediated transgenesis, based on somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, provides the opportunity to shape the genetic make-up of cattle. Bovine primary fetal fibroblasts, commonly used cells for SCNT, have a limited lifespan, and complex genetic modifications that require sequential transfections can be challenging time and cost-wise. To overcome these limitations, SCNT is frequently used to rejuvenate the cell lines and restore exhausted growth potential. We have designed a construct to be used in a 2-step cassette exchange experiment. Our transgene contains a puromycin resistance marker gene and an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP expression cassette, both driven by a strong mammalian promoter, and flanked by loxP sites and sequences from the bovine β-casein locus. Several transgenic cell lines were generated by random insertion into primary bovine cell lines. Two of these original cell lines were rederived by SCNT and new primary cells, with the same genetic makeup as the original donors, were established. While the original cell lines were puromycin-resistant and had a characteristic EGFP expression profile, all rejuvenated cell lines were sensitive to puromycin, and displayed varied EGFP expression, indicative of various degrees of silencing. When the methylation states of individual CpG sites within the transgene were analyzed, a striking increase in transgene-specific methylation was observed in all rederived cell lines. The results indicate that original transgenic donor cells and their rejuvenated derivatives may not be equivalent and differ in the functionality of their transgene sequences.

  8. Optimal bovine collagen concentration to achieve tracheal epithelial coverage of collagen sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Nakaegawa, Yuta; Nomoto, Yukio; Fujimoto, Ichiro; Semura, Kayoko; Hazama, Akihiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-12-01

    Artificial tracheas prepared using a collagen sponge and polypropylene mesh have been implanted in patients who received tracheal resections, but epithelialization in the reconstructed area is slow. We determined the optimal bovine atelocollagen concentration necessary for the rapid and complete tracheal epithelial coverage of collagen sponge implants. Preliminary animal experiment. Collagen sponges were prepared using lyophilizing 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% atelocollagen solutions (0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% sponges) and were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Partial tracheal defects were prepared in rabbits and reconstructed using sponges. Epithelial regeneration in the reconstructed area was evaluated by endoscopic, histological, and scanning electron microscope analyses. All sponges had a membranous structural framework, and numerous fibrous structures filled the spaces within the framework in the 0.5% sponges. The membranous structure in the 0.7% sponges branched at many points, and intermembrane spaces were frequently observed. Conversely, the membranous structure in the 1.0% sponges was relatively continuous, thick, and closely arranged. Two weeks after implantation, tracheal defects were entirely covered with epithelium in two of the four and three of the four of the 0.5% and 0.7% sponge-implanted rabbits, respectively. The collagen sponges remained exposed to the tracheal lumen in four of the four rabbits in the 1.0% sponge group. Ciliogenesis in the center of the epithelialized region was detected only in the 0.7% sponge group. Collagen sponges prepared from various concentrations of bovine atelocollagen have different structures. Complete epithelial coverage was achieved in more rabbits implanted with sponges prepared using the 0.7% bovine atelocollagen solution than in those implanted with sponges prepared from the 0.5% and 1.0% solutions. NA Laryngoscope, 126:E396-E403, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Effects of bovine oviduct epithelial cells, fetal calf serum and bovine serum albumin on gene expression in single bovine embryos produced in the synthetic oviduct fluid culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Øzdas, Øzen Banu; Farstad, Wenche; Tverdal, Aage; Olsaker, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    In this study the synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) system with bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) co-culture is compared with an SOF system with common protein supplements. One thousand six hundred bovine embryos were cultured in SOF media supplemented with BOEC, fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Eight different culture groups were assigned according to the different supplementation factors. Developmental competence and the expression levels of five genes, namely glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP), connexin43 (Cx43), (2)-actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), analysed as mRNA by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, were measured on bovine embryos cultured for 9 days. Gene expression of these in vitro-produced embryos was compared with the gene expression of in vivo-produced embryos. There was no significant difference found in embryo developmental competence between the Day 9 embryos in BOEC co-culture, FCS and BSA supplements in SOF media. However, differences in gene expression were observed. With respect to gene expression in in vivo and in vitro embryos, BOEC co-culture affected the same genes as did supplementation with FCS and BSA. HSP was the only gene that differed significantly between in vitro and in vivo embryos. When the different in vitro groups were compared, a significant difference between the BOEC co-culture and the FCS supplementation groups due to Glut-1 expression was observed.

  10. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier...... the tariff and the fixed export barrier. Tariff revenue falls for an increase in fixed exporting costs whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Finally, we establish that welfare falls with fixed export costs and large tariffs but increases for small tariffs, i.e. there exist a welfare...

  11. The fate of nitrogen fixed by diazotrophs in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mulholland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While we now know that N2 fixation is a significant source of new nitrogen (N in the marine environment, little is known about the fate of this N (and associated C, despite the importance of diazotrophs to global carbon and nutrient cycles. Specifically, does N fixed during N2 fixation fuel autotrophic or heterotrophic growth and thus facilitate carbon (C export from the euphotic zone, or does it contribute primarily to bacterial productivity and respiration in the euphotic zone? For Trichodesmium, the diazotroph we know the most about, the transfer of recently fixed N2 (and C appears to be primarily through dissolved pools. The release of N varies among and within populations and as a result of the changing physiological state of cells and populations. The net result of trophic transfers appears to depend on the co-occurring organisms and the complexity of the colonizing community. In order to understand the impact of diazotrophy on carbon flow and export in marine systems, we need a better understanding of the trophic flow of elements in Trichodesmium-dominated communities and other diazotrophic communities under various defined physiological states. Nitrogen and carbon fixation rates themselves vary by orders of magnitude within and among studies of Trichodesmium, highlighting the difficulty in extrapolating global rates of N2 fixation from direct measurements. Because the stoichiometry of N2 and C fixation does not appear to be in balance with that of particles, and the relationship between C and N2 fixation rates is also variable, it is equally difficult to derive global rates of one from the other. This paper seeks to synthesize what is known about the fate of diazotrophic production in the environment. A better understanding of the physiology and physiological ecology of Trichodesmium and other marine diazotrophs is necessary to quantify and predict the effects of increased or decreased diazotrophy in the context of the carbon cycle and

  12. Fixed Dose Combination for TB treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, a third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis. The disease is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths each year and over 8 million were developing active diseases. Moreover, according to WHO (2000, tuberculosis deaths are estimated to increase to 35 million between 2000-2020. The majority of tuberculosis patients worldwide are still treated with single drugs, or with 2-drug fixed-dose combinations (FDCs. To improve tuberculosis treatment, 2- and 3-drug FDCs were recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as part of the DOTS strategy. Since 1999 a 4-drug FDC was included on the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Today, FDCs are important tools to further improve the quality of care for people with TB, and accelerate DOTS expansion to reach the global TB control targets. Fixed dose combination TB drugs could simplifies both treatment and management of drug supply, and may prevent the emergence of drug resistance .Prevention of drug resistance is just one of the potential benefits of the use of FDCs. FDCs simplify administration of drugs by reducing the number of pills a patient takes each day and decreasing the risk of incorrect prescriptions. Most tuberculosis patients need only take 3–4 FDCs tablets per day during the intensive phase of treatment, instead of the 15–16 tablets per day that is common with single-drug formulations It is much simpler to explain to patients that they need to take four tablets of the same type and colour, rather than a mixture of tablets of different shapes, colours and sizes. Also, the chance of taking an incomplete combination of drugs is eliminated, since the four essential drugs are combined into one tablet. FDCs are also simpler for care-givers as they minimize the risk of confusion. Finally, drug procurement, in all its components (stock management, shipping, distribution, is simplified by FDCs. Adverse reactions to drugs are not more

  13. Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

  14. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  15. Biofilm formation enables free-living nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria to fix nitrogen under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Xu, Anming; Elmerich, Claudine; Ma, Luyan Z

    2017-07-01

    The multicellular communities of microorganisms known as biofilms are of high significance in agricultural setting, yet it is largely unknown about the biofilm formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Here we report the biofilm formation by Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501, a free-living rhizospheric bacterium, capable of fixing nitrogen under microaerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. P. stutzeri A1501 tended to form biofilm in minimal media, especially under nitrogen depletion condition. Under such growth condition, the biofilms formed at the air-liquid interface (termed as pellicles) and the colony biofilms on agar plates exhibited nitrogenase activity in air. The two kinds of biofilms both contained large ovoid shape 'cells' that were multiple living bacteria embedded in a sac of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). We proposed to name such large 'cells' as A1501 cyst. Our results suggest that the EPS, especially exopolysaccharides enabled the encased bacteria to fix nitrogen while grown under aerobic condition. The formation of A1501 cysts was reversible in response to the changes of carbon or nitrogen source status. A1501 cyst formation depended on nitrogen-limiting signaling and the presence of sufficient carbon sources, yet was independent of an active nitrogenase. The pellicles formed by Azospirillum brasilense, another free-living nitrogen-fixing rhizobacterium, which also exhibited nitrogenase activity and contained the large EPS-encapsuled A1501 cyst-like 'cells'. Our data imply that free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria could convert the easy-used carbon sources to exopolysaccharides in order to enable nitrogen fixation in a natural aerobic environment.

  16. Steiner trees for fixed orientation metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazil, Marcus; Zachariasen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing Steiner minimum trees for a metric defined by a polygonal unit circle (corresponding to s = 2 weighted legal orientations in the plane). A linear-time algorithm to enumerate all angle configurations for degree three Steiner points is given. We provide a sim...... metric generalises to the fixed orientation metric. Finally, we give an O(s n) time algorithm to compute a Steiner minimum tree for a given full Steiner topology with n terminal leaves.......We consider the problem of constructing Steiner minimum trees for a metric defined by a polygonal unit circle (corresponding to s = 2 weighted legal orientations in the plane). A linear-time algorithm to enumerate all angle configurations for degree three Steiner points is given. We provide...

  17. Fixed pigmented erythema due to cimetidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almamy Diabaté

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fixed pigmented erythema (EPF is pathognomonic of drug-induced toxicity. Antisecretory drugs are among the most commonly not responsible drugs. EPF secondary to cimetidine administration has rarely been described. We report an EPF case during a cimetidine-based treatment in Bouake. A 43-year-old patient, HIV negative, consults for an EPF located on both sides of the breasts, on the 5th day of an antiulcer treatment comprising compressed cimetidine and gastric dressing based on phosphatase d ‘aluminum. The diagnosis is made in front of the characteristic aspect of the lesion of EPF and the early reappearance of lesions recurring exactly in the same places, after the reintroduction of cimetidine. The discovery of an EPF imposes a strict etiological approach in search of the responsible drug. During anti-ulcer treatment, the practitioner should bear in mind the potential role of cimetidine.

  18. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  19. Fixed-target hadron production experiments

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    Popov Boris A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results from fixed-target hadroproduction experiments (HARP, MIPP, NA49 and NA61/SHINE as well as their implications for cosmic ray and neutrino physics are reviewed. HARP measurements have been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve predictions of the muon yields in EAS and of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes as well as to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. Recent measurements released by the NA61/SHINE experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K experiment and for interpretation of EAS data. These hadroproduction experiments provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.

  20. Young children's overgeneralizations with fixed transitivity verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P J; Tomasello, M; Dodson, K; Lewis, L B

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined English-speaking children's tendency to make argument structure overgeneralization errors (e.g., I disappeared it). Children were exposed to several English verbs of fixed transitivity (exclusively intransitive or exclusively transitive) and then asked questions that encouraged them to overgeneralize usage of the verbs. Seventy-two children (24 in each of three age groups: 3, 4/5, and 8 years of age) experienced four actions performed by puppets. Each action had two verbs of similar meaning associated with it in the context of the experimental action: one more familiar to young children and one less familiar. Children at all ages were more likely to overgeneralize usage of verbs that were less familiar to them, supporting the hypothesis that children's usage of verbs in particular construction types becomes entrenched over time. As children solidly learn the transitivity status of particular verbs, they become more reluctant to use those verbs in other argument structure constructions.